secretaría de educación jalisco

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secretaría de educación jalisco
Ingles IV
2007
Centro de Desarrollo
Educativo [CDE]
[Acuerdo No.
MSB120051404 de
Fecha 15 de Marzo
2005]
http://www.utea1.net
http://www.mxgo.net
[C.T. 14PBJ0076Z]
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SECRETARÍA DE EDUCACIÓN JALISCO
COORDINACIÓN DE EDUCACIÓN MEDIA SUPERIOR,
SUPERIOR Y TECNOLÓGICA
DIRECCIÓN GENERAL DE EDUCACIÓN MEDIA SUPERIOR
DIRECCIÓN DEL BACHILLERATO EN LA MODALIDAD INTENSIVA
SEMIESCOLARIZADA
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Guadalajara, Jalisco
Junio de 2008
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SECRETARÍA DE EDUCACIÓN JALISCO
-xXXxLengua Adicional al Español IV
DIRECTORIO
SECRETARIO DE EDUCACIÓN JALISCO
COORDINADOR DE EDUCACIÓN MEDIA SUPERIOR,
SUPERIOR Y TECNOLÓGICA
DIRECCIÓN GENERAL DE EDUCACIÓN MEDIA SUPERIOR
DIRECCIÓN DEL BACHILLERATO EN LA MODALIDAD
INTENSIVA SEMIESCOLARIZADA
XXX
PROYECTOS ACADÉMICOS DE LA DIRECCIÓN GENERAL
DE EDUCACIÓN MEDIA SUPERIOR
Academia:
Cárdenas Martín del Campo Ma. Guadalupe
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NOMBRE DE LA ASIGNATURA
Lengua Adicional al Español: Inglés IV
CICLO, ÁREA O MÓDULO
CLAVE DE LA ASIGNATURA
MÓDULO IV
LAEI4M07
OBJETIVO(S) GENERAL(ES) DE LA ASIGNATURA
Prácticar los conocimientos adquiridos en los tres cursos anteriores y aprender las
estructuras más complejas del idioma inglés, sirvan de instrumento en la
interpretación de textos, pasando de la lectura general a la específica o detallada.
Reconocer y usar el lenguaje escrito y los signos de puntuación en la redacción de
textos de uso práctico desde una nota o carta informal hasta la redacción de una
carta de negocios o un reporte o resumen de un texto.
TEMA UNO
Uso de los tres tiempos fundamentales en la redacción y la expresión oral y
consecuencias de un acto empleando para ello el conectivo if.
1.1 Contraste temporal: pasado, presente y futuro.
1.2 Oraciones subordinadas condicionales con if.
DESARROLLO
Present/ Future Real Conditional
We use real conditional to express:
Scientific facts. Imperatives, general truths, habits, recurring evens, situation in the
future.
A REAL CONDITIONAL sentence has two clauses: an if- clause and a result
clause. The if clause expresses a condition, and the result expresses the result.
(IF the conditional occurs).
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Formula:
IF- CLAUSE
If+ subject+ verb in base form+ complement
RESULT-CLAUSE
subject+verb present+compl
Subject+will+verb present+comp
Note: We can begin a real conditional sentence with the if clause or the result the if-clause or the resultclause. We use a comma between the two clauses when the if-clause comes first.
Examples:
If you go to Hawii, you travel by airplane.
If you heat,snow, it will melt.
Negative. The verbs can be negative in the if-clause or both clauses
Example:
If you don´t feel well, stay in bed.
If you go to Japan, don´t wear your nick tennis
Don´t go to Paris if you don´t like wine.
Question. The question is formed only in the result clause NOT in the if-clause
What happenes if you hot water?
If you hot water, what happenes?
PRESENT UNREAL CONDITIONAL
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In a present unreal conditional sentence, the if-clause presents the unreal
condition. The result clause presents the unreal or imagined result of that
condition.
FORMULA:
If-clause
If+ subject+verb in past+complement
Result-clause
subject+ modal +base verb +complement
would
could
might
We use present unreal conditional to express unreal or imagined situation in the
present.
Example:
If I were a runner, I would practices
If she were rich, she would be unhappy.
We could do it if we tried.
They might pass if they studied.
Note: would shows intention, could shows ability or possibility, might shows possibility
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We often use the sentence “If I were, I would…..” to give advice. In spoken English,
some people was instead of were in the if-clause
Example:
If I were, I would speak French to my teacher. (formal)
If I was you, I´d speak English to my friends
(informal)
Negative. The verbs can be negative in the if-clause, the result-clause or both
clauses.
Examples:
If I were in a mosque, I would l not wear shorts.
I would date him if he weren´t so boring
I wouldn´t have money if I didn´t have job.
Question. The question is formed only the result clause, not in the if-clause
If you won a millon dollars, would you give me some money?
If you were aloe on a desert island, could you survive?
What would you do if someone told you lie?
Work in class:
Write 10 sentence with use each ones. Listen the CD Answer the questions.
Homework:
Complete each of the following sentences with an If- clause:
1.
2.
3.
4.
______________________________, I can buy a house and car
______________________________, I go to the bed early.
______________________________, I should starting save money now.
_____________________________, go to the dentist.
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5. _____________________________, call your mother.
6. __________________________, go to the library.
7. __________________________, take the bath.
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2. TEMA DOS
El uso del gerundio (V-ing) en oraciones que expresan acuerdo o desacuerdo y
oraciones causales unidas con because.
2.1 Gerundios. A gerund is a form of verb that fuctions as a noun and ends
in ing. Certainverbs, like enjoy, mind, stop, consider,appreciate, and finish, can be
followed by gerunds but not infinitive (use because when you explain something)
Formula:
Subject+ modal verb+ verb base form+ ing+ because+ subject+ verb+ complement
Example:
He enjoys studying English, because I need for my university
You finished reading that book, because it was important for myself.
She has stopped trying to be first, because I wanted to win.
2.2 Respuestas cortas del tipo “yo también”, “yo tampoco”, etc. If two
sentences have different subjects but the same verb, you can shorten the second
sentence by using an auxilary verb (do, did, was, will, etc.) + too, so, either or
neither.
Formula:
Affirmative
Subject+ verb in infinitive+ base verb+ comp+another subject+ auxiliary+ too
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Too follows the auxiliary verb or be in the shorterned sentence.
Formula:
Subject+ verb in infinitive+ base verb+ comp+ So+ auxiliary+ another subject
Example:
Jonh likes to study French, So do I
Negative.
Either follows the auxiliary verb or be in the shortened sentence.
Formula:
Subject+ auxiliary +verb base form +compl +another subject +auxiliary+ either
Example:
You don´t like to study English, Mary doesn´t either.
The auxiliary verb or be follows neither in the shortened sentence.
Formula:
Subject+ auxiliary in negative+ infinitive+ compl+ neither+ auxiliary+ another subj
Example:
You don´t like to study Spanish, Neither does Joan
2.3 Oraciones subordinadas con because.
Work in class: Work with partener and invent story. Use all these formulas.
3. TEMA TRES.
La voz pasiva para señalar quién recibe la acción en los casos en que esto último
es más importante que señalar quién la ejecuta. The passive voice occurs in both
spoken and written english and it is used very frequently in technical writing. Most
verbs that take an object can be used in the passive voice. In sentences in the
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active voice, the primary focus is on subject (the agent or do er of action). To give
prijmary focus to the object of the sentence, the sentence can be changed to the
passive voices.
To form the passive voice, use be+ the past participle of he main verb.
3.1 Voz pasiva con by (pasado simple).
Formula:
Simple past:
Subject+ verb simple past+ compl subject+ aux+ verb in past+ by+ subject
Example:
The Dutch invited a simple telescope. A simple telescope was invented by the
Dutch.
3.2 Voz pasiva sin by (presente simple)
Simple present:
Formula:
Subject+ verb in base form+ compl. Subject+ auxiliary+ past participle+ by+ subjec
Example:
Dan reads the magnific book. The magnific book read Dan.
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Work in class:
Change the passive voice:
Mario pass his test
.
Maricela goes to the bookstore.
Gloria and Mike learn French.
Dany speaks very fast English.
__________________________________________________________________
Listen the cassett and answer the questions.
Homework:
Read the story and answer the questions
4. TEMA
CUATRO
Pasado continuo y presente perfecto continuo en conversaciones.
4.1 Pasado continuo en oposición a pasado simple.
Past Continuos:
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The past continuos tenses describe a past action which was going on when
another action took piace.
Formula:
Subject+ auxiliary+ verb base form+ ing+ compl
Example:
You were playing guitar.
4.2 Presente perfecto continuo.
Present perfect continuo:
Describes an action that began in the past and has continued up to the present in
many cases it can be used interchangeably with present perfect tense
Present perfect continuos tenses with have/has been and present participle of the
main verb.
Formula:
Subject+ auxiliary+ verb base form+ ing+ compl
Example:
You have been playing with your son
You have been working in the school.
Work in class:
Fill in the blank to complete each sentences. Use present perfect continuous
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1.- I am taking to my mom. I __________________ (talk) to her 3 hours.
2.- It`s rainning now. It ____________________(rain) since Friday.
3.- Dan and You are studying Spanish. We __________________ (study) Spanish
for one week.
4.- My parents___________________ (travel) around the world for two months.
5.- Dan is sick. He ____________________ (feel, not) very well lately.
5.TEMA
CINCO.
Practica oral y escrita. Let´s going to take Review. (Depends of the teacher).
5.1 Contrastes temporales: presente pasado y futuro.
Repaso general:
Present: tense can describe habits, routines, or events that happen regularly. It
can also express opinion or make general stamen of fact.
Formula:
Subject+verb simple form+ complement
I go to school every day.
I always study English.
She speaks with me.
Past: We use the simple past for events or action in the past. We add- ed to
regular verbs to form the simple past tense. See the appendix for a list of regular
verbs.
Formula:
Subject+ verb in simple past+ complement
Example:
I worked in factory yesterday
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She lost her notebook last week
Future : We use be going to when we want to ask about or discuss plans, and to
make predictions about the future.
Formula:
Subject+ auxiliary+ base verb+ complement
Example:
Juan is going to go vacation next year.
REPASO
Will: to ask or discuss general facts, predictions and promises about the future.
We use will when we are deciding to do something at the time of speaking. We can
also use will to ask or to offer something. We don´t use will when the plans were
made before this moment.
Formula:
Subject+ auxiliary+ verb in simple form+ complement.
Example:
I will learn Japanese
He´ll drive a new car
5.2 Oraciones subordinadas con if.
5.3 Gerundios empleados en respuestas cortas.
5.4 Oraciones subordinadas con because.
5.5 Voz pasiva
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5.6 Pasado simple y pasado continuo.
5.7 Presente perfecto continuo.
Work in class:
Invent the story and use all this in your story min 30 lines max 50 lines.
Homework:
Write a sentence with these.
6.TEMA SEIS.
Participios presentes y pasados como adjetivos.
6.1 Participios que funcionan como adjetivos.
Many adjetives are customarily followed by centrain preposition. The follow ing is
short list some common combination in English.
6.2 Oraciones relativas.
Formula:
Subject+ verb simple form+ adjetive+ prepotion + complement
Example:
She is not accostumed to getting up early.
She´s afraid of her teacher.
6.3 Vocabulario relacionado con el arte cinematográfico.
Work in class:
Investigate in your diccionary 20 news of relation of art cinema with group and
discussion for words.
Write 5 sentences using the formula.
Homework:
Investigate 6 more words of art cinema.
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7. TEMA SIETE.
Los modales auxiliares en oraciones que indican probabilidad o aproximación y
perífrasis verbales que señalan permiso, obligación o prohibición.
The modal auxilaries (can, could, should, may, might, must ought to, shall, etc).
form a special group because the don´t use normal verb tense endings. Instead,
they are used with verbs to create special meanings. Also, their meanings change
according to the context of the sentence.
The simple form of a main verb follows a modal auxiliary. Not appears after the
modal to form negative.
7.1 Modales: may, might, must, could.
Formula:
Subject+ modal verb+ verb in base form+ complement
Examples:
You can open the principal door
You must see the doctor
She may pay her bills
7.2 Adverbios: maybe, perhaps, probably. Express possibility. These adverbs
usually come at the beginning of the sentence. Perhaps is more formal than
maybe.
Formula:
Affirmative
Modal+ subject+ auxiliary (will)+ base verb+ complement
Example:
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Maybe I will study for exam
Perhaps I will finish my English course.
7.3 Permiso (can, to be allowed to); obligación (have to, have got to);
prohibición (can‟t, not to be allowed to).
Obligation: (Have /Has to, Should, Must, Have got to, ought to, etc) Sometimes to
express obligation and different levels
Formula:
Subject+ modal verb+ verb in base form+ complement
Example:
You have to work in your job.
You should go to the doctor
You must to be on time.
Negative:
Formula:
Subject+ modal+ not+ base verb+ complement
Example:
You have not to visit your girlfriend.
You should not play in the park
Question:
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Modal+ subject+ base verb+ complement
Example:
Should I study for university test?
Permission (can, could, might, may) This using sometimes for permission:
May: it´s more formal. People of different age groups people who perform services,
such as waiters or salespeople often use it.
Could: appears in formal or information requests for permission, but not normally in
answers.
Can and Might: are the least formals. It appears in questions and answers.
Formula:
Question:
Modal+ subject+ verb base form+ complement
Answer:
Yes/no+ , +subject+ modal verb+ (not if negative) .
Example:
May I go out with friends?
Yes, you may (might)
No, you may not
Can you help me please?
Yes, I can
No, I Can´t (can not)
Could you open the door please?
Yes, I can
No, I can´t (can not).
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Prohibition: We use when you can not do something and you like to do
something.
Formula:
Subject+ auxiliary+ not+ verb base form+ complement
Example:
You can not go to the parties this wekeen.
Work in class:
Listen to the conversation. Answer question.
Invent story with your groups, using these elements.
Homework:
Complete the sentences. Use the modals expression and the box below.
Eat meat
Drive too fast
be late for class
cheat on each other
Give too much homework
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
smoke
disobey
arrive late
ask people for money
A student ____________________________________________________
A vegetarian belives that you ____________________________________
A drive______________________________________________________
Some city councils belive tha panhandlers_________________________
When you go to the interview , you_____________________________
.A kind teacher______________________________________________
Children__________________________ their parents
A girlfriend and boyfriend ________________________________________
8. TEMA OCHO.
Oraciones subordinadas condicionales e irreales, tanto en tiempo presento como
en pasado.
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8.1 Oraciones condicionales que expresan situaciones irreales con if.
8.2 Modales auxiliares en pasado.
Work in class:
Invent the story using these.
Homework:
Write 2 sentences each ones.
9. TEMA NUEVE.
Esquemas de información indirecta a las estructuras orales y escritas que ya se
manejan en el idioma inglés.
9.1 Peticiones en información indirecta.
Direct information: quotation gives the words of speakers exactly as spoken.
Formula.
Subject+ said+ “+ subject+ verb in form+ ing +compl
Example:
Marisol said, “I am leaving tomorrow”.
Indirect information: quotation reports on someone´s words indirectly. The
pronouns used in an indirect quotation are different from those in a direct
quotation.
Formula:
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Subject+ told+ another subject + that+ subject+ verb in past+ compl
Example:
Barbara said Joan “ I have cold”=Direct
Barbara told Joan that she had a cold= Indirect
9.2 Respuestas en información indirecta.
Formula:
Subject+ told+ another subject + that+ subject+ verb in past+ compl
Example.
Yes, Barbara told Joan that she had a cold= Indirect
9.3 Vocabulario relativo a excusas, pretextos o explicaciones.
We use the Word SORRY. When you want to said excuse.
Formula:
Sorry+ subject+ verb in past+ complement
Wh+ auxiliary (did)+ subject+ verb in simple form+ complement
Because+ subject+ verb in past
Example:
Sorry, I forgot my homework.
Why did you forget your homework?
Because, my little sister broke my book.
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Excuse me can I enter the class. Because, I had an accident when I come to
school.
Work in class:
Listen the CD and answers questions.
Write a situation use these.
Homework:
Read and answer questions.
10. TEMA DIEZ.
Práctica oral y escrita. Let´s going to take Review. (Depends of the teacher).
10.1 Participios utilizados en función de adjetivos y oraciones relativas.
10.2 Modales auxiliares: may, might, must, could y adverbios de probabilidad:
maybe, perhaps, probably.
10.3 Perífrasis verbales que denotan permiso, obligación o prohibición.
10.4 Oraciones condicionales que expresan situaciones irreales con if.
10.5 Modales auxiliares en tiempo pasado.
10.6 Información indirecta.
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ANEXO
TEXTOS PARA EL MAESTRO
Work in class:
1.- Read the story
2.- Put the underline the tense we see.
3.- Invent the different final and write down.
MATH KNOWLEDGE
Two mathematicians were having dinner in a restaurant, arguing about the average
mathematical knowledge of the American public. One mathematician claimed that this
average was woefully inadequate; the other maintained that it was surprisingly high.
"I'll tell you what," said the cynic, "ask that waitress a simple math question. If she gets it
right, I'll pick up dinner. If not, you do." He then excused himself to visit the men's room,
and
the
other
called
the
waitress
over.
"When my friend comes back," he told her, "I'm going to ask you a question, and I want you
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to respond "one third x cubed". There's twenty bucks in it for you." She agreed.
The cynic returned from the bathroom and called the waitress over. "The food was
wonderful, thank you," the mathematician started. "Incidentally, do you know what the
integral
of
x
squared
is?"
The waitress looked pensive; almost pained. She looked around the room, at her feet,
made
gurgling
noises,
and
finally
said,
"Um,
one
third
x
cubed?"
So the cynic paid the check. The waitress wheeled around, walked a few paces away,
looked back at the two men, and muttered under her breath, "... plus a constant."
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Work in class:
1.- Read change the final
2.- If you don´t understand the words find in your diccionary
3.- Work with your pantener.
Story is talking about Mafalda:
A New Year with the
strength of Mafalda
Miguelito: Dear children, I wish we
have a peaceful year in
the world !!!
Mafalda:
Mmmm... no, that won't
work...
Felipe:
OK... let's try a year of
prosperity for everyone!!!
Mafalda:
Mmmm... that won't work
either...
Susanita: All right... how about: a
year full of love!!!!!!!!!!!
Mafalda:
No way... that won't
work...
Libertad: ??????, I know it... Let's
ask for a year of justice
and equity !!!
Mafalda:
Merde... sounds like that
won't work either...
Manolito: Here it comes, here's
mine... I say a year of
professional success and
reward for the efforts!!!
Mafalda:
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And when did you see
anyone get rewarded for
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their efforts???
Susanita: Aghhhhhhhhh..., Well... a
year when all your wishes
come true !!!
Mafalda:
But... few times do wishes
really come true...
Libertad: Stop !!! Just a better world
in which wonders come
true !!!
Mafalda:
You... not the slightest
intention to improve,
huh ???
Everyone: Too bad... So much for
New Year's toast...
Mafalda:
Mmmmmmmmmmm, I've
got it... Here it goes:
Traduccion for the teacher. Mafalda
Año Nuevo a fuerza de Mafaldas
Miguelito: Queridos niños, deseo que
tengamos un año de paz
en el mundo !!!
Mafalda:
Mmmm... eso no va a
andar...
Felipe:
Bue... pongamoslé un año
de prosperidad para todos
!!!
Mafalda:
Mmmm... eso tampoco va
a andar...
Susanita: Está bien... qué tal: un año
lleno de amor !!!!!!!!!!!!!
Mafalda:
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Ni locos... eso no va a
andar...
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Libertad: ??????, Ya sé... pidamos
un año de justicia y
equidad !!!
Mafalda:
Merde... parece que eso
tampoco va a andar...
Manolito: Acá va, esta es
mía... propongo un año de
éxitos profesionales y
recompensa por los
esfuerzos !!!
Mafalda:
Y cuándo viste que se
recompensara a alguien
por los esfuerzos ???
Susanita: Aghhhhhhhhh..., Bueno...
un año en el que se
cumplan todos sus deseos
!!!
Mafalda:
Pero.. a la gente se le
cumplen pocas veces los
deseos...
Libertad: Basta !!! poné un mundo
mejor en el que se cumplan
las utopías !!!
Mafalda:
Vos... ni la menor intención
de ser mejor, no ???
Todos:
Qué pálida... se pudrió el
brindis de fin de año...,
Mafalda:
Mmmmmmmmmmm, ya
sé... Acá está:
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Work in class:
1.- Find the worlds you didn´t undestand in your diccionary
2.- You have to translate the information and change the final
3.-Depends of the teacher.
Over the centuries
the people of London
have survived plague,
fire, war and disaster.
And, on a smaller scale, they have also lived through times when cruelty was an
everyday
fact
of
life.
In Southwark, one of the very oldest parts of London, an unusual museum reminds
Londoners of these much harder times. The LONDON DUNGEON has exhibits which look
at the way in which people were punished, tortured and executed as a matter of course
in the past. But, the most chilling exhibit of all relates to Jack the Ripper, the name given
to the man who committed some of the most dreadful murders London has ever known.
These took place between August 30th and November 9th in 1888. The murderer seemed
to appear out of the thick fogs which shrouded the city at this time and then disappear
without a trace.
JACK THE RIPPER
The first known victim of Jack the Ripper was Mary 'Polly' Nicholls. Police Constable John
Neil found her body in the streets in the early hours of the morning on Thursday 30th
August. He was shocked to find her throat cut and her body badly hacked by a knife. It
looked like the work of a surgeon gone mad. But Mary Nicholls was lucky compared to the
Ripper's other victims. The Ripper had cut their throats and opened their bodies to take
out many internal organs. The Ripper mutilated his last victim so badly it was almost
impossible to recognize her. London went mad with fear and loathing. To what purpose
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could the murderer possibly put the body parts he had taken from his victims?
THE SUSPECTS
The police came under enormous pressure to solve the crimes. But no-one was ever
brought to trial. Many people still speculate to this day about the Ripper's real identity.
Among the suspects are: George Chapman, a poisoner who was hanged in 1903; John
Pizer, a shoemaker; Aaron Kosminski, a madman who hated women; the Queen's doctor,
Sir William Gull; and, even, such members of the royal family as Prince Albert or the Duke
of Clarence. Whatever the truth about the identity of Jack the Ripper, staff at the London
Dungeon can tell you that his evil influence lives on to this day.
SEPTEMBER 30 AT THE DUNGEON
Every year on 30th September, the museum experiences major technical problems with
the installation dedicated to Jack the Ripper. The lighting goes out on the scenes of the
two women murdered on that day. The atmosphere crackles with a strange tension. At
other times employees have experienced bizarre happenings when alone. Candles
suddenly light in the darkness. Sound effects come on in the middle of the night. Shadowy
beings flit across the visual displays. Voices murmur from the Ripper exhibit. Whatever
the cause of these strange happenings, it is certainly true that Jack the Ripper has left a
mark on the minds of Londoners that no amount of time can remove.
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Work in class:
1.- Find the worlds didn´t you understand.
2.-Change the final
3.- (Depends of the teacher)Translate the information. You can practices the all tense we
saw.
The mysterious figure
of Peterhouse College
in Cambridge University.
The ghost of an 18th century suicide victim was stalking the corridors of
Peterhouse College in Cambridge University and perturbed professors wanted
to call in an exorcist. The college bursar and two butlers reported seeing the
mysterious
figure
in
an
oak-panelled
dining
room.
Founded in 1284, Peterhouse is Cambridge University's oldest college.
Historians in the town can tell you a great deal about the college's welldocumented history. They know every recorded fact, detail and date of the
college's buildings. They can list with pride the many famous academics and
alumni from Peterhouse who have made a mark on the world. But, today,
gossips in Cambridge have no interest in any of these glories of the college's
past. Talk now focuses only on the past lives of Peterhouse's servants and
staff. The sudden appearance of a ghost in a college dining room is to blame.
The ghost was first seen last year by two college butlers who were tidying
away after a formal dinner in the Combination Room. At exactly the same
moment, the two men became aware of a faint figure stepping out from the
wooden panelling of the walls. The ghost moved towards the room's famous
William Morris fireplace. And then it simply disappeared. Alarmed, both men
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looked at each other. They knew they had seen the exact same thing: an
unhappy
soul
from
Peterhouse's
past!
At first the college bursar, Andrew Murison, dismissed all the reports of a ghost.
But Murison changed his mind a few months later. He went into the Combination
Room a little before midnight to get some fruit left in a bowl on the table. The
room was as cold as a tomb, he remembers. But the central heating was on
full. Suddenly, all the heating pipes screeched eerily together. A dark figure
stirred at the back of the room. Not surprisingly, Murison says he raced out of
the
room
without
looking
back.
After this, Graham Ward, the dean of Peterhouse, called in a priest to ask how
the college could get rid of the ghost. Unfortunately for everyone, the religious
rites that deal with this sort of haunting are completely out of step with the
demands of a modern-day institution. To see a ghost off for good, everyone who
lives or works in a haunted building must gather together to take part in a
religious service with the priest. This is impossible to arrange in a college where
everyone's time is taken up with research, lectures, conferences, exams and
all the many tasks of running a complex seat of learning.
So the ghost at Peterhouse is likely to disturb the college for some time to
come. Many people in the college are keen to know the true identity of their
uninvited guest. Some people link the ghost to the great uncle of George
Washington, bursar of Peterhouse in 1695. But many others simply dismiss this
connection
as
far-fetched.
These people suggest the ghost might well be Francis Dawes, bursar of
Peterhouse until 1787. The unfortunate Dawes oversaw the election of a
master of the college who thereafter made his life as bursar sheer misery. In
complete despair, Dawes hanged himself from a bell rope. This unhappy
death may be cause enough for Dawes' spirit to walk again. But until more
evidence can be found, no-one can be really sure.
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Help, I need somebody, somebody se usa en frases afirmativas, significa
alguién
help, not just anybody, anybody se usa en frases negativas, significa
alguién
help, you know I need someone, help.
When I was younger, so much younger than today, younger = young + er,
significa más jovén
I never needed anybody's help in any way.
But now these days are gone, I'm not so self assured,
now I find I've changed my mind and opened up the doors. present perfect
simple, subject + have + participle
Help me if you can, I'm feeling down
and I do appreciate you being round.
Help me, get my feet back on the ground,
won't you please, please help me. es la abreviación de la forma negativa de
will= will + not
And now my life has changed in oh so many ways, so junto a many se usa
para dar idea de gran cantidad
my independence seems to vanish in the haze.
But every now and then I feel so insecure, esta frase significa de vez en
cuando
I know that I just need you like I've never done before. en esta frase like actúa
como adverbio= como
Help me if you can, I'm feeling down present continuos= subject + vb + ing
and I do appreciate you being round.
Help me, get my feet back on the ground,
won't you please, please help me.
When I was younger, so much younger than today,
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I never needed anybody's help in any way.
But now these days are gone, I'm not so self assured, significa lleno de
seguridad
now I find I've changed my mind and opened up the doors.
Help me if you can, I'm feeling down
and I do appreciate you being round.
Help me, get my feet back on the ground, get back significa retornar
won't you please, please help me, help me, help me, oh.
Copy and Traduce
Hey Jude, don't make it bad.
Take a sad song and make it better.
Remember to let her into your heart,
then you can start to make it better.
Hey Jude, don't be afraid.
You were made to go out and get her.
The minute you let her under your skin,
then you begin to make it better.
And anytime you feel the pain, hey Jude, refrain,
don't carry the world upon your shoulders.
For well you know that it's a fool who plays it cool
by making his world a little colder.
Hey Jude, don't let me down.
You have found her, now go and get her.
Remember to let her into your heart,
then you can start to make it better.
So let it out and let it in, hey Jude, begin,
you're waiting for someone to perform with.
And don't you know that it's just you, hey Jude, you'll do,
the movement you need is on your shoulder.
Hey Jude, don't make it bad.
Take a sad song and make it better.
Remember to let her under your skin,
then you'll begin to make it
better better better better better better, oh
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Copy and Traduce
Across The Universe
Words are flowing out like endless rain into a paper cup,
They slither while they pass, they slip away across the universe
Pools of sorrow, waves of joy are drifting through my open mind,
Possessing and caressing me.
Jai guru de va om
Nothing's gonna change my world,
Nothing's gonna change my world.
Images of broken light which dance before me like a million eyes,
That call me on and on across the universe,
Thoughts meander like a restless wind inside a letter box they
Tumble blindly as they make their way
Across the universe
Jai guru de va om
Nothing's gonna change my world,
Nothing's gonna change my world.
Sounds of laughter shades of earth are ringing
Through my open views inviting and inciting me
Limitless undying love which shines around me like a
million suns, it calls me on and on
Across the universe
Jai guru de va om
Nothing's gonna change my world,
Nothing's gonna change my world.
Copy and Traduce
Everything I do
Look into my eyes, you will see
What you mean to me.
Search your heart, search your soul
And when you find me there, you'll search no more.
Don't tell me it's not worth tryin' for.
You can't tell me it's not worth dyin' for.
You know it's true
Everything I do I do it for you.
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Look into my heart, you will find
There's nothin' there to hide.
So take me as I am, take my life.
I would give it all, I would sacrifice.
Don't tell me it's not worth fightin' for.
I can't help it, there's nothin' I want more.
You know it's true
Everything I do I do it for you.
There's no love like your love
And no other could give more love.
There's nowhere unless you're there
All the time, all the way.
Don't tell me it's not worth tryin' for.
I can't help it, there's nothin' I want more.
I would fight for you, I'd lie for you,
Walk the wire for you, yeah, I'd die for you.
You know it's true
Everything I do I do it for you.
Copy and Traduce, after use the material for conversacion in class, this
can use well for speak estrategy for presentation for exams by another
lengua.
TOEFL stands for "Test of English as a Foreign Language". The test was developed by
Educational Testing Services, or ETS, and has been used by universities and colleges for
many years as a way to judge the English ability of potential students.
The old paper-based TOEFl tests are being phased out in favour of the TOEFL iBT
(internet based test). The test is divided into four sections and takes about four hours to
complete. Here are some things you should know about the new test:
The new Speaking section includes independent and integrated tasks.
There is no longer a Structure section. Grammar is tested on questions and tasks in each
section.
Lectures and conversations in the Listening section are longer, but note-taking is allowed.
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In
fact,
note-taking
is
allowed
throughout
the
entire
test.
The speech in the listening material sounds more natural. Also, there are new questions
that measure understanding of a speaker's attitude, degree of certainty, and purpose.
The Reading section has new questions that ask test takers to categorize information and
fill
in
a
chart
or
complete
a
summary.
The Writing section requires typing. There is an integrated task in addition to the current
independent task, and the scoring guides (rubrics) used for rating are different from the
current test.
The Speaking Section
The new speaking section contains six tasks. Each task is rated on a scale of 0-4. The
answers are rated by real people and then the average of your scores in converted onto a
scale
of
30.
The total score for the test is out of 120 and is good for two years.
Bear: Heart of a Hero" to be Featured on Animal Planet's "When Animals Talk"
Bear: Heart of a Hero" to be Featured on Animal Planet's "When Animals Talk" Download
this press release as an Adobe PDF document. The book "Bear: Heart of a Hero" will be
featured on Animal Planet's "When Animals Talk," hosted by Dr. Jane Goodall at 8 p.m.
(EST) on Sunday, June 12.
New York, NY (PRWEB) June ƠBear, America's most decorated dog and the subject of
the highly acclaimed biography "Bear: Heart of a Hero" by Captain Scott Shields and
Nancy West, will be featured on the upcoming Animal Planet, Jane Goodall special "When
Animals Talk." The two-hour documentary, hosted by Dr. Goodall DBE, UN Messenger of
Peace, explores animal communication with humans and is scheduled to air on Sunday,
June 12 at 8 p.m. (EST). "When Animals Talk" is being produced for Animal Planet by
London based Tigress Productions. This is the network's third collaboration with the worldrenowned scientist and conservationist. Animal Planet is available in over 86 million
homes nationwide, and is the only television network dedicated exclusively to the
relationship between humans and animals.
Bear, along with his dad, Captain Scott Shields, led the first search and rescue teams at
Ground Zero. While tirelessly working the pile, the eleven-year-old golden retriever was
credited with finding the most victims, including beloved FDNY Chief Peter Ganci. Bear's
story is detailed in the book, "Bear: Heart of a Hero" by Captain Scott Shields and Nancy
West. Jane Goodall has called the biography of the heroic canine "? of the best
human/animal relationship stories I know of. Bear's storyƠboth in his valiant efforts at
Ground Zero and through the work of The Bear Search and Rescue FoundationƩs one of
courage and deserves the attention of everyone."
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After the World Trade Center tragedy, Bear became a goodwill ambassador around the
world. He was honored as a Hero to Humanity by the United Nations, and his photograph
displayed there for the World Peace Celebration in 2003. Three states have declared
Captain Shields and Bear Days, including New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. The
United States Army, the 108th United States Congress, and the Queen of England's Scots
Guards have also honored Bear. The Scots Guards even wrote a song in his honor. On
September 11, 2004, the FDNY-EMS Academy in Fort Totten, New York commemorated
the now famous golden by etching his name into a brick that is part of a permanent
monument to the fallen heroes of 9/11. Bear was wounded at Ground Zero and died one
year later of multiple forms of cancer. He was buried as a fireman and his memorial
service attended by thousands on the USS Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum in New York
Harbor.
Bear's legacy, The Bear Search and Rescue Foundation raises funds for equipment,
training, and transportation for search and rescue teams across the country. The
foundation's annual Service Dog Day Celebration is held on the decks of the USS Intrepid
Sea-Air-Space Museum in New York Harbor and is open to the public. Tigress Productions
filmed portions of this past September's event to showcase on the Animal Planet.
DESCRIPTION AND NATURAL HISTORY
Physical Description
Moon bears -- or Asiatic black bears -- are medium sized, stocky bears averaging 140 165 centimeters (4.5 - 5.4 feet) tall and weighing 90 - 115 kilograms (198 - 254 pounds).
Large males may weigh up to 181 kilograms (400 pounds). Males are larger than females.
Moon bears are usually black, although some are brown to reddish-brown. All have a white
crescent, or moon-shaped marking, on their chest and some white on the chin. The hair on
their neck and shoulders is long and thick, and their big ears are set far apart on a large,
roundish head. Their claws are short and strong enough for climbing.
Natural History
Adult moon bears are typically solitary and nocturnal. They inhabit tropical rainforests,
temperate broadleaf forests, and tropical monsoon and dry forests. Different subspecies
are recognized in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Iran, Japan, Korea, Lao
People‟s Democratic Republic, Mongolia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, Pakistan, Russia,
Thailand,
Vietnam,
and
the
region
of
Taiwan
China.
Moon bears are omnivorous, feeding on both plants and animals. Their diet varies with
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availability and location and includes buds, fruits and nuts, berries, small animals and
birds, carrion, insects and honey. They may also take livestock or feed on crops if in the
vicinity.
Little is known about their reproduction. They are thought to mate from April to June, but
may mate as early as March or as late as December depending on climate. The gestation
period may include delayed implantation of the embryo (the embryo floats freely in the
womb before it implants in the wall of the uterus). Two black bear cubs are usually born in
a cave or hollow tree in May. Within about a week, the cubs‟ eyes open and they begin to
forage with their mother. Cubs are weaned at about 3.5 months but may stay with their
mother
for
up
to
two
years.
Moon bears are good climbers and swimmers. Although they usually walk on all fours,
they will stand on their hind legs to reach food or to fight. Moon bears may be found
sleeping or resting in tree "nests" built while feeding. Bears in the northern part of their
range hibernate each year from November to March or April in a den, cave, hollow log or
tree
cavity.
Moon
bears
may
live
about
25
years
in
the
wild.
No reliable population estimates exist. There are few conservation efforts on their behalf
and the legal protection that exists in different regions is rarely enforced.
STATUS OF THE SPECIES
Status
The International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) lists the Asiatic
black bear Ursus thibetanus as Vulnerable. The subspecies, Ursus thibetanus gedrosianus, (Iran and
Pakistan)
is
listed
as
Critically
Endangered.
Ursus thibetanus is also listed on Appendix I of the Convention on the Trade in Endangered Species of
Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), which bans international trade to save the black bear.
Threats to the Species
Moon bears are threatened by hunting and collecting (on bear bile farms their gall bladders
are used in traditional medicines and their paws are used for food), population
fragmentation, deforestation and habitat loss, human settlement, infrastructure (roads,
dams, etc.), conflicts with humans, and lack of conservation efforts.
In several Asian countries, notably China, moon bears are "farmed" for their bile. On these
bear bile farms, moon bears are kept in small cages where their bile is "milked" for use in
traditional
medicines.
IFAW is working to save the black bear and eliminate bear bile farming, to provide humane
treatment for bears currently imprisoned on “farms,” and to promote research into
alternatives
to
bear
bile
in
traditional
medicines.
Save
40
the
Black
Bear
From
International
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Trade
Bear bile from farmed bears is the most commonly used commodity. It is sold legally in
China for use in traditional medicines and in teas, tonics, shampoos and other formulations.
The illegal trade in moon and black bear parts and derivatives such as meat, brain, blood,
bone and paws also continues, both within China and internationally.
1.- Read the information.
2.- Write the most importants ideas about the moon.
3.- Explain the importants ideas.
The Moon is the only natural satellite of Earth:
orbit: 384,400 km from Earth
diameter: 3476 km
mass: 7.35e22 kg
The New Solar System
Summarizes what we've learned from interplanetary explorations in the last 25
years. My primary reference for The Nine Planets.
Full Moon
Very high quality reproductions of Apollo images of the Moon. If you think the Moon
is boring ("been there, done that") then you haven't seen this book!
The Once and Future Moon
An overview of what we know about our Moon, how we came to know it and how
we might go back to learn more.
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Called Luna by the Romans, Selene and Artemis by the Greeks, and many other
names in other mythologies.
The Moon, of course, has been known since prehistoric times. It is the second
brightest object in the sky after the Sun. As the Moon orbits around the Earth once
per month, the angle between the Earth, the Moon and the Sun changes; we see
this as the cycle of the Moon's phases. The time between successive new moons
is 29.5 days (709 hours), slightly different from the Moon's orbital period (measured
against the stars) since the Earth moves a significant distance in its orbit around
the Sun in that time.
Due to its size and composition, the Moon is sometimes classified as a terrestrial
"planet" along with Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars.
The Moon was first visited by the Soviet spacecraft Luna 2 in 1959. It is the only
extraterrestrial body to have been visited by humans. The first landing was on July
20, 1969 (do you remember where you were?); the last was in December 1972.
The Moon is also the only body from which samples have been returned to Earth.
In the summer of 1994, the Moon was very extensively mapped by the little
spacecraft Clementine and again in 1999 by Lunar Prospector.
The gravitational forces between the Earth and the Moon cause some interesting
effects. The most obvious is the tides. The Moon's gravitational attraction is
stronger on the side of the Earth nearest to the Moon and weaker on the opposite
side. Since the Earth, and particularly the oceans, is not perfectly rigid it is
stretched out along the line toward the Moon. From our perspective on the Earth's
surface we see two small bulges, one in the direction of the Moon and one directly
opposite. The effect is much stronger in the ocean water than in the solid crust so
the water bulges are higher. And because the Earth rotates much faster than the
Moon moves in its orbit, the bulges move around the Earth about once a day giving
two high tides per day. (This is a greatly simplified model; actual tides, especially
near the coasts, are much more complicated.)
But the Earth is not completely fluid, either. The Earth's rotation carries the Earth's
bulges slightly ahead of the point directly beneath the Moon. This means that the
force between the Earth and the Moon is not exactly along the line between their
centers producing a torque on the Earth and an accelerating force on the Moon.
This causes a net transfer of rotational energy from the Earth to the Moon, slowing
down the Earth's rotation by about 1.5 milliseconds/century and raising the Moon
into a higher orbit by about 3.8 centimeters per year. (The opposite effect happens
to satellites with unusual orbits such as Phobos and Triton).
The asymmetric nature of this gravitational interaction is also responsible for the
fact that the Moon rotates synchronously, i.e. it is locked in phase with its orbit so
that the same side is always facing toward the Earth. Just as the Earth's rotation is
now being slowed by the Moon's influence so in the distant past the Moon's
rotation was slowed by the action of the Earth, but in that case the effect was much
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stronger. When the Moon's rotation rate was slowed to match its orbital period
(such that the bulge always faced toward the Earth) there was no longer an offcenter torque on the Moon and a stable situation was achieved. The same thing
has happened to most of the other satellites in the solar system. Eventually, the
Earth's rotation will be slowed to match the Moon's period, too, as is the case with
Pluto and Charon.
Actually, the Moon appears to wobble a bit (due to its slightly non-circular orbit) so
that a few degrees of the far side can be seen from time to time, but the majority of
the far side (left) was completely unknown until the Soviet spacecraft Luna 3
photographed it in 1959. (Note: there is no "dark side" of the Moon; all parts of the
Moon get sunlight half the time (except for a few deep craters near the poles).
Some uses of the term "dark side" in the past may have referred to the far side as
"dark" in the sense of "unknown" (eg "darkest Africa") but even that meaning is no
longer valid today!)
The Moon has no atmosphere. But evidence from Clementine suggested that there
may be water ice in some deep craters near the Moon's south pole which are
permanently shaded. This has now been reinforced by data from Lunar Prospector.
There is apparently ice at the north pole as well. A final determination will probably
come from NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, scheduled for 2008.
The Moon's crust averages 68 km thick and varies from essentially 0 under Mare
Crisium to 107 km north of the crater Korolev on the lunar far side. Below the crust
is a mantle and probably a small core (roughly 340 km radius and 2% of the
Moon's mass). Unlike the Earth, however, the Moon's interior is no longer active.
Curiously, the Moon's center of mass is offset from its geometric center by about 2
km in the direction toward the Earth. Also, the crust is thinner on the near side.
Prior to the study of the Apollo samples, there was no consensus about the origin
of the Moon. There were three principal theories: co-accretion which asserted that
the Moon and the Earth formed at the same time from the Solar Nebula; fission
which asserted that the Moon split off of the Earth; and capture which held that the
Moon formed elsewhere and was subsequently captured by the Earth. None of
these work very well. But the new and detailed information from the Moon rocks led
to the impact theory: that the Earth collided with a very large object (as big as Mars
or more) and that the Moon formed from the ejected material. There are still details
to be worked out, but the impact theory is now widely accepted.
The Moon has no global magnetic field. But some of its surface rocks exhibit
remanent magnetism indicating that there may have been a global magnetic field
early in the Moon's history.
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1.-Read the story.
2.- Change the final of the story.
“The ghost story”
The Double Eagle Restaurant and Peppers Cafe, located in Historic Old Mesilla,
New Mexico, have played witness to many colorful and historical events, including
the Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago -- which ended the Mexican-American War in
1848, the negotiation and confirmation of the Gadsden Purchase in 1854,
Confederate Army occupation in 1861 and the incarceration and trial of Billy the
Kid in 1881. Mesilla is now a tiny town sitting next to the much larger Las Cruces,
New Mexico. Mesilla has become the „little secret‟ of Las Cruces.
The restaurants and shops of Mesilla have become a must stop for travelers along
Interstate 10. With the Texas-New Mexico border only 30 minutes away, both New
Mexican and Texan toursim professionals send visitors to the sleepy little town.
Mesilla has become famous for strolling. Time seems to slow down as you browse
the shops and restaurants of Mesilla.
Until acquired by Robert O. Anderson in 1972, the property was a private
residence. Anderson is to be congratulated for his far-sighted wisdom in preserving
this National Registered Historical site. Major restoration was completed in 1984 by
the present owner, C. W. "Buddy" Ritter, a fifth generation New Mexican.
Double Eagle Restaurant's name was derived from a United States gold piece
minted in the 1850's. The Ten Dollar coin was known as the "Eagle" and the
Twenty Dollar coin as the "Double Eagle."
The antiques found throughout the building have been painstakingly collected over
several years. The post-Civil War cast-iron entry gates each weigh 1,000 pounds.
The back lights in the Imperial Bar are French "Corones" with Lalique shades
dating from the 1890's. Highlighting the decor of the Maximilian Room are the
classic French baccarat chandeliers measuring seven feet by three feet, each
containing more than 1000 hand-cut glass crystals. The solid gold ceiling was
hand-gilded with 18- and 24-karat gold leaf. The 20 gold leafed French mirrors are
ornately carved in Greek Revival style. The many paintings, several of which have
their equal only in the finest museums, express the charm and ambiance of a
bygone era.
In addition, a romantic legend is part of the history of this 150-year-old home. This
legend tells of the tragic deaths of two young lovers with their eternal ties to each
other and The Double Eagle. We believe that the friendly spirits of Armando and
Inez walk with us to this day.
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This century-old story was pieced together from old-timers' tales, newspaper
accounts from Mesilla's early days and even some private diary entries. The
digging took a lot of effort, as much of Mesilla's turbulent and often violent history
became enmeshed in the tale. Here is the "ghost tale" as best we can piece
together:
The first owner of the house that is now the Double Eagle Restaurant, was the
Maes family. The family was in the import-export business. When its base in Santa
Fe was taken by the Americans after the Mexican-American War of 1846-1848,
they moved south to the area now known as Mesilla. From the grand size of the
house the Maes family built, one can see the family had big plans for the future-especially the mother. She was very proud of her family, it‟s prestige, power and
connections. Her grand plans centered around her eldest son, a teenager named
Armando. She constantly reminded him of his duty to the family. They say Senora
Maes had stars in her eyes.
Such a big house required many servants. One of the servants was a teenage girl
named Inez, who is said to have been very beautiful, with long black hair reaching
her waist. Armando fell in love. He knew his mother would not approve and
Armando and Inez tried to keep their love a secret. But, the shy touches, "chance
meetings" in the house and other signs of love alerted the other servants to the
feelings of the couple. Soon, the servants were in on the secret and united in
hiding the romance from the Senora.
It was not long before most of the village knew of the young people's devotion for
each other, and they too kept the secret. The Senora‟s snobbish ways had not
made her popular amongst the other villagers. The shy young man and the
beautiful maiden walking together on an errand across the Plaza caused many an
older heart to remember past days and smile.
Finally, however, the Senora discerned that lovesick Armando was paying too
much attention to Inez. Armando confessed his love for Inez, but the Senora
refused to listen. She flew into a rage and ordered Inez from the house. She
reminded Armando of his station in life and of his duty to his family, including the
Senora's plans that Armando marry aristocracy in Mexico City.
Then, one day, the Senora returned early from a trip. The servants' reactions
triggered her suspicions that something was wrong. She asked for Armando, but
got conflicting answers to where he might be. She walked to his bedroom and,
hearing voices within, opened the door. There she found beautiful Inez -- in
Armando's arms.
Enraged by the sight, the Senora stepped back in shock onto the Patio area and,
stumbling over her sewing basket, pulled her sewing shears from the basket.
Seemingly in a trance, the Senora returned to the bedroom where Armando and
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Inez were hastily dressing. Without a sound, the shears were raised and then
plunged into Inez's breast. Again, the shears were raised. Armando screamed,
"No, Mama! No!" and rushed to shield his beloved Inez. The Senora, unseeing,
drove the shears into her own son's back. At Armando's cry of pain, the Senora
came to her senses and, realizing what she had done, uttered a scream they say
was a stricken and pain-filled as was ever given voice.
The Senora stepped back to see Inez crumbled on the floor, with blood gushing
from her gaping wound, while Armando, himself bleeding from the ragged hole torn
in his back, cradled her and gently stroked her hair. Servants rushed to the door
and witnessed the look of tender love exchanged between Armando and Inez. As
Armando bent to kiss her lips, he felt her last breath brush his cheeks, now wet
with tears. As Armando clung to her body, he raised his head toward a corner of
the room, as if watching someone, and suddenly a smile burst onto his face. He
stared raptly as if seeing something unbelievable. Then, as the Senora called his
name and approached to care for his wound, Armando collapsed, never looking at
her.
Armando never regained consciousness and died three days later.
It is not known what happened after that, but Mesilleros say the Senora did not
speak from that day forward. Her last spoken word had been her dying son‟s
name.
It is said that the young lovers' ghosts inhabit the Carlotta Salon -- formerly
Armando's bedroom -- to this day. The lively commerce of the Double Eagle
Restaurant must have rejuvenated the two spirits, because they seem quite active
today. The ghosts make their presence known in many ways -- never with malice
or anger, but more like teens' high spirited pranks. Tables left in one spot have
been found in a different place the next morning. Wine glasses have been broken,
without sounding the motion detector's alarm. Whispered names and strange
perfumes have also been reported. And, most famously, two over-stuffed master
and mistress chairs sit in the corner of the Salon -- the first clues leading to
discovery of the tale. The chairs, though rarely used and newly re-upholstered to
match the decor, show signs of wear. The cut velvet fabric is worn in the shape of
two human bodies, one larger than the other, but both small by today‟s standards.
Perhaps you too will see the famous ghosts of the Double Eagle.
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