PrésentationParma2009_ppt [modalità compatibilità]

Comentarios

Transcripción

PrésentationParma2009_ppt [modalità compatibilità]
29esima Giornata mondiale
dell'alimentazione
Ogni 16 ottobre l'Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite
per l'alimentazione e l'agricoltura celebra la
Giornata mondiale dell'alimentazione per
commemorare l'anniversario della sua fondazione,
avvenuta il 16 ottobre 1945.
Gli obiettivi della GMA sono i seguenti:
• sensibilizzare l'opinione pubblica sul problema della fame nel mondo;
• stimolare gli sforzi nazionali, bilaterali, multilaterali e non governativi;
• promuovere il trasferimento di conoscenze tecniche al Terzo Mondo;
• rafforzare la solidarietà internazionale e nazionale nella lotta contro la
fame, la malnutrizione e la povertà;
• incoraggiare la partecipazione delle popolazioni rurali, in particolare le
donne e le categorie meno favorite, ai processi decisionali ed alle
attività che influenzano le loro condizioni di vita;
• incoraggiare la cooperazione economica e tecnica tra i paesi in via di
sviluppo.
Crisi alimentare e crisi
finanziaria
2009:
105 milioni di persone in più che
soffrono la fame
= 1 miliardo 20 milioni di persone
malnutrite al mondo
= un sesto dell'intera popolazione
mondiale soffre la fame.
La crisi finanziara aggrava la situazione: rallentamento degli investimenti
esteri, calo delle esportazioni, disoccupazione, riduzione del sostegno
dei paesi ricchi
Investire in agricoltura
Oltre a proteggere i più vulnerabili in tempi di crisi, é
importante aiutare lo sviluppo a lungo termine
30 miliardi di USD di
investimenti l’anno
per i paesi in via di
sviluppo ritorno
economico annuo di 120
miliardi di USD
365 miliardi di USD per
sostenere l’agricoltura nei
paesi ricchi (2007)
1.340 miliardi di USD ogni
anno per gli armamenti
Trilioni di dolari per rivitalizzare
il settore finanziario
Sicurezza alimentare:perchè
promuovere i prodotti di
origine
Florence Tartanac
Agro-industry officer
FAO, Rome
Food security
“Food security exists when all people at all times have physical and
economic access to safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and
food preferences for an active and healthy life”.
(FAO, The state of food insecurity in the world, 2002)
Importance of local production, food quality,
rural income for small and poor farmers,
preservation of environment
What is quality linked to geographical
origin?
• Food products could be differentiated by
specific characteristics, qualities or
reputations resulting essentially from their
geographical origin.
• This differentiation can be attributed to:
– the unique local feature of the product,
– its history or its distinctive character linked to
natural or human factors such as soil, climate,
local know-how and traditions (all covered by
the term "terroir").
Why promote origin products?
•
Respond to consumers demands with more guaranties about origin
and production process
•
Promote diversification and competitiveness
•
Fair competition on the global market
•
Maintain added value in the rural areas of the origin zones
•
Prevent delocalization of production
•
Positive effects on tourism
•
Preserve biodiversity, local knowledge, natural resources
8
Benefits of origin products in the EU
• Diversity and innovation
– Diversity of products, improved access to markets
• Rural population
– Positive impact on economic activities,
employment, profitability and processing
– Increase profitability of production in marginalized
areas
• Environment
– Increase biodiversity and sustainable agriculture
9
Source: EU funded study by London Economics School, 2009
Benefits of origin products in the EU
• Observations
– Distribution of added value depends on
collective actions
– Farm peculiarity determine farmers incomes
– More studies are needed for broader results
– It is not the same for all GI!
10
Source: EU funded study by London Economics School, 2009
Economic impact
• Added Value (EU)
– Trend in the EU → production for
high value markets
– GI for food in the EU → 15 000
millions €/year retail (estimation)
– Premium price (i.e. French wine
with GI, 230 %)
– Price for exported cheese: 7,5
versus 4,7 €/kg with/without GI
• Trade in the EU
– 25 – 30 % with GI
– 80 % of total exported wine are
GI
– Almost all exported spirits are GI
Source : Case study: « Baena » PDO extra virgin olive oil
11
Environmental impact
• Positive effects of GI
– Lower intensive production
– Utilization of fertilizers and
herbicides in zones with GI
increased 2,5 less (1990-2000)
– Six times more botanical species
in zones with GI versus artificial
pastures
– Traditional production systems
have lower environmental impact
– Conservation of large open
spaces and landscapes
12
Source: Peutz I, EU Commission, 2009
Social and cultural impact
Conservation
of ancestral
production
techniques
and traditional
tools and
materials
Example: social and environmental impact
Comparison between Frisia and Parmigiano Reggiano cheese
1 570 millions kg of milk
“Whosale” Model
Frisia (Holland)
Number of farms
Annual working Unit/farm
Total AWU
“Quality” Model
Parmigiano Reggiano (Italy)
5,000
<<
1,7
<<
8,500
<<
8,400
2,5
21,000
same
Income/AWU
Losses de nitrogen/kg ha-1
309
>>
239
14
Source: Douwe van der ploed, OECD, 2002
Insuring success for GI
• Strong farmers’ organizations:
– Represent all involved stake-holders
– Count with a strong support in the GI region
– Well organized supply chain
– Good marketing and supply strategy
• Main risks:
– Loss of interest from farmers
– Pressure from retailers
– Competition of trade marks
15
GI Protection in the world
Islandia Noruega
CH
CH
Canadá
Ucrania
Azerbaiyán
Armenia
Balcanes OcMoldova
.
EE.UU
EUROMED
México
ACP/AAE
CA
Georgia
Corea
China
CCG
India
ASEAN
CAN
Mercosur
Australia
Done
Chile
ZA
On going
Future
16
FAO project on specific quality
Main objective: to assist Member Countries and stakeholders in
developing specific quality schemes adapted to their economic, social and
cultural situation, contributing to rural development with a focus on
quality linked to geographical origin and traditions.
Means:
• Collect information on member countries and
stakeholders experiences:
– Regional seminars: Latin America, Asia,
Southeastern Europe, the Mediterranean
– Case studies
• Develop supportive tools, raise awareness
and inform stakeholders
• Technical cooperation projects: Morocco,
Tunisia, Latin America, Mali, Ukraine, Croatia,
etc.
Case studies
Non-processed fruits or vegetables :
Pica lemon (Chile, Atacama desert), Tetovo bean (Macedonia) Cuzco giant
white maize (Perú); Sea Buckthorn Fruit (Mongolia)*;
Vegetable products with some processing :
Arriba cocoa (Ecuador), Chuao cocoa (Venezuela) Columbian coffee,
Taliouine saffron (Morocco); Darjeeling Tea India)*; Kampong Speu Palm
Sugar (Cambodia)*; Bali Kintamani Coffee (Indonesia)*
Processed animal products :
Cotija cheese (Mexico), Turrialba cheese (Costa Rica), Livno cheese (Bosnia
Herzegovnia) Uzice ham (Serbia) Jinhua ham (China)*
Case studies on line: www.foodquality-origin.org/eng/resource
*Forthcoming
Impactos económicos resaltantes
Cacao de
Chuao
La empresa campesina ha establecido un contrato de exclusividad con la
empresa italiana (Firenze) Amedei (2003-2008), que incluye un “plus” frente
al precio internacional, incrementos progresivos, prima de 6% para fondo
social y asistencia técnica, que complementada con la del INIA ha
permitido recuperar producciones y calidades
Café de
Colombia
Ventas de cafés especiales han tenido un crecimiento de 60% en 4 años, lo
que equivale ingreso adicional de US$ 66 millones.
Crecimiento del turismo interno; desarrollo de agroturismo.
Maíz del
Cusco
Desarrollo de nuevos productos por parte de la industria de snacks, con
gran crecimiento en la demanda que todavía no se refleja en mayores
precios del producto
Limón de
Pica
Experiencia de venta directa a Santiago (hoteles, restaurantes), creación
del centro de acopio,
Queso
Turrialba
Promoción del turismo asociada a la producción y a la reputación del queso.
Feria del Queso. Ruta del Queso
Queso
Cotija
Aumento precio 50%, mercado nostálgico, Feria del queso, venta directa
Finca cafetera
Café cereza
Cooperativa de cafeteros
(Punto de compra)
Pesado del caf é
Registro
Café Pergamino
Transporte del caf é
Logo de Caf é de Colombia
Fuente: Federaci ón Nacional de Cafeteros
Café almendra
Laboratorio de control de
calidad
Secado
Selección manual
Selección por tama ño
Trillado
Almacenamiento
Impactos ambientales resaltantes
Cacao de
Chuao
Recuperación de plantaciones
Chivito
de
Neuquén
La DO promueve la conservación de recursos genéticos locales y
de los pastizales
Maíz del
Cusco
Limón de
Pica
Aumento de la conciencia sobre el impacto negativo en el suelo y
el riesgo en la sostenibilidad del cultivo por la falta de
aplicación de BPA
Prácticas amigables con el medioambiente en una zona desértica
Impactos sociales resaltantes
Cacao de
Chuao
Aumento autoestima por valorización de tradición y cultura
Café de
Colombia
Aumento autoestima por valorización del territorio y la cultura
cafetera
Generación de empleo por agroturismo
Maíz del
Cusco
Aumento autoestima por valorización de practicas ancestrales
Mayor conciencia del valor del producto
Queso
Cotija
Aumento de autoestima por reconocimiento. Premio feria en
Italia
Mayor conciencia del valor del producto
Chivito
de
Neuquén
Aumento de autoestima del criador por la participación en un
producto de calidad reconocida
Acciones colectivas de promoción de la raza y DO
www. foodquality-origin.org
Grazie mille !
Florence Tartanac
Food and Agriculture Organisation of UN
Rural Infrastructure and Agro-industry Division (AGS)
[email protected]
Tel: +39 06 570 53709

Documentos relacionados