QUINOA Research and development at the International P otato


QUINOA Research and development at the International P otato
Publications available from CIP
Jacobsen S-E & Mujica A (eds).
1999. Fisiología de la Resistencia a
Sequía en Quinua (Chenopodium
quinoa Willd.) I Curso Internacional
sobre Fisiología de la Resistencia a
Sequía en la Quinua, 1–6 Deciembre
1997, Universidad Nacional del
Altiplano, Puno, Peru. 79 pp. US$10
Mujica A, Izquierdo J, Marathee JP,
Moron C & Jacobsen S-E (eds).
1999. Reunión Técnica y Taller de
Formulación de Proyecto Regional
sobre Producción y Nutrición
Humana en base a Cultivos Andinos.
Arequipa, Peru, 20–24 Julio 1998.
187 pp. US$10
Canahua A, Mujica A &
Jacobsen S-E. 2001. Boletín
Agricultura Andina. Free
Mujica A, Jacobsen S-E,
Izquierdo J & Marathee J (eds).
2001. Cultivos Andinos. CD-ROM
containing 13 books. FAO, UNAPuno, CIP. Santiago, Chile. US$10
Jacobsen S-E, Mujica A & Portillo Z
(eds). 2001. Memorias, Primer Taller
Internacional sobre Quinua Recursos Genéticos y Sistemas de
Producción, 10–14 Mayo 1999,
UNALM, Lima, Peru. 456 pp. US$15
Mujica A, Jacobsen S-E,
Izquierdo J & Marathee J (eds).
2001. Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa
Willd.) – Ancestral cultivo andino,
alimento del presente y futuro. FAO,
UNA-Puno, CIP. Santiago, Chile.
350 pp. US$15
QUINOA – Research and Development
International Potato Center (CIP)
Apartado 1558, La Molina, Lima 12, Peru
Tel: +51 1 349 6017
Fax: +51 1 317 5326
email: [email protected]
CIP: www.cipotato.org
CONDESAN: www.condesan.org
Research and
Research and development at the
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has
been enjoyed as an important food crop in
the Andes for thousands of years. Now it is
attracting interest
elsewhere in the world,
and for good reasons: it
is both delicious and
nutritious, being rich in
high quality protein,
vitamins and minerals,
and it grows well in
extreme conditions of
drought, frost and soil
salinity. Recently quinoa
has been selected by
the Food and Agriculture
Organization of the
United Nations (FAO) as
one of the crops that will
play an important role in
ensuring food security in
the 21st century.
CIP’s contribution
At the International Potato Center (CIP) in Peru,
wide-ranging studies aimed at improving
quinoa, developing new uses and products,
and increasing market demand are being
undertaken in the Quinoa Project, funded by
Danish International Development Assistance
(DANIDA). The primary beneficiaries of the
work have been small-scale Andean farmers
(who have received improved seed and advice
on optimizing agronomic practices), small
enterprises (through the development of new
products from specific cultivars) and
consumers (who
have been offered
new products
and better quality
at lower prices).
In addition,
collaboration with
Quinoa in Puno, Peru, at 3800 m
national research
institutions has enriched national research
capacity, and this will bring further benefits in
the long term. The key goal of the project is
sustainable production of quinoa (including
organic production for export), to help
overcome malnutrition and increase food
security and farmers’ incomes.
The promise of quinoa
A superb food
Quinoa is one of the most nutritious food
crops currently known. It contains high quality
protein, rich in the essential amino acids
lysine, methionine and threonine that are
scarce in cereals and legumes. It is rich in
important vitamins (A, B2 and E) and minerals
(calcium, iron, copper and zinc): in particular
its high iron content makes it a valuable tool in
efforts to reduce anemia worldwide. And 89%
of its fatty acids are unsaturated.
A hardy crop
Quinoa has properties that enable it to thrive in
extreme soil and climatic conditions.
Cakes and bread made from quinoa
• Salt tolerance. Quinoa can grow
successfully where soil salt concentrations
are as high as that of seawater. Quinoa
accumulates salt in its tissues, so this plant
may find another important use – in
cleaning salt-contaminated soils
• Drought tolerance. Quinoa can grow in pure
sand where annual rainfall is only 200 mm.
It does this by, for example, having a deep
root system, vesicles on young plants and
low osmotic potential
• Frost tolerance. Quinoa can survive
temperatures as low as –8°C for 2–4 hours
because of its ability to supercool
Quinoa growing in the salt desert of Bolivia
New products
The Quinoa Project has helped in the
development of many new food products
based on quinoa. To date these include quinoa
milk, bread, soft drinks, sprouts, protein
concentrates and natural colorants, and there
are more on the way.
New varieties
With its ability to grow under extreme
conditions, quinoa can already provide high
quality products for improving food security in
drought- or frost-prone regions of Latin
America, Africa and Asia. Plants identified with
especially high salt, drought and frost
resistance are being used in breeding
Studying stress tolerance
programs, and within the next year new, even
hardier varieties will be released, to enhance
nutrition and food security and to increase
farmers’ incomes from national and
international markets.
Let’s grow more
Demand for quinoa on national and
international markets is increasing, but current
supplies are unable to satisfy this demand.
The Quinoa Project has therefore been working
to increase production and productivity. And
these efforts have been successful: during the
past five years production in the Andean
region has increased by 50%. But there is
more work yet to be done. For example, in
Ecuador the World Food Programme (WFP)
will include quinoa in the school breakfast
activites, replacing imported commodities, and
to meet the demand by the WFP, the quinoaproducing area in Ecuador will need to more
than double. So CIP and national partners are
establishing the National Quinoa Program of
Ecuador (ECUAQUINUA) to achieve this goal.
For more information about the Quinoa Project
please contact Sven-Erik Jacobsen
<[email protected]>
Genetic diversity

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