EgiptoBilingüe - Centro Concertado Juan XXIII Cartuja

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EgiptoBilingüe - Centro Concertado Juan XXIII Cartuja
Egipto Antiguo
Donde reinan Dioses que son reyes
El MEDIO natural:
junto al río Nilo
La vida se articulaba en
torno al río Nilo:
-Básico para la Agricultura
y Ganadería
-Vía de Comunicación
-Lugar ideal para la flora y
la fauna
FUENTE DE VIDA
Dos zonas:
- Alto Egipto o Valle (SUR)
- Bajo Egipto o Delta
(NORTE)
La historia de
egipto: sus fases
A partir del Rey Menes
(hacia 3100 a.C.), el Alto y
Bajo Egipto se unen. Se
conocen 4 fases:
-Imperio Antiguo
-Imperio Medio
-Imperio Nuevo
-Baja Época
Vais a leer la página 171, y,
en vuestro cuaderno: las
fechas de cada periodo,
faraones importantes de
cada fase, su capital, y
todo en orden.
La economía egipcia
PESCA y AGRICULTURA:
Cereales, lino,
leguminosas, verduras y lo
pescado del Nilo y el mar.
GANADO: BOVINO, ovinocaprino y aves de corral.
COMERCIO: Se exporta
cereal y artesanías. Se
importa la materia prima,
como esclavos, madera,
metales,…
ARTESANIA: Cerámica,
metalurgia, joyería, textil,
madera,… para COMERCIO
La Sociedad
egipcia
Existían 4 grandes niveles
en la sociedad faraónica:
1- Faraón y familia.
2- Grupo Dirigente.
3- Personas Libres
4- Esclavos.
Completar en vuestro
cuaderno esta pirámide
social, indicando quienes
forman cada nivel, y qué
poder tenían.
Así mismo, en vuestra
libreta, comentáis el papel
de la mujer egipcia.
Egyptian religion was polytheistic, that is,
they believed in various gods and goddesses,
not in just one.
Egyptian
Religion
Isis y Osiris
Egyptian Gods
Egyptian religion included hundreds of deities. The culture lasted so
long that many of these deities came and went or changed form.
The deities had naturalistic attributes from animals or the sun; half
human (anthropomorphic) appearance, half animal (zoomorphic).
Isis and Hathor
Ra
Anubis
The Egyptians thought that there was life after death, or in
other words, an afterlife.
The dead were buried in tombs (pyramids, mastabas, or
hypogeum), some had rich grave goods. Thanks to that, we
know a great deal about their civilization.
Pyramid
Mastaba
Grave goods
Sarcophagus
Hypogeum
A product of the belief in the afterlife was mummification, or the preparation
of the dead for the next life.
The bodies went through a long process. Their liver, lungs, stomachs and
intestines were extracted and deposited in glasses called “canopic jars.” Then
the bodies were coated in different substances and were carefully wrapped in
bandage to preserve the appearance they had when they were alive.
Canopic jars
Mummification
Steps in the mummification process
1. Announcement of Death
2. Embalming the Body
3. Removal of Brain
4. Removal of Internal Organs
5. Drying Out Process
6. Wrapping of the Body
7. Final Procession
Ra
• The Sun god, the most important god
of all gods
• Isis and Osiris’ grandfather
• Sometimes merged with other gods
(ex. Amun-Ra)
• Man with a hawk head and headdress with a sun disk surrounded by a
cobra
• Often seen with a barge
Osiris
• Supreme god, first pharaoh
• God of the dead and ruler of the
underworld
• Also god of resurrection and
fertility
• Taught early Egyptians to farm
• A mummified man wearing a
white cone-like headdress with
feathers
• Isis’ husband, Horus’ father and
Seth’s brother
Isis
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•
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•
•
Main female deity
The fertility goddess
A protective goddess and a mother figure
Used powerful magical spells to help people
A woman with a headdress in shape of a
throne and sometimes winged
• Sometimes seen with a pair of cow horns
and a sun disk
• Osiris’ wife and Horus’ mother
Isis and Horus
Isis knot
Horus
• Divine protector and god of every
pharaoh
• God of kingship; government and
administration
• The Egyptians believed that every
pharaoh was the “living Horus”
• The sky and sun god
• Man with a falcon head that had a
headdress with a double crown
• Isis and Osiris’ son
Hathor
• Goddess of the sky, love and festivals
• Associated with love, happiness, music
and festivals
• A protective goddess
• Horus’ wife and thought as the
mother of the pharaoh
• Woman with a headdress of horns and
a sun disk and she sometimes had ears
of a cow
Anubis
• God of embalming and chief of all
the dead
• Guardian of the underworld
• Invented the mummification process
• Helped to embalm Osiris after he
was killed by Seth
• A human body with a black jackal
head and pointed ears
Thoth
• God of science and wisdom
• Inventor of writing and in charge
of time
• Man with the head of an ibis bird
holding a writing palette and
sometimes as a baboon
• Ancient Egyptians believed that
Thoth gave them the gift of
hieroglyphic writing
Bastet
• The Goddess of war
• Protective goddess
• Woman with the head of a cat and
sometimes appeared with the
head of a lioness to help protect
the king in battle
• The cat was a symbol of Bastet
• Ra’s daughter
The Judgement of Osiris - Weighing of the Heart
Now it is your turn. The next time you see an Egyptian drawing you will be able
to understand it. What can you say about this one?
Anubis
•
•
•
•
•
1-2
3 Thoth Horus
4 Osiris
1. The corpse’s heart is placed on one side of the weighing scale and on
the other side a feather of truth. If the heart weighs less, the corpse enters
the afterlife.
2. Anubis makes the judgement.
3. Thoth records the judgement.
4. Osiris decides that the corpse
enters the afterlife.
Vocabulary and Verbs
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Deity / Deities
God / Goddess
Zoomorphic
Statue
Temple
Offering
Worship /Worshipped
Ritual
Prayer
Dead / Death
Fertility
Happiness
Pharaoh
Sacred
Mummification
Afterlife
Judgement
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Pass
Corpse
Weighing scale
Body
Heart
Feather
Less
Soul
Guilt
Justice
Weigh / Weighed
Pour / Pouring
Liquid
Substance
Brain
Intestines
Wrap / Wrapped
Drying out
Bandage
Sarcophagus
Canopic jar
•
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Farming
Casket
Tombs
Mastaba
Hypogeum
Pieces
Immortal
Embalm / Embalmed
Teach / Taught
Envy / Envied
Kill / Killed
Throw / Threw
Recover / Recovered
Last / Lasted
Bury / Buried
Polytheistic
Sun disk
Headdress
Exercises
1. What did the Egyptian gods look like?
2. Why were corpse mummified in Ancient Egypt?
3. What are the main steps in the mummification process?
4. Complete the text:
Egyptian religion was _______. Their gods had a half _____ and a half _____
appearance. They believed in an _____ and buried the dead in ______. _______
was the preparation of the dead for the next life.
Answers
1. They had a half human (anthropomorphic) and a half animal (zoomorphic)
Appearance.
2. Because only the mummified went to an afterlife.
3.Announcement of Death, Embalming the Body, Removal of Brain, Removal of
Internal Organs, Drying Out Process, Wrapping of the Body, and the Final
Procession.
4. Polytheistic, human, animal, afterlife, tombs, Mummification
Here are some interesting pages that
you can check out.
*If you want to see your name written in hieroglyphics go to
http://www.discoveringegypt.com/e-name.htm
*Here is an interesting page:
http://www.claseshistoria.com/bilingue/1eso/egypt
/imagenes/animacion-momificacion.swf
Letras y ciencias
LETRAS
CIENCIAS
- Textos de carácter religioso:
- LIBRO DE LOS MUERTOS
- Textos literarios:
- Historia de SINUHÉ
- T. Científicos y técnicos.
- Calendario de tres
estaciones y 4 meses
- Años de 360 días + 5
- Operaciones matemáticas
básicas ( + - / × )
- Conocimientos geométricos
- Gran conocimiento de la
Anatomía. Destacaron en
Medicina.
Así mismo, destacar la PIEDRA
ROSSETA, como una de las
inscripciones legales, religiosas,…
que existían en el país.
Arte egipcio
ARQUITECTURA:
Características principales.
A- Tamaño colosal
B- Uso de Sillares
D- Uso de Columnas
C- Uso del Dintel
Tipologías arquitectónicas principales.
TEMPLOS: AL AIRE LIBRE y LOS SPEOS
TUMBAS: MASTABAS, PIRÁMIDES e HIPOGEOS
La Arquitectura egipcia:
los templos
-Lugar de culto y vivienda
de los Sacerdotes.
ESTRUCTURA:
1º- Avenida de ESFINGES
2º- PATIO al aire libre
3º- SALA DE COLUMNAS
4º- SANTUARIO
(KARNAK y LUXOR)
- Algunos templos se
excavaban en la roca, se
llaman SPEOS, el más
destacable: ABU SIMBEL
La Arquitectura egipcia:
las tumbas
3 tipos (según épocas).
A- Mastabas
Pirámide cortada con
cámara subterránea.
(etapa previa a Menes)
B- Pirámides
Mastabas superpuestas
con cámara mortuoria
(Imperio Antiguo)
C- Hipogeos
Como los speos, estaban
excavados en la roca. En
Tebas, V. de los Reyes o
Valle de las Reinas.
La escultura egipcia
• Dos finalidades,
RELIGIOSA y
FUNERARIA.
• FARAÓN y FAMILIA.
Idealizadas y Estáticas.
• NOBLES y
FUNCIONARIOS.
• Más Realistas y menos
Monumentales.
• Las hay de uso más
cotidiano y menos
publico, ídolos
pequeños, escenas de
la vida,…
Pintura egipcia
• Supeditada a la
arquitectura, sólo tenía
Carácter Religioso o
Decorativo.
• TÉCNICAS: Temple,
fresco.
• COLORES: Planos y
brillantes.
• TEMÁTICA: Vida
cotidiana, paisajes,
retratos.
• Apunta en tu cuaderno
las características del
llamado PERFIL EGIPCIO
Tenemos estos vínculos web para ampliar
conocimientos:
http://www.metmuseum.org/
(Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)
http://www.britishmuseum.org/
(British Museum, London)
http://www.neues-museum.de/index.php
(Nuevo Museo, Isla de los Museos, Berlín)
http://www.egyptianmuseum.gov.eg/
(Museo de Antigüedades egipcias, El Cairo)

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