medieval clothing - Zauberfeder Verlag

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medieval clothing - Zauberfeder Verlag
To be dressed historically correct as a medieval re-enactor – it could not be simpler: the range of
AKE YOUR OWN
MEDIEVAL
C LOT H I N G
BASIC GARMENTS
FOR
MEN
garments that those interested in the Middle Ages can now make themselves stretches from the
High to Late Middle Ages (1200 to 1500), and from a simple maid to lower gentry. Panels with
lifelike, coloured illustrations revive the different medieval classes through their clothing and
accessories. Clear, easily understandable pictures lead you through all the processes.
Starting with the sewing techniques used in the Middle Ages even the layman learns how to
neaten fabric edges, attach sleeves and make cloth buttons.
treat and add to Wolf Zerkowski’s texts perfectly.”
Jürgen Ludwig, www.landsknechtsportal.de
“Thus this book is truly a great work, and surely an enrichment for those who seek a fundamental, practical
approach to medieval fashion.”
Pax Et Gaudium, 2004
MAKE YOUR OWN MEDIEVAL CLOTHING
“The colourful pictures and rich illustrations penned by Rolf Fuhrmann turn looking at this book into a pure
WOLF ZERKOWSKI / ROLF FUHRMANN
Also available from Zauberfeder Verlag:
BASIC GARMENTS FOR WOMEN
64 pages, ISBN 978-3-938922-14-9
ISBN 978-3-938922-15-6
www.zauberfeder-verlag.de
www.zauberfeder-verlag.de
WOLF ZERKOWSKI / ROLF FUHRMANN
AKE YOUR OWN
MEDIEVAL
C LOT H I N G
BASIC GARMENTS FOR WOMEN
l
AKE YOUR OWN
MEDIEVAL
C LOT H I N G
BASIC GARMENTS
FOR
WOMEN
Wolf Zerkowski/Rolf Fuhrmann
“Make Your Own Medieval Clothing – Basic Garments for Women”
Original edition © 2004 Rofur5 Verlag
Original title “Kleidung des Mittelalters selbst anfertigen – Grundausstattung für die Frau”
1st Edition 2008
Copyright © 2007 Zauberfeder GmbH, Braunschweig (Brunswick), Germany
Text: Wolf Zerkowski
Illustrations: Rolf Fuhrmann
Braiding & tablet weaving: Rolf Fuhrmann
Translation: Tanja Petry
Copy editor: Shaunessy Ashdown
Editor: Miriam Buchmann-Alisch
Art editor: Christian Schmal
Production: Tara Tobias Moritzen
Printing: AJS, Kaišiadorys
All rights reserved.
d
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.
Printed in Lithuania
ISBN 978-3-938922-15-6
www.zauberfeder-verlag.de
Publisher’s note:
This book has been compiled carefully. However, no responsibility is taken for the correctness of this information.
The authors and the publishing company as well as their representatives can assume no liability for potential damages to persons or property, or for financial losses.
Wolf Zerkowski/Rolf Fuhrmann
Make Your Own Medieval Clothing
Basic Garments for Women
d
Zauberfeder Verlag, Braunschweig, Germany
CON TE N T
CONTENT
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Panels
Noblewoman with falcon . . . .
Soldier’s wife. . . . . . . . . . .
Noblewoman wearing a surcoat.
Old woman . . . . . . . . . . .
Peasant woman . . . . . . . . .
Girl carrying wood . . . . . . .
Boy herding geese . . . . . . . .
Woman with basket . . . . . . .
Girl with baby . . . . . . . . . .
Nun of the Cistercian order . . .
House maid . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
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6
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14
14
Background information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Working techniques
On fabrics . . . . . .
On colours . . . . . .
Seaming techniques .
Stitching techniques .
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17
17
19
21
Headdresses . . .
Barbette . . . . .
Veil/chin cloth . .
Headscarf . . . .
Undergarment . .
Plain dress . . . .
Bliaud . . . . . .
Herjolfsnes dress
Surcoat. . . . . .
Cloak/coat . . . .
Hood . . . . . . .
Cloth buttons . .
Stockings . . . .
Shoes. . . . . . .
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24
26
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36
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43
46
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Fingerloop braiding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Tablet weaving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Alms purse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
4
P RE F ACE
PREFACE
W
hat did the clothes of medieval women look
like? What did children wear? And how can
someone interested in the Middle Ages sew
such clothes himself? This book, with its richly illustrated
and easily comprehensible instructions, presents typical
women’s and children’s clothing of the Middle Ages as well
as corresponding sewing techniques.
The author, Wolf Zerkowski, has been re-enacting
medieval history, with a special focus on clothes, for
many years. According to his strict specifications, Rolf
Fuhrmann has created coloured drawings of medieval
characters as well as graphics for the instructions in this
book.
However, to describe the whole range of women’s clothing
during the Middle Ages would be an almost impossible
task. A short undergarment could, for example, have
been worn by a peasant woman of the 13th century as
well as by a noblewoman of the 14th or 15th century.
Dresses were usually floor- or ankle-length, though there
were exceptions, as there were with hoods. For example,
certain people wore hoods with long liripipes even when
short liripipes were fashionable.
Apart from some pieces or combinations of clothing
worn by almost all classes from 1200 to 1500, there
were regional differences and various specifications for
certain social groups or members of certain classes or
professions.
The examples in this book are limited to “standard
clothing”, which could have been worn with few changes
during the whole era of the High and Late Middle Ages,
that is, from about 1200 to 1500, by women of poor and
simple station as well as women of the gentry.
For further sewing projects or for specific differences that
have to be taken into account for regional portrayals, the
reader would have to resort to further reading.
This book, revised for the reprint, primarily contains
instructions for interested hobbyists. The basic
garments described can be remade with relatively little
effort in terms of time, money or technical skill. We
recommend buying fabrics at sales, or else ordering
from a wholesaler; leather scraps are available at leather
shops. Also, try to avoid synthetic fibres or cotton, and
you will get an acceptable garment fit for any kind of
medieval event!
For those with deeper interest in medieval reenactment, the appendix offers a list of further reading,
recommendable organisations as well as sources for
material and accessories of any kind.
5
PA NELS
6
PA NELS
NOBLEWOMAN WITH FALCON
P
ictured is a 12th century noblewoman wearing
a dress called a bliaud. Even a noblewoman was
controlled by her husband, and was watched
and spied upon by relatives, servants and other courtiers
during his absence. The pressure put upon noblewomen
to bear children – particularly male successors – was
especially high.
From the 12th century onwards the number of children
born to noble families increased, on average about eight
to ten children per wife! However, due to the increasing
help with parenting and child care by wet nurses, mothers
were at least partially relieved of their duties, and were
able to relax, for example at a falconry.
The bliaud is a typical dress style of the 12th century. In
Germany this piece was also called blîat. Originally the
name derives from a special fabric woven with golden thread
which was used to make these dresses. However, in time the
name was used for this cut in general, regardless of fabric.
The bliaud, like the surcoat, is worn over a shift and was
the nobility’s garment from about 1150 to 1200. Afterwards,
it was seldom pictured in medieval paintings or sculptures,
but instead also as a dress for common women.
During the 13th century this garment went completely out
of fashion and was replaced by the surcoat. Above the veil
and barbette a golden circlet is worn.
SOLDIER’S WIFE
W
omen played a central role among the
camps of medieval armies. Most were
members of the lower classes, whose
former lives in poverty and dependency as servants,
wet nurses or lady’s maids had become so exhausting to
them that a life as wife or companion of a soldier seemed
a last resort.
On their shoulders they carried the complete, if humble,
belongings of a soldier’s family. They gave birth to children,
most of which did not survive the ordeals of the campaigns.
But it was also the women that supported soldiers while
looting.
As pay was often enough not to be taken for granted,
loot was a necessity to secure the existence of the
soldiers’ families. It was a fight for survival rather than
an inherent criminal tendency that prompted soldiers to
steal.
Many soldiers lost their wives during a campaign. One
reason was because they had to bear children under
disastrous hygienic circumstances. And whereas men could
quite simply just start a new relationship, the loss of a
guardian, be it because of death or arrest, was a substantial
threat to a woman.
In the case of those women who were already older, had
several children to care for or had not taken any material
advantage of their previous relationship – something that
was usually only possible for married couples – they were
in danger of sinking into the socially stigmatised group of
unprotected women. Casual labour, begging or prostitution
thus became their fate.
Gathering the dress, or parts of it, under the belt was a
handy way of wearing it, and can often be seen in medieval
paintings. A straw hat was worn above the headscarf if
necessary.
7
PA NELS
NOBLEWOMAN WEARING A SURCOAT
F
rom the 13th to the 15th century noble women,
and later also commoners, liked wearing outer
garments with so-called “gates of hell”. They
were sleeveless surcoats with low-cut armholes. These
were often lined with fur or else embroidered. The term
gates of hell was apparently coined by the church, which
denounced the “shameless” insights those armholes
offered.
The headdress pictured is a pillbox. The wimple beneath the
pillbox was fastened on top of the head with a pin, the cap
itself then pinned to the cloth.
The life of a noblewoman was, in contrast to common or
rural women, less defined by work and financial worries
than by social isolation and often also boredom and
lovelessness.
Lonely and boring hours were filled with handiwork
considered “appropriate”, for example embroideries, which
still fill many museums even today.
Intimacy was primarily limited to the shared bedroom.
Marriage was mostly seen as a way of regulating social
relationships, not as a union of body, let alone soul. Too
little love was absolutely no reason to divorce; the wedding
vows referred only to children and to faithfulness. Due to
high mortality in these times marriages usually lasted no
longer than 10 to 15 years.
OLD WOMAN
T
he picture shows an old woman from an urban
environment. A widow, for example, could not
just take control of her further fate and life
after her husband’s death. At best, she was able to choose
between several candidates for a new marriage that suited
her family.
In the lower classes the pressure to marry was less
pronounced. But the step from poverty to prostitution was
not a big one. Financial distress was often followed by a
social outclassing of the women, and thus they were subject
8
to humiliation and oppression, especially from men. In
many cases only prostitution or begging remained for them
as ways to eke out a living.
Overall, a medieval woman did not lead an easy life. If she
was enclosed in the social network and was compliant,
she was at least somewhat well-off. If she, however,
dropped out of this network due to some stroke of fate,
for example the death of her husband, or perhaps left her
traditional role out of her own free will, she could quickly
be bad-off.
s
PA NELS
9
u
B A C K G RO U N D I N F O RM AT I O N
CHANGES IN WOMEN’S AND
CHILDREN’S CLOTHING
DURING THE MIDDLE AGES
I
n the Early Middle Ages, roughly from the middle of
the 5th century to the year 1000, women wore simple,
shirt-like dresses. They did not have real “cuts” yet,
as the width of the dress was defined by the width of
the loom. These clothes still followed Celtic or Frankish
fashion.
It wasn’t until the middle of the 12th century that clothes
were made according to special cuts and measures, and as
a result of these techniques, a very body-hugging fashion
developed.
The women’s dresses were now fitted closely to the upper
body, by being laced either at both side seams or at the
back.
CHILDREN’S FASHION
T
he lion’s share of medieval children, in the country
as well as in cities, passed into working life at the
young age of seven to help support their family or
just to make their own living.
The sleeves of those dresses opened like a trumpet from
the elbow to the wrist, or else had floor-length loops at the
wrists. The bottom half of the dress was wide and often
ended in a vast train.
By studying medieval paintings it can be seen that during
the whole High and Late Middle Ages babies of all classes
were always wrapped tightly in bands of cloth. Arms, legs
and torso were first wrapped separately, then the torso and
the extended limbs were tied up like a mummy with a wider
bandage.
To gain more width, triangular pieces of fabric called “godets”
were inserted into the skirts. The lacing of the upper part of
the dress was sometimes highlighted by a belt as well. This
type of dress was called a bliaud.
Once they had outgrown infancy, children wore, unless
there were festive occasions, fairly comfortable and simple
clothes such as loose shirts and generously cut little coats or
cloaks.
Towards the beginning/middle of the 13th century the
Another interesting detail catches the eye when looking
at children’s portraits: boys sometimes wore girl’s
clothes. The main reason for this was probably that
children up to the age of three or four had not yet learnt
to control their bowels or bladder, and that hygienic
conditions hampered staying dry. The wide children’s
skirts were more practical than trousers. Also, there
were no underpants: under their long skirts the children
were naked. They also wore no shoes until they were
able to walk.
elaborate sleeve types disappeared, as did the train.
Sleeves were now worn fitted tightly to the forearm, and
the dress displayed excess length all around, so that it had
to be gathered up while walking. Belts were still worn
at the beginning of this period, but then disappeared
quickly, allowing the cloth of the dresses to fall freely and
in rich folds.
This fashion was kept in Germany approximately until
the middle of the 14th century, then body-hugging
dresses came into fashion again. Up to this point dresses
had been rather high-necked, but women now started to
show some décolleté.
16
u
WOR K I N G TECH N IQ UES
ON FABRICS
ON COLOURS
uring the Middle Ages, people normally used
linen, hemp and wool. Even the nobility’s clothes
were made from these materials, yet their fabrics
had a much better quality.
nother way of expressing one’s social standing in
the Middle Ages was the use of expensive colours.
Members of the nobility as well as richer merchants
and better-off craftsmen were able to afford dyed fabrics
whose brilliant colours were much more durable, as costly
dying ingredients were used.
D
Linen and hemp were the most common fabrics for light
garments and undergarments, and were often home-made.
Outer garments made from linen were rather rare. If the weather
was too warm, the outer garment was simply taken off.
Wool was the all-purpose fabric for almost all types of
medieval clothing – but sheep’s wool, not alpaca or other
modern types of wool. Loden cloths are suited best.
Silk and brocade were imported from the Orient until the
late 13th century. Only the richest could afford it, as it was
extremely expensive. Silk produced today, however, does
not comply with the medieval one. Brocade with medieval
patterns is hard to come by as well.
Cotton did not come into use until the late 13th century as
a blended fabric with linen (swansdown). Historical finds
dating further back must have been imports from the Orient,
and undoubtedly rare. Because of cotton being short-fibred,
it could only be processed as a blended fabric. You should
not be tempted to use pure cotton. It is cheaper, but will ruin
your work, as it is not historically accurate!
Velvet was first used towards the 14th century. As medieval
velvet is in no way similar to today’s velvet, you would best
do without it.
Leather was mostly worn as working clothes, and was
primarily a mark of the working class. It was used for bags,
belts and shoes. Incidentally, there was no black leather
during the High and Late Middle Ages.
Synthetic fibre fabrics should be avoided, too, as the
garments otherwise tend to resemble a costume rather than
clothing of the Middle Ages. The same goes for borders, keep
an eye out for ones made of the above-mentioned materials
and not of synthetic fibres. Tablet-woven borders are suited
best – everything else just resembles carnival.
A
The simple folk, on the contrary, normally had to make do
with cheaper, undyed fabrics or with ones that tended to
quickly lose colour. All colours were fairly strong, so that
the street scene during the Middle Ages was quite colourful,
and not at all bleak, like many Hollywood movies would like
to make us believe.
Shades of brown could be dyed with a number of local
plants, for example nut shells, and were thus affordable.
Shades of blue were the most popular, as they could be
made with local dyes (dyer’s woad). Usually they were a
pale blue. The only way to get strong, dark blue was indigo,
which was very expensive.
Shades of red were traditionally popular with the nobility,
as they symbolised blood. Red was available quite cheaply
from madder, and was also used by the simple folk.
Shades of yellow: strong, golden tones were also worn by
the nobility, while pale yellow was, in some areas, used to
mark outsiders to society (for example to stigmatise Jews
and prostitutes).
Shades of green were usually very expensive, as they were
blended colours. As far as colour symbolism is concerned,
greens were commonly associated with young people.
Black was almost exclusively worn by the lower clergy,
but came into fashion with merchants and other “betteroff” classes at the end of the 14th century.
Parti-colour, meaning garments divided in halves, or
quarters, with two or more colours, gained in importance
among menials, messengers and especially lansquenets
during the Late Middle Ages.
17
ll
BA R BE T TE
Fastening of a barbette and pinning
the veil to the hair with barbette pins,
13th century onwards
Barbette pins
Golden circlet
Alternative way of wearing barbette and veil
with a circlet. The veil cloth could be made of
thin fabric (above) or else of linen (left).
26
l
V E I L /C H I N C L O T H
Chin cloth
Veil
Chin cloth attached
to spiral braids
Typical combination:
chin cloth with veil
(“Gorget”,“Schleier” or
“Wimpel”)
Headscarf/veil from
the back
Somewhere between 70 x 90 cm and 90 x 110 cm
27
BL IAU D
T
BLIAUD
he bliaud or bliaut, an early type of women’s
dress, was worn combined with the chemise and
was a figure-hugging dress with trumpet-like
sleeves and a train.
Originally the name derives from a special fabric woven
with golden thread, which was used to make these dresses.
However, in time the name was used for this cut in general,
regardless of the fabric.
The undergarment was fitted tightly to the neck, so that as
little skin as possible could be seen. The sleeves were either
sewn together at the forearm after putting the dress on, or
else laced, so that they, too, fitted tightly.
Variant with lacing at the side seams
This type of women’s dress was worn from around 1150
to 1200, almost exclusively by noblewomen. Afterwards, it
was seldom pictured, but also served as a dress for common
women. It can be guessed that this type of dress went
out of fashion quite quickly and disappeared completely
around 1225.
An example of the bliaud is in the Marienschrein in
Aachen, Germany (dating back to 1220). A midwife
pictured there is wearing a bliaud-like dress, with its
trumpet sleeves hitched up and tied together in a knot
behind the shoulders. More evidence, dating back to
1145-1155, can be found at the cathedral of Chartres,
France.
Lacing at the back
32
This type of dress was laced to be quite figure-hugging
– either at the sides or at the back. The lacing at the back
indicates that the woman must have been nobility, as she
would have needed someone to actually close the lacing in
this inaccessible place.
BL IAU D
Variant with lacing at
the side seams
33
CLOTH B U T TO N S
CLOTH BUTTONS
The making of cloth buttons (metals were
precious!) according to Textiles and Clothing,
Museum of London.
Buttons were fastened directly on the edge
of the button-facing.
The button-holes were placed extremely
close to the hem of the garment as well, and the
overlapping of the button and button-hole sides
was minimal!
l
Buttons were mostly made of tin, sometimes bronze, gold or silver. The first buttons appeared in the middle of the 13th century, and were
used almost exclusively by the nobility.
42
STO CK I N GS
STRETCHABILITY OF THE FABRIC
For making stockings, you should choose a stretchable
fabric, as they should fit your leg tightly, but on the other
hand the calf has to fit through the narrower knee area.
Woollen fabrics, however, are generally quite inflexible:
the warp threads that go through the whole length of the
fabric are just as inductile as the weft threads crossing them.
“Warp” is what a weaver calls the threads attached to the
loom, forming the frame for the woven fabric. “Weft” is the
crossing threads, which are “shot” through the warp threads
with the shuttle.
However, if you turn the fabric by 45° before cutting it, so
that warp and weft run diagonally, you will get a surprisingly
stretchable fabric lengthwise as well as in cross direction!
Weft threads
Warp threads
43
h
F I N GE R LO OP BR A IDI N G
CORDS AND LACES
I
f plaited bands were used to lace pieces of garments
together, the ends of those cords were often covered by
pointed metal tips. How to make these tips is described
in detail in Make Your Own Medieval Clothing – Basic Garments
for Men.
Numerous types of fingerloop braiding are common in
many old cultures all over the world. The medieval use of
bands and cords made in such a way are documented for the
era between 1150 and 1450 by textile findings in London
(see: Crowfoot/Pritchard/Staniland, Medieval finds from
excavations in London, London 1992). Fingerloop braids
were, however, also used outside this era, as period paintings
show.
This technique is easy enough to learn, and once you have
understood the basic principle, many different types and
thicknesses of cords can be produced by using different
braiding variants.
Serging
the holes through
which the laces or cords
are pulled
Points
Lace with point
Such fingerloop braids were very common in medieval
times. They were, for example, used as laces on garments,
for alms purses and as edging for hair nets. The cords of the
London findings consisted of twice-wound silk strings and
were usually of one colour. Bands plaited with two, three or
four colours were an absolute exception. We can, however,
assume that linen and wool were used in addition to silk for
making those braided cords. By plaiting bands with different
colours, some simple patterns can be achieved.
As an example we will present the braiding of a five-loop
band (=ten threads). This was, beside cords made with seven
loops, the most common thickness. Five- and seven-loop
bands can be made by one person alone; for more complex
bands an assistant is required.
Lacing on a dress
49
T A B L E T W E AV I N G
BANDS, BELTS AND BORDERS WORKING TECHNIQUE
Tablet weaving is a band weaving technique already
exercised about 2500 years ago, and its use is documented in
Scandinavia, Northern and Eastern Europe as well as Asia,
North Africa and Egypt. During industrialization – due to
the possibility of machine-woven bands – the tradition of
this weaving technique was almost lost in many cultures.
Tablet-woven bands were used as borders on garments,
as belts or as garters. They are both strong and decorative
and were, for example, even used as bridles and cinches in
ancient China.
TOOLS AND MATERIAL
Besides thread and the necessary cards – the basic
implements – two screw clamps for mounting the threads
and a piece of wood for keeping the gaps between the
threads, called the shed, apart while pushing through the
weft come in handy.
The cards themselves should not be too thick, as the
deck of cards that has to be moved tends to get bulky
and hindering otherwise. On the other hand, they should
not be too thin, to prevent them from bending during the
weaving! All cards and holes should be as congruent as
possible to avoid an irregular tension in the woven piece
later on!
The breadth of the woven band is always defined by the
number of cards used, as well as the thickness of the
thread.
Each card is one warp thread in the finished band. The
thread for the warps (picture p. 56) has to be strong
enough not to be rubbed through by the constantly
moved cards. It goes without saying that the edges of the
cards and those of the holes in them must not be jagged
or sharp.
54
The technique of weaving means joining parallel threads
(warp threads) with a crossing thread (weft thread).
As a means of coordinating and twisting these warp
threads during the weaving this special technique uses cards
with holes in them, through which the warp threads run.
Depending on the number of holes, how threads of different
colours or of the same colour run through which holes and
how the cards are twisted during weaving, different patterns
and structures develop.
Contrary to fabric made on a loom, however, the weft
thread is only seen on the edges of the woven band and has
no influence on the colour of the weave!
Concerning the technique, tablet weaving is a mixture
between fingerloop braiding and weaving on a loom, as
elements of both techniques come into play: the twisting
of the different threads with each other and the joining of
the threads with a weft thread. The tablets were, depending
on the regional conditions, made of wood, horn, stone,
parchment, leather or bones. Threads used were wool and
linen as well as cotton, hair, silk or even threads of silver
and gold. Surviving bands from the Middle Ages, as for
example a belt made for the Bishop Witgarius of Augsburg,
southern Germany, around 879 AD, show an unbelievable
craftsmanship.
The use of this handicraft practise was at first restricted
to the peasant population, who used undyed woollen
threads for it. But in the Early Middle Ages, tablet weaving
developed more and more into a respectable pastime for
noblewomen, with correspondingly richer materials like
silk, gold and silver.
The revival of the art of tablet weaving in Western
Europe was triggered by the research of Margarethe
Lehmann-Filhes and her book Über Brettchenweben (On Tablet
Weaving), published in 1901.
g
A LMS PU R SE
ALMS PURSE
A
n alms purse is a simple, rectangularly cut, baglike pouch. It was either fastened directly to the
belt with a cord, or to the ring of a small metal
holder riveted to the belt.
As medieval clothing did not have pockets, money or
personal effects were kept in the purse.
It was called an “alms purse” because wealthier
people wore, when going to church, special, richly
decorated pouches containing small change, which
was given to beggars as alms, so that they would pray
for the salvation of the donor. Many of the surviving
examples were also decorated with tassels and
embroidered.
They were usually made of cloth, but those for everyday use as a purse or bag for small things like steel and
flint were sometimes at least partly made of leather.
Small knives were, just like the purse, part of the
basic equipment of a medieval person. As a host did
not provide cutlery as we know it today, people used
their own knife as all-purpose tool. Sometimes it was
combined with a pricker, a kind of stiletto, to pick up
pieces of meat.
The belt had no loop behind the buckle to hold the
loose end. Instead, it was common in medieval times to
wrap the belt’s end around the belt, then tuck the end
through the newly-formed sling and let it hang down
One of the sources for these pouches is the Codex
Manesse, which contains many pictures of such kinds
of bags.
freely.
From the first half of the 13th century the belt started
to disappear from women’s fashion.
Buckle variant from
around 1200 to 1350
Pursehanger,
variant of the
12th century
Buckle variant from
around 1350 to 1500
Fastening of the
pursehanger on the belt
59
B O D Y M EA S U REM E N T CHA RT
Name:
Date:
Height:
cm
.
Weight:
CAPTION
.
kg
K 1 – End of one shoulder to
end of other shoulder
Kc ____cm Kd ____cm Ke ____cm
Ka ____cm
K 2 – Arm length with bent
arm from shoulder to
wrist bone
Kb ____cm
K 3 – Side of the neck to
end of the shoulder
K k ____cm
K1 ____cm
K 3 ____cm
K2 ____cm
Kh ____cm
K4 – Bust circumference
around the fullest point
K42– Circumference
under the bust
Kf ____cm
K 5 – Waist circumference
approximately at the navel
Kg ____cm
K 6 – Hip circumference
around the fullest part
of the buttocks
K4 ____cm
K 7 – Thigh circumference
K 8 – Calf width
K42 ____cm
K5 ____cm
K6 ____cm
K a – Head circumference
Ki_____cm
K b – Neck width
K c – Wrist
K d – Forearm circumference
K e – Upper arm circumference
K7 ____cm
K f – Shoulder to waist
K g – Waist to hip
K8 ____cm
K h – Back waist length
from back of the
neck to waist
K i – Hip to ankle joint
K k – Shoulder to bust
For photocopying. This page is also available for download at www.zauberfeder-verlag.de.
Body measurement chart from “Make Your Own Medieval Clothing – Basic Garments for Women”
To be dressed historically correct as a medieval re-enactor – it could not be simpler: the range of
AKE YOUR OWN
MEDIEVAL
C LOT H I N G
BASIC GARMENTS
FOR
MEN
garments that those interested in the Middle Ages can now make themselves stretches from the
High to Late Middle Ages (1200 to 1500), and from a simple maid to lower gentry. Panels with
lifelike, coloured illustrations revive the different medieval classes through their clothing and
accessories. Clear, easily understandable pictures lead you through all the processes.
Starting with the sewing techniques used in the Middle Ages even the layman learns how to
neaten fabric edges, attach sleeves and make cloth buttons.
treat and add to Wolf Zerkowski’s texts perfectly.”
Jürgen Ludwig, www.landsknechtsportal.de
“Thus this book is truly a great work, and surely an enrichment for those who seek a fundamental, practical
approach to medieval fashion.”
Pax Et Gaudium, 2004
MAKE YOUR OWN MEDIEVAL CLOTHING
“The colourful pictures and rich illustrations penned by Rolf Fuhrmann turn looking at this book into a pure
WOLF ZERKOWSKI / ROLF FUHRMANN
Also available from Zauberfeder Verlag:
BASIC GARMENTS FOR WOMEN
64 pages, ISBN 978-3-938922-14-9
ISBN 978-3-938922-15-6
www.zauberfeder-verlag.de
www.zauberfeder-verlag.de
WOLF ZERKOWSKI / ROLF FUHRMANN
AKE YOUR OWN
MEDIEVAL
C LOT H I N G
BASIC GARMENTS FOR WOMEN
l

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