Senepol World_2016-05.web

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Senepol World_2016-05.web
June 2016 / Junio 2016
HANS LAWAETZ’:
HISTORY OF THE
SENEPOL BREED
NEW APPROACHES IN THE PRODUCTION
AND REPRODUCTION OF CATTLE
21
2016 CONVENTION
THE SPEAKERS, GUESTS AND TOUR
20
SCBA TEAM WELCOMES
A NEW MEMBER
19
SCBA NEWS:
VISITS TO KSU, OSU, AGI AND MORE
13
Annaly Farms
World's longest established
breeders of Senepol cattle
Hans Lawaetz
(340) 778-2229 (office) - (340) 690-7379 (cell)
P.O.Box 366, Frederiksted, St.Croix,U.S.V.I. 00841
E-mail: [email protected]
SCBA
TIDBITS
SCBA Important Dates
June 2 -4 :
June 28:
Junio 2 - 4:
Junio 28:
SCBA 39th ANNUAL
CONVENTION AND
MEETING
USA: Eastern Region
Livestock Expo Knoxville, TN
SCBA 39ª CONVENCIÓN
ANUAL y REUNIÓ
USA: La región
oriental ganado Expo Knoxville, TN
July 13 – 16:
July 29
Julio: 13 - 16:
Julio 29:
2016 Cattle Industry
Summer Conference Denver, CO
Last day to add or edit
animal data before yearly
processing.
Conferencia de la Industria
de Ganado 2016 Verano Denver, CO
Último día para agregar
o editar datos de
animales antes de la
transformación anual.
Jul 29 – 30:
August 1:
Julio 29 – 30:
Agosto 1:
USA: Georgia Cattlemen’s 2nd half of Whole Herd
Association Summer
payments due before late
Conference
fees applied.
USA: Conferencia de
Verano de la Asociación de
Ganaderos de Georgia
2ª mitad de los pagos de
toda manada debe antes
de aplicar recargos.
Do you have an event or special day in your country
to share? Send the information to the SCBA office so
we can share it on our calendar and announce it to the
SENEPOL WORLD!
¿Tienes un evento o día especial en su país para
compartir? Enviar la información a la oficina SCBA
para que podamos compartir en nuestro calendario
y anunciar al mundo SENEPOL!
SCBA Materials available for your event!
2016 International Year Code: D
This year the SCBA is working to build up our marketing inventory to help our members to promote Senepol at
their events and/or during their travels. Did you know you could order brochures, pens, hats, and other materials
from us? We also have table top and retractable displays we can send you! Most available in English and Spanish.
We do have to cover our costs for shipping and mailing, etc. but let us know how we can help and when your event
is and let us help you represent Senepol proudly!
Materiales de SCBA disponibles para su evento!
Este año la SCBA está trabajando para construir nuestro inventario marketing para ayudar a nuestros miembros a promover el
Senepol en sus eventos o durante sus viajes. ¿Sabía usted que
podría pedir folletos, plumas, sombreros y otros materiales de
nosotros? ¡También disponemos de mesa y pantallas retráctiles
que podiamos enviarte! La mayoría disponible en inglés y español. Tenemos que cubrir nuestros gastos de envío y correo, etc.
pero digános cómo podemos ayudar y cuando esté tu evento y
deja que te ayudemos representan Senepol con orgullo!
Carl Parker from Parkers Senepols
with Ed Loveless in the Senepol
booth at the Alabama Cattlemans
Convention, Feb. 2016 (before the
new materials arrived).
Carl Parker de Parkers Senepols
con Ed Loveless en el stand de
Senepol en la Convención de Alabama Cattlemans, febrero de 2016
(antes de la llegada de los nuevos
materiales).
and more...
y mas....
3
SENEPOL CATTLE BREEDERS ASSOCIATION
Breed Founded in U.S. Virgin Islands
2321 Chestnut Street, Wilmington, NC 28405 USA
1(800) SENEPOL/910-444-0234 • Fax (704) 919-5871
Website: www.senepolcattle.com
Business Manager: Rebecca Powell
Email: [email protected]
2016
SCBA Board of Directors
PRESIDENT/TREASURER (Virgin Islands)
Mr. Hans Lawaetz
[email protected]
39TH SCBA
ANNUAL CONVENTION
CROWNE PLAZA HOTEL
BATON ROUGE, LA
JUNE 2-3, 2016
PRESIDENT’S REPORT
VICE PRESIDENT (USA - Tennessee)
Mr. Mark Sanders
[email protected]
EXECUTIVE BOARD MEMBER (USA - Alabama)
Mr. Carl Parker
[email protected]
EXECUTIVE BOARD MEMBER (USA - TX and OK)
Madison Webb
[email protected]
DIRECTOR (USA - Alabama)
Craig Shipp
[email protected]
DIRECTOR (USA - Mississipi)
Mr. John DeGroote
[email protected]
DIRECTOR (USA - Alabama)
Mr. Ronnie King
[email protected]
4
The new SCBA Board of Directors had their first meeting in Wilmington, N.C.
Sept. 11 & 12, 2015 in order to meet with SCBA Data Programmer Mr. Reid
Wilson and SCBA Business Manager Ms Rebecca Powell in their working environment.
With Mr. Jerry White, past SCBA President and board member for many years
in attendance, we discussed some of the issues with the Multi Breed EPDs data
for calculating interim EPDs. Jerry agreed to continue to work with Reid and
Angus Genetics, Inc. to improve the calculation of interim EPDs. The question
also came up about previous SCBA staff manually changing in the SCBA Database the percentage of 31/32 (96.88%) animals to 100%. The Rule change
in 1996 provided for 31/32 Senepol animals to be declared “Fullblood” but no
provision for justifying changing the percentage in the database.
At the March 11-12, 2016 Board meeting in Baton Rouge, LA arrangements
were finalized with Mr. James Chenevert of Continental Genetics to host the
39th Annual Convention in Baton Rouge. The financial status of SCBA was
reviewed showing an increase in membership but a serious decline in the WHR
enrollment by members that had enrolled their dams in the past. The Board
also approved amending SCBA Rule IIB to delete all references of 31/32 animals as Senepol Fullblood, but also created a new category for registering as
Fullblood B (bred-up) for animals 31/32 and higher but less than 100%.
This past year SCBA was able to utilize USLGE funds to send a delegation to
Guatemala and South Africa to promote SCBA and the Senepol breed of cattle.
Board members Carl Parker, Mark Sanders and I had the opportunity to attend
the Guatemala Senepol Association (GSA) annual meeting and Senepol Exhibition of live cattle at the “Semana del Ganadero y Expoleche Guatemala 2015”
Fair on August 17-21, 2015. We presented a PowerPoint history of the Senepol breed in Spanish and encouraged the Senepol breeders to stay connected
with SCBA and enroll their Senepol dams in the WHR program to receive the
best EPDs available. We had the pleasure to visit and have dinner at the home
of GSA President Ing. Juan F. Pivaral and a visit and tour of Dr. Julio Lainfiesta’s
ranch close to the city of Flores where the Mayan Ruins are located. We were
pleased with the progress the Senepol breed has made in Guatemala and the
organization of its members.
On September 29, 2015 Carl, Mark, Rebecca and I traveled to Johannesburg,
South Africa for a five day visit, sometimes driving for over five hours to visit
four different Senepol cattle
ranches, and attend their annual Senepol meeting and auction. We were able to visit Mr.
Wilhelm Oosthuysen and Mr.
Danie Nieuwoudt ranches who
are both here today.
On the last day of our visit we
met with the Director and Scientific Manager of the South African Department of Agriculture,
Forestry and Fisheries to discuss
the procedure for importing
Senepol semen and embryos.
They were well pleased with our
discussion and the success of
the Senepol breed crossing with
many of their African breeds of
cattle.
I want to thank the board members for their involvement with
handling the business of the Association this past year and wish
everyone the best of success
for SCBA in the future years.
Thank you Rebecca for staying
the course as a new member of
a breed association with its many
challenges of assisting breeders
registering , enrolling in WHR,
EPD’s Sire Summary, organizing
the publication of the Senepol
World Magazines, and handling
the financial and secretarial matters of the association.
I have decided to retire from
the SCBA Board of Directors,
as I have done and am doing
from other “non-profit” organizations, to devote more time to
my personal matters and other
opportunities closer to home. It
has been a wonderful experience
seeing the development of the
Senepol breed spread from one
small island in the Caribbean to
many tropical countries in the
world.
Respectfully submitted by:
Hans Lawaetz
President SCBA
39˚ CONVENCIÓN ANUAL
CROWNE PLAZA HOTEL
BATON ROUGE, LA
2-3 DE JUNIO 2016
DE LA OFICINA DEL PRESIDENTE
La nueva junta directiva de SCBA tuvo la
primera reunión en 11 & 12 de septiembre,
2015 en Wilmington, Carolina de Norte para
reunirnos con el programador de SCBA Sr.
Reid Wilson y la gerente de SCBA Sra. Rebecca Powell en sus ambientes de trabajo.
Sr. Jerry White, el presidente pasado y miembro de la junta directiva durante muchos
años, estuvo presente. Discutimos algunos
problemas de calcular EPDs interino con los
datos de Multi-raza EPDs (Diferencias de Progenie Esperadas). Jerry continuará trabajar
con Reid y Angus Genetics para mejorar la
calculación de EPDs interino. La pregunta
se presentó de los empleados de SCBA cambiando manualmente en el base de datos los
animales de porcentaje de 31/32 (96.88%)
a 100%. El cambio en la ley dejó para los
animales Senepol de 31/32 ser declarado “de
pura raza” pero no se hizo una provisión para
justificar el cambio del porcentaje en la base
de dato.
En 11-12 de marzo 2016, la reunión de la
junta directiva en Baton Rouge, LA los planes fueron finalizados con Sr. James Chenevert de Continental Genetics de acoger la
39˚ Convención Anual en Baton Rouge. El
estado de finanzas de SCBA fue revisado y
mostró un aumento en membresía pero una
disminución seria en la inscripción de WHR
por los miembros que han inscrito sus madres en el pasado. La junta directiva aprobó
el cambio a la ley IIB—eliminar todas referencias de los animales 31/32 como de pura raza
de Senepol, pero también creó una categoría
nueva por registrar como pura raza B para los
animales 31/32 y más alto pero menos que
100%.
El ultimo año SCBA fue capaz de utilizar los
fondos de USLGE para mandar una delegación a Guatemala y Sudáfrica para promover SCBA y la raza de ganado Senepol. Los
miembros de la junta directiva Carl Parker,
Marks Sanders y yo tuvimos la oportunidad
asistir la reunión anual de la Asociación de
Senepol en Guatemala (GSA) y la exhibición
de ganado en la Semana del Ganadero y
Expoleche Guatemala 2015 (17-21 agosto
2015). Dimos una presentación de la historia
de la raza de Senepol en español y animamos los criadores unirse con SCBA y inscribir a sus madres de Senepol en el programa
WHR para recibir los mejores EPDs posible.
Tuvimos el placer de visitar y tener una cena
en la casa de Juan F. Pivaral (presidente de
GSA). Tomamos un tour del rancho de Dr.
Julion Lainfiesta muy cerca a la ciudad de
Flores donde las ruinas Mayan están ubicadas. Estuvimos complacidos con el progresso
de Senepol que ha sido hecho en Guatemala
y la organización de sus miembros.
En el 29 de septiembre 2015, Carl, Mark
Rebecca y yo viajamos a Johannesburg, Sudáfrica para visitar ranchos diferentes, a veces
viajábamos más de cinco horas a otro rancho.
Visitamos cuatro ranchos diferentes de Senepol, y asistimos su reunión anual y subasta.
El ultimo día de nuestro viaje nos reunimos
con el director y gerente del Departamento
Sudafricano de agricultura, silvicultura y pesquería para discutir el proceso de importar el
semen y las embriones. Estuvieron complacidos con nuestra discusión y el éxito de la raza
Senepol cruzando con sus razas africanas.
Quiero agradecer a la junta directiva y la
membresía por su participación en el negocio de la Asociación este año y deseo que la
SCBA tenga mucho éxito en el futuro. Muchas gracias a Rebecca por su trabajo con esta
asociación y sus retos; asistir a los criadores,
inscribir in WHR, EPD Resumen de Reproductores, organizar la publicación Senepol
World, y manejar los fondos.
Como todos saben, he decido retirarme de
la junta directiva de SCBA. Quisiera dar
más tiempo a las oportunidades más cera a
mi casa y tener más tiempo personal. Esta
experiencia de desarrollar la raza de Senepol
ha sido increíble—de un poquito país en el
Caribe muchas islas tropicales por el mundo.
Respetuosamente por:
Hans Lawaetz.
Presidente de SCBA
5
Quality Bulls and Heifers for Sale
Madison Webb, Herd Manager
PO Box 87 Kene ·c, OK 74748
[email protected]·m
Mobile: (469)417-8073
V'lWW .nmmsenepols. com
or find us on Facebook at Mitche l Ranches
SCBA
ARTICLE
HANS LAWAETZ’ HISTORY WITH
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SENEPOL
BREED OF CATTLE
LA HISTORIA DE HANS LAWAETZ
CON EL DESARROLLO DE LA RAZA
SENEPOL DE GANADO
From the time my Dad, Frits E. Lawaetz, was hired in 1940
by Mr. Ward M. Canaday (WC brand) to manage Annaly
Farms, and they purchased the Nelthropp herd of 132 all
red in color and polled cattle in 1949, I was involved working
on the ranch the summers of my high school years (19511955). The summers of my University years (Cornell University ‘55-’59), I worked on ranches in Kansas (Charolais/
Hereford cattle), Colorado (Hereford herd in the valley with
steers from Arizona in the mountains on Federal land) and in
Florida dealing with 1,500 nervous Zebu, Angus, Hereford
crossed steers, all for $50.00 per week.
Desde que mi papá, Frits E. Lawaetz, fue contratado en
1940 por el Sr. Ward M. Canaday (marca WC) para administrar las Granjas Annaly, y compraron la manada Nelthropp
de 132 cabezas de ganado, todas rojas, y descornadas en
1949, me involucré trabajando en el rancho en los veranos de mis años de preparatoria (1951-1955). Durante los
veranos de mis años universitarios (Universidad Cornell
’55-’59), trabajé en ranchos en Kansas (ganado Charolais/
Hereford), Colorado (manada Hereford en el valle con novillos de Arizona en las montañas en terreno federal) y en
Florida manejando a 1,500 novillos cruzados Cebú, Angus,
Hereford, nerviosos, todo por $50.00 a la semana.
After five years in the U.S. Air Force as an officer, I decided
to return to St. Croix in 1964 with my wife, Judy, and our
two year old daughter Amy to assist my Dad, a serving Virgin
Islands Senator in the Virgin Islands Legislature, who had lost
his left leg in 1959 due to an injury while working on the
ranch. At that time, I came on as a partner with Mr. Canaday
Después de cinco años en la Fuerza Aérea de Estados Unidos como oficial, decidí regresar a St. Croix en 1964 con mi
esposa, Judy, y nuestra hija de dos años, Amy, para ayudar
a mi papá, un Senador en funciones de las Islas Vírgenes,
en la Legislación de las Islas Vírgenes, quien había perdido
su pierna izquierda en 1959 debido a una lesión mientras
trabajaba en el rancho. Fue entonces que me hice socio con
el Sr. Canaday y mi papá, en la administración de las Granjas Annaly. En este momento las Granjas Annaly consistían
de 250+ acres de caña de azúcar, la manada Nelthropp, y
1,200+ cabezas de ganado N’Dama/Criollo, todo en 4,200
acres.
Afortunadamente, mi papá guardaba muy buenos registros
genéticos desde 1949 con el ganado Senepol identificado
con el código WCS y un número, y el resto del ganado con
un código WCL y un número, con una etiqueta metálica en
su oreja. A los 3-6 meses de edad, los becerros eran marcados con ese número y código. También comenzó a registrar
la fecha de nacimientos y el número de la madre de cada
becerro y, en 1954, registró el nombre Senepol para esta
nueva raza de ganado.
Uno de mis primeros trabajos fue reducir el tamaño de la
manada debido a un exceso de pastoreo después de una
sequía en 1964 y, para 1966, la granja terminó la operación
de Caña de Azúcar, convirtiendo ese terreno en Pasto Pangola para que el ganado pastara.
Hans Lawaetz
Comenzamos a reducir el tamaño de la manada vendiendo, para sacrificio, a todos los animales con cabos de cuerno, cualquier color blanco, pelo largo (pelu) y nerviosismo,
y también comenzamos a pesar al ganado joven. Por las
noches, al calcular el incremento en peso diario (antes de
proporciones y los EPDs), pude identificar los becerros y
7
Delivering fresh Senepol Beef quarters in 1968
Founders, Virgin Islands Senepol Association, St. Croix,
October 12, 1976. From left: Enrico “Kiko” Gasperi,
Caroline & Mario Gasperi (Castle Nugent Farm, code
“CN”), Henry Nelthropp of Nelthropp Farms (code N),
Virgin Islands Commissioner of Agricultural Oscar E.
Henry (code OH), Hans Lawaetz of Annaly Farms (code
WC), Director of the Agricultural Experiment Station
(AES) at the College of the Virgin Islands Dr. Darshan S.
Padda, Extension Beef Cattle Specialist at the Virginia
Polytechnic Institute & State University (VPI) Dr. A. L.
“Ike” Eller. Missing in the picture was Virgin Islands Senator Frits E. Lawaetz of Annaly Farms (code WC).
and my Dad, in the management of Annaly Farms. At this
point, Annaly Farms consisted of 250+ acres of Sugar Cane,
the Nelthropp herd, and 1,200+ head of N’Dama/Criollo
cattle, all on 4,200 acres.
Fortunately, my Dad kept very good genetic records from
1949 with the Senepol cattle identified with the WCS code
and a number and the other cattle with a WCL code and a
number with a metal tag in their ear. At 3-6 months of age,
the calves were branded with that number and code. He also
began recording the date of birth and dam number of each
calf and, in 1954, trade-marked the name Senepol for this
new breed of cattle.
One of my first jobs was to reduce the size of the herd due to
over-grazing after a drought in 1964, and by 1966, the farm
terminated the Sugar Cane operation, converting that land to
Pangola Grass for cattle grazing.
We started reducing the size of the herd by selling, for
slaughter, all animals with scurs, any white color, long hair
(pelu), and nervousness, and also started weighing the
young cattle. At night by calculating the weight per day
gain (before ratios and EPDs) I was able to identify the inferior calves and dams, which were sold as soon as possible
for slaughter.
Dipping 1,500+/- head of cattle every 3 to 4 weeks in order
to control the tick population, which could possibly spread
two diseases, anaplasmosis and piroplasmosis, at three different corrals with vats for dipping the cattle, meant organizing
the work force to deal with 500+/- head of cattle, in 4 to 6
different herds for 1 to 2 days of work every week in the
8
madres inferiores, los cuales fueron vendidos lo más pronto
posible para sacrificio.
Sumergiendo 1,500+/- cabezas de ganado cada 3 a 4 semanas para poder controlar la población de garrapatas,
que bien pudiera esparcir dos enfermedades, anaplasmosis
y piroplasmosis, en tres diferentes corrales con tinas para
sumergir el ganado, significaba organizar la mano de obra
para tratar con 500+/- cabezas de ganado, en 4 a 6 manadas
diferentes durante 1 a 2 días de trabajo cada semana en
los corrales. Pero esto también nos dio la oportunidad de
marcar con etiqueta a los becerros a una edad temprana,
marcar y pesar para los pesos de destete y añojo. También
podíamos revisar a los padres y madres para una buena conformación, docilidad, fertilidad, cabello corto, color rojo,
buena ubre y nada de cabos de cuerno.
Con más de 500 becerros naciendo cada año, principalmente en tres grupos contemporáneos de 60 días, seleccionábamos las 60 mejores novillas cada año, basados en
registros de desempeño, conformación, etc., para reponer
las 60 principales vacas indeseables y también nos quedábamos con los 20-25 mejores toros añojos para reproducción,
sacrificando en promedio 10+ animales cada semana para
el consumo local de alimentos.
Al pesar al ganado joven cada 30+ días, se podía determinar cuando las novillas alcanzaran las 700+ libras, ya fuera
para cruzarlas y que parieran a los 24 a 26 meses de edad,
o para ser sacrificadas poco después. Los becerros de toro
eran sacrificados a las 800+ libras, al menos que fueran
calificados como 2++. De ser así, se les guardaba como posibles padres de la manada para el futuro. Cuando el ganado
joven era pesado, los calificaba con un 3 (para sacrificio),
2, 2+ o 2++. No se daban 1s hasta que el animal hubiera
demostrado merecerlo.
En 1967 también decidimos codificar a todos los becerros
con un WC e iniciamos a las hembras con el número WC1000, actualmente en WC-8650, y los machos con el número WC-1, y después de WC-999 se comenzó de nuevo con el
WC-1 y el código de letra del año.
A mediados de los 70s, gracias al Dr. A. L. “Ike” Eller, Extensionista Especialista en Ganado Vacuno en el Instituto
Politécnico y Universidad del Estado de Virginia, los criadores de ganado Senepol en St. Croix pudieron registrar su
ganado en el Programa de Mejoramiento de Ganado Vacuno en Virginia (BCIP) y recibieron impresiones de las tasas
de desempeño calculadas por computadora y de los pesos
ajustados de destete y añojo. Esta información también pro-
porcionó la base para nuestros EPDs actuales de Senepol
de la SCBA.
En 1967 tuve la idea de comenzar a entregar yo mismo ganado Senepol de las Granjas Annaly alimentado con pasto
fresco a los negocios alimenticios locales en la isla en lugar
de depender de que los carniceros isleños decidieran cuándo
y qué precio pagarían por el ganado. Fue entonces cuando
también cargábamos goletas con vacas viejas y eliminadas
selectivamente a $.18 por libra a la isla de Martinica.
Ya para 1968 estábamos sacrificando de 10 a 15 animales
por semana en el matadero de las Islas Vírgenes, inspeccionado federalmente, comprando ganado para sacrificio
de otros criadores de Senepol y entregando carne Senepol
a más de 10 pequeños negocios alimenticios locales desde
una caja de aluminio térmica forrada en mi camioneta pickup.
Cowboy Guison and Hans, working Senepol together
since 1964
corrals. But this also gave us an opportunity to tag calves
at an early age, brand and weigh for weaning and yearling
weights. We could also review sires and dams for good conformation, docilness, fertility, short hair, red color, good udder and no scurs.
With 500+ calves being born each year, in mainly three 60
day contemporary groups, we were selecting the top 60 heifers each year based on performance records, conformation
etc. to replace the top 60 undesirable cows and also keeping for breeding the top 20-25 yearling bulls for breeding,
and slaughtering the balance 10+ animals each week for local
food consumption.
By weighing the young cattle every 30+ days, it could be
determined when the heifers reached 700+ lbs whether they
were either to be bred to calf at 24 to 26 months of age
or slaughtered soon after. The bull calves at 800+ lbs were
slaughtered unless they were graded 2++. If so, they were
kept as possible herd sires for the future. When the young
cattle were weighed, I graded with a 3 (for slaughter), 2, 2+
or 2++. No 1’s were issued until the animal had proven itself.
In 1967, we also decided to code all the calves the same with
a WC and started the females with number WC-1000, now at
WC- 8650, and males at number WC-1, and after WC-999
start over with the number WC-1 and the year letter code.
In the mid ‘70s, thanks to Dr. A.L. “Ike” Eller, Extension Beef
Cattle Specialist at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State
University, the St. Croix Senepol breeders were able to enroll
their cattle in the Virginia Beef Cattle Improvement Program
(BCIP) and receive printouts of computer calculated performance ratios and adjusted weaning and yearling weights.
This information also provided the foundation for our present
SCBA Senepol EPDs.
In 1967, I had gotten the idea to start delivering Annaly
Farms Senepol fresh grass fed beef to the local island grocery
stores myself rather than depend on the island butchers to
decide when and at what price they would pay for the cattle.
At this time we were also loading schooners with old & culled
cows at $.18 per pound to the island of Martinique.
En 1968, para poder cumplir con la demanda de nuestra
población isleña de alrededor de 40,000 a 50,000 personas, traje a la isla 14,000 lbs, de canales recién descuartizados de reses alimentadas con pasto desde República
Dominicana, en un avión pequeño de dos motores rentado.
Esto se vendió mediante entrega a las tiendas alimenticias
de la isla. Después del primer cargamento, los Inspectores
Federales de Carne de Estados Unidos insistieron en que,
en el futuro, necesitaría un lugar aprobado federalmente
para inspeccionar la carne, ya que se estaba importando
desde un país foráneo.
Durante los siguientes años, importé 20,000+ lbs. de carne
fresca colgante desde Florida en trailers refrigerados de 50
pies, vendiéndola en 10 días desde el tráiler en mi patio
trasero. Después de diseñar y rediseñar una bodega refrigerada aprobada federalmente y un cuarto de procesamiento
para la carne, por fin fui aprobado para un préstamo para
construir las instalaciones en 1974. Después de la construcción, un inspector Federal de Estados Unidos visitó las instalaciones cada día hábil hasta después del Huracán Hugo
en 1989. Después del huracán, mi hija más pequeña, Jodie, graduada de la Universidad Clemson, donde estudió
con una beca de natación, se unió a las Granjas Annaly y
se hizo cargo de la administración del Mercado de Carne
de las Granjas Annaly. Entonces decidimos concentrarnos
en el negocio de las ventas al detalle y apostamos en los
contratos de alimentos del gobierno, que todavía hacemos,
manejando una gran cantidad de alimentos congelados de
los Estados Unidos.
En 1974 también tuvimos la capacidad económica para que
mi hermano Frits se uniera a la sociedad como socio y, para
1976 ya habíamos comprado la parte de nuestro Socio Limitado, el interés del Sr. Canaday en la manada de ganado
Senepol. El Sr. Canaday siempre fue parte importante de
mi vida. Cuando yo tenía 14 años él le dijo a mi papá que
como parte de su compensación él iniciaría un Fondo Fiduciario Educativo para pagar por mi educación preparatoria
y universitaria en los Estados Unidos, y cuando fuimos socios, exigía registros financieros estrictos en la operación de
ganado de la Sociedad de las Granjas Annaly.
Por supuesto que el negocio de la carne cambió totalmente
en St. Croix en los 70s cuando una “tienda de cadena alimenticia” grande construyó una tienda de comestibles en
St. Croix y la carne Cryovac empaquetada fue un producto más fácil para que las pequeñas tiendas de comestibles
pudieran manejar y vender. Afortunadamente, cuando diseñamos el Mercado de Carnes de las Granjas Annaly, no
9
By 1968, we were slaughtering 10 to 15 animals per week at
the Virgin Islands federal inspected abattoir, buying cattle for
slaughter from the other Senepol breeders and delivering Senepol beef to 10+ small local grocery stores from an insulated
aluminum lined box in the back of my pickup truck.
In 1968, in order to meet the demand of our island population of 40,000 to 50,000 people, I brought to the island
14,000 lbs. of grass fed fresh quartered carcasses of beef
from the Dominican Republic, on a small two engine chartered aircraft. This was sold through delivery to the island
grocery stores. After the 1st shipment, the U.S. Federal Meat
Inspectors insisted that, in the future, I would need a federally
approved facility for inspecting the beef, since it was being
imported from a foreign country.
For the next few years, I brought in 20,000+ lbs. of fresh
hanging beef from Florida in 50 ft. refrigerated trailers, selling
it in 10 days from the trailer in my back yard. After designing
and redesigning a federally approved refrigerated warehouse
and a meat processing room, I finally was approved for a loan
to build the facility in 1974. After construction, a U.S. Federal inspector visited the facility every working day until after
Hurricane Hugo in 1989. After the hurricane my younger
daughter Jodie, a graduate of Clemson University where she
attended on a swimming scholarship, joined Annaly Farms
and took over the management of the Annaly Farms Meat
Market. We then decided to concentrate on the retail food
business and bid on government food contracts, which we
still do today, handling a great deal of frozen foods from the
United States.
In 1974, we were also financially able to have my brother Frits
join the partnership as a partner and, by 1976 had bought out
our Limited Partner, Mr. Canaday’s interest in the herd of Senepol cattle. Mr. Canaday was always an important part of my
life. When I was 14 years of age, he told my Dad that as part
of his compensation he would setup an Educational Trust Fund
to pay for my high school and college education in the United
States, and while we were partners demanding strict financial
records on the Annaly Farms Partnership cattle operation.
Of course, the beef business all changed on St. Croix in
the ‘70s when a large “chain food store” built a grocery
store on St. Croix and boxed cryovac beef became an easier
product for small grocery stores to handle and sell. Fortunately, when we designed the Annaly Farms Meat Market, it
not only included a 20’X20’ refrigerated room for hanging
beef, a butcher room for processing meats, but also a 36’L
X 16’W X 10’H freezer which meant we could import trailer
loads of frozen meats, fish and vegetables to sell retail with
our fresh hanging Senepol beef. This still continues today,
and has been managed by my daughter Jodie since 1990.
In 1977, the four St. Croix Senepol breeders organized the
Virgin Islands Senepol Association (VISA) with the help of
many people. These included: Dr. Will T. Butts who had started the research work in 1976 on the Senepol breed at the
Brooksville USDA Subtropical Research Station using semen
from 17 St. Croix sires; Mr. Dixon D. Hubburd at the time
stationed at the Washington D.C., U.S. Dept. of Agricultural
Office; Mr. Dan Vaniman the Exec. Director of the American
Simmental Cattle Association who helped us start the Sene10
sólo incluía un cuarto refrigerado de 20’ x 20’ para colgar
la carne, un cuarto de carnicero para procesar las carnes,
sino también un congelador de 36’L x 16’A x 10’H, lo que
significaba que podíamos importar cargamentos de tráiler
de carnes congeladas, y vegetales para vender al detalle con
nuestra carne fresca colgante Senepol. Esto continúa al
día de hoy, y ha sido administrado por mi hija Jodie desde
1990.
En 1977 los cuatro criadores Senepol de St. Croix organizaron la Asociación Senepol de las Islas Vírgenes (VISA,
por sus siglas en inglés) con la ayuda de mucha gente. Éstas
incluían a: Dr. Will T. Butts, que había comenzado el trabajo
de investigación en 1976 sobre la raza Senepol en la USDA
Estación Subtropical de Investigación de Brooksville usando semen de 17 reproductores de St. Croix; el Sr. Dixon
D. Hubburd, en ese momento en la Oficina del Departamento de Agricultura de Estados Unidos en Washington,
D. C.; el Sr. Dan Vaniman, el Director Ejecutivo de la Asociación Americana de Ganado Simmental, quien nos ayudó
a iniciar el Registro de la Raza Senepol y ordenanzas de la
asociación; y, por supuesto, el Dr. Harold D. Hupp, quien
fue asignado a la Facultad de la Estación Experimental de
Agricultura de las Islas Vírgenes para estudiar y caracterizar
a la raza Senepol, y también servir como el secretario de
registros de VISA.
Fui elegido Presidente en la primera junta oficial de VISA y,
en ese tiempo, las Granjas Annaly tenían más de 600 vacas
en el Registro de la Fundación VISA, más que todos los demás criadores de Senepol juntos. Afortunadamente, uno de
nuestros directivos, el Sr. Oscar E. Henry (marca OH), también era el Comisionado de Agricultura de las Islas Vírgenes
y pudo asignar fondos del Departamento para la construcción de instalaciones de cuarentena para la exportación del
ganado Senepol, lo que comenzamos a hacer en 1977.
El primer embarque se hizo al Dr. Don Applegate, un veterinario de Louisville, Kentucky, que le llamó a su operación
Senepol el Senepol Americano Limitado (marca ASL) y al
Sr. Wingard Freeman de Macon, Georgia. El Dr. Applegate
también era el Presidente de la Asociación de Ganado Simmental y había escuchado acerca de la raza Senepol por
parte del Sr. Vanim cuando visitó St. Croix en 1976. Estaba
interesado en cruzar el Senepol con su ganado Simmental,
principalmente para obtener becerros más chicos al nacer.
El Sr. Freeman era un granjero Menonita de lácteos que
también estaba en la junta directiva de la Asociación de Ga-
Which one is Mine...
pol Breed Registry and association by-laws; and of course
Dr. Harold D. Hupp who was assigned to the College of the
Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment Station to study and
characterize the Senepol breed and also serve as recording
secretary of the VISA.
I was elected Chairman at the first official meeting of VISA,
and, at the time, Annaly Farms had 600+ cows in the VISA
Foundation Registry, more than all the other Senepol breeders combined. Fortunately, one of our board members, Mr.
Oscar E. Henry (OH brand), was also the V.I. Commissioner
of Agricultural and he was able to allocate funds from the
Department for the construction of a quarantine facility for
the exportation of the Senepol cattle, which we started doing
in 1977.
The first shipment was to Dr. Don Applegate, a veterinarian
from Louisville, Kentucky who named his Senepol operation
the American Senepol Limited (ASL brand) and Mr. Wingard
Freeman from Macon, Georgia. Dr. Applegate was also the
President of the Simmental Cattle Association and had heard
about the Senepol breed from Mr. Vaniman when he visited
St. Croix in 1976. He was interested in crossing the Senepol
with his Simmental cattle mainly for smaller calves at birth.
Mr. Freeman was a Mennonite dairy farmer who was also a
board member of the Beefalo Cattle Association and was on
his way to Brazil for a board meeting when the “semen collector” from the D & D Bull Motel, who collected the semen
in 1976 for the Brooksville research project, convinced Mr.
Freeman to visit St. Croix. After his visit he decided to switch
from Beefalo to Senepol.
In 1987, the VISA Board and membership agreed to change
the name of the association to the American International
Senepol Association (AISA), which already had three board
members from the United States. In 1988, the Board also
agreed to relocate the Senepol Registry from the College of
the Virgin Islands to the Red Angus Cattle Association located
in Denton, Texas.
I continued to serve as Chairman of the board until 1991
when we reorganized and formed the Senepol
Cattle Breeders Association (SCBA) with a 12
member board of directors (BOD). In order to
provide a distribution of members on the board,
the United States was divided into five regions
with one region for international members.
Exporting Senepol cattle from St. Croix to the
United States meant, once the animals were selected by the buyer based on his observation of
the animal and its’ performance records, samples of blood were taken 30 days before departure, by plane or ship, and sent to Ames, Iowa
for testing to determine whether the cattle were
carriers of the diseases anaplasmosis and/or
piroplasmonsis. The animals may have looked
healthy because they had built up an immunity
to the diseases, but may show in testing a titer as
a carrier of the disease. Once the results were
returned negative, the animals were placed in
the quarantine facility 10 days before departure
and blood samples taken again. During the next
nado Beefalo e iba camino a Brasil para una junta de directivos cuando el “recolector de semen” del Motel de Toros D
& D, que recolectaba el semen en 1976 para el proyecto de
investigación de Brooksville, convenció al Sr. Freeman de
visitar St. Croix. Después de su visita decidió cambiar de
Beefalo a Senepol.
En 1987 la Junta Directiva de VISA y sus socios acordaron
cambiar el nombre de la asociación por el de Asociación
Americana Internacional de Senepol (AISA, por sus siglas
en inglés), que ya tenía tres miembros directivos de Estados
Unidos. En 1988, la Junta también acordó reubicar el Registro Senepol de la Facultad de las Islas Vírgenes a la Asociación de Ganado Red Angus localizada en Denton, Texas.
Continué fungiendo como Presidente de la junta hasta
1991 cuando reorganizamos y formamos la Asociación de
Criadores de Ganado Senepol (SCBA, por sus siglas en inglés), con una junta directiva de 12 miembres (BOD). Para
poder ofrecer una distribución de los miembros en la junta,
Estados Unidos fue dividido en cinco regiones con una región para socios internacionales.
Exportar ganado Senepol desde St. Croix hacia Estados
Unidos significaba, una vez que los animales eran elegidos
por el comprador con base en la observación del animal
y sus registros de desempeño, se les extraían muestras de
sangre 30 días antes de partir, por avión o barco, y enviados
a Ames, Iowa, para someterlos a pruebas para determinar si
el ganado era portador de las enfermedades anaplasmosis
y/o piroplasmosis. Los animales podían verse sanos porque
habían creado una inmunidad a las enfermedades, pero podían aparecer como portadores de la enfermedad al hacer
una prueba con título. Cuando los resultados regresaban
negativos, los animales eran colocados en el área de cuarentena 10 días antes de su salida y se volvían a tomar muestras de sangre. Durante los siguientes nueve días te ponías
a rezar para que el ganado estuviera listo para partir y que
el avión o barco estuviera a tiempo.
Fue diferente embarcar a Venezuela debido a que también
tenían garrapatas y querían animales con un título y, por
tanto, no era necesaria la cuarentena. En los 90s, los criadores de St. Croix embarcaron 200 cabezas (200,000 lbs.) de
Senepols a Venezuela vía dos aviones 727. Los dos aviones
Hans with his cattle
11
nine days you prayed the
cattle would be ready for departure and the plane or ship
was on schedule.
Shipping to Venezuela was
different since they also had
ticks and wanted animals
with a titer, and therefore
the quarantine was not necessary. In the ‘90s, the St.
Croix breeders shipped 200
head (200,000lbs.) of Senepols to Venezuela via two
727 aircrafts. The two aircrafts made two trips each in
one day. Remember, Venezuela is only 500+ miles from
St. Croix.
Thanks to the encouragement and efforts of SCBA
Preparing Senepol cattle for shipment
Exec. Director Greg Comstock, we were able to host
hicieron dos viajes cada uno en un día. Recuerden, VenezueSt. Croix “Hand Picked” Senepol Auctions at Stan Coley’s
la está a sólo un poco más de 500 millas de St. Croix.
Ranch, Ga. in 1995 and at Stamey Farms, N.C. in 1996 &
Gracias al empuje y esfuerzos del Director Ejecutivo de
1998. Greg came to St. Croix, took a great deal of pictures,
SCBA, Greg Comstock, pudimos se anfitriones de la Subasand then put together three great Auction Sale booklets with
ta de Senepol “Escogido a Mano” de St. Croix en el Ranover 65 lots in each sale. The big challenge was to identify
cho de Stan Coley, en Georgia, en 1995, y en las Granjas
a sale day, after 30 days of isolation at the farm in the U.S.,
Stamey, Carolina del Norte, en 1996 y 1998. Greg vino a
30 days of testing and quarantine in St. Croix and scheduling
St. Croix, tomó muchas fotografías, y después formó tres
grandes folletos de la Venta de Subasta con más de 65 lotes
a plane to carry 75,000+lbs of cattle to the U.S., with payen cada venta. El gran reto fue identificar un día de venta,
ment in advance.
después de 30 días de aislamiento en el rancho en Estados
For four years in a row, thanks to the efforts of Señora BeaUnidos, 30 días de pruebas y cuarentena en St. Croix, y protriz Diaz, from 2001 to 2004 before President Chavez took
gramar un avión para llevar más de 75,000 lbs de ganado
control of Venezuela, Annaly Farms with help from Castle
hacia Estados Unidos, con el pago por adelantado.
Nugent Farms, shipped 100 head of Senepol each year on a
Durante cuatro años seguidos, gracias a los esfuerzos de la
Stretch DC-8 to Venezuela. My records show the exportaSeñora Beatriz Díaz, desde 2001 hasta 2004 , antes de que
tion of many cattle from Annaly Farms (WC) to numerous
el Presidente Chávez tomara el control sobre Venezuela, las
cattle breeders from different states and countries over the
Granjas Annaly, con la ayuda de las Granjas Castle Nugent,
past 38 years, including Australia and Brazil.
embarcaron 100 cabezas de Senepol cada año en un Stretch
DC-8 hacia Venezuela. Mis registros muestran la exportaOver the past 39 years on the Senepol Association BOD, I
ción de mucho ganado desde las Granjas Annaly (WC) hacia
have served for 17 years as president, one year as V.P. and
muchos criadores de ganado de diferentes estados y países
eight years as treasurer. It has been my honor and pleasure to
en los últimos 38 años, incluyendo Australia y Brasil.
have worked with so many outstanding and dedicated SeneEn los últimos 39 años en la Junta Directiva de la Asociapol breeders from many different countries. I think the future
ción Senepol, he servido durante 17 años como presidente,
of the Senepol breed is now secure in the tropical regions of
un año como Vicepresidente, y ocho años como tesorero.
the world thanks to the work of SCBA. I wish the best of sucHa sido un honor y un placer haber trabajado con tantos
cess to the SCBA Board of Directors to continue the history
criadores Senepol sobresalientes y dedicados de muchos
of SCBA as the international organization responsible for
países diferentes. Pienso que el futuro de la raza Senepol ya
the accurate genetics and performance records of the breed
está asegurado en las regiones tropicales del mundo gracias
al trabajo de la SCBA. Deseo el mejor de los éxitos a la
world-wide.
Junta Directiva de la SCBA para que continúen la historia
de la SCBA como la organización internacional responsable
de la genética exacta y registros de desempeño de la raza a
Submitted by:
nivel mundial.
Hans Lawaetz
Date - April 11, 2016
Enviado por:
Hans Lawaetz
Fecha – Abril 11, 2016.
12
SCBA
NEWS
By Rebecca Powell
Como ya saben, llegué a SCBA sin distinguir entre un novillo y un toro, literalmente. Con su paciencia y ayuda ya he
aprendido mucho, pero todavía hay un trecho muy largo por
recorrer. He decidido asumir la industria ganadera y aprender tanto como pueda cada vez que surja la oportunidad.
As you all already know, I came to the SCBA not knowing a
steer from a bull, literally. With your patience and assistance I
have already learned so much but there is still a very long way
to go. I have decided to take on this cattle industry and learn
as much as I can whenever the opportunity arises.
En lo que va de este año he comenzado mi capacitación
para las certificaciones del Aseguramiento de Calidad de
la Carne y ya he obtenido algunas, lo cual digo con mucho
orgullo. Mi meta es completar las certificaciones restantes
para finales de junio.
So far this year I have started online training for Beef Quality
Assurance certifications and already
have a few under my belt, I am proud
to say. My goal is to complete the remaining certifications by the end of
June.
Este marzo fui al Día del Ganadero de la Universidad de
Kansas en Manhattan, Kansas, y visité la Sede de Angus en
la Ciudad de Kansas, Missouri, en donde Dan Moser nos
dio el gran tour a mi sobrino Tyler y a mí. Las instalaciones
y el personal estuvieron impresionantes y pudimos sentir la
historia y el orgullo muy bien merecido que tienen hacia su
raza y su producto.
This March I attended the Kansas
State University’s Cattlemen’s Day
in Manhattan, Kansas and visited the
Angus Headquarters in Kansas City,
Missouri where Dan Moser gave my
nephew Tyler and I the grand tour. The facility and staff were
impressive and we could feel the history and the well-deserved
pride they have for their breed and product.
KSU tuvo varias sesiones para escoger
en cada bloque de
tiempo, así que escogí estas 2:
KSU had several sessions to choose from for each time block
so I chose these 2:
Impact of Beef Branding Programs on Consumer Perceptions of Beef
Quality (spoiler alert: Angus does very well with branding). Travis O’Quinn,
Extension Meats Specialist, discussed how product identification prior to
tasting affects consumer perceptions of beef eating quality. The effects of
product brand, USDA grade, fat percentage, and primal-specific blends on
overall palatability of steaks and ground beef were also discussed.
Reproduction: It’s All about Timing by Northwest area extension specialist Sandy Johnson who discussed how consistently paying attention to
timing will help the performance of your herd. Included was an introduction
to the Management Minder, a calendar tool to map out your cow/calf
production year. The Management Minder is a joint effort between Iowa
State University and K-State Research and Extension. They expect that
the early users of the program will have suggestions for improvement
and may identify issues that still need to be resolved. They welcome and
encourage this feedback. The tool can be found at http://cowweb.exnet.
iastate.edu/CowWeb/faces/. Send questions and comments regarding the
tool to [email protected]
I wasn’t sure how going to KSU would benefit me but I am
so glad I did. At both presentations the presenters and the attendees were welcoming, friendly and helpful. I didn’t feel an
ounce of judgement when I asked what for most there would
be “newbie” questions. I’ve also had quick replies when I’ve
sent follow-up questions via email since. I love cattle folk!
Most recently I attended the National Pedigreed Livestock
Council (NPLC) annual meeting May 2 - 4, 2016 in Columbus, Ohio. Dan Moser from Angus Genetics, Inc. suggested
I contact them after I mentioned how nice his office and staff
Impacto de los Programas de Marcado
de Ganado en las Percepciones del Consumidor sobre la Calidad de la Carne (alerta: al Angus le va
muy bien con el marcado). Travis O’Quinn, Especialista en
Carnes de Extensión, habló acerca de cómo la identificación
del producto previo a degustarlo afecta las percepciones de
la calidad de la carne comestible. También se habló acerca
de los efectos de la marca del producto, grado USDA, porcentaje de grasa, y las mezclas específicamente primales en
la palatabilidad general de bistecs y carne molida.
Reproducción: Todo Está en la Programación, por la especialista en extensión del área noroeste, Sandy Johnson, que
habló acerca de cómo el poner atención consistentemente
sobre la programación ayudará al desempeño de su manada. Se incluyó una introducción al Acompañante de la
Administración, una herramienta de calendario para programar su año productivo de res/becerro. El Acompañante
de Administración es un esfuerzo conjunto entre la Universidad del Estado de Iowa y la Investigación y Extensión de
la Universidad del Estado de Kansas. Esperan que los primeros usuarios de este programa tengan sugerencias para
mejorarlo y puedan identificar situaciones que todavía necesitan resolverse. Agradecen y solicitan esta retroalimentación. La herramienta se puede encontrar en http://cowweb.
exnet.iastate.edu/CowWeb/faces/. Envíe sus preguntas y comentarios de la herramienta a [email protected]
No estaba segura cómo me beneficiaría ir a KSU pero estoy
muy contenta de haber ido. En ambas presentaciones los
ponentes y los asistentes fueron muy cálidos, amistosos y de
gran ayuda. No me sentí ni una pizca juzgada cuando hice
preguntas que para la mayoría hubieran sido preguntas de
“novata”. También he recibido respuestas rápidas cuando
he enviado preguntas de seguimiento vía correo electrónico.
¡Me encanta la gente ganadera!
13
were and how jealous I was for his resources. The NPLC has
been a source of support for pedigreed livestock associations
for over 108 years! I’ll let their website content represent
them:
“The National Pedigreed Livestock Council represents an
organization of executive officers of the various nonprofit
breed associations of dairy, horse and pony, sheep, goat,
swine and beef species. The Council is an opportunity for
the executive officers of different species and breed groups to
interchange ideas and learn from one another techniques of
fulfilling the individual association objectives.
The National Pedigreed Livestock Council has adopted the
objectives:
1.Sharing, discussing, and acting on livestock industry issues
at regular meetings of the membership;
2.Participating in activity designed to promote the best interests of breeders of pedigree livestock and member organizations;
3.Joining in efforts to utilize the power and economics of
scale for the economic benefit of member organizations;
4.Providing chief executive officers of the various species and
breeds the opportunity of self-education and communication through social and educational interaction, and;
5.Originating and participating in other activities which in the
judgment of the directors are in the best interest of the
Council.
14
Recientemente fui a la junta anual del Consejo Nacional de
Ganado de Pedigrí (NPLC, por sus siglas en inglés) del 2 al
4 de mayo, 2016 en Columbus, Ohio. Dan Moser de Angus
Genetics, Inc., sugirió que lo contactara después de que le
dije lo agradables que eran su oficina y su personal y la envidia que me daban los recursos que él tenía. La NPLC ha
sido una fuente de apoyo para las asociaciones de ganado
de pedigrí ¡por más de 108 años! Dejaré que el contenido de
su sitio web los represente:
“El Consejo Nacional de Ganado de Pedigrí representa una
organización de oficiales ejecutivos de las diferentes asociaciones sin fines de lucro de las diferentes razas de ganado
lechero, caballos y ponis, borregos, chivos, puercos y de
carne. El Consejo es una oportunidad para que los oficiales ejecutivos de los diferentes grupos de especies y razas
intercambien ideas y aprendan uno del otro las técnicas que
les permitan satisfacer los objetivos de cada asociación individual.
El Consejo Nacional de Ganado de Pedigrí ha adoptado los
siguientes objetivos:
1. Compartir, hablar, y actuar sobre asuntos de la industria
ganadera en las juntas regulares de la membresía;
2. Participar en actividades diseñadas para promover los
mejores intereses de criadores de ganado pedigrí y las organizaciones asociadas;
3. Unir esfuerzos para usar el poder y la economía de escala
para el beneficio económico de las organizaciones asociadas;
4. Dar a los presidentes de las diferentes especies y razas la
oportunidad de auto-educarse y la comunicación a través de
It was an incredible experience and I have since joined their
membership. Belowis a list of some of the members I met from
the various breeds. The beef breeds are highlighted.
la interacción social y educativa; y,
Other breed members can be seen on their website NPLC.net.
They will be launching a new website soon so keep checking
their site. Fue una experiencia increíble y desde entonces ya me hice
socia. Esta es una lista de algunos de los socios que conocí
de las diferentes razas. Las razas de ganado están resaltadas.
One thing they did for their annual meeting that I thought was
brilliant was to give breeds and businesses the opportunity to
NLPC Attendees:
Zane Akins, Secretary/Treasurer, The Villages, FL
Billy Smith, American Paint Horse, FT Worth, TX
Bubba and Janie Bain, American Akaushi, Harwood, TX
Rory Williams, TWHBEA, Lewisburg, TN
Darrell Bilke and Kim Hall, Pinto Horse. Bethany, OK
Brit McLin, Shires Horse Foundation, Silt, CO
Sharon, McLin, American Horse Association
Erica Richard, American Morgan Horse, Shelburne, VT
Debbie Fuentes and Glenn Petty, Arabian Horse, Aurora, CO
Montie Soules, American Shorthorn, Kansas City, MO
Steve Taylor, Appaloosa Horse, Moscow, ID
“sponsor” portions of the convention. This is such a smart
way to help breeds, associations and businesses share information about themselves while also sharing the cost of the overall
event. For example, USTA sponsored the breakfast muffins and
beverages for the one morning presentation and later in the
day Equistem sponsored snacks during break and the second
presentation of the day. The sponsors could set up displays and
distribute information. Genius, I tell ya! The SCBA will looking
5. Originar y participar en otras actividades que, a juicio de
los directores, sean en el mejor interés del Consejo.
Pueden encontrarse otros socios de las razas en su sitio de
Junia Isiminger, American Milking Shorthorn, Union City, PA
Mike Paul and Brian Arnold, National Swine Registry, W Lafayette, IN
Robin Saum, President, American Dairy Goat Association
Karla Stoner, American Shire Horse, Frederick, MD
Jim Washer, Canadian Livestock Records Council, Ottawa, Canada
Aron Weir, Maxxam Analytics, Guelph, Canada
Neil Smith, Jersey Cattle, Reynoldsburg, OH
Blake Nelson, Maine-Anjou, Platte City, MO
Craig Huffhines, Quarter Horse, Amarillo, TX
Amy Smith, Berkshire, West Lafayette, IN
Stefanie Oppenheim, UC Davis Veterinary Genetics Lab, Davis, CA
Rebecca Powell, Senepol Cattle Breeders Association,
Peter Cole, Executive Director, Holstein Association
Internet NPLC.net. Estarán lanzando un nuevo sitio web
pronto, así que continúen revisando su sitio.
Una cosa que hicieron para su junta anual y que consideré
brillante fue darle a los criadores y negocios la oportunidad de “patrocinar” partes de la convención. Esta es una
manera muy inteligente de ayudar a las razas, asociaciones
y negocios a compartir la información acerca de sí mismos
mientras que también comparten el costo de todo el even-
15
into if this is something that could work at our 2017 convention in St. Croix as well as into the future.
The first night was a Meet and Greet sponsored by Awards
Recognition Concepts and USTA at the hotel with an open
bar and some lovely small dishes. I took advantage of the
opportunity to introduce myself to as many people as I could
who then introduced me to others and so on. Everyone was
so welcoming and seemed genuinely interested in meeting
me, too. Afterwards we split up for the species dinners. That
is to say the bovine and equine group went to one restaurant while the swine, ovine and caprine members headed to
a different restaurant. Another smart idea to keep the groups
smaller. After dinner we returned to the hotel where most
headed to the restaurant bar area to continue socializing.
The next two days were presentations pertinent to everyone
such as website needs and design; developments in registry;
the value of pedigreed livestock globally (presented by the
SCBA’s good friend, Mike Phillips); and engaging members.
in meaningful work.
16
NPLC Group
to. Por ejemplo, USTA patrocinó el pan del desayuno y las
bebidas para una de las presentaciones de la mañana, y más
tarde en el día, Equistem patrocinó los bocadillos durante
la segunda presentación del día. Los patrocinadores podían
montar exhibiciones y distribuir información. ¡Genial, les
digo! La SCBA revisará si esto es algo que pudiera funcionar en nuestra convención 2017 en St. Croix, así como en
el futuro.
La primera noche Awards Recognition Concepts y USTA
patrocinó un Evento para Conocerse patrocinado en el hotel con barra libre y algunos platillos fabulosos. Aproveché
la oportunidad y me presenté con tanta gente como pude,
quienes después me presentaron con otros, y así subsecuentemente. Todos fueron muy cálidos y parecían realmente
interesados en conocerme también. Después nos separamos
para las cenas por especie. Esto es, el grupo de bovinos y
equinos fue a un restaurante, mientras que los socios de
animales porcinos, ovinos y caprinos fueron a otro restaurante. Otra brillante idea para mantener los grupos chicos.
Después de la cena regresamos al hotel en donde la mayoría
se fue al área del bar en el restaurante para seguir socializando.
Los siguientes dos días fueron presentaciones de temas tales como las necesidades del sitio web y de diseño; Novedades
en registro; el valor del ganado de pedigrí a nivel mundial (presentado por el amigo de la SCBA, Mike Phillips); y entre los
miembros en un trabajo significativo.
NPLC Banquet
Comedian Adam Garman
The 2nd evening was the NPLC Banquet
and Awards Ceremony.
Presentations and awards were given for Distinguished Service to Hoard’s Dairyman, Honorary NPLC Member to
Robert Luehrman of the U.S. Trotting Association and the
U.S. Trotting Association presented Barbara Brooks with
their Outstanding Service Award in appreciations of her over
38 YEARS OF SERVICE! Obviously, the USTA knows how
lucky they are to have such a committed person in their midst.
We also got to enjoy the comic stylings of a comedian whose
background in agricultural tickled this group’s funny bone.
Don’t think I won’t be looking him up in the future! Not sure
La 2ª noche fue el Banquete NPLC y Ceremonia de Premiación. Las presentaciones y premios que se dieron fueron
de Servicio Distinguido al Lechero de Hoard, Socio Honorario NPLC a Robert Luehrman de la Asociación de Troteo
de Estados Unidos, y la Asociación de Troteo de Estados
Unidos le dio a Barbara Brooks el Premio al Servicio Sobresaliente en agradecimiento por sus más de ¡38 AÑOS DE
SERVICIO! Obviamente, la USTA sabe la suerte que tienen
de tener a una persona tan comprometida entre ellos.
También tenemos que disfrutar los estilos cómicos de un comediante cuyo fondo agrícola cosquillas hueso divertido de
este grupo. ¡No crean que no lo vaya a buscar en el futuro!
No estoy segura de que le podamos pagar, pero definitivamente vale la pena investigarlo. Todavía me estoy riendo.
El último día tuve que recortar mi visita para tomar mi
17
if we can afford him but it’s
definitely worth investigating. I’m still giggling.
The last day I had to cut my
visit short to catch my flight
so, sadly, I didn’t get to join
the tour of the Ohio State
University’s dairy facilities;
however, I did get join the
grand tour of the OSU College of Veterinary Medicine,
led by their Dean, Dr. Rustin Moore. I am soooo glad
I had spent time Googling USLGE Mike Phillips
videos on artificial insemination, embryo transplants, etc. so I knew what I was seeing
when I noticed a group in lab coats getting very up close
and personal with a beautiful black mare down the hall. To
respect the privacy of the owners for animals in their care
we were limited to what kinds of photos we could take but I
couldn’t resist the large animal treadmill and the calf wearing adult men’s Hanes briefs! Just goes to show they’ll do
whatever it takes for the animals in their care.
The OSU facility is nothing less than amazing. The fact that
they have an MRI machine that will fit a horse will give you
some idea of their capabilities. I’m looking forward to one day
touring the NC State SOVM facility to see how it compares.
OH, BUT, I almost forgot to tell you: all the Googling and
YouTubing I did definitely did NOT prepare me for what I saw
when I turned one corner. None of you ever told me about rumens and fistulated donor animals! Apparently I was the only
one in the group surprised by this “technique” or “process”.
I was too in shock to think to take a photo at the time. Many
of the NPLC members got a good chuckle by the look on my
face as Dean Moore explained to me what I was looking at. I
still get the shivers when I think about it. Brruh!
I could keep writing all night about just this tour, not to mention more about the NPLC event itself. I am so appreciative
that Dan Moser directed me to NPLC and I look forward to
being a part of it for years to come.
I’ve babbled on enough for
this issue. I’m excited to continue my education where and
when I can find an opportunity and to working harder to
improve the SCBA’s communications with its members.
We’re hopeful that our new
staff member, Jessica Biel,
will be a big help with that.
There is a intense rivalry between OSU and University
of Michigan. Need I say more? Hay una rivalidad intensa
entre OSU y la Universidad de Michigan. ¿Necesito decir
más?
18
vuelo, así que, tristemente, no
pude ir al tour de las instalaciones lecheras de la Universidad
del Estado de Ohio; sin embargo, sí pude ir al gran tour de la
Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria de la OSU (por sus siglas en
inglés), dirigido por su Decano,
Dr. Rustin Moore. Me dio muchísimo gusto haber invertido
tiempo en investigar videos en
Dr. Rustin Moore
Google acerca de inseminación
artificial, transplante embrionario, etc., así que ya sabía lo que estaba viendo cuando
observé a un grupo de batas blancas acercarse mucho a una
hermosa yegua negra más delante de mí. Para respetar la
privacidad de los dueños de los animales a su cuidado, nos
limitamos a las fotografías que pudiéramos tomar, pero no
pude resistirme a ¡la caminadora para animales grandes y el
becerro usando calzoncillos Hanes de hombre adulto! Eso
demuestra que hacen lo que sea por los animales a su cuidado.
Las instalaciones de la OSU son sorprendentes. El hecho de
que tienen una máquina de MRI en la que cabe un caballo,
les da idea de sus capacidades. Espero algún día darme una
vuelta por la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria del estado
de Carolina del Norte para ver cómo se compara con este.
Ah, PERO, casi me olvido de decirles: toda la investigación
que hice en Google y YouTube definitivamente ¡NO me preparó para lo que vi cuando di vuelta a la esquina! Ninguno
de ustedes me dijo acerca de los animales donadores de
rumen y fistulados! Aparentemente yo era la única en el
grupo sorprendida con esta “técnica” o “proceso”. Estaba
muy en shock como para pensar en tomar una foto en ese
momento. Muchos de los socios de NPLC se rieron con la
mirada en mi cara mientras que el Decano Moore me explicaba lo que estaba viendo. Todavía me dan escalofríos
cuando pienso en ello. ¡Brrr!
Podría seguir escribiendo toda la noche nada más acerca
de este tour, sin
excluir más acera
del evento mismo
de la NPLC. Estoy
tan agradecida de
que Dan Moser
me haya dirigido
hacia NPLC y ya
espero ser parte
de esto durante
muchos años más.
Ya he hablado mucho acerca de este tema. Estoy emocionada por seguir educándome donde y cuando encuentre una
oportunidad y trabajar muy furo para mejorar la comunicación de SCBA con sus socios. Tenemos la esperanza de que
nuestra nueva integrante del personal, Jessica Biel, será de
gran ayuda con eso.
Jessica Biel joins the SCBA team!
The SCBA team is excited to welcome a new
part-time member to our office. Ms. Jessica Biel
is a recent graduate from one of our local colleges with a degree in Spanish Interpreting and
Translation. She has a background in the cattle
industry and is excited about the SCBA and
the Senepol breed. We are lucky to have found
someone with such a high level of energy, professionalism and passion. I hope you all enjoy
working with her as much as I do.
Let’s allow her to introduce herself:
Greetings to all!
I am excited to be a part of this group. Never
would I have thought that I would be working
with a group of cattle breeders! And using my
Spanish to communicate with about cattle in other parts of the world!
I reside here downtown Wilmington, North Carolina. In addition to working with your organization, I manage a commercial refrigeration company specializing in large market refrigeration. I
spend my free time reading on the beach (after
the tourists leave!), traveling, and working in the
back yard.
I have studied Spanish for the last 3 years in our
local college here. I am eager to use and grow
the Spanish speaking and writing skills that I
have learned. The cattle breeding industry is a
whole new field of vernacular for me in English…
and now to learn it in Spanish!
Thank you, and I look forward to getting to know
you all.
Jessica Biel
Jessica Biel se une a nuestro equipo.
El equipo de SCBA está entusiasmado tener una
persona nueva en la oficina. Sra. Jessica Biel se
ha graduado de un colegio aquí en Wilmington
con un diploma en Interpretación y Translación
de Español. Ella tiene experiencia en nuestra in-
dustria y está entusiasmada de SCBA y la raza de
Senepol. Tenemos suerte de haber encontrado
una persona con energía, profesionalismo y pasión. Espero que disfruten de trabajar con ella
tanto como yo.
Aquí es ella….
Me llamo Jessica Biel. Estoy emocionada porque
estoy un parte de este grupo, SCBA. Criadores
de ganado…hablando en español…nunca hubiera
pensado.
Hace tres años que estudio español aquí en Wilmington, Carolina del Norte pero cada día estoy
aprendiendo más. Aprender un idioma nuevo ha
sido un reto. Poquito a poquito.
Me encanta el mundo latino…la comida, las playas, la gente. Cuando fui a Ecuador la primera vez
me dije “tienes que aprender español”. He viajado
a Guatemala, Ecuador y Perú. ¡Y con una invitación les visitaré también!
Estoy aquí para ayudarles. Si necesitan apoya o
ayuda, por favor me manden un email. ([email protected]
senepolcattle.com)
Jessica Biel
19
SPEAKERS, GUESTS AND TOUR:
The SCBA is very fortunate this year to welcome Dr. Ky Pohler from The University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture to our 39th Annual Convention. Dr. Pohler is currently an Assistant Professor of Beef Reproductive Physiology at UT-IOA and earned is Ph.D and M.S. of
Animal Science at the University of Missouri and his B.S. in Animal Science at Texas A&M
University. We are looking forward to his presentation on embryo mortality June 2, 2016.
The SCBA planned the convention this year in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA near the Louisiana State University so the our members and guests would get the opportunity to tour the new
facilities of our good friends at Continental Genetics. James and
Hilde Chenevert have been involved with the SCBA for a number
of years. They have worked with and continue to work with SCBA
members and are active with Senepol genetics worldwide. We
are excited to have the opportunity to meet with them, tour their
facilty and learn about new opportunities within the Senepol world.
This year the SCBA is sponsoring international travelers to visit Dr. Ky Pohler with Smokey
some of our SCBA member farms and attend the convention. We
welcome from the Senepol Cattle Breeder’s Society of South Africa: Wilhelm Oosthuysen and Danie Nieuwoudt. From Guatemala we have SCBA member Julio Lainfiesta
(Finca Maria Olga) with Jaime Recinos and from Brazil SCBA members Kadu and Carlos Battistella from Senepol 77K. Along with Dr. Ky Pohler and Mark Sanders they will be touring several SCBA member farms and seeing a good sampling of
the Senepol breed in the USA. We welcome the opportunity to learn from the feedback from their travels and will be sharing the experience in the next Senepol World.
The SCBA would like to express its utmost gratitude for the time and energy of Dr.
Pohler, Continental Genetics and SCBA Vice President Mr. Mark Sanders for pulling this all together for us.
Este año La SCBA está afortunada que Dr. Ky Pohler de la Instituta de Agricultura de la Universidad de Tennessee (UT-IOA) está asistiendo nuestra convención. En este momento Dr. Pohler es un Asistente Profesor de la reproductora
fisiología de res at UT-IOA y obtuvo su doctorado (Ph.D) y maestría (M.S.) en
la ciencia animal de la Universidad de Missouri y su licenciatura en la ciencia animal de la Universidad de Texas A & M.
Estamos entusiasmados de su presentación de “la mortalidad embrionaria” en 2 junio.
La SCBA planificó la convención este año en Baton Rouge, LA, EEUU cerca Louisiana State University por lo tanto los
miembros y invitados podía tener la oportunidad de visitar las facilidades nuevas de nuestros amigos Continental Genetics.
James and Hilde Chenevert han estado involucrados con la SCBA para muchos años. Han trabajado con los miembros de
la SCBA y están activos con las genéticas de Senepol mundial. Estamos emocionados tener la oportunidad a reunirse con
ellos, visitar la facilidad y aprender de las oportunidades nuevas en el mundo de Senepol.
LA SCBA quisiera expresar gratitud por el tiempo y la energía de Dr. Pohler, Continental Genetics y el vicepresidente de
SCBA, Mark Sanders, por su tiempo organizado esta convención.
Este año la SCBA está patrocinando a los viajeros internacionales a
visitar algunos ranchos de los miembros de SCBA y asistir la convención. Damos la bienvenida de la Asociación de Criadores de Ganado
Senepol de Sudáfrica: Wilhelm Oothuysen y Danie Nieuwoudt. Tenemos el miembro Julio Lainfiesta de Guatemala (Finca Maria Olga)
con Jamie Recinos y de Brasil los miembros Kadu y Caolis Battistella
de Senepol 77K. Junto con Dr. Ky Pohler y Mark Sanders estarán visitando varios ranchos de los miembros de SCBA y viendo una muestra de la raza de Senepol en los EEUU. Damos la bienvenida a la
oportunidad de aprender de sus viajes y estaremos compartiendo esta
experiencia en el próximo
Senepol World.
20
XX New Approaches in the Production and Reproduction of Cattle
Using Pregnancy Associated Glycoproteins (PAGs) to understand and enhance
fertility in cattle
Pohler, K.G., Reese, S.R. and Araujo, G.F.
Department of Animal Science, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN
Corresponding Author: [email protected]
Key Points:
· Pregnancy diagnosis from a blood sample enables the detection of nonpregnant cows earlier
than rectal palpation after insemination or embryo transfer
· Pregnancy diagnosis using PAGs is an efficient method that is based on detecting the
presence of a pregnancy-specific protein
·
PAG testing is commercially available in both blood and milk
· PAG testing may also provide a useful tool for detection of pregnancies that have a high
probability of undergoing late embryonic mortality
Introduction:
Reproductive failure is one of the most substantial barriers to profitability in beef herds.
Management issues, cow infertility, bull infertility, heat stress and embryonic mortality are all
contributing factors to reproductive inefficiency. The brazilian beef herd has over 70 million
cows and embryonic mortality represents a lost of almost 4 billion reais/years(1). Brazil has been
at the forefront of reproductive technology adoption, including fixed time artificial insemination
(FTAI), estrus synchronization (ES), in vitro embryo production (IVP), pregnancy testing and
chemical based pregnancy testing (PAGs), in order to increase genetic progress of the national
beef herd. Brazilian semen sales of beef sires increased from 3.3 million units in 1993 to 11.9
million units in 2011(2). Between 11-12% of the total beef herd is being inseminated through AI
which equates to 5.5 million cows, this is the largest proportion in the world(3). Although these
technologies have numerous benefits, producers must dedicate time and labor resources to
successfully implement them. Traditional estrus detection protocols require monitoring twice
Article page 1
21
XX New Approaches in the Production and Reproduction of Cattle
daily for extended periods of time and excludes animals that do not show estrus from
insemination. Fixed time artificial insemination and ES protocols designed to be used in timed
synchronization have been used with similar results to that of estrus detection AI with less input.
Subsequently, the adoption of FTAI protocols has increased among producers. The question is:
“How can we as producers further increase pregnancy rates to a single insemination or increase
reproductive efficiency?” The answer to that question is not so easily resolved and it has
prompted further investigations of how to increase dominant follicle maturity, increase oocyte
competence, improve the uterine environment and promote placental health, to name a few. Our
group has chosen to explore the use of PAGs (chemical based pregnancy testing) to increase
reproductive efficiency in cattle.
Maternal circulating of PAGs as tools for reproductive management in cattle
PAGs and pregnancy establishment:
Members of the modern PAG family are detectable in the maternal circulation by multiple
tests (e.g. RIA and ELISA) starting soon after the time of binucleate cell formation (day 19-20 of
gestation)(6) until a few weeks after parturition (Figure 1).(7,8) Circulating concentrations of
bovine PAGs can be influenced by a number of factors including breed, weight, parity status of
the dam, fetal sex, fetal number, and fetal birth weight, along with pregnancy stage and
status.(9,10) However, the role that PAGs play during gestation remains undefined.
To date there have been no clear functions related to modern PAGs; however, PAGs have
been shown to inhibit different immune cells, in vitro, and may camouflage fetal/placental
antigens from the immune system.(23)A majority of the work on PAGs has focused on the
development of a reliable tool for diagnosing pregnancy in multiple ruminant species including
cattle, sheep, goats, buffalo, bison, moose, and elk.(11) PAGs are unique compared to other
Article page 2
22
XX New Approaches in the Production and Reproduction of Cattle
biochemical methods of pregnancy detection in cattle because these proteins are pregnancy
specific. PAG1 (also known as pregnancy specific protein B; PSPB) has been the primary PAG
of most interest in relation to early pregnancy diagnosis because of the ability to detect PAG1 in
the maternal circulation throughout gestation.(7,12) However, Greenet et al.,
(13)
highlighted two
disadvantages in using PAG1 for pregnancy detection: 1) pregnancy diagnoses in the first month
of pregnancy could be compromised due to the low and variable circulating concentrations of
PAG1, and 2) the long half-life of these proteins (~8 days) in the maternal circulation after
partition or fetal loss. Due to these concerns, there has been interest in detecting other PAGs for
pregnancy detection. Green et al., (8) reported the establishment of an ELISA based test for early
pregnancy PAGs with a relatively short half-life (4.3 days). It has also been shown that PAG
concentrations first significantly increase in circulating around day 24 of gestation followed by a
transient rise out to partition in cattle
(8, 14)
which is similar to that of other small ruminants. In
the preceding study, PAGs were detected in all cattle by d 28 of gestation, PAG concentrations
peaked around the time of parturition. After parturition PAGs were undetectable by eight weeks
postpartum in 38 of the 40 cows, thus concluding that choosing different PAGs helps overcome
the persistence of PAG immunoreactivity far into the postpartum period. In similar studies, after
induced embryonic mortality, the half- life of circulating concentrations of PAGs was
determined to be 35.8 ±21.9 h.(14) These differences in PAGs half-live are presumably a result of
distinct forms of the PAG family present earlier in gestation compared to term or a result of
different clearance mechanisms between early and late pregnancy.
There are currently three commercial PAG testing platforms available for use, 1)
BioPRYN (BioTracking, LLC, Moscow, ID), 2) DG29 (Conception Animal Reproduction
Technologies, Beaumount, QC), and IDEXX Bovine Pregnancy Test (IDEXX Laboratories, Inc.
Article page 3
23
XX New Approaches in the Production and Reproduction of Cattle
Westbrook, ME). Current PAG assays have been documented to accurately diagnose pregnancy
in cattle with an average accuracy ranging from 93 to 96% in both blood and milk. (8, 14-20)
PAGs as a predictor of late embryonic mortality and as a biochemical marker for placental
function:
In cattle, the incidence of late embryonic/early fetal loss around the time of embryo
uterine attachment is approximately 4 to 10%.(17, 23-27) Late embryonic mortality may have a
more significant economic impact due to the delay in conception date resulting in more variation
in calf birth dates and weights within a single calving season.
The mechanisms associated with reproductive loss around the time of placentation are
unknown, but may be associated with inadequate placental development or function. Along with
the ability to use PAG assays as tools for pregnancy-detection, PAGs may also serve as a marker
for monitoring embryonic/fetal viability along with placental function. For example, beef cows
that successfully carried a pregnancy past day 72 of gestation had higher circulating
concentrations of PAGs on day 28 compared to cows that exhibited late embryonic/fetal
mortality between day 28 to 72 (using a sandwich ELISA).(17, 26) In the preceding studies, all
cows had an embryo with a heartbeat on day 28 of gestation; however, cows that experienced
late embryonic/fetal mortality after day 28 and before day 72 had decreased circulating
concentrations of PAGs on day 28. Similar data have been reported in dairy cows(23, 25, 28) and
sheep(27) in which circulating concentrations of PAGs were higher or lower in animals that
maintained or lost a pregnancy, respectively. However, Ricci et al., (17) reported that PAGs were
not predictive of late embryonic mortality in dairy cattle. The preceding discrepancy in the
efficacy of utilizing circulating concentration of PAGs on day 28 to 30 to predict late embryonic
mortality in cattle may be explained by the specific PAG assay that was employed. There seems
to be no correlation between embryonic size (crown rump length), embryonic width or
Article page 4
24
XX New Approaches in the Production and Reproduction of Cattle
embryonic volume at day 35 or 56 of gestation in beef cattle suggesting that these lower
concentrations of PAGs in the maternal circulation are not purely reflective of a smaller embryo.
A recent study demonstrated that bPAGs were 96% accurate in diagnosing pregnancy in Bos
indicus cows. As with previous studies using the sandwich ELISA in Bos taurus cows, this assay
could accurately predict late embryo mortality based on decreased bPAG concentration at day 28
of gestation (Figure 2 and 3). However bPAG concentration cannot account for pregnancy loss
that occurs after day 45 due to ovarian failure or other physiological condition (29).
Concentrations of bPAG early in gestation are higher in Bos indicus cows that Bos taurus cows
at similar stages although the mechanism is unknown (Figure 4)(29, 30). PAG concentration of Bos
indicus cows that maintained pregnancy were 8 to 10 ng/mL higher than Bos taurus cows that
maintained pregnancy however in both subspecies cows that suffered embryonic mortality had
comparable levels of serum PAGs. Heifers also have higher PAG concentration than multiparous
cows that is independent of body weight and blood volume(29).
Pohler et al(29) also examined the effect of estrus heat strength on bPAG concentration.
Heat strength was measured with the application of an Estrotect patch where increased mounting
by other animals would change the color of the patch. Animals that had been mounted multiple
times would be given higher patch scores than animals that had not been mounted. Cows that
exhibited stronger estrus also had higher bPAG concentrations. Those with a patch score of 3 or
4 had a statistically higher concentration than patch scores of 1 and 2, which correlated with
higher pregnancy rates in the cows with increased bPAG expression (Figure 5).
Influence of sire fertility on PAGs maternal circulation
Pregnancy status and stage, breed, parity of dam, fetal sex and number, fetal birth weight,
placental weight, sire, and many more have been shown to be associated to some degree with
Article page 5
25
XX New Approaches in the Production and Reproduction of Cattle
bPAG concentrations(9,10,14). Limited data have been reported on sire effects on bPAG
concentrations early in gestation; however, based on the large influence that the sire plays in
placental development we were interested in examining this relationship. Overall, from our
previous studies, we saw no relationship between circulating concentrations of bPAGs and sire
fertility, but there was a large amount of variation across sires and bPAG production (Figure
6)(29). In addition, of eight sires tested three accounted for 70% of the late embryonic mortality
reported in the subset of cows. Surprisingly, after removing from the analysis all the cows that
underwent late embryonic mortality after day 28, those three sires exhibited significantly
decreased circulating concentrations of bPAG compared to the other five sires in the study
(Figure 7). Taken together these data suggest that the sire does influence BNC products, such as
bPAGs. Indeed, circulating amounts of bPAG may serve as a novel tool for identifying low
fertility sires.
Summary
Overall, using a biochemical marker such as PAG in ruminant ungulates may provide a powerful
technique for a producer for identifying pregnant animals along with selecting cows that are most
likely to experience embryonic/fetal loss thus increasing reproductive efficiency. As we saw that
multiple factors such as parity status and sire were shown to affect circulating concentrations of
bPAG at day 28 the circulating amounts of bPAG may serve as a novel tool for identifying low
fertility sires. Our current working hypothesis is that PAGs released into the maternal circulation
provide a useful tool for not only identifying pregnancy status, but also viablility of the
developing placenta and embryo/fetus (Figure 8).
Article page 6
26
XX New Approaches in the Production and Reproduction of Cattle
A
B
Figure 1. Circulating concentrations of PAGs during gestation in pregnant beef cows. Panel A
represents the first 60 days of gestation and Panel B the entire 9 months of gestation.
Interestingly, the drop in circulating PAG on about day 38 to 40 is repeatable in any breed or
type of cattle.
Article page 7
27
XX New Approaches in the Production and Reproduction of Cattle
Figure 2. Serum concentrations of bPAGs (mean±SEM) in postpartum Nelore beef cows which
received TAI on day 0 and had a viable embryo on day 28 of gestation (n=803) and either
maintained (embryonic survival; n=714) or experienced embryonic mortality (n=89) by day 100.
Nelore cows that experienced late embryonic mortality by day 100 of gestation had decreased
(P<0.05) circulating concentrations of bPAGs on day 28 compared to cows that maintained an
embryo until day 100.
Article page 8
28
XX New Approaches in the Production and Reproduction of Cattle
Figure 3. Probability of pregnancy maintenance following TAI between day 28 to 100 of
gestation based on day 28 serum concentrations of bPAGs (n=803). Increased serum
concentrations of bPAGs on day 28 significantly increased (P<0.05) the probability of pregnancy
maintenance until day 100 of gestation in Nelore beef cows following TAI.
Figure 4. Serum concentrations of PAGs in samples collected on day 28 of gestation from
pregnant Bos taurus cows and Bos indicus cows with a viable embryo based on fetal heartbeat.
Cows were then divided into whether they maintained pregnancy until day 72 (Bos taurus) or
day 100 (Bos indicus) of gestation (Embryonic survival) or embryonic mortality (between day
29-72 or 100). Beef cows that experienced late embryonic mortality had decreased (P<0.05)
circulating concentrations of bPAGs on day 28 compared to cows that maintained an embryo.
Modified from Pohler, 2015 & Pohler.(11)
Article page 9
29
XX New Approaches in the Production and Reproduction of Cattle
Figure 5. Serum concentrations of pregnancy associated glycoproteins of cows that exhibited
different estrus intensities. Cows that exhibited stronger estrus by means of Estrotect heat dectors
patch score had higher bPAG concentration on day 28.
Figure 6: Serum concentrations of bPAGs on day 28 of gestation from cows with pregnancies
sired by sires 1 to 8. Although there was variation in pregnancy rate to TAI among sires (44 to
64%), there was no linear relationship between pregnancy rate by sire and circulating
concentrations of bPAGs. However, there were significant differences in circulating
concentrations of bPAGs among sires.
Article page 10
30
XX New Approaches in the Production and Reproduction of Cattle
Figure 7. Serum concentrations of bPAGs on day 28 of gestation between sires that resulted in
high embryonic loss and sires that resulted in low embryonic loss. After removing all cows that
lost a pregnancy after day 28 form the data set, the sires with the highest incidence of late
embryonic mortality also were the sires with pregnancies that produced significantly (P < 0.05)
lower maternal circulating concentrations of bPAGs on day 28 of gestation compared to the
remaining sires that had pregnancies having low embryonic mortality.
Figure 8: The figure shows production of pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs) and
placental lactogen (PL) by binucleated trophoblast cells (BNC) within a placentome of the
ruminant placenta. BNCs fuse with the uterine epithelial cells to form trinucleated cells, and
PAGs and PL subsequently enter the maternal circulation. The working hypothesis is that
placental products can be used to monitor conceptus presence and well being. Figure modified
from Pohler et al., 2015.
Article page 11
31
XX New Approaches in the Production and Reproduction of Cattle
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29. Pohler KG, Peres RFG, Green JA, et al. Use of bovine pregnancy associated glycoproteins
XX New
Approaches
Production
and
Reproduction
Cattle
(bPAGs)
to diagnose
pregnancyin
andthe
predict
late embryonic
mortality
in postpartumof
Nelore
beef
cows. Theriogenology. 2015. Submitted
30. Mercadante PM, Waters KM, Mercadante VR, Lamb GC, Elzo MA, Johnson SE, et al.
Subspecies differences in early fetal development and plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein
Article page 13
concentrations in cattle. J Anim Sci. 2013;91:3693-701.
33
Alpha Genetics
CP Shoshone 854U
REG# 1286125
EPDs
Birth
Weight
Weaning
Weight
Maternal
Milk
Maternal
M&G
Yearling
Weight
EPD
2.7
8
2
6
15
ACC
0.62
0.53
0.21
0.26
Progeny of CP Shoshone
CP 231Y
CP 239Y
Parker’s Senepol
Carl & Sharon Parker
305 Co. Rd. 591, Rogersville, AL 35652
Home: 256-247-0521
Fax: 256-247-0968
Email: [email protected]
CP 225Y
CP 222Y
King Farms
Earl & Ruby King
P.O. Box 1391 Jackson, AL 36545
Home: 251-246-4869
Fax: 251-246-3357
SEMEN, EMBRYOS & LIVE CATTLE AVAILABLE
Visitors Welcome
®ak bani �{ZniJ?ols
Line Breed
increased accura<1y/prepotency
OLR25M
Registration tt 1112204
EPD BW 3.2 (.67), WW 15 (.54),
MILK 16 (.41), YW 18.0 (.44)
OLR 15R-(
Registration #1116092
OLR25M
QLR 911}
EPD BW 4.4 (.58), WW 21 (.45),
MILK 11 (.20), YW 30 (.31)
OLR 17X
Registration tt 1292163
EPD BW 2.1 (.41), WW 14 (.28),
MILK 15 (.13), YW 14 (.18)
OLR 27X
Registration tt 1292173
EPD BW 6.0 (.34), WW 29 (.26),
MILK 8.0 (.13), YW 44 (.19)
This bull has one of the
highest tenderness in Senepol breed
26 calves this year • Avg. birthweight -79#
WE HAVE SEMEN ON:
5562 (CN), Black Witch, 6000K, 25M, 33P, 15R, 27X, 21P and The Talisman
Oak bani �inipols
John DeGroote
Farm
Office
Box 639, Hurley, MS 39555
4211 Hospital Rd., Suite 208, Pascagoula, MS 39581
(228) 588-2826
(228) 762-5986• Fax (228) 769-7698
[email protected]

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