Nivel 2 - Aspectos Culturales



Nivel 2 - Aspectos Culturales
Cuando Abril Abrilea,
Bien Luce la Primavera.
© 2007 Semos Unlimited, Inc./New Mexico Highlands University
Hispanic Culture Day at the Legislature, February 13, 2007
Remarks from Ben Altamirano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-1
First Place Essay Winner: Leeana López . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-2 a 8-3
Third Place Essay Winner: Taylor Roach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-4 a 8-5
Gente Homenajeada en 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-6 a 8-7
Unas Comidas Americanas: Chile y Chocolate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-8
México . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-9
Fray Angélico Chávez . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-10
César Chávez . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-11
Mela Leger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-12 a 8-13
Una Actividad: Llene el Blanco/Fill in the Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-14
Un Juego: Brinca la Cuerda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-15
Remedios para Diabetes y Asma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-16
El Departamento de Seguridad Pública . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-17
Federal Writers’ Project*
Interview with José García y Trujillo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-18 a 8-20
Crucigrama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-21
Remedio del Mes: Habas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .back cover
* The Federal Writers’ Project was operational during the WPA days of the early
30’s during the Great Depression.
NOTE: There are 2 folders included in the CD for this issue:
*a Power Point with student art from Hispanic Culture Day at the Legislature
*a folder with 2 interactive games: Jacky Chango (a game which emphasizes shapes and colors)
and Ilumina (a series of 20 pictures with a color palette-the students click on the color and
then on the part of the picture they want to fill in with that color)
Special Quote from Senator Ben Altamirano: “ ...knowing who we are, understanding
how special we are as New Mexicans, makes us strong.”
Welcome to our fifth Hispanic
Culture Day. Spanish language and
tradition are deeply embedded in
many of our communities.
But perhaps because of their
pervasiveness, we have forgotten
how important it is to keep those traditions alive. It isn’t enough to call
our parties fiestas, add calle or
camino to the names of our streets.
Because the traditions we grew up
with were just part of our day to day
lives, we sometimes miss how those
traditions are being slowly replaced
in our children’s lives. Fewer and
fewer children grow up speaking
Spanish. In this way, our culture
slips away.
Our children need to know that
long before the use of herbs, meditation and body work were labeled
alternative medicine, New Mexico
had traditional healers known as
curanderos/curanderas who knew
how to heal the body and the mind
with plants, roots and a special
It is through teaching history
and tradition that we can instill in the
next generation the pride we feel as
New Mexicans, whether we are
Hispanic or Anglo or Native
American or, like many of us, a little
of everything. We cannot allow our
children to become disconnected
from their history, not just because
our history is interesting and unique
but because knowing who we are,
understanding how special we are
as New Mexicans, makes us strong.
And we need to teach our children
that with these strong roots, they
can do anything. We will succeed,
not in spite of our Hispanic heritage
but because of it, because at the
heart of our culture is the strength of
family and community, the values of
respect and hard work.
I want my children and grandchildren to know the warmth and
honor I feel when I think of New
Mexico and its people. I want them
to celebrate their own Hispanic heritage, not just one day a year at an
event like this but in their daily lives.
And, through this celebration of who
they are and who they can become,
I look forward to watching my children and my grandchildren thrive,
both today and tomorrow.
1st place art winner: Jonathan Barron, Vado Elementary
I am a Hispanic girl of
America. I am 16 years old and live
with my mother, brother and stepfather. I’m going to tell you about my
life as a Hispanic and what I see
I see Mexicans and whites
fighting everyday. Not only are the
students bad with racism but so are
some of the teachers. I remember
my eighth grade year we had a
teacher at Belén Middle School tell
some of my friends not to speak
My brother Michael López is
14 years old and also goes to Belén
High School. He is very proud of his
Hispanic background and receives a
lot of slack because he is of lighter
My step-father, César Molina,
who was born and raised in Mexico,
also gets a lot of slack from his coworkers. They get mad at him for
being Mexican and tell him that the
Mexicans are taking all of their jobs.
Many people don’t understand how
hard it is for someone who doesn’t
speak English to find work in the
United States. My step-father now
happily works as an electrician. 8-2
My mom’s name is Lilian
Molina. She is always made fun of
because she has blonde hair and
blue eyes and speaks Spanish better than anyone would picture.
I believe that being Hispanic is
no different than any other ethnicity.
I don’t understand why we are treated so differently. We value and love
our families, we carry a strong work
ethic, and hold strong ambitions to
better ourselves and to help those
who are less fortunate. The dreams
we dream are the same as yours.
We have Hispanic artists, scientists,
leaders, teachers and technicians.
Just because our ancestors
are from somewhere else doesn’t
mean we won’t fight for our country
the same. We have a lot of
Hispanics who have died for our
country in war and are still, to this
day, fighting for our country in Iraq.
Hispanic Visions
No matter what color you are or
what language you speak,
We love you the same, strong or
No matter what you believe in or
what you see,
We’re all the same, you and me.
Unidos paramos y unidos vivimos,
Somos iguales, no importa de
dónde vinimos.
2nd place art winner: Eluid Morales, Vado Elementary
2nd place art winner: Danielle Horner, McCurdy Elementary
I am a sixth grade student at
Our Lady of Annunciation Catholic
School in Albuquerque.
My family is very important to
me. I love them, and I would do anything for them. Families are like glue
in the Hispanic culture. This means
that they always stick together.
Families are beautiful works of art
that go on for many generations.
They are helpful and experienced at
giving advice. They love. Pets are
part of a family, too. No matter
where you are going, they will go
with you because they love you. You
always need to remember that a
family is constantly there to help you
up when you are down, because if
you break down, they will all break
down with you.
My Nino and Nina have taught
me that the Hispanic culture follows
these values very closely. They were
there at my baptism and have followed my growth in faith and knowledge. They are an extended family
to me. My Nina gives me an angel
ornament each Christmas. She
always remembers this tradition.
She has taught me that “If you can’t
help a thousand people, just help
one.”-Mother Theresa.
Culture is the ideas, skills,
tools, arts and way of life of certain
people at a certain time or civilization. New Mexico is a state full of
culture. We have a life of determination and an eagerness to succeed. I
also found out that I have much in
common with a girl named Zelma
who lives in Mexico. We both like art
and have become pen pals. She
writes in Spanish, and I write back to
her in English. This is a good way to
learn about her language and culture.
Language and communication
are keys to keeping families together. My Spanish teacher, señora
Helland, tries her best to help our
school be fluent in the Spanish language to keep the Hispanic culture
alive in New Mexico. Each day, she
will say “Hola” to everyone in the
hall. She expects to hear a greeting
back in Spanish. I believe that she is
a hero for our school. Some of my
friends are good at speaking both
Spanish and English, but no matter
what language they speak, I love
being open to their culture and passing it down to other people.
In conclusion, family, friends,
faith and tradition are strong parts of
our New Mexico culture.
3rd place art winner: Sean Maez, San Felipe de Neri Elementary
3rd place art winner: Savannah Bustillo, Our Lady of Annunciation Elementary
Bill Richardson
Richardson, en 1978 vino a vivir en
Santa Fe. Ganó para representante
al Congreso en el tercer distrito. El
presidente Bill Clinton lo nombró
embajador a las Naciones Unidas.
Fue Secretario de Energía. Ganó
como gobernador.
Ben Altamirano
Altamirano es nativo de Pinos Altos.
Ha sido senador desde 1971. Es
negociante con experiencia en bancos, venta de ropa y de seguros
como también tienda de abarrotes.
Ha estado casado por 56 años con
su esposa Nina.
Ben Luján
Luján fue elegido por primera vez en
1974. Empezó como trabajador de
hierro y luego en el laboratorio de
Los Alamos. Es miembro de una
gran variedad de organizaciones
hispanas. Además es muy activo en
su iglesia Nuestra Señora de
Guadalupe en Pojoaque.
Clara Apodaca
Hoy en día Clara es directora de la
Fundación del Centro de Cultura
Hispana Nacional. Ha servido como
secretaria estatal del Departamento
de Asuntos Culturales. Sirvió en el
equipo de transición para Bill
Estevan Arellano
Estevan es escritor de Embudo. Ha
ganado varios premios de literatura
y homenaje por el estado de
Chihuahua por sus escritos.
El Dr. José Armas
El doctor Armas fundó Pajarito
Publications, la fiesta De Colores,
Hispanic Magazine e IMAGEN.
María Benítez
María es reconocida internacionalmente por sus esfuerzos en el baile
flamenco. Es nativa de Nuevo
México. Estudió en España. Ha enriquecido mucho a la comunidad
artística de Santa Fe.
Denise Chávez
Ella es autora, nativa de Las
Cruces. Ha recibido premios como
el American Book Award, New
Mexico Governor’s Award in
Literature y el Premio Aztlán. Hace
13 años que dirige el Festival de
Libros en la Frontera.
Darren Córdova
Córdova es músico muy reconocido.
Ha ganado más de 20 premios. Es
dueño de 4 estaciones de radio. Hoy
en día sirve en el Concilio de la
Ciudad de Taos.
Trent Dimas
Dimas es gimnasta. En las
Olímpiadas en Barcelona (España),
ganó una medalla de oro en el evento de barra alta. Es el único gimnasta hispano de ganar una medalla de
oro. Tiene su doctorado en derecho
y hoy en día trabaja para First
National Bank of Santa Fe.
Edward Gonzales
Edward pasó su juventud en
Albuquerque. Es un pintor que
representa la vida hispana rural de
Nuevo México en su arte.
Sid Gutiérrez
Sid es el primer hispano que sirve
como piloto de un transbordador
espacial. Pasó más de 20 días en el
espacio. Ha recibido una gran variedad de honores y está en el
International Space Hall of Fame.
Edward Luján
El señor Luján fue uno de los fundadores del Centro Nacional de
Cultura Hispana. Además es un
negociante de gran éxito en la
Agencia de Seguros Manuel Luján.
Roberto Mondragón
Roberto ha sido representante,
teniente gobernador, anunciador de
radio y director de la agencia para
los ancianos. Además es cantante y
fundador de Aspectos Culturales/
Semos Unlimited, Inc.
Concha Ortiz y Pino de Kleven
Era decana de un colegio, legisladora, miembra del New Mexico
Women’s Hall of Fame y fue nombrada Mujer del Año por el periódico
Vista en 1999.
Embajador Ed Romero
Es fundador de Advanced Sciences,
Inc., un negocio internacional que
se dirige a la ingeniería del
medioambiente. Es fundador de la
Fundación para la Cultura Hispana.
Bill Clinton lo nombró embajador a
España en 1998.
Puesto que el chile es tan antiguo y
el chocolate posiblemente ayuda el
cerebro, incluiremos estas recetas.
El periódico Science recientemente
publicó resultados de una investigación sobre el chile. Hallaron foósiles
de chile de unas 6,100 años atrás.
Los hallaron en la Cuenca Amazona
como también en Ecuador. El descubrimiento hace el chile una de las
especies más antiguas del mundo.
Otros son cabriola que tiene 10,000
años, fenogreco que tiene 9,000
años y cilantro que tiene 8,500
años. Todos estos fueron hallados
en el medio oriente.
En una junta, científicos discutieron
los efectos del chocolate en el cerebro. Una substancia llamada flavanols aumenta la cantidad de sangre
que fluye al cerebro por 2 o 3 horas.
Es posible que en el futuro la información tenga valor en tratar problemas como el cansancio o los derrames cerebrales chicos.
Chile con Queso
2 cucharadas de mantequilla
2 cucharadas de cebolla picada
1 diente de ajo, machucado
2 tomates rebanados
1 taza de chile verde asado y picado
2 1/2 tazas de queso rllado
En una olla doble, fría la cebolla y el
ajo en mantequilla. Añada los tomates, chile y queso. Cocine hasta que
el queso se derrita. Se sirve con tostadas.
Chocolate Estilo Mexicano
2 cuadritos de chocolate sólido sin
sal, canela, nuez moscada-una pulgarada
1 1/2 tazas de leche o crema
1/2 taza de azúcar
1 clara de huevo
Combine todos los ingredientes
menos la clara y caliente hasta que
esté derritido. Necesita batir la mezcla constantemente. Antes de servirlo, bata la clara de huevo hasta que
esté a punto de turrón. Añada un
poco de la clara a cada taza.
El nombre oficial es los Estados Unidos de México.
La población en 2005 era 106.4 millones de personas.
La capital es la Ciudad de México a veces llamada el Distrito Federal.
El área es 1,972,550 kilómetros cuadrados o 761,602 millas cuadradas.
Eventos Principales de la Historia de México:
10,000 a.C. cazadores y cosechadores llegan a México
1,500 a.C. aparecen los pueblos
200 a.C.-100 d.C. Monte Albán
600-900 d.C. la civilización Maya
1376-1520 el reino de los Azteca
1519 llega Hernán Cortés
16 de septiembre de 1810 el Grito de Dolores
1821 la independencia de España
1846-1848 la guerra entre México y los Estado Unidos
5 de mayo 1862 vencieron a los franceses en Puebla
1867 Benito Juárez es presidente
1910 la Revolución Mexicana
1916 Pancho Villa invade Columbus, Nuevo México
1917 una constitución
Fray Angélico Chávez nació el
10 de abril de 1910 en Wagon
Mound, Nuevo México. Sus padres
fueron Fabián Chávez y María
Nicolasa Roybal de Chávez. Su
nombre era Manuel Ezequiel. Fue
inspirado a seguir la senda del
misionario Junípero Serra. Asistió a
las escuelas públicas en Mora. A la
edad de 14 lo admitieron al
En 1937 se convirtió en cura
en la catedral de San Francisco en
Santa Fe. Fue el primer nativo de
Nuevo México a ser franciscano.
Fue asignado a la parroquia de
Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe en
Peña Blanca. Además conducía servicios religiosos para la gente indígena de San Felipe, Santo Domingo
y Cochití.
Sirvió en el ejército durante la
Segunda Guerra Mundial como
cura. Cuando regresó, Chávez
comenzó a ser archivero.
Entre los libros que Chávez
escribió son But time and chance:
the story of Padre Martinez of Taos,
La Conquistadora: the autobiography of an ancient statue,
Coronado’s friars, My Penitente
Land: Reflection on Spanish New
Mexico y Origins of New Mexico
families: a genealogy of the Spanish
colonial period.
En la categoría de ficción él
escribió New Mexico triptych: being
three panels and three accounts,
The Lady from Toledo y The Short
Stories of Fray Angélico Chávez. Su
poesía incluye Eleven Lady-lyrics
and other poems, Cantares: canticles and poems of youth y Selected
Poems, with an apologia.
Fray Angélico Chávez dejó de
ser cura en 1971. Regresó a ser
cura antes de morir el 18 de marzo
del año 1996 en Santa Fe. Está
enterrado en el Cementerio del
Rosario. Rehusó a ser enterrado en
la catedral de San Francisco. El
Museo de Nuevo México nombró su
biblioteca de historia en honor de
César Chávez nació en
Arizona el 31 de marzo 1927.
Hablaba nada más el español.
Asistió a 37 escuelas. Después del
grado 8 se salió de la escuela.
Empezó a trabajar como campesino. En 1948 se casó con Helen
Fabela. Tuvieron 8 hijos.
En San José, California César
empezó a leer sobre San Francisco
y Mohandas Gandhi y su filosofía de
la no violencia.
Chávez fundó la Asociación
Nacional de Campesinos con
Dolores Huerta.
Los mexicanos formaron el
Sindicato de Campesinos Unidos
(United Farm Workers). Empezaron
una coalición para animar a gente a
no comprar las uvas. La huelga duró
por 5 años.
En 1969 César Chávez y
miembros del sindicato marcharon
por los valles Imperial y Coachella
para protestar el uso de inmigrantes
ilegales empleados para reemplazar
los trabajadores durante una huelga. Ganaron un aumento en los
sueldos de los campesinos que piscaban las uvas como también la
Hizo una campaña en contra
del uso de las pesticidas para matar
insectos. Al estilo de Gandhi hizo un
ayuno para que el público reconociera lo que pasaba.
Más tarde, la educación se
hizo la pasión de Chávez. Tenía
cientos de libros en su oficina sobre
filosofía, la economía, cooperativas,
los sindicatos y biografías de
Gandhi como también de la familia
César Chávez murió el día 23
de abril del año 1993. Su esposa
recibió la Medalla de Libertad del
presidente Clinton en 1994. Es el
honor más alto que puede recibir la
gente civil. Hay calles, escuelas y
parques nombrados por Chávez.
El lema de César Chávez era
“Sí se puede.” Puede aplicarse a
cualquier persona en cualquier parte
del mundo.
“Si Se Puede!”
by Mary Jean Habermann, associate director New Mexico Association for Bilingual Education
Mela Leger, early pioneer of
bilingual education, passed away on
December 31, 2006 at her home in
Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Mela was a quiet, kind, compassionate and committed individual
who understood the power of politics
and bilingual education.
She was one of a handful of
educators nationwide to pilot test
and participate in the national
debate and development of curriculum for bilingual children. She started and ran a fully bilingual, multi-cultural elementary school, which was
visited by policy makers and educators from Washington D.C. and
every state with a sizable bilingual
She collaborated with state
leaders early on and traveled to various school districts to meet with
parents and convince them that
bilingual education was a good thing
for their children. In 1969 she
accompanied the New Mexico State
Department of Education team on a
review of the Portales School district’s school. The team found a
school far below standards and a
recommendation was made that the
school “not be approved for having
below standards curricula.” (New
Mexico State Department of
Education files). The landmark
Serna V Portales lawsuit relied upon
this report for its segregation of
Hispanic children finding.
She was intricately involved in
the development of the 1973
Bilingual Education Act and was
named to the initial state bilingual
advisory committee in 1975. She
urged the Department to include
bilingual education as part of the
state's Educational Standards. She
also supported the concept of creating a proficiency exam in Spanish
for certifying teachers in bilingual
education, knowing that without proficiency a quality education through
two languages was meaningless.
In the mid 70’s she directed
the Las Vegas Teacher Training
Center, one of three such centers
established by the Legislature.
These centers provided demonstration classes and in-service training
in bilingual education. It was truly a
marvelous model.
Mela helped field test language arts, math, science, social
studies, and fine arts materials in
New Mexico classrooms.
A founding member of
NMABE, Mela stayed involved at the
state level throughout her lifetime.
Dr. Paul Martínez, Director of the
Center for Education and Study of
Diverse Populations, remembers
Mela in this way, “There is always a
deeply felt sense of loss for me
when an anciano passes. When
one of our bilingual education pioneers dies however, it is even a
more profound loss. Mela was an
amazing person, I cannot ever
remember one time that I spoke with
her when she wasn’t smiling or
upbeat about our work and the students we serve. When I first
returned to NM after living in Denver
and Chicago, she was one of the
first people along with Henry
Pascual who welcomed me back
and had consejos to share with me.
Our community, not only in NM, but
nationally has lost an anchor, truly
one of our pioneers.”
She continued to build on that
foundation by helping prepare future
teachers at the University of New
Mexico and also as a teacher trainer
with the Albuquerque Public
Schools. She retired from UNM but
not from her career as she then
worked for Crane Publishing
Company. At 76, she finally decided
that she had worked her last
Bilingual Education Conference.
Mela trained hundreds of teachers
who impacted thousands of students.
Dr. Julia Rosa Emslie, NMABE
President, had the following words
for Mela. "Mela Leger was a great
friend and great mentor. Her funeral
mass was wonderful and moving.
The Newman Center was packed
with family and friends. At the cemetery, her son Steve played "Over the
Rainbow" on his trumpet. There
was not a dry eye in the place."
At the cemetery, one of her
granddaughters passed along
something unforgettable that Mela
had taught her as she was growing
up, “My grandma told me this.
When you educate a man, you educate an individual. When you educate a woman, you educate a family.” The family of bilingual education
will never forget the contributions
Mela has made to New Mexico’s
teachers, parents, and children.
Mela Leger-que descanse en paz.
1. I want them to ______________ their own Hispanic heritage, not just
one day a year at an event like this but in their daily lives.
2. Not only are the students bad with _________ but so are some of the
3. She is always made fun of because she has blonde hair and blue eyes
and speaks _______________ better than anyone would picture.
4. Families are like _________ in the Hispanic culture.
5. _________________ is a state full of culture .
6. _____________________ es nativo de Pinos Altos.
7. El es el primer hispano QUE como __________ de un transbordador
8. El descubrimiento hace ________ una de las especies más antiguas
del mundo.
9. Una substancia llamada ______________ aumenta la cantidad de sangre que fluye al cerebro por 2 o 3 horas.
10. El nombre oficial es los Estados Unidos de __________.
11. _________________________ nació el 10 de abril de 1910 en Wagon
12. El lema de César Chávez era “____ ____ _________.”
13. The family of bilingual education will never forget the contributions
_____ has made to New Mexico’s teachers, parents, and children.
La primera evidencia de brincar la cuerda viene de pinturas medievales donde hay niños brincando la cuerda en las calles de Europa. En Egipto
en 1600 d.C. usaban enredaderas para brincar. En tiempos antiguos brincar
la cuerda era sólo para hombres, mujeres estaban prohibidas de hacerlo.
Hoy en día se puede ver a boxeadores usando la cuerda para hacer
ejercicio. Ayuda en fortalecer el funcionamiento del corazón.Hay cuerdas de
cuero, con cuentas, de algodón, de nilón, de cables y de plástico.
"I like coffee, I like tea, I like (name of next person in line) to come in with
me." Then the two jump together, the second person saying the rhyme.
When the rhyme is done, the first person runs out, and the new person
comes in and jumps with the second person.
Contributed by Cheryl Anderson
Cinderella dressed in yella,
Went downstairs to kiss a fella,
Made a mistake and kissed a snake.
How many doctors did it take
1, 2, 3, . . . .
Ice cream soda,
Delaware punch,
Tell me the name,
Of your honeybunch?
A, B, C...
(the letter you miss on is
your sweetheart's initial)
Diabetes es una enfermedad
en que el cuerpo no produce suficiente insulina que usa el cuerpo
para usar glucosa que, a la vez, produce energía. Las células no tienen
suficiente energía para funcionar. La
gente hispana tiene más posibilidad
de tener diabetes. Los síntomas
incluyen la orina frecuente, la sed
insaciable, pérdida de peso, mucho
hambre, cansancio e irritabilidad.
Con dieta, ejercicio y medicina la
persona puede vivir una vida normal.
La dieta que se recomienda
para prevenir problemas no contiene mucha grasa ni tampoco azúcar.
Las vitaminas y minerales que ayudan son manganeso, vitamina B12 y
cinc. Manganeso se halla en aguacates, frijoles, café, jengibre, avena,
chícharos y espinacas. La vitamina
B12 se halla en almendras, res,
queso, pollo e hígado. Comidas con
cinc son la yema, pescado, leche,
guajolote y granos enteros.
Entre las cosas que usan los
curanderos tradicionales la favorita
es nopal. Otros remedios incluyen
trumpet flower (tronadora), té de
brickle bush (prodigiosa) o té de
sage (salvia).
Hay más información en,
en spanish yñol.
Asma es un desorden que
consiste de episodios de estar sin
poder respirar, dolores en el pecho y
tos por la mañana. Puede resultar
por fumar, infecciones, alergias y
Se estima que hay 6.1 millones de niños con asma en los
Estados Unidos.
Como diabetes, asma es una
situación que requiere consulta
médica. Es una condición bastante
Hay varios pasos que podemos usar para reducir la incidencia
de asma. Uno es asegurar que no
haya moho en la casa. Si hay animales en la casa, asegúrense que
no estén causando alergias en los
niños. Otra práctica con que se
beneficia el niño es el ejercicio.
Tomar mucho líquido ayuda. Evite
harina blanca y azúcar. Frutas y
vegetales crudos pueden abrir los
bronquios. Baje el uso de carne roja
y productos lácteos.
Unos remedios que alivian
algunos síntomas del asma incluyen
té de gordolobo (mullein), eucalipto
(eucalyptus) frotado en el cuerpo y
uña de gato (cat’s claw). La raíz de
regaliz es otro remedio muy usado.
Se usa también ajo y cebolla para
prevenir la inflamación. Tomillo se
puede mezclar con miel y sirve para
reducir la tos.
La visión del Departamento de
Seguridad Pública es mantener
Nuevo México más seguro con
comunidades y caminos seguros.
Su misión es asegurar que
Nuevo México sea más seguro y
capacitado al proporcionar servicios
que fortalecen la ley de alta calidad,
entrenan, responden a desastres y
emergencias y mantienen comunicaciones técnicas y apoyo forense
al público como también a otras
agencias gubernamentales.
Las divisiones del departamento incluyen la policía estatal, el
transporte de motor, una academia
de entrenamiento, investigaciones
especiales, archivos de casos sin
soluciones, registración de ofensores sexuales, búsquedas y liberación de gente desaparecida, un
laboratorio forense, un esfuerzo
en contra de las pandillas, información sobre niños desaparecidos y la
patrulla a caballo.
El secretario del departamento
se llama John Denko. Era piloto.
Luego se unió con la policía estatal
hasta que llegó a ser el director.
Después de formar su propia compañía de seguridad, sirvió como
director de la policía de la ciudad de
Santa Fe.
Entre los empleados del
secretario Denko hay Faron
Segotta, el director de la policía
estatal. Paul Cook es el secretario
diputado de administración. Timothy
Manning es el secretario diputado
de servicios de emergencia.
El sitio del Departamento de
Seguridad Pública (www.dps.nm.
org) tiene una variedad de aspectos
interesantes. Tiene números para
reportar emergencias como también
reportar a choferes borrachos o
vehículos llevando algo no bien
atado. Hay un enlace para ver quiénes son los ofensores sexuales y
dónde están. Hay una página con
biografías de policías que murieron
mientras que trabajaban.
El Departamento de Seguridad Pública es uno con el que
tenemos contacto casi a diario. Vale
la pena aprender sobre las maneras
en que nos puede ayudar.
from an interview by Janet Smith for the WPA Federal Writers’ Project: 08/26/36
José García y Trujillo doesn't
believe that Billy the Kid was ever
shot. He feels sure he got away to
South America. When I showed him
a book by the man who killed Billy
the Kid, he was unconvinced.
"No señora," and he shook his
forefinger back and forth before his
face. "You think Billy the Kid let himself be shot in the dark like that?
No, señora - Billy the Kid - never.
That Billy, tenía un' agileza en su
mente - en su mente aquí." He pointed to his forehead.
When I stopped to see Mr.
García, he was sitting on the ground
under the cottonwood tree that
shades the cracked adobe walls of
his long narrow house. His hat was
pulled down over his eyes and he
seemed to be sleeping. He squinted
at me, and then pulled himself to his
"¿Cómo le va, señora?" Mr.
García placed the one chair in the
shade for me. He found a box
behind a heap of wagon wheels and
car fenders and sat down beside
me. He squinted his long blue eyes
and asked in Spanish, "What's
I patted the black kitten
stretched on a bench at my elbow.
Two little brown dogs nosed at my
shoes, and a big shaggy fellow laid
his head against my arm.
A thin dark old woman stepped
over the little goat sleeping just
inside the doorway of the house, its
head resting on the doorstep. She
gathered up some green chili from a
table in the yard, giving me an intent
look as she stood there.
Mr. García asked me again,
"What's new? You bring me those
history books of Billy the Kid?"
I showed him the picture of Pat
Garrett who shot Billy the Kid. "I
don't want to dispute against you
señora, but in my mind which is the
picture of my soul, I know it is not
true. Maybe Pat Garrett, he give
Billy the Kid money to go to South
America and write that story for the
books. Maybe he kill somebody else
in Billy's place.”
Mrs. García came out again
and sat on a bench beside her husband.
"What did Billy the Kid look
like?" I asked. "Chopito - a short
man, but wide in shoulders and
strong. His forehead was big. His
eyes were blue. He wore Indian
shoes with beads on his feet. His
clothes - muy desarreglado - "
"¿Desarreglado?" I asked. “Like
yours," he said, pointing to my blue
denim skirt and shirt. "Any old way."
In broken English, mixed with
Spanish phrases, Mr. García told me
how he went in a posse of thirty-five
or more men to capture Billy the Kid.
He didn't know the Sheriff's name,
but the description sounded like Pat
Garrett himself. "Muy, muy alto" very, very tall, and Pat Garrett was
six feet, four and a half. José García
was working at the time as a sheepherder on the ranch of Jacobo
Yrissari, about ninety miles southeast of Albuquerque. The tall sheriff
came by one day with a band of men
and offered him five dollars a day
and food for himself and his horse to
join the posse in search of Billy the
Kid. He said he didn't think there
was any danger of their getting Billy,
and five dollars was a lot of money.
The plan was to surround the
Maxwell Ranch on the Pecos River,
where Billy the Kid was known to
spend much time. This ranch
belonged to Lucien Maxwell. "Un
hombre muy grande, un millonario,"
said José García. He came to New
Mexico from Illinois when the country was still a part of Old Mexico.
There he married Luz Beaubien,
daughter of a French Canadian,
Charles Hipolyte Trotier, Sieur de
Beaubien, and a Spanish woman.
With Guadalupe Miranda, Beaubien
had received from the Mexican
Administration of Governor Manuel
Armijo a huge grant of land as a
reward for pioneer services.
Beaubien bought Miranda's share,
and at Beaubien's death, Lucien
Maxwell, his son-in-law, purchased
all the land from the heirs and
became sole owner of more than a
million acres. Nearly every day his
table was set for more than two
dozen, and it is reputed that they ate
on plates of silver and drank from
goblets of gold. The Maxwell house
was "una gran mansión." But it was
to the Maxwell House on the Pecos
near Fort Sumner that he went in
search of Billy the Kid. Maxwell
retired to his place at Fort Sumner
after losing much of his wealth. His
son Pete later became the richest
sheep man in that part of the country. It was Pete who was a friend of
Billy the Kid. José García said he
and the other men surrounded the
house for two weeks but they never
got so much as a glimpse of Billy the
Mr. García said he knew a
good friend of Billy the Kid, José
Chávez y Chávez. When he was
herding sheep on the Yrissari
Ranch, which was not far from
Santa Rosa on the Pecos River,
José Chávez y Chávez was sheep
herder on a nearby ranch. One day
the two of them were sitting under a
tree smoking when a pack train on
the way to Arizona came along on
the other side of the Pecos. Just
opposite the tree where the
two sheepherders were sitting, they
tried to ford the stream. But the
water was swift, and the horses
floundered. José García and José
Chávez pulled off their clothes,
jumped in and guided the horses to
the bank. After the pack train went
on, José Chávez showed Mr. García
the twenty-one bullet scars on his
body. "He had an innocent face didn't look as though he could break
a dish, but he was bad with a gun.
¡Qué hombre!”
According to Walter Noble
Burns it was this José Chávez y
Chávez who was responsible for the
friendship between Billy the Kid and
the wealthy Maxwells. Billy the Kid
had ridden over to Fort Sumner from
Lincoln with several of his men,
among whom was José Chávez y
Chávez. The fiancé of one of the
Maxwell girls was drunk and met
José Chávez y Chávez on the street
back of the Maxwell House. The two
men quarreled, and José Chávez
pulled his gun. Mrs. Maxwell ran out
of the house and tried to pull her
future son-in-law away, begging
Chávez not to shoot him as he was
drunk and didn't know what he was
doing. Just then a young man
walked rapidly across the road,
touched his sombrero to Mrs.
Maxwell, said something in Spanish
to Chávez and led him away. It was
the Kid. He made Fort Sumner his
headquarters and was a frequent
visitor at the Maxwell home. It was in
Pete Maxwell's room that Pat
Garrett shot him.
Mr. García asked me if there
were any books in Spanish about
Billy the Kid. "My wife," he said, "she
taught me to read. I didn't know the
letters when I married her. She didn't know the words, but she knew the
letters, and she taught me. I taught
myself how the words went, but I
never could teach her to read."
Mrs. García shook her head.
"Nunca, nunca, nunca," she said.
I promised to look for a
Spanish book about Billy the Kid. I
sat for a minute longer watching
some pigeons perched on a water
barrel. They pecked at the water.
The ripples reflected on their green
and lavender breasts. The little goat
came out of the house and sniffed
the dirt around my chair.
As I rose to go, Mr. García
stood up and took off his hat.
"Muchas felicidades y buena salud,
señora," he said, with a little bow.
Much happiness and good health to
Mrs. García put out her hand.
Her dark eyes were always somber.
"Adiós," she said, "Que Dios vaya
con usted." Goodbye, I can only say
God be with you.
"Vuelva," they called after me
as I drove away. "Come back."
1 ___Pública
2 step-___
3 Monte___
4 condición
6 Henry___
7 ___y
9 Distrito____
12 Nuestra
Señora de
13 efectos de __
18 chile_____
14 ___or weak
20 Lucien____
15 _____estatal
23 an___passes
17 What's___
24 United____
19 ____ Chávez
26 take_____
20 __Leger
29 ____Public21 proficiency
30 ___the Kid
22 Locks
31 investigación
25 I LIKE___
32 Belen __
27 stick___
28 el___actual
33 ____Serra
5 Hispanic __
8 family,
9 __Angélico
10 Valles
Imperial y __
11 Ice cream--16 una
A Division of Semos Unlimited, Inc.
1219 Luisa Street #2
Santa Fe NM 87505
Georgia Roybal
Phone: (505) 986-0799
Fax: (505) 986-1499
[email protected]
Remedio del Mes: Habas-se dice que el caldo de habas es
bueno para el asma, pulmonía, cold in the lungs, dolor de
pecho (también se usa el polvo como un emplaste).

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