Photo Credits - Davis-Emerson Middle School

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Photo Credits - Davis-Emerson Middle School
Photo Credits
Cover (t) CORBIS, (b) Bob Daemmrich/PhotoEdit; v Jupiter
Images/Brand X Pictures/Getty Images; x–xi Luc Novovitch/
Photographer’s Choice/Getty Images; xii–xiii William Ryall/
The McGraw-Hill Companies; xv Oleksiy Maksymenko/
Alamy; xvi–xvii Stefano Salvetti/Photodisc/Getty Images;
xviii–xix Stockbyte/Getty Images; xxii Brand X Pictures/
PunchStock; 1 (l) Brand X Pictures/PunchStock, (r) ZenShui/
Laurence Mouton/Getty Images; 4 Fancy/Veer/CORBIS;
5 Masterfile/Royalty Free; 7 Getty Images; 9 Jules Frazier/Getty
Images; 10 Alexandra Grablewski/FoodPix/Getty Images;
12 C Squared Studios/Getty Images; 13 Jenny Acheson/Riser/Getty
Images; 15 Steve Sucsy/Photographer’s Choice RR/Getty Images;
16 Luc Novovitch/Photographer’s Choice/Getty Images;
18 Photodisc/Getty Images; 19 Roy Toft/National Geographic/
Getty Images; 20 Andrew Shennan/Taxi/Getty Images;
25 Marathonfoto; 26 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill; 32 age fotostock/
SuperStock; 33 Foodcollection/Getty Images; 34 Microzoa/The
Image Bank/Getty Images; 39 Shoula/Photonica/Getty Images;
42 BananaStock/Jupiterimages; 43 Peter Arnold, Inc./Alamy;
45 GK Hart/Vikki Hart/Photographer’s Choice/Getty Images;
51 John Giustina/Iconica/Getty Images; 58 Jeremy Woodhouse/
Masterfile; 63 Stephen Marks/Getty Images; 67 ArcadeImages/
Alamy; 68 NASA; 71 State of Texas; 72 Alex Maclean/Photonica/
Getty Images; 74 Brad Wilson/Stone/Getty Images; 76 (inset) Jim
West/Alamy; 76–77 (bkgd) VStock/Alamy; 90 Corbis RF/Alamy;
92 Stockbyte/SuperStock; 96 James Baigrie/Riser/Getty Images;
99 Digital Vision/Getty Images; 102 Rubberball Productions/
Getty Images; 104 Ariel Skelley/Blend Images/Getty Images;
106 Stephen Dalton/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 108 Associated Press;
111 Ingram Publishing/SuperStock; 112 Brian J. Skerry/National
Geographic Image Collection; 113 Sal Maimone/SuperStock;
114 Alfredo Dagli Orti/The Art Archive/CORBIS; 117 Rob
Melnychuk/Digital Vision/Getty Images; 121 Richard Lord/
PhotoEdit; 124 BananaStock/PunchStock; 126 Jim West/
PhotoEdit; 127 Brandon Harman/The Image Bank/Getty Images;
131 Gerry Ellis/Globio/Minden Pictures; 134 (inset) Peter Dazeley/
Photographers Choice RR/Getty Images; 134–135 (bkgd) William
Ryall/The McGraw-Hill Companies; 151 Image Source/
PunchStock; 156 Photodisc/Alamy; 158 Alex Segre/Alamy;
159 Masterfile Royalty-Free; 161 Gavin Hellier/Robert Harding
World Photography/Getty Images; 164 Lucas Jackson/Reuters/
CORBIS; 165 Raimund Koch/Photonica/Getty Images; 167 Rick
Gomez/CORBIS; 170 Blend Images/Alamy; 173 George Doyle &
Ciaran Griffin/Stockbyte/Getty Images; 175 George B. Diebold/
CORBIS; 176 Daryl Benson/Masterfile; 178 Editorial/Alamy;
181 Jose Luis Pelaez, Inc./Blend Images/Getty Images;
182 Jack Star/PhotoLink/Getty Images; 183 Bob Langrish/Animals
Animals; 186 (inset) Joseph McNally/The Image Bank/Getty
Images; 186–187 (bkgd) FAN travelstock/Alamy; 200 (t) C Squared
Studios/Photodisc/Getty Images, (b) Stockbyte/Getty Images;
201 Tetra Images/CORBIS; 202 D. Hurst/Alamy; 205 Time & Life
Pictures/Getty Images; 216 United States Mint; 219 Benn Mitchell/
The Image Bank/Getty Images; 222 Nigel Cattlin/Alamy;
224 Stockbyte/Getty Images; 232 George H. H. Huey/CORBIS;
234 Associated Press; 237 Jose Luis Pelaez Inc/Blend Images/
Getty Images; 238 Janis Christie/Getty Images; 239 Indexstock;
242 Dynamic Graphics/JupiterImages; 244 Thomas Mangelsen/
Minden Pictures; 249 Getty Images; 252 Stockbyte/Getty Images;
254 (inset) Frank Chmura/Alamy; 254–255 (bkgd) Melissa
Moseley/Sony Pictures/Bureau L.A. Collection/CORBIS;
271 Photodisc/Getty Images; 274 Myrleen Ferguson Cate/
PhotoEdit; 281 Associated Press; 282 Ingram Publishing/
SuperStock; 283 Jeff Greenberg/PhotoEdit; 285 Royalty-Free/
CORBIS; 286 Ed-Imaging; 289 Blend Images/Alamy; 290 Jamie
Squire/Getty Images; 296 David Young-Wolff/PhotoEdit;
300 (inset) Daniel Bosler/Photographer’s Choice/Getty Images;
300–301 (bkgd) Oleksiy Maksymenko/Alamy; 315 Digital Vision
Ltd./SuperStock; 318 Jose Luis Pelaez Inc/Iconica/Getty Images;
324 Photo 24/Getty Images; 328 Digital Vision/age fotostock;
329 NASA Marshall Space Flight Center; 335 BananaStock/
SuperStock; 336 ImageState/Alamy Images; 340 Bill Pugliano/
Getty Images; 341 NASA; 344 S. Meltzer/PhotoLink/Getty
Images; 348 Robert W. Ginn/PhotoEdit; 350 Stefano Salvetti/
Photodisc/Getty Images; 352 (inset) Image Source/Getty Images;
352–353 (bkgd) Michael Blann/Digital Vision/Getty Images;
367 Matt Meadows; 368 NASA Marshall Space Flight Center;
373 William Leaman/Alamy; 374 graficart.net/Alamy;
377 Foodcollection/Getty Images; 381 Lon C. Diehl/PhotoEdit;
R40 Photo Credits
383 (cw from top) United States coin images from the United States
Mint, (2) Michael Houghton/StudiOhio, (3) United States Mint,
(4) Michael Houghton/StudiOhio, (5) United States Mint;
384 George Doyle/Getty Images; 389 Alan and Sandy Carey/Getty
Images; 390 Peter Barrett/Masterfile; 395 Frank Burek/CORBIS;
397 Eyewire (Photodisc)/PunchStock; 400 Amos Morgan/
Photodisc/Getty Images; 403 Jim West/PhotoEdit; 404 Nick
Koudis/Getty Images; 412 Jose Luis Pelaez Inc/Blend Images/
Getty Images; 416 David R. Frazier Photolibrary, Inc./Alamy;
416–417 Brand X Pictures/PunchStock; 421 Nick Koudis/Getty
Images; 426 Cartesia/Photodisc/Getty Images; 442 Stockbyte/Getty
Images; 443 Jason Hawkes/Getty Images; 448 (t) Royalty-Free/
CORBIS, (c) Stockbyte/Getty Images, (b) Ablestock/Alamy;
449 (tl) S. Solum/PhotoLink/Getty Images, (tc) Ingram Publishing/
Alamy, (tr) The McGraw-Hill Companies, (bl) Space Imaging/Getty
Images, (bc) PNC/GettyImages, (br) DEA/R. APPIANI/De
Agostini Picture Library/Getty Images; 454 John Kelly/The
Image Bank/Getty Images; 455 Scott Stulberg/Getty Images;
459 C Squared Studios/Photodisc/Getty Images; 460 (t) Radlund &
Associates/Getty Images, (b) Royalty-Free/CORBIS; 461 Stockbyte/
PictureQuest; 464 Brad Wilson/Stone/Getty Images;
470 (t) S. Meltzer/PhotoLink/Getty Images, (b) Nancy R. Cohen/
Getty Images; 472 Ignacio Auzike/ArtBox Images/Getty Images;
476 (t) Ian Grainger/Flickr/Getty Images, (b) Comstock Images/
Alamy; 477 Ryan McVay/Getty Images; 478 Baerbel Schmidt/
Stone/Getty Images; 481 Paul Hardy/CORBIS; 484 (l) Jose Luis
Pelaez/Getty Images, (r) Walter Bibikow/The Image Bank/Getty
Images; 486 (inset) Stewart Cohen/Pam Ostrow/Getty Images;
486–487 (bkgd) Buzz Pictures/Alamy; 494 Ellen Atkin/First Light/
Getty Images; 496 Dorling Kindersley/Getty Images; 500 RoyaltyFree/CORBIS; 502 Martin Child/Getty Images; 529 Joe Sohm/
Visions of America, LLC/Alamy; 531 Stockbyte/Getty Images;
540 Peter Smith/Alamy; 542 Chemistry/Digital Vision/Getty
Images; 544 Michael T. Sedam/CORBIS; 545 Roger Ressmeyer/
CORBIS; 546 Murat Taner/Getty Images; 549 United States Mint;
550 Image Source/Getty Images; 554 Ryan McVay/Getty Images;
558 Stockbyte/Getty Images; 562 Crystal Lagoons/www.crystallagoons.com; 566 David Young-Wolff/PhotoEdit; 571 Peter Cade/
Getty Images; 573 David Muench/CORBIS; 575 The McGraw-Hill
Companies; 578 E.R. DEGGINGER/Animals Animals-Earth
Scenes; 582 (inset) Jupiterimages/Comstock Images/Alamy;
582–583 (bkgd) All Canada Photos/Alamy; 599 Courtesy The City
of Calgary; 603 John Elk III/Alamy; 605 Neil Beer/Getty Images;
608 Arcaid/Alamy; 609 (t) Ryan McVay/Photodisc/Getty Images,
(b) The McGraw-Hill Companies; 613 Cosmo Condina/The Image
Bank/Getty Images; 614 Photodisc/SuperStock; 615 GOODSHOOT/
Alamy; 618 Jose Luis Pelaez Inc/Getty Images; 620 The McGrawHill Companies; 622 Brand X Pictures/PunchStock; 630 (inset) Todd
Wright/Blend Images/Getty Images; 630-631 (bkgd) Galina
Barskaya/Alamy; 643 D. Hurst/Alamy; 644 Bruce Laurance/The
Image Bank/Getty Images; 650 NOAA; 655 David Madison/Digital
Vision/Getty Images; 658 Digital Vision/PunchStock; 664 Jean-Paul
Ferrero/Minden Pictures; 682 Marcus Mok/Asia Images/Getty
Images; 684 Daryl Benson/Masterfile; 690 STAN HONDA/AFP/
Getty Images; 694 The McGraw-Hill Companies; 696 (inset) Robert
Yin/CORBIS; 696–697 (bkgd) Poelzer Wolfgang/Alamy;
712 McGraw-Hill Companies; 716 McGraw-Hill Companies;
724 (l) United States Mint; 726 United States Mint; 727 (t) RoyaltyFree/CORBIS, (b) McGraw-Hill Companies; 729 Sean Justice/
Photodisc/Getty Images; 732 (t) United States Mint, (bl) United
States Mint, (bc) McGraw-Hill Companies, (br) McGraw-Hill
Companies; 735 McGraw-Hill Companies; 737 Brand X Pictures/
PunchStock; 738 Steve Gorton and Karl Shone/Dorling Kindersley/
Getty Images; 743 (l) The McGraw-Hill Companies, (r) Antenna/
Getty Images; 744 Caroline Purser/Getty Images; 749 Rhea Anna/
Getty Images; 750 Jack Hollingsworth/Photodisc/Getty Images;
752 (inset) Compassionate Eye Foundation/Tom Grill/Getty
Images; 752–753 (bkgd) Science VU/CDC/Visuals Unlimited/Getty
Images; 762 (l) Purestock/Getty Images, (tr) Brand X Pictures/
PunchStock, (br) ZenShui/Laurence Mouton/Getty Images;
763 (l) Bill Hickey/The Image Bank/Getty Images, (r) Brand X
Pictures/PunchStock; 764 Brand X Pictures/PunchStock;
765 Brand X Pictures/Jupiterimages; 766 Purestock/Getty Images;
767 Amanda Hall/Robert Harding World Imagery/Getty Images;
768 ZenShui/Laurence Mouton/Getty Images; 769 Ron Levine/
Taxi/Getty Images; 770 Bill Hickey/The Image Bank/Getty Images;
771 mediacolor’s/Alamy; 772 Brand X Pictures/PunchStock;
773 NASA/JPL/University of Arizona; EP0 Blend Images/SuperStock.
Glossary/Glosario
C on the eGlossary link to find out more about these words in the following 13 languages.
Click
A
Arabic
bi
Cantonese
Hmong
Spanish
Urdu
Bengali
English
Korean
Tagalog
Vietnamese
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Haitian Creole
Russian
English
Spanish
(Español)
Aa
absolute value The distance between a
number and zero on a number line.
valor absoluto Distancia entre un número y
cero en la recta numérica.
acute angle An angle with a measure greater
than 0° and less than 90°.
ángulo agudo Ángulo que mide más de 0° y
menos de 90°.
acute triangle A triangle having three acute
angles.
triángulo acutángulo Triángulo con tres
ángulos agudos.
Addition Property of Equality If you add the
same number to each side of an equation, the
two sides remain equal.
propiedad de adición de la igualdad Si sumas
el mismo número a ambos lados de una
ecuación, los dos lados permanecen iguales.
adjacent angles Angles that have the same
vertex, share a common side, and do not
overlap.
ángulos adyacentes Ángulos que comparten
el mismo vértice y un común lado, pero no se
sobreponen.
algebra A mathematical language of symbols,
including variables.
álgebra Lenguaje matemático que usa
símbolos, incluyendo variables.
algebraic expression A combination of
variables, numbers, and at least one operation.
expresión algebraica Combinación de
variables, números y, por lo menos, una
operación.
analyze To use observations to describe and
compare data.
analizar Usar observaciones para describir y
comparar datos.
R42 Glossary/Glosario
ángulo Dos rayos con un extremo común
forman un ángulo. Los rayos y el vértice se usan
para nombrar el ángulo.
"
"
#
#
$
$
∠"#$, ∠$#", or ∠#
∠"#$, ∠$#" o ∠#
angle of rotation The degree measure of the
angle through which the figure is rotated.
ángulo de rotación Medida en grados del
ángulo sobre el cual se rota una figura.
arithmetic sequence A sequence in which the
difference between any two consecutive terms is
the same.
sucesión aritmética Sucesión en la cual la
diferencia entre dos términos consecutivos es
constante.
Associative Properties The way in which
numbers are grouped does not change the sum
or product.
propiedad asociativa La forma en que
se agrupan tres números al sumarlos o
multiplicarlos no altera su suma o producto.
average The sum of two or more quantities
divided by the number of quantities; the mean.
promedio La suma de dos o más cantidades
dividida entre el número de cantidades; la
media.
Bb
back-to-back stem-and-leaf plot Used to
compare two sets of data. The leaves for one set
of data are on one side of the stem, and the
leaves for the other set of data are on the other
side.
diagrama de tallo y hoja doble Se usa para
comparar dos conjuntos de datos. Las hojas para
un conjunto de datos están a un lado del tallo y
las hojas para el otro conjunto de datos están al
otro lado.
bar notation A bar placed over digits that
repeat to indicate a number pattern that repeats
indefinitely.
notación de barra Barra que se coloca sobre
los dígitos que se repiten para indicar el número
de patrones que se repiten indefinidamente.
base Any side of a parallelogram.
base
Cualquier lado de un paralelogramo.
base
base
base In a power, the number used as a factor.
In 10 3, the base is 10. That is, 10 3 = 10 × 10 ×
10.
base En una potencia, el número usado como
factor. En 10 3, la base es 10. Es decir, 10 3 = 10 ×
10 × 10.
biased sample A sample drawn in such a way
that one or more parts of the population are
favored over others.
muestra sesgada Muestra en que se favorece
una o más partes de una población.
Glossary/Glosario
R43
Glossary/Glosario
angle Two rays with a common endpoint form
an angle. The rays and vertex are used to name the
angle.
Glossary/Glosario
diagrama de caja y patillas Diagrama que se
construye usando cinco valores.
box-and-whisker plot A diagram that is
constructed using five values.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 1
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 1
0
Cc
center The given point from which all points
on a circle are the same distance.
centro Un punto dado del cual equidistan
todos los puntos de un círculo o de una esfera.
center
centro
circle The set of all points in a plane that are
the same distance from a given point called the
center.
círculo Conjunto de todos los puntos en
un plano que equidistan de un punto dado
llamado centro.
circle graph A graph that shows data as parts
of a whole. In a circle graph, the percents add
up to 100.
gráfica circular Gráfica que muestra los datos
como partes de un todo. En una gráfica circular
los porcentajes suman 100.
Area of Oceans
"UMBOUJD
*OEJBO
4PVUIFSO
"UMÃOUJDP
1BDJGJD
"SDUJD
circumference The distance around a circle.
circumference
cluster
Data that are grouped closely together.
coefficient The numerical factor of a term that
contains a variable.
R44 Glossary/Glosario
Área de superficie de los océanos
±OEJDP
.BSEFM4VS
circunferencia
un círculo.
1BDÎGJDP
¦SUJDP
La distancia alrededor de
circunferencia
agrupamiento Conjunto de datos que se
agrupan.
coeficiente El factor numérico de un término
que contiene una variable.
compatible numbers
to divide mentally.
Numbers that are easy
complementary angles Two angles are
complementary if the sum of their measures
is 90°.
Glossary/Glosario
Commutative Properties The order in which
numbers are added or multiplied does not
change the sum or product.
propiedad commutativa La forma en que se
suman o multiplican dos números no altera su
suma o producto.
números compatibles Números que son
fáciles de dividir mentalmente.
ángulos complementarios Dos ángulos son
complementarios si la suma de sus medidas
es 90°.
1
1
2
∠1 and ∠2 are complementary angles.
2
∠1 y ∠2 son complementarios.
complementary events The events of one
outcome happening and that outcome not
happening. The sum of the probabilities of an
event and its complement is 1 or 100%. In
symbols, P(A) + P(not A) = 1.
eventos complementarios Los eventos de un
resultado que ocurre y ese resultado que no
ocurre. La suma de las probabilidades de un
evento y su complemento es 1 ó 100. En
símbolos P(A) + P(no A) = 1.
composite figure A figure made of triangles,
quadrilaterals, semicircles, and other twodimensional figures.
figura compuesta Figura formada por
triángulos, cuadriláteros, semicírculos y otras
figuras bidimensionales.
compound events An event consisting of two
or more simple events.
evento compuesto Un evento que consiste en
dos o más eventos simples.
cone A three-dimensional shape with one
circular base.
cono Forma tridimensional con una base
circular.
congruent Having the same measure.
congruente Ques tienen la misma medida.
congruent figures Figures that have the same
size and same shape and corresponding sides
and angles with equal measure.
figuras congruentes Figuras que tienen el
mismo tamaño y la misma forma y los lados y
los ángulos correspondientes tienen igual
medida.
Glossary/Glosario
R45
Glossary/Glosario
coordinate plane A plane in which a
horizontal number line and a vertical number
line intersect at their zero points.
x-axis 3
2
1
-3 -2-1
-1
-2
-3
plano de coordenadas Plano en que una recta
numérica horizontal y una recta numérica
vertical se intersecan en sus puntos cero.
y
y-axis
0
1 2 3x
origin
eje x
3
2
1
-3 -2-1
-1
-2
-3
y
eje y
0
1 2 3x
origen
corresponding sides The sides of similar
figures that “match.”
lados correspondientes Lados de figuras
semejantes que coinciden.
cubic units Used to measure volume. Tells the
number of cubes of a given size it will take to fill
a three-dimensional figure.
unidades cúbicas Se usan para medir el
volumen. Indican el número de cubos de cierto
tamaño que se necesitan para llenar una figura
tridimensional.
3 cubic units
cylinder A solid with bases that are congruent,
parallel circles connected to a curved side.
3 unidades cúbicas
cilindro Sólido con bases circulares
congruentes y paralelas, unidas por un lado
curvo.
Dd
data Information, often numerical, which is
gathered for statistical purposes.
datos Información, con frecuencia numérica,
que se recoge con fines estadísticos.
decagon A polygon having ten sides.
decágono Un polígono con diez lados.
defining the variable Choosing a variable and
deciding what the variable represents.
definir la variable Elegir una variable y
decidir lo que representa.
degree The most common unit of measure for
angles. If a circle were divided into 360 equalsized parts, each part would have an angle
measure of 1 degree.
grados La unidad más común para medir
ángulos. Si un círculo se divide en 360 partes
iguales, cada parte tiene una medida angular de
1 grado.
R46 Glossary/Glosario
eventos dependientes Dos o más eventos en
que el resultado de un evento afecta el resultado
de otro u otros eventos.
diameter The distance across a circle through
its center.
diámetro La distancia a través de un círculo
pasando por el centro.
diameter
diámetro
dilation The image produced by enlarging or
reducing a figure.
homotecia Imagen producida al ampliar o
reducir una figura.
y
y
$
#
$
#
$
#
"
0
$
#
"
%
%
x
"
0
"
%
%
x
Distributive Property To multiply a sum by a
number, multiply each addend by the number
outside the parentheses.
propiedad distributiva Para multiplicar una
suma por un número, multiplica cada sumando
por el número fuera de los paréntesis.
Division Property of Equality If you divide
each side of an equation by the same nonzero
number, the two sides remain equal.
propiedad de igualdad de la división Si
divides ambos lados de una ecuación entre el
mismo número no nulo, los lados permanecen
iguales.
Ee
equals sign A symbol of equality, =.
signo de igualdad Símbolo que indica
igualdad, =.
equation A mathematical sentence showing
two expressions are equal. An equation contains
an equals sign, =.
ecuación Enunciado matemático que muestra
que dos expresiones son iguales. Una ecuación
contiene el signo de igualdad, =.
equilateral triangle A triangle having three
congruent sides.
triángulo equilátero Triángulo con tres lados
congruentes.
equivalent expressions Expressions that have
the same value.
expresiones equivalentes Expresiones que
poseen el mismo valor, sin importer los valores
de la(s) variable(s).
Glossary/Glosario
R47
Glossary/Glosario
dependent events Two or more events in
which the outcome of one event affects the
outcome of the other event(s).
Glossary/Glosario
equivalent ratios Ratios that express the same
relationship between two quantities.
razones equivalentes Razones que expresan la
misma relación entre dos cantidades.
evaluate To find the value of an algebraic
expression by replacing variables with numbers.
evaluar Calcular el valor de una expresión
sustituyendo las variables por número.
experimental probability An estimated
probability based on the relative frequency of
positive outcomes occurring during an
experiment. It is based on what actually
occurred during such an experiment.
probabilidad experimental Probabilidad
estimada que se basa en la frecuencia relativa de
los resultados positivos que ocurren durante un
experimento.
exponent In a power, the number that tells
how many times the base is used as a factor. In
5 3, the exponent is 3. That is, 5 3 = 5 × 5 × 5.
exponente En una potencia, el número que
indica las veces que la base se usa como factor.
En 5 3, el exponente es 3. Es decir, 5 3 = 5 × 5 × 5.
exterior angle The four outer angles formed
by two lines cut by a transversal.
ángulo externo Los cuatro ángulos exteriores
que se forman cuando una transversal corta dos
rectas.
Ff
fair game A game where each player has an
equally likely chance of winning.
juego justo Juego donde cada jugador tiene
igual posibilidad de ganar.
frequency distribution How many pieces of
data are in each interval.
distribución de frecuencias Cantidad de
datos asociada con cada intervalo.
frequency table A table that shows the
number of pieces of data that fall within the
given intervals.
tabla de frecuencias Tabla que muestra el
número de datos en cada intervalo.
function A relationship that assigns exactly
one output value to one input value.
función Relación que asigna exactamente un
valor de salida a un valor de entrada.
function rule An expression that describes the
relationship between each input and output.
regla de funciones Expresión que describe la
relación entre cada valor de entrada y de salida.
function table A table organizing the input,
rule, and output of a function.
tabla de funciones Tabla que organiza las
entradas, la regla y las salidas de una función.
Fundamental Counting Principle Uses
multiplication of the number of ways each event
in an experiment can occur to find the number
of possible outcomes in a sample space.
Principio Fundamental de Contar Este
principio usa la multiplicación del número de
veces que puede ocurrir cada evento en un
experimento para calcular el número de
posibles resultados en un espacio muestral.
Gg
gap An empty space or interval in a set of
data.
laguna Espacio o intervalo vacío en un
conjunto de datos.
geometric sequence A sequence in which each
term is found by multiplying the previous term
by the same number.
sucesión geométrica Sucesión en la cual cada
término después del primero se determina
multiplicando el término anterior por el mismo
número.
R48 Glossary/Glosario
gráfica Colocar una marca puntual en el punto
que corresponde a un par ordenado.
Hh
height The shortest distance from the base of a
parallelogram to its opposite side.
altura La distancia más corta desde la base de
un paralelogramo hasta su lado opuesto.
height
heptagon
altura
A polygon having seven sides.
heptágono Polígono con siete lados.
histogram A type of bar graph used to display
numerical data that have been organized into
equal intervals.
histograma Tipo de gráfica de barras que se
usa para exhibir datos que se han organizado en
intervalos iguales.
Grade 6 Math Test
Examen de matemáticas de 6-o grado
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Frecuencia
hexágono Polígono con seis lados.
Frequency
hexagon A polygon having six sides.
61–70
71–80
81–90
91–100
Test Scores
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
61–70
71–80
81–90
91–100
Calificaciones
Ii
image The position of a figure after a
transformation.
imagen Posición de una figura después de
una transformación.
independent events Two or more events in
which the outcome of one event does not affect
the outcome of the other event(s).
eventos independientes Dos o más eventos en
los cuales el resultado de un evento no afecta el
resultado de los otros eventos.
inequality A mathematical sentence indicating
that two quantities are not equal.
desigualdad Enunciado matemático que
indica que dos cantidades no son iguales.
integer Any number from the set
{… -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 …} where …
means continues without end.
entero Cualquier número del conjunto
{… -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 …} donde …
significa que continúa sin fin.
interior angle The four inside angles formed
by two lines cut by a transversal.
ángulo interno Los cuatro ángulos internos
formados por dos rectas intersecadas por una
transversal.
Glossary/Glosario
R49
Glossary/Glosario
graph To place a dot at a point named by an
ordered pair.
Glossary/Glosario
intersecting lines Lines that meet or cross at a
common point.
rectas secantes Rectas que se intersectan o se
cruzan en un punto común.
interval The difference between successive
values on a scale.
intervalo La diferencia entre valores sucesivos
de una escala.
inverse operations Operations which undo
each other. For example, addition and
subtraction are inverse operations.
operaciones inversas Operaciones que
se anulan mutuamente. La adición y la
sustracción son operaciones inversas.
isosceles triangle A triangle having at least
two congruent sides.
triángulo isósceles Triángulo que tiene por lo
menos dos lados congruentes.
Ll
least common denominator (LCD) The least
common multiple of the denominators of two or
more fractions.
mínimo común denominador (mcd) El menor
múltiplo común de los denominadores de dos o
más fracciones.
leaves The digits of the least place value of
data in a stem-and-leaf plot.
hoja En un diagrama de tallo y hojas, los
dígitos del menor valor de posición.
like terms Terms that contain the same
variable(s) to the same power.
términos semejantes Términos que contienen
la misma variable o variables elevadas a la
misma potencia.
line A set of points that form a straight path
that goes on forever in opposite directions.
recta Conjunto de puntos que forman una
trayectoria recta sin fin en direcciones oputestas.
linear function A function that forms a line
when graphed.
función lineal
una recta.
line of reflection
is reflected.
The line over which a figure
line of symmetry A line that divides a figure
into two halves that are reflections of each other.
line of
symmetry
line plot A diagram that shows the frequency
of data on a number line.
R50 Glossary/Glosario
Función cuya gráfica es
eje de reflexión La línea sobre la cual se
refleja una figura.
eje de simetría Recta que divide una figura en
dos mitades especulares.
eje de
simetría
esquema lineal Diagrama que muestra la
frecuencia de los datos sobre una recta
numérica.
segmento de recta Parte de una recta que
conecta dos puntos.
line symmetry Figures that match exactly
when folded in half have line symmetry.
simetría lineal Exhiben simetría lineal las
figuras que coinciden exactamente al doblarse
una sobre otra.
Glossary/Glosario
line segment A part of a line that connects two
points.
Mm
mean The sum of the numbers in a set of data
divided by the number of pieces of data.
media La suma de los números en un conjunto
de datos dividida entre el número total de
datos.
measures of central tendency Numbers that
are used to describe the center of a set of data.
These measures include the mean, median, and
mode.
medidas de tendencia central Numéros que
se usan para describir el centro de un conjunto
de datos. Estas medidas incluyen la media, la
mediana y la moda.
median The middle number in a set of data
when the data are arranged in numerical order.
If the data have an even number, the median is
the mean of the two middle numbers.
mediana Número central de un conjunto de
datos, una vez que los datos han sido ordenados
numéricamente. Si hay un número par de datos,
la mediana es el promedio de los dos datos
centrales.
mode The number(s) or item(s) that appear
most often in a set of data.
moda Número(s) de un conjunto de datos que
aparece(n) más frecuentemente.
Nn
negative integer A number that is less than
zero. It is written with a - sign.
entero negativo Número que es menor que
cero y se escribe con el signo -.
net A two-dimensional figure that can be used
to build a three-dimensional figure.
red Figura bidimensional que sirve para hacer
una figura tridimensional.
nonagon A polygon having nine sides.
enágono Polígono que tiene nueve lados.
numerical expression A combination of
numbers and operations.
expresión numérica Una combinación de
números y operaciones.
Oo
obtuse angle Any angle that measures greater
than 90° but less than 180°.
ángulo obtuso Cualquier ángulo que mide
más de 90° pero menos de 180°.
Glossary/Glosario
R51
Glossary/Glosario
obtuse triangle A triangle having one obtuse
angle.
triángulo obtusángulo Triángulo que tiene un
ángulo obtuso.
octagon A polygon having eight sides.
octágono Polígono que tiene ocho lados.
odds in favor The ratio that compares the
number of ways the event can occur to the ways
that the event cannot occur.
posibilidades a favor Razón que compara el
número de maneras en que puede ocurrir un
evento a las maneras en que no puede ocurrir el
evento.
ordered pair A pair of numbers used to locate
a point on the coordinate plane. The ordered
pair is written in the form (x-coordinate,
y-coordinate).
par ordenado Par de números que se utiliza
para ubicar un punto en un plano de
coordenadas. Se escribe de la forma
(coordenada x, coordenada y).
y
y
(1, 3)
x
0
order of operations The rules that tell which
operation to perform first when more than one
operation is used.
1. Simplify the expressions inside grouping
symbols, like parentheses.
2. Find the value of all powers.
3. Multiply and divide in order from left to
right.
4. Add and subtract in order from left to
right.
origin The point of intersection of the x-axis
and y-axis on a coordinate plane.
3
2
1
-3 -2-1
-1
-2
-3
R52 Glossary/Glosario
y
0
1 2 3x
origin
(1, 3)
x
0
orden de las operaciones Reglas que
establecen cuál operación debes realizar
primero, cuando hay más de una operación
involucrada.
1. Primero ejecuta todas las operaciones
dentro de los símbolos de agrupamiento.
2. Evalúa todas las potencias.
3. Multiplica y divide en orden de izquierda a
derecha.
4. Suma y resta en orden de izquierda a
derecha.
origen Punto de intersección de los ejes axiales
en un plano de coordenadas.
3
2
1
-3 -2-1
-1
-2
-3
y
O
1 2 3x
origen
resultado Una consecuencia posible de un
evento de probabilidad. Por ejemplo, 4 es un
resultado posible al lanzar un cubo numérico.
outlier A value that is much higher or much
lower than the other values in a set of data.
valor atípico Dato que se encuentra muy
separado de los otros valores en un conjunto de
datos.
Pp
parallel lines
intersect.
Lines in a plane that never
rectas paralelas
se intersecan.
Rectas en un plano que nunca
parallelogram A quadrilateral with opposite
sides parallel and opposite sides congruent.
paralelogramo Cuadrilátero cuyos lados
opuestos son paralelos y congruentes.
pentagon A polygon having five sides.
pentágono Polígono que tiene cinco lados.
percent A ratio that compares a number
to 100.
por ciento Razón en que se compara un
número a 100.
perfect square Numbers with square roots
that are whole numbers. 25 is a perfect square
because the square root of 25 is 5.
cuadrados perfectos Números cuya raíz
cuadrada es un número entero. 25 es un
cuadrado perfecto porque la raíz cuadrada de
25 es 5.
perimeter
The distance around a figure.
3 units
5 units
4 units
P = 3 + 4 + 5 = 12 units
perímetro La distancia alrededor de
una figura.
3 unidades
5 unidades
4 unidades
P = 3 + 4 + 5 = 12 unidades
pi The ratio of the circumference of a circle to
its diameter. The Greek letter π represents this
number. The value of pi is always 3.1415926….
pi Razón de la circunferencia de un círculo
al diámetro del mismo. La letra griega π
representa este número. El valor de pi es
siempre 3.1415926….
plane A flat surface that goes on forever in all
directions.
plano Superficie plana que se extiende
infinitamente en todas direcciones.
Glossary/Glosario
R53
Glossary/Glosario
outcome Any one of the possible results of an
action. For example, 4 is an outcome when a
number cube is rolled.
Glossary/Glosario
point An exact location in space that is
represented by a dot.
punto Ubicación exacta en el espacio que se
representa con un marca puntual.
polygon A simple closed figure formed by
three or more straight line segments.
polígono Figura cerrada simple formada por
tres o más segmentos de recta.
population The entire group of items or
individuals from which the samples under
consideration are taken.
población El grupo total de individuos o de
artículos del cual se toman las muestras bajo
estudio.
positive integer A number that is greater than
zero. It can be written with or without a + sign.
entero positivo Número que es mayor que
cero y se puede escribir con o sin el signo +.
powers Numbers expressed using exponents.
The power 3 2 is read three to the second power, or
three squared.
potencias Números que se expresan usando
exponentes. La potencia 3 2 se lee tres a la segunda
potencia o tres al cuadrado.
probability The chance that some event will
happen. It is the ratio of the number of favorable
outcomes to the number of possible outcomes.
probabilidad La posibilidad de que suceda un
evento. Es la razón del número de resultados
favorables al número de resultados posibles.
properties
number.
Statements that are true for any
pyramid A three-dimensional figure with at
least three lateral faces that are triangles and
only one base.
propiedades Enunciados que son verdaderos
para cualquier número.
pirámide Figura tridimensional con por lo
menos tres caras laterales triangulares y una
base.
Qq
quadrants The four regions in a coordinate
plane separated by the x-axis and y-axis.
cuadrantes Las cuatro regiones de un plano de
coordenadas separadas por el eje x y el eje y.
quadrilateral A closed figure having four
sides and four angles.
cuadrilátero Figura cerrada que tiene cuatro
lados y cuatro ángulos.
Rr
radical sign The symbol used to indicate a
nonnegative square root, √.
signo radical Símbolo que se usa para indicar
una raíz cuadrada no negativa, √.
radius The distance from the center to any
point on the circle.
radio Distancia desde el centro de un círculo
hasta cualquier punto del mismo.
radius
R54 Glossary/Glosario
radio
azar Los resultados ocurren aleatoriamente si
cada resultado ocurre por casualidad. Por
ejemplo, sacar un número en un cubo numerado
ocurre al azar.
range The difference between the greatest
number and the least number in a set of data.
rango La diferencia entre el número mayor y
el número menor en un conjunto de datos.
rate A ratio comparing two quantities with
different kinds of units.
tasa Razón que compara dos cantidades que
tienen diferentes tipos de unidades.
rate of change A rate that describes how one
quantity changes in relation to another. A rate of
change is usually expressed as a unit rate.
tasa de cambio Tasa que describe cómo
cambia una cantidad con respecto a otra. Por lo
general, se expresa como tasa unitaria.
ratio A comparison of two quantities by
division. The ratio of 2 to 3 can be stated as
razón Comparación de dos cantidades
mediante división. La razón de 2 a 3 puede
2
.
2 out of 3, 2 to 3, 2 : 3, or _
2
.
escribirse como 2 de cada 3, 2 a 3, 2 : 3 ó _
rational number A number that can be written
as a fraction.
número racional Número que se puede
expresar como fracción.
ratio table A table with columns filled with
pairs of numbers that have the same ratio.
tabla de razones Tabla cuyas columnas
contienen pares de números que tienen una
misma razón.
ray A line that has one endpoint and goes on
forever in only one direction.
rayo Recta con un extremo y la cual se
extiende infinitamente en una sola dirección.
reciprocals Any two numbers that have a
recíproco
5
6
5
6
×_
= 1, _
an d _
product of 1. Since _
5
6
5 _
×_
= 1, _
y 6 son
producto es 1. Como _
6
5
6 5
recíprocos.
3
6
are reciprocals.
3
5
6
5
Cualquier par de números cuyo
rectangle A parallelogram having four right
angles.
rectángulo Paralelogramo con cuatro ángulos
rectos.
rectangular prism A three-dimensional figure
with two parallel bases that are congruent
rectangles.
prisma rectangular Figura tridimensional con
dos bases paralelas que son rectángulos
congruentes.
reflection The mirror image produced by
flipping a figure over a line.
reflexión Transformación en la cual una figura
se voltea sobre una recta. También se conoce
como simetría de espejo.
y
"
%
%'
"'
#
$
0
x
$'
#'
y
"
%
%'
"'
#
$
0
x
$'
#'
Glossary/Glosario
R55
Glossary/Glosario
random Outcomes occur at random if each
outcome occurs by chance. For example, rolling
a number on a number cube occurs at random.
Glossary/Glosario
relation A set of ordered pairs such as (1, 3),
(2, 4), and (3, 5). A relation can also be shown in
a table or a graph.
relación Conjunto de pares ordenados como
(1, 3) , (2, 4) y (3, 5). Una relación también se
puede mostrar en una tabla o una gráfica.
repeating decimal A decimal whose digits
repeat in groups of one or more.
decimal periódico Decimal cuyos dígitos se
repiten en grupos de uno o más.
rhombus A parallelogram having four
congruent sides.
rombo Paralelogramo que tiene cuatro lados.
right angle An angle that measures exactly 90°.
ángulo recto Ángulo que mide exactamente 90°.
right triangle A triangle having one right
angle.
triángulo rectángulo Triángulo que tiene un
ángulo recto.
rotation When a figure is rotated around a
point to change the figure’s orientation with
respect to that point.
rotación Transformación en la cual una figura
se gira alrededor de un punto fijo.
y
$
" "
0
y
#
$
x
#
rotational symmetry A type of symmetry a
figure has if it can be rotated a certain number
of degrees about its center and still look like the
original.
$
" "
0
#
$
x
#
simetría rotacional Tipo de simetría que tiene
una figura si se puede girar cierto número de
grados en torno al centro y aún sigue viéndose
como la figura original.
Ss
sample A randomly selected group chosen for
the purpose of collecting data.
R56 Glossary/Glosario
muestra Grupo escogido al azar o
aleatoriamente que se usa con el propósito de
recoger datos.
espacio muestral Conjunto de todos los
resultados posibles de un experimento de
probabilidad.
scale The set of all possible values of a given
measurement, including the least and greatest
numbers in the set, separated by the intervals
used.
escala Conjunto de todos los valores posibles
de una medida dada, incluyendo el número
menor y el mayor del conjunto, separados por
los intervalos usados.
scale The scale gives the ratio that compares
the measurements of a drawing or model to the
measurements of the real object.
escala Razón que compara las medidas de un
dibujo o modelo a las medidas del objeto real.
scale drawing A drawing that is used to
represent objects that are too large or too small
to be drawn at actual size.
dibujo a escala Dibujo que se usa para
representar objetos que son demasiado grandes
o demasiado pequeños como para dibujarlos de
tamaño natural.
scalene triangle A triangle having no
congruent sides.
triángulo escaleno Triángulo sin lados
congruentes.
scaling To multiply or divide two related
quantities by the same number.
homotecia Multiplicar o dividir dos cantidades
relacionadas entre un mismo número.
semicircle
Half of a circle. The formula for the
1 2
πr .
area of a semicircle is A = _
2
r
semicírculo Medio círculo. La fórmula para
1 2
πr .
el área de un semicírculo es A = _
2
r
sequence A list of numbers in a specific order,
such as 0, 1, 2, 3, or 2, 4, 6, 8.
sucesión Lista de números en un orden
específico como, por ejemplo, 0, 1, 2, 3 ó 2, 4, 6, 8.
similar figures Figures that have the same
shape but not necessarily the same size.
figuras semejantes Figuras que tienen la
misma forma, pero no necesariamente el mismo
tamaño.
simple event
outcomes.
One outcome or a collection of
eventos simples Un resultado o una colección
de resultados.
solution The value of a variable
that makes an equation true. The solution of
12 = x + 7 is 5.
solución Valor de la variable de una ecuación
que hace verdadera la ecuación. La solución de
12 = x + 7 es 5.
solve To replace a variable with a value that
results in a true sentence.
resolver Reemplazar una variable con un
valor que resulte en un enunciado verdadero.
Glossary/Glosario
R57
Glossary/Glosario
sample space The set of all possible outcomes
of a probability experiment.
Glossary/Glosario
square A rectangle having four right angles
and four congruent sides.
cuadrado Rectángulo con cuatro ángulos
rectos y cuatro lados congruentes.
square root The factors multiplied to form
perfect squares.
raíz cuadrada Factores multiplicados para
formar cuadrados perfectos.
statistics Collecting, organizing, and
interpreting data.
estadística
datos.
stem-and-leaf plot A system where data are
organized from least to greatest. The digits of
the least place value usually form the leaves,
and the next place-value digits form the stems.
diagrama de tallo y hojas Sistema donde los
datos se organizan de menor a mayor. Por lo
general, los dígitos de los valores de posición
menores forman las hojas y los valores de
posición más altos forman los tallos.
Stem
1
2
3
4
Leaf
2 4 5
1 2 3 3 9
0 4 6 7
4 | 7 = 47
Recopilar, ordenar e interpretar
Tallo
1
2
3
4
Hojas
2 4 5
1 2 3 3 9
0 4 6 7
4 | 7 = 47
stems The digits of the greatest place value of
data in a stem-and-leaf plot.
tallo Los dígitos del mayor valor de posición
de los datos en un diagrama de tallo y hojas.
straight angle An angle that measures exactly
180°.
ángulo llano Ángulo que mide exactamente
180°.
Subtraction Property of Equality If you
subtract the same number from each side of an
equation, the two sides remain equal.
propiedad de sustracción de la igualdad Si
sustraes el mismo número de ambos lados de
una ecuación, los dos lados permanecen iguales.
supplementary angles Two angles are
supplementary if the sum of their measures
is 180°.
ángulos suplementarios Dos ángulos son
suplementarios si la suma de sus medidas
es 180°.
1
1
2
∠1 and ∠2 are supplementary angles.
surface area The sum of the areas of all the
surfaces (faces) of a three-dimensional figure.
S.A. = 2h + 2w + 2hw
3 ft
5 ft
2
∠1 y ∠2 son suplementarios.
área de superficie La suma de las áreas de
todas las superficies (caras) de una figura
tridimensional. S.A. = 2h + 2w + 2hw
3 pies
5 pies
7 ft
7 pies
S.A. = 2(7 × 3) + 2(7 × 5) + 2(3 × 5)
S.A. = 2(7 × 3) + 2(7 × 5) + 2(3 × 5)
= 142 square feet
survey A question or set of questions designed
to collect data about a specific group of people,
or population.
R58 Glossary/Glosario
= 142 pies cuadrados
encuesta Pregunta o conjunto de preguntas
diseñadas para recoger datos sobre un grupo
específico de personas o población.
Glossary/Glosario
Tt
term Each number in a sequence.
término Cada uno de los números de una
sucesión.
term Each part of an algebraic expression
separated by a plus or minus sign.
término Cada parte de un expresión
algebraica separada por un signo más o un
signo menos.
terminating decimal A decimal whose
division ends, or terminates.
decimal terminal Decimal cuya división cesa
o termina.
theoretical probability The ratio of the
number of ways an event can occur to the
number of possible outcomes. It is based on
what should happen when conducting a
probability experiment.
probabilidad teórica Razón del número de
maneras en que puede ocurrir un evento al
número de resultados posibles. Se basa en lo
que debería pasar cuando se conduce un
experimento probabilístico.
three-dimensional figure A solid figure that
has length, width, and height.
figura tridimensional Figura sólida que tiene
largo, ancho y alto.
transformation A movement of a figure that
does not change the size or shape of the figure.
transformación Movimiento de una figura
que no cambia el tamaño o la forma de la figura.
translation The motion of moving a figure
without turning it.
traslación Movimiento de una figura pero sin
rotarla ni voltearla.
y
y
#'
0
#
"
#'
"'
$'
x
$
0
#
"
"'
$'
x
$
trapezoid A quadrilateral with one pair of
parallel sides.
trapecio Cuadrilátero con un único par de
lados paralelos.
tree diagram A diagram used to show the
sample space.
diagrama de árbol Diagrama que se usa para
mostrar el número total de resultados posibles
en un experimento de probabilidad.
triangle A figure with three sides and three
angles.
triángulo Figura con tres lados y tres ángulos.
Triangle Inequality Theorem The sum of the
measures of any two sides of any triangle is
greater than the measure of the third side.
teorema de la desigualdad del triángulo En
cualquier triángulo, la suma de las medidas de
dos lados cualesquiera es mayor que la medida
del tercer lado.
Glossary/Glosario
R59
Glossary/Glosario
triangular prism A prism that has triangular
bases.
prisma triangular Prisma con bases
triangulares.
two-step equation An equation with two
different operations. To solve a two-step
equation, undo the operations in reverse of the
order of operations.
ecuación de dos pasos Ecuación con dos
operaciones diferentes. Para resolver una
ecuación de dos pasos, se anulan las
operaciones en orden contrario al del orden de
las operaciones.
Uu
unbiased sample A sample representative of
the entire population.
muestra no sesgada Muestra que se selecciona
de modo que se representativa de la población
entera.
unfair game A game where there is not a
chance of each player being equally likely to
win.
juego injusto Juego donde cada jugador no
tiene la misma posibilidad de ganar.
unit rate A rate that is simplified so that it has
a denominator of 1.
tasa unitaria Tasa simplificada para que tenga
un denominador igual a 1.
Vv
variable A symbol, usually a letter, used to
represent a number.
variable Un símbolo, por lo general, una letra,
que se usa para representar un número.
vertex A vertex of an angle is the common
endpoint of the rays forming the angle.
vértice El vértice de un ángulo es el extremo
común de los rayos que lo forman.
vertex
vértice
vertical angles Opposite angles formed by the
intersection of two lines. Vertical angles are
congruent.
1
2
∠1 and ∠2 are vertical angles.
R60 Glossary/Glosario
ángulos opuestos por el vértice Ángulos
opuestos formados por la intersección de dos
rectas. Los ángulos opuestos por el vértice son
congruentes.
1
2
∠1 y ∠2 son ángulos opuestos por el vértice.
3m
4m
volumen Cantidad de espacio dentro de una
figura tridimensional. El volumen se mide en
unidades cúbicas.
3m
4m
10 m
10 m
V = 10 × 4 × 3 = 120 cubic meters
Glossary/Glosario
volume The amount of space inside a threedimensional figure. Volume is measured in
cubic units.
V = 10 × 4 × 3 = 120 metros cúbicos
Xx
x-axis The horizontal line of the two
perpendicular number lines in a coordinate
plane.
x-axis 3
2
1
-3 -2-1
-1
-2
-3
eje x La recta horizontal de las dos rectas
numéricas perpendiculares en un plano de
coordenadas.
y
eje x
0
1 2 3x
x-coordinate The first number of an ordered
pair. The x-coordinate corresponds to a number
on the x-axis.
3
2
1
-3 -2-1
-1
-2
-3
y
0
1 2 3x
coordenada x El primer número de un par
ordenado, el cual corresponde a un número en
el eje x.
Yy
y-axis The vertical line of the two
perpendicular number lines in a coordinate
plane.
3
2
1
-3 -2-1
-1
-2
-3
y
y-axis
0
1 2 3x
y-coordinate The second number of an
ordered pair. The y-coordinate corresponds to a
number on the y-axis.
eje y La recta vertical de las dos rectas
numéricas perpendiculares en un plano de
coordenadas.
3
2
1
-3 -2-1
-1
-2
-3
y
eje y
0
1 2 3x
coordenada y El segundo número de un par
ordenado, el cual corresponde a un número en
el eje y.
Glossary/Glosario
R61
Index
Aa
Absolute value, 418, 419–422
Accuracy, 153, 164
Activities. See Explore Lessons;
Extend Lessons
Acute angle, 447
Acute triangle, 458
Addition
Associative Property of, 289
checking subtraction by, 14
Commutative Property of, 289
of decimals, 7–9
of fractions, 13–15
Identity Properties of, 289
of inequalities, 406
repeated, 96
Addition equations, 314–331
modeling, 320–321
solving, 320–321, 322–326
by subtracting, 322
writing, 322–326
Addition Property of Equality,
328–329
Adjacent angles, 453
Algebra, 40, 59, 72, 114, 128,
274–278, 292, 330, 357, 471, 472,
511, 514, 557, 695
properties, 289–293
variables, 274–278
writing expressions, 282–285
Algebraic expressions, 266–309.
See also Expressions
evaluating, 274–275
like terms, 278
terms, 278
using Distributive Property, 297
writing, 279–281, 282–285
two-step, 283
verbal phrases as, 282–283
Algebra tiles
Distributive Property, 297
equivalent expressions, 295
expressions with variables, 295
solving two-step equations,
344, 346
Analysis
of circle graphs, 677
of data, 640–707
measures of central
tendency, 643–660
outliers, 657, 658
R62 Index
of displays, 652
of tables, 183, 232, 251, 381,
653
Angles, 441–456
acute, 447
adjacent, 453
classifying, 447, 452
classifying triangles by, 458
complementary, 452
degree of, 446
drawing, 450
exterior, 479
interior, 475
measuring, 446–450
missing measures of, 451, 453
notation for, 452
obtuse, 447
pairs of, 452
of quadrilaterals, 467, 469–470
relationships of, 451–456
right, 447
of rotation, 504
on spinners, 712
straight, 447
supplementary, 452
in triangles, 457, 458
vertex of, 446
Annexing zeros, 8, 33, 39
Area, 522–539
of circles, 547, 548–552
of composite figures, 561–565
of irregular figures, 559–560
of parallelograms, 522–527
of semicircles, 549
of trapezoids, 535–539
of triangles, 528, 529–534
Are You Ready for the Chapter?,
24, 88, 146, 198, 268, 312, 364, 440,
520, 596, 642, 710
Arithmetic sequences, 377–378
Assessment. See Check Your
Progress; Mid-Chapter Check;
Practice Chapter Test; Prerequisite
Skills; Quick Check; Quick
Review; Spiral Review;
Standardized Test Practice; Test
Practice
Associative Property
of Addition, 289
of Multiplication, 289
Average, 644. See also mean
Bb
Back-to-back stem-and-leaf plot,
667
Balanced equation, 321
Bar diagrams, 178–179
Bar graph, 19–21, 682
double, 21
Base
of exponents, 62
of a parallelogram, 522–524
of prisms, 599
of a triangular prism, 599
Biased samples, 748–749
Big Ideas, 22, 86, 144, 196, 266,
310, 362, 438, 518, 594, 640, 708
Box-and-whisker plots, 655–656
Cc
Calculator, 609
Careers
bicycle designer, 486
cosmetics chemists, 186
interior designer, 630
landscape architect, 582
marine biologist, 696
meteorologist, 416
pastry chef, 134
pediatricians, 752
sound engineer, 352
special effects animators, 254
sports equipment designers, 76
water slide engineers, 300
Categorical data, 661
Center, 541
Central tendency. See Measures
of central tendency
Challenge. See H.O.T. Problems
Chapter Test. See Practice
Chapter Test
Check for Reasonableness, 67,
211, 453, 677, 739
Check Your Progress, 5, 7, 8, 10,
11, 14, 17, 20, 25, 26, 32, 33, 38, 39,
42, 43, 49, 50, 56, 57, 62, 63, 66, 67,
70, 71, 92, 93, 98, 99, 106, 107, 112,
113, 120, 121, 127, 130, 131, 150,
151, 158, 159, 163, 165, 174, 175,
201, 204, 205, 211, 214, 215, 218,
Choose a Major. See Careers
Circle graphs, 674–675, 676–680,
682
analyzing, 677
sketching, 676
Circles, 540–552
area of, 547, 548–552
center, 541
circumference, 540, 541–546
diameter, 541–543
fraction, 447
radius, 541–543
surface area of, 626–629
volume of, 626–629
Compound events, 733
Concept Summary
inequalities, 396
multiple representations of
functions, 388
problem solving strategies, 5
statistical displays, 682
using mean, median, mode,
657
Cones, 612, 613–616
Congruence, 442
of figures, 480–485, 491, 529
of line segments, 442
of polygons, 480–485
in translations, 492
Conjectures, making, 31, 32, 36,
37, 38, 48, 55, 91, 97, 105, 119, 125,
148, 157, 209, 222, 228, 242, 247,
280, 289, 294, 295, 321, 334, 339,
372, 395, 451, 457, 467, 480, 522,
528, 529, 535, 540, 568, 576, 597,
598, 602, 607, 620, 643, 649, 656,
687, 717, 724, 725, 732, 737, 748
Conversions. See also Customary
units; Metric units
Coordinate graph. See Coordinate
plane
Circumference, 540, 541–546
estimation of, 542
Coordinate grid. See Coordinate
plane
Clockwise, 491
Coordinate plane, 366, 367,
418–427
graphing ordered pairs in, 424
rotations in, 490
Closed figure, 474
Coefficient, 335
Commutative Property
of Addition, 289
of Multiplication, 99, 289
Comparing and ordering
numbers
customary units, 17
decimals, 234–235, 236–241
fractions, 227–228, 229–233
metric units, 17
mixed numbers, 229–230
percents, 234–235, 236–241
using number lines, 227–228,
238
Compatible numbers, 42, 92
Complementary angles, 452
Complementary events, 713
Complex figures. See Composite
figures
Composite figures, 554–567,
625–629
area of, 561–565
perimeter of, 554–558
Corresponding sides, 481
Counterclockwise, 491
Counterexample, 293
Cross-curricular connections
anatomy, 112
archaeology, 605
architecture, 532, 582–583
art, 68, 138, 179, 306, 462, 472,
498, 500, 524, 532, 550, 622,
635, 771, 773
astronomy, 26, 114, 206
atmospheric science, 416–417
biology, 220
chemistry, 186–187
geography, 58, 73, 253, 268, 426,
536, 537, 619, 646, 684
geology, 72, 578
health, 769
history, 605
language arts, 765, 767, 769, 771
life science, 224, 678
marine biology, 696–697
music, 24, 75, 100, 109, 111, 146,
158, 200, 226, 276, 323, 326,
337, 352–353, 374, 404, 415,
544, 644, 645, 659, 678, 721
physical education, 108, 769
physics, 81
science, 12, 27, 52, 68, 91, 132,
358, 373, 401, 421, 609, 664,
695, 700, 765, 767, 771, 773
social studies, 330, 767, 773
sports, 68, 108, 161, 179, 214,
217, 249, 260, 320, 695, 745,
756
weather, 15, 43, 94, 100, 116,
216, 350, 358, 643, 651, 659,
661, 662
Cubic units, 569
Cumulative frequency, 664
Customary units, 17
Cylinders
nets of, 620
surface area of, 618–624
volume of, 607, 608–611
Dd
Data, 644. See also Data analysis;
Data collection
analyzing, 640–707
categorical, 661
collecting, 743–751
to solve a problem, 686–687
describing, 365
interpreting, 668
Data analysis. See Data; Data
collection; Graphs; Statistics;
Tables
Data collection. See Data; Data
analysis
Data displays, 661–672
back-to-back stem-and-leaf
plot, 666
bar graphs, 19–21, 682
circle graphs, 674–675, 676–680,
682
frequency tables, 661–665, 682
histograms, 668–672
selecting an appropriate
display, 681–685
stem-and-leaf plots, 666–667,
682
Decagon, 474
Decimals, 22–85, 200–207
adding, 7–9
annexing zeros, 8
comparing and ordering,
234–235, 236–241
Index
R63
Index
219, 222, 223, 230, 231, 236, 237,
238, 243, 249, 270, 271, 275, 283,
290, 291, 296, 297, 315, 323, 324,
329, 335, 336, 341, 347, 348, 367,
368, 373, 374, 377, 378, 379, 383,
384, 389, 390, 396, 397, 402, 403,
408, 409, 412, 413, 419, 420, 424,
441, 442, 443, 447, 451, 452, 453,
458, 459, 460, 469, 470, 475, 476,
481, 482, 490, 491, 492, 496, 497,
498, 503, 504, 523, 524, 530, 531,
536, 542, 543, 548, 549, 554, 555,
556, 561, 562, 571, 578, 599, 603,
604, 608, 609, 613, 614, 622, 626,
627, 645, 650, 651, 657, 658, 661,
662, 668, 669, 676, 677, 681, 682,
689, 690, 712, 713, 719, 720, 726,
727, 734, 739
Index
dividing, 42–60
by decimals, 54–55, 56–60
by estimation, 42–46
by whole numbers, 47–48,
49–53
as fractions, 200–203
fractions as, 204–207
as mixed numbers, 201
mixed numbers as, 205
multiplying, 25–41
by decimals, 36–37, 38–41
by estimation, 25–29
by whole numbers, 30–31,
32–35
as percents, 219, 223
percents as, 218, 222
repeating, 207
rounding, 25–26
subtracting, 7–9, 33
terminating, 207
Decomposing figures, 570
Defining the variable, 282
Degree, 446
Denominator, least common, 229
Dependent events, 732–742
Diagnose readiness. See
Prerequisite Skills
Diagonals, 475
Diameter, 541–543
Difference. See Subtraction
Dilations, 507
Distribution, 668
Distributive Property, 294–295,
296–299
Division equations, 333–343
solving, 340–343
writing, 340–343
671, 675, 679, 685, 693, 715, 722,
725, 729, 736, 741, 746, 749. See also
H.O.T. Problems
Division Property of Equality,
336
Estimation, 544, 545, 573, 579
of circumference, 542
dividing decimals, 42–46
multiplying decimals, 25–29
multiplying fractions, 92–95
of percents, 243–247
of products, 25–29, 92–95
of quotients, 42–46
Divisors, 42
Double bar graph, 21
Drawing
angles, 450
scale, 177
Ee
Equality, Properties of
Addition, 328–329
Division, 336
Equals sign, 314
Equations, 310–361. See also
Two-step equations
addition, 314–331
balanced, 321
division, 333–343
linear, 384
modeling, 320–321
multiplication, 333–343, 545
solving, 320–321, 322–326,
328–331, 335–338, 340–343,
346–351
mentally, 315
subtraction, 314–331
two-step, 344–351
writing, 322–326, 335–338,
340–343, 346–351
to represent functions, 383
Dividends
rounding, 42
zeros in, 57
Equilateral triangle, 459
Division
compatible numbers, 42
of decimals, 42–60
by decimals, 54–55, 56–60
by estimation, 42–46
by whole numbers, 47–48,
49–53
of fractions, 117–133
by fractions, 124–125,
126–129
by mixed numbers, 131
mixed numbers by, 130
by whole numbers, 117–119
whole numbers by, 120–123
of groups by ratios, 151
of inequalities, 408
of mixed numbers, 130–133,
526
of money, 50
of powers, 70–73
Equivalent ratios, 163–164,
173–177
of larger quantities, 163
of smaller quantities, 164
R64 Index
Equivalent expressions, 289–290
Equivalent fractions, 175, 231
Essential Questions, 29, 31, 35,
41, 45, 48, 53, 60, 64, 69, 73, 95,
101, 103, 109, 115, 123, 129, 133,
155, 161, 168, 171, 177, 178, 184,
199, 203, 207, 213, 217, 221, 225,
233, 235, 241, 246, 247, 251, 253,
273, 277, 285, 287, 293, 295, 299,
317, 318, 326, 331, 338, 343, 344,
345, 350, 365, 370, 376, 381, 393,
399, 401, 405, 406, 411, 415, 422,
427, 445, 449, 455, 462, 464, 472,
478, 485, 489, 495, 501, 506, 507,
533, 538, 545, 551, 558, 559, 564,
567, 574, 580, 601, 606, 611, 616,
624, 629, 648, 653, 660, 665, 666,
Evaluate algebraic expressions,
274–275
Events. See also Probability
complementary, 713
compound, 733
dependent, 732–742
independent, 732–742
simple, 711–712
Experimental probability,
717–718
Explore Lessons. See also Extend
Lessons
Absolute Value, 418
Addition Equations, 320–321
Angles in Quadrilaterals, 467
Angles in Triangles, 457
Area of Circles, 547
Area of Irregular Figures,
559–560
Area of Triangles, 528
Circle Graphs, 674–675
Circumference, 540
Compare Fractions, 227–228
Composite Shapes, 620
The Distributive Property,
294–295
Divide by Decimals, 54–55
Divide by Fractions, 117–119
Divide Decimals by Whole
Numbers, 47–48
Divide Fractions, 124–125
Division Equations, 339
Find Fractional Parts, 242
Find Percent of a Number, 247
Find the Mean, 643
Fractions, Decimals, and
Percents on a Number Line,
234–235
Function Machines, 371–372
Model Percents, 208–209
Multiplication Equations,
333–334
Multiply Decimals, 36–37
Multiply Decimals by Whole
Numbers, 30–31
Multiply Fractions, 104–105
Multiply Fractions and Whole
Numbers, 96–97
Exponents, 62–65, 271
base, 62
perfect square, 65
powers, 62
Expressions. See also Algebraic
expressions; Numerical
expressions
with absolute value, 420
equivalent, 289–290
numerical, 270–273
simplifying, 604
writing, 282–285
Extend Lessons. See also Explore
Lessons
Box-and-Whisker Plots,
655–656
Collect Data to Solve a
Problem, 686–687
Dilations, 507
Experimental and Theoretical
Probability, 717–718
Fair and Unfair, 724–725
Graphing Technology: Ratio
Tables, 169
Spreadsheets and Mean, 649
Stem-and-Leaf Plots, 666–667
Unbiased and Biased Samples,
748–749
Exterior angle, 479
Extra Practice, EP2–EP36
Extreme values. See Outliers
Ff
Factors, 107, 199
greatest common, 10–12, 127, 151
Fair game, 724–725
Figures
closed, 474
composite, 554–567, 624–669
congruent, 480–485, 491, 529
decomposing, 570
identifying, 441
irregular, 559–560
similar, 480–485
simple, 474
three-dimensional, 569,
575–576, 625–669
Financial literacy, 251, 276, 291,
349, 368, 551, 647, 664
allowances, 5, 340
budget, 257, 414
business, 689
coins, 549, 734
currency, 45
discount, 192, 213
donations, 75, 148, 149, 281
fundraising, 15, 131, 160, 174,
191, 234, 268, 367, 389, 683
income, 290, 305, 355
marketing, 690, 695
minimum wage, 82
money, 6, 9, 26, 27, 28, 33, 44,
47, 50, 68, 80, 81, 89, 91, 103,
107, 137, 165, 166, 171, 172,
190, 217, 220, 223, 253, 259,
313, 316, 325, 343, 344, 356,
380, 388, 392, 401, 419, 421,
427, 431, 432, 673, 695, 702,
738, 740, 751, 757
profit, 26, 44, 405
sales, 172, 410, 413, 688, 726
sales tax, 250
savings, 45, 72, 176, 185, 260,
333, 427, 434
shopping, 24, 73, 75, 189, 239,
250, 271, 320, 327, 330, 339,
343, 374, 384, 465
stocks, 202
taxes, 253, 277
Find the Error. See H.O.T.
Problems
Foldables® Study Organizer
algebraic expressions, 266
analyze data and graphs, 640
equations, 310
fractions, decimals, and
percents, 196
functions, inequalities, and
integers, 362
multiply and divide decimals,
22
multiply and divide fractions,
86
perimeter, area, and volume,
518
probability, 708
properties of triangles and
quadrilaterals, 438
ratios and rates, 144
volume and surface area, 594
Formulas. See also Measurement;
Rates
area
of a circle, 548
of a parallelogram, 523
of a semicircle, 549
of a trapezoid, 535
of a triangle, 529
perimeter of a rectangle, 554
surface area
of composite figures, 627
of a cylinder, 621
volume
of composite figures, 626
of a cone, 613
of a cylinder, 608
of a pyramid, 603
of a triangular prism, 598
Four-step plan for
problem-solving, 4–6
Fractional parts, 242
Fraction circles, 447
Fractions, 86–143, 200–207. See
also Rational numbers
adding, 13–15
comparing and ordering,
227–228, 229–233
with decimals, 234–235,
236–241
with mixed numbers,
229–230
with percents, 234–235,
236–241
as decimals, 204–207
decimals as, 200–203
dividing, 117–133
by fractions, 124–125,
126–129
by mixed numbers, 131
mixed numbers by, 130
by whole numbers, 117–119
whole numbers by, 120–123
equivalent, 175, 231
multiplying, 104–115, 734
by estimation, 92–95
by mixed numbers, 112–115
simplifying before, 107
by whole numbers, 90–103
Index
R65
Index
Multiply Whole Numbers and
Mixed Numbers, 111
Part of a Number, 90–91
Probability of Dependent
Events, 737
Probability of Independent
Events, 732
Ratio and Rate Problems,
178–179
Ratios, 148–149
Solve Inequalities, 406
Solve Inequalities Using
Models, 395
Subtraction Equations, 327
Surface Area of Cylinders, 620
Surface Area of Rectangular
Prisms, 575–576
Transformations, 488–489
Two-Step Equations, 344–345
Unit Rates, 156–157
Volume of Cones, 612
Volume of Cylinders, 607
Volume of Prisms, 597
Volume of Pyramids, 602
Volume of Rectangular Prisms,
568
Write Expressions, 279–281
Index
as percents, 214–217
percents as, 210–213, 222
rounding, 93
simplest form of, 201
subtracting, 13–15
unlike, 13–14
Frequency
cumulative, 664
distribution, 668
Frequency tables, 661–665, 682
intervals, 662
scale of, 662
Function machines, 371–372
Function rule, 373, 377–382
finding, 378–379
Functions, 366–393
graphs of, 390, 392
linear, 383–387
multiple representations of,
388–393
writing an equation to
represent, 383
Function tables, 373–376
finding a rule for, 379
input value, 374
output value, 373
Fundamental Counting Principle,
726–730
Gg
621, 625, 626, 643, 644, 649, 650,
655, 657, 661, 666, 668, 674, 676,
681, 686, 688, 711, 717, 719, 724,
726, 732, 733, 737, 738, 743, 748
Glossary, R42–R61
Graphic Novel, 23, 28, 59, 87, 94,
132, 145, 154, 176, 197, 240, 245,
267, 277, 298, 311, 325, 342, 363,
392, 410, 439, 519, 551, 564, 595,
610, 623, 641, 647, 653, 709, 715,
741
Graphs
bar, 19–21, 682
circle, 674–675, 676–680, 682
double bar, 21
finding rate of change from,
162
of functions, 390, 392
of inequalities, 402–405, 422
of integers, 420
line, 19–21, 682
of linear functions, 384, 387
misleading, 688–693
of ordered pairs, 367, 424
of ratio tables, 169
of relations, 366–370
selecting appropriate, 20
of translations, 490–491
Greatest common factor (GCF),
10–12, 127, 151
using prime numbers, 11
Hh
Games. See Fair game; Unfair
game
GCF. See Greatest common factor
(GCF)
Height, 522–524
Geometric sequence, 379
Hexagon, 474
Geometry, 171, 172, 275, 277, 287,
292, 380, 426, 465, 477, 494, 500,
567, 590, 600, 715
Histograms, 668–672
Get Connected, 25, 30, 32, 36, 38,
42, 47, 49, 54, 56, 62, 66, 70, 90, 92,
96, 98, 104, 106, 111, 112, 117, 120,
124, 126, 130, 148, 150, 156, 158,
163, 169, 173, 178, 180, 200, 204,
208, 210, 214, 218, 222, 227, 229,
234, 236, 242, 243, 247, 248, 270,
274, 279, 282, 289, 294, 296, 314,
320, 322, 327, 328, 333, 335, 339,
340, 344, 346, 366, 371, 373, 377,
383, 388, 395, 396, 402, 406, 407,
412, 418, 419, 423, 441, 446, 451,
457, 458, 467, 468, 474, 480, 488,
490, 496, 502, 507, 522, 528, 529,
535, 540, 541, 547, 548, 554, 559,
561, 568, 569, 575, 577, 597, 598,
602, 603, 607, 608, 612, 613, 620,
R66 Index
Heptagon, 474
H.O.T. Problems
Challenge, 29, 35, 41, 45, 53, 60,
64, 69, 73, 95, 101, 109, 115,
129, 133, 155, 161, 168, 177,
184, 203, 213, 217, 221, 225,
233, 241, 246, 251, 273, 277,
285, 293, 299, 317, 326, 338,
350, 370, 376, 393, 399, 405,
411, 415, 422, 427, 445, 449,
455, 462, 472, 478, 485, 495,
501, 527, 533, 538, 545, 551,
558, 564, 574, 580, 601, 606,
624, 648, 653, 660, 685, 693,
715, 722, 736, 741, 746
Essential Questions, 29, 31, 35,
41, 45, 48, 53, 60, 64, 69, 73, 95,
101, 103, 109, 115, 123, 129,
133, 155, 161, 168, 171, 177,
178, 184, 199, 203, 207, 213,
217, 221, 225, 233, 235, 241,
246, 247, 251, 253, 273, 277,
285, 287, 293, 295, 299, 317,
318, 326, 331, 338, 343, 344,
345, 350, 365, 370, 376, 381,
393, 399, 401, 405, 406, 411,
415, 422, 427, 445, 449, 455,
462, 464, 472, 478, 485, 489,
495, 501, 506, 507, 533, 538,
545, 551, 558, 559, 564, 567,
574, 580, 601, 606, 611, 616,
624, 629, 648, 653, 660, 665,
666, 671, 675, 679, 685, 693,
715, 722, 725, 729, 736, 741,
746, 749
Find the Error, 9, 15, 53, 69, 101,
123, 161, 184, 203, 225, 273,
285, 331, 350, 376, 405, 478,
506, 533, 574, 606, 616, 665,
679, 736, 746
Number Sense, 41, 45, 73, 109,
115, 168, 171, 246, 251, 293,
319, 619, 629, 729, 751
Open Ended, 29, 35, 41, 45, 64,
101, 115, 129, 133, 155, 184,
207, 213, 221, 233, 251, 277,
293, 299, 317, 326, 343, 350,
370, 381, 399, 411, 427, 445,
455, 462, 472, 478, 485, 501,
527, 538, 545, 558, 601, 611,
616, 629, 648, 671, 729, 741,
746
Reasoning, 35, 41, 45, 53, 69, 73,
95, 109, 129, 184, 317, 343, 350,
393, 445, 449, 455, 495, 527,
551, 580, 611, 624, 648, 653,
660, 671, 685
Which One Doesn’t Belong?,
60, 133, 217, 338, 415, 422
Write Math, 29, 31, 35, 41, 45,
48, 53, 60, 64, 69, 73, 95, 101,
103, 109, 115, 123, 129, 133,
155, 161, 168, 171, 177, 178,
184, 199, 203, 207, 213, 217,
221, 225, 233, 235, 241, 246,
247, 251, 253, 273, 277, 285,
287, 293, 295, 299, 317, 318,
326, 331, 338, 343, 344, 345,
350, 365, 370, 376, 381, 393,
399, 401, 405, 406, 411, 415,
422, 427, 445, 449, 455, 462,
464, 472, 478, 485, 489, 495,
501, 506, 507, 533, 538, 545,
551, 558, 559, 564, 567, 574,
580, 601, 606, 611, 616, 624,
629, 648, 653, 660, 665, 666,
671, 675, 679, 685, 693, 715,
722, 725, 729, 736, 741, 746,
749
Identity Properties
of Addition, 289–290
of Multiplication, 289–290
Image, 490
Independent events, 732–742
Inequalities, 395–415. See also
One-step inequalities; Two-step
inequalities
addition, 406
division, 408
graphing, 402–405, 422
multiplication, 408
solutions of, 396–397
solving, 406
one-step, 407–411
two-step, 412–415
using models, 395
subtraction, 406
symbol for, 396
two-step, 412–415
writing, 402–405
Input value, 371–372, 374. See also
Functions
Integers, 418–427
graphing, 420
negative, 419
positive, 419
Interior angle, 475–476
Interpolating from data. See
Predictions, making
Intersecting lines, 442–443
Interval, 662
Inverse operations, 335
Investigations. See Explore
Lessons; Extend Lessons;
Problem-Solving Investigations
Irregular figures, 559–560. See
also Composite figures
Isosceles triangle, 459
Kk
Key Concept, 78, 136, 188, 256,
302, 354, 428, 508, 584, 632, 698,
754
absolute value, 420
addition and subtraction
properties, 407
Addition Property of Equality,
328–329
add or subtract unlike
fractions, 13
angles, 447
angles of a quadrilateral, 469
area of a circle, 548
area of a parallelogram, 523
area of a trapezoid, 535
area of a triangle, 529
circumference, 542
classifying quadrilaterals, 468
classify triangles using angles,
458
classify triangles using sides,
459
compare two fractions, 229
congruent, 442
decimals as percents, 219
Distributive Property, 296
divide fractions, 121, 126
Division Property of Equality,
336
fractions-decimals-percents,
237
Fundamental Counting
Principal, 726–730
interior angle sum of a
polygon, 476
mean, 644
median and mode, 650
multiplication and division
properties, 408
Multiplicative Property of
Zero, 293
multiply fractions and whole
numbers, 98
multiplying fractions, 106
multiply mixed numbers, 112
order of operations, 270
pairs of angles, 452
pairs of lines, 442
percent, 210
percents as decimals, 218
perimeter of rectangles, 554
probability, 711
probability of dependent
events, 738
probability of independent
events, 733
properties, 289
radius and diameter, 541
reflection, 497
rotations in the coordinate
plane, 490
round decimals, 25
solve two-step equations, 347
Subtraction Property of
Equality, 323
sum of angle measures in a
triangle, 460
surface area of a cylinder, 621
surface area of a rectangular
prism, 577
translations, 491
volume of a cone, 613
volume of a cylinder, 608
volume of a pyramid, 603
volume of a triangular prism,
598
volume of rectangular prism,
569
Index
Ii
Ll
LCD. See Least common
denominator (LCD)
LCM. See Least common multiple
(LCM)
Least common denominator
(LCD), 229
Least common multiple (LCM),
10–12, 230
Leaves, 666. See also
Stem-and-leaf plots
Like terms, 278
Linear equations, 384. See also
Equations
Linear functions, 383–387. See
also Functions
graphing, 384, 387
Line graphs, 19–21, 682
Line plot, 682
Lines, 441–456. See also Functions;
Linear equations; Linear
functions; Line graphs; Line plot;
Line segments
classifying pairs of, 443
intersecting, 442–443
parallel, 442–443
perpendicular, 442–443
of reflection, 496–497
of symmetry, 498
Line segments, 441
congruence of, 442
notation for, 459
Line symmetry, 498
Log, 687
Mm
Machines, function, 371–372
Magnifications. See Dilations
Manipulatives. See Algebra tiles
Math in the Media, 40, 59, 114,
122, 184, 232, 350, 449, 500, 527,
545, 605, 721
Mean, 643, 644–648, 649
Index
R67
Index
choosing an appropriate
measure, 657–658
spreadsheets and, 649
Measurement, 9, 16–18, 34, 39,
40, 52, 58, 59, 69, 79, 93, 110, 113,
114, 116, 117, 121, 127, 128, 132,
232, 337, 369, 393, 429, 539, 552.
See also Area; Customary units;
Metric units; Volume;
Temperature
of angles, 446–450
customary units, 16
metric units, 17
precise, 624
Measures of central tendency,
643–660
box-and-whisker plots,
655–656
choosing an appropriate
measure, 657–660
mean, 643, 644–648, 649
median, 650–654
mode, 650–654
range, 650–654
Media. See Math in the Media
Median, 650–654
choosing an appropriate
measure, 657–658
Mental math, 42, 65, 71, 117, 201,
291, 296, 315, 530, 536
Metric units, 17
Mid-Chapter Check, 61, 116, 172,
226, 288, 332, 394, 466, 553, 617,
673, 731
Misleading statistics, 688–693
Missing measures
of angles, 451, 453
to find perimeter, 556
of a parallelogram, 524
of quadrilaterals, 470
of rectangular prisms, 571
of triangles, 460, 531
Mixed numbers
comparing and ordering,
229–230
as decimals, 205
decimals as, 201
dividing, 130–133, 526
by fractions, 130
fractions by, 131
by whole numbers, 117–119
whole numbers by, 120–123
multiplying, 112–115
whole numbers by, 111
Mixed Problem-Solving, 75, 103,
171, 253, 287, 319, 401, 465, 567,
619, 695, 751
R68 Index
Mode, 650–654
choosing an appropriate
measure, 657–658
Models. See also Algebra tiles
percents, 208–209
to solve inequalities, 395
More About
angles, 450, 456
decimals, 207
equivalent ratios, 177
exponents, 65
graphing, 387
integers and absolute value, 422
polygons, 479
probability, 716
properties, 293
rates, 162
surface area, 624
triangles, 463
variables and expressions, 278
Multiple Representations, 109,
161, 212, 284, 330, 350, 369, 478,
480, 526, 533, 547, 615, 647, 729
of functions, 388–393
Multiples, 11, 199
least common, 10–12, 230
Multiplication
annexing zeros, 33, 39
Associative Property of, 289
Commutative Property of, 99,
289
compatible numbers, 92
of decimals, 25–41
by decimals, 36–37, 38–41
by estimation, 25–29
by whole numbers, 30–31,
32–35
Distributive Property, 294–295,
296–299
of fractions, 104–115, 734
by estimation, 92–95
by mixed numbers, 112–115
simplifying before, 107
by whole numbers, 90–103
Identity Properties of, 289
of inequalities, 408
inverse operations, 335
of mixed numbers, 112–115
by whole numbers, 111
of powers, 66–69
scaling, 164–165
symbol for, 275
Multiplication equations,
333–343, 545
solving, 335–338
writing, 335–338
Multiplicative Property of Zero,
293
Nn
Negative integers, 419
Nets, 575–576
of a cylinder, 620
making from a drawing, 576
of prisms, 575
Nonagon, 474
Nonlinear functions. See
Functions
Notation
absolute value, 420
identifying polygons, 481
line segments, 459
measure of angle, 452
probability, 712, 722
segments, 482
Note taking, 521. See also
Foldables® Study Organizer
Number lines
comparing fractions, decimals,
percents using, 238
comparing fractions using,
227–228
Numbers. See also Whole
numbers
compatible, 42, 92
part of, 90–91
percent of, 247, 248–251
prime, 11
rational, 200
whole
dividing, 47–48, 49–53
multiplying, 30–31, 32–35
Number Sense. See H.O.T.
Problems
Number theory, 171
Numerical expressions, 270–273.
See also Expressions
order of operations, 270–271
Oo
Obtuse angle, 447
Obtuse triangle, 458
Octagon, 474
Odds in favor, 716
One-step inequalities, 407–411.
See also Inequalities
Open Ended. See H.O.T.
Problems
Operations
inverse, 335
order of, 270–271, 347
Pi (π), 542–543, 549, 621–622,
624
measurement, 16–18
plan for problem-solving, 4–6
Planes, 441–445
coordinate, 366, 418–427, 490
Prime factorization, 11
Order of operations, 270–271, 347
Ordinate. See y-coordinate
Points, 441–445
Origin, 366
rotations about, 491
Polygons, 467–485
classifying, 475
decagon, 474
exterior angles of, 479
heptagon, 474
hexagon, 474
interior angle of, 475–476
interior angle sum of, 475–476
nonagon, 474
octagon, 474
pentagon, 474
properties of, 474–479
quadrilaterals, 467, 468–473
similar and congruent, 480–485
Prisms
base of, 599
nets of, 575
triangular, 598–601
volume of, 597, 599
Outcomes, 711–712, 720. See also
Probability
finding the number of, 726–727
odds in favor of, 716
random, 712
Outliers, 657, 658
Output value, 371–372, 373, 374.
See also Functions
Pp
Pairs
of angles, 452
ordered, 366–367, 424
Parallel lines, 442–443
Parallelogram
area of, 522–527
base of, 522–524
height of, 522–524
missing measures of, 524
Parentheses, 271
Parts. See also Percents
comparing to whole, 151
fractional, 242
of a number, 90–91
Pascal’s Triangle, 171
Patterns, 170–171
Pentagon, 474
Percents, 208–225
applying, 242–253
comparing and ordering,
234–235, 236–241
as decimals, 218, 222
decimals as, 219, 223
estimating with, 243–247
as fractions, 210–213, 222
fractions as, 214–217
greater than 100%, 222–225
less than 1%, 222–225
modeling, 208–209
of a number, 247, 248–251
Perfect square, 65
Perimeter
of composite figures, 554–558
missing measures to find, 556
of rectangles, 554
Perpendicular lines, 442–443, 522
Population, 743
samples of, 743, 748–749
Positive exponents. See
exponents.
Positive integers, 419
Powers, 62. See also Powers of 10
as products, 63
products as, 62
Powers of 10, 62–75. See also
Powers
dividing by, 70–73
greater than 1, 70–71
less than 1, 71
exponents, 62–65
multiplying by, 66–69
greater than 1, 66–67
less than 1, 67
Practice Chapter Test, 82, 140,
192, 262, 306, 358, 434, 514, 590,
636, 704, 758
Precise measurement, 624
Predictions, making, 540, 724,
725, 743–747
using ratios, 744
Preparing for Standardized Tests,
83, 141, 193, 263, 307, 359, 435,
515, 591, 637, 705, 759. See also
Standardized Test Practice
Prerequisite Skills. See also Are
You Ready for the Chapter?;
Quick Review
add and subtract decimals, 7–9
add and subtract fractions,
13–15
bar graphs, 19–21
greatest common factor, 10–12
least common multiples, 10–12
line graphs, 19–21
Index
Ordered pair, 366–367
graphing, 367, 424
identifying, 424
Prime numbers, 11, 491
Probability, 708–761
complementary events, 713
compound events, 733
dependent events, 732–742
experimental, 717–718
fair game, 724–725
independent events, 732–742
notation for, 712
outcomes, 711–712, 716, 720,
726–727
predictions, making, 743–747
random outcomes, 712
sample spaces, 719–723
simple event, 711–712
theoretical, 717–718
unfair game, 724–725
using a tree diagram to find, 720
Problem-solving. See also
Conjectures, making; Mixed
Problem-Solving; Problem-Solving
Investigations; Problem-Solving
Projects; Real-World Examples
in atmospheric science, 416–417
in bicycle design, 486–487
in chemistry, 186–187
collecting data for, 686–687
in culinary arts, 134–135
in design, 76–77, 630–631
in engineering, 300–301
four-step plan for, 4–6
in landscape architecture,
582–583
in marine biology, 696–697
in medicine, 752–753
in movies, 254–255
in music, 352–353
strategies for, 5
Problem-Solving Investigations.
See also Problem-solving; ProblemSolving Projects
Act It Out, 286–287, 750–751
Draw a Diagram, 102–103,
464–465, 618–619
Guess, Check, and Revise,
400–401
Look for a Pattern, 170–171
Make a Model, 566–567
Reasonable Answers, 74–75
Solve a Simpler Problem,
252–253
Index
R69
Index
Use Logical Reasoning, 694–695
Word Backward, 318–319
Problem-Solving Projects,
762–773. See also Problem-solving;
Problem-Solving Investigations
Products. See also Multiplication
computing mentally, 296
estimating, 25–29, 92–95
as powers, 62
powers as, 63
Properties, 289–299
of algebra, 289–293
Associative
of Addition, 289
of Multiplication, 289
Commutative
of Addition, 289
of Multiplication, 99, 289
Distributive, 294–295, 296–299
of Equality
Addition, 328–329
Division, 336
Multiplicative of Zero, 293
of polygons, 474–479
of quadrilaterals, 438–517
of triangles, 438–517
Proportions, 174
Protractor, 450
Pyramids, 602, 603
Qq
Quadrants, 423
Quadratic functions. See
Functions
Quadrilaterals
angles of, 467, 469–470
classifying, 468–469
missing measures of, 470
parallelogram, 468, 522–527
properties of, 438–517
rectangle, 468, 554
rhombus, 468
square, 468
trapezoid, 468, 535–539
Quantitative reasoning. See
Number Sense
Quick Check, 24, 88, 146, 198,
268, 312, 364, 440, 520, 596, 642,
710
Quick Review, 24, 88, 146, 198,
268, 312, 364, 440, 520, 596, 642,
710
almost equal to, 622
dividing mixed numbers, 526
exponents, 271
R70 Index
factor, 10, 107
graphs of functions, 390
greatest common factor (GCF),
127, 151
least common multiples, 230
multiples, 11
multiplication equations, 545
multiply fractions, 734
order of operations, 347
prime factorization, 11
prime number, 11
rounding fractions, 93
subtracting decimals, 33
Quotients. See also Division
estimating, 42–46
zeros in, 57
Rr
Radical sign, 65
Radius, 541–543
Random outcomes, 712
Range, 650–654
Rate of change, 162. See also Unit
rates
Rates, 148–162. See also Rate of
change
problems, 178–179, 182
unit, 156–157, 158–159, 174
Rating scales, 686
Rational numbers, 200. See also
Fractions; Percents
Ratios, 148–162
dividing groups by, 151
equivalent, 163–164, 173–177
problems, 178–179, 180–181
simplest form, 150
unit rates, 156–157, 158–159,
174
using to compare parts to a
whole, 151
using to make predictions, 744
Ratio tables, 163–171
graphing, 169
Rays, 441
Reading Math
everyday meaning, 199
meaning of division, 269
Read Math
absolute value, 420
area measurement, 523
clockwise, 503
composite figures, 555
counterclockwise, 503
diagonals, 475
division with fractions, 121
identifying polygons, 481
less than, 283
linear, 384
multiplication, 297
notation, 452
outcomes, 720
outliers, 658
perpendicular, 522
powers, 62
prime symbols, 491
probability, 712, 722
range, 651
remainder, 6
segments, 459, 482
symbols, 542
triangles, 460
volume measurement, 570
Real-World Examples
animals, 19, 99, 223, 324
area, 291
art, 622
attendance, 238
balloons, 397
basketball, 215, 290
billiards, 460
birthday, 409
camp, 5, 121
cars, 39
cell phones, 645
coins, 549
crops, 219
dogs, 26
dragonflies, 159
driving, 403
entertainment, 348
exercise, 413
eye color, 713
flags, 524
fundraiser, 367, 389
garden, 555
gas mileage, 182
geography, 536
geology, 578
geometry, 275
growth, 384
heart rates, 159
ice cream, 614
insects, 205
internet, 57
jewelry, 297
lakes, 63
landmarks, 542
lawn mowing, 107
mail, 50
markers, 151
marketing, 682
measurement, 93
money, 165
movie rentals, 211
music, 158, 323, 374
Real-World Links, 5, 9, 15, 18, 20,
39, 43, 45, 51, 58, 63, 67, 71, 72, 99,
108, 113, 121, 127, 131, 151, 159,
161, 164, 165, 175, 181, 182, 183,
201, 205, 216, 219, 224, 237, 238,
244, 249, 271, 283, 290, 315, 324,
329, 336, 341, 348, 350, 368, 374,
381, 384, 389, 390, 397, 403, 404,
421, 426, 442, 459, 472, 478, 484,
494, 500, 544, 562, 571, 573, 578,
599, 605, 614, 615, 622, 658, 682,
684, 690, 727, 729, 744
Real-World Math, 77, 135, 187,
255, 301, 353, 417, 487, 583, 631,
697, 753
Reasonableness, checking
for, 67, 211, 453, 677, 739
Reasoning. See H.O.T. Problems
Reciprocals, 120–121
Rectangles, 468
perimeter of, 554
Rectangular prisms, 569
missing measures of, 571
surface area of, 575–576,
577–581
volume of, 568, 569–574
Reflections, 496–501
lines of, 496–497
over the x-axis, 496
over the y-axis, 497
Relations, 366–393
graphing, 366–370
Relationships of angles, 451–456
Repeating decimal, 207
Research, 472, 560
Review. See Check Your Progress;
Prerequisite Skills; Review
Vocabulary; Spiral Review;
Standardized Test Practice; Study
Guide and Review
Review Vocabulary, 22, 86, 144,
196, 266, 310, 362, 438, 518, 594,
640, 708
Rhombus, 468
Index
nuts, 127
oceans, 231
Olympics, 7
packaging, 571
pandas, 131
party planning, 10
pets, 661
photography, 481
pizza, 727
polar bears, 244
pools, 562
rain forests, 20
ramp, 599
roads, 443
sand sculpture, 604
school supplies, 26
scrapbooking, 368
shells, 201
shopping, 271, 283, 336
signs, 470
skating, 315
snow, 504
snowboarding, 390
space flight, 329
sports, 249
statues, 71
surveys, 14
tents, 531
text messaging, 181, 662
toothpaste, 180
trail mix, 33
trash can, 609
trunks, 627
turtles, 43
video games, 51, 67
waterfall, 16
weather, 651, 662
weight, 341
Scalene triangle, 459
Scaling, 164–165
Scientific notation, 68
Segments
line, 441
notation for, 482
Semicircle, 549
Sequence, 377–379
arithmetic, 377–378
geometric, 379
terms of, 377
Sides
classifying triangles by, 459
corresponding, 481
of triangles, 459
Similar figures, 474, 480–485
Simple events, 711–712
Simplest form. See also Algebraic
expressions
of fractions, 201
of ratios, 150
Simplifying expressions, 604
Right triangle, 458, 482
Solutions, 314
checking, 323, 408
of inequalities, 396–397
Rotational symmetry, 504
Solve, 314
Rotations, 502–506
about the origin, 491
angles of, 504
clockwise, 491
in the coordinate plane, 490
counterclockwise, 491
Spinners, 712
Right angles, 443, 447
Rounding
decimals, 25–26
dividends, 42
divisors, 42
fractions, 93
to the nearest tenth, 57
Ss
Sample population, 743, 748–749
Samples
biased, 748–749
unbiased, 748–749
Sample spaces, 719–723
using a list to find, 719
using a tree diagram to find,
720
Scale, 177
of a frequency table, 662
misleading, 689
rating, 686
Scale drawings, 177
Spiral Review, 41, 46, 53, 60, 69,
73, 110, 115, 123, 129, 133, 168, 185,
213, 217, 221, 225, 233, 241, 246,
251, 285, 299, 326, 331, 338, 343,
351, 382, 393, 399, 405, 411, 415,
427, 473, 485, 506, 534, 546, 552,
558, 565, 574, 581, 611, 616, 629,
654, 660, 665, 672, 680, 685, 693,
723, 730, 736, 742, 747
Spreadsheets, 649
Square root, 65
Squares, 468
perfect, 65
Standardized Test Practice, 83,
141, 193, 263, 307, 359, 435, 515,
591, 637, 705, 759
Extended Response, 82, 85, 95,
110, 140, 143, 162, 192, 195,
241, 262, 265, 285, 293, 306,
309, 326, 343, 358, 361, 370,
376, 387, 434, 437, 514, 517,
564, 590, 591, 593, 629, 636,
637, 639, 654, 665, 693, 704,
707, 723, 742, 758, 761
Gridded Response, 35, 53, 65,
73, 83, 84, 101, 115, 141, 142,
194, 195, 203, 213, 217, 263,
264, 278, 308, 309, 317, 338,
351, 359, 360, 411, 415, 435,
Index
R71
Index
473, 479, 516, 517, 534, 539,
546, 558, 592, 593, 616, 638,
639, 648, 706, 707, 742, 760, 761
Multiple Choice, 61, 82, 116,
140, 172, 192, 193, 226, 262,
288, 306, 307, 332, 394, 466,
514, 553, 590, 617, 636, 673,
705, 731, 758, 759
Multiple Representations, 434
Short Response, 29, 41, 46, 84,
85, 129, 143, 155, 168, 177, 185,
195, 217, 221, 233, 246, 251,
265, 273, 308, 317, 351, 361,
370, 376, 382, 393, 405, 435,
437, 445, 450, 456, 463, 473,
479, 495, 506, 516, 517, 527,
539, 581, 592, 593, 601, 611,
624, 638, 639, 648, 654, 660,
672, 707, 716, 723, 730, 736,
747, 760
Statistics, 644, 681–695. See also
Analysis; Data analysis; Graphs;
Measures of central tendency
collecting data to solve a
problem, 686–687
misleading, 688–693
selecting an appropriate
display, 681–685
Stem-and-leaf plots, 666–667, 682
back-to-back, 666
Stems, 666. See also Stem-and-leaf
plots
Straight angle, 447
Study Guide and Review, 78–81,
136–139, 188–191, 256–261,
302–305, 354–357, 428–433,
508–513, 584–589, 632–635,
698–703, 754–757
Studying Math
new vocabulary, 147
simplify the problem, 313
Study Organizer. See Foldables®
Study Organizer
Study Tips
absolute value, 420
accuracy, 153
alternative method, 460
angle relationships, 452
angles on spinners, 712
area of a triangle, 531
base, 599
calculating with Pi, 549
calculator, 609
changing scales, 689
check by adding, 14
check for accuracy, 164
check for reasonableness, 67,
211, 453, 677, 739
R72 Index
checking solutions, 323, 408
checking your answer, 50, 57,
181
checking your work, 524
classifying, 469
Commutative Property, 99
comparing mixed numbers, 230
congruent figures, 491
coordinate plane, 367
counterexample, 109
cumulative frequency, 664
decomposing figures, 570
dividing money, 50
Division Property of Equality,
336
double bar graph, 21
estimation, 542
formulas, 627
fraction circles, 447
frequency tables, 662
graphing inequalities, 403
graphs of functions, 392
height of parallelograms, 524
including data, 645
inequalities, 406
intervals, 662
least common multiples, 12
line of reflection, 497
measurement, 17
mental math, 71, 117, 201, 291,
530, 536
multiplication, 275
ordered pairs, 424
organization, 671
proportion, 174
right triangles, 482
rounding, 57
rounding decimals, 26
scales and intervals, 669
simplifying expressions, 604
technology, 543
two-column notes, 521
unit rates, 174
words to symbols, 409
work backward, 378
writing equivalent fractions,
231
Subtraction
check by adding, 14
of decimals, 7–9, 33
of fractions, 13–15
of inequalities, 406
Subtraction equations, 314–331
solving, 328–331
by adding, 328
Supplementary angles, 452
Surface area
of composite figures, 626–629
of cylinders, 618–624
of rectangular prisms, 575–576,
577–581
Survey, 743
Symbols
almost equal to, 622
approximately equal to, 542
equals sign, 314
inequalities, 396
at least, 409
at most, 409
multiplication, 275
parenthesis, 271
perpendicular, 522
prime, 491
radical sign, 65
right angle, 443
triangle, 460
Symmetry
lines of, 498
rotational, 504
Tt
Tables. See also Data analysis
analyzing, 183, 232, 251, 381,
653
frequency, 661–665, 682
function, 373–376, 379
Tangrams, 525
Technology, 64, 543. See also
Extend Lessons; Get Connected;
Spreadsheets
Temperature, 34, 191
Terminating decimal, 207
Terms
of algebraic expressions, 278
like, 278
of a sequence, 377
Tessellations, 494
Test Practice, 29, 35, 41, 46, 53, 60,
65, 69, 73, 84–85, 95, 101, 110, 115,
123, 129, 133, 142–143, 155, 162,
168, 177, 185, 194–195, 203, 207,
213, 217, 221, 225, 233, 241, 246,
251, 264–265, 273, 278, 285, 293,
301, 308–309, 317, 326, 331, 338,
343, 351, 360–361, 370, 376, 382,
387, 393, 399, 405, 411, 415, 422,
427, 436–437, 445, 450, 456, 463,
473, 479, 485, 495, 501, 506,
516–517, 527, 534, 539, 546, 552,
558, 565, 574, 581, 592–593, 601,
606, 611, 616, 624, 629, 638–639,
648, 654, 660, 665, 672, 680, 685,
693, 706–707, 716, 723, 730, 736,
742, 747, 760–761. See also Practice
Theorem, Triangle Inequality,
463
Units
cubic, 569
customary, 17
metric, 17
Theoretical probability, 717–718
Unlike fractions, 13–14
Three-dimensional figures, 569
composite, 554–567, 625–629
nets of, 575–576
rectangular prisms, 569, 571,
575–576, 577–581
volume of, 569
Vv
Work backward, 346
Writing Math. See also H.O.T.
Problems
describing data, 365
explain your answer, 89
Xx
Variables, 274–278
defining, 282
x-axis, 366
reflections over, 496
Transformations, 488–507
dilations, 507
reflections, 496–501
rotations, 502–506
translations, 490–495
Verbal phrases, 282–283
x-coordinate, 366
Translations, 490–495
congruence in, 492
graphing, 490–491
Vocabulary Check, 78–81, 136–139,
188–191, 256–261, 302–305, 354–357,
428–433, 508–513, 584–589, 632–635,
698–703, 754–757
Trapezoids, 468
area of, 535–539
Tree diagram, 720
Triangle Inequality Theorem,
463
Triangles, 457–465
acute, 458
angles in, 457, 458
area of, 528, 529–534
classifying
by angles, 458
by sides, 459
equilateral, 459
isosceles, 459
missing measures of, 460, 531
obtuse, 458
properties of, 438–517
right, 458, 482
scalene, 459
sides of, 459
sum of angle measures in, 460
symbol for, 460
Triangular prisms, 598–601
volume of, 598–601
Two-step equations, 344–351. See
also Equations
solving, 346–351
writing, 346–351
Two-step inequalities, 412–415.
See also Inequalities
Uu
Unbiased samples, 748–749
Unfair game, 724–725
Unit rates, 156–157, 158–159, 174
Index
Chapter Test; Standardized Test
Practice
Vertex, 446
Vocabulary. See Review
Vocabulary; Vocabulary Check;
Vocabulary Link
Vocabulary Link
annex, 8, 33
complement, 713
distribute, 297
function, 379
parallel, 523
range, 651
similar, 481
variable, 275
Yy
y-axis, 366
reflections over, 497
y-coordinate, 366
Zz
Zeros
annexing, 8, 33, 39
Multiplicative Property of, 293
in the quotient and dividend,
57
Volume
of composite figures, 626–629
of cones, 612, 613–616
of cylinders, 607, 608–611
of prisms, 597, 599
of pyramids, 602, 603
of rectangular prisms, 568,
569–574
of three-dimensional figures,
569
of triangular prisms, 598–601
Ww
Which One Doesn’t Belong?. See
H.O.T. Problems
Whisker. See Box-and-whisker
plots
Whole numbers
dividing
decimals by, 47–48, 49–53
by fractions, 120–123
fractions by, 117–119
multiplying
decimals by, 30–31, 32–35
by fractions, 90–103
by mixed numbers, 111
Index
R73

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