sistema de monitoreo de leyes y ordenanzas sobre el control

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Transcripción

sistema de monitoreo de leyes y ordenanzas sobre el control
Actualizado a diciembre/2008
____________________________________________________________________
SISTEMA DE MONITOREO DE LEYES Y ORDENANZAS SOBRE EL CONTROL
DE LA MIGRACIÓN EN EL ÁMBITO LOCAL Y ESTATAL
___________________________________________________________________
Presentación
Dentro de los Estados Unidos de América, a partir de 2005 se ha registrado una serie de propuestas
de ley a nivel estatal y local cuyo objetivo principal es controlar o desalentar la migración
indocumentada --principalmente de poblaciones de origen latino-- en condados y ciudades en donde
tradicionalmente no se registraba este fenómeno.
El presente documento da seguimiento a iniciativas que buscan eliminar incentivos para los
inmigrantes indocumentados por medio del reforzamiento de controles para asegurar el
cumplimiento de las leyes migratorias existentes y la aprobación de nuevas regulaciones para
restringir su acceso a empleos, vivienda y algunos servicios. En este documento se incluye
información sobre iniciativas que tienen que ver con:
1. Sanciones a empleadores que contraten a trabajadores con estatus migratorio irregular
2. Sanciones a caseros que alquilen propiedades a personas con estatus migratorio irregular
3. Facultades a las autoridades locales para participar en la aplicación de las leyes
migratorias conforme a la sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración (INA)
4. Restricciones a la transferencia de remesas y
5. Límites a la aceptación de las identificaciones consulares, como la Matrícula Consular
Mexicana de Alta Seguridad.
Cabe señalar que toda la información aquí contenida es de carácter público, en otras palabras fue
obtenida en medios nacionales o extranjeros. Se ha buscado reproducir textualmente las opiniones
de los proponentes y/o críticos de las diferentes iniciativas, según han sido recogidas por la prensa.
*
* *
Las opiniones contenidas en este documento son responsabilidad de quienes las formularon
y no necesariamente representan el punto de vista de la Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores
o del Instituto de los Mexicanos en el Exterior.
1
DOCUMENTOS GENERALES PARA REFERENCIA:
“Organizations Opposed to Local Enforcement of Immigration Laws”
National Immigration Forum, abril 2004
(http://www.mnforsustain.org/sanctuary_opposition_to_local_law_enforcement.pdf )
“Forcing Our Blues into Gray Areas: Local Police and Federal Immigration Enforcement: A Legal
Guide for Advocates”
Appleseed, 2005
(http://appleseeds.net/servlet/GetArticleFile?articleFileId=177)
“2006 State Legislation Related to Immigration: Enacted and Vetoed”,
National Conference of State Legislatures, 31 de octubre de 2006
(http://www.ncsl.org/programs/immig/6ImmigEnactedLegis3.htm)
“Overview of State Legislation Related to Immigration and Immigrants in 2007”
National Conference of State Legislatures, 18 de abril de 2007
(http://www.ncsl.org/programs/immig/2007StateLegislationImmigration.htm)
“State and Local Immigration Regulation”
Migration Policy Institute, National Center on Immigrant Integration Policy
(http://www.migrationinformation.org/integration/regulation.cfm)
“A Police Chief’s Guide To Immigration Issues”
International Association of Chiefs of Police
(http://www.theiacp.org/documents/pdfs/Publications/PoliceChiefsGuidetoImmigration%2Epdf)
“State and Local Policies on Immigrant Access to Services: Promoting Integration or Isolation?”
National Immigration Law Center
(http://www.nilc.org/immspbs/sf_benefits/statelocalimmpolicies06-07_2007-05-24.pdf)
2
ALABAMA
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ALABAMA
HB 124
HB 286
HB 287
HB 288
HB 289
HB 290
HB 291
SB 214
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
Pendiente
Iniciativas auspiciadas por el Asambleísta Micky Hammon (R-Decatur):
HB 124 - Establece que las personas y entidades que realicen contratos con el estado certifiquen
como una de las condiciones del contrato que no emplean inmigrantes indocumentados. La
violación de esta ley acarrearía una multa civil equivalente a 3% del valor del contrato.
HB 286 – Elimina incentivos económicos para empleadores que contraten a inmigrantes
indocumentados. Requiere que los empleadores verifiquen que no emplean inmigrantes
indocumentados para poder recibir incentivos económicos por parte de la Oficina de Desarrollo de
Alabama. (Esta iniciativa fue presentada también como SB 215 por parte del Comité del Comité
de Pequeños Negocios y Desarrollo Económico del Senado)
HB 287 – Requiere comprobar el estatus migratorio legal para obtener o renovar una licencia
profesional o comercial.
HB 288 – Requiere que los inmigrantes de 18 años o mayores comprueben su estatus migratorio
legal.
HB 289 – Permite a la policía confiscar vehículos de personas que no tengan prueba de su
estancia legal en el país.
HB 290 - Inmigrantes indocumentados que sean detenidos por violaciones de tránsito tendrán
que hacer entrega de sus propiedades, con algunas excepciones.
HB 291 – Inmigrantes indocumentados que voten o hayan intentado registrarse para votar, o
personas que las asistan en esta tarea, serían acusados de cometer un delito y sancionados con
una multa.
SB 214 - Establecería que el estado o cualquier subdivisión política del estado tengan prohibido
expedir o renovar una licencia comercial o profesional a cualquier persona que se encuentre
ilegalmente en los Estados Unidos.
Iniciativa auspiciada por el gobernador Bob Riley, los senadores Scott Beason (R-Blount,
Jefferson y St. Clair) y Arthur Orr (R-Decatur) y el asambleísta Micky Hammon (R-Decatur):
1) Requiere comprobar el estatus migratorio para recibir beneficios de agencias del gobierno
estatal. (Hammon y Beason)
2) Requiere a los empleadores jurar que no han contratado a inmigrantes indocumentados con
conocimiento de causa como requisito poder solicitar apoyos económicos del gobierno o
establecer contratos con agencias estatales. (Hammon y Orr)
3) Requiere comprobar el estatus migratorio para poder obtener o renovar licencias comerciales y
profesionales, permisos y otras autorizaciones similares del gobierno. (Hammon y Orr)
FECHAS
27/ene/07 – El gobernador del estado y varios legisladores manifiestan su intención de presentar
una serie de iniciativas para controlar la migración indocumentada en el estado. Algunas de estas
3
iniciativas fueron presentadas en el periodo de 2006 pero no estuvieron a tiempo para ser
votadas.
17/mar/07 - El asambleísta Hammon y el gobernador Riley introducen algunas de las iniciativas
que forman parte del paquete legislativo de medidas anti-inmigrantes.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
Boyd Campbell, abogado de la ciudad de Montgomery: "There is not currently an accurate way for
employers to make sure that workers are in the United States illegally. A "get tough" policy on
hiring immigrants could harm farmers and other employers who depend on immigrant
workers."(27/ene/07)
Asambleísta Mickey Hammon (R-Decatur): "Our area is really flooded with immigrants at this time.
I expect immigration to be a big issue this year, because it's the first session after an election year
for lawmakers. They went home and talked to their constituents and found out this is a big issue".
(27/ene/07)
Reverendo Lawton Higgs: "It concerns me a lot. We tend to have the attitude that punishment is
going to solve the problem. One of problems is all the barriers that keep people from benefiting
from a legal immigration policy. I know people here who have been on a waiting list for years. We
need a thoughtful process where people, if they desire, can become citizens and be a legal part of
our communities." (27/ene/07)
Asambleísta Mickey Hammon (R-Decatur): “During this last campaign, people heard from their
constituents how important it was to have stricter laws. They came back this year eager to get
something done…I’m looking for a speedy result. We’ve spent a lot of time on rhetoric, but people
want something done about it. People see (illegal aliens) all around them. They want action and
they won’t be satisfied until they get it. […] I agree with the governor that this will be some of the
toughest laws in the U.S…You will see illegals stop coming to Alabama and those that are here
leave.” (17/mar/07)
Gobernador Bob Riley: “Alabama will always welcome those who follow the law when they enter
our country, but we will not stand idly by and do nothing about those who don’t.” (17/mar/07)
EFECTOS
Se considera uno de los paquetes legislativos anti-inmigrantes más restrictivos del país.
Estas propuestas se basan en iniciativas propuestas en Carolina del Norte y en Colorado.
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
ALABAMA
Acuerdo con la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas conforme a 287(g)
En vigor
60 oficiales han recibido entrenamiento para poder participar en el cumplimiento de las leyes
migratorias.
Septiembre 2003 – Entrada en vigor del programa
Martha Earnhardt, vocera del Departamento de Seguridad Publica de Alabama: "We've gotten no
allegations or complaints of abuse" (4/mar/07)
4
Isabelle Rubio, directora del Hispanic Interest Coalition of Alabama: There have been no
complaints from our clients about DPS troopers, "but that doesn't mean it's a good idea to do this"
(4/mar/07)
EFECTOS
Fue el segundo estado que negoció el acuerdo conforme a la sección 287(g) en 2003.
Desde septiembre de 2003 hasta diciembre de 2007, 218 inmigrantes indocumentados fueron
arrestados durante inspecciones rutinarias de tránsito y en oficinas de licencias de manejo.
JURISDICCIÓN ALABAMA
TITULO
BILL TO BE ENTITLED AN ACT Relating to the Alabama Development Office; to add Section 419-202.2 to the Code of Alabama 1975, to prohibit the award of grants, loans, performance-based
incentives, or other economic development incentives to any employer that employs illegal
immigrants; to require any noncompliant employer to repay any monies received; to prohibit any
noncompliant employer from obtaining a future award for at least five years after repayment; and to
provide for a hearing (HB 286, SB 215)
ESTATUS
Pendiente
CONTENIDO Section 1. Section 41-9-202.2 is added to the Code of Alabama 1975, to read as follows:
(a) In addition to the requirements specified for any employer to receive a grant, loan, performancebased incentive, or other economic development incentive from the Alabama Development Office
pursuant to this article, an employer shall be in compliance with the provisions of 8 U.S.C. § 1324a,
which prohibits the employment of unauthorized aliens. The Alabama Development Office shall
develop a procedure by which each employer receiving an economic development incentive
pursuant to this article shall provide proof that each employee employed by the employer within the
United Sates is a United States citizen or, if not a United States citizen, is lawfully present in the
state and authorized to work.
(b) The Alabama Development Office shall determine when, during the process of awarding a
grant, loan, performance-based incentive, or other economic development incentive to an
employer, to verify that the employer is in compliance with 8 U.S.C. § 1324a.
(c) If the Alabama Development Office determines that an employer receiving an economic
development incentive pursuant to this article is not in compliance with 8 U.S.C. § 1324a, or is
unable to prove that it is in compliance with the requirements of that section, the Alabama
Development Office shall notify the employer, by certified mail, of the determination of
noncompliance. The employer shall repay the total amount of money received as an economic
development incentive to the Alabama Development Office within 30 days after receipt of the
notice.
(d) Notwithstanding any other provision of this article, any employer that has been issued a notice
of noncompliance pursuant to subsection (c) shall be ineligible to qualify for any other grant, loan,
performance-based incentive, or other economic development incentive awarded by the Alabama
Development Office pursuant to this article for at least five years after the date that the employer
has repaid the Alabama Development Office pursuant to subsection (c).
(e) Any employer that is determined to be ineligible to receive an economic development incentive
pursuant to this section may request and appear at a hearing before the Alabama Development
Office to offer proof of compliance with 8 U.S.C. § 1324a. The Alabama Development Office shall
satisfy the requirements of this subsection within existing resources.
(f) This section shall apply to any grant, loan, performance-based incentive, or other economic
development incentive awarded by the Alabama Economic Development Commission on or after
the effective date of this section.
5
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
(g) This section shall be enforced without regard to race, religion, gender, ethnicity, or national
origin.
Section 2. This act shall become effective on the first day of the third month following its passage
and approval by the Governor, or its otherwise becoming law.
13/mar/07 – Primera lectura del proyecto.
Requiere a los contratistas que trabajen para la ciudad comprobar que todos sus empleados
tienen estatus migratorio legal. La ciudad revocaría los contratos de las empresas que no
cumplan con este requisito.
ALABAMA
AN ACT Relating to the Alabama Development Office (HB 727)
Pospuesta de forma indefinida.
Section 1. Section 41-9-202.2 is added to the Code of Alabama 1975, to read as follows:
§41-9.202.2.
(a) In addition to the requirements specified for any employer to receive a grant, loan, performancebased incentive, or other economic development incentive from the Alabama Development Office
pursuant to this article, an employer shall certify in writing, through a sworn affidavit, that it is in
compliance with the provisions of 8 U.S.C. § 1324a., which prohibits the employment of
unauthorized aliens.
(b) If the Alabama Development Office determines that an employer receiving an economic
development incentive pursuant to this article is not in compliance with 8 U.S.C. § 1324a., the
Alabama Development Office shall notify the employer, by certified mail, of the determination of
noncompliance. Any employer that has been issued a notice of noncompliance shall be ineligible to
qualify for any other grant, loan, performance-based incentive, or other economic development
incentive awarded by the Alabama Development Office pursuant to this article for at least three
years after the date of a determination of noncompliance. Any employer that is determined to be
ineligible to receive an economic development incentive pursuant to this section may request and
appear at a hearing before the Alabama Development Office to offer proof of compliance with 8
U.S.C. § 1324a. The Alabama Development Office shall satisfy the requirements of this subsection
within existing resources.
13/mar/08 – Introducida al Comité Judical de la Casa de Representantes.
27/mar/08 – Segunda lectura del Comité y aprobada.
Retira los incentivos economicos otorgados por el estado, a aquellos patrones que contraten
migrantes irregulares.
ALABAMA
AN ACTRelating to professional and commercial licenses (HB 298)
Pospuesta de forma indefinida
Section 2. Subject to the exemptions found in 8 U.S.C. § 1621(c)(2), to the extent that any license,
permit, certificate, or other authorization to conduct business issued to a person by the state or an
6
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
agency or political subdivision of the state constitutes a professional license or commercial license
regulated by 8 U.S.C. § 1621, the license, permit, certificate, or other authorization may be
authorized, issued, or renewed only if the person is lawfully and physically present in the United
States. Such authorization, issuance, or renewal shall be immediately denied if the person is
determined to be unlawfully present in the United States. A person shall prove his or her identity
with a secure and verifiable document. The state, agency, or political subdivision may not sell or
utilize information contained in the secure and verifiable document for any purpose other than
those specified in law and shall keep such information
27/mar/08 – Aprobada por el Comité Judicial.
06/feb/08 – Introducida y enviada al Comité Judicial de la cámara de representantes.
Prohibe la emisión de licencias comerciales o profesionales a aquellas personas que no se
encuentre legalmente en los EE.UU.
ALABAMA
AN ACT Relating to illegal aliens (HB 664)
Pospuesta de forma indefinida.
Section 2. (a) No employer may knowingly employ an illegal alien.
(b) An employer does not violate subsection (a) with respect to a particular employee if the
employer requested from the employee, received, and documented in the record of the employee,
at least 14 calendar days after commencement of employment, lawful resident verification
information consistent with employer requirements under the Illegal Immigration Reform and
Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 and the lawful resident verification information provided by
the employee later was determined to be false.
(c) If the commissioner has reason to believe that a violation of subsection (a) has occurred, the
department shall conduct an investigation and shall have access to all records of the employer. If
there is substantial evidence that a violation of subsection (a) has occurred, the commissioner
shall conduct a contested case hearing pursuant to the Administrative Procedure Act on the
question of whether the employer has violated subsection (a). If the commissioner or his or her
designee determines that there is clear and convincing evidence that an employer has violated
subsection (a), the commissioner shall enter an order to revoke, suspend, or deny the renewal of
the business license of the employer issued under Section 40-12-40, Code of Alabama 1975. The
commissioner shall state in his or her findings of fact and conclusions of law whether there have
been previous violations of subsection (a).
(1) For the first violation of subsection (a), the commissioner shall order the license to be
suspended until the employer shows to the satisfaction of the commissioner that the employer is
no longer in violation of subsection (a). The showing may be made by filing a sworn statement by
the employer with the commissioner stating that the employer is no longer employing illegal aliens.
(2) For a second or subsequent violation of subsection (a) occurring within three years from the
issuance of the first order by the commissioner, he or she shall order the license be suspended for
one year.
Section 3. (a) The department shall determine whether a licensing authority has issued a license to
an employer who has been disciplined under the provisions of Section 2 and, if a license has been
issued, the department shall inform the licensing authority of its action against the employer. The
licensing authority, after notification, may use the administrative procedure utilized by the
department in disciplining an employer and shall impose similar punishment on the employer.
27/mar/08 – Segunda lectura.
7
06/mar/08 – Introducida y primera lectura.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
Suspenderá la licencia comercial a empleadores que contraten a inmigrantes indocumentados con
conocimiento de su situación migratoria. En la primera violación se le suspenderá la licencia al
empleador hasta que el inmigrante indocumentado deje de trabajar con él. Si ocurre una segunda
violación dentro de los tres años siguientes, la licencia del negocio será suspendida por un año.
ALABAMA
AN ACT Relating to municipalities; to prohibit municipalities from adopting policies to protect
undocumented immigrants from deportation. (HB 666)
Pospuesta de forma indefinida.
Section 1. No governing body of a municipality shall adopt a policy, and no municipality shall follow
a policy, whether explicitly or implicitly, that serves to protect undocumented immigrants from
deportation. No municipality shall prohibit its employees from asking a person about his or her
immigration status.
27/mar/08 – Segunda lectura.
06/mar/08 – Primera lectura y enviada al Comité Judicial de la cámara de representantes.
Prohíbe a las ciudades seguir una política de “protección a inmigrantes indocumentados de su
deportación” y también prohibirá a municipalidades impedir que sus empleados pregunten sobre
la condición migratoria de las personas que atienden.
JURISDICCIÓN ETOWAH COUNTY, AL
TITULO
Memorandum of agreement between the Etowah County Sheriff's Office and the U.S. Department
of Homeland Security.
ESTATUS
En vigor
CONTENIDO Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
FECHAS
15/ago/08 – Termina el programa de entrenamiento y quedan autorizados los oficiales del
condado de Etowah para ejecutar las leyes de migración federales.
22/jul/08 – Inicia el programa de entrenamiento para oficiales del condado de Etowah.
8/jul/08 – Se firma el memorandum de entendimiento.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
El acuerdo permitirá a los agentes de detención del aguacil el entrevistar a nacionales extranjeros
dentro de los centros de detención para determinar si existe causa probable de una violación a la
ley de migración. Bajo el programa, los agentes completaran el procesamiento de cualquier
delincuente extranjero y prepararán la documentación para iniciar los procedimientos de
deportación.
8
ALASKA
JURISDICCION
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
ALASKA
AO No. 2007 - 125
Pendiente (pospuesta indefinidamente su discusión)
An Ordinance of the Anchorage Municipal Assembly making certain findings related to illegal
immigration and amending Anchorage Municipal Code Title 8 to establish a new chapter 8.95,
Local Enforcement and Federal Immigration Enforcement Agencies; to require immigration status
verification of all persons detained for violations of State or Municipal Law; to prohibit restrictions
on official communication by Municipal Officials and Personnel with Federal Immigration
authorities; to require negotiation of cooperative agreement with the United States Department of
Homeland Security; and to provide for a private remedy of Mandamus against the Municipality to
enforce provisions of the Ordinance.
27/nov/07 – Su discussion fue pospuesta indefinidamente.
11/sep/07 - The ordinance was introduced and seconded by two other Assembly members per
normal parliamentary procedure. During this phase, no public testimony is taken.
12/sep/07 - further action on AO 2007-125 was delayed until November 27th. Assembly Chair Dan
Coffey then decided to assign this ordinance to the Assembly's Public Safety Committee for further
review.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
ARIZONA
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
ARIZONA
HB 2461 (Rep. Pearce (R), Murphy (R), Sen. Gray L (R): Rep Anderson (R), Crump (R))
Retenida en Comités.
1) Requiere que las autoridades investiguen la ciudadanía y el estatus migratorio de cualquier
persona detenida y tomen medidas para cooperar con las autoridades federales.
2) Requiere al Procurador General establecer un acuerdo para designar a un número de
oficiales para recibir el entrenamiento necesario para participar en la aplicación de las leyes
migratorias.
3) Restringe el financiamiento del estado a las agencias de policía que no cumplan con estas
medidas.
12/ene/07 – Introducida a la Asamblea de Representantes
15/feb/07- Retenida en el Comité de “Homeland Security”.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
9
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
ARIZONA
HCR 2049 - “Immigration Enforcement”
HB 2751 “Immigration Law; Appropiation”
HCR 2049 – Retenida en el Comité de Reglas
NOTA: no puede ser vetada por la Gobernadora
HB 2751 – Retenida en espera del Comité General
HCR 2049 - Establece que los agentes de la policía podrán ejercer las leyes migratorias.
HB 2751 - Autoriza a los agentes del orden y personal de los gobiernos locales a ejercer las leyes
de inmigración y establece un Equipo de Aplicación de Medidas de la Frontera para solicitar
asignación de fondos.
12/ene/07 – HCR 2049 introducida a la Asamblea de Representantes
15/feb/07- HCR 2049 retenida en el Comité de “Homeland Security”.
20/feb/07- HCR 2049 aprobada por el Comité Gubernamental. Será turnada al Pleno de la
Cámara.
13/mar/07- HB 2751 fue aprobada por el Pleno de la Cámara de Representantes, después de una
tercera lectura será turnada al Senado.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
ARIZONA
HB 2063 - “Vehicle Registration, Legal presence required” (Rep. Russell K. Pearce (R))
HB 2466 - “Vehicle Title; Registration, Legal Presence”
HB2475 - Requiere que las cortes verifiquen el estatus legal de las personas que cometan una
violación de tránsito.
HB 2753 - Requerirá a las personas que quieran registrar un automóvil comprobar su estatus
migratorio legal. Crea restricciones para los indocumentados que deseen recuperar autos
decomisados por no contar con licencia de conducir del estado.
Aprobación preliminar (22/ene/07)
HB 2753 – Frimada por el Gobernador.
HB 2475 – Falló en ser aprobada durante su tercer lectura.
Requiere comprobar el estatus migratorio legal en asuntos relacionados con registros de
automóviles y violaciones de tránsito.
22/ene/07 – Aprobada por el Comité de “Homeland Security and Property Rights”. El 22 de enero
fue turnada al Comité de Transporte en donde no ha sido agendada.
25/ene/07 – Audiencia programada para discutir las propuestas HB 2063 y la HB 2466
10
13/mar/07 – HB 2466 fue aprobada por el Pleno de la Cámara de Representantes
27/mar/07 - HB 2753 fue aprobada por el Comité de Transportes del Senado.
4/abr/07 – La HB 2475 falló en ser aprobada durante su tercer lectura.
10/abr/07 – La HB 2753, que añade numerosos cambios relacionados con el decomiso de autos a
los indocumentados, fue aprobada con una enmienda por el Comité de Reglamentos de Senado.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
2/jul/07 – La HB 2753 fue firmada por el Gobernador del Estado.
La Arizona Automobile Dealers Association se opone a esta legislación porque eliminará
oportunidades para las personas que quieren comprar un automóvil.
Andy Swam, presidente de Associated Highway Patrolmen of Arizona argumentó que la ley
ayudará a la policía a rastrear a los conductores de vehículos que escapen del lugar de los
hechos tras un choque. Además, opinó que debido a que se requiere tener estatus legal para
obtener una licencia de conducir, el mismo criterio debe aplicarse para los registros de
automóviles. (22/ene/07)
EFECTOS
Algunos legisladores han propuesto que también se requiera comprobar el estatus legal para
poder comprar un automóvil.
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
ARIZONA
HB 2464 - “International Remittances of monies” – (Rep. Pearce (R), Murphy (R): Anderson (R))
Revocada
Confiscar las transferencias de dinero a México bajo sospecha de estar relacionadas con el tráfico
de drogas o de personas.
FECHAS
Sep/06 – La Oficina del Procurador General de Arizona, Ferry Godard, obtiene una orden para
confiscar envíos de dinero de particulares de 26 estados de la Unión Americana a los estados de
Arizona y Sonora, que sean sospechosos de lavado de dinero proveniente del narcotráfico y del
tráfico de personas.
18/oct/06 – La compañía Western Union, y un grupo de organizaciones e individuos presentan
demandas en contra del Procurador.
10/ene/07 - La Corte Superior del Condado de Maricopa dictaminó que el Procurador General del
estado, Terry Goddard, no tiene autoridad para confiscar las transferencias de dinero que se
hacen de Estados Unidos a México.
2/feb/07 – El Procurador General anuncia que apelará la decisión de la corte.
18/jul/07 - Western Union anuncio que devolvera $400,000 dolares en cobros por transferencias a clientes cuyos
fueron confiscados por la Oficina del Procurador General de Arizona. La Oficina del Procurador reporto que desd
ha confiscado $17 millones de dolares de envios por medio de Western Union y MoneyGram que se sospechaba
utilizados para trafico de drogas o de personas.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
Un grupo de organizaciones e individuos, entre los que se encontraba Juan Salgado, Consejero
del IME por Chicago y Presidente de la Coalición por los Derechos de los Inmigrantes y los
11
Refugiados de Illinois, presentó una demanda en contra del Procurador el 18 de octubre de 2006,
bajo el argumento de que la medida era violatoria de la Constitución de Estados Unidos porque
no se notificó a los remitentes o a los destinatarios de los envíos que el dinero había sido
confiscado ni se les informó sobre su derecho de apelación.
OPINIONES
En su fallo, la Corte Superior del Condado de Maricopa declaró que el estado de Arizona no tiene
autoridad para confiscar envíos de dinero generados fuera de la entidad y para ser cobrados en
México. Además, prohibió al estado tratar en el futuro de intervenir en envíos de dinero que no
sean cobrados dentro de Arizona. (10/ene/07)
Directora Ejecutiva de Western Union, Christina Gold: “Western Union is a trusted friend of the
Latino community, and we're very pleased with today's ruling. The company will continue to work
cooperatively with Arizona in meeting its law enforcement needs''. (10/ene/07)
Juez Kenneth L. Fields: “The seizure warrant extends unconstitutional, extraterritorial jurisdiction
to the state to seize the money transfers. The company may be immediately and irreparably
harmed by, among other things, loss of confidence and trust of Western Union's clients, loss of
goodwill, and loss of business reputation.'' (10/ene/07)
Procurador General, Terry Godard: “Intercepting their wire transfers has proven an effective tool in
fighting coyotes. During the past four years, my Office has seized more than $17 million in wire
payments and arrested more than 100 smugglers. Every effort has been made to focus the
warrants on activity known to be consistent with human smuggling based on a variety of identifying
factors. Any legitimate cash transfers withheld in the process are promptly returned, usually within
24 hours. On investigation, less than 10 percent of intercepted transfers over the past four years
have turned out to be legitimate.” (“Message from the Attorney General”,
http://www.azag.gov/message.html , 2/feb/07)
Fred Niehaus, vicepresidente de Western Union: "This company was built on the backs of
immigrants. We felt it was the right thing to do." (18/jul/07)
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
Durante su vigencia, esta medida afectó a más de 11 mil personas y se confiscaron más de 17
millones de dólares en envíos de dinero de particulares de 26 estados de la Unión Americana a
los estados de Arizona y Sonora.
ARIZONA
HB 2460 / SB 1236 - (Rep. Pearce (R), Murphy (R), Sen. Gray C (R): Rep. Anderson (R), Crump
(R), Sen. Gray L. (R) Harper (R), Johnson (R))
Vetada por la gobernadora Napolitano.
Prohíbe aceptar identificaciones consulares como documento oficial en el estado de Arizona.
23/ene/07 – Primera lectura
24/ene/07 – Segunda lectura
15/feb/07 – Aprobada por el Comité de Seguridad Interna
29/mar/07 - Aprobada por el Pleno de la Asamblea de Representantes. Después de una tercera
lectura se turnará al Senado.
5/abr/07 – Revisada en el Pleno de la Asamblea de Representantes con 30 votos a favor y 25 en
contra. Al no alcanzar los 31 votos necesarios, la iniciativa no fue aprobada. El principal propulsor
de la propuesta, el Republicano Russell Pearce esperaba contar con los votos de los faltantes y
volver a presentar la propuesta HB2460 pero no fue agendada.
12
19/abr/07 – Aprobada por el Pleno del Senado en segunda lectura.
8/may/07 – La gobernadora Napolitano veta la iniciativa de ley.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
Gobernadora Napolitano: “Sin los documentos consulares, es más probable que los inmigrantes
traten de obtener documentos falsificados…Es mejor para el estado que los extranjeros usen sus
documentos que los identifique como tales" (8/may/07)
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
ARIZONA
HB 2467
En vigor.
Section 1. Title 1, Arizona Revised Statutes, is amended by adding chapter 5, to read:
CHAPTER 5
PUBLIC PROGRAMS
ARTICLE 1. ELIGIBILITY FOR PUBLIC PROGRAMS
1-501. Eligibility for public programs; documentation; definition
A. Notwithstanding any other state law and to the extent permitted by federal law, any person who
applies for a state administered public program that requires participants to be citizens of the
United States, legal residents of the United States or otherwise lawfully present in the United
States, shall submit documentation to the entity that administers the state public program
demonstrating lawful presence in the United States. Self declaration of lawful presence, even if
made under penalty of perjury, is not sufficient by itself to demonstrate lawful presence in the
United States.
B. This section shall be enforced without regard to race, color, religion, sex, age, disability or
national origin.
C. For the purposes of this section, "self declaration" means a written or oral declaration without
additional proof, even if made under penalty of perjury, that the person is a citizen of the United
States, legal resident of the United States or otherwise lawfully present in the United States.
29/mar/07 - Aprobada por el Pleno de la Cámara de Representantes. Después de una tercera
lectura se turnará al Senado.
2/jul/07 – Firmada por el gobernador de Arizona.
Impide que agencias estatales y locales emitan cualquier tipo de licencia o permiso para operar un
negocio a indocumentados.
ARIZONA
HB 2699 - Rep. Theresa Ulmer, D-Yuma
HB 2779 “Legal Arizona Workers Act” – Rep. Russell Pearce, R-Mesa
HB 2699 – Falló en ser aprobada por los Comités.
HB 2779 – Firmada por la gobernadora Napolitano el 2/jul/07. En vigor desde el 1º de enero de
2008.
La propuesta de ley HB 2699 incluye:
1) Sanciones a empleadores que no verifiquen el estatus migratorio legal de sus empleados por
medio de la base de datos Basic Pilot Program a partir del 1º de enero de 2009. Las empresas
que contraten a inmigrantes indocumentados enfrentarán sanciones por un mínimo de $5,000 dls.
13
y, en caso de reincidir, hasta $10,000 o $15,000 además de cancelación de la licencia de
negocios. La medida entraría en vigor el 1º de enero de 2009.
2) Establecer un Memorando de Entendimiento con la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas para
entrenar a autoridades estatales y locales y darles facultades para aplicar las leyes migratorias.
La propuesta de ley HB 2779 requiere a los empleadores jurar que no han contratado a un
“inmigrante indocumentado” con conocimiento de causa. Incluye multas de un mínimo de $2,500
dólares por la primera violación y suspensión de la licencia por 10 días; violaciones consecutivas
podrían llevar a suspender o cancelar la licencia de negocios del empleador e imponer multas de
hasta $150,000 dólares. Las sanciones podrían evitarse dependiendo a la decisión de una corte
basada en el número de empleados indocumentados y la duración de su empleo. En caso de que
la propuesta no sea aprobada en la asamblea, el representante Pearce introdujo una resolución
idéntica bajo el título HCR 2051 que sería sometida a votación general en 2008. La HB 2779
entraría en vigor en marzo de 2008.
Contempla $3.2 millones de dólares para financiar el programa.
FECHAS
12/dic/08 – La coalición de grupos de derecho civiles, encabezada por los grupos “Valle del Sol”,
“Chicanos por la causa” y “Somos América”, entabló una demanda en contra de la Ley “Legal
Arizona Workers Act”.
7/feb/07 – La asambleísta Theresa Ulmer introduce la propuesta HB 2699 para ser considerada
por un comité de la Cámara Baja.
20/feb/07 – El Comité de Gobierno de la Asamblea aprueba por 6 votos contra 4 la propuesta HB
2779 con algunas modificaciones. Se eliminó la sección que requería al Procurador General
investigar quejas sobre compañías que presuntamente contrataran a trabajadores
indocumentados. Esta sección quedó como opcional y se recortó el financiamiento para tales
actividades.
27/mar/07 – El Comité de Apropiaciones Senado congela indefinidamente la iniciativa HB 2779.
10/abr/07 – La iniciativa HB 2779 es aprobada con enmiendas en la Cámara Baja.
23/may/07 – El Senado de Arizona aprueba enmiendas a la iniciativa HB 2779 que darían a los
empleadores un plazo de tres días para despedir a trabajadores indocumentados antes de retirar
su licencia. Presuntamente, el Senado aprobó esta iniciativa para evitar el referéndum propuesto
por el congresista Pearce.
21/jun/07 – La iniciativa HB 2779 es aprobada por la Asamblea estatal (47-11 en la Cámara Baja y
20-4 en el Senado) y enviada a la gobernadora Janet Napolitano para su firma. Mientras tanto, los
partidarios de la iniciativa continúan reuniendo firmas para someterla a referéndum en caso de
que sea vetada por Napolitano (requieren al menos 153,365 firmas para el 3 de julio de 2008).
28/jun/07 – La gobernadora Napolitano anunció que ha tomado una decisión sobre la HB 2779
pero la revelará hasta el lunes 2 de julio, tomando en cuenta lo que suceda en el Congreso federal
esta semana respecto al debate sobre reforma migratoria.
2/jul/07- La gobernadora Napolitano firma la iniciativa HB 2779. Sin embargo, considera que la
iniciativa tiene algunos problemas (como la insuficiencia de recursos para garantizar el
cumplimiento de la ley, la ambiguedad del lenguaje de la iniciativa que podria sancionar a
14
cadenas de negocios si una de sus franquicias es sancionada, falta de excepciones para que
algunas facilidades como hospitales no tuvieran que suspender operaciones en caso de ser
sancionados, y la necesidad de incluir una clausula de no discriminacion) y que esta dispuesta a
convocar a una sesion legislativa especial para resolverlos.
13/jul/07 - La Arizona Contractors Association y el grupo de empleadores "Arizona Employers for
Immigration Reform" iniciaron la primera demanda en contra de la ley.La gobernadora Napolitano
consideró que las criticas a la nueva ley son exageradas.
25/jul/07 - La Camara de Comercio de Arizona anunció que se unirá a la demanda en contra de la
ley.
30/jul/07 – Las organizaciones Arizona Farm Bureau, Arizona Chamber of Commerce and Industry
y Arizona Restaurant and Hospitality Association se unen a la demanda.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
Líderes demócratas y grupos de empresarios se pronunciaron en contra de la HB 2779.
La mayoría de los grupos de empresarios se oponen a la HB 2779, con excepción de la East
Valley Chamber of Commerce Alliance. Los grupos opositores han hecho llamadas a la oficina de
la gobernadora y han organizado reuniones con ella, pidiéndole que vete la iniciativa.
Grupos de empresarios e hispanos manifestaron su oposición a la ley.
La Camara de Comercio de Arizona expresó que esta ley es un golpe en contra de los negocios
del estado e inició una demanda contra la ley, argumentando que sobrepasa la autoridad
consitucional del estado en materia migratoria.
Una coalicion de empresarios destacados de Arizona, Wake Up Arizona, se opone a esta ley y
pretende iniciar una demanda en contra de ella.
La confiabilidad de la base de datos Basic Pilot Program, que usarian los empleadores para
confirmar el estatus migratorio de sus empleados, ha sido cuestionada.
8/ago/07 - The U.S. Chamber of Commerce today joined a coalition of Arizona associations
challenging the constitutionality of a new state law that interferes with federal law that regulates the
employment of undocumented workers. 8/ago/07, Press release, US Chamber of Commerce)
3/sep/07 - la organización Inmigrantes Sin Fronteras inició ayer un boicot comercial de una
semana en el estado de Arizona, en contra de la ley HB2779, que establece multas y cierre a las
empresas que no verifiquen el estatus migratorio de sus trabajadores (4/sep/07, La Jornada)
OPINIONES
5/sep/07 – Mesa, AZ demonstration organized by Immigrantes Sin Fronteras, or Immigrants
Without Borders.
Theresa Ulmer, D-Yuma, autora de la propuesta HB 2699: "We want to have accountability, but
we don't want to put people out of business” (20/feb/07).
Todd Sanders, director de asuntos gubernamentales de la Cámara de Comercio de Phoenix: "The
role of the state is not immigration (enforcement); it's a federal issue. We believe the president and
Congress are poised to do something." (20/feb/07)
Rep. Russell Pearce, R-Mesa: "The consequences are in this bill: reasonable but tough. We're not
15
trying to sneak up on anybody, but we are saying, 'Follow the law.'" (16/mar/07)
Sen. Chuck Gray (R-Mesa): "We are doing something Congress has failed to do, and that is to act”
(23may/07)
Sen. Jay Tibshraeny, R-Chandler, “Clearly with federal inaction on illegal immigration, this state
has been left with no alternative but to take strong action... Our federal government has deserted
us on this issue.' (24/may/04)
Salvador Reza, Macehualli Work Center: "This will most impact (businesses) that hire people
permanently, because when you hire somebody for one day, you don't have to pay attention to
(legal status). One of the consequences could be workers going to the streets." (21/jun/07)
Rep. Russell Pearce: "The public is tired of waiting...The problem is every day we don't act on this,
we're hurting Arizona. We're hurting the honest businesses.''(21/jun/07)
Sen. Barbara Leff (R-Paradise Valley): "So we now have 1,200 people who will lose their jobs —
1,198 of them who are American citizens...What do we tell those people who have all lost their
jobs?" (21/jun/07)
Kris Kobach, profesor de la Escuela de Leyes de la Universidad de Missouri: "The two strictest
state bills we've seen this session are the one in Arizona and the one just signed in Oklahoma . I
think Arizona is the strictest...If (Napolitano) signs the bill, it will stand in stark contrast to the
lukewarm efforts of the ( U.S. ) Senate."(26/jun/07)
Dan Stein, presidente de FAIRUS: "These laws reflect citizen frustration. The pressure is building
nationally for these measures, and I can see relative uniformity within a couple years…Adding all
the Border Patrol agents in the world won't do anything if employers can continue to act with
impunity" (26/jun/07).
Randel Johnson, Vicepresidente de la Camara de Comercio: "States are going to continue to fill in
these gaps and pass laws. It will have a negative effect on the economy and will add confusion
and business costs" (3/jul/07)
Gobernadora Napolitano: "Immigration is a federal responsibility, but I signed HB 2779 because it
is now abundantly clear that Congress finds itself incapable of coping with the comprehensive
immigration reforms our country needs. I signed it, too, out of the realization that the flow of illegal
immigration into our state is due to the constant demand of some employers for cheap,
undocumented labor" (3/jul/07)
Gobernadora Napolitano: "We're dealing somewhat in uncharted territory right now - uncharted
territory because of the inability of the Congress to act. The states will take the lead, and Arizona
will take the lead among the states." ("Napolitano cites inaction by Congress", The Arizona
Republic, 3/jul/07)
Asambleista Steve Gallardo (D): "Businesses will be very reluctant to hire anyone who is even
perceived to be an immigrant. Any person of color will be subject to (discrimination)" (3/jul/07)
Brent Wilkes, Director Ejecutivo de LULAC: "This puts businesses in a real bind because they will
need the workers but they will be leery of hiring Hispanics because they are afraid of taking a
chance of hiring an illegal worker". (3/jul/07)
16
Mary Rose Wilcox, supervisora de Maricopa Countyy activista hispana: "We have five months for
the business community to rally and come to the table and demand that the House and Senate
come back to the table and work on this bill. People are just incensed about this. This will be
disastrous for the state of Arizona." (3/jul/07)
Asambleista Ben Miranda (D-Phoenix): "I will make a prediction that sanctions will never be
imposed because they can't ever become workable. It will never be implemented properly. It will
never function." (3/jul/07)
"By signing the employer-sanctions bill on Monday, Gov. Janet Napolitano gave Arizona a way to
move ahead on an issue the federal government has cravenly refused to address...Make no
mistake, we urged a veto, primarily because immigration is a federal issue...Increasing numbers of
states are acting on their own. That's not the best way, but it is not surprising given the level of
frustration surrounding this issue...States should not be writing immigration law. That's a federal
job. But under the circumstances, Napolitano took the right approach to Arizona 's Legal Arizona
Workers Act....Now, it's time for a special session." ("Fix the flaws", Editorial, Arizona Republic,
3/jul/07)
It's a good idea to impose sanctions against employers who knowingly hire illegal immigrants. It
would be an even better idea if employers had an ironclad method of verifying the citizenship of a
job applicant and if sanctions were one part of a bigger immigration package. ("Governor loses
compass, finds Russell Pearce", Editorial, Arizona Daily Star, 5/jul/07).
"...a University of Arizona report shows that booting out undocumented workers would punch a
hole in key parts of the state economy. Take away all of those employees, and Arizona would see
a collective drop in output of more than $13 billion a year in agriculture, construction,
manufacturing and service sectors, according to an analysis by Judith Gans of UA's Udall Center
for Studies in Public Policy... With an election looming in 2008, Congress is all too likely to keep
pressing the snooze button on this critical issue. They should be burning the midnight oil instead to
come up with a real solution." ("The alarm sounds", Editorial, Arizona Republic, 19/jul/07)
EFECTOS
8/ago/07 – Comunicado de prensa del US Chamber of Comerce, Robin Conrad, Executive Vice
President of the National Chamber Litigation Center, which represents the U.S. Chamber in
Arizona Contractors Ass’n, et al. v. Napolitano… “State and local attempts to regulate the
employment of undocumented workers are unconstitutional and preempted by federal
law,”……“Arizona’s statute deserves to be overturned, because it violates employers’ due process
rights just like the Hazleton, Pennsylvania immigration ordinance.”
Se considera que la ley aprobada en Arizona, una de las más estrictas en cuanto a control de los
centros de trabajo, provocará una ola de medidas similares en otros estados, lo cual creará
presiones para el Congreso. La ley se consideró como una señal de la frustracion en los estados
respecto al fracaso de la reforma migratoria ("Other states apt to follow Arizona", The Arizona
Republic, 3/jul/07)
Lideres latinos y grupos pro-inmigrantes argumentan que muchas de las industrias que sostienen
la economía de Arizona, incluyendo la construccion, el turismo, restaurantes y agricultura,
necesitan trabajadores inmigrantes, con estatus legal o indocumentados, porque no hay
suficientes trabajadores americanos para hacer el trabajo ("Latino groups warn of job
discrimination", The Arizona Republic, 3/jul/07).
El Pew Hispanic Center estima que los inmigrantes indocumentados representan uno de cada
diez trabajadores en la economia de Arizona. Arizona es uno de al menos 11 estados que han
consierado iniciativas de ley relacionadas con sanciones a empleadores este año. ("Arizona OKs
17
Illegal-Worker Restrictions", The Associated Press, 2/jul/07)
Para abril de 2007, 40 estados habian introducido 199 iniciativas de ley relacionadas con el
empleo de trabajadores indocumentados, de acuerdo al National Conference of State
Legislatures. La ley de Arizona se considera la más estricta hasta el momento, aunque Arkansas,
Colorado, Hawaii, Tennessee y Virginia estan en proceso de discussion de iniciativas similares
("Arizona's new law imposes sanctions – the stiffest in the US – for hiring illegal workers", The
Christian Science Monitor, 5/jul/07).
HB2772 - ….but based on interviews with undocumented immigrants, immigrant advocates,
community leaders and real-estate agents, at least several hundred (immigrants) have left since
Democratic Gov. Janet Napolitano signed the bill on July 2. (The Arizona Republic, 28/ago/07)
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
ARIZONA
Employer sanctions (HB 2745)
Aprobada
Section 1. Section 13-2008, Arizona Revised Statutes, is amended to read:
13-2008. Taking identity of another person or entity; classification; definition
A. A person commits taking the identity of another person or entity if the person knowingly takes,
purchases, manufactures, records, possesses or uses any personal identifying information or
entity identifying information of another person or entity, including a real or fictitious person or
entity, without the consent of that other person or entity, with the intent to obtain or use the other
person's or entity's identity for any unlawful purpose or to cause loss to a person or entity whether
or not the person or entity actually suffers any economic loss as a result of the offense, or with the
intent to obtain or continue employment.
B. Except as provided in subsection e, a person commits taking the identity of another person if
the person knowingly possesses or uses for any purpose identification that purports to have been
issued by a government agency and the person knew or should have known that the government
agency did not or would not have authorized the issuance of the identification.
…
e. This section does not apply to a violation of section 4-241 by a person who is under twenty-one
years of age. It is a defense to a prosecution under subsection B if the person was twenty years of
age or younger at the time of the commission of the offense and the person possessed
identification purporting to have been issued by a government agency if the possession was solely
for the purpose of committing a violation of section 4-241.
f. Taking the identity of another person or entity or knowingly accepting the identity of another
person is a class 4 felony.
…
Sec. 2. Section 13-2010, Arizona Revised Statutes, is amended to read:
13-2010. Trafficking in the identity of another person or entity; classification
A. A person commits trafficking in the identity of another person or entity if the person knowingly
sells, transfers or transmits any personal identifying information or entity identifying information of
another person or entity, including a real or fictitious person or entity, without the consent of the
other person or entity for any unlawful purpose or to cause loss to the person or entity whether or
not the other person or entity actually suffers any economic loss, or allowing another person to
obtain or continue employment.
…
Sec. 3. Section 23-211, Arizona Revised Statutes, is amended to read:
23-211. Definitions
2. "Employee":
18
(a) Means any person who provides services or labor for an employer in this state for
wages or other remuneration.
(b) Does not include an independent contractor.
3. "Employer" means any individual or type of organization that transacts business in this
state, whether or not the individual or organization has a license issued by an agency in this state,
and that employs one or more employees in this state. Employer includes this state, any political
subdivision of this state and self-employed persons. In the case of an independent contractor,
employer means the independent contractor and does not mean the person or organization that
uses the contract labor.
4. " E-verify program" means the employment verification pilot program as jointly
administered by the United States department of homeland security and the social security
administration or any of its successor programs.
5. "Independent contractor" means any individual or entity that carries on an independent
business, that contracts to do a piece of work according to the individual's or entity's own means
and methods and that is subject to control only as to results. Whether an individual or entity is an
independent contractor is determined on a case-by-case basis through various factors, including
whether the individual or entity:
(a) Supplies the tools or materials.
(b) Makes services available to the general public.
(c) Works for a number of clients at the same time.
(d) Has an opportunity for profit or loss as a result of labor or service provided.
(e) Invests in the facilities for work.
(f) Directs the order or sequence in which the work is completed.
(g) Determines the hours when the work is completed.
…
Sec. 4. Section 23-212, Arizona Revised Statutes, is amended to read:
23-212. Employment of unauthorized aliens; prohibition; false and frivolous complaints; violation;
classification; license suspension and revocation; affirmative defense
A. An employer shall not intentionally employ an unauthorized alien or knowingly employ an
unauthorized alien. An employer violates this subsection if the employer uses a contract or
subcontract to obtain the labor of an alien in this state knowing that the alien is an unauthorized
alien with respect to performing the labor.
…
F. On a finding of a violation of subsection A:
1. For a first violation that is a knowing violation of subsection A, the court:
(a) Shall order the employer to terminate the employment of all unauthorized aliens.
(b) Shall order the employer to be subject to a three year probationary period for the business
location where the unauthorized alien performed work. During the probationary period the
employer shall file quarterly reports in the form provided in section 23-722.01 with the county
attorney of each new employee who is hired by the employer at the business location where the
unauthorized alien performed work.
…
2. For a first violation that is an intentional violation of subsection A, the court shall:
(a) Order the employer to terminate the employment of all unauthorized aliens.
(b) Order the employer to be subject to a five year probationary period for the business location
where the unauthorized alien performed work. During the probationary period the employer shall
file quarterly reports in the form provided in section 23-722.01 with the county attorney of each
new employee who is hired by the employer at the business location where the unauthorized alien
performed work.
(c) Order the appropriate agencies to suspend all licenses, described in subdivision (d) of this
paragraph that are held by the employer for a minimum of ten days. The court shall base its
decision on the length of the suspension under this subdivision on any evidence or information
19
submitted to it during the action for a violation of this subsection and shall consider the following
factors, if relevant:
(i) The number of unauthorized aliens employed by the employer.
(ii) Any prior misconduct by the employer.
(iii) The degree of harm resulting from the violation.
(iv) Whether the employer made good faith efforts to comply with any applicable requirements.
(v) The duration of the violation.
(vi) The role of the directors, officers or principals of the employer in the violation.
(vii) Any other factors the court deems appropriate.
(d) Order the employer to file a signed sworn affidavit with the county attorney. The affidavit shall
state that the employer has terminated the employment of all unauthorized aliens in this state and
that the employer will not intentionally or knowingly employ an unauthorized alien in this state. All
licenses that are suspended under this subdivision shall remain suspended until the employer files
a signed sworn affidavit with the county attorney. For the purposes of this subdivision, the licenses
that are subject to suspension under this subdivision are all licenses that are held by the employer
specific to the business location where the unauthorized alien performed work. If the employer
does not hold a license specific to the business location where the unauthorized alien performed
work, but a license is necessary to operate the employer's business in general, the licenses that
are subject to suspension under this subdivision are all licenses that are held by the employer at
the employer's primary place of business. On receipt of the court's order and notwithstanding any
other law, the appropriate agencies shall suspend the licenses according to the court's order. The
court shall send a copy of the court's order to the attorney general and the attorney general shall
maintain the copy pursuant to subsection G.
3. For a second violation of subsection A, the court shall order the appropriate agencies to
permanently revoke all licenses that are held by the employer specific to the business location
where the unauthorized alien performed work. If the employer does not hold a license specific to
the business location where the unauthorized alien performed work, but a license is necessary to
operate the employer's business in general, the court shall order the appropriate agencies to
permanently revoke all licenses that are held by the employer at the employer's primary place of
business. On receipt of the order and notwithstanding any other law, the appropriate agencies
shall immediately revoke the licenses.
4. The violation shall be considered:
(a) A first violation by an employer at a business location if the violation did not occur during a
probationary period ordered by the court under this subsection for that employer's business
location.
(b) A second violation by an employer at a business location if the violation occurred during a
probationary period ordered by the court under this subsection for that employer's business
location.
…
J. For the purposes of this section, an employer who establishes that it has complied in good faith
with the requirements of 8 United States Code section 1324a(b) establishes an affirmative defense
that the employer did not intentionally or knowingly employ an unauthorized alien. An employer is
considered to have complied with the requirements of 8 United States Code section 1324a(b),
notwithstanding an isolated, sporadic or accidental technical or procedural failure to meet the
requirements, if there is a good faith attempt to comply with the requirements.
Sec. 5. Section 23-214, Arizona Revised Statutes, is amended to read:
23-214. Verification of employment eligibility; E-verify program
After December 31, 2007, every employer, after hiring an employee, shall verify the employment
eligibility of the employee through the E-verify program.
…
Sec. 7. Title 41, chapter 6, Arizona Revised Statutes, is amended by adding article 7.2, to read:
ARTICLE 7.2. LICENSING ELIGIBILITY
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41-1080. Licensing eligibility; lawful presence; verification; definitions
A. An agency shall not issue a license to any applicant who is unlawfully present or
unlawfully residing in the United States. Before issuing or renewing a license, the agency shall
verify that the applicant is lawfully present in the United States.
21/feb/08 – Introducida y Primera lectura.
21/feb/08 – Asignada a los Comités de Gobernabilidad y Reglas.
1/abr/08 – Aprobada por los Asambleístas y turnada a la Cámara de Senadores
28/abr/08 – Aprobada por los Senadores.
29/abr/08 – Trasnmitida al Gobernador.
1/may/08 – Signada por la Gobernadora Janet Napolitano.
La presente ley contiene cambios –aunque negativos para los migrantes- benéficos para los
empresarios y sus emplesados, por ejemplo, la ley se aplicará de forma preactiva a partir de
enero de 2008; se sancionará solo a la sucursal de una empresa en lugar de a la compañía
matriz.
ARIZONA
AN ACT amending title 9, chapter 4, article 8, arizona revised statutes, by adding section 9500.28; amending section 11-441, arizona revised statutes; relating to municipal chiefs of police
and county sheriffs. (HB 2359)
Vetada.
Section 1. Title 9, chapter 4, article 8, Arizona Revised Statutes, is amended by adding section 9500.28, to read:
9-500.28. Chiefs of police; deputizing border officers
Chiefs of police of municipalities, without city or town council approval, may enter into agreements
to cross-certify customs and border protection officers to enforce state and local laws.
Sec. 2. Section 11-441, Arizona Revised Statutes, is amended to read:
11-441. Powers and duties
A. The sheriff shall:
1. Preserve the peace.
2. Arrest and take before the nearest magistrate for examination all persons who attempt to
commit or who have committed a public offense.
3. Prevent and suppress all affrays, breaches of the peace, riots and insurrections which may
come to the knowledge of the sheriff.
4. Attend all courts, except justice and municipal courts, when an element of danger is anticipated
and attendance is requested by the presiding judge, and obey lawful orders and directions issued
by the judge.
5. Take charge of and keep the county jail, including a county jail under the jurisdiction of a county
jail district, and the prisoners in the county jail.
6. Endorse upon all process and notices the year, month, day, hour and minute of reception, and
issue to the person delivering it, on payment of fees, a certificate showing the names of the
parties, title of paper and time of reception.
7. Serve process and notices in the manner prescribed by law and certify under the sheriff's hand
upon the process or notices the manner and time of service, or if the sheriff fails to make service,
the reasons for failure, and return them without delay. When returnable to another county, the
sheriff may enclose such process or notices in an envelope, addressed to the officer from whom
received, and deposit it postage prepaid in the post office. The return of the sheriff is prima facie
evidence of the facts stated in the return.
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8. Secure, as soon as possible, the home of a deceased person located outside the boundaries of
an incorporated city or town if the sheriff is unable to determine or locate the heirs or executor of
the deceased person.
B. The sheriff may in the execution of the duties prescribed in subsection A, paragraphs 1 through
4 command the aid of as many inhabitants of the county as the sheriff deems necessary. The
sheriff, without the authority of the board of supervisors, may enter into agreements to cross-certify
customs and border protection officers to enforce state and local laws.
C. The sheriff shall conduct or coordinate within the county search or rescue operations involving
the life or health of any person, or may assist in such operations in another county at the request
of that county's sheriff, and may request assistance from any persons or agencies in the fulfillment
of duties under this subsection.
D. The sheriff, in the execution of the duties prescribed in this section, may request the aid of
volunteer posse and reserve organizations located in the county.
E. The sheriff may assist in the execution of the duties prescribed in this section in another county
at the request of that county's sheriff.
F. The sheriff may require any prisoner who is on work release to reimburse the county for
reasonable expenses incurred in connection with the release.
G. The board of supervisors of a county bordering the Republic of Mexico may adopt an
ordinance pursuant to chapter 2 of this title allowing the sheriff to prevent the entry from this state
into the republic of Mexico at the border by any resident of this state who is under eighteen years
of age if the minor is unaccompanied by a parent or guardian or does not have written consent for
entry from a parent or guardian. The authority of the sheriff is only to prevent entry and not to
otherwise detain the minor. This subsection shall not be construed to limit the authority of the
sheriff pursuant to any other law. A county is not civilly or criminally liable for not adopting an
ordinance pursuant to this subsection.
24/ene/08 – Introducida.
24/abr/08 – Transmitida a la Gobernadora.
29/abr/08 – Vetada por la Gobernadora.
Autoriza a los jefes de los departamentos de policía y alguaciles del estado a entrenar a sus
agentes con la Patrulla Fronteriza para que puedan ejercer las leyes de migración sin necesidad
de obtener la aprobación del ayuntamiento o consejo municipal de su respectiva localidad, o bien,
en el caso de los alguaciles, sin la autorización de la Barra de Supervisores del Condado.
ARIZONA
AN ACT AMENDING title 11, chapter 7, Arizona Revised Statutes, by adding article 8; RELATING
TO local immigration enforcement. (HB 2807)
Vetada.
ARTICLE 8. ENFORCEMENT OF IMMIGRATION LAWS
11-1051. Cooperation and assistance in enforcement of immigration laws
A. All officials, agencies and personnel of counties, cities and towns shall fully comply with and, to
the full extent permitted by law, support the enforcement of federal immigration laws of the United
States.
B. Except as provided in federal law, officials, agencies or personnel of counties, cities and towns
may not be prohibited or in any way restricted from sending, receiving or maintaining information
relating to the immigration status, lawful or unlawful, of any individual or exchanging that
information with any other federal, state or local governmental entity for the following official
purposes:
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1. Determination of eligibility for any federal, state or local public benefit, service or license that is
restricted in whole or in part on the basis of immigration status.
2. Verification of any claim of legal domicile if legal domicile is required by law or contract.
3. Confirmation of the identity of any person who is detained.
C. County sheriffs and police departments of cities and towns may implement a program to train
peace officers to investigate violations of federal immigration laws. The training shall be funded by
any source of federal funding or by the state if federal funding is unavailable. At least ten per cent
of the peace officers shall be trained by agents of the United States immigration and customs
enforcement.
13/feb/08 – Introducida.
20/mar/08 – Transmitida al Senado.
22/abr/08 – Aprobada y transmitida a la Gobernadora.
28/abr/08 – Vetada por la Gobernadora.
Requiere que todos los oficiales y personal de las agencias del orden de los condados y
municipalidades apoyen la procuración de las leyes migratorias. Además prohibe cualquier tipo de
restricción a sus empleados para intercambiar información con otras agencias gubernamentales
en cuanto al status migratorio de los solicitantes de servicios y beneficios públicos del gobierno
federal, estatal o local. De la misma manera, la ley obliga a por lo menos el 10% de los oficiales
de los condados o departamentos de policía a recibir entrenamiento del ICE.
ARIZONA
IIMPACT Arizona (Illegal Immigration Prevention and Apprehension Co-op Teams)
Miembros de la policía de Arizona y Phoenix recibirían entrenamiento para asistir en la aplicación
de las leyes migratorias. El programa se dirige principalmente al combate de organizaciones
criminales, traficantes de personas y de drogas.
27/feb/07 – Se anuncia la próxima presentación formal del programa IIMPACT.
Gobernadora Janet Napolitano: "We've been trying to do this for years" (27/feb/07)
Alcalde Phil Gordon: "We don't have the number of officers to do it. It's the federal government's
responsibility." (27/feb/07)
Andy Hill, Sargento de la policia de Phoenix: "This is solely about being part of a task force that
investigates violent crimes. People who live in the community who are undocumented don't have
to fear a Phoenix police car driving by and that an officer is going to stop and ascertain their
immigration status." (27/feb/07)
Jeanine L'Ecuyer, Vocera de la gobernadora: "The intent is not to do what (Maricopa County
Sheriff Joe) Arpaio's doing. The intent is to focus on criminal organizations." (27/feb/07)
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Proposition 100 (House Concurrent resolution 2028)
Aprobada
Adds to the list of non-bailable offenses serious felony offenses prescribed by the legislature if the
preson charged has entered or remained in the United States illegally and if the proof is evident or
the presumption great as to the present charge.
5/ago/07 - The Pinal County Sheriff's office plans to get some of its officers trained in enforcing
elements of federal immigration law. (AZcemtral.com)
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TITULO
AN ACT amending title 9, chapter 4, article 8, arizona revised statutes, by adding section 9-500.28;
amending section 11-441, arizona revised statutes; relating to municipal chiefs of police and county
sheriffs (HB 2359)
ESTATUS
Vetada.
CONTENIDO 9-500.28. Chiefs of police; deputizing border officers
Chiefs of police of municipalities, without city or town council approval, may enter into agreements
to cross-certify customs and border protection officers to enforce state and local laws.
Sec. 2. Section 11-441, Arizona Revised Statutes, is amended to read:
11-441. Powers and duties
A. The sheriff shall:
1. Preserve the peace.
2. Arrest and take before the nearest magistrate for examination all persons who attempt to
commit or who have committed a public offense.
3. Prevent and suppress all affrays, breaches of the peace, riots and insurrections which may
come to the knowledge of the sheriff.
4. Attend all courts, except justice and municipal courts, when an element of danger is anticipated
and attendance is requested by the presiding judge, and obey lawful orders and directions issued
by the judge.
5. Take charge of and keep the county jail, including a county jail under the jurisdiction of a county
jail district, and the prisoners in the county jail.
6. Endorse upon all process and notices the year, month, day, hour and minute of reception, and
issue to the person delivering it, on payment of fees, a certificate showing the names of the parties,
title of paper and time of reception.
7. Serve process and notices in the manner prescribed by law and certify under the sheriff's hand
upon the process or notices the manner and time of service, or if the sheriff fails to make service,
the reasons for failure, and return them without delay. When returnable to another county, the
sheriff may enclose such process or notices in an envelope, addressed to the officer from whom
received, and deposit it postage prepaid in the post office. The return of the sheriff is prima facie
evidence of the facts stated in the return.
8. Secure, as soon as possible, the home of a deceased person located outside the boundaries of
an incorporated city or town if the sheriff is unable to determine or locate the heirs or executor of
the deceased person.
B. The sheriff may in the execution of the duties prescribed in subsection A, paragraphs 1 through
4 command the aid of as many inhabitants of the county as the sheriff deems necessary. The
sheriff, without the authority of the board of supervisors, may enter into agreements to cross‑certify
customs and border protection officers to enforce state and local laws.
C. The sheriff shall conduct or coordinate within the county search or rescue operations involving
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the life or health of any person, or may assist in such operations in another county at the request of
that county's sheriff, and may request assistance from any persons or agencies in the fulfillment of
duties under this subsection.
D. The sheriff, in the execution of the duties prescribed in this section, may request the aid of
volunteer posse and reserve organizations located in the county.
E. The sheriff may assist in the execution of the duties prescribed in this section in another county
at the request of that county's sheriff.
F. The sheriff may require any prisoner who is on work release to reimburse the county for
reasonable expenses incurred in connection with the release.
G. The board of supervisors of a county bordering the Republic of Mexico may adopt an ordinance
pursuant to chapter 2 of this title allowing the sheriff to prevent the entry from this state into the
republic of Mexico at the border by any resident of this state who is under eighteen years of age if
the minor is unaccompanied by a parent or guardian or does not have written consent for entry
from a parent or guardian. The authority of the sheriff is only to prevent entry and not to otherwise
detain the minor. This subsection shall not be construed to limit the authority of the sheriff
pursuant to any other law. A county is not civilly or criminally liable for not adopting an ordinance
pursuant to this subsection.
24/ene/08 – Introducida por el representante Jonathan Paton.
28/ene/08 – Segunda Lectura
3/mar/08 – Aprobada por la Asamblea y transmitida al Senado.
23/abr/08 – Aprobada por el Senado.
24/abr/08 – Transmitida al Gobernador.
29/abr/08 – Vetada por el Gobernador.
Autoriza a los jefes de los deparamentos de policía y alguaciles del estado a entrenar a sus
agentes con la Patrulla Fronteriza para que puedan ejercer las leyes de migración sin necesidad
de obtener la aprobación del ayuntamiento o consejo municipal de su respectiva localidad, o bien,
en el caso de los alguaciles, sin la autorización de la Barra de Supervisores del condado.
ARIZONA
Immigration; Local Enforcement (HB 2807)
Vetada.
Section 1. Title 11, chapter 7, Arizona Revised Statutes, is amended by adding article 8, to read:
ARTICLE 8. ENFORCEMENT OF IMMIGRATION LAWS
START_STATUTE11-1051. Cooperation and assistance in enforcement of immigration laws
A. All officials, agencies and personnel of counties, cities and towns shall fully comply with and, to
the full extent permitted by law, support the enforcement of federal immigration laws of the United
States.
B. Except as provided in federal law, officials, agencies or personnel of counties, cities and towns
may not be prohibited or in any way restricted from sending, receiving or maintaining information
relating to the immigration status, lawful or unlawful, of any individual or exchanging that
information with any other federal, state or local governmental entity for the following official
purposes:
1. Determination of eligibility for any federal, state or local public benefit, service or license that is
restricted in whole or in part on the basis of immigration status.
2. Verification of any claim of legal domicile if legal domicile is required by law or contract.
3. Confirmation of the identity of any person who is detained.
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C. County sheriffs and police departments of cities and towns may implement a program to train
peace officers to investigate violations of federal immigration laws. The training shall be funded by
any source of federal funding or by the state if federal funding is unavailable. At least ten per cent
of the peace officers shall be trained by agents of the United States immigration and customs
enforcement.
13/feb/08 – Primera lectura.
20/mar/08 – Aprobada por la Asamblea.
21/abr/08 – Aprobada por el Senado.
28/abr/08 – Vetada por la Gobernadora Janet Napolitano.
Establece que los oficiales y personal de las agencias del orden de los condados y
municipalidades apoyen la procuración de las leyes migratorias.
JURISDICCIÓN ARIZONA
TITULO
A Concurrent Resolution Enacting and ordering the submission to the people of a measure relating
to illegal aliens (House Concurrent Resolution 2039)
ESTATUS
No prosperó
CONTENIDO Section 1. Title 11, chapter 7, Arizona Revised Statutes, is amended by adding article 8, to read:
ARTICLE 8. ENFORCEMENT OF IMMIGRATION LAWS
START_STATUTE11-1051. Cooperation and assistance in enforcement of immigration laws
A. No official, agency or personnel of this state or counties, cities or towns of this state may adopt
a policy that limits the enforcement of federal immigration laws to the full extent permitted by
federal law. For every legitimate contact made by such officials, agencies or personnel where
reasonable suspicion exists regarding the immigration status of a person, a reasonable attempt
shall be made to determine the immigration status of the person. If the person who is arrested is
an alien, the person's immigration status shall be verified with the federal government pursuant to 8
United States Code section 1373(c). If the person is an alien who is unlawfully present in the
United States and this state or a local governmental entity elects not to prosecute the person for a
violation of state or local law, the person shall be transferred to the custody of the United States
immigration and customs enforcement or the United States customs and border protection. If an
alien who is unlawfully present in the United States is acquitted of any violation of state or local
law, is discharged from imprisonment or pays any fine imposed, the alien immediately shall be
transferred to the custody of the United States immigration and customs enforcement.
B. Except as provided in federal law, officials, agencies or personnel of this state and counties,
cities and towns of this state may not be prohibited or in any way restricted from sending, receiving
or maintaining information relating to the immigration status, lawful or unlawful, of any individual or
exchanging that information with any other federal, state or local governmental entity for the
following official purposes:
1. Determination of eligibility for any federal, state or local public benefit, service or license that is
restricted in whole or in part on the basis of immigration status.
2. Verification of any claim of legal domicile if legal domicile is required by law or contract.
3. Confirmation of the identity of any person who is detained.
C. A person may bring an action in superior court to challenge any official, agency or personnel of
this state or counties, cities or towns of this state that adopts or IMPLEMENTS a policy that limits
the enforcement of federal immigration laws to the full extent permitted by federal law. If there is a
judicial finding that an entity has violated this section, the court may order any of the following:
1. That all state funding be withheld from the entity until the policy is rescinded.
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2. That the entity pay a civil penalty not to exceed an amount equal to five thousand dollars for
each day that the policy has remained in effect after it has been found to be in violation of this
section.
Sec. 2. Title 13, chapter 15, Arizona Revised Statutes, is amended by adding section 13-1509, to
read:
START_STATUTE13-1509. Trespassing by illegal aliens; assessment; classification
A. In addition to any violation of federal law, it is unlawful for a person who is a citizen of any
country other than the United States to enter into or be on any public or private land in this state if,
at the time of the commission of the offense, the person is in violation of 8 United States Code
section 1325.
B. For a first offense, the arresting authority has discretion to transfer the person to the federal
agency with jurisdiction or refer the person for prosecution.
C. A violation of this section is a class 1 misdemeanor, except that a second or subsequent
violation is a class 4 felony. The person is not eligible for suspension or commutation of sentence
or release on any basis until the sentence imposed is served.
D. In addition to any other penalty prescribed by law, the court shall order the person to pay jail
costs and an additional assessment in the following amounts:
1. At least five hundred dollars for a first violation.
2. Twice the amount specified in paragraph 1 of this subsection if the person was previously
subject to an assessment pursuant to this subsection.
E. A court shall collect the assessments prescribed in subsection D of this section and remit the
assessments to the department of public safety, which shall establish a special subaccount for the
monies in the account established for the gang and immigration intelligence team enforcement
mission appropriation. Monies in the special subaccount are subject to legislative appropriation for
distribution for gang and immigration enforcement and for county jail reimbursement costs relating
to illegal immigration.
F. Notwithstanding subsection C of this section, if the person violates this section while in
possession of any of the following, the violation is a class 2 felony:
1. A dangerous drug as defined in section 13-3401.
2. Precursor chemicals that are used in the manufacturing of methamphetamine in violation of
section 13-3404.01.
3. A deadly weapon as defined in section 13-3101 or a dangerous instrument as defined in section
13-105.
4. Property that is used for the purpose of committing an act of terrorism as prescribed in section
13-2308.01.
21/feb/08 – Introducida y primera lectura.
21/feb/08 – Turnada a los comités de gobernabilidad y reglas.
Establece que los oficiales y personal de las agencias del orden de los condados y
municipalidades apoyen la procuración de las leyes migratorias.
JURISDICCIÓN ARIZONA
TITULO
Memorandum of understanding between Arizona Department of Corrections and U.S. Department
of Homeland Security
ESTATUS
En vigor
CONTENIDO Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
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participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
16/sep/05 – Firma del memorandum de entendimiento.
El acuerdo permitirá a los agentes de detención del aguacil el entrevistar a nacionales extranjeros
dentro de los centros de detención para determinar si existe causa probable de una violación a la
ley de migración. Bajo el programa, los agentes completaran el procesamiento de cualquier
inculpado extranjero y prepararán la documentación para iniciar los procedimientos de
deportación.
JURISDICCIÓN ARIZONA
TITULO
Memorandum of understanding between Arizona Department of Public Safety and U.S.
Department of Homeland Security
ESTATUS
En vigor
CONTENIDO Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
FECHAS
15/abr/07 – Firma del memorandum de entendimiento.
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LAKE HAVASU (Mohave County), AZ
Pendiente
- Solicita recursos federales para incorporarse al programa de entrenamiento para entrenar a la
policía local para aplicar las leyes migratorias y tener acceso a las bases de datos federales sobre
migración conforme a la sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración (INA). El programa permitiría a los
oficiales de la ciudad investigar el estatus migratorio de personas arrestadas e iniciar el proceso
de deportación.
15/feb/07 – El Concejo de la Ciudad aprueba el proyecto para solicitar el acuerdo con la Oficina
de Migración y Aduanas.
Dan Doyle, Jefe de la Policía: "You have to tread very lightly that you don't racially profile in the
course of legitimate police business” (15/feb/07)
Los oficiales del Condado de Mohave han arrestado a más de 50 inmigrantes indocumentados en
su circunscripción desde noviembre de 2007. De esta cifra, 37 han sido entregados a la Patrulla
Fronteriza, mientras 17 están siendo procesados en cortes judiciales.
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LAKE HAVASU (Mohave County), AZ
Pendiente
- Requiere a empresas contratadas por el condado firmar una declaración jurada en la que
aseguren que no utilizan mano de obra de trabajadores indocumentados.
27/feb/07 – El Concejo de la Ciudad considera la propuesta para requerir a contratistas firmar una
declaración sobre el estatus migratorio de sus trabajadores.
Mayor Mark Nexsen said the purpose of the proposal is to try to make sure contractors or
subcontractors with the city have gone through the correct channels to ensure their workers can
legally work in this country/ (26/feb/07).
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MARICOPA COUNTY, AZ
A.R.S. § 13-2319 (ley estatal)
En vigor
A.R.S. 13-2319: establece como delito grave el tráfico de personas.
El Procurador del Condado, Andrew Thomas, interpreta la ley en el sentido de que puede
aplicarse a los propios inmigrantes por participar en el acto de contrabando, con base en el
estatuto sobre conspiración ARS 13-1003.
FECHAS
12/ago/05 - Arizona aprueba la ley estatal A.R.S. 13-2319, la cual establece como delito grave el
tráfico de personas.
Marzo/06 – El Sheriff del Conado de Maricopa County, Joe Arpaio, inicia una campaña para
arrestar a inmigrantes indocumentados y traficantes de personas, argumentando que la nueva ley
puede aplicarse a los propios inmigrantes por participar en el acto de contrabando, de acuerdo a
una interpretación del Procurador del Condado, Andrew Thomas.
May/06 - Esta interpretación es desafiada en las cortes por el Center for Human Rights and
Constitucional Law Foundation.
29/may/06 – El Procurador de Maricopa, Andrew Thomas, acusa a México de estar detrás de la
demanda en contra de la ley sobre contrabando de personas de Arizona y pide al departamento
de Estado protestar en contra de las actividades del gobierno mexicano para “socavar la
aplicación de las leyes estadounidenses” e “interferir en los asuntos internos de Arizona”.
El presidente y director ejecutivo del Center for Human Rights and Constitucional Law Foundation,
Peter Schey aclara que no está desafiando la ley sino la interpretación de Andrew Thomas
respecto a la responsabilidad de los propios inmigrantes en actos de contrabando de personas.
9/jun/06 - La Suprema Corte del Condado de Maricopa sostuvo esta interpretación y aceptó que
los inmigrantes pueden ser procesados por conspiración al aceptar ser transportados como
inmigrantes indocumentados de acuerdo al estatuto sobre conspiración ARS 13-1003.
19/oct/06 - Por primera vez en la historia de Estados Unidos, un jurado condena a un inmigrante
29
indocumentado por conspiración al haber ingresado al país por medio de una red de contrabando
de personas.
Ene/07 - La representante estatal Kyrsten Sinema (D), presenta una propuesta a la Legislatura
para evitar que los fiscales acusen a los inmigrantes por contrabando con base en esta ley.
Sinema argumentó que la interpretación actual de la ley es equivocada.
24/ene/07 – La Oficina de Migración y Aduanas (ICE) autorizó a Joe Arpaio, sheriff del condado,
aprehender indocumentados en el área urbana y el valle de Phoenix, y exendiendo su jurisdicción.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
Los críticos argumentan que la ley no fue hecha con el propósito de ser usada contra los clientes
de los contrabandistas sino sólo contra los traficantes de personas.
15/jul/06 – Más de 200 personas protestan fuera de la oficina del Sheriff Arpaio para pedir que
termine con su campaña de hostilidad en contra de la comunidad hispana. Participa el grupo
Inmigrantes Sin Fronteras.
Jul/07 - Líderes latinos y grupos religiosos piden al Sheriff de Maricopa County, Joe Arpaio, que
desconecte la linea telefonica que creó para que las personas puedan reportar informacion sobre
inmigrantes indocumentados pues puede provocar tensiones sociales.
OPINIONES
Procurador Thomas: "I believe the law is clear. We have a new coyote statute that makes human
smuggling a crime, and the state conspiracy statute clearly applies to that." (29/may/06)
Sheriff Arpaio: "My message is clear: If you come here and I catch you, you're going straight to jail.
We're going to arrest any illegal who violates this new law, and I'm not going to turn these people
over to federal authorities so they can have a free ride back to Mexico. I'll give them a free ride to
my jail." (29/may/06)
Bermudez, Presidente de Inmigrantes Sin Fronteras, "We believe that your enforcement of the law
is an affront to the poor victims — the people who are coming here to work and serve this country."
(15/jul/06)
"This controversial application of A.R.S 13-2319 may be broader than intended by the legislature
or by some of the bill's sponsors. However, if the application of the conspiracy statute was an
unintended consequence, the responsibility to address the problem and amend ARS 13-2319 falls
to the legislature." Colleen DISanto (miembro del despacho de abogados DiSanto & DiSanto).
(ene/07)
Thomas, el único fiscal que ha acusado a inmigrantes de conspiración bajo la ley estatal, sostiene
que su interpretación era necesaria para responsabilizar a los clientes de los "coyotes" o
"polleros" por ingresar al país ilegalmente. (ene/07)
Sheriff Joe Arpaio: "Ours is an operation where we want to go after illegals, not the crime first. It's
a pure program. You go after them, and you lock them up." (2/mar/07)
EFECTOS
A partir de la entrada en vigor de la ley y hasta enero de 2007 se han reportado más de 350
detenciones con cargos respecto a la violación del estatuto anti-contrabando.
Se prevé que otros condados de Arizona pueden seguir el ejemplo de Maricopa County en cuanto
30
a la detención y proceso de migrantes indocumentados bajo esta interpretación de la ley.
Una condena bajo este estatuto impediría a un inmigrante indocumentado obtener estatus legal
en EU en el futuro.
Desde marzo de 2006 y hasta abril de 2007, más de 520 personas han sido detenidas bajo
sospecha de estar involucrados en casos de tráfico de personas.
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
MARICOPA COUNTY, AZ
Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) allowing deputies to perform immigration law enforcement
functions as permitted by Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor
“For the purposes of this MOA [Memorandum of Agreement], participating LEA [Law Enforcement
Agency or Maricopa County Sheriff’s Office] personel will be authorized to perform the following
functions pursuant to the stated authorities, subject to the limitations contained in this MOA:
• The power and authority to interrogate any alien or person believed to be an alien as to his
rights to be or reamin in the United States (INA § 287(a)(1) and 8 C.F.R. § 287.5(a)(1)) and
to process for immigration violations those individuals who are convicted of State or Federal
felony offenses;
• The power to arrest without warrant any alien entering or attempting to unlawfully enter the
United States, or any alien in the United States, if the officer has reason to believe the alien
to be arrested is in the United States in violation of law and is likely to escape before a
warrant can be obtained. INA § 287(a)(2) and 8 C.F.R. § 287(c)(2).
• The power to serve warrants of arrest for immigration violations under 8 C.F.R. § 287.5(e)(3).
• The power and authority to administer oaths and to take and consider evidence (INA §
287(b) and 8 C.F.R. § 287.5(a)(2)) to complete required criminal alien processing, to include
fingerprinting, photographing, and interviewing, as well as the preparation of affidavits and
the taking of sworn statements for ICE [United States Immigration and Customs
Enforcement] supervisory review;
• The power and authority to preparre charging documents (INA Section 239, 8 C.F.R. 239.1;
INA Section 238, 8 C.F.R. 238.1; INA Section 241(a)(5), 8 C.F.R. 241.8, INA Section
235(b)(1), 8 C.F.R. 235.3) including the preparation of the Notice to Appear (NTA) application
or other charging document, as appropriate, for the signature of an ICE officer for aliens in
categories established by ICE supervisors;
• The power and authority to issue immigatrion detainers (8 C.F.R. § 287.5(c)(6)) arrested
aliens to ICE-approved detention facilities”
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
24/feb/07 – Firma del Memorandum.
Alonzo R. Peña, agente especial a cargo de la Oficina de Investigaciones de la Oficina de Control
de Inmigración y Aduanas en Arizona, “I thank Sheriff Joe Arpaio and Maricopa County for their
willingness to enter into this agreement, which I believe will lead to unprecedented cooperation
between ICE and the MCSO to combat the violence and crime that go hand in hand with illegal
immigration.”
El acuerdo permitirá a los agentes de detención del aguacil el entrevistar a nacionales extranjeros
dentro de los centros de detención para determinar si existe causa probable de una violación a la
ley de migración. Bajo el programa, los agents completaran el procesamiento de cualquier
31
delincuente extranjero y prepararán la documentación para iniciar los procedimientos de
deportación.
160 agentes de la Oficina del Alguacil del Condado de Maricopa recibiran entrenamiento y
autoridad bajo la supervisión de la Oficina de Control de Inmigración y Aduanas, para ejercer
funciones permitidas por la sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración y Nacionalidad de los EE.UU.
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
PAYSON, AZ
Ordenanza 709 y Resolución 2248
En vigor a partir del 1 de julio 2007.
Ordenanza que penalizaría empleadores que den trabajo y a los arrendadores que alquilen
vivienda a inmigrantes indocumentados (La sección sobre arrendamiento fue eliminada tras una
serie de enmiendas). Los patrones que soliciten una licencia de negocios deberán firmar una
declaración jurada en la que aseguren que sus empleados son ciudadanos de los Estados
Unidos, residentes legales, o personas con permiso de trabajo.
A partir de julio de 2007, todo empleador deberá incluir el número de licencia comercial en sus
automóviles y de ser encontrados culpables de contratar a inmigrantes indocumentados se les
revocara su licencia. Tanto los empresarios como los arrendatarios que violen la ley enfrentarán
multas de cerca de $1,000 dólares.
2/mar/07 - El Cabildo de Payson aprueba introducir la ordenanza que penalizaría empleadores
que den trabajo a inmigrantes indocumentados.
La ordenanza será revisada nuevamente el próximo 15 de marzo. De ser aprobada, entrará en
vigor 30 días después.
15/mar/07 – El Cabildo de Payson aprueba la ordenanza con cinco votos a favor y dos en contra.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
6/abr/07 – El Cabildo de Payson aprueba por unanimidad algunas enmiendas a la ordenanza. Las
principales enmiendas establecen que: 1) la licencia de los empleadores sólo tendrá que exhibirse
en sus anuncios en automóviles; 2) La sanción por violaciones a la ley es la revocación de la
licencia de negocios (no tenerla se considera delito menor). La licencia puede recuperarse hasta
dos veces si el empleador resuelve la situación y paga una cuota administrativa; 3) Elimina la
sección sobre sanciones a arrendadores que alquilen vivienda a inmigrantes indocumentados.
La Cámara de Comercio de la región dijo que aunque no tiene una opinión al respecto, ha recibido
quejas de empresarios que temen que la ordenanza traiga consigo una mala imagen a Payson y
provoque que los empleadores dejen de contratar a hispanos por temor a no saber detectar la
diferencia entre documentos validos y falsos que acreditan su estatus migratorio.
Gloria Anaya, dueña de un restaurante mexicano: "Everyone here is afraid. We ask them for their
papers, and they give us papers. But we don't know if they're good or not. There's no way to know
for sure. I'm worried, what they're doing here is very harsh. They're taking the law into their own
hands." (28/mar/07).
Alessandra Soler Meetze, directora ejecutiva de ACLU-Arizona: "It's going to be a lot easier and
safer for those business owners to discriminate against anyone they suspect of being foreign,
rather than risk the fines and penalties that are associated with the failure to comply. People who
sound and look foreign are going to be targeted." (28/mar/07)
Alcalde Bob Edwards "It's the law of the land. If we require in this country that you be legal, you
should be legal. All businesses will be required to sign an affidavit that all their employees are
legal. They should have that in their employee files now. If they don't, they'd better quickly. […]
32
Obviously a lot of people see this as an attack on illegal immigration. That's not where we're
aiming this. It's just a case of you can't very well tell some employer that these laws have to be
followed by you, but these others don't." (28/mar/07)
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
PHOENIX (Maricopa County), AZ
“Protect Our City” Initiative / Proposition 405
Acuerdo conforme a 287(g)
El memorandum de entendimiento para la ejecución de leyes federales de migración se encuentra
en vigor.
Retirada de las papeletas para votación de la elección de noviembre de 2006.
Se prevé que el grupo inicie nuevamente el proceso de recolección de firmas para incluir la
iniciativa en las elecciones de otoño de 2007.
CONTENIDO
Requiere a las autoridades de Phoenix (oficiales, agencias, personal y Departamento de Policía)
solicitar un acuerdo con la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas (ICE) del Departamento de Seguridad
Interna que les otorgaría facultades para garantizar el cumplimiento de las leyes migratorias. Los
agentes que participen en el programa tendrán facultades para: a) verificar el estatus migratorio
de cualquier persona que sea fichada en las cárceles del Condado de Maricopa; b) asignar la
categoría de “deportable” a los individuos que sean sujetos de deportación; c) verificar el estatus
migratorio de los individuos en las detenciones de tránsito.
Los detenidos, si cuentan con antecedentes penales, serán turnados a la autoridad
correspondiente, y los que no, serán procesados in situ y removidos de manera expedita.
De acuerdo a esta iniciativa, ningún empleado de la ciudad de Phoenix tendría restricciones en
cuando a enviar, recibir, actualizar e intercambiar información con otras oficinas de gobierno a
nivel estatal o local respecto al estatus migratorio de cualquier individuo. Permitiría interrogar y
arrestar a personas sospechosas de encontrarse de forma indocumentada en el país y
procesarlos por violaciones migratorias en caso de haber cometido alguna otra ofensa federal o
estatal.
FECHAS
15/abr/06 – Se registra la organización Protect Our City con el fin de lograr la aprobación de la
iniciativa del mismo nombre.
19/abr/06 – Randy Pullen, ex candidato a la alcaldía de Phoenix, partidario de la Propuesta 200
de Arizona y líder del grupo Protect Our City, da a conocer el contenido de la iniciativa.
28/may/06 – El grupo Protect Our City inicia la recolección de firmas para apoyar la iniciativa.
6/jul/06 – El grupo Protect Our City reunió más de 20,000 firmas para someter a referéndum la
iniciativa en las elecciones de noviembre.
28/jul/06 – Las autoridades de Phoenix aprueban incorporar la iniciativa en un referéndum al
determinar que 15,052 de las firmas son válidas. No especifican si la votación se incorporará
dentro de las elecciones de noviembre.
21/ago/06 – Las autoridades de la ciudad confirman que la iniciativa será sometida a votación en
33
las elecciones del 7 de noviembre.
Ago/06 – Varias organizaciones, incluyendo We Are America, presentan una demanda en contra
de la iniciativa argumentando que no reunió suficientes firmas válidas.
12/sep/06 – La juez del Condado de Maricopa, Janet Barton, dictaminó que la iniciativa debería
retirarse de la votación del 7 de noviembre ya que al revisar las firmas se determinó que faltaban
600 firmas válidas para lograr su aprobación. Argumentó que no les otorgaría los 10 días
adicionales para recabar firmas ya que esta provisión de las leyes de la ciudad entraría en
conflicto con las leyes estatales.
dic/06 – El grupo Protect Our City rechaza el dictamen de la juez Barton y somete el caso a la
Suprema Corte de Arizona argumentando que no se les otorgaron los diez días correspondientes
para recabar las firmas faltantes y que en esos diez días logró reunir las firmas faltantes.
11/ene/07 – Audiencia en la Suprema Corte de Arizona sobre la iniciativa.
13/ene/07 - La Corte Suprema de Arizona falló que el grupo no reunió las firmas suficientes para
someter la iniciativa a referendo de los votantes del estado. Las firmas adicionales obtenidas en
los 10 días siguientes al fallo de la corte local fueron desechadas porque la corte consideró
inválida la provisión local, alegando que entra en conflicto con las leyes estatales.
Pullen prometió empezar el proceso de nuevo para lograr que la medida sea incluida en las
papeletas de voto en las elecciones de otoño.
26/feb/07 – 10 agentes federales de la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas se unieron a la policía de
Phoenix para intensificar la investigación y los arrestos relacionados con inmigrantes
indocumentados.
27/feb/07 – Se firma el acuerdo para iniciar el entrenamiento para 160 policías de la oficina del
sheriff.
29/mar/07 - Los 39 oficiales asignados concluyeron su periodo de entrenamiento de cinco
semanas con ICE para participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias. El Alguacil del
Condado, Joe Arpaio ofreció una conferencia de prensa en la que explicó las nuevas
responsabilidades de estos oficiales.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
10/mar/08 – Firma del Memorandum de entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad
Nacional, con el cual se faculta a las autoridades locales a ejecutar las leyes de migración.
abr/06 (*antecedente) - La gobernadora Janet Napolitano vetó una propuesta de ley que daría
facultades migratorias a las autoridades y calificaría como delito menor el ingreso a Arizona de
manera indocumentada y un delito mayor si una persona era detenida dos veces al intentar
ingresar a Arizona de manera indocumentada. Napolitano justificó el veto señalando que: “Law
enforcement was uniformly opposed to it” y que “a lot of ideas that are floated around to look
‘tough’ are ideas when you really analyze them [that] aren’t really tough and not really effective.
They are just bumper stickers”.
7/jul/06 – MALDEF estudiará la iniciativa para evitar su aprobación.
Ago/06 – Varias organizaciones, incluyendo We Are America, presentan una demanda en contra
de la iniciativa argumentando que no reunió suficientes firmas válidas.
34
OPINIONES
Concejal Greg Stanton: “This is a federal issue. It’s not right to divert our local police officers from
their first responsibility, which is to fight street crime in Phoenix”. (15/abr/06)
Phil Gordon, alcalde de Phoenix: “People are frustrated. I understand that. I’m frustrated. Until
Washington secures the borders and ports of this country, city initiatives with names like ‘Protect
Our City’ only make us feel good but for no good reason. This won’t secure our borders.” (7/jul/06)
Daniel Ortega, abogado de Phoenix y consejero de MALDEF en contra de la Propuesta 200: “It’s
explosive and dangerous. It’s an initiative that will endanger the safety of every resident of Phoenix
. . . (because) resources that would go into fighting dangerous crimes would be also used to
apprehend and process alleged undocumented persons.” (7/jul/06)
Sgt. Joel Tranter, vocero de la policía de Phoenix: “The extra responsibility would put a strain on
police officers who are already extremely busy dealing with local issues.” (7/jul/06)
Randy Pullen, ex candidato a la alcaldía de Phoenix: “The initiative would end the Phoenix Police
Department’s “sanctuary policy. That policy tells police not to fulfill their oath, which is to enforce
local, state and federal laws”. (7/jul/06)
El Jefe de la Policía de Phoenix y el Presidente del Sindicato de Policía señalan su preocupación
de que la iniciativa limite la capacidad del Departamento de Policía para responder a “verdaderas
emergencias”. (22/ago/06)
Hector Yturralde, presidente de We Are America: “This misguided proposition would only do harm
to the people of Phoenix because it would take public safety officers away from doing their jobs. It
looks like most Phoenix residents agree with that.” (12/sep/06)
Alcalde Phil Gordon: "We don't have to take the officers away from our neighborhoods and
businesses . . . to become immigration enforcement officers. Rather, we are taking ICE agents and
effectively making them Phoenix police officers." (26/feb/07)
Alonzo Peña, agente especial de la Oficina de Migracion y Aduanas: "(Agents) bring an expertise
and assist the police department in solving their cases...and at the same time, it's allowing us to do
what we do, and that's going after criminal aliens." (26/feb/07)
Jack Harris, Administrador de la Seguridad Publica de Phoenix: "When we put our efforts into
investigating a crime, we're not investigating the crime of being undocumented. That's
not the direction that we're going. We're investigating whatever the crime is. And if that person
turns out to be undocumented, then there's a hold placed on them at the county jail and they're
turned over to ICE." (26/feb/07)
Jack Harris: "There is a segment of our community that would like Phoenix police officers to
become designated immigration agents and spend their time going after and enforcing immigration
laws whether the people are involved in property crimes or violent crimes or not...With the very
limited resources that we have, we feel this is the best way . . . to make our community safe."
(26/feb/07)
Evelyn Cruz, professor de leyes en Arizona State University: "(Phoenix officials) think they're
solving it this way, but the bigger problem is that you lose the trust of the community. Not just the
undocumented residents, but even the green-card holders. They may want to stay away from the
police . . . you're silencing anyone afraid of immigration agents." (26/feb/07)
35
Alcalde Phil Gordon: "A real solution still lies with the federal government." (26/feb/07)
Elias Bermudez, Consejero del CCIME y fundador de Immigrants Without Borders: "We are the
ones that suffer the brunt of this criminal activity. Unfortunately . . . when the police joins forces
with ICE, a lot of our people are going to lose trust and confidence in the police." (27/feb/07)
Lauren Mack, vocera de la Oficina de Migracion y Aduanas: "It's the largest agreement of its kind"
(27/feb/07)
Richard Romley, ex-procurador del condado de Maricopa (editorial): “I applaud the city of Phoenix
and Immigration and Customs Enforcement for a partnership that is creative, meaningful and
visionary. This shared vision by Mayor Phil Gordon, Police Chief Jack Harris and Al Peña, the
new ICE agent-in-charge for the Phoenix area, is smart and provides one of the first meaningful
approaches towards addressing the crime problems by illegal aliens.” (“Phoenix, ICE joining forces
in creative ways to battle crime by illegals”, The Arizona Republic, 3/mar/07)
Joe Arpaio, Sheriff de Maricopa: “Everybody will be watching what we do with this new authority.
We may make a mistake, but we’ll correct it. We’ll work with ICE.” (4/mar/07)
EFECTOS
Randy Pullen, ex candidato a la alcaldía de Phoenix, quien también auspició la Propuesta 200,
dijo que duplicará una iniciativa como la de Protect our City en Tucson.
En 2006, la policía de Phoenix arrestó a cerca de 2,800 delincuentes que resultaron ser
inmigrantes indocumentados. Estas personas fueron turnadas a las autoridades federales para su
juicio y deportación.
Es la primera vez que una ciudad colabora de esta manera con agentes federales para investigar
actividades criminales relacionadas con la migración indocumentada.
A partir de la aprobación del acuerdo y hasta el 20 de abril de 2007 se reportaron 176 detenciones
de inmigrantes indocumentados. De este total, 138 fueron identificados como indocumentados
tras una detención por otras razones. Hasta esta fecha, 38 miembros de la policía han recibido el
entrenamiento de ICE y 35 más han iniciado el entrenamiento.
JURISDICCIÓN PIMA, AZ
TITULO
Memorandum of understanding between Pima County Sheriff's Office and U.S. Department of
Homeland Security
ESTATUS
En vigor
CONTENIDO Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
FECHAS
10/mar/08 – Firma del memorandum de entendimiento.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
El acuerdo permitirá a los agentes de detención del aguacil el entrevistar a nacionales extranjeros
dentro de los centros de detención para determinar si existe causa probable de una violación a la
ley de migración. Bajo el programa, los agentes completaran el procesamiento de cualquier
delincuente extranjero y prepararán la documentación para iniciar los procedimientos de
36
deportación. Asimismo, permitirá que los agentes de policía del condado indaguen el status
migratiorio de las personas.
JURISDICCIÓN PINAL, AZ
TITULO
Memorandum of understanding between Pinal County Sheriff's Office and U.S. Department of
Homeland Security
ESTATUS
En vigor
CONTENIDO Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
FECHAS
10/mar/08 – Firma del memorandum de entendimiento.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
El acuerdo permitirá a los agentes de detención del aguacil el entrevistar a nacionales extranjeros
dentro de los centros de detención para determinar si existe causa probable de una violación a la
ley de migración. Bajo el programa, los agentes completaran el procesamiento de cualquier
delincuente extranjero y prepararán la documentación para iniciar los procedimientos de
deportación. Asimismo, permitirá que los agentes de policía del condado indaguen el status
migratiorio de las personas.
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
PRESCOTT (De Yavapai County), AZ
Memorandum of understanding between Yavapi County Sheriff's Office and U.S. Department of
Homeland Security
En vigor
Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
10/mar/08 – Firma del memorandum de entendimiento.
6/mar/07 - Randy Oaks, Jefe del Departamento de Policía de Prescott, propuso firmar un
Memorandum de Entendimiento bajo la sección 287g de la INA. De cumplir con los requisitos para
el Memorandum, se harían los arreglos necesarios para asignar a dos o tres oficiales de policía al
programa de entrenamiento de cinco semanas.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
Esta medida se planteó como preventiva, ya que el Jefe de la Policía, Randy Oaks, considera que
la ciudad de Prescott no debe ser vista como una "plataforma de bienvenida" para los
indocumentados que abandonen el área de Phoenix.
El acuerdo permitirá a los agentes de detención del aguacil el entrevistar a nacionales extranjeros
dentro de los centros de detención para determinar si existe causa probable de una violación a la
ley de migración. Bajo el programa, los agentes completaran el procesamiento de cualquier
delincuente extranjero y prepararán la documentación para iniciar los procedimientos de
deportación. Asimismo, permitirá que los agentes de policía del condado indaguen el status
migratiorio de las personas.
37
ARKANSAS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
ARKANSAS
HB 1024
28/feb/07 – Firmada como Act 157
Prohíbe a las oficinas y agencies estatales establecer contratos con empresas que tengan
empleados con estatus migratorio irregular.
FECHAS
15/ene/07 – El Comité de Salud Pública, Bienestar Social y Trabajo votó en contra de la medida
propuesta por el asambleísta Rick Green (R-Van Buren).
23/ene/07 – El Comité aprobó por 17 votos contra 2 la versión corregida de la propuesta. El nuevo
texto señala que se cancelarán los contratos con las empresas que tengan empleados con estatus
migratorio irregular sólo en los casos en los que se compruebe que el empleador tenía
conocimiento de la situación al momento de contratar al trabajador.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
La oficina de ACLU de Arkansas cuestionó la efectividad de la ley en cuanto a la verificación del
estatus migratorio de los empleados dado que se han encontrado errores en la base de datos
federal, Basic Pilot Program.
Asambleísta Rick Green (R-Van Buren): "I am trying to deliver a message to taxpayers of the state
that we are accountable under the law. As a state representative, I am charged with overseeing the
accountability of state tax dollars." (23/ene/07)
Rita Sklar, directora ejecutiva de ACLU en Arkansas: "I think this is a serious problem…someone
could be incorrectly labeled an illegal immigrant based on information being incorrectly input in the
identification system”. (24/ene/07)
Asambleísta Stephanie Flowers (D-Pine Bluff): "My sense is that this is a federal issue and should
be treated as a federal issue ... and given to Congress". (24/ene/07)
Asambleísta Willie Hardy (D-Camden) señaló que le hubiera gustado que la propuesta incluyera
sanciones para todos los contratistas del estado y no solo aquellos que tienen contratos con
oficinas de gobierno. (24/ene/07)
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN CITY OF ROGERS, AR
TITULO
ESTATUS
En vigor
CONTENIDO Solicitaría un Memorandum de Entendimiento con la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas conforme a
la sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
FECHAS
Nov/06 – El alcalde de Rogers, Steve Womack, envía una carta a la Secretaria de Seguridad
Interna, Julie Myers, en la que solicita que la ciudad sea admitida al programa 287(g).
23/ene/07 – Un comité especial de evaluación declara que hasta que se someta la petición para el
38
Memorando de Entendimiento no puede decidir si la propuesta de la ciudad se adhiere a las
condiciones de un acuerdo entre el Departamento de Policía y MALDEF con base en una
demanda previa contra el Departamento sobre persecución basada en perfiles raciales.
El comité acuerda reunirse nuevamente para evaluar la propuesta una vez que la ciudad presente
formalmente su solicitud y sea aceptada por la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas.
4/jul/07 - Autoridades del programa 287(g) la Oficina de Migracion y Aduanas sugirieron formar un
equipo especial regional para encargarse de asuntos relacionados con la inmigracion
indocumentada en el noreste de Arkansas, mientras se espera la respuesta a las solicitudes de
Rogers, Arkansas y otras ciudades y condados del estado para participar en el programa 287(g).
El Alcalde de Rogers, Steve Womack declaró que no se opone a este equipo especial pero que
quiere una respuesta respecto a su solicitud.
Nineteen law enforcement officers from four Northwest Arkansas agencies will attend immigration
enforcement training next week (15/ago/07, Arkansas Democrat Gazette)
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
26/sep/07 – The Washington County Sheriff’s Office finalized agreements with U.S. Immigration
and Customs Enforcement.
MALDEF se opone a que se realice este acuerdo.
27/ago/07 - El cónsul Andrés Chao pronunció las críticas más duras a esos planes y señaló al
alcalde de la localidad de Rogers, Steve Womack, de ignorar su petición de revisar esa medida
(28/ago/07, El Nuevo Herald)
Erik Meder, abogado de MALDEF, opina que la petición del Alcalde Steve Womack para participar
en el programa 287(g) viola un acuerdo previo en un caso de persecución racial contra el
Departamento de Policía. (23/ene/07)
El abogado de la ciudad, Ben Lipscomb argumentó que cada Memorandum de Entendimiento es
único y que es posible adecuar la petición de la ciudad a las condiciones establecidas en el
acuerdo con MALDEF sobre persecución racial, el cual no restringe la participación de la ciudad
en programas federales. (23/ene/07)
Arminda Ferguson, abogada local y miembro del comité de evaluación señaló que está de acuerdo
con la posición de MALDEF en cuando a que el acuerdo previo prohíbe a la ciudad participar en el
programa 287(g). (23/ene/07)
Bill Watkins, abogado local y miembro del comité de evaluación señaló que no es posible
determinar si la participación de la ciudad en este programa entra en conflicto con el acuerdo
previo hasta que no se presente la propuesta específica. (23/ene/07)
EFECTOS
Desde que la ciudad de Rogers inicio su proceso de solicitud al programa en noviembre de 2006,
otras ciudades del Estado como Springdale y el condado de Benton tambien han presentado sus
solicitudes.
JURISDICCIÓN CITY OF SPRINGDALE, AR
TITULO
ESTATUS
En vigor
CONTENIDO Solicitaría un Memorandum de Entendimiento con la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas conforme a
39
FECHAS
la sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
20/ago/07 - Springdale Police Department is sending five officers to the U.S. Department of
Homeland Security 287(g) training.
27/sep/07 - Firmó el memorando de entendimiento entre el Departamento de Seguridad Interna
(DHS) y las autoridades del departamento de policía de Springdale, Arkansas, a fin de dotar a
oficiales de la policía con la facultad de aplicar leyes migratorias, bajo la supervisión de agentes de
la autoridad migratoria local (ICE, por sus siglas en inglés).
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN WASHINGTON COUNTY, AR
TITULO
ESTATUS
En vigor
CONTENIDO Solicitaría un Memorandum de Entendimiento con la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas conforme a
la sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
FECHAS
20/ago/07 - The Washington county sheriff’s office is sending four deputies to the U.S. Department
of Homeland Security 287(g) training.
26/sep/07 – The Washington County Sheriff’s Office finalized agreements with U.S. Immigration
and Customs Enforcement.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN BENTON COUNTY, AR
TITULO
ESTATUS
En vigor
CONTENIDO Solicitaría un Memorandum de Entendimiento con la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas conforme a
la sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
FECHAS
26/sep/07 – Firma del memorandum de entendimiento.
20/ago/07 - Benton county sheriff’s office is sending four deputies to the U.S. Department of
Homeland Security 287(g) training.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
El acuerdo permitirá a los agentes de detención del aguacil el entrevistar a nacionales extranjeros
dentro de los centros de detención para determinar si existe causa probable de una violación a la
ley de migración. Bajo el programa, los agentes completaran el procesamiento de cualquier
delincuente extranjero y prepararán la documentación para iniciar los procedimientos de
40
deportación.
CALIFORNIA
JURISDICCIÓN CALIFORNIA
TITULO
S.B. 189 – Tom Harman (R)
A.B. 107 – Cameron Smyth (R)
A.B. 271 – Paul Cook (R)
ESTATUS
La S.B. 189 está suspendida por el resto de 2007, por no haber sido turnada al Comité de Asuntos
Fiscales en la fecha límite del 27 de abril (pendiente).
La A.B. 107 quedó cancelada del proceso legislativo, de conformidad con el Art. IV, sección 10(c)
de la Constitución de California.
La A.B. 271 quedó cancelada del proceso legislativo (died at desk).
CONTENIDO S.B. 189 – Requeriría al Departamento de Administración de Personal del estado y a cualquier
patrón particular verificar el estatus legal o autorización para trabajar en Estados Unidos de sus
empleados y de los de agencias o empresas de las que vayan a subcontratar servicios
previamente a su contratación. La verificación se haría por medio del Programa Piloto Básico del
Departamento de Seguridad de la Nación, que permite el acceso a bases de datos
gubernamentales sobre el estatus migratorio de las personas.
A.B. 107 – Requiere a las agencias, departamentos y entidades públicas del estado autorizados
para realizar contratos certificar que, bajo pena de cometer perjurio, ninguno de sus empleados es
extranjero sin autorización para estar en el país.
A.B. 271 - Prohibir a cualquier persona que resida de manera ilegal en California recibir los
mismos beneficios y privilegios que tiene una persona que reside legalmente en el estado, así
como requerir una prueba de ciudadanía para poder recibir cualquier tipo de asistencia estatal.
FECHAS
4/feb/08 – La iniciativa S.B. 189 –al no haber sido aprobada antes del 31 de enero de 2008
(carryover bills)- fue devuelta al Secretario del Senado, de conformidad con las Reglas del Senado
y la Asamblea.
4/feb/08 – La iniciativa A.B. 271 quedó cancelada del proceso legislativo (died at desk).
31/ene/08 – De conformidad con el art. IV, sec. 10(c) de la Constitución del estado de California la
iniciativa A.B. 107 se considera como cancelada del proceso legislativo.
4/ene/07- Se presenta la iniciativa AB 107.
6/feb/07 – Se presenta la iniciativa SB 189.
15/feb/07 - La iniciativa S.B. 189 fue turnada a los comités de Empleo Público y Retiro y de
Asuntos Laborales y Relaciones Industriales del Senado, mientras que las iniciativas A.B. 107 y
A.B. 271 no han sido asignadas a algún comité para su análisis.
20/feb/07 – AB 107 fue turnada a los comités de Negocios y Profesiones y de Asuntos Judiciales.
10/abr/07 - Rechazada en el Comité de Negocios y Profesiones, con 7 votos en contra y ninguno a
41
favor. Se le otorgó una segunda consideración.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
CALIFORNIA
Memorando de entendimiento entre el Departamento de Correccionales y Rehabilitación de
California y el Departamento de Seguridad Interna de Estados Unidos (A.B. 1081 - Law
Enforcement Mutual Aid Agreement)
Cancelada.
Requerir al secretario del Departamento de Correccionales y Rehabilitación de California (CDCR)
negociar un memorando de entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Interna de Estados
Unidos (DHS), para que la oficina de Aplicación de Leyes de Inmigración y Aduanales (ICE)
capacite y autorice a cierto número de oficiales del CDCR realizar funciones de investigación y
procesamiento de reclusos indocumentados, entre ellas: la realización de entrevistas para
determinar la posible violación de las leyes de inmigración; el registro de internos (toma de huellas
dactilares, fotografías y entrevistas); la elaboración de órdenes migratorias de detención
(immigration detainer), declaraciones escritas juradas (affidavit) y otras declaraciones juradas
(sworn statement); y la preparación de documentos federales de descargo.
31/ene/08 - Al no obtener los votos suficientes, fue reportada como ‘sin mayor acción por parte del
Comité’ de conformidad con la Regla 62(a) de las Reglas del Senado y la Asamblea de California.
28/abr/07 - La discusión de esta propuesta está suspendida por el resto del año, por no haber
sido turnada al Comité de Asuntos Fiscales en la fecha límite del 27 de abril.
23/feb/07 – Presentada por el Asambleísta Martín Garrick.
10/abr/07 – Rechazada en el Comité de Seguridad Pública.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCION
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
CALIFORNIA
An act to add Section 667.2 to the Penal Code, relating to sentencing. (AB 648)
Cancelada
667.2. (a) Any person convicted of a felony who has previously been convicted of a felony within
the State of California for which he or she was deported from the United States shall receive a 10year enhancement for each prior conviction causing deportation. The term shall be served
consecutively to any other term of imprisonment and shall commence from the time the person
otherwise would have been released from imprisonment.
(b) The prior felony conviction and deportation arising therefrom shall be alleged and proved. It
may be proven by any admissible evidence, including judicial notice of the court's own record of
conviction or other documentary evidence.
(c) Penalties imposed under subdivision (a) may not be stricken or reduced by early release
credits and are probation ineligible.
10/may/07 – Al no obtener los votos suficientes, fue reportada como ‘sin mayor acción por parte
del Comité’ de conformidad con la Regla 62(a) de las Reglas del Senado y la Asamblea de
42
California.
21/feb/07 – Introducida por el asambleísta Anthony Adams (Heperia) y primer lectura.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
La iniciativa AB 648 buscaba disponer una sentencia adicional de diez años de cárcel para
cualquier persona que fuera condenada por un crimen en California y anteriormente hubise
cometido una falta grave en el estado por la que hubiera sido deportada de los EE.UU.
JURISDICCION CALIFORNIA
TITULO
An act to add Sections 10109.5, 10297.5, and 12102.5 to the Public Contract Code, relating to
state contracts. (AB 1615)
ESTATUS
Cancelada del proceso legislativo.
CONTENIDO 10297.5. (a) No state agency, that is subject to this chapter, shall award a contract for the
acquisition of goods and services to a bidder or contractor that hires or recruits or refers for a fee,
for employment in the United States, an alien, knowing the alien is an unauthorized alien, as
defined in Section 1324a(h)(3) of Title 8 of the United States Code, with respect to such
employment.
(b) For purposes of this section, a state agency that is subject to this chapter shall verify the
employment records of the bidder or contractor that none of its employees are unauthorized aliens
pursuant to Section 1324a(b) of Title 8 of the United States Code, and that all of employees of the
bidder or contractor have been subject to the Basic Pilot Program Extension and Expansion Act of
2003 (8 U.S.C. 1101).
(c) If a bidder or contractor discovers that it is employing an unauthorized alien, the bidder or
contractor shall inform the state agency within three days of that discovery.
SEC. 3. Section 12102.5 is added to the Public Contract Code, to read:
12102.5. (a) No state agency, that is subject to this chapter, shall award a contract for the
acquisition of information technology goods and services to a bidder or contractor that hires or
recruits or refers for a fee, for employment in the United States, an alien, knowing the alien is an
unauthorized alien, as defined in Section 1324a(h)(3) of Title 8 of the United States Code, with
respect to such employment.
(b) For purposes of this section, a state agency that is subject to this chapter shall verify the
employment records of the bidder or contractor that none of its employees are unauthorized aliens
pursuant to Section 1324a(b) of Title 8 of the United States Code, and that all of employees of the
bidder or contractor have been subject to the Basic Pilot Program Extension and Expansion Act of
2003 (8 U.S.C. 1101).
(c) If a bidder or contractor discovers that it is employing an unauthorized alien, the bidder or
contractor shall inform the state agency within three days of that discovery.
FECHAS
31/ene/08 - De conformidad con el art. IV, sec. 10(c) de la Constitución del estado de California la
iniciativa A.B. 1615 se considera como cancelada del proceso legislativo.
23/feb/07 – Introducida por el asambleísta Sharon Runner (Lancaster).
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
La iniciativa AB 1615 buscaba prohibir a las entidades públicas del estado, el otorgar contratos a
licitadores o contratistas que empleen de manera consciente a migrantes irregulares.
43
JURISDICCION CALIFORNIA
TITULO
An act to add Section 23615 to the Vehicle Code, relating to vehicles (AB 1882)
ESTATUS
Suspendida.
CONTENIDO
23615. When there is reason to believe that a person arrested for a violation of Section 23152 or
23153 is present in the United States without authorization from the federal government, the
arresting agency shall notify the appropriate agency of the United States having charge of removal
matters.
SEC. 2. If the Commission on State Mandates determines that this act contains costs mandated
by the state, reimbursement to local agencies and school districts for those costs shall be made
pursuant to Part 7 (commencing with Section 17500) of Division 4 of Title 2 of the Government
Code.
FECHAS
7/may/08 – Retenida en el Comité de Seguridad Pública de conformidad con la Regla conjunta
62(a).
3/mar/08 – Referida por tercera ocasión al Comité de Seguridad Pública, con correcciones.
7/feb/08 – Introducida por el asambleísta Martín Garrick (Carlsbad).
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
La iniciativa AB 1882 busca agregar el delito de manejar bajo influencia de alcohol o drogas (DUI)
a la lista de crímenes sujetos a la verificación del estatus migratorio de las personas, con fines de
notificación a las autoridades migratorias.
JURISDICCION CALIFORNIA
TITULO
An act to add Sections 10109.5, 10297.5, and 12102.5 to the Public Contract Code, relating to
state contracts. (AB 2089)
ESTATUS
Cancelada del proceso legislativo.
CONTENIDO SECTION 1. Section 10109.5 is added to the Public Contract Code, to read:
10109.5. (a) No state agency, that is subject to this chapter, shall award a contract for a project
to a bidder or contractor that hires for employment in the United States, an alien, knowing the alien
is an unauthorized alien, as defined in Section 1324a(h)(3) of Title 8 of the United States Code,
with respect to such employment.
(b) For purposes of this section, a state agency that is subject to this chapter shall verify the
employment records of the bidder or contractor that none of its employees are unauthorized aliens
pursuant to Section 1324a(b) of Title 8 of the United States Code, and that all of employees of the
bidder or contractor have been subject to the Basic Pilot Program Extension and Expansion Act of
2003 (8 U.S.C. 1101).
(c) If a bidder or contractor discovers that it is employing an unauthorized alien, the bidder or
contractor shall inform the state agency within three days of that discovery.
(d) If an unauthorized alien supplies fraudulent documents for the purposes of employment, and
the bidder or contractor reasonably relied on those documents in hiring the unauthorized alien, the
bidder or contractor shall remain eligible for the state contract.
SEC. 2. Section 10297.5 is added to the Public Contract Code, to read:
10297.5. (a) No state agency, that is subject to this chapter, shall award a contract for the
acquisition of goods and services to a bidder or contractor that hires for employment in the United
States, an alien, knowing the alien is an unauthorized alien, as defined in Section 1324a(h)(3) of
Title 8 of the United States Code, with respect to such employment.
(b) For purposes of this section, a state agency that is subject to this chapter shall verify the
44
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
employment records of the bidder or contractor that none of its employees are unauthorized aliens
pursuant to Section 1324a(b) of Title 8 of the United States Code, and that all of employees of the
bidder or contractor have been subject to the Basic Pilot Program Extension and Expansion Act of
2003 (8 U.S.C. 1101).
(c) If a bidder or contractor discovers that it is employing an unauthorized alien, the bidder or
contractor shall inform the state agency within three days of that discovery.
(d) If an unauthorized alien supplies fraudulent documents for the purposes of employment, and
the bidder or contractor reasonably relied on those documents in hiring the unauthorized alien, the
bidder or contractor shall remain eligible for the state contract.
SEC. 3. Section 12102.5 is added to the Public Contract Code, to read:
12102.5. (a) No state agency, that is subject to this chapter, shall award a contract for the
acquisition of information technology goods and services to a bidder or contractor that hires for
employment in the United States, an alien, knowing the alien is an unauthorized alien, as defined in
Section 1324a(h)(3) of Title 8 of the United States Code, with respect to such employment.
(b) For purposes of this section, a state agency that is subject to this chapter shall verify the
employment records of the bidder or contractor that none of its employees are unauthorized aliens
pursuant to Section 1324a(b) of Title 8 of the United States Code, and that all of employees of the
bidder or contractor have been subject to the Basic Pilot Program Extension and Expansion Act of
2003 (8 U.S.C. 1101).
(c) If a bidder or contractor discovers that it is employing an unauthorized alien, the bidder or
contractor shall inform the state agency within three days of that discovery.
(d) If an unauthorized alien supplies fraudulent documents for the purposes of employment, and
the bidder or contractor reasonably relied on those documents in hiring the unauthorized alien, the
bidder or contractor shall remain eligible for the state contract.
19/feb/08 – Introducida por el asambleísta DeVore.
15/abr/08 – Rechazada en el Comité de Negocios y Profesiones.
18/abr/08 – Cancelada del proceso legislativo por no haber sido turnada a los comités de asuntos
fiscales en la fecha límite del 18 de abril.
La iniciativa AB 2089 busca prohibir a las entidades públicas del estado el otorgar contratos a
licitadores o contratistas que empleen a migrantes irregulares.
JURISDICCION CALIFORNIA
TITULO
An act to add Chapter 3.2 (commencing with Section 18205) to Part 1 of Division 5 of Title 2 of the
Government Code, relating to state employment. (AB 2102)
ESTATUS
Cancelada del proceso legislativo.
CONTENIDO SECTION 1. Chapter 3.2 (commencing with Section 18205) is added to Part 1 of Division 5 of Title
2 of the Government Code, to read:
CHAPTER 3.2. VERIFICATION OF EMPLOYMENT ELIGIBILITY
18205. Every state agency, after hiring an employee, shall electronically verify the employment
eligibility of that employee by using the E-Verify system operated by the United States Department
of Homeland Security in partnership with the Social Security Administration, or any successor to
that system.
FECHAS
19/feb/08 – Introducida por el asambleísta Mimi Walters (Laguna Niguel)
24/mar/08 - Referida al Comité de Negocios y Profesiones.
18/abr/08 – Cancelada del proceso legislativo por no haber sido turnada a los comités de asuntos
fiscales en la fecha límiete del 18 de abril.
45
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCION
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCION
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
La iniciativa AB 2102 busca requerir a las entidades públicas del estado el verificar
electrónicamente la elegibilidad del empleo de una persona que sea contratada, a través del
sistema E-verify o cualquier sistema sucesor.
CALIFORNIA
An act to add Section 2912.5 to the Penal Code, relating to foreign inmates. (AB 2141)
Pendiente.
SECTION 1. Section 2912.5 is added to the Penal Code, to read:
2912.5. The Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation shall verify the immigration status of
any new prisoner under the custody of the department. Correctional officers shall cooperate with
Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) in the verification and any deportation process for
these prisoners. Correctional officers shall be trained in cooperation with ICE to conform with laws
and regulations pertaining to immigration and customs.
18/abr/08 – Cancelada del proceso legislativo por no haber sido aprobada en el comité
correspondiente.
10/abr/08 – Rechazada en el Comité de Elecciones y Redistribución de Distritos.
5/mar/08 – Referido al Comité de Seguridad Pública.20/feb/08 – Introducida por el Asamblísta Van
Tran (Costa Mesa).
La iniciativa 2141 busca solicitar al Departamento de Correccionales y Rehabilitación de California
(CDCR) el verificar el estatus migratorio de cualquier reo de nuevo ingreso. Los agentes del CDCR
recibirían capacitación de la Oficina de Inmigración y Aduanas (ICE), con el propósito de cooperar
en los procesos de verificación y deportación.
CALIFORNIA
An act to add Section 834.5 to the Penal Code, relating to arrests. (AB 2420)
Cancelada del proceso legislativo.
SECTION 1. Section 834.5 is added to the Penal Code, to read:
834.5. It shall be the policy of this state that no law enforcement entity or any local governing body
may adopt an ordinance, rule, or order, or otherwise implement a policy, that prohibits law
enforcement officers from initiating action to discover a person's alien status or that prohibits a law
enforcement officer from arresting or booking a person for entering the United States of America
illegally.
7/may/08 – Cancelada del proceso legisltaivo por no haber sido aprobada en el comité
correspondiente.
15/abr/08 – Rechazada por segunda ocasión, en el Comité de Seguridad Pública.
8/abr/08 – Rechazada en el Comité de Seguridad Pública.
21/feb/08 – Introducida.
La iniciativa 2420 busca establecer como política estatal que ninguna entidad de aplicación de la
46
ley o cuerpo de gobierno local pueda adoptar una ordenanza, regla, regulación u orden así como
ejecutar una política que prohíba a los oficiales de policía iniciar indagatorias sobre el estatus
migratorio de un extranjero o arrestar o registrar a una persona por entrar de manera
indocumentada a los EE.UU.
JURISDICCION CALIFORNIA
TITULO
An act to add Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 1705) to Part 6 of Division 2 of the Labor Code,
relating to employment. (AB 2421)
ESTATUS
Cancelada del proceso legislativo.
CONTENIDO 1706. An employer shall not intentionally employ an unauthorized alien.
1707. (a) (1) On receipt of a complaint that an employer has intentionally employed an
unauthorized alien, the Attorney General, county counsel, or district attorney of a county in which
the board of supervisors has not appointed a county counsel, whose office receives the complaint
shall investigate whether the employer has violated Section 1706. When investigating a complaint,
the Attorney General, district attorney, or county counsel shall not attempt to independently
determine whether an alien is authorized to work in the United States, but rather shall verify the
immigration status or work authorization of the allegedly unauthorized alien with the federal
government pursuant to subsection (c) of Section 1373 of Title 8 of the United States Code.
(2) A person who intentionally files a false complaint under this subdivision is guilty of a
misdemeanor.
(b) If, after an investigation, the Attorney General or district attorney of a county or the county
counsel, as applicable, determines that the complaint is not false, he or she shall do the following:
(1) Notify the Immigration and Customs Enforcement branch of the Department of Homeland
Security of the unauthorized alien.
(2) Notify the appropriate local law enforcement agency of the unauthorized alien.
(3) If he or she is the Attorney General, notify the appropriate district attorney of a county or the
county counsel, as applicable, of the outcome of the investigation and of the action required to be
taken pursuant to Section 1708.
1708. The county counsel or district attorney of a county, as applicable, shall bring a civil action
for a violation of Section 1706 against the employer in the superior court of the county where the
unauthorized alien is employed. However, the county counsel or district attorney shall not bring an
action against an employer for a violation of Section 1706 that occurs before January 1, 2009. A
second or third violation of this section shall be based only on an unauthorized alien who is
employed by the employer after the first or first and second, as appropriate, action has been
brought for a violation of Section 1706.
1709. (a) A court shall expedite an action brought under this chapter.
(b) When determining whether an employee is an unauthorized alien, the court shall consider the
determination of the federal government pursuant to subsection (c) of Section 1373 of Title 8 of the
United States Code that is obtained pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section
1707. A determination of the federal government that the employee is eligible for employment
creates a rebuttable presumption of the lawful status of the employee. The court may take judicial
notice of the determination of the federal government and may request the federal government to
provide automated or testimonial verification pursuant to subsection (c) of Section 1373 of Title 8 of
the United States Code.
1710. If the court finds an employer has violated Section 1706, the court shall take the following
action:
(a) For a first violation during a five-year period:
(1) Order the employer to terminate the employment of all unauthorized aliens.
(2) Order the employer to be subject to a five-year probationary period. During the probationary
period, the employer shall file quarterly reports with the county counsel or district attorney of the
47
county, as applicable, for each new employee who is hired by the employer at the location where
the unauthorized alien performed work.
(3) Order the appropriate agencies to suspend all licenses described in paragraph (4) that are
held by the employer for a minimum of 10 days. The court shall base its decision on the length of
the suspension under this paragraph on any evidence or information submitted to it during the
action for a violation of Section 1706 and shall consider the following factors, if relevant:
(A) The number of unauthorized aliens employed by the employer.
(B) Prior misconduct by the employer.
(C) The degree of harm resulting from the violation.
(D) Whether the employer made good faith efforts to comply with the investigation conducted
pursuant to Section 1707.
(E) The duration of the violation.
(F) The role of the directors, officers, or principals of the employer in the violation.
(G) Any other factors the court deems appropriate.
(4) Order the employer to file a signed sworn affidavit with the county counsel or district attorney
of a county, as applicable. The affidavit shall state that the employer has terminated the
employment of all unauthorized aliens and that the employer will not intentionally or knowingly
employ an unauthorized alien. All licenses that are suspended under this subdivision shall remain
suspended until the employer files a signed sworn affidavit with the county attorney. On receipt of
the order of the court and notwithstanding any other law, the appropriate agencies shall suspend
the licenses according to the order of the court. The court shall send a copy of its order to the
Attorney General.
(5) The licenses that are subject to suspension under this subdivision are all licenses that are
held by the employer and that are necessary to operate the business of the employer at the
business location where the unauthorized alien performed work. If a license is not necessary to
operate the business of the employer at the specific location where the unauthorized alien
performed work, but a license is necessary to operate the business of the employer in general, the
licenses that are subject to suspension under this subdivision are all licenses that are held by the
employer at the primary place of business of the employer, but a suspension of any of these
general business licenses shall apply only to the operation of the business of the employer at the
business location where the unauthorized alien performed work.
(b) For a second intentional violation of Section 1706 during the period of probation, order the
appropriate agencies to suspend for six months all licenses that are held by the employer and that
are necessary to operate the business of the employer at the business location where the
unauthorized alien performed work. If a license is not necessary to operate the business of the
employer at the specific location where the unauthorized alien performed work, but a license is
necessary to operate the business of the employer in general, the court shall order the appropriate
agencies to suspend for six months all licenses that are held by the employer at the primary place
of business of the employer, but a suspension of any of these general business licenses shall
apply only to the operation of the business of the employer at the business location where the
unauthorized alien performed work. On receipt of the order and notwithstanding any other law, the
appropriate agencies shall immediately suspend the licenses.
(c) For a third intentional violation of Section 1706 during the period of probation, order the
appropriate agencies to permanently revoke all licenses that are held by the employer and that are
necessary to operate the business of the employer at the business location where the unauthorized
alien performed work. If a license is not necessary to operate the business of the employer at the
specific location where the unauthorized alien performed work, but a license is necessary to
operate the business of the employer in general, the court shall order the appropriate agencies to
permanently revoke all licenses that are held by the employer at the primary place of business of
the employer, but a suspension of any of these general business licenses shall apply only to the
operation of the business of the employer at the business location where the unauthorized alien
performed work. On receipt of the order and notwithstanding any other law, the appropriate
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agencies shall immediately revoke the licenses.
1711. The Attorney General shall maintain copies of court orders that are received pursuant to
Section 1710, and shall maintain a database of the employers who have a first violation of Section
1706 and make the corresponding court orders available on the Internet Web site of the Attorney
General.
1712. For purposes of this chapter, proof of verification of the employment authorization of an
employee through E-Verify creates a rebuttable presumption that an employer did not intentionally
employ an unauthorized alien.
1713. For purposes of this chapter, an employer who establishes compliance in good faith with
the requirements subsection (b) of Section 1324a of Title 8 of the United States Code establishes
an affirmative defense that he, she, or it did not intentionally employ an unauthorized alien.
1714. Beginning January 1, 2009, an employer, after hiring an employee, shall verify the
employment eligibility of the employee through E-Verify.
1715. This chapter shall be implemented only to the extent not prohibited by federal law.
18/abr/08 – Cancelada del proceso legislativo por no haber sido turnada a los comités de asuntos
fiscales en la fecha límite.
6/mar/08 – Referida al Comité sobre Labor y Empleo, y al Comité Judicial.
21/feb/08 – Introducida por el asambleísta Huff.
La iniciativa AB 2421 busca plantear un proceso de revocación de licencias de negocio para los
patrones que empleen a imigrantes irregulares en California.
CALIFORNIA
An act to amend Section 5025 to the Penal Code, relating to corrections. (AB 2422)
Cancelada del proceso legislativo.
SECTION 1. Section 5025 of the Penal Code, as amended by Section 5 of Chapter 565 of the
Statutes of 1994, is amended to read:
5025. The Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation shall implement and maintain
procedures to identify inmates serving terms in state prison or wards of the Division of Juvenile
Facilities who are undocumented aliens subject to deportation. This identification procedure shall
be completed, as to each inmate, within 90 days of the Department of Corrections having taken
custody of the inmate or ward . The Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation shall refer to
United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement the name and location of any inmate or ward
who may be an undocumented alien and who may be subject to deportation.
(b) The procedures implemented by the department, pursuant to subdivision (a), shall include,
but not be limited to, the following criteria for determining the country of citizenship of any person
serving a term in state prison:
(1) Country of citizenship.
(2) Place of birth.
(3) Inmate's statements.
(4) Prior parole records.
(5) Prior arrest records.
(6) Probation Officer's Report (POR).
(7) Information from the Department of Justice's Criminal Identification and Information Unit.
(8) Other legal documents.
(c) The Department of Corrections shall report annually to the Legislature the number of persons
identified as undocumented aliens pursuant to subdivision (a). The reports shall contain the
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number of persons referred, the race, national origin, and national ancestry of persons referred, the
offense or offenses for which the person was committed to state prison or the Division of Juvenile
Justice Facilities , and the disposition of the referral, if known.
15/abr/08 – Rechazada nuevamente en el Comité de Seguridad Pública.
8/abr/08 – Rechazada en el Comité de Seguridad Pública.
6/mar/08 – Referida al Comité de Seguridad Pública.
21/feb/08 – Introducida por el asambleísta Huff.
La iniciativa AB 2422 busca requerir a las autoridades locales que reporten a los jóvenes que
hayan cometido algún crimen violente ante las autoridades del ICE, para asegurar que sean
deportadas a su país de origen.
COSTA MESA, CA
En vigor
Acuerdo entre la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas (ICE) y la ciudad conforme a la sección 287G de
la Ley de Migración (INA) que permite entrenar y dar facultades a las autoridades locales para
identificar a migrantes indocumentados detenidos e iniciar el proceso de deportación.
7/dic/05 – El Concejo de la ciudad de Costa Mesa aprueba por 3 votos contra 2 la propuesta del
Alcalde Allan Mansoor para permitir que un grupo de policías de Costa Mesa reciban
entrenamiento de las autoridades migratorias a nivel federal para poder identificar y deportar a
migrantes indocumentados que cometan delitos graves.
17/nov/06 – La ciudad acepta una propuesta de la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas para nombrar
a un agente federal como parte del personal de la cárcel ciudad en lugar de entrenar a la policía
local.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
Un policía retirado argumenta que la policía no está de acuerdo con la propuesta: “No. 1, people
have been coming to the country illegally for many, many years. Now people want the problem
fixed. It is not a job that we [police] can fix. We have our plate full with calls for service on a day-today basis." (26-sep-06)
LULAC: “[this initiative would] open the doors for deputies to proceed in a racial profiling mode for
certain population groups, denying them full constitutional protection." (26-ene-06)
Alcalde Allan Mansoor: "My focus is ... the major offenders. This will not solve all our immigration
problems, but it will make the community safer." (26-ene-06)
EFECTOS
A partir del inicio de labores del agente federal en la cárcel de Costa Mesa se ha identificado a 46
presos que han cometido violaciones a la ley migratoria (4/ene/07)
Costa Mesa fue la primera ciudad en Estados Unidos en aprobar este tipo de legislación, cuyos
antecedentes son leyes a nivel estatal y de condados.
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ESCONDIDO, CA
Ordinance No. 2006-38 R
Revocada
Obligaría a los caseros a comprobar el estatus migratorio de sus inquilinos y desalojar dentro de
un plazo de 10 días a quienes se encuentren en el país de forma indocumentada. De no hacerlo,
enfrentarían multas de hasta $1,000 dls por día, cargos por delito o suspensión de licencia de
negocios. La ordenanza elimina el derecho de los inquilinos de impugnar la decisión de desalojo
frente a una corte.
FECHAS
4/oct/06 – Aprobada por el Concejo de la Ciudad con fecha de entrada en vigor programada para
el 17 de noviembre de 2006.
3/nov/06- La ACLU de San Diego y el Valle Imperial presenta una demanda (a nombre de dos
caseros, dos migrantes indocumentados y Escondido Human Rights Coalition) en contra de la
ordenanza argumentando que es inconstitucional.
15/nov/06 - El Grupo, una coalición de líderes latinos y grupos de derechos civiles envía una carta
al Concejo pidiendo a los concejales que retiren la ordenanza.
16/Nov/06- El juez John A. Houston de la corte de distrito bloquea temporalmente la entrada en
vigor de la ordenanza hasta que se resuelva la demanda. Establece una fecha límite del 15 de
diciembre de 2006 para que la ciudad presente su defensa.
Nov/06 – La Ciudad establece un fondo para donativos para financiar la defensa de la iniciativa
ante la corte.
27/nov/06 – El juez Houston extiende el plazo para que la ciudad responda a la demanda hasta el
29 de diciembre de 2006.
15/dic/06 - Las autoridades de Escondido retiran la propuesta de ley y acuerdan un pago de
$90,000 dls a los abogados defensores bajo el argumento de que los costos de continuar con el
recurso legal ante la corte eran un gasto excesivo para la ciudad (el costó se calculó en cerca de
$288,000 dls).
16/dic/06 - Los concejales declaran que prepararán una versión revisada de la ordenanza.
11/ene/07 – El Concejo de la Ciudad aprueba una resolución sin implicaciones legales en la que
señala que "la inmigración ilegal conlleva a índices más altos de delincuencia; contribuye a
sobrepoblar los salones de clases y a que fallen las escuelas; pone una carga fiscal mayor en los
hospitales y condena a los residentes legales a estándares menores de cuidado [médico], y
destruye nuestras comunidades y disminuye en general nuestra calidad de vida".
14/ene/07 – Tres concejales proponen pedir autorización al gobierno federal para tener acceso a
bases de datos sobre migración, autorización para aplicar leyes migratorias y asignar a personal
de la ciudad para presentar una nueva ordenanza.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
4/oct/06 – Dos grupos protestan frente al Concejo de la Ciudad al aprobarse la ordenanza.
27/oct/06 - La ACLU de San Diego y el Valle Imperial, la ACLU, Immigrants’ Foundation of San
Diego & Rights Project, Cooley Godward Kronish LLP, Fair Housing Council of San Diego,
MALDEF, People for the American Way, y Rosner & Mansfield LLP envían una carta al abogado
51
de la ciudad, Jeffrey Epp, en la que presentan sus argumentos en contra de la ordenanza y piden
que se retire. De lo contrario, señalan que procederán con una demanda en contra de la ciudad.
3/nov/06 - La ACLU de San Diego y el Valle Imperial presenta una demanda en contra de la
ciudad de Escondido.
OPINIONES
Los Angeles Times (editorial): “In a heavily Latino area, the ordinance would undermine a
generation of fair-housing laws by creating a hostile market for a significant number of prospective
renters…The ordinance's 10-day rule ignores tenants' long-standing state right to contest their
evictions in court. And landlords naturally complain about being turned into cops…Supporters of
such measures say they're necessary because federal officials have failed to act. On this they
have an excellent point. However, the whole country — not just a city here and a county there —
needs the federal government to enact reforms that will bring out of the shadows the workers and
neighbors on whom the economy relies.” (“Bad plan, Escondido”, Los Angeles Times, 2/nov/06)
Marie Waldron, concejal de la ciudad: "We are committed to defending it (the measure), and that's
what we're doing…we're breaking new ground with this ordinance." (27/nov/06)
Omar Jadwat, abogado de ACLU: "Other cities that have similar legislation should
heed the lesson of this case. The ordinances will not withstand challenge and must be repealed."
(14/dic/06)
Adriana Jasso, del Proyecto Voz en la organización American Friends Service Committe de San
Diego: "Esta es una importante batalla de la comunidad latina e inmigrante que puede marcar un
importante precedente para una larga lista de iniciativas contra los inmigrantes que se han
registrado en gran parte de Estados Unidos para negar el derecho a la vivienda a los
indocumentados" (15/dic/06)
Adriana Jasso: “Esta no es una ordenanza que afectaría los derechos de los inmigrantes porque
no tiene términos legales, pero se considera como un ataque hacia la comunidad inmigrante…Lo
que nos preocupa es que pensamos que se está preparando el terreno para dar comienzo a una
ordenanza que tenga poder legal". (11/ene/07)
Marie Waldron, concejal de la ciudad: "Es importante para nuestra comunidad tomar una posición
en torno a la inmigración ilegal. La inmigración ilegal no será tolerada en Escondido, la ciudad no
será santuario para los ilegales". (11/ene/07)
EFECTOS
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FECHAS
REACCIONES
El retiro de la ordenanza por parte de las autoridades de Escondido bajo el argumento de que
implicaría altos costos legales influyó en que otros condados como Cherokee County, GA,
reconsiderarán los costos de defender la ordenanza frente a las demandas de grupos opositores.
LOS ANGELES COUNTY, CA
En vigor
Acuerdo entre la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas (ICE) y la Oficina del Sheriff del condado
conforme a la sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración (INA) que permite entrenar y dar facultades a
las autoridades locales para identificar a migrantes indocumentados detenidos e iniciar el proceso
de deportación.
1/feb/06 – Firma del Memorandum.
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MISSION VIEJO (Orange County), CA
CONTENIDO
Aprobada
Entrará en vigor el 1º de julio de 2007.
Requeriría que todos los empleados de la Ciudad y contratistas que trabajen para la ciudad
tengan permisos legales para trabajar en el país. Deben verificar el estatus de sus trabajadores
por medio del Basic Pilot Program.
FECHAS
Introducida por el concejal Paul Ledesma.
9/mar/07 – La propuesta fue aprobada tentativamente por el Concejo de la ciudad pero requiere
ser votada nuevamente.
20/mar/07 – Aprobada por el Concejo de la ciudad.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
Ana María Patiño, abogada de inmigración y activista pro-inmigrante de Laguna Beach: calificó a
la iniciativa como “ridícula” y “anti-inmigrante”. (9/mar/07)
Residente Julie Dove "A lot of these people are extremely skilled workers and this is a trade that
they learned. So this is going to do a lot of harm to their business because they're going to lose
trained people because they can't prove that they can be here." (20/mar/07)
Ira Mehlman, miembro de FAIR (Federation for American Immigration Reform): "These things will
soon spring up all across the country. Local governments are tired of the federal government's
failure to control illegal immigration. Local governments can't deport anyone, but ... what they can
do is regulate businesses that serve as a magnet for illegal immigrants." (20/mar/07)
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Concejal Paul Ledesma: "This is just a provision in our contracts to make sure people working for
our contractors have the legal right to do so. It's like applying for a job that you need a college
degree for. After the interview, the employer is going to check to see if you have one. This is just
upholding federal law. (20/mar/07)
Es la primera ciudad del estado que aprueba una iniciativa de este tipo.
ORANGE COUNTY, CA
En vigor
Acuerdo entre la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas (ICE) y la Oficina del Sheriff del condado
conforme a la sección 287G de la Ley de Migración (INA) que permite entrenar y dar facultades a
las autoridades locales para identificar a migrantes indocumentados detenidos e iniciar el proceso
de deportación.
2/nov/06 – Firma del Memorandum.
31/oct/05 – El sheriff del condado, Michael Corona, solicita al Departamento de Seguridad Interna
establecer el acuerdo.
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EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
Heather Mac Donald: “If President Bush wants to demonstrate that he is willing to protect the
country against illegal-alien criminals, he should order ICE to approve Orange County’s request
without further delay.” (National Review, “Ice, Ice Baby”, 7/ago/06)
Heather Mac Donald: “The Orange County illegal-felon initiative is potentially revolutionary…the
Orange County Sheriff’s proposal takes immigration enforcement up another notch. […] In contrast
to most of the existing local immigration agreements, the Orange County plan tries to nab illegalalien criminals before they end up in jail. Orange County’s original proposal would have given
sheriffs deputies on routine patrol access to the ICE immigration-crime databases — not just
detectives. ICE and immigrant advocates rejected this reasonable idea and also sharply reduced
the number of detectives who would be given clearance to check immigration databases”.
(National Review, “Ice, Ice Baby”, 7/ago/06)
Heather Mac Donald: “Notwithstanding its limited scope, the Orange County proposal has created
a wave of fear in the advocacy community. An entire industry now advises local activists how to
fight section 287(g) agreements […], and for good reason. Once local law-enforcement officers get
access to immigration-crime databases and are given the authority to arrest for those crimes, the
nationwide sanctuary zone may finally start to dissolve. Over 100 police agencies have contacted
the Orange County sheriff about his submission; if ICE approves it, their own requests to use
immigration law against criminals will pour into Washington in short order.” (National Review, “Ice,
Ice Baby”, 7/ago/06)
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
En 2005 la oficina del condado reportó que 15,000 presos eran sospechosos de encontrarse en el
país de forma indocumentada. En agosto del 2007, el Sheriff Corona informó que 2,446 reclusos
indocumentados habían sido identificados desde el inicio del programa (La Opinión, 3/8/2007).
RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CA
En vigor
Acuerdo entre la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas (ICE) y la Oficina del Sheriff del condado
conforme a la sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración (INA) que permite entrenar y dar facultades a
las autoridades locales para identificar a migrantes indocumentados detenidos e iniciar el proceso
de deportación.
28/abr/06 – Firma del Memorandum.
Lt. Joseph McNamara de la Oficina del Sheriff del Condado: "It's not like our field deputies are
going out to look for these people. It's part of the booking process." (15/ene/07)
EFECTOS
De agosto de 2006 a enero de 2007, 700 presos han sido reportados para iniciar el proceso de
deportación.
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
SAN BERNARDINO, CA
“Illegal Immigration Relief Act”
Rechazada por la corte local
Sancionaría a empresas que contraten a trabajadores indocumentados y a caseros que alquilen
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FECHAS
propiedades a personas con estatus migratorio irregular.
El activista Joseph Turner reúne 3,000 firmas para lograr que el Concejo de la Ciudad integre la
ordenanza en su agenda.
15/may/06 – El Concejo de la ciudad vota en contra de adoptarla directamente y sugiere
someterla a votación general.
Jun/06 – La petición de someter la ordenanza a votación general es rechazada por la corte local.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
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CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
El alcalde de Hazleton, PA, Lou Barletta, ha declarado que parte de su propuesta se basó en la
iniciativa de San Bernardino.
SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY, CA
En vigor
Acuerdo entre la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas (ICE) y la Oficina del Sheriff del condado
conforme a la sección 287G de la Ley de Migración (INA) que permite entrenar y dar facultades a
las autoridades locales para identificar a migrantes indocumentados detenidos e iniciar el proceso
de deportación.
19/oct/05 – Firma del Memorandum.
JURISDICCIÓN BALDWIN CITY, CA
TITULO
Ordenanza municipal 1302
ESTATUS
6/jun/07 - Aprobada
15/ago/07 - Revocada
CONTENIDO Prohibía a los jornaleros solicitar trabajo y ofrecer servicios comerciales en la vía pública, limitando
así la habilidad de los inmigrantes a obtener empleo.
FECHAS
25/jun/07 - MALDEF filed a lawsuit challenging the ordinance on behalf of the National Day
Laborer Organizing Network (NDLON) and Jornaleros Unidos de Baldwin Park.
15/ago/07 - Concejo de la ciudad de Baldwin Park derogó un edicto aprobado el 6 de junio de
2007, mediante el cual prohibió a los jornaleros solicitar trabajo y ofrecer servicios comerciales en
la vía pública, limitando así la habilidad de los inmigrantes a obtener empleo.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
5/sept/07 - El Concejo de Baldwin Park votará de nuevo para ratificar la eliminación del edicto
municipal.
Kristina Campbell, abogada del Fondo Mexicoamericano para la Defensa Legal y la Educación
(MALDEF), dijo que debido a que la ordenanza restringía el derecho a la libre expresión en las
aceras es inconstitucional, el 25 de junio de 2007, a nombre de los jornaleros, demandaron a la
ciudad de Baldwin Park ante el tribunal federal en Los Ángeles. (Diario La Estrella, 17/ago/07)
OPINIONES
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TITULO
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CAROLINA DEL NORTE (Estatal)
n/d – Propuesta por el Asambleísta George Cleveland (R-Onslow)
Pendiente
Gravar con 5% las transferencias de dinero de inmigrantes indocumentados a sus países de
origen. Los bancos que administren las transferencias estarían exentos del impuesto. Para evitar
este impuesto, las personas que quieran enviar dinero al extranjero deberán comprobar que
tienen estatus migratorio legal.
FECHAS
12/jun/07 – Audiencia sobre la iniciativa de ley frente a un comité de la Asamblea Estatal. No hubo
votación al respecto.
Los grupos opositores (como la organización pro-inmigrante, El Pueblo, y la North Carolina Retail
Merchants Association) argumentan que sería imposible implementar esta medida y podría
generar demandas por discriminación.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
Andy Ellen , North Carolina Retail Merchants Association: “We will have to identify every single
person who comes in the door. If not, we open ourselves up to discrimination claims” (12/jun/07).
Asambleísta George Cleveland (R-Onslow): “Just doing some simple math, I believe there's a lot
of money leaving our state that should be taxed”. (12/jun/07)
Asambleísta George Cleveland (R-Onslow): Respecto a las dificultades para identificar a los
inmigrantes indocumentados, declaró: 'If a fella comes in with a pair of shaggy boots on, jeans and
a T-shirt and he's got a straw hat on - I mean, come on, give me a break.' (12/jun/07)
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
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CONTENIDO
FECHAS
ALAMANCE COUNTY, NC
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Alamance County Sheriff's Office under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Otorga facultades a los agentes de la Oficina del Alguacil del Condado de Alamance para indagar
el estatus migratorio de aquellas personas detenidas por otros delitos, y en caso de que dichas
personas tengan un estatus migratorio irregular les otorga facultades para mantenerlas en
detención en lo que son deportadas de los EE.UU.
10/ene/07 – Firma del Memorandum.
Feb/07 – Alamance County Sheriff’s Office sent 10 officers to be part of ICE training Program
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
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FECHAS
CABARRUS COUNTY, NC
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Cabarrus County Sheriff's Office under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Otorga facultades a los agentes de la Oficina del Alguacil del Condado de Cabarrus para indagar
el estatus migratorio de aquellas personas detenidas por otros delitos, y en caso de que dichas
personas tengan un estatus migratorio irregular les otorga facultades para mantenerlas en
detención en lo que son deportadas de los EE.UU.
23/mar/07 – Firma del Memorandum.
Nov/07 – Six Cabarrus County Sheriff’s deputies, chosen by Riley, will begin their four-week
training.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
CUMBERLAND COUNTY, NC
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Cumberland County Sheriff's Office under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes federales migratorias.
25/jun/08 – Firma del Memorandum.
El acuerdo permitirá a los agentes de detención del aguacil el entrevistar a nacionales extranjeros
dentro de los centros de detención para determinar si existe causa probable de una violación a la
ley de migración. Bajo el programa, los agentes completaran el procesamiento de cualquier
delincuente extranjero y prepararán la documentación para iniciar los procedimientos de
deportación.
DURHAM POLICE DEPARTMENT, NC
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Durham Police Department under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes federales migratorias.
1/feb/08 – Firma del Memorandum.
57
EFECTOS
El acuerdo otorga facultades a los agentes policiacos para indagar el estatus migratorio de
aquellas personas detenidas por otros delitos, y en caso de que dichas personas tengan un
estatus migratorio irregular les otorga facultades para mantenerlas en detención en lo que son
deportadas de los EE.UU.
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
GASTON COUNTY, NC
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Gaston County Sheriff's Office under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Otorga facultades a los agentes de la Oficina del Alguacil del Condado de Gaston para indagar el
estatus migratorio de aquellas personas detenidas por otros delitos, y en caso de que dichas
personas tengan un estatus migratorio irregular les otorga facultades para mantenerlas en
detención en lo que son deportadas de los EE.UU.
27/feb/07 – Firma del Memorandum.
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
HENDERSON COUNTY, NC
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Henderson County Sheriff's Office under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes federales migratorias.
25/jun/08 – Firma del Memorandum.
El acuerdo permitirá a los agentes de detención del aguacil el entrevistar a nacionales extranjeros
dentro de los centros de detención para determinar si existe causa probable de una violación a la
ley de migración. Bajo el programa, los agentes completaran el procesamiento de cualquier
delincuente extranjero y prepararán la documentación para iniciar los procedimientos de
deportación.
LINCOLN COUNTY, NC
n/d
Aprobada por el Concejo (21/jun/07)
La resolución prohíbe a los departamentos del condado contratar a empresas en las que trabajen
inmigrantes indocumentados.
Instruye a la Oficina del Sherriff a que verifique el estatus migratorio de las personas arrestadas y
trabaje en conjunto con autoridades federales para deportar a residentes indocumentados. El
58
Sheriff del Condado, Tim Daugherty ya inició la solicitud para el entrenamiento de policías locales
por medio de la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas.
Limita los recursos para agencias y departamentos del condado que otorguen servicios a
inmigrantes indocumentados.
La iniciativa argumenta que los inmigrantes “carecen de estándares sociales y de higiene
personal”, que el flujo de inmigrantes indocumentados contribuye al “desorden y la muerte en las
carreteras” y aumenta el número de delitos y crímenes ya que los inmigrantes no tienen un nivel
suficiente de inglés que les permita entender las leyes.
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
21/jun/07 – Aprobada unánimemente por el Concejo (compuesto por republicanos)
Comisionado Bruce Carlton, autor de la iniciativa: “They move from area to area to avoid these
things...We're a growing county. You see the influx of workers. They come here and stay here, and
it costs money.” (21/jun/07)
Comisionado Bruce Carlton, autor de la iniciativa : “This isn't going to run every illegal alien out of
Lincoln County,' he said. 'It's a start to put safeguards in place.” (21/jun/07)
Los autores de la iniciativa argumentan que es una reacción a iniciativas similares aprobadas en
Mecklenburg County y Gaston County que potencialmente forzarán a los inmigrantes
indocumentados a buscar trabajo en otros condados.
MECKLENBURG COUNTY, NC
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Mecklenburg County Sheriff's Office under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Todos los presos en la cárcel del condado pasarán por un proceso de averiguación para verificar
su estatus migratorio utilizando la base de datos federal.
27/feb/06 – Firma del Memorandum.
El Sheriff del condado de Mecklenburg solicita un acuerdo con la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas
para entrenar y certificar a 10 agentes de la policía para ejercer funciones de aplicación de las
leyes migratorias.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
Quinn Stansell, sargento de la Oficina del Alguacil del Condado: "Estoy seguro que algunos
indocumentados se fueron del condado ante el temor de ser detenidos... y deportados del país".
(15/ene/07)
Julie Myers, encargada de la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas del Departamento de Seguridad
Interna: "The ultimate goal of the partnership is to improve public safety and homeland security, and
the efforts here in Mecklenburg County are an example of how effective we can be when we work
together. Our message to those who think they can break our immigration laws and prey upon our
communities is simple: You are mistaken. Together, we will find you and deport you". (28/11/06)
Jim Pendergraph, Sheriff del condado de Mecklenburg: "The mission of the Mecklenburg County
59
Sheriff's Office is to protect the citizens of Mecklenburg County. I take those words very seriously.
The 287(g) program is just another way to successfully remove from our country illegal aliens who
prey on our citizens and commit crimes in our community." (28/11/06)
Congresista Sue Myrick (R-NC): "We have a shortage of federal agents to deal with illegal aliens in
our state, and this program provides us with some much needed backup. My hope is that every
county in North Carolina sees what we are doing here and applies to set up a similar program with
ICE. If you are an illegal alien in Mecklenburg County and are caught by the local sheriff's office,
you will be identified, fingerprinted, booked and detained. No longer will you be released back into
the public, no longer will you slip through the cracks, no longer will we allow you to make a mockery
of America's legal immigration system." (28/nov/06)
EFECTOS
Julia Rush, Vocera de la oficina del Sheriff: “He told them up front: If you don’t want to encounter
the (immigration) system, don’t commit a crime". (4/mar/07)
De 1,617 presos cuyos datos se procesaron desde abril/06 hasta noviembre/06, se identificaron
835 migrantes indocumentados.
Se ha reportado que la cárcel ha referido a cerca de 1,200 personas para iniciar procesos de
deportación. (15/ene/07)
Se estima que un gran número de indocumentados han salido del condado por temor a ser
deportados.
Ha sido considerado como un caso ejemplar en otros condados y ciudades.
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
WAKE COUNTY, NC
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Wake County Sheriff's Office under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes federales migratorias.
25/jun/08 – Firma del Memorandum.
El acuerdo permitirá a los agentes de detención del aguacil el entrevistar a nacionales extranjeros
dentro de los centros de detención para determinar si existe causa probable de una violación a la
ley de migración. Bajo el programa, los agentes completaran el procesamiento de cualquier
delincuente extranjero y prepararán la documentación para iniciar los procedimientos de
deportación.
CAROLINA DEL SUR
60
JURISDICCIÓN AIKEN COUNTY, SC
TITULO
ESTATUS
Aprobada (19/sep/07)
CONTENIDO The ordinance now contains provisions that could restrict vendors from doing business with the
County if they knowingly recruit or hire illegal immigrants
FECHAS
19/sep/07 - Aiken County Council by majority voted to enact its unauthorized alien ordinance on
third reading but voted unanimously to table its sexual offender ordinance until Jan. 1, 2008, to give
the City of Aiken and the City of North Augusta time to consider adopting it as well.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
BEAUFORT COUNTY, SC
Beaufort County, South Carolina Lawful Employment Ordinance
http://www.bcgov.net/news/Illegal%20Immigration%20Relief%20Act/31%20Lawful%20Employmen
t.pdf
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
Aprobada por el Concejo del Condado
Fecha programada para entrada en vigor: 1/ene/08
- Permite al condado hacer auditorías a los negocios de la ciudad para verificar que sus
empleados tengan estatus migratorio regular. En caso de encontrar irregularidades, revocaría la
licencia de cualquier negocio que contrate a trabajadores indocumentados. Los empleadores
tendrían un plazo de 60 días para apelar la decisión del condado y demostrar que sus empleado/s
tienen estatus migratorio legal.
- Sección eliminada tras la revisión de la propuesta original: Requeriría a los empleadores verificar
los números de seguridad social (SSN) y otros datos personales en la base de datos del gobierno
federal (Basic Pilot Program)
FECHAS
Sep/06 – La concejal Starletta Hairston propone la ordenanza.
16/nov/06 – El administrador del Condado, Gary Kubic, calcula que se necesitará contratar a 24
empleados de tiempo completo a un costo de $840,000 dls para auditar a los cerca de 5,000
negocios de la zona.
27/nov/06 – El Concejo del Condado vota sobre la propuesta.
1/dic/06 – Un vocero del PRLDEF anuncia que presentarán una demanda en contra de la
ordenanza en caso de que sea aprobada.
6/dic/06 – El Concejo hace ajustes a la ordenanza para pasar al voto final el 11/dic/06. Varios
miembros del Concejo señalan que votarán en contra de la ordenanza si no satisface sus
preocupaciones legales.
El Concejo pide al administrador de la ciudad, Gary Kubic, proveer información sobre los costos
61
de la migración indocumentada para el condado. Kubic presentó los siguientes datos: El Beaufort
Memorial Hospital calcula un gasto de $12 millones para indigentes, el distrito escolar de Beaufort
calcula un gasto de $1.9 millones en su programa de inglés como segundo idioma, y el Centro de
Detención de Beaufort calcula que 1,148 detenidos son migrantes indocumentados.
10/dic/06- El Concejo del Condado se reúne para revisar el sexto borrador de la ordenanza. Se le
hacen algunos cambios con respecto a las preocupaciones sobre su constitucionalidad. Por
ejemplo, ya no requiere que los dueños de negocios consulten la base de datos federal para
verificar el estatus legal de sus empleados.
12/dic/06 – El Concejo aprueba la nueva versión de la ordenanza con nueve votos a favor y uno
en contra. Establece el 27/dic/06 para el voto final sobre la ordenanza con el fin de lograr su
aprobación antes del inicio del periodo de dos nuevos miembros del Concejo en enero.
La coalición de negocios opositora a la ordenanza dijo que esta nueva versión de la ordenanza
resuelve la mayoría de sus preocupaciones pero aún no están a favor de que se apruebe.
27/dic/06 – Tras tres meses de debates y cambios a la ordenanza, el Concejo de Beaufort vota a
favor de la ordenanza.
17/ene/07 – El PRLDEF envía una carta al Concejo del Condado señalando que introducirán una
demanda en representación de residentes hispanos del condado si no se revoca la ordenanza,
argumentando que es inconstitucional y tiene el potencial de violar derechos civiles.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
25/nov/06 – Varios dueños de negocios, incluyendo constructores, restauranteros y hoteleros
envían una carta al Concejo del condado en la que argumentan que la ordenanza es
inconstitucional y llevaría a la quiebra a varios negocios. Asimismo, expresan su preocupación
sobre los costos de aplicación de la ordenanza. La coalición de negocios contrató a una abogada
especialista en migración para determinar si la ordenanza es inconstitucional.
10/dic/06 – El grupo hispano, Latin American Council of South Carolina, dirigido por Louis Bell, ha
expresado su oposición a la iniciativa.
12/dic/06 – La Cámara de Comercio de Milton Head Island-Bluffton argumentó que la ordenanza
es ambigua respecto a las condiciones bajo las cuales se hará una auditoría a un negocio para
determinar si emplea a trabajadores indocumentados.
OPINIONES
La concejal Hairston argumenta que la ordenanza beneficiará a los negocios que compiten con
compañías que contratan a trabajadores indocumentados con salarios bajos. “All I’m trying to do is
make sure that everybody is playing by the same rules”. (26/nov/06)
Carta de los dueños de negocios al Concejo del Condado: “Essentially, the Ordinance elevates
the role of the county to that of ‘immigration agent’ but without the authority, extensive knowledge,
training and staffing needed to carry out this critically important function” (26/nov/06).
Editorial, Beaufort Gazette: “The Lawful Employment Ordinance isn't likely to resolve the problem.
For instance, who will enforce the regulations? Who will check the workers? If enforcement will be
carried out by the Sheriff's Office, at what cost to regular duties without more officers? Heretofore,
the county hasn't been able to enforce the business license ordinance. What makes the council
think that this will be done?” (Beaufort (SC) Gazette (Editorial): “Rethink proposed immigration
62
law”, 5/dic/06)
Al Harvey, administrador de la ciudad de Saluda, SC: "It'll be interesting to see what comes out of
Beaufort. If it bears fruit down there, and, in particular, if it passes some kind of court test, you
might see it pop up somewhere else." (10-dic-06)
Sidney Evering, abogada de South Carolina Association of Counties: "Counties are really trying to
address the concerns of their citizens. Without the federal government taking a lead, they really
aren't left with a choice. They really have to respond to their citizens' needs." (10-dic-06).
Lorraine Keegan, residente de Hilton Head Island: "They'll eventually make this a third world
country. When the illegals come here and start demanding things, they'll make this like the country
they came from." (10-dic-06)
Concejal Weston Newton, argumentó que votó a favor de la iniciativa porque es una extensión de
la ley federal y no representa una carga para los empleadores más allá de los requisitos que ya
existen. (12-dic-06)
EFECTOS
Varios líderes hispanos señalaron que han visto un cambio en la actitud de la comunidad local
respecto a la población hispana desde que comenzó a discutirse la ordenanza.
Influyó en la ordenanza propuesta en Dorchester County, SC.
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
FECHAS
CONTENIDO
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
BEAUFORT COUNTY, SC
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Beaufort County Sheriff's Office under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
25/jun/08 – Firma del Memorandum.
18/dic/06 – El sheriff del condado de Beaufort anuncia que a partir de enero comenzará el
procedimiento para que los oficiales del condado y del centro de detención tengan la autoridad
para identificar a migrantes indocumentados e iniciar el proceso de deportación.
Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes federales migratorias.
El Sheriff del Condado, P.J. Tanner, argumenta que esta medida representará un ahorro para el
condado para eliminar la sobrepoblación de la cárcel del condado, cuyos costos de operación son
$60 dls al día por preso.
El acuerdo otorga facultades a los agentes policiacos para indagar el estatus migratorio de
aquellas personas detenidas por otros delitos, y en caso de que dichas personas tengan un
estatus migratorio irregular les otorga facultades para mantenerlas en detención en lo que son
deportadas de los EE.UU.
DORCHESTER COUNTY, SC
Lawful Employment Ordinance
63
ESTATUS
Aprobada por el Concejo de la ciudad.
Entrada en vigor programada para 1/jul/07
FECHAS
Propuesta por el miembro del Concejo de Dorchester, Richard Rosebrock.
22/ene/07 – Aprobada por el Concejo de la ciudad por 4 votos contra 3.
CONTENIDO
Sancionaría a empleadores que contraten a trabajadores indocumentados.
Requiere a las personas que obtengan una licencia de negocios firmar una declaración en la que
se comprometen a contratar y utilizar servicios sólo de personas con estatus migratorio legal.
Autoriza al condado a investigar quejas a este respecto. En caso de no poder comprobar que los
trabajadores tienen estatus migratorio legal, el empleador podría perder su licencia de negocio.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
George Finnan, abogado de Charleston especialista en leyes migratorias: “This is really not going
to be effective. This whole area is pre-empted by federal law.” (5/dic/06)
Tonisha Gilliard, abogado de North Charleston: “It sounds like it’s going to violate constitutional
law if they’re requiring more than the federal government is requiring”. (5/dic/06)
Richard Rosebrock, autor de la ordenanza: "The cost to the American taxpayer is enormous. They
are competing for jobs and working for cash and not paying taxes. They come into our schools and
demand special privileges like affirmative action and welfare." (10/dic/06)
Rosebrock: "We're not prejudiced against the Mexicans. We just want to make sure our country
obeys the laws so we can have a country we can be proud of." (23/ene/07)
Concejal Kenny Waggoner: "To me, this is a double-edged sword. What are we going to do with ...
people who may lose their job? A lot of them just want to do what they can for their family, just like
me. This is one of the toughest decisions I'll ever have to make on this council." (23/ene/07)
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
Se calcula que la aplicación de esta ley tendría un costo de al menos $45,000 dls. para contratar a
un auditor, lo cual se financiaría por medio de un aumento del costo de las licencias para operar
negocios.
PICKENS COUNTY, SC
El condado no contratará a empresas que contraten a trabajadores indocumentados.
La resolución no tuvo mucha publicidad ni se presentaron quejas en contra de esta.
Tammy Besherse, abogado de S.C. Appleseed Legal Justice Center: "Every time you go into a
county, these laws will be different. That's OK for some issues, but this isn't one of them. It's not a
county's place to be involved in federal immigration. Each county has no business to be involved.
It's a federal issue. Period." (10-dic-06)
EFECTOS
64
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
YORK COUNTY, NC
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and York
County Sheriff's Office under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes federales migratorias.
16/oct/07 – Firma del Memorandum.
El acuerdo permitirá a los agentes de detención del aguacil el entrevistar a nacionales extranjeros
dentro de los centros de detención para determinar si existe causa probable de una violación a la
ley de migración. Bajo el programa, los agentes completaran el procesamiento de cualquier
delincuente extranjero y prepararán la documentación para iniciar los procedimientos de
deportación.
COLORADO
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
COLORADO
SB 90 (1/may/06)
HB 1306 (30/may/06)
HB 1343 (6/jun/06)
HB 1001 (31/jul/06)
HB 1009 (31/jul/06)
HB 1015 (31/jul/06)
HB 1017 (31/jul/06)
HB 07-1073 “Concerning the use of the Basic Pilot Program in connection with a public contract for
services in order to confirm the employment eligibility of all newly hired employees” (Rep. Joel
Judd (D))
http://www.leg.state.co.us/clics/clics2007a/csl.nsf/billcontainers/DC17A1BBEC8D67678725725
1007B7D7D/$FILE/1073_ren.pdf
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
En vigor
SB 90 – Prohibe que el gobierno estatal y los gobiernos locales aprueben legislación que impida a
las autoridades encargadas del cumplimiento de la ley cooperen o se comuniquen con
autoridades federales respecto a personas detenidas a quienes se sospeche de encontrarse en
Estados Unidos de forma indocumentada. Requiere que los policías reporten a cualquier detenido
al que se sospeche estar en el país de forma indocumentada y exige que las autoridades locales y
estatales soliciten reembolso por costos relacionados con el cumplimiento de las leyes migratorias
federales.
HB 1306 – Requiere una auditoría de una ley de 2003 que restringía el uso de documentos de
identificación extranjeros, incluyendo tarjetas consulares, para determinar si estos documentos
pueden ser aceptados como válidos.
65
HB 1343 - Prohíbe a las agencias estatales emplear a contratistas que utilicen mano de obra de
migrantes indocumentados y requiere que comprueben el estatus migratorio de sus empleados
por medio del Basic Pilot Program. En caso de encontrar a algún trabajador indocumentado
dentro de su plantilla, debe notificar a la agencia estatal en un plazo de tres días.
HB 1001 - Requiere a los contratistas verificar el estatus legal de sus empleados para poder
recibir incentivos de desarrollo económico.
HB 1009 - Establece que todas las licencias, permisos, registros y certificados se emitirán sólo a
personas que comprueben su estatus migratorio legal y exige cancelar cualquier autorización que
se haya otorgado a una persona que se identifique con estatus migratorio ilegal.
HB 1015 - Requiere que los empleadores retengan 4.63% del salario de los empleados que no
tengan un número de seguridad social válido, un número de pago de impuestos válido o un
número de pago de impuestos del IRS para extranjeros no-residentes.
HB 1017 - Requiere que los empleadores examinen el estatus legal de cualquier empleado nuevo
dentro de los primeros 20 días de contrato y que mantengan comprobantes de su estatus legal, el
cual podrá ser verificado en cualquier momento por el estado. Los empleadores que contraten a
trabajadores no autorizados podrían enfrentar penas de hasta $5,000 dólares.
HB 07-1073 - Establece que los contratistas que provean servicios al gobierno deberán utilizar el
programa piloto básico federal para confirmar que sus empleados tienen estatus migratorio legal.
No se otorgarán nuevos contratos ni se renovarán los existentes en los casos de contratistas que
empleen a migrantes indocumentados o que tengan conocimiento de que un “sub-contratista”
emplea o contrata a migrantes indocumentados.
FECHAS
1/may/06 – Aprobación de SB 90
30/may/06 – Aprobación de SB 110 y HB 1306
6/jun/06 – Aprobación de HB 1343
31/jul/06 – Aprobación del paquete legislativo
10/ene/07 - La HB07-1073 se introduce en la Cámara de representantes.
31/ene/07 – La Cámara de representantes aprueba la HB07-1073 y la turna al Senado.
1/mar/07 – El Senado aprueba la iniciativa HB-1073 y se espera la firma del Gobernador Ritter
para convertirla en ley.
16/mar/07 – El Gobernador Ritter firma la iniciativa de ley HB-1073.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
En el marco del foro “Colorado Immigration Policy - Latinos Forging the Future." El Presidente de
la Asamblea de Representantes de Colorado, Andrew Romanoff, declaró que las leyes aprobadas
en el estado el año pasado requieren ajustes: "It's clear to me that there have been some
unintended consequences to these laws”. (29/ene/07)
66
Los Angeles Times (Editorial): "After passing what might be the nation's toughest anti-immigrant
laws, the state is having its beleaguered day with fewer immigrants...Immigrants are fleeing
Colorado because of harsh laws passed during a special session of the Legislature last summer
that require state identification for government services and allow police to check suspects'
immigration status. The ID laws have raised the ire even of many native-born people, who
complain about hassles for those trying to get a driver's license...The Rocky Mountain blues are
also demonstrating that, contrary to nativist rhetoric, there really are jobs that Americans won't
do…Colorado is learning a painful lesson about the foolishness of a piecemeal, state-by-state
response to illegal immigration and about the economic effect of a strictly punitive approach. The
only solution with a chance of working is comprehensive federal legislation that would document
immigrants already in this country as guest workers and provide them with a path to citizenship, as
well as tightening border security." (2/mar/07)
La Opinión (Editorial): “El estado de Colorado se ha preciado de tener la legislación más dura
contra la inmigración indocumentada. Hoy paga el precio de dejarse llevar por los mitos en vez de
la realidad. El año pasado aprobó con más emoción que cabeza leyes vacías en medio de una
temporada electoral. Los políticos apostaron sus candidaturas a explotar el temor a la inmigración
y los resultados están a la vista. Es un ejemplo para tomarse en cuenta en el debate nacional
sobre la reforma migratoria. Los legisladores estatales deberían sentirse satisfechos porque la
actitud beligerante hacia estos inmigrantes dio los resultados buscados, causando el éxodo del
estado de estos trabajadores. Ahora el problema es que no hay gente para trabajar en el campo.
La ceguera de la demagogia impidió ver que los indocumentados cumplen una función económica
importante para Colorado.” (“El caso de Colorado sirve de ejemplo”, 3/mar/07)
6/ago/07 - Sen. David Schultheis, R-Colorado Springs. "We had a reluctant legislative majority
trying to put something in place that looked like it was going to be extremely effective but which
only had minimum effectiveness." (The Denver Post)
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Se reportó que varios trabajadores agrícolas evitaron la zona de Colorado durante el verano y el
otoño de 2006.
Algunos establecimientos han cerrado ante la imposibilidad de renovar sus permisos conforme a
la HB-1009.
El “Denver Business Journal”, publicó en su primera plana del 13 al 19 de abril, un artículo titulado
“Moving out”, el cual hace referencia al impacto de las leyes migratorias en diferentes industrias
de Colorado. El semanario reporta que los productores agrícolas perderán entre 15 y 20% de su
producción debido a la escasez de mano de obra tras la aprobación de estas leyes. También
reportan un aumento de solicitudes de empleadores para visas H2A y H2B. (13-19/abr/07)
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COLORADO
HB1023 (2006)
En vigor.
Will force residents receiving state or federal benefits to prove their citizenship in order to continue
receiving aid, in what some are calling one of the toughest illegal immigration measures in the
country. The legislation will deny non-emergency state benefits to approximately 50,000 illegal
immigrants currently receiving aid, out of an estimated 250,000 illegal immigrants in the state.
10/Jul/06 - Passed during a special legislative session
1/Aug/06 - Law goes into effect
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6/ago/07 - The landmark bill of the session - House Bill 1023 - imposed tougher ID requirements to
get state aid. Instead, state departments have reported spending $2 million to comply with the law,
without showing a reduction in the demand for services. (The Denver Post)
COLORADO
Concerning the verification of the work eligibility status of new employees through the federal
electronic verification program (Senate Bill 08-083)
Pospuesta de forma indefinida.
Section 1. Part 1 of article 2 of title 8, Colorado revised statutes, is amended by the addition of a
new section to read:
8-2-124. verification of employee work eligibility status – short title - legislative declaration definitions - e-verify program – cash fund.
(1) This section shall be known and may be cited as the "fair and legal employment act".
(2) (a) the general assembly hereby finds and determines that:
(i) Ensuring that Colorado employers employ only those persons eligible to work within Colorado is
an issue of statewide concern;
(ii) It is in the best interest of employers in Colorado for all employers to follow federal law as it
applies to the hiring of persons who are authorized to work in the United States;
(iii) employers who violate federal employment laws with respect to the hiring of persons who are
unauthorized to work in the united states place an undue economic burden on employers who
attempt to hire only persons who are authorized to work in the united states;
(iv) Strict adherence to legal hiring practices will decrease illegal immigration into Colorado and
substantially reduce the millions of dollars leaving Colorado’s economy to other countries; and
(v) employers in Colorado who illegally hire unauthorized persons create an attractive environment
for illegal immigrants to locate within Colorado, which costs taxpayers millions of dollars to provide
public education, health care, and other services and, in addition, places undue strain and costs
on our judicial system.
(b) the general assembly therefore finds and determines that it is in the best interest of the state for
all employers to verify the social security numbers and work eligibility status of newly hired
employees and that it is important that every employer in Colorado participate in the federal
employment verification pilot program, known as "e-verify", for the purpose of verifying the work
eligibility status of newly hired employees.
(4) (a) each employer in Colorado shall participate in the e-verify program for the purpose of
verifying the work eligibility status of each of the employer's newly hired employees by the
following dates:
(b) An employer shall enter into an agreement as required by the social security administration and
the United States department of homeland security to participate in the e-verify program and shall
comply with the requirements for participating in the program. If the agreement is terminated by the
social security administration or the United States department of homeland security based on the
employer's failure to comply with the established procedures or legal requirements as set forth in
the agreement, the employer shall be subject to the penalties set forth in paragraph (d) of this
subsection (4).
(c) Upon entering the agreement described in paragraph (b) of this subsection (4), the employer
shall maintain a copy of the agreement, showing that the employer is an active participant in the
program.
(d) If the attorney general finds that an employer has failed to participate in the e-verify program as
required by this subsection (4), the employer shall be subject to the following penalties for each
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thirty-day period of noncompliance:
(i) At least five thousand dollars but not more than ten thousand dollars if the employer has two
hundred or more employees;
(ii) At least three thousand dollars but not more than five thousand dollars if the employer has at
least fifty employees but fewer than two hundred employees; or
(iii) At least one thousand dollars but not more than three thousand dollars if the employer has
fewer than fifty employees.
(e) The attorney general shall verify that each employer has complied with paragraph (a) of this
subsection (4) within ninety days after the first finding of noncompliance. If the employer is not in
compliance, the attorney general shall fine the employer the maximum fine amount pursuant to
paragraph (d) of this subsection (4).
(f) upon request of the attorney general, an employer shall submit evidence that the employer is
participating in the e-verify program, including a copy of the agreement executed by the employer
with the social security administration and the united states department of homeland security.
Upon receipt of two complaints that an employer has not complied with this subsection (4), the
attorney general shall request the submission of such evidence within thirty days after the second
complaint. The attorney general shall levy a fine against an employer pursuant to paragraph (d) of
this subsection (4) for each calendar month the employer fails to submit such evidence.
(5) On and after the date by which an employer is required to participate in the e-verify program
pursuant to subsection (4) of this section:
(a) An employer shall not intentionally or knowingly employ an unauthorized alien; and
(b) An employer shall immediately terminate the employment of an employee for whom the
employer receives a final notice of nonconfirmation of work eligibility through the e-verify program.
(6) (a) Any person may file a complaint alleging that an employer intentionally or knowingly
employs an unauthorized alien. The complaint shall be filed either with the attorney general or the
county or city attorney for the county or city in which the employer allegedly employs an
unauthorized alien. Upon receipt of a complaint that an employer intentionally or knowingly
employs an unauthorized alien, the attorney general or county or city attorney, as appropriate,
shall investigate whether the employer has violated subsection (5) of this section. as part of the
investigation, the attorney general or county or city attorney shall verify the work authorization of
the alleged unauthorized alien with the federal government pursuant to 8 u.s.c. sec. 1373 (c). A
state, county, or city official shall not attempt to independently make a final determination on
whether an alien is authorized to work in the United States. A person who knowingly files a false or
frivolous complaint under this subsection (6) is guilty of a class 3 misdemeanor.
(b) If, after an investigation, the attorney general or county or city attorney determines that the
complaint is not frivolous, the attorney general or county or city attorney shall notify the United
States immigration and customs enforcement and local law enforcement of the substance of the
complaint, including the identity of the unauthorized alien if known. if the complaint was filed with
and investigated by the attorney general, the attorney general shall notify the appropriate county or
city attorney to bring an action against the employer pursuant to subsection (7) of this section.
(7) … (b) (i) If the court finds that the employer knowingly violated subsection (5) of this section
and it is the employer's first knowing violation within a three-year period, the court shall order the
employer to:
(a) Terminate the employment of all unauthorized aliens;
(b) Be subject to a three-year probationary period, during which the employer shall file quarterly
reports with the appropriate county or city attorney specifying each new employee hired by the
employer at the specific location where the unauthorized alien performed work and the work
eligibility status of each new employee; and
(c) File a signed, sworn affidavit with the county or city attorney within three business days after
the order is issued, attesting that the employer has terminated the employment of all unauthorized
aliens and that the employer will not knowingly or intentionally employ an unauthorized alien. If the
employer fails to timely file the affidavit, the court shall order the appropriate agencies to suspend
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all business licenses held by the employer until the employer files the affidavit. upon notice from
the county or city attorney that the employer has filed the affidavit, the appropriate agencies shall
immediately reinstate all suspended business licenses.
(ii) In addition, the court may order the appropriate agencies to suspend all business licenses held
by the employer for up to ten business days. in determining whether to order the suspension of the
employer's business licenses, the court shall base its decision on any evidence or information it
receives during the action and shall consider the following factors, if relevant: …
(c) If the court finds that the employer intentionally violated subsection (5) of this section and it is
the employer's first intentional violation within a five-year period, the court shall order:
(i) The employer to terminate the employment of all unauthorized aliens;
(ii) The employer to be subject to a five-year probationary period, during which the employer shall
file quarterly reports with the appropriate county or city attorney specifying each new employee
hired by the employer at the specific location where the unauthorized alien performed work and the
work eligibility status of each new employee;
(iii) The employer to file a signed, sworn affidavit with the county or city attorney, attesting that the
employer has terminated the employment of all unauthorized aliens and that the employer will not
knowingly or intentionally employ an unauthorized alien. if the employer fails to file the affidavit
within the period in which the employer's business licenses are suspended pursuant to
subparagraph (iv) of this paragraph (c), the employer's business licenses shall remain suspended
until the employer files the affidavit. Upon notice from the county or city attorney that the employer
has filed the affidavit, the appropriate agencies shall immediately reinstate all suspended business
licenses.
(iv) The appropriate agencies to suspend all business licenses held by the employer for at least
ten business days. In determining the length of the business license suspension, the court shall
base its decision on any evidence or information it receives during the action and shall consider
the following factors, if relevant: …
17/ene/08 – Presentada y turnada al Comité de Estado, Veteranos y Asuntos Militares.
Deroga los requisitos impuestos a los empleadores para examiner y retener documentos que
prueben la presencia legal de un empleado nuevo al ser contratado y crea la “Fair and Legal
Employment Act”, la cual requiere que todos los empleados no-gubernamentales en el estado
participen en el programa federal de verificación electrónica para verificar el estatus legal de
trabajador contratado por un empleador.
COLORADO
A BILL FOR AN ACT concerning the crime of trespassing in the state while in violation of federal
immigration law (SB 08-74)
Pospuesta indefinidamente.
18-4-504.3. Trespassing by illegal aliens. (1) in addition to any violation of federal law, it is unlawful
for a person who is a citizen of any country other than the united states to enter into or be on any
public or private land in this state if, at the time of the commission of the offense, the person is in
violation of the federal "immigration and nationality act", 8 u.s.c. sec. 1325, as amended.
(2) (a) a first violation of trespassing by an illegal alien is a misdemeanor and shall be punished by
a fine of five hundred dollars.
(b) a second violation of trespassing by an illegal alien is a class 1 misdemeanor.
(c) a third or subsequent violation of trespassing by an illegal alien is a class 4 felony.
23/ene/08 – En votación la inciativa de ley fue pospuesta indefinidamente.
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Especifica que una persona que es ciudadana de otro país y que está en violación de las leyes
federales migratorias en Colorado incurre en un crimen, el cual se penaliza bajo la figura de
‘trespassing’ (entrada sin autorización en propiedad ajena).
COLORADO
A BILL FOR AN ACT concerning requirements relating to public contracts for services. (SB08-193)
Pendiente.
SECTION 1. 8-17.5-101 (1), (5), and (6), Colorado Revised Statutes, are amended, and the said
8-17.5-101 is further amended BY THE ADDITION OF THE FOLLOWING NEW SUBSECTIONS,
to read:
8-17.5-101. Definitions. As used in this article, unless the context otherwise requires:
…
(3.7) "E-VERIFY PROGRAM" MEANS THE ELECTRONIC EMPLOYMENT VERIFICATION
PROGRAM CREATED IN PUBLIC LAW 104-208, AS AMENDED, AND EXPANDED IN PUBLIC
LAW 108-156, AS AMENDED, AND JOINTLY ADMINISTERED BY THE UNITED STATES
DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AND THE SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION,
OR ITS SUCCESSOR PROGRAM.
…
SECTION 2. 8-17.5-102 (1), (2) (b) (I), and (2) (b) (II), Colorado Revised Statutes, are amended to
read:
8-17.5-102. Illegal aliens - prohibition - public contracts for services - rules. (1) A state agency or
political subdivision shall not enter into or renew a public contract for services with a contractor
who knowingly employs or contracts with an illegal alien to perform work under the contract or who
knowingly contracts with a subcontractor who knowingly employs or contracts with an illegal alien
to perform work under the contract. Prior to executing a public contract for services, each
prospective contractor shall certify that, at the time of the certification, it does not knowingly
employ or contract with an illegal alien WHO WILL PERFORM WORK UNDER THE PUBLIC
CONTRACT FOR SERVICES and that the contractor has participated or attempted to WILL
participate in the basic pilot E-VERIFY PROGRAM OR DEPARTMENT program in order to confirm
the employment eligibility of all employees who are newly hired for employment in the United
States TO PERFORM WORK UNDER THE PUBLIC CONTRACT FOR SERVICES.
(2) (b) Each public contract for services shall also include the following provisions:
(I) A provision stating that the contractor has confirmed or attempted to confirm the employment
eligibility of all employees who are newly hired for employment in the United States TO PERFORM
WORK UNDER THE PUBLIC CONTRACT FOR SERVICES through participation in EITHER the
basic pilot E-VERIFY PROGRAM OR THE DEPARTMENT program and, if the contractor is not
accepted into the basic pilot program prior to entering into a public contract for services, that the
contractor shall apply to participate in the basic pilot program every three months until the
contractor is accepted or the public contract for services has been completed, whichever is earlier.
The provision specified in this subparagraph (I) shall not be required or effective in a public
contract for services if the basic pilot program is discontinued.
(II) A provision that prohibits the contractor from using basic pilot program EITHER THE E-VERIFY
PROGRAM OR THE DEPARTMENT PROGRAM procedures to undertake preemployment
screening of job applicants while the public contract for services is being performed;
SECTION 3. 8-17.5-102 (5) (a), Colorado Revised Statutes, is amended, and the said 8-17.5-102
(5) is further amended BY THE ADDITION OF A NEW PARAGRAPH, to read:
8-17.5-102. Illegal aliens - prohibition - public contracts for services - rules. (5) (a) The department
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may investigate whether a contractor is complying with the provisions of a public contract for
services required pursuant to subsection (2) of this section. The department may conduct on-site
inspections where a public contract for services is being performed WITHIN THE STATE OF
COLORADO, request and review documentation that proves the citizenship of any person
performing work on a public contract for services, or take any other reasonable steps that are
necessary to determine whether a contractor is complying with the provisions of a public contract
for services required pursuant to subsection (2) of this section. The department shall receive
complaints of suspected violations of a provision of a public contract for services required pursuant
to subsection (2) of this section and shall have discretion to determine which complaints, if any,
are to be investigated.
The results of any investigation shall not constitute final agency action.
The department is authorized to promulgate rules in accordance with article 4 of title 24, C.R.S., to
implement the provisions of this subsection (5).
(c) THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR SHALL ESTABLISH A PROGRAM TO ALLOW A
CONTRACTOR TO VERIFY OR OTHERWISE PROVIDE EVIDENCE OF THE EMPLOYMENT
ELIGIBILITY OF ALL EMPLOYEES WHO ARE NEWLY HIRED FOR EMPLOYMENT TO
PERFORM WORK UNDER A PUBLIC CONTRACT FOR SERVICES.
SECTION 4. 8-17.5-102, Colorado Revised Statutes, is amended BY THE ADDITION OF A NEW
SUBSECTION to read:
8-17.5-102. Illegal aliens - prohibition - public contracts for services - rules. (6) NOTHING IN THIS
SECTION SHALL BE CONSTRUED AS REQUIRING A CONTRACTOR TO VIOLATE ANY
TERMS OF PARTICIPATION IN THE E-VERIFY PROGRAM.
SECTION 5. Safety clause. The general assembly hereby finds, determines, and declares that this
act is necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, and safety.
12/mar/08 – El Comité de Asuntos del Estado, Veterantos y Militares del Senado refirio la iniciativa
de ley al Comité de Apropriaciones.
29/feb/08 – Presentada ante el Comité de Asuntos del Estado, Veterantos y Militares.
28/abr/08 – Se aprobó su tercera lectura en la Cámara.
Actualiza la definición del programa electrónico federal de elegibilidad de empleo para reflejar el
nuevo nombre del programa. Excluye ciertos tipos de acuerdos de la definición de contratos
públicos para servicios, como son usados en Derecho para contratos públicos para servicios e
inmigrantes indocumentados. Requiere que el director ejecutivo del Departamento del Trabajo
establezca un programa que permita al contratista verificar o en todo caso proveer evidencia de la
elegibilidad de empleo de todos los empleados que son de recién contratación para desarrollar un
trabajo bajo un contrato público de servicios. Modifica la certificación del precontrato requerido de
un contratista para limitar el alcance de la declaración de los sus empleados y para requerir su
participación futura en el programa electrónico federal de elegibilidad del empleo o el programa
del departamento para verificar la elegibilidad de empleo de ciertos empleados. Requiere que
todos los contratos públicos para servicios incluyen una provisión que requiere que el contratista
use el programa electrónico federal de elegibilidad del empleo o el programa del departamento
para verificar la elegibilidad de empleo de ciertos empleados.
COLORADO
A BILL FOR AN ACT concerning effective enforcement of the traffic laws to prevent unlicensed
drivers from operating motor vehicles upon the highways. (SB 08-1184)
Pospuesta indefinidamente.
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42-2-101. Licenses for drivers required.
…
(b) Except as otherwise provided in part 4 of this article for commercial drivers, no person shall
drive a motor vehicle upon a highway unless the person is lawfully present within the United States
and has been issued a currently valid driver's license, minor driver's license, or instruction permit
by the department under this article.
(1.5) Except as otherwise provided in part 4 of this article for commercial drivers, no owner of a
motor vehicle shall authorize a person to operate the motor vehicle upon a highway unless the
operator has been issued a currently valid driver's license, minor driver's license, or instruction
permit by the department under this article.
…
(c) (I) If a peace officer has probable cause to believe that an owner of a business has violated
subsection (1.5) of this section and the driver has violated paragraph (b) of subsection (1) of this
section, notice of the violation shall be given to United States Immigration and Customs
Enforcement.
(ii) If a peace officer has probable cause to believe that a driver has violated paragraph (b) of
subsection (1) of this section, notice of the violation shall be given to United States Immigration
and Customs Enforcement.
…
42-4-1719. Peace officer - unlawful presence - traffic violations- enforcement. Any law
enforcement agency that enforces this article or article 2 of this title may enter into a written
agreement with the attorney general of the united states pursuant to 8 u.s.c. sec. 1357 (g). Such
agreement may be made in order to investigate, apprehend, or detain a person when there is
probable cause to believe, pursuant to a traffic stop, violation, or investigation under this article or
article 2 of this title, that the person is not lawfully present within the united states.
08/feb/08 – Pospuesta de forma indefinida por el Comité de Asuntos Militares, Estados, y
Veteranos.
Prohíbe que una persona opere un vehículo motorizado sin estar legalmente presente en los
EE.UU. y que cuente con una licencia de conducir válida. Requiere que un policía arreste a una
persona cuando exista la ‘causa probable’ que no se encuentra legalmente en los EE.UU. y no
cuente con una licencia de conducir válida. Requiere que cualquier violación sea reportada a la
Oficina de Migración y Aduanas. Autoriza que las agencias de procuración de justicia en materia
de leys de tráfico establezcan un acuerdo con el Procurador General de los EE.UU. para ser
habilitados en la ejecución de las leyes migratorias.
COLORADO
A BILL FOR AN ACT concerning measures to improve enforcement of immigration laws in
colorado. (HB 08-1272)
Pospuesta de forma indefinida.
24-20-111. Enforcement of immigration laws – legislative declaration - memoranda of
understanding - repeal. (1) The general assembly hereby finds and declares that:
(a) the federal government is imposing inappropriate, unnecessary, and counterproductive
barriers to the proper and thorough enforcement of immigration laws in colorado;
(b) it is inappropriate, unnecessary, and counterproductive for the federal government to refuse to
use certain state and local detention facilities and jails for the detainment of alleged illegal
immigrants because of the use of force policies employed at the facilities and jails;
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(c) it is inappropriate, unnecessary, and counterproductive for the federal government to prohibit
colorado from collecting and reporting information related to the final disposition of a person
detained under a reasonable belief that the person has violated a law on immigration; and
(d) the governor or the governor's designee and the heads of applicable state agencies should
engage in discussions with the federal immigration authorities to change policies that obstruct the
proper and thorough enforcement of immigration laws in colorado.
(2) within sixty days after the effective date of this section, the governor or his or her designee
shall enter into negotiations with the secretary of the federal department of homeland security to
amend existing memoranda of understanding and other agreements that establish the
Framework for state and federal enforcement of immigration laws in colorado to remove all
inappropriate, unnecessary, and counterproductive barriers that limit the proper enforcement of
immigration laws in colorado, including but not limited to removing from applicable memoranda of
understanding:
(a) any provision that would condition the use of state or local detention facilities or jails for the
detention of suspected violators of immigration laws on the adoption of restrictions that limit or
otherwise impair the use of force policies in the facilities or jails; and
(b) any prohibition on the state of reporting the final disposition of a person detained for
reasonable suspicion of a violation of a state or federal immigration law.
(3) on or before december 1, 2008, the governor or his or her designee shall submit to the state,
veterans, and military affairs committees of the house of representatives and the senate, or any
successor committees, a report on the status of the negotiations required by this section.
(4) this section is repealed, effective july 1, 2009.
14/feb/08 - Pospuesta de forma indefinida por el Comité de Asuntos Militares, Estados, y
Veteranos.
Llama al gobernador o a la persona designada por el gobernador a negociar con el Departamento
de Seguridad Nacional, cambios al memorándum de entendimiento para que puedan aplicarse las
leyes migratorias en Colorado. Califica como ‘contraproducente, innecesario e inapropiado’ que no
pueda utilizarse ciertos centros de dentención, tanto estatales como locales, para inmigrantes
indocumentados, así como la prohibición de recolectar y reportar información de una persona que
aparentemente violó las leyes migratorias.
COLORADO, DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC SAFETY
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Colorado State Patrol under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Otorga facultades a los agentes de la Patrulla Estatal de Colorado para indagar el estatus
migratorio de aquellas personas detenidas por otros delitos, y en caso de que dichas personas
tengan un estatus migratorio irregular les otorga facultades para mantenerlas en detención en lo
que son deportadas de los EE.UU.
21/feb/07 – Firma del Memorandum.
Capitán Jon Barba, Patrulla Estatal de Colorado, "The Colorado State Patrol and the members
selected to be a part of this unit are excited about the opportunity to be a part of the 287(g)
program". "We are looking forward to the training course and to fostering our partnership with ICE
throughout the state."
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Jeffrey Copp, Agente Especial a cargo de la Oficina de Investigación en Denver del Servicio de
Inmigración y Control de Aduanas, "the 287(g) program allows the enhancement of the existing
strong relationship between ICE and CSP". "This authority will allow the agencies to work side-byside to remove aliens whose criminal trails track through Colorado and endanger our communities.
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GREENVILLE, CO.
Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.Amendment to House Bill 2747 (HB2747)
Pendiente
Otorga facultades a los agentes de la Patrulla Estatal de Colorado para indagar el estatus
migratorio de aquellas personas detenidas por otros delitos, y en caso de que dichas personas
tengan un estatus migratorio irregular les otorga facultades para mantenerlas en detención en lo
que son deportadas de los EE.UU
11 de noviembre de 2008. Se informa que Greenville buscará establecer un acuerdo con el
Servicio de Inmigración y Aduanas (ICE) para deportar indocumentados y eliminar licencias a
negocios que emplean trabajadores sin papeles.
Bob Taylor, comisionado de Greenville dijo que los migrantes indocumentados representan “una
carga para las escuelas y el sistema de salud.”
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EL PASO COUNTY, CO.
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and El
Paso County Sheriff’s Office under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Otorga facultades a los agentes del alguacil del Condado de El Paso para indagar el estatus
migratorio de aquellas personas detenidas por otros delitos, y en caso de que dichas personas
tengan un estatus migratorio irregular les otorga facultades para mantenerlas en detención en lo
que son deportadas de los EE.UU.
23/mar/07 – Firma del Memorandum.
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CONNECTICUT
An act concerning verification of the immigration status of persons arrested for certain crimes (HB
06936-R00)
Pendiente
That the general statutes be amended to require local police officers to check the immigration
status of any person arrested for a felony or drunken driving and to notify the federal immigration
enforcement agency if the arrestee is not in this country legally.
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24/ene/07 - Turnada al Comité de Seguridad Pública.
Ene/07 – Introducida por David K. Cabriola a la Asamblea
Requiere el aplicar las leyes de inmigración al solicitar que los oficiales policíacos revisen el
estatus migratorio de las personas arrestadas por delito o por conducir en estado de ebriedad, y la
notificación a la agencia federal de inmigración si el arrestado reside ilegalmente en este país.
DELAWARE
JURISDICCIÓN ELSMERE, DE
TITULO
ORDINANCE 447: An Ordinance Regarding Illegal Aliens, Landlords Who Rent To Illegal Aliens
And Employers
ESTATUS
Rechazada por el Concejo de la ciudad
CONTENIDO Sancionaría a empleadores y a caseros con penas de hasta $1000 dls. por cada inmigrante
indocumentado al que contrataran o al que le alquilaran propiedad, respectivamente.
FECHAS
Abr/05 – El Concejal republicano John Jaremchuk propone la iniciativa de ley.
12/oct/06 – El Concejo de la ciudad vota en contra de la ordenanza.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN HARRINGTON, DE
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO Sancionaría a empleadores y a caseros con penas de hasta $1000 dls. por contratar o alquilar
propiedades, respectivamente, a migrantes indocumentados.
FECHAS
REACCIONES La ACLU de Delaware y Voices without Borders enviaron cartas a la ciudad exigiendo que rechace
EN CONTRA la ordenanza.
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
FLORIDA
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FLORIDA
Florida Taxpayer and Citizen Protection Act of 2008 (HB 73)
Cancelada del proceso legislativo.
Prohibits restrictions on reporting of immigration status information by public employees; prohibits
local government restrictions concerning immigration law enforcement; requires verification of
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FECHAS
immigration status of persons confined for DUI or BUI; limits issuance of driver's licenses to US
citizens or persons with specified legal immigration status; limits duration of specified licenses or
identification cards; requires public employer participation in specified federal program to verify
work authorization status of newly hired employees; requires participation in program by
contractors & subcontractors; provides that discharge of US citizen or permanent resident alien
employee by employer who on date of discharge employed unauthorized alien is unfair trade
practice; provides civil remedy; requires verification of lawful presence of persons over specified
age applying for certain public benefits; provides exceptions; provides for affidavit of eligibility &
verification of affidavit; provides for penalties for false affidavits; provides for variation of
requirements; provides for adjudication of unique individual circumstances due to unusual
hardship; prohibits public benefits in violation of specified provisions; provides for reports; prohibits
specified actions related to transporting or harboring illegal aliens; provides for memorandum of
understanding with specified federal agencies concerning enforcement of specified federal laws.
2/may/08 – Cancelada del proceso legislativo al estar inactiva en el Comité de Asuntos Estatales.
4/mar/08 – Primera lectura.
29/nov/07 – Enviada al Comité de Asuntos Estatales.
17/ago/07 – Se introdujo la iniciativa
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FLORIDA
An act relating to enforcement of immigration laws (HB 159)
Cancelada del proceso legislativo.
986.04 Compliance with federal work authorization program.-(1) Commencing July 1, 2009, no public employer shall enter into a contract under s. 287.057 for
the physical performance of services within this state unless the contractor registers and
participates in a federal work authorization program.
(2) No contractor who receives a contract award under s. 287.057 for the physical performance of
services within this state shall execute a contract, purchase order, or subcontract in connection
with the award unless the contractor and all subcontractors providing services for the contractor
register and participate in a federal work authorization program. contractor shall certify in writing to
the agency that it is in compliance with this subsection.
(3) A contractor shall ensure that each subcontractor providing services for the contractor registers
and participates in a federal work authorization program. Each subcontractor shall certify in writing
to the contractor that it is in compliance with this subsection.
(4) This section shall be enforced without regard to race, religion, gender, ethnicity, or national
origin.
…
986.05 Chief of Domestic Security; responsibilities.-(1)(a) The Chief of Domestic Security, as defined in s. 943.0311, shall negotiate the terms of a
memorandum of understanding between the State of Florida and the United States Department of
Justice or the United States Department of Homeland Security concerning:
1. The enforcement of federal immigration and customs laws.
2. The detention and removal of individuals not lawfully present in the United States.
3. Investigations related to illegal immigration in the state.
4. The establishment of law enforcement training standards and the creation of law enforcement
training programs as provided in subsection (2).
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…
(2)(a) Contingent upon funding in the federal Homeland Security Appropriation Act of 2008 or any
subsequent source of federal funding, the Chief of Domestic Security shall work with the regional
domestic security task forces and the various state entities responsible for establishing training
standards applicable to state law enforcement officers to establish training standards and create
training programs the purpose of which is to enhance the ability of law enforcement officers to
enforce federal immigration and customs laws while performing within the scope of their authorized
duties.
(b) A law enforcement officer certified as trained in accordance with this section is authorized to
enforce federal immigration and customs laws while performing within the scope of his or her
authorized duties.
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
986.06 Determination of lawful status.-(1) If verification of the nationality or lawful immigration status of any person who is charged with a
crime and confined to jail for any period of time cannot be made from documents in the possession
of the prisoner or after a reasonable effort on the part of law enforcement officials to determine the
nationality or immigration status of the person so confined, verification shall be made within 48
hours through a query to the Law Enforcement Support Center (LESC) of the United States
Department of Homeland Security or other office or agency designated for that purpose by the
United States Department of Homeland Security. If it is determined that the prisoner is in the United
States unlawfully, the law enforcement agency shall notify the United States Department of
Homeland Security.
…
(1) Except as provided in subsection (3) or where exempted by federal law, no later than July 1,
2009, every agency or political subdivision of this state shall verify the lawful presence in the
United States of any natural person 18 years of age or older who has applied for state or local
public benefits, as defined in 8 U.S.C. s. 1621, or for federal public benefits, as defined in 8 U.S.C.
s. 1611, that are administered by the agency or political subdivision.
…
(b) Any person who knowingly and willfully makes a false, fictitious, or fraudulent statement or
representation in an affidavit executed pursuant to paragraph (a) commits a misdemeanor of the
first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.
2/may/08 – Cancelada del proceso legislativo al estar inactiva en el Comité de Asuntos Estatales.
4/03/08 – Primera Lectura.
29/11/07 – Referida al Comité de Asuntos del Estado.
10/10/07 – Referida al Concejo de Eficiencia Gubernamental y Cuentas.
26/09/07 – Introducida.
Crea el Florida Security and Immigration Compliance Act que prohibe a los empleadores públicos
a contratar los servicios de contratistas que no se encuentren registrados o que no están
participando en el Federal Work Authorization Program. Asimismo, la iniciativa promueve la
verificación del estatus migratorio de reos y delincuentes, así como de aquellas personas que
solicitan beneficios públicos locales o federales.
JURISDICCIÓN FLORIDA
TITULO
An act relating to the immigration status of inmates (HB 1247) [Copia identica en el senado SB
2738]
ESTATUS
Cancelada del proceso legislativo
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CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
944.17 Commitments and classification; transfers.-(9) The department shall train appropriate personnel involved in processing inmates committed to
its custody in identification of false or fraudulent immigration status documentation and other
indicators of illegal presence in the United States. The department shall examine the immigration
status of each person committed to its custody and shall notify appropriate federal officials
whenever it suspects that such a person is not legally present in the United States.
Section 2. Subsection (11) is added to section 951.23, Florida Statutes, to read:
951.23 County and municipal detention facilities; definitions; administration; standards and
requirements.-(11) The administrator of each county or municipal detention facility shall train appropriate
personnel involved in processing inmates committed to the custody of that facility in identification of
false or fraudulent immigration status documentation and other indicators of illegal presence in the
United States. The administrator of each county or municipal detention facility shall examine the
immigration status of each person committed to the custody of that facility and shall notify
appropriate federal officials whenever it suspects that such a person is not legally present in the
United States.
Section 3. This act shall take effect July 1, 2008.
2/may/08 – Cancelada del proceso legislativo al estar inactiva en el Comité de Asuntos Estatales.
7/mar/08 – Enviada al Concejo de Eficiencia Gubernamental y Cuentas.
4/mar/08 – Primera lectura.
29/feb/08 – Introducida.
Requiere al Departamento de Correcciones y al administrador de cada centro de dentención de
condado o municipal, a entrenar al personal que procesa a los internos para que sean capaces de
identificar su situación migratoria y a detectar todo tipo de documentación fraudulenta que acredite
una presencia ilegal dentro del territorio estadounidense, en cuyo caso sería obligatorio notificar a
las autoridades federales.
FLORIDA
An act relating to illegal aliens (HB 571) [Copia identical en el senado SB 540]
Cancelada del proceso legislativo
Section 1. Illegal aliens; reporting to federal officials.-…
(2)(a) If a law enforcement officer has probable cause to believe that a person arrested for a felony
offense is not legally present in the United States, the officer shall report that person to the
Immigration and Customs Enforcement office of the United States Department of Homeland
Security.
(b) If a person arrested for a felony offense is detained in a county or municipal detention facility
and the sheriff or chief correctional officer reasonably believes that the person is not legally present
in the United States, the sheriff or chief correctional officer shall report that person to the
Immigration and Customs Enforcement office of the United States Department of Homeland
Security.
(c) A judge of the circuit court shall direct the clerk of the circuit court to notify the Immigration and
Customs Enforcement office of the United States Department of Homeland Security when a
suspected alien has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to a felony.
…
2/may/08 – Cancelada del proceso legislativo al estar inactiva en el Comité de Asuntos Estatales
6/mar/08 – Enviada al Comité de Asuntos del Estado.
79
4/mar/08 – Primera lectura
23/ene/08 – Enviada al Concejo de Eficiencia y Contabilidad Gubernamental.
17/ene/08 – Introducida.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
Requiere a los funcionarios encargados de velar por el respeto y ejecución de las leyes reporten a
la Agencia de Migración y Aduanas (ICE) todos aquellos casos en los que los arrestados sean
sospechosos de ser migrantes irregulares.
FLORIDA
An act relating to Illegal or Undocumented Aliens (HB 577) [copia identica en el senado SB 1086)
Cancelada del proceso legislativo
775.0865 Crimes committed by an illegal or undocumented alien; felony or misdemeanor
reclassification.-(1) If an illegal or undocumented alien is convicted of committing a felony or misdemeanor in this
state and:
(a) Has previously been convicted of a felony or misdemeanor in this state;
(b) Has been deported to his or her home country by the Bureau of Immigration and Customs
Enforcement of the United States Department of Homeland Security; and
(c) Has reentered the United States without legal authorization and documentation, the court shall
reclassify the felony or misdemeanor to the next higher degree as provided in this section.
…
Section 2. Section 944.5965, Florida Statutes, is created to read:
944.5965 List of suspected illegal or undocumented aliens; notifications to the United States
Department of Homeland Security; voluntary transfer of illegal or undocumented aliens to their
countries of origin; procedures.-(1) The department shall compile monthly a list of persons suspected to be illegal or
undocumented aliens who are serving a sentence in a correctional institution in this state. The list
shall include the earliest possible date of release of the offender, whether through expiration of the
term of the imposed sentence, parole, or other means. The department shall provide a copy of the
list to the Immigration and Customs Enforcement Section of the United States Department of
Homeland Security so that the section may determine whether it wishes to take custody of the
suspected illegal or undocumented aliens. If the Immigration and Customs Enforcement Section
indicates that it wishes to take custody of an inmate, the department is responsible for the inmate
until the section takes physical custody of the inmate.
(2) The department, pursuant to a valid detainer lodged against an illegal or undocumented alien
who is not legally present in the United States and who has been convicted of or has pled guilty to
a felony, shall transfer that alien to the custody of the Immigration and Customs Enforcement
Section of the United States Department of Homeland Security upon completion of the alien's
prison term.
(3) The department may at any time interview inmates appearing on the monthly list of persons
suspected to be illegal or undocumented aliens who are serving a sentence in a correctional
institution in this state. The department may ask the inmate whether he or she would prefer to
finish his or her sentence in the correctional facility or whether he or she would prefer to be
released from incarceration and returned to his or her country of origin. If the inmate voluntarily
agrees to be returned to his or her country of origin, the department shall purchase for the inmate a
one-way airplane ticket to the inmate's country of origin. The department shall transfer the inmate
to the county jail in the county of the airport from which the inmate will depart. At the time of
departure, deputies of the sheriff shall escort the inmate from the county jail to the appropriate
80
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
airplane and may not leave the airport boarding area until the airplane is airborne.
Section 3. This act shall take effect July 1, 2008.
2/may/08 – Cancelada del proceso legislativo al estar inactiva en el Comité de Asuntos Estatales
06/mar/08 - Enviada al Comité de Asuntos del Estado.
04/mar/08 – Primera lectura.
23/ene/08 – Enviada al Concejo de Cuentas y Eficiencia Gubernamental.
17/ene/08 – Introducida por el legislador Trudy K. Williams.
Requiere una reclasificación de ofensas o delitos menores reincidentes cometidos por un migrante
indocumentado que se encuentre en el país depués de haber sido deportado. Requiere que el
Departamento de Correcciones provea a la Agencia de Migración y Aduanas (ICE) información
conerniente a prisioneros que se sospeche sean indocumentados; requiere que el Departamento
de Correcciones transfiera a los migrantes irregulares al ICE al terminar su sentencia; provee que
el Departamento de Correcciones transfiera a los migrantes irregulares que voluntariamente
quieran regresar a su país de origen.
FLORIDA
An act relating to illegal immigration (HB 821)
Cancelada del proceso legislativo.
Section 1. This act may be cited as the "Florida Safe Borders Act of 2008."
Section 2. Illegal aliens; reporting to federal officials.-…
(2)(a) If a law enforcement officer has probable cause to believe that a person arrested for a felony
offense is not legally present in the United States, the officer shall report that person to the
Immigration and Customs Enforcement office of the United States Department of Homeland
Security.
(b) If a person arrested for a felony offense is detained in a county or municipal detention facility
and the sheriff, the chief of police, or the chief correctional officer of the detention facility
reasonably believes that the person is not legally present in the United States, the sheriff, the chief
of police, or the chief correctional officer shall report that person to the Immigration and Customs
Enforcement office of the United States Department of Homeland Security.
(c) A judge of the circuit court shall direct the clerk of the circuit court to notify the Immigration and
Customs Enforcement office of the United States Department of Homeland Security when a
suspected illegal alien has been convicted of or pled guilty to a felony.
…
111.076 Reporting of immigration status information.-(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person or agency may prohibit or in any way
restrict a public employee from doing any of the following with respect to information regarding the
immigration status of any individual:
(a) Sending such information to, or requesting or receiving such information from, the United
States Department of Homeland Security;
(c) Exchanging such information with any other federal, state, or local governmental entity.
…
Section 4. Section 125.582, Florida Statutes, is created to read:
125.582 Communicating or cooperating with federal officials concerning immigration.-(1) No county government, whether acting through its governing body or by an initiative,
referendum, or any other process shall enact any ordinance or policy that limits or prohibits a law
enforcement officer, local official, or local government employee from communicating or
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FECHAS
cooperating with federal officials with regard to the immigration status of any person within this
state.
(2) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no county governmental entity or official may
prohibit or in any way restrict any governmental entity or official from sending to, or receiving from,
the United States Department of Homeland Security information regarding the citizenship or
immigration status of any individual.
Section 5. Section 166.04935, Florida Statutes, is created to read:
166.04935 Communicating or cooperating with federal officials concerning immigration.-(1) No municipal government, whether acting through its governing body or by an initiative,
referendum, or any other process shall enact any ordinance or policy that limits or prohibits a law
enforcement officer, local official, or local government employee from communicating or
cooperating with federal officials with regard to the immigration status of any person within this
state.
(2) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no municipal governmental entity or official may
prohibit or in any way restrict any governmental entity or official from sending to, or receiving from,
the United States Department of Homeland Security information regarding the citizenship or
immigration status of any individual.
Section 6. Subsection (13) is added to section 316.193, Florida Statutes, to read:
316.193 Driving under the influence; penalties.-(13)(a) When a person charged under this section is confined for any period in a jail or other
detention center or facility, a reasonable effort shall be made to determine the citizenship status of
that person.
(b) If the prisoner is a foreign national, the entity confining the person shall make a reasonable
effort to verify that the prisoner has been lawfully admitted to the United States and, if lawfully
admitted, that such lawful status has not expired. If verification of lawful status cannot be made
from documents in the possession of the prisoner, verification shall be made within 48 hours of the
beginning of the confinement in paragraph (a) through a query to the United States Department of
Homeland Security. If the prisoner is determined not to be lawfully admitted to the United States,
the entity holding the prisoner shall notify the United States Department of Homeland Security.
…
409.954 Verification of immigration status for public benefits.-(1) Except as provided in subsection (3) or where exempted by federal law, each agency and
political subdivision of this state shall verify the lawful presence in the United States of any natural
person 14 years of age or older who has applied for state or local public benefits as defined in 8
U.S.C. s. 1621 or for federal public benefits as defined in 8 U.S.C. s. 1611 that are administered by
an agency or a political subdivision of this state.
…
(2) No county or municipality shall construct, establish, maintain, or operate, or provide any
resources, revenue, funds, or assistance of any kind to, a worker center or day-labor worker center
as defined in subsection (1) when the center or any part thereof knowingly facilitates or knowingly
intends to facilitate a violation of s. 448.09 by hiring, recruiting, or referring, on behalf of the center
or on behalf of another, for private or public employment within the state, an alien who is not duly
authorized to work under federal immigration laws or by the United States Attorney General.
02/may/08 – Cancelada del proceso legislativo.
06/mar/08 – Enviada al Comité de Asuntos del Estado
04/mar/08 – Primera lectura.
10/feb/08 – Enviada a los Concejos de Políticas y Presupuesto, y de Contabilidad y Eficiencia
Gubernamental.
5/feb/08 – Introducida.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
82
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
Crea el ‘Florida Safe Borders Acto f 2008’ y requiere a los funcionarios encargados de velar por el
respeto y ejecución de las leyes reporten a la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas (ICE) todos aquellos
casos en los que los detenidos sena sospechosos de ser migrantes irregulares; asimismo, la
iniciativa promueve la verificación de la situación migratoria de aquellas personas que soliciten
beneficios del Estado.
FLORIDA, DEPARTMENT OF LAW ENFORCEMENT
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Florida Department of Law Enforcement under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality
Act.
En vigor.
Otorga facultades a los agentes del Departamento de Seguridad Pública de Florida para indagar
el estatus migratorio de aquellas personas detenidas por otros delitos, y en caso de que dichas
personas tengan un estatus migratorio irregular les otorga facultades para mantenerlas en
detención en lo que son deportadas de los EE.UU.
2/jul/02 – Firma del Memorandum.
JURISDICCIÓN AVON PARK (Highlands County), FL
TITULO
ESTATUS
Rechazada por Concejo de la Ciudad
CONTENIDO Sancionaría con penas de hasta $1000 dls. a los caseros que alquilen propiedades a migrantes
indocumentados.
FECHAS
REACCIONES 15/ago/06 – Demanda presentada por ACLU y PRLDEF
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN BAY COUNTY, FL
TITULO
Memorandum of understanding between Bay County Sheriff's Office and U.S. Department of
Homeland Security
ESTATUS
En vigor
CONTENIDO Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
FECHAS
15/jun/08 – Firma del memorandum de entendimiento.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
83
EFECTOS
El acuerdo permitirá a los agentes de policía del condado indagar el status migratiorio de las
personas.
JURISDICCIÓN BREVARD COUNTY, FL
TITULO
Memorandum of understanding between Brevard County Sheriff's Office and U.S. Department of
Homeland Security
ESTATUS
En vigor
CONTENIDO Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
FECHAS
13/ago/08 – Firma del memorandum de entendimiento.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
El acuerdo permitirá a los agentes de detención del aguacil el entrevistar a nacionales extranjeros
dentro de los centros de detención para determinar si existe causa probable de una violación a la
ley de migración. Bajo el programa, los agentes completaran el procesamiento de cualquier
delincuente extranjero y prepararán la documentación para iniciar los procedimientos de
deportación.
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
COLLIER COUNTY, FL.
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Collier County Sheriff's Office under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
6/ago/07 – Firma del Memorandum.
El acuerdo permitirá a los agentes de detención del aguacil el entrevistar a nacionales extranjeros
dentro de los centros de detención para determinar si existe causa probable de una violación a la
ley de migración. Bajo el programa, los agentes completaran el procesamiento de cualquier
delincuente extranjero y prepararán la documentación para iniciar los procedimientos de
deportación. Asimismo, otorga facultades a los agentes del alguacil del Condado de Collier para
indagar el estatus migratorio de aquellas personas detenidas por otros delitos, y en caso de que
dichas personas tengan un estatus migratorio irregular les otorga facultades para mantenerlas en
detención en lo que son deportadas de los EE.UU.
JURISDICCIÓN JACKSONVILLE, FL
TITULO
Memorandum of understanding between Jacksonville Sheriff's Office and U.S. Department of
Homeland Security
ESTATUS
En vigor
CONTENIDO Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
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FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
8/jul/08 – Firma del memorandum de entendimiento.
El acuerdo permitirá a los agentes de detención del aguacil el entrevistar a nacionales extranjeros
dentro de los centros de detención para determinar si existe causa probable de una violación a la
ley de migración. Bajo el programa, los agentes completaran el procesamiento de cualquier
delincuente extranjero y prepararán la documentación para iniciar los procedimientos de
deportación.
JURISDICCIÓN MANATEE COUNTY, FL
TITULO
Memorandum of understanding between Manatee County Sheriff's Office and U.S. Department of
Homeland Security
ESTATUS
En vigor
CONTENIDO Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
FECHAS
8/jul/08 – Firma del memorandum de entendimiento.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
El acuerdo permitirá a los agentes de detención del aguacil el entrevistar a nacionales extranjeros
dentro de los centros de detención para determinar si existe causa probable de una violación a la
ley de migración. Bajo el programa, los agentes completaran el procesamiento de cualquier
delincuente extranjero y prepararán la documentación para iniciar los procedimientos de
deportación.
JURISDICCIÓN PALM BAY (Brevard County), FL
TITULO
ESTATUS
Rechazada por el Concejo de la ciudad
CONTENIDO Penalizaría a empresas que contraten inmigrantes indocumentados con multas de entre $350 y
$500 dls. y retiraría su licencia de negocio.
Inicialmente, el asambleísta Andy Anderson introdujo una ordenanza que responsabilizaba a los
migrantes indocumentados del crimen y el terrorismo y convertía en delito menor la contratación
de trabajadores indocumentados. Tras varias revisiones, la ordenanza se limita a penalizar a
empleadores que contraten a trabajadores indocumentados.
FECHAS
18/ago/06 -La iniciativa es rechazada por tres de los cinco miembros del Concejo de la localidad,
tras un intenso debate público de más de cinco horas.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
Tras la votación en contra de la ordenanza, decenas de activistas, líderes comunitarios e
inmigrantes que asistieron al debate en el abarrotado recinto del Concejo celebraron lo que
85
calificaron como una victoria.
OPINIONES
Samuel Lopez del grupo de derechos civiles, United Third Bridge: "We have said this is
discriminatory from day one. It's only creating unnecessary divisions in the community."
(18/ago/06)
EFECTOS
Ha sido citada ampliamente como ejemplo de las ordenanzas que han sido rechazadas.
GEORGIA
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
GEORGIA
SB 529 - Georgia Security and Immigration Compliance Act
http://www.bcgov.net/news/Illegal%20Immigration%20Relief%20Act/GA%20Security%20Immigrati
on%20Compliance%20Act.pdf
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
Aprobada como ley en abril/06
En vigor a partir de 1/jul/07
1. Requiere a los contratistas que sean empleados por oficinas del gobierno estatal o local
comprobar el estatus migratorio de sus trabajadores.
2. Requiere a los empleadores participar en un programa federal de autorización de empleo
(Basic Pilot Employee Verification System)
3. Autoriza al estado negociar un memorandum de entendimiento con del Departamento de
Justicia o el Departamento de Seguridad Interna respecto a la aplicación de las leyes migratorias
y de aduanas.
4. Las personas arrestadas por delitos menores estarán sujetas a procedimientos para determinar
su nacionalidad y estatus migratorio.
5. A partir de enero de 2008, los empleadores que soliciten deducibles por pago de salarios
deberán verificar que sus empleados tienen autorización para trabajar en el país.
6. Requiere a los empleadores retener 6% del salario de las personas que no presenten un
número de identificación para pago de impuestos.
FECHAS
17/abr/06 – El gobernador Sonny Perdue firma la ley.
1/jul/07 – La ley entra en vigor.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
19/abr/06 -Tisha Tallman, consejera de MALDEF, señaló que su organización estudia la
posibilidad de presentar una demanda en contra de la legislación.
“The Georgia bill was considered so draconian, in fact, that it quickly sparked a diplomatic war of
words. On Tuesday, Mexico's President Vicente Fox declared that Georgia's law included ‘acts of
discrimination’ and ‘half measures insufficient to resolve the complex phenomenon of immigration
86
between Mexico and the United States’. The reaction in Georgia to Fox's comments was typical of
the heightened rhetoric that has fueled the Act since it was introduced at the beginning of the year.
‘I would suggest the government of Mexico stop concerning themselves with what we do in
Georgia and instead worry about their own corrupt government’, replied state Sen. Chip Rogers
(R-Woodstock)”. ( “Is Georgia’s Immigration Bill a Step Forward or Back?”, Time.Com, 19/abr/06).
Tisha Tallman, MALDEF: “…immigrants contribute some $200 million to the annual tax base, and
should not be denied public services that they help fund. Instead of waiting for Congress, Georgia
has decided to take matters into its own hands, signing into law a punitive bill that does nothing to
solve this complex issue." (19/abr/06)
Senador Chip Rogers of Woodstock, quien votó a favor de la legislación: "We want to
demagnetize Georgia". (30/dic/06)
Quienes apoyaron esta legislación argumentan que establecerá “un estándar nacional” mientras
que sus detractores la consideran penosa y costosa para los negocios del estado. (30/dic/06)
Jerry González, presidente de la Georgia Association of Latino Elected Officials: "It's a big black
eye that will hurt Georgia’s economy”. (30/dic/06)
Ann Morse, analista de National Conference of State Legislatures, explicó que la ley federal
prohíbe a los estados establecer sanciones por migración indocumentada más severas que las
que adopte el Congreso por lo que prevé que enfrentarán discusión en las cortes. (19/ago/06)
Timothy Bearden (R-Villa Rica): "This is an issue that I hear from my constituents all the time
about. The federal government has been derelict in their duty, and until they do something, I guess
it's going to be left up to us here in the states”. (18/feb/07)
Jerry Gonzalez, Georgia Association of Latino Elected Officials: "Part of S.B. 529 is implementing
federal law, but ultimately it has created a very hostile environment" (5/jul/07)
Senador Chip Rogers, autor de la iniciativa: "If S.B. 529 stops illegal activity, then that's a success"
(5/jul/07)
Gobernador Casey Cagle: "It is critical to our state that businesses are not participating in the
hiring of illegal workers, and this law sets out specific mandates for employers that are reasonable
and fair" (5/jul/07)
EFECTOS
Se prevé que afectará a un gran número de personas que actualmente utilizan servicios públicos
de salud y dado que sólo tendrán acceso a servicios de emergencia, habrá mayor demanda sobre
estos servicios, provocando retrasos y altos costos.
Se prevé que la legislación de Georgia puede influir en propuestas similares en otros estados ante
la frustración sobre la falta de medidas a nivel federal para controlar la migración.
Los criticos de la ley consideran que afectara a la economia de Georgia al provocar la salida de
inmigrantes que son una fuerza laboral fundamental para varios sectores de la economia.
("Georgia's illegals law takes effect", The Washington Times, 5/jul/07).
JURISDICCIÓN
GEORGIA, DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC SAFETY
87
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Georgia Department of Public Safety under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Otorga facultades a los agentes del Departamento de Seguridad Pública de Georgia para indagar
el estatus migratorio de aquellas personas detenidas por otros delitos, y en caso de que dichas
personas tengan un estatus migratorio irregular les otorga facultades para mantenerlas en
detención en lo que son deportadas de los EE.UU.
15/ago/07 – Firma del Memorandum.
JURISDICCIÓN COBB COUNTY, GA
TITULO
ESTATUS
Aprobada
CONTENIDO Reduce de 6 a 4 el número de personas –no parientes- que pueden residir en una vivienda para
una sola familia.
Requiere 50 pies cuadrados de espacio para dormir por persona, excluyendo baños, clósets,
pasillos y lugares de estacionamiento.
FECHAS
30/ene/06 – Autoridades del condado anuncian que consideran una ley para regular el número de
personas que pueden vivir en un hogar. La medida responde a más de 60 quejas relacionadas con
viviendas sobrepobladas en el condado y el aumento de la población de migrantes latinos de 2.1%
en 1990 a 10% en 2004.
24/jul/07 – Los Comisionados del condado aprobaron la ordenanza.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
Los críticos de esta propuesta argumentan que es una forma de implementar leyes antiinmigrantes a nivel local por medio de las leyes de vivienda.
Grupos opositores han citado la decisión de la Suprema Corte de Justicia en 1977 respecto a que
los municipios no pueden definir los límites de “familia” al establecer leyes de vivienda.
Abogados de ACLU señalaron que es difícil presentar una demanda contra la ley de Cobb County
pues es ambigua respecto a la definición de “familia”.
OPINIONES
Rob Hosack, director de desarrollo del condado: “Sometimes, you get some flat-out ignorant
people who call up because someone different lives next door to them. The houses targeted by
complaints often are large enough to accommodate extra residents or the occupants are related,
meaning no violations are occurring”. (30/ene/06)
County Chairman Sam Olens: “Homes are in effect being turned into apartment complexes.”
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN COBB COUNTY, GA
88
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and Cobb
County Sheriff's Office under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Otorga acceso a la base de datos a nivel federal para verificar el estatus migratorio de los presos
en el condado.
Ago/06 – La oficina del sheriff de Cobb County solicita a la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas (ICE)
autorización para firmar el memorando de entendimiento conforme a la sección 287(g) de la ley
migratoria para entrenar a las autoridades del condado para hacer averiguaciones sobre el estatus
migratorio de los presos en la cárcel del condado e iniciar el proceso de deportación.
25/oct/06 – Cerca de 50 personas se presentan ante el Consejo de Comisionados para solicitar
que se suscriba el acuerdo con la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas (ICE) para que las autoridades
locales participen en el cumplimiento de la ley migratoria de acuerdo con disposiciones en la ley
federal.
El Sheriff del condado de Cobb, Neil Warren solicita que se firme el Memorando de Entendimiento
para poner en práctica el programa 287(g) conforme a la Ley de Migración (INA) que permite
verificar el estatus migratorio de cualquier persona detenida en la cárcel del condado.
13/feb/07- El sheriff del condado de Cobb firma el acuerdo con la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas
para permitir que se identifique a migrantes indocumentados presos en la cárcel del condado e
iniciar su proceso de deportación.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
Organizaciones latinas, entre ellas MALDEF, han expresado su desacuerdo con esta medida.
D.A. King, activista del condado: “Here’s my agenda. I want our borders secured as it’s required by
the U.S. Constitution. I want American law equally applied. I want English to be the common
language that binds our very diverse nation together, and I don’t care who knows it.” (25/oct/06)
Sam Olens, presidente de la Comisión de Cobb: “I see us complying with state and federal law.
We’re proactively following the law. It makes no difference if it’s a county in Maine, where the
perception is they have virtually no illegal immigrants, or Cobb County. We need to follow the law.”
Olens: “The truth of the matter is the federal government needs to step up to the plate and do its
job, and it’s a result of the federal government not doing its job that has caused local government
to deal with these issues. I support (Warren on 287G), but it shouldn’t be necessary to take this
action. The feds should already be doing it.” (25/oct/06)
Tisha R. Tallman, consejera de MALDEF: “Checking the legal status of everyone entering the
county jail will erode trust in communities, divert resources away from solving violent crimes and/or
dealing with violent criminals (in this case, housing violent criminals), and allow local police officers
to enter a complex area where ultimately the federal government has authority".
Sheriff Neil Warren: “Immigration enforcement is a federal responsibility, but when illegal
immigrants come into our community and commit crimes, it becomes a local enforcement issue
and we will not hesitate to use all of the tools at our disposal to ensure the safety of our citizens
and the enforcement of our laws.” (13/feb/07)
EFECTOS
Se ha citado como el primer condado de Georgia en aprobar esta medida.
Desde el inicio del programa la oficina del Sheriff del condado de Cobb ha entregado a 53 presos
89
a la Oficina de Migración y aduanas. Otras 73 personas que se han identificado como mexicanos
están en espera de que se determinen sus casos. (24/ene/07)
JURISDICCIÓN COBB COUNTY, GA
TITULO
ESTATUS
Desechada
CONTENIDO Limit the hiring of day laborers.
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
The proposal would have levied fines on employers who picked up workers on four-lane roads
within 150 feet of a traffic signal. Fines would have ranged up to $1,000.
13/ago/07 - Cobb County officials scrapped a proposal on Monday to limit the hiring of day
laborers.
14/ago/07 - Jerry Gonzalez, executive director of the Georgia Association of Latino Elected
Officials, praised "their rational decision of withdrawing the day labor ordinance despite the fact that
there are frustrations with the failure of our U.S. Congress to act on a robust U.S. immigration
policy." (The Atlanta Journal-Constitution)
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN CHEROKEE COUNTY, GA
TITULO
Ordinance No. 2006-003: Penalties for the Harboring of Illegal Aliens in Cherokee County
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
Sección sobre caseros - Suspendida
Fecha originalmente programada para entrada en vigor: 1/ene/07
Prohíbe la renta de vivienda a personas indocumentadas, lo cual es considerado como delito.
Requeriría a los caseros comprobar el estatus migratorio de sus inquilinos. En caso de encontrar a
personas indocumentadas dentro de su propiedad, tendrían un plazo de cinco días para
desalojarlos; de lo contrario, perderían su permiso para renta.
Nov/06 – Protesta de un grupo en contra de la ordenanza durante la audiencia pública.
5/dic/06 – El Consejo de Comisionados del Condado somete a votación la ordenanza.
6/dic/06- El Consejo aprueba unánimemente la ordenanza.
1/ene/07 – Autoridades del Condado anuncian que posiblemente retrasarán la entrada en vigor de
la ordenanza argumentando que los oficiales del condado no cuentan con el entrenamiento
adecuado para poner en práctica la ordenanza. Además señalan que los costos asociados con
una posible demanda en la corte, tomando como referencia los casos de Escondido, CA y
Hazleton, PA los han llevado a reconsiderar su posición sobre la ordenanza.
5/ene/07 – MALDEF, ACLU y otros grupos defensores de los derechos de los migrantes presentan
una demanda en contra de la ordenanza en lo que se refiere a las sanciones en contra de caseros
que alquilen vivienda a personas sin estatus migratorio legal argumentando que es inconstitucional
e implica asumir responsabilidades que corresponden al gobierno federal. El juez Timothy C.
Batten Sr. firma una orden para suspender la entrada en vigor de la ordenanza.
90
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
Nov/06 – Un grupo de opositores se manifiesta en contra de la ordenanza durante una audiencia
pública.
Dic/06 - Grupos defensores de los derechos de los migrantes prometieron iniciar el proceso para
presentar una demanda en contra de la ordenanza.
OPINIONES
Isaiah Delemar, consejero de MALDEF en Atlanta: "It's a victory because Cherokee County will not
force landlords to violate the rights of the immigrant population. Cherokee County will be prevented
from abridging the constitutional rights of landlords, as well". (5/ene/07)
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
HALL COUNTY, GA.
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and Hall
County Sheriff's Office under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
29/feb/08 – Firma del Memorandum.
El acuerdo permitirá a los agentes de detención del aguacil el entrevistar a nacionales extranjeros
dentro de los centros de detención para determinar si existe causa probable de una violación a la
ley de migración. Bajo el programa, los agentes completaran el procesamiento de cualquier
delincuente extranjero y prepararán la documentación para iniciar los procedimientos de
deportación. Asimismo, otorga facultades a los agentes del alguacil del Condado para indagar el
estatus migratorio de aquellas personas detenidas por otros delitos, y en caso de que dichas
personas tengan un estatus migratorio irregular les otorga facultades para mantenerlas en
detención en lo que son deportadas de los EE.UU.
WHITFIELD COUNTY, GA.
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Whitfield County Sheriff's Office under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
4/feb/08 – Firma del Memorandum.
El acuerdo permitirá a los agentes de detención del aguacil el entrevistar a nacionales extranjeros
dentro de los centros de detención para determinar si existe causa probable de una violación a la
91
ley de migración. Bajo el programa, los agentes completaran el procesamiento de cualquier
delincuente extranjero y prepararán la documentación para iniciar los procedimientos de
deportación.
IDAHO
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
IDAHO
AN ACT relating to employment of unauthorized aliens (SB 1513)
Pendiente.
44-302.
EMPLOYMENT OF UNAUTHORIZED ALIENS -- PROHIBITION -- LEGAL
EMPLOYMENT AFFIDAVIT -- VIOLATION -- CLASSIFICATION. (1) An employer shall not
employ an alien knowing the alien is an unauthorized alien, as defined in 8 U.S.C. section
1324a(h)(3) with respect to such employment.
(2) On receipt of a complaint that an employer allegedly knowingly employs an unauthorized
alien, the attorney general or prosecuting attorney of the county where the violation allegedly
occurs shall investigate whether the employer has violated the provisions of subsection (1) of this
section. When investigating a complaint, the attorney general or prosecuting attorney shall verify
the work authorization and immigration status of the alleged unauthorized alien with the federal
government pursuant to 8 U.S.C. section 1373(c).
A state, county or local official shall not attempt to independently make a final determination on
whether an alien is authorized to work in the United States. A person who knowingly files a false
and frivolous complaint under this subsection shall be guilty of a misdemeanor. A complaint
that is based upon the race, ethnicity or national origin of an employee shall not be acted upon.
(3) If, after an investigation, the attorney general or prosecuting attorney determined that the
complaint is not frivolous:
(a) The attorney general or prosecuting attorney shall notify the United States department of
homeland security of the unauthorized alien.
(b) The attorney general or prosecuting attorney shall notify the county sheriff or city police of the
unauthorized alien.
(c) The attorney general shall notify the appropriate prosecuting attorney for the purpose of
bringing an action pursuant to subsection (4) of this section if the complaint was originally filed with
the attorney general.
(4) An action for a violation of subsection (1) of this section shall be brought against the
employer by the prosecuting attorney in the county where the unauthorized alien employee is
employed. The prosecuting attorney shall not bring an action against an employer for any violation
of subsection (1) of this section that occurs with respect to an employee's employment prior to
September 1, 2008. A second violation of the provisions of this section shall be based only on an
unauthorized alien who is employed by the employer after an action has been brought for a
violation of subsection (1) of this section.
…
44-304. VERIFICATION OF EMPLOYMENT ELIGIBILITY -- PUBLIC EMPLOYERS -- E-VERIFY
-- OFFICE OF PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONS. (1) Before hiring an employee, the state of
Idaho shall verify the employment authorization of the employee through E-Verify.
…(3) After September 1, 2009, every political subdivision of this state shall verify the
employment authorization of all newly-hired employees through E-Verify.
44-305. AWARD OF CONTRACTS -- EMPLOYEE VERIFICATION -- DEFINITIONS. (1) No
state agency shall award a contract to any contractor or subcontractor that provides services in
92
this state unless the employment authorization of the employees of the contractor or
subcontractor that perform services in this state has been verified by the contractor or
subcontractor through E-Verify.
The provisions of this subsection only apply to contracts that are awarded on and after October
1, 2008.
(2) After September 1, 2008, a political subdivision of this state shall not award a contract to any
contractor or subcontractor that provides services in this state unless the employment
authorization of the employees of the contractor or subcontractor that perform the services in
this state will be verified by the contractor or subcontractor through E-Verify.
(3) Before a contract is awarded pursuant to this section, the contractor shall provide to the
procurement officer of the state or political subdivision the E-Verify verification documents for all
employees who will perform services under the contract.
…
63-3035D. EMPLOYER NOTICE. On or before July 1, 2008, the state tax commission shall
provide a notice to every employer that is required to withhold tax pursuant to chapter 30, title 63,
Idaho Code. The notice shall explain the requirements of chapter 3, title 44, Idaho Code, including
the following:
(1) A new state law prohibits employers from knowingly employing an unauthorized alien.
(2) For a first violation of this new state law during a three (3) year period, the court shall order
the appropriate licensing agencies to suspend all licenses held by the employer unless the
employer files a signed sworn affidavit with the prosecuting attorney within three (3) business
days. The filed affidavit must state that the employer has terminated the employment of all
unauthorized aliens and that the employer will not knowingly employ an unauthorized alien. A
license that is suspended will remain suspended until the employer files a signed sworn affidavit
with the prosecuting attorney. A copy of the court order will be made available on the attorney
general's website.
(3) For a second violation of this new state law, the court may order the appropriate agencies to
suspend all business licenses held by the employer for up to ten (10) business days.
(4) For a third violation of this new state law, the court will order the appropriate licensing
agencies to permanently revoke all licenses that are held by the employer.
(5) Proof of verifying the employment authorization of an employee through E-Verify, as
defined in section 44-301, Idaho Code, shall be a defense of good faith.
(6) After September 1, 2008, every employer, after hiring an employee, is required to verify the
employment eligibility of the employee.
(7) Instructions for the employer on how to enroll in E-Verify, as defined in section 44-301,
Idaho Code.
SECTION 5. SEVERABILITY. The provisions of this act are hereby declared to be severable
and if any provision of this act or the application of such provision to any person or circumstance is
declared invalid for any reason, such declaration shall not affect the validity of the remaining
portions of this act.
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
SECTION 6. Section 4 of this act shall be in full force and effect on and after July 1, 2008. The
remaining sections of this act shall be in full force and effect on and after September 1, 2008.
25/mar/08 – Turnada al comité de Asuntos del Estado.
24/mar/08 – Introducida al Senado.
La iniciativa SB 1513 busca sancionar a aquellos empleadores que contrante migrantes
irregulares.
93
ILLINOIS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
ILLINOIS
Right to Privacy in the Workplace Act, (820 ILCS 55/12) Sec. 12.
Aprobada. Fecha para entrada en vigor: 1/ene/08
Prohibit Illinois employers from enrolling in an employment eligibility verification system (EEVS)
until the Social Security Administration (SSA) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) are
able to make timely determinations on most "tentative non-confirmation notices" issued to
employers
13/ago/07 - Illinois Governor Rod Blagojevich signed into law an amendment to the state Right to
Privacy in the Workplace Act.
24/sep/07 – El Gobierno Federal presenta una demanda en contra del Estado de Illinois ante la
Corte Federal del Distrito Central de Illinois.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN CARPENTERSVILLE, IL
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO Solicita recursos federales para incorporarse al programa de entrenamiento para entrenar a la
policía local para aplicar las leyes migratorias y tener acceso a las bases de datos federales sobre
migración conforme a la sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración (INA). El programa permitiría a los
oficiales de la ciudad investigar el estatus migratorio de personas arrestadas e iniciar el proceso
de deportación.
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
Oct/06 - Los miembros del Comité de la ciudad, Judy Sigwalt y Paul Humpfer, proponen la
iniciativa.
6/dic/06 – El Comité de la ciudad aprueba la iniciativa por cinco votos contra uno.
Oct-nov/06 – Se registran algunas protestas en contra.
Juan Silva, de la Mexican Civic and Cultural Organization of Elgin, fue uno de los organizadores de
una protesta que reunió a 3,000 personas.
OPINIONES
Juan Silva, de la Mexican Civic and Cultural Organization of Elgin: "They say they will only use it
against criminals, but if they eventually get it, it could become an abusive power and they could go
after ordinary people.” (15/ene/07).
David Neumann, jefe de la policía de la ciudad: “Two to four officers [will] receive the training […]
aimed at "violent criminals and gangbangers who are here illegally and could be deported."
(15/ene/07)
94
Judy Sigwalt, miembro del comité de la ciudad: "[this resolution will] keep the federal government
on its toes”. (5/dic/06)
Linda Ramirez-Sliwinski, miembro del comité de la ciudad que votó en contra de la iniciativa: “[this
is] just more racism". (6/dic/06)
El presidente del Comité de la ciudad, Bill Sarto, en un principio se refirió a esta propuesta como
“mañosa” (gimmick) aunque finalmente votó a favor puesto que el Jefe de la Policía de la ciudad,
David Neumann, consideraba que beneficiaría a la ciudad. (6/dic/06)
Judy Sigwalt, miembro del comité de la ciudad: “It's another tool for our Police Department to fight
crime and clean up our streets” (7/dic/06).
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
Es la primera ciudad en Illinois que solicita unirse al programa 287(g).
CARPENTERSVILLE, IL
n/d
Pendiente
Ordenanza que penalizaría a arrendadores que alquilen vivienda a inmigrantes y revocaría las
licencias de empresas y negocios que contraten mano de obra de inmigrantes indocumentados.
Pat Schultz, miembro de Fox Valley Citizens for Legal Immigration: 'We had some complaints that
we have a lot of people living in garages. And one woman said that every morning these grown
men would come out of the garage and urinate. And then some white van would come and pick
them up. You know in your heart that something is not right.' (3/jul/07)
Ed Yohnka, a spokesman for the American Civil Liberties Union: 'There is a fear of people or of
things being different. There has been a kind of a collective amnesia about the way in which all of
us ended up in this place called America.' (3/jul/07)
EFECTOS
La propuesta se basa en la ordenanza de Hazleton, PA y el Concejo está en espera del resultado
del juicio en esta ciudad para decidir cómo proceder con esta iniciativa.
JURISDICCIÓN ELGIN, IL
TITULO
ESTATUS
Solicitud pendiente.
CONTENIDO Solicitaría un Memorandum de Entendimiento con la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas conforme a
la sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
FECHAS
24/ene/07 – Varios grupos anti-inmigrantes realizan una campaña de recolección de firmas para
pedir que se vote sobre esta petición en referéndum el 17 de abril.
Margaret Millar, líder de la campaña a favor del acuerdo 287(g), señala que en las últimas dos
semanas han recolectado cerca de 800 firmas, aunque el grupo no tiene claro cuántas firmas se
requieren. La fecha límite para presentar las firmas es 29/ene/07.
95
15/feb/07 – La petición para someter esta propuesta a votación es rechazada a falta de firmas
suficientes (se requerían 1,445 firmas y se reunieron menos de 1,400) por lo que el proceso formal
para solicitar el acuerdo continuará.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
Margaret Millar, líder de la campaña a favor del acuerdo 287(g): “Elgin is out of control; it is
spiraling out of control into chaos and something needs to be done. As far as I’m concerned, Elgin
is going down the tubes”. (24/ene/07)
Los grupos que apoyan esta petición argumentan que los migrantes son responsables de las altas
tasas de criminalidad en la ciudad pero de acuerdo a los datos recopilados por el diario Suburban
Chicago News, el número de delitos graves en Elgin declinó en más de una tercera parte entre
1996 y 2005, y en el primer periodo de 2006 bajó 8% en comparación con el mismo periodo en
2005. (24/ene/07)
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN WAUKEGAN, IL
TITULO
ESTATUS
Solicitud pendiente.
CONTENIDO Solicitaría un Memorando de Entendimiento con la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
FECHAS
18/jun/07- El Concejo de la Ciudad vota 7-2 a favor de la petición de acuerdo con la ICE
28/jun/07- Un grupo de ciudadanos, encabezado por líderes religiosos, se reunió con el Alcalde
Hyde para expresar su preocupación respecto a la iniciativa aprobada. El alcalde firmó un acuerdo
con este grupo en el que se comprometió a que la policía de la ciudad sólo utilizará su nueva
autoridad en casos de crímenes graves, y no iniciarán procesos de deportación en casos de
conductores sin licencia, inmigrantes sin identificación oficial o inmigrantes que violen reglas de
tránsito u otros delitos menores. Asimismo, la ciudad se compromete a no participar en redadas ni
tolerará amenazas de deportación por parte de la policía o empleados del gobierno.
3/jul/07 - Como parte de la campaña "Waukegan para todos", un grupo de 30 manifestantes dio un
ultimátum al alcalde y concejales de Waukegan para que desistan de la solicitud ante la Oficina de
Inmigración y Aduanas (ICE) para la aplicación de la ley 287(g), mediante la cual se le otorgaría a
la Policía funciones de agentes migratorios. También exigieron dar un “alto al uso de inspecciones
de código para acosar a las familias en sus viviendas”, y establecer “una junta independiente de
residentes de Waukegan para investigar la conducta y los abusos cometidos por la Policía”.
Parte de la campaña incluye un boicot a Comcast y una empresa de diferentes productos para el
hogar, las cuales patrocinan el programa televisivo "Lou Dobbs Tonight" transmitido por la cadena
CNN. El boicot planea extenderse a negocios que no apoyen la campaña.
El alcalde Richard H. reafirmó su posición de seguir adelante con la solicitud de la ley 287(g).
Opinó que “hay gente que está atemorizando a los residentes de la ciudad diciéndoles que vamos
a ir a sus casas a arrestarlos y deportarlos. Están creando muchos problemas”. (3/jul/07)
10/jul/07- Se forma la coalición hispana bajo el nombre de Asociación Latina del Condado de Lake
(ALLC), integrada por los representantes de una docena de organizaciones comunitarias resueltos
a tomar acción contra las propuestas antiinmigrantes y crear unidad entre los latinos de
Waukegan. Su objetivo inmediato es revocar la solicitud de acuerdo 287(g) con la Oficina de
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Migración y Aduanas.
12/jul/07 - El grupo Americans for Legal Immigration lanzó una contra-campaña en contra del boicot, llamado "Sh
Waukegan" y boicoteando a su vez a los negocios que apoyan la campaña "Waukegan para todos".
15/jul/07 - Grupos opositores a esta medida organizan una manifestación y una vigilia.
16/jul/07 - El Concejo de la ciudad vota a favor de seguir adelante con la solicitud de admisión al
programa 287(g).
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
Líderes religiosos y grupos de ciudadanos han expresado su oposición y organizado pequeñas
demostraciones en contra del acuerdo con ICE.
More than 3,000 protestors chanted against the proposal. Riot-geared officers with muzzled dogs
separated them from the several hundred supporters also present. (30/ago/07,
www.chicagodefender.com)
Alcalde Richard Hyde: "The purpose of this is to get those who commit felonies off the street and
out of the country." (20/jun/07)
Concejal Tony Figueroa: "Civil rights taught us if you pinpoint people, it will come back and bite
you" (20/jun/07)
Concejal Greg Moisio: "Instead of dragging [immigration officials] out here, who are already
understaffed, our guys do it" (20/jun/07)
Reverendo Gary Graf: "We continue to believe that [these] powers are unnecessary and divisive.
There are already ways to deport undocumented felons without this. ... We still hope the City
Council will withdraw the application." (29/jun/07)
Alcalde Hyde: "Let me tell you what we're not going to do. We're not going to go into your homes to
look for anybody.We're not going to set up roadblocks to find out whether a person is legal or
undocumented. ... If you haven't committed a felony you don't have to worry. [The city] wants to be
rid of all serious criminals who have tremendously violated your rights and mine. ... We don't want
them in the city of Waukegan. I, at this time, am not going to ask the City Council to withdraw the
resolution because we want to find out exactly what this is." (29/jun/07)
Reverendo Gary Graf de Holy Family Catholic Church: "All [the boycott] does is give more support
for the public who is rallying against the immigrant...Unfortunately, all it does is make the Latino
community look more crazed. I think the mayor is going to be encouraged to have more of a heavy
hand with the community, and I fear that." (4/jul/07)
EFECTOS
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TITULO
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FECHAS
CARPENTERSVILLE, IL
Pendiente
Pendiente
Iniciativa de ley para incautar los automóviles de quienes no cuenten con licencias para conducir y
seguro social para que sean detenidos por la policía de la ciudad de Carpentersville.
7/ago/07 – Se presentó ante la junta municipal de esa ciudad, una propuesta que facultaría a la
Policía incautar los vehículos de conductores que no porten licencia de conducir o seguro de auto.
REACCIONES
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EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
Joshua Hoyt, director de la Coalición pro Inmigrantes y Refugiados de Illinois, este tipo de medidas
responden a una política de "divisionismo". "Es otra vez la política de odio racial, esa gente está
creando una separación entre los vecinos de Carpentersville", señaló. (1/ago/07, Diario Hoy)
EFECTOS
INDIANA
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
INDIANA
A BILL FOR AN ACT to amend the Indiana Code concerning immigration (SB 335)
Desechada (la inciativa SB 345 fue presentada en su lugar)
Requires the superintendent of the state police department (superintendent) to: (1) negotiate terms
of a memorandum of understanding (memorandum) concerning a pilot project for the enforcement
of federal immigration and customs laws; and (2) designate appropriate police employees to be
trained under the memorandum.
Requires: (1) the superintendent and governor, unless otherwise required by the applicable federal
agency, to sign the memorandum on behalf of the state; and (2) the state police department to
apply for federal funding, as available, for the costs associated with training the police employees.
Provides that a police employee certified as trained may enforce the federal immigration and
customs laws.
Prohibits a person from knowingly employing an unauthorized alien. Requires the attorney general
to: (1) investigate a complaint that an employer knowingly employed an unauthorized alien; (2)
verify the work authorization of the alleged unauthorized alien with the federal government; (3)
notify United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement, local law enforcement agencies, and
the appropriate prosecuting attorney; and (4) maintain certain records of violation orders.
Requires prosecuting attorneys to file actions against employers for knowingly employing
unauthorized aliens after December 31, 2008. Requires a court to: (1) hold a hearing and make a
determination of the action on an expedited basis; (2) if a person knowingly employs an
unauthorized alien, order the employer to terminate the employment of unauthorized aliens, order
the employer to file a signed affidavit, and place the employer on probation for three years; (3)
order agencies to suspend all licenses held by the employer for the operation of the business
location if the employer fails to file a sworn affidavit; (4) for a second violation during the
probationary period, order agencies to revoke all licenses held by the employer for the operation of
the business location; and (5) send copies of orders to the attorney general.
Provides that a court may: (1) suspend an employer's licenses if an employer knowingly employs
an unauthorized alien; and (2) consider only the federal government's verification or status
information in determining whether an individual is an unauthorized alien.
Establishes: (1) a rebuttable presumption that an employer did not knowingly employ an
unauthorized alien if the employer verified the employment authorization of an individual through
the federal pilot program; and (2) an affirmative defense if the employer complied in good faith with
the federal employment verification requirements. Prohibits a governmental body from enacting an
ordinance, resolution, rule, or policy that prohibits or limits another governmental body from
sending, receiving, maintaining, or exchanging information on the citizenship or immigration status
of an individual. Allows a person to bring an action to compel a governmental body to comply with
the prohibition.
Requires: (1) hospitals to provide information to the state department of health on the total cost of
health care services for individuals who are not citizens or qualified aliens; and (2) the state
department of health to compile the information and provide an annual report to the general
assembly. Makes it a Class C misdemeanor to knowingly file a false or frivolous allegation with the
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attorney general. Prohibits a state agency or political subdivision from entering into or renewing a
public contract for services with a contractor if the state agency or political subdivision knows that
the contractor employs or contracts with unauthorized aliens.
Provides that: (1) a state agency or political subdivision may terminate a public contract for
services if the contractor providing the services employs or contracts with unauthorized aliens
unless the state or political subdivision determines that terminating the contract would be
detrimental to the public interest or public property; and (2) if a public contract for services is
terminated, a contractor is liable for actual damages. Allows a contractor of a public contract for
services to terminate a contract with a subcontractor if the subcontractor employs or contracts with
unauthorized aliens.
Makes it a: (1) Class A misdemeanor to transport or move; and (2) Class A misdemeanor to
conceal, harbor, or shield from detection; an alien knowing or in reckless disregard of the fact that
the alien has come to, entered, or remained in the United States in violation of law. Makes these
offenses a Class D felony (Class C felony for subsequent offenses): (1) for a subsequent offense;
(2) if the offense involves more than five aliens; or (3) if the offense was committed for the purpose
of commercial advantage or private financial gain.
28/ene/08 – Segunda lectura.
10/ene/08 – Introducida y referida al Comité de Pensiones y Trabajo.
La iniciativa mantiene las sanciones a los empleadores que de manera conciente contraten a
inmigrantes indocumentados, estableciendo que la primera vez recibirán una advertencia; si
reinciden dentro de un plazo de 10 años, se les suspenderá su licencia; y de presentarse una
segunda reincidencia dentro de os 10 años establecidos, se les revocará dicha licencia.
Asimismo, prevalecen las sanciones para aquellos que transporten, protejan de ser detenidos, o
asistan a cualquier indocumentado con una ganancia comercial o financiera; y se destaca la
enmienda que descarta cualquier acción punitiva en contra iglesias, centros de salud, abogados y
familiares directos como padres, cónyuges e hijos.
INDIANA
A BILL FOR AN ACT to amend the Indiana Code concerning labor and safety and to make an
appropriation (SB 345)
No pasó el proceso legislativo.
Chapter 18. Citizenship and Immigration Status Information
Sec. 1. As used in this chapter, "governmental body" has the meaning set forth in IC 5-22-2-13.
Sec. 2. A governmental body may not enact an ordinance, a resolution, a rule, or a policy that
prohibits or in any way restricts another governmental body, including a law enforcement officer
(as defined in IC 5-2-1-2), a state or local official, or a state or local government employee, from
taking the following actions with regard to information concerning the citizenship or immigration
status, lawful or unlawful, of an individual:
(1) Communicating or cooperating with federal officials.
(2) Sending to or receiving information from the United States Department of Homeland Security.
(3) Maintaining information.
(4) Exchanging information with another federal, state, or local government entity.
Sec. 3. If a governmental body violates this chapter, a person lawfully domiciled in Indiana may
bring an action to compel the governmental body to comply with this chapter.
…
(b) The superintendent shall negotiate the terms of a memorandum of understanding between the
99
state and the United States Department of Justice or the United States Department of Homeland
Security concerning a pilot project for the enforcement of federal immigration and customs laws in
Indiana.
(c) The memorandum of understanding described in subsection (b) must be signed on behalf of
the state by the superintendent and governor, unless otherwise required by the United States
Department of Justice or the United States Department of Homeland Security.
(d) The superintendent shall designate appropriate law enforcement officers to be trained under
the memorandum of understanding described in subsection (b).
(e) The department shall apply for federal funding, as available, for the costs associated with
training law enforcement officers under the memorandum of understanding described in
subsection (b).
(f) A law enforcement officer certified as trained in accordance with the memorandum of
understanding described in subsection (b) may enforce federal immigration and customs laws
while performing within the scope of the law enforcement officer's duties.
(g) The superintendent shall coordinate efforts, as needed, with the executive director of the
department of homeland security to address issues of national security in implementing this
section.
…
SECTION 14. IC 22-5-1.5 IS ADDED TO THE INDIANA CODE AS A NEW CHAPTER TO READ
AS FOLLOWS [EFFECTIVE JULY 1, 2009]:
Chapter 1.5. Employment of Unauthorized Aliens
Sec. 1. (a) This chapter applies only to an employee that an employer hires after June 30, 2009.
…Sec. 11. An employer shall not knowingly employ an unauthorized alien.
Sec. 12. (a) The attorney general may investigate a complaint filed with the attorney general that
an employer knowingly employed an unauthorized alien in violation of section 11 of this chapter.
(b) In investigating a complaint under subsection (a), the attorney general shall verify the work
authorization of the alleged unauthorized alien with the federal government under 8 U.S.C.
1373(c).
…Sec. 13. A state, county, or local official or employee may not attempt to make independently a
final determination as to whether an individual is authorized to work in the United States.
Sec. 14. (a) If, after an investigation, the attorney general determines that an employer has
knowingly employed an unauthorized alien, the attorney general shall notify the United States
Immigration and Customs Enforcement.
…Sec. 29. After June 30, 2009, an employer shall verify the employment eligibility of each
employee of the employer through the pilot program after hiring the employee.
Sec. 30. A person who files a complaint with the attorney general under this chapter, knowing that
the complaint is false or frivolous, commits a Class B misdemeanor.
Sec. 31. The suspension or revocation of a license under this chapter does not relieve an
employer from an obligation to withhold, collect, or pay income tax on wages paid by the employer
to an employee.
Sec. 32. This chapter shall be enforced without regard to race or national origin.
SECTION 15. IC 22-5-1.7 IS ADDED TO THE INDIANA CODE AS A NEW CHAPTER TO READ
AS FOLLOWS [EFFECTIVE JULY 1, 2008]:
Chapter 1.7. Public Contract for Services; Unauthorized Aliens
…Sec. 8. A state agency or political subdivision may not enter into or renew a public contract for
services with a contractor if the state agency or political subdivision knows that the contractor or a
subcontractor of the contractor employs or contracts with an unauthorized alien.
Sec. 9. Before a state agency or political subdivision may enter into a public contract for services
with a contractor, the contractor shall certify in a manner that does not violate federal law that the
contractor, at the time of the certification, does not employ or contract with an unauthorized alien.
Sec. 10. (a) A contractor or a subcontractor may not knowingly employ or contract with an
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unauthorized alien.
(b) If a contractor or subcontractor violates this section, the state agency or political subdivision
may file a complaint concerning the violation by the contractor or subcontractor with the attorney
general under IC 22-5-1.5.
Sec. 11. If a contractor uses a subcontractor, the subcontractor shall certify to the contractor in a
manner that does not violate federal law that the subcontractor, at the time of certification, does
not employ or contract with an unauthorized alien.
Sec. 12. A contractor shall maintain on file a certification of a subcontractor under section 11 of
this chapter throughout the duration of the term of a contract with the subcontractor.
Sec. 13. (a) If a contractor determines that a subcontractor is in violation of this chapter, the
contractor may terminate a contract with the subcontractor for the violation.
(b) A contract terminated under subsection (a) for a violation of this chapter by a subcontractor
may not be considered a breach of contract by the contractor or the subcontractor.
(c) A subcontractor may file an action with a circuit or superior court having jurisdiction in the
county to challenge a termination of a contract under subsection (a) not later than twenty (20) days
after the contractor terminates the contract with the subcontractor.
SECTION 26. [EFFECTIVE UPON PASSAGE] (a) As used in this SECTION, "commission" refers
to the commission on Hispanic/Latino affairs established by IC 4-23-28-2.
(b) The commission shall study and prepare a report on:
(1) the requirements a person must meet to qualify for naturalization; and
(2) the process by which United States citizenship is conferred upon a person.
(c) The commission shall submit the report prepared in accordance with subsection (b) to the
legislative council in an electronic format under IC 5-14-6 before July 1, 2009.
(d) There is appropriated to the commission fifty thousand dollars ($50,000) from the state general
fund for the commission's use in studying and preparing a report on the topics listed in subsection
(b). Any amount of the appropriated funds under this subsection that is not used or encumbered
reverts to the state general fund after June 30, 2009.
(e) This SECTION expires January 1, 2010.
SECTION 27. [EFFECTIVE UPON PASSAGE] (a) As used in this SECTION, "commission" refers
to the commission established under subsection (b).
(b) The immigration cost impact commission is established.
(c) The commission consists of the following members:
(1) The executive director of the department of homeland security or the director's designee.
(2) The commissioner of the department of labor or the commissioner's designee.
(3) The chairperson of the commission on Hispanic/Latino affairs established by IC 4-23-28-2 or
the chairperson's designee who is a member of the commission on Hispanic/Latino affairs.
(4) The secretary of family and social services or the secretary's designee.
(5) The state superintendent of public instruction or the state superintendent's designee.
(6) The commissioner of the department of correction or the commissioner's designee.
(7) A representative of the business community.
(8) A representative of organized labor.
(9) A representative of hospital associations.
(10) Two (2) members of the senate, who may not be affiliated with the same political party, to be
appointed by the president pro tempore of the senate.
(11) Two (2) members of the house of representatives, who may not be affiliated with the same
political party, to be appointed by the speaker of the house of representatives.
The governor shall appoint the members designated by subdivisions (7) through (9).
(d) The members of the commission shall select one (1) of the appointed members to serve as
chairperson and one (1) of the appointed members to serve as vice chairperson.
(e) The commission shall meet at the call of the chairperson. The commission shall meet at least
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EFECTOS
one (1) time quarterly.
(f) The affirmative votes of a majority of the voting members appointed to the commission are
required by the commission to take action on any measure, including a final report.
(g) Each member of the commission who is not a state employee is entitled to the minimum salary
per diem provided by IC 4-10-11-2.1(b). The member is also entitled to reimbursement for traveling
expenses as provided under IC 4-13-1-4 and other expenses actually incurred in connection with
the member's duties as provided in the state policies and procedures established by the Indiana
department of administration and approved by the budget agency.
(h) Each member of the commission who is a state employee is entitled to reimbursement for
traveling expenses as provided under IC 4-13-1-4 and other expenses actually incurred in
connection with the member's duties as provided in the state policies and procedures established
by the Indiana department of administration and approved by the budget agency.
(i) The commission shall study and prepare a report on the following:
(1) The financial impact of individuals who are unlawfully present in the United States on the
following in Indiana:
(A) Education.
(B) Health care.
(C) The criminal justice system, including court and attorney costs and costs of incarceration.
(D) Welfare.
(2) The impact of individuals who are unlawfully present in the United States on the following in
Indiana:
(A) Wages.
(B) State and local agencies and offices that issue or are required to check identification.
(3) Issues related to the following:
(A) The state's authority and responsibility concerning a child who:
(i) is a United States citizen; and
(ii) has a parent who was or both parents who were deported for violation of immigration laws.
(B) The societal and familial impact of deportation of a family member.
(j) The commission shall submit the report prepared in accordance with subsection (i) to the
legislative council in an electronic format under IC 5-14-6 before July 1, 2009.
(k) There is appropriated to the commission fifty thousand dollars ($50,000) from the state general
fund for the commission's use in studying and preparing a report on the topics listed in subsection
(i). Any amount of the appropriated funds under this subsection that is not used or encumbered
reverts to the state general fund after June 30, 2009.
(l) This SECTION expires January 1, 2010.
14/mar/08 – Queda detenida en el Comité de Conferencia al haber finalizado el periodo legislativo
06/mar/08 – Aprobada con 66 votos a favor y 33 en contras por la Cámara de Representantes.
04/feb/08 – Referida al Comité de Instituciones Financieras.
14/ene/08 – Introducida y primera lectura.
La iniciativa SB 345 buscaba la firma de un memorandum entre las autoridades locales y la
Agencia de Migración y Aduanas para que las primeras pudieran ejecutar las leyes federales de
migración. De igual forma buscaba penalizar a los empleadores de trabajadores indocumentados
en el estado de Indiana. Establecía una comisión la cual tenía como objetivo el analizar los costos
que le produce al estado los migrantes irregulares.
IOWA
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IOWA
A bill for an act relating to unauthorized aliens and determination and identity protection and the
employer-employee relationship by preventing identity theft in the procurement of employment and
providing for the employment and establishing a living wage study, providing penalties and an
appropriation (HF 2686)
Pendiente
DIVISION I
IDENTITY THEFT == FALSIFYING DOCUMENTS
Section 1. NEW SECTION. 715A.8A IDENTITY THEFT == FALSIFYING DOCUMENTS.
It is an aggravated misdemeanor for a person to do any of the following:
1. Make a driver's license, a nonoperator's identification card, a blank driver's license form, or any
other form or document used to establish a person's identity if the person has no authority or right
to make the license, card, or form in order to assist an unauthorized alien to obtain employment.
2. Obtain, possess, or have in the person's control or on the person's premises, driver's license or
nonoperator's identification card forms, or any other forms or documents used to establish a
person's identity in order to assist an unauthorized alien to obtain employment.
3. Obtain, possess, or have in the person's control or on the person's premises, a driver's license
or a nonoperator's identification card, or blank driver's license or nonoperator's identification card
form, or any other form or document which could be used to establish a person's identity, which
has been made by a person having no authority or right to make the license, card, or form in order
to assist an unauthorized alien to obtain employment.
4. Use a false or fictitious name in any application for a driver's license or nonoperator's
identification card or to knowingly make a false statement or knowingly conceal a material fact or
otherwise commit fraud on an application in order to assist an unauthorized alien to obtain
employment.
…
Sec. 3. NEW SECTION. 10A.902 IDENTITY THEFT PREVENTION == EMPLOYERS.
1. a. An employer, as defined in section 91A.2, or the employer's designee shall certify under
oath or affirmation by signing the form described in subsection 2, under penalty of perjury under
subsection 3, that the employer or the employer's designee has examined, within ten business
days of hiring a new employee, as defined in section 91A.2, to work in this state, the driver's
license or nonoperator's identification card issued by the state of Iowa, Minnesota, South Dakota,
Nebraska, Missouri, Illinois, or Wisconsin of the new employee for facial validity in order to verify
the new employee's identity.
…
(2) Failure to fulfill the requirements pursuant to paragraphs "a" and "b" shall subject an employer
or an employer's designee to a civil penalty not to exceed one thousand two hundred fifty dollars
for a first violation as determined by the administrator. An employer or employer's designee who
commits a second violation within six years of the first violation shall be subject to a civil penalty
not to exceed one thousand eight hundred seventy=five dollars as determined by the
administrator. An employer or employer's designee who commits a third or subsequent violation
within six years of the first violation shall be subject to a civil penalty not to exceed three thousand
one hundred twenty=five dollars as determined by the administrator.
(3) If the administrator determines an employer's designee is responsible for a violation of
paragraph "a" or "b" and assigns a civil penalty to the designee, the administrator may assign a
second civil penalty up to the same amount to the employer in accordance with the employer's
responsibility under subparagraph (1).
…
3. a. A person who certifies under oath or affirmation a false statement under subsection 1
commits a class "D" felony.
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b. A person who procures or offers any inducement to another to certify under oath or affirmation
the requirements of subsection 1 with the intent that the other will conceal material facts commits a
class "D" felony.
4. This section shall not infringe upon the authority of the civil rights commission pursuant to
chapter 216.
…
Sec. 9. Section 321.190, subsection 1, Code 2007, is amended by adding the following new
paragraph:
NEW PARAGRAPH. e. The department shall not issue a card to a person who is an unauthorized
alien as defined in section 321.177.
Sec. 10. Section 715A.8, subsections 2 and 3, Code 2007, are amended to read as follows:
2. A person commits the offense of identity theft if the person fraudulently uses or attempts to
fraudulently use identification information of another person or fictitious person, with the intent to
contract for or to obtain credit, property, services, employment, or other benefit.
3. If the value of the credit, property, or services, employment, or other benefits exceeds one
thousand dollars, the person commits a class "D" felony. If the value of the credit, property, or
services, employment, or other benefits does not exceed one thousand dollars or if a value cannot
be determined, the person commits an aggravated misdemeanor.
Sec. 11. NEW SECTION. 715A.8A IDENTITY THEFT == AIDING AND ABETTING.
A person who knowingly assists an unauthorized alien obtain false identification in order to obtain
employment commits the offense of identity theft under section 715A.8 by aiding and abetting the
commission of the offense as provided in section
703.1. Sec. 12. Section 715A.9, Code 2007, is amended to read as follows:
…
DIVISION IV
EMPLOYMENT PROHIBITIONS
…
Sec. 17. NEW SECTION. 91F.2 UNAUTHORIZED ALIENS == EMPLOYER PROHIBITION.
An employer shall not knowingly employ as an employee an unauthorized alien. For purposes of
this section, "knowingly employ as an employee an unauthorized alien" means an employer has
actual knowledge that a person is an unauthorized alien and employs the person as an employee.
An employer who obtains a verification receipt of employment eligibility from the program
authorized by the federal Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996,
Pub. L. No. 104=208, shall not be considered in violation of this chapter.
Sec. 18. NEW SECTION. 91F.3 PENALTIES.
1. An employer who violates section 91F.2 is subject to a civil penalty of up to ten thousand
dollars.
2. A corporate officer of an employer who, by knowingly directing the repeated violation of section
91F.2, demonstrates a pattern of employing unauthorized aliens commits a serious misdemeanor.
3. An employer who, through repeated violation of section 91F.2, demonstrates a pattern of
employing unauthorized aliens may be ordered to pay punitive damages.
…
Sec. 26. NEW SECTION. 91G.6 PENALTIES.
1. A contractor who violates section 91G.3, 91G.4, or 91G.8 or rules adopted pursuant to one of
those sections is subject to a civil penalty not to exceed one thousand two hundred fifty dollars for
a first violation as determined by the commissioner. A contractor is subject to a civil penalty not to
exceed one thousand eight hundred seventy=five dollars for a second violation occurring within six
years of a first violation as determined by the commissioner. A contractor shall be subject to a civil
penalty not to exceed three thousand one hundred twenty=five dollars for a third or successive
violation occurring within six years of a first violation as determined by the commissioner.
2. A contractor who violates any provision of section 91G.3, 91G.4, or 91G.8 or rules adopted
pursuant to one of those sections commits a simple misdemeanor. A contractor who commits
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such a second violation within six years of a first violation commits a serious misdemeanor. A
contractor who commits such a third or subsequent violation within six years of a first violation
commits an aggravated misdemeanor.
3. A contractor who obstructs the commissioner, the employee of the commission, or another
person authorized to inspect places where individuals are performing services for a contractor is
subject to a civil penalty not to exceed one thousand eight hundred seventy=five dollars.
4. Each violation described in this section for each individual and for each day the violation
continues constitutes a separate and distinct violation. In determining the amount of a civil
penalty, the commissioner shall consider the appropriateness of the civil penalty to the contractor
and the gravity of the violation.
Sec. 27. NEW SECTION. 91G.7 STATE CONTRACT PROHIBITION.
For a second or subsequent violation of section 91G.3 or 91G.4 determined by the commissioner
to have occurred within six years of an earlier violation or for a first or subsequent violation of
section 91G.8, the commissioner shall add the contractor's name to a list to be posted on the
division's internet site and notify the violating contractor of the posting. A state contract shall not
be awarded to a contractor whose name appears on the list until three years have elapsed from
the date of the determination of the last violation.
…
DIVISION VI
UNAUTHORIZED ALIENS
Sec. 43. NEW SECTION. 421.71 STATE AIDE == EMPLOYER ELIGIBILITY.
1. An employer who chooses not to use the federal employment eligibility program as authorized
by the federal Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Act of 1996, Pub. L. No. 104=208, shall
not be eligible for any developmental assistance.
…
Sec. 44. NEW SECTION. 644.1 UNFAIR TRADE PRACTICE.
The discharge of a United States citizen or lawful permanent resident alien employee by an
employer of this state, who, on the date of the discharge employs an unauthorized alien, shall be
an unfair trade practice. For the purpose of this section, "unfair trade practice" means any practice
which offends established public policy. The discharged employee shall have a private cause of
action for such unfair trade practice for damages due to discharge.
Sec. 45. NEW SECTION. 710B.1 ASSISTING UNAUTHORIZED ALIENS.
1. An employer, employee, or labor organization, or official member shall not knowingly assist an
unauthorized alien in avoiding contact with state or federal officials.
2. For purposes of this section, an "unauthorized alien" means a person who is not a citizen or
legal resident and who has not been lawfully admitted to the United States pursuant to federal law.
3. A person who violates this section commits a class "D" felony.
Sec. 46. MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING == ENFORCEMENT OF FEDERAL
IMMIGRATION LAW.
1. The attorney general is authorized and directed to negotiate the terms of a memorandum of
understanding between the state of Iowa and the United States department of justice or the United
States department of homeland security concerning the enforcement of federal immigration and
custom laws, detention removals, and investigations in the state of Iowa. The agreement shall
provide that costs incurred by the state for the detention and deportation of an unauthorized alien
shall be reimbursed by the federal government.
…
Sec. 47. DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC SAFETY == ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION TASK FORCE. The
department of public safety shall create an illegal immigration task force, consisting of twelve state
troopers, to enforce immigration laws.
16/abr/08 – Aprobada por la Asamblea.
10/abr/08 – Introducida.
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El proyecto busca obligar a los negocios a verificar las identificaciones de los nuevos trabajadores
y enviar una copia, así como una declaración, al estado. Aquellas personas que no cumplan con
dicha disposición serán sancionada con una multa de 1,000 dolares. Autoriza la celebración de un
memorandum de entendimiento con las autoridades federales con el propósito de coadyuvar en la
ejecución de las leyes de migración.
KANSAS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
KANSAS
AN ACT enacting the Kansas illegal alien reform act (SB 329)
Aprobada.
New Sec. 2. It is unlawful for a business entity to knowingly hire, recruit or refer for a fee for
employment in the state of Kansas or continue to employ an unauthorized alien.
New Sec. 3. (a) On and after July 1, 2008:
(1) All state agencies, departments, boards or commissions or any municipality who is an employer
shall enroll and actively participate in e-verify;
(2) the department of commerce shall enter into a memorandum of understanding with the United
States department of homeland security to utilize the systematic alien verification for entitlements
program to verify the employment authorization of any alien seeking the public benefit of a referral
from a department of commerce workforce center. No individual who is an alien shall be granted
the benefit of such a referral unless and until the United States department of homeland security
has conclusively verified the employment authorization of such alien pursuant to 8 U.S.C. 1373(c).
No individual who is a United States citizen shall be granted the benefit of such a referral unless
and until the individual provides documentary evidence of such individual’s United States
citizenship, by providing a birth certificate showing birth in the United States, a United States
passport or a naturalization document issued by the federal government; and
(3) any employer who is found by the federal government to have engaged in a pattern or practice
of employment recruitment or referral in violation of 8 U.S.C. 1324a(a)(1)(A) or 1324a(a)(2), as
defined in any applicable federal rules and regulations, shall be required to enroll in and actively
participate in e-verify.
…
New Sec. 4. (a) Any person who believes a business entity or employer has violated any provision
of section 2 or 3, and amendments thereto, may file a complaint with the attorney general. A
complaint filed with the attorney general pursuant to this section shall be in writing and signed by
the individual filing the complaint. The attorney general shall review and may investigate the
complaint. In investigating complaints for a violation of section 2, and amendments thereto, the
attorney general shall verify the work authorization of the alleged unauthorized alien with the
federal government pursuant to 8 U.S.C. 1373(c). If, after an investigation the attorney general
determines that a violation of this section has occurred, the attorney general shall notify the United
States immigration and customs enforcement, and may notify the district or county attorney in the
county in which the alleged violation occurred.
…
New Sec. 6. The attorney general shall as quickly as practicable enter into a cooperative
agreement with the United States department of homeland security, pursuant to 8 U.S.C. 1357(g),
to designate specific state law enforcement officers as officers qualified to exercise the
enforcement powers of federal immigration officers in the United States. The attorney general may
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negotiate the cooperative agreement or participate in its implementation in partnership with other
state or local law enforcement agencies.
New Sec. 7. (a) No alien who is unlawfully present in the United States shall receive any state or
local public benefit, except for state or local public benefits that are required to be offered by 8
U.S.C. 1621(b), or as provided in K.S.A. 2007 Supp. 76-731a, and amendments thereto.
(b) In addition to providing proof of other eligibility requirements, at the time of application for any
state or local public benefit, an individual applicant who is 18 years of age or older shall provide
affirmative proof that the individual applicant is a citizen or a permanent resident of the United
States or is lawfully present in the United States.
…
New Sec. 8. (a) Employment identity fraud is willfully presenting to an employer false or misleading
identification documents for the purpose of obtaining employment in the state of Kansas.
(b) Employment identity fraud is a severity level 8, nonperson felony.
(c) This section shall be part of and supplemental to the Kansas criminal code.
…
(2) The division shall not issue any driver’s license or instruction permit to any person who fails to
provide proof that the person is lawfully present in the United States. Before issuing a driver’s
license or instruction permit to a person, the division shall require valid documentary evidence that
the applicant: (A) Is a citizen or national of the United States; (B) is an alien lawfully admitted for
permanent or temporary residence in the United States; (C) has conditional permanent resident
status in the United States; (D) has an approved application for asylum in the United States or has
entered into the United States in refugee status; (E) has a valid, unexpired nonimmigrant visa or
nonimmigrant visa status for entry into the United States; (F) has a pending application for asylum
in the United States; (G) has a pending or approved application for temporary protected status in
the United States; (H) has approved deferred action status; or (I) has a pending application for
adjustment of status to that of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence in the United
States or conditional permanent resident status in the United States.
…
(c) The division shall not issue an identification card to any person who fails to provide proof that
the person is lawfully present in the United States.
28/mar/08 – Aprobada por la cámara de representantes.
7/feb/07 – Introducida.
Establece la obligatoriedad de utilizar el sistema ‘e-verify’ a través del departamento de trabajo del
estado; instruye a la policia local para que verifique el cumplimiento de las leyes migratorias,
incluyendo la situación migratoria de un detenido. Aplica cargos penales a aquellos empleadores
que contraten imigrantes ilegales con conocimiento de su situación migratoria.
KANSAS
AN ACT enacting the Kansas illegal immigration enforcement and reform act (SB 458)
Aprobada.
…
New Sec. 2. (a) An alien who is not lawfully present in the United States shall not be eligible to
receive any state or local public benefit from any state, county or local government entity in the
state of Kansas, except for state or local public benefits that are required to be offered by federal
law.
…
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New Sec. 4. Sections 1 through 3 [6] and 22, and amendments thereto, shall be known and may
be cited as the Kansas [illegal] immigration enforcement and reform act.
New Sec. 5. (a) In the state of Kansas, it shall be unlawful for a business entity to knowingly
engage in a pattern or practice of hiring, recruiting or referring for a fee for employment an
unauthorized alien.
(b) Upon finding probable cause to believe a violation of this section has occurred, the [The]
attorney general [or a county or district attorney] may bring a civil suit in district court to enforce this
section except that no such suit shall be filed against a business entity who participated in the
federal e-verify system, if such business entity provides documentation that such system was used
prior to the hiring to verify the employment status of the specific persons alleged to be
unauthorized aliens and that such system did not raise concerns about such persons being
unauthorized aliens.
…
New Sec. 6. (a) There is hereby established within the office of the attorney general an illegal
immigration enforcement division.
(b) The illegal immigration enforcement division shall be responsible for the investigation and
enforcement of the criminal and civil prohibitions established under this act, the provisions of
K.S.A. 21-3446, 21-3447 and 21-4409[, 21-4409 and subsection (d) of K.S.A. 2007 Supp. 76731a], and amendments thereto, and sections 7 and 8[, 8 and 9], and amendments thereto.
(c) The attorney general shall have authority [concurrent with a county or district attorney] to
prosecute any civil or criminal violation under this act.
New Sec. 7. (a) Employment identity fraud is willfully presenting to an employer false or misleading
identification documents for the purpose of obtaining employment in the state of Kansas.
(b) Employment identity fraud is a severity level 8, nonperson felony.
…
[New Sec. 21. (a) Any person who has not been lawfully admitted into the United States in violation
of federal immigration laws and is arrested for:
[(1) An off-grid felony, no bail;
[(2) a severity level 1, 2 or 3 person felony or a severity level 1 or 2 drug felony, bail shall be at
least $250,000 cash or surety;
[(3) a person felony, except for felonies provided in paragraphs (1) and (2), bail shall be at least
$50,000 cash or surety;
[(4) a nonperson felony, bail shall be at least $25,000 cash or surety; and
[(5) or class A misdemeanor, bail shall be at least $10,000 cash or surety;
[(b) The bail under subsection (a), shall be required unless the court determines on the record that
the defendant is not likely to reoffend, an appropriate intensive pre-trial supervision program is
available and the defendant agrees to comply with the mandate of such pre-trial supervision and
can show by clear and convincing evidence that the defendant will remain in the jurisdiction.
[(c) The provisions of this section shall be part of and supplemental to the Kansas criminal code.]
[New Sec. 22. (a) It shall be unlawful in the state of Kansas for any labor union or employee
organization to knowingly impose or collect union dues from any alien who is not lawfully present in
the United States.
[(b) The attorney general may initiate a civil action in district court to enforce the provisions of this
section. Any labor union or employee organization violating subsection (a) shall be subject to a civil
fine in an amount not to exceed $2,000 for the first violation, $5,000 for the second violation and
$10,000 for the third violation and for each subsequent violation. All fines assessed and collected
under this section shall be remitted to the state treasurer in accordance with the provisions of
K.S.A. 75-4215, and amendments thereto. Upon receipt of each such remittance, the state
treasurer shall deposit the entire amount in the state treasury to the credit of the state general
fund.]
28/mar/08 – Enviada al Comité de Asuntos Estatales y Federales de la cámara de representantes.
27/mar/08 – Aprobada por el Senado.
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23/ene/08 – Enviada al Comité de Asuntos Estatales y Federales del senado.
22/ene/08 – Introducida.
REACCIONES
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Establece que los migrantes irregulares no gozarán de ningún beneficio otorgado por el gobierno
estatal. Crea una nueva división en la policía estatal enfocada a asuntos migratorios. Aumenta la
penalidad por el uso de documentos falsos con la finalidad de obtener empleo. Crea penalidades
criminales para aquellos negocios que traten a los trabajadores como subcontratantes
independientes.
KENTUCKY
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
KENTUCKY
AN ACT relating to homeland security (HB 304)
Pendiente.
Section 1. KRS 514.160 is repealed, reenacted, and amended to read as follows:
…
(2)
A person is guilty of the theft of the identity of another when, without that person's
permission, he or she knowingly takes, purchases, manufactures, records, possesses, or uses any
current or former identifying information of another person or entity, including a real or fictitious
person or entity, with the intent to represent that he or she is the other person for the purpose of:
(a)
Depriving the other person of property;
(b)
Depriving the other person of money;
(c)
Obtaining benefits or property to which he or she would otherwise not be entitled;
(d)
Obtaining employment;
(e)
Making financial or other credit transactions using the other person's identity;
(f)
Hiding one's true identity or avoiding detection;
(g)
Realizing a commercial or political benefit;
(h)
Causing another person or entity to suffer economic loss whether or not the person or
entity actually suffers any economic loss;
(i)
Defrauding another person or entity;
(j)
Engaging in a violation of the law; or
(k)
Attempting to engage in, soliciting the violation of, or conspiring to engage in any act
specified in this paragraph.
…
(4)
Theft of identity of another is a Class D felony.
(5)
If the person violating this section is a business that has violated this section on more than
one (1) prior occasion, then that person also violates the Consumer Protection Act, KRS 367.110
to 367.300.
(6)
If the person violating this section did so with a forged document, that person may be
charged with and convicted of the applicable forgery offense as well as a violation of this section.
(7)
A person found guilty of, pleading guilty to, or entering an Alford plea to violating the
provisions of this section shall forfeit any lawful claim to the identifying information, property,
employment, contract, or other realized benefit obtained as a result of the violation.
(8)
Venue for prosecution of an offense under this section may be either in the county where
the offense was committed or in the county in which the person or entity whose identity was stolen
resides
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SECTION 2. A NEW SECTION OF KRS CHAPTER 441 IS CREATED TO READ AS FOLLOWS:
(1)
During the jail admission process, the pretrial release officer, when interviewing a prisoner
for the purposes of pretrial release, shall ascertain where the prisoner was born and the other
information required by this section.
(2)
If the prisoner indicates a place of birth other than the United States or does not indicate a
place of birth, there is conflicting information as to the place of birth, the prisoner cannot show
documentation of United States citizenship, or the pretrial release officer is uncertain as to the
prisoner's place of birth or citizenship, the pretrial release officer shall attempt to determine:
(a)
The prisoner's true name and any aliases used by the prisoner;
(b)
The citizenship claimed by the prisoner;
(c)
If the prisoner cannot prove United States citizenship, the prisoner's immigration status;
(d)
All information available about the prisoner which may help in identifying the prisoner, the
prisoner's place of birth, and citizenship status; and
(e)
Such other information as required by Rule of the Supreme Court or by administrative
regulation, or both; and the pretrial release officer shall transmit the information obtained to the
Kentucky Office of Homeland Security for transmission to the United States Department of
Homeland Security and to the Administrative Office of the Courts.
SECTION 3. A NEW SECTION OF KRS CHAPTER 39G IS CREATED TO READ AS FOLLOWS:
(1)
In addition to other duties specified by law, the Kentucky Office of Homeland Security
shall:
(a)
Serve as the primary liaison between state government, local governments, special
districts, educational institutions, and other public agencies and the United States Department of
Homeland Security, the Social Security Administration, the United States Department of Justice,
and other federal agencies on matters relating to:
1.
Homeland security;
2.
Immigration;
3.
Social Security as related to employment of aliens;
4.
Planning and preparation for homeland security events;
5.
Response to homeland security events;
6.
Recovery from homeland security events;
7.
Prevention of homeland security events;
8.
Mitigation of the effects of homeland security events; and
9.
Any situation contemplated by KRS Chapter 39A or this chapter, including but not limited
to the impending or threatened happening of a situation covered by those chapters;
(b)
Provide information to and coordinate requests for federal funding for state government,
local government, special districts, educational institutions, and other public agencies desiring to
obtain federal funds or other funds, public or private, for homeland security, immigration, identity
theft, and related law enforcement and correctional institution training, equipment, and operations;
(c)
Serve as the sole agency for evaluation and approval of any request of a state agency,
state-funded educational institution, or state-created governmental corporation to enter into a
memorandum of understanding or other agreement with the United States Department of
Homeland Security, the United States Department of Justice, or any other agency of the federal
government to enforce federal immigration, customs, or homeland security laws as a peace officer
or otherwise; and
(d)
Coordinate implementation and enforcement of the provisions of this section and Sections
1, 2, and 4 of this Act and encourage government and public compliance with the provisions of this
section and Sections 1, 2, and 4 of this Act.
SECTION 4. A NEW SECTION OF KRS 15.380 TO 15.404 IS CREATED TO READ AS
FOLLOWS:
(1)
A unit of local government or other local agency required or permitted by KRS 15.380 to
have certified peace officers may negotiate the terms of a memorandum of understanding or other
agreement between that unit of government and the United States Department of Justice or the
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United States Department of Homeland Security, or their successor agency, concerning the
enforcement of federal immigration and customs laws, detention and removals, and investigations
in the Commonwealth of Kentucky.
(2)
A unit or department of state government, airport, public institution of postsecondary
education, or other state agency required or permitted by KRS 15.380 to 15.404 have certified
peace officers may, with the written approval of the Kentucky Office of Homeland Security, may
negotiate the terms of a memorandum of understanding or other agreement between that unit,
department, airport, public institution of postsecondary education, or other state agency and the
United States Department of Justice or the United States Department of Homeland Security, or
their successor agency, concerning the enforcement of federal immigration and customs laws,
detention and removals, and investigations in the Commonwealth of Kentucky.
(3)
The unit of government may designate appropriate certified peace officers to be trained
pursuant to the memorandum of understanding or other agreement provided for in subsection (1)
or (2) of this section. This training may be funded pursuant to the federal Homeland Security
Appropriation Act of 2006, Public Law 109-90, or any other source of federal, state, local, or private
funding.
(4)
The Kentucky Office of Homeland Security shall assist any unit of government specified in
subsection (1) or (2) of this section desiring funding for training or operational costs of peace
officers pursuant to this section.
(5)
A certified peace officer certified as trained in accordance with the memorandum of
understanding or other agreement as provided in this section shall be authorized to enforce federal
immigration and customs laws within the scope of the officer's authorized duties.
(6)
The requirements and obligations of this section shall be implemented in a manner fully
consistent with federal law regulating immigration and protecting the civil rights of citizens,
including compliance with the case of United States v. Di Re, 33 U.S. 581 (1948), unless that case
is reversed or modified, and other applicable federal case law decisions, and compliance with 8
U.S.C. sec. 1644.
…SECTION 7. A NEW SECTION OF KRS CHAPTER 337 IS CREATED TO READ AS
FOLLOWS:
(1)
An employer shall not intentionally employ an unauthorized alien or knowingly employ an
unauthorized alien.
(2)
On receipt of a complaint that an employer allegedly intentionally employs an
unauthorized alien or knowingly employs an unauthorized alien, the Attorney General or county
attorney receiving the complaint shall investigate whether the employer has violated subsection (1)
of this section. The investigation shall include ascertaining from the federal government pursuant to
8 U.S.C. sec. 1373(c) the alleged alien's immigration status and work authorization status. A state,
county, or local official shall not attempt to independently make a final determination on whether an
alien is authorized to work in the United States but shall rely upon the information provided by the
federal government.
(3)
If, after an investigation, the Attorney General or county attorney determines that the
complaint is not frivolous:
(a)
The Attorney General or county attorney shall notify the United States Immigration and
Customs Enforcement of the unauthorized alien;
(b)
The Attorney General or county attorney shall notify a local or state law enforcement
agency of the unauthorized alien; and
(c)
The Attorney General shall notify the appropriate county attorney to bring an action
pursuant to subsection (4) of this section if the complaint was originally filed with the Attorney
General.
(4)
A civil action for a violation of subsection (1) of this section shall be brought against the
employer by the county attorney in the Circuit Court of the county where the unauthorized alien is
employed. The county attorney shall not bring an action against any employer for any violation of
subsection (1) of this section that occurred before January 1, 2009. A second violation of this
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section shall be based only on an unauthorized alien who is employed by the employer after an
action has been brought for a violation of subsection (1) of this section.
…SECTION 9. A NEW SECTION OF KRS CHAPTER 337 IS CREATED TO READ AS
FOLLOWS:
Beginning January 1, 2009, every employer, after hiring an employee, shall verify the employment
eligibility of the employee through the federal Employment Eligibility Verification program.
SECTION 10.
A NEW SECTION OF KRS CHAPTER 337 IS CREATED TO READ AS
FOLLOWS:
On or before October 1, 2008, the Department of Revenue shall provide the notice required by this
section to every employer that is then withholding and remitting tax on employee wages pursuant
to KRS 141.310. The notice shall explain the requirements of Sections 5 to 10 of this Act and shall
specifically include the following information:
(1)
Section 7 of this Act prohibits employers from intentionally employing an unauthorized
alien or knowingly employing an unauthorized alien.
(2)
For a first knowing violation of Section 7 of this Act during a three (3) year period, the
court shall order the appropriate licensing agencies to suspend all licenses held by the employer
unless the employer files a signed sworn affidavit with the county attorney within three (3) business
days. The filed affidavit shall state that the employer has terminated the employment of all
unauthorized aliens and that the employer will not intentionally or knowingly employ an
unauthorized alien. A license that is suspended shall remain suspended until the employer files a
signed sworn affidavit with the county attorney. A copy of the court order shall be made available
on the Attorney General's Web site.
(3)
For a first intentional violation of Section 7 of this Act during a five (5) year period, the
court shall order the appropriate licensing agencies to suspend all licenses held by the employer
for a minimum of ten (10) days. The employer shall file a signed sworn affidavit with the county
attorney. The filed affidavit shall state that the employer has terminated the employment of all
unauthorized aliens and that the employer will not intentionally or knowingly employ an
unauthorized alien. A license that is suspended shall remain suspended until the employer files a
signed sworn affidavit with the county attorney. A copy of the court order shall be made available
on the Attorney General's Web site.
(4)
For a second violation of Section 7 of this Act, the court shall order the appropriate
licensing agencies to permanently revoke all licenses that are held by the employer.
(5)
A notice that beginning January 1, 2009, every employer, after hiring an employee shall
verify the employment eligibility of the employee through the federal Employment Eligibility
Verification program; a set of instructions for the employer on how to enroll in the federal
Employment Eligibility Verification program; and a statement that proof of verifying the employment
authorization of an employee through the federal Employment Eligibility Verification program shall
create a rebuttable presumption that an employer did not violate Section 7 of this Act.
SECTION 11. A NEW SECTION OF KRS CHAPTER 65 IS CREATED TO READ AS FOLLOWS:
(1)
All officials, agencies, and personnel of cities, counties, urban-counties, charter counties,
consolidated local governments, unified local governments special districts, agencies and
instrumentalities of a local government or special district, state agency departments, boards,
commissions, institutions of postsecondary education, and agencies and instrumentalities of state
government shall support, to the extent permitted by law, the enforcement of federal immigration
and customs laws of the United States.
(2)
Except as provided in federal law, no person, agency, or organization specified in
subsection (1) of this section shall be prohibited or in any way restricted from sending, receiving, or
maintaining information relating to the immigration status, lawful or unlawful, of any individual or
exchanging that information with any other federal, state, or local government agency for the
following official purposes:
(a)
Determination of a person's eligibility for any federal, state, or local public benefit, public
service, or license that is restricted, in whole or in part, on the basis of immigration status;
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(b)
Verification of any claim of legal domicile, if legal domicile is required to be verified by law,
administrative regulation, or contract; and
(c)
Confirmation of the identity, citizenship, and immigration status of any person who is held
in legal custody at a detention facility or who has been arrested or indicted.
(3)
No unit of government or person specified in subsection (1) of this section shall direct its
employees and agents not to comply with the provisions of this section nor shall it enact any
ordinance, regulation, rule, or policy in violation of this section or the spirit thereof. Any ordinance,
regulation, rule, or policy in violation of this section or the spirit thereof shall be null, void, and
unenforceable.
Section 12. KRS 514.170 is amended to read as follows:
(1)
A person is guilty of trafficking in stolen identities when he or she manufactures, sells,
transfers, or purchases, or possesses with the intent to manufacture, sell, transfer, or purchase the
personal identity of another person or persons for any purpose listed in KRS 514.160(2). The
personal identity of an individual includes any of the identifying information described in KRS
514.160(1).
(2)
Possession of five (5) or more separate identities shall be prima facie evidence that the
identities are possessed for the purpose of trafficking.
(3)
Trafficking in stolen identities is a Class C felony. If the person violating this section is a
business that has violated this section on more than one (1) occasion, then that person also
violates the Consumer Protection Act, KRS 367.110 to 367.300.
22/mar/08 – La presidenta del Comité Judicial, decidió no llevar a votación del Comité la iniciativa
de ley HB 304.
22/ene/08 – Turnda al Comité Judicial.
16/ene/08 – Introducida por el representante Bob Damron (Nicholasville)
La representante republicana, Kathy Stein, se opuso a dicha iniciativa y mencionó a la prensa que
dicha ley “es inecesaria” ya que “no se necesita otra burocracia estatal”.
La iniciativa HB 304 busca que el estado de Kentucky tome bajo su cargo algunas de las tareas de
la oficina de Home Land Security (seguridad nacional).
LOUISIANA
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
LOUISIANA
SB 753
En vigor
Autoriza a cualquier agencia o departamento del estado investigar a empresas de contratistas con
un número de empleados mayor a 10 para verificar que tengan estatus migratorio regular. En caso
de identificar a trabajadores indocumentados, el estado puede ordenar al contratista que despida a
los trabajadores en un plazo de 10 días. De no hacerlo, enfrentaría multas de hasta $10,000 dls.
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
6/23/06 – Firmada como ley.
Varios grupos se pronunciaron en contra de la ley bajo el argumento de que retrasaría los
proyectos de reconstrucción en el estado tras la destrucción del Huracán Katrina.
OPINIONES
Louis Reine, presidente de AFL-CIO, apoyó la medida como forma de evitar abusos por parte de
empleadores (9/jun/06)
El Senador Don Cravins, quien propuso la ley: "Nobody's trying to close the border. We're simply
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saying we want to know who you are.” (9/jun/06)
Congresista Ronnie Johns, R-Sulphur: “If not for those workers, our rebuilding process would be
months and months and months behind.” (9/jun/06)
Congresista Juan LaFonta, D-New Orleans: “If it weren’t for the workers we have in New Orleans,
we wouldn’t have the progress we have had. We can’t do legislation that cripples our workforce.”
(9/jun/06)
Congresista Steve Scalise, R-Jefferson: “Residents in his area are more concerned about finding
workers to repair their roofs than where those workers came from…The legislation would unfairly
punish employers who hire workers illegally instead of workers who are in the country illegally.”
(9/jun/06)
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN LOUISIANA
TITULO
AN ACT To enact Division 6 of Subpart A of Part VI of Chapter 1 of Title 14 of the Louisiana
Revised Statutes of 1950, to be comprised of R.S. 14:100.21, relative to aliens; to prohibit the
renting or leasing of property to aliens; to provide for penalties; to provide for exceptions; to provide
for affirmative defenses; to provide for definitions; and to provide for related matters. (HB 1635,
Prohibits renting property to aliens)
ESTATUS
Pendiente
CONTENIDO Section 1. Division 6 of Subpart A of Part VI of Chapter 1 of Title 14 of the
Louisiana Revised Statutes of 1950, comprised of R.S. 14:100.21, is hereby enacted to read
as follows:
6. ALIENS
§100.21. Renting or leasing property to aliens
A. It shall be unlawful for any person to rent or lease any property to an alien knowingly or in
reckless disregard for the fact that the alien has entered or remained in the United States in
violation of law.
B. For the purposes of this Section:
(1) "Alien" has the same meaning as defined in the Immigration and Nationality Act, 8 U.S.C.
1101(a)(3).
(2) "Hotel" means any establishment engaged in the business of furnishing sleeping rooms,
cottages, or cabins to transient guests, where such establishment consists of six or more sleeping
rooms, cottages, or cabins at a single business location.
C. The provisions of this Section shall not apply to the renting of rooms in a hotel.
D. It shall be an affirmative defense to prosecution under this Section that the lessor made a
reasonable effort to verify that the lessee has been lawfully admitted to the United States and that
the lessee supplied the lessor with a valid driver's license, voter registration card, or other proof of
his citizenship status or lawful presence in the United States.
E.(1) Whoever violates the provisions of this Section shall be fined not more than two hundred
dollars for a first offense.
(2) Whoever violates the provisions of this Section for a second offense shall be fined not more
than three hundred dollars.
(3) Whoever violates the provisions of this Section for a third or subsequent offense shall be fined
not more than five hundred dollars or imprisoned for not more than six months, or both.
FECHAS
28/may/08 – Leída por título, pendiente de agendarización.
11/may/08 – Tercera lectura
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8/may/08 – Introducida en sustitución de la HB 1157.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
Establece como delito el arrendamiento y hospedaje a indocumentados.
JURISDICCIÓN LOUISIANA
TITULO
AN ACT To enact Code of Criminal Procedure Article 228(D), relative to booking an arrested
person; to require that peace officers determine the citizenship or immigration status of the
arrested person at the time of booking; to provide for procedures; and to provide for related matters
(HB 25, Provides for verification of citizenship or immigration status upon arrest)
ESTATUS
Suspendida indefinidamente.
CONTENIDO Section 1. Code of Criminal Procedure Article 228(D) is hereby enacted to read as follows:
Art. 228. Booking of arrested person, submission of booking information summary; citizenship,
immigration status
***
D.(1) At the time of booking, the peace officer causing the arrested person to be booked shall
attempt to determine the citizenship or immigration status of the person being booked.
(2) If the arrested person is a foreign national, the peace officer shall make a reasonable effort to
verify that the person has been lawfully admitted into the United States. If the verification of lawful
status cannot be determined from documents in the possession of the arrested person, the peace
officer shall attempt to notify the United States Department of Homeland Security as soon as is
practicable.
FECHAS
14/may/08 – Remitida al Senado y asignada al Comité Judicial.
13/may/08 – Aprobada por la Asamblea.
28/feb/08 – Remitida al Comité de Administradción de Justicia Criminal.
27/feb/08 – Introducida.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
La iniciativa establece que en el momento de la dentención, el oficial a cargo debe intentar
determinar la ciudadanía o estado legal de la persona. En caso de que la verificación no pueda ser
determinada el oficial deberá notificar al Departamento de Seguridad Nacional.
JURISDICCIÓN LOUISIANA
TITULO
AN ACT To enact Division 6 of Subpart A of Part VI of Chapter 1 of Title 14 of the Louisiana
Revised Statutes of 1950, to be comprised of R.S. 14:100.21, relative to aliens; to create the crime
of unlawfully harboring, concealing, or sheltering an alien; to provide for definitions; to provide for
penalties; to provide for affirmative defenses; and to provide for related matters (HB 1357, Creates
the crime of harboring, concealing, or sheltering an alien)
ESTATUS
Suspendida indefinidamente.
CONTENIDO Section 1. Division 6 of Subpart A of Part VI of Chapter 1 of Title 14 of the Louisiana Revised
Statutes of 1950, comprised of R.S. 14:100.21, is hereby enacted to read as follows:
6. ALIENS
§100.21. Unlawful harboring, concealing, or sheltering of an alien
A. It shall be unlawful for any person to harbor, conceal, or shelter from detection any alien in any
place within the state of Louisiana, including any building, when the offender has knowledge of the
fact that the alien has entered or remained in the United States in violation of law and if either of
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the following occur:
(1) The offender has the intent of assisting the alien in eluding a federal, state or local law
enforcement agency, or the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services Bureau; or
(2) The offender has the intent of assisting the alien in avoiding or escaping arrest, trial, conviction,
or punishment.
B. For the purposes of this Section, "alien" has the same meaning as defined in the Immigration
and Nationality Act, 8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(3).
C. Nothing in this Section shall be construed so as to prohibit or restrict the provision of any state
or local public benefit described in 8 U.S.C. 1621(b), or regulated public health services provided
by a private charity using private funds.
D.(1) Whoever commits the crime of unlawfully harboring, concealing, or sheltering an alien on a
first conviction shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars, or imprisoned for not more than
six months, or both.
(2) Whoever commits the crime of unlawfully harboring, concealing, or sheltering an alien on a
second or subsequent conviction shall be fined not more than two thousand dollars, or imprisoned
for not more than one year, or both.
E. The following shall be affirmative defenses to prosecution under this Section:
(1) The person was providing humanitarian aid as a designated representative of a nonprofit
organization which is tax exempt pursuant to Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code.
(2) The person was the attorney or his designee, or such other persons authorized to represent
clients in immigration matters pursuant to 8 C.F.R. §1292.1, or their designee, and who was
assisting the alien and providing representation to the alien in the course and scope of the
attorney's or other authorized representative's employment.
14/may/08 – Referida al Senado, y asignada al Comité Judicial.
13/may/08 – Aprobada en la tercera lectura.
1/may/08 – Introducida en sustitución de la HB 24.
La iniciativa busca establecer que será ilegal para cualquier persona el albergar, ocultar o dar
refugio con el fin de que no sea detectado cualquier migrante irregular en el estado de Louisiana.
MARYLAND
JURISDICCIÓN ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY, MD
TITULO
ESTATUS
14/ago/07- En vigor.
CONTENIDO Anne Arundel County Executive John Leopold issued an executive order Tuesday, requiring all
companies and individuals that contract with the County to comply with federal law regarding the
employment of illegal aliens.
FECHAS
14/ago/07 - Executive Order requiring all companies and individuals that contract with the County
to comply with federal law regarding the employment of illegal aliens.The Executive Order will
result in new language for future contracts, but existing contractors and vendors are expected to
comply with the law as well.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
20/ago/07 - CASA of Maryland, whose Executive Director Gustavo Torres has criticized Mr.
Leopold and his program as discriminatory toward immigrants. He may be right that "trying to
116
resolve a federal issue with an executive order... is something that's not productive," but it's
nonetheless important — and probably inevitable — that local officials listen to their constituents
when federal lawmakers won't. (The Washington Times)
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
FREDERICK COUNTY, MD.
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Frederick County Sheriff's Office under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
6/feb/08 – Firma del Memorandum.
El acuerdo permitirá a los agentes de detención del aguacil el entrevistar a nacionales extranjeros
dentro de los centros de detención para determinar si existe causa probable de una violación a la
ley de migración. Bajo el programa, los agentes completaran el procesamiento de cualquier
delincuente extranjero y prepararán la documentación para iniciar los procedimientos de
deportación. Asimismo, otorga facultades a los agentes del alguacil del Condado para indagar el
estatus migratorio de aquellas personas detenidas por otros delitos, y en caso de que dichas
personas tengan un estatus migratorio irregular les otorga facultades para mantenerlas en
detención en lo que son deportadas de los EE.UU.
MASSACHUSETTS
JURISDICCIÓN MASSACHUSETTS
TITULO
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Massachusetts Department of Corrections under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality
Act.
ESTATUS
1) Acuerdo respecto a aplicación de leyes migratorias por parte de policía estatal – Revocado
CONTENIDO
2) Acuerdo respecto a aplicación de leyes migratorias por parte de oficiales en cárceles – En vigor
1) Permitiría a la policía estatal hacer averiguaciones y detener a personas sospechosas de tener
un estatus migratorio irregular.
2) Permitiría a un número determinado de oficiales en cárceles estatales hacer averiguaciones
sobre el estatus legal de los presos y reportarlos a las autoridades federales para iniciar el proceso
de deportación. Dependiendo de su funcionamiento, se podría ampliar el acuerdo para incluir a
oficiales de cárceles locales.
FECHAS
2/dic/06 – El gobernador Mitt Romney solicita a la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas (ICE) establecer
un acuerdo para dar facultades a la policía estatal para verificar el estatus migratorio de las
personas arrestadas.
11/ene/07 - El nuevo gobernador demócrata de Massachusetts, Deval Patrick, revoca el acuerdo
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establecido por su antecesor, Mitt Romney. Sustituye la medida por una disposición que
únicamente facilita la deportación de los extranjeros en condición ilegal convictos por crímenes
cometidos en Massachusetts o que hayan huido de cualquier otro estado del país.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
26/mar/07 – Firma del Memorandum.
Grupos pro-inmigrantes y organizaciones de derechos civiles se pronunciaron en contra de la
propuesta de Romney bajo el argumento de que incitaría a la persecución por motivos raciales y
generaría desconfianza de la policía en comunidades con altos índices de población inmigrante
(2/dic/06)
Gobernador Romney: “It would give the State Police a way of finding and detaining illegal aliens in
the ordinary course of business." (jun/06)
Patrick, como candidato a la gubernatura: "I think the State Police has a lot to do already right
now…and I think asking the State Police to take on a federal responsibility is not their job." (jun/06)
Ali Noorani , Director Ejecutivo de Massachusetts Immigrant and Refugee Advocacy Coalition:
“[the pact is a] gross mismanagement of public safety resources. Now, if you look or sound like an
immigrant and are pulled over for any type of minor infraction, you're going to be profiled; there's no
way around that. This will have an incredibly chilling effect on the relationship between all law
enforcement -- whether it's Boston police or State Police -- and the immigrant community. Most
people don't see the difference between a state trooper and a local officer. A cop is a cop."
(2/dic/06)
Vocero del gobernador Romney, Michael Gilhooly: "The theory behind the program is to form
partnerships with local governments to work as a force multiplier for us. As every agency in the
world has finite resources, when we can form partnerships that can help us apprehend people who
are public-safety risks, it's a prudent and wise thing to do." (6/dic/06)
Senador estatal, Jarrett T. Barrios (D): “The plan would add millions to the costs to train troopers
and to jail detainees. The deal seemed calculated to help Romney's presidential ambitions.”
(3/dic/06)
Gobernador Deval Patrick: “With all that the State Police have to do to enforce the laws of this
Commonwealth, I do not believe that it is either practical or wise to ask them to enforce Federal
laws as well. That is the job of the Federal government, and it should be done by the Federal
government. At the same time, I do believe that convicted criminals housed in our prisons who
have violated immigration laws should be turned over to Federal authorities for appropriate
handling, including deportation. Today's MOU directs the correctional authorities to do just that."
(11/ene/07)
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN MASSACHUSETTS
TITULO
ESTATUS
En vigor
CONTENIDO Las compañías que obtengan contratos del estado deben verificar el estatus migratorio de sus
empleados. Impone multas a las compañías que violen esta ley.
FECHAS
23/feb/07 – El gobernador Patrick firma una orden ejecutiva en la que se aprueba esta ley.
REACCIONES Massachusetts Immigrant and Refugee Advocacy Coalition se ha pronunciado en contra de la
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EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
orden ejecutiva.
Gobernador Deval Patrick: "I understand how most undocumented immigrants enter
Massachusetts seeking opportunities, jobs and a better way of life, and I support balanced
immigration reform. But undocumented workers cannot work on state contracts and we must
enforce that law." (27/feb/07)
Senador Bruce E. Tarr (R-Gloucester), "I'm glad the governor is joining our efforts to prohibit
people who are in the country illegally from benefiting from state resources. This is an important
step. Now we need to codify these things by making them statutory, rather than just
administrative." (27/feb/07)
Ali Noorani, director ejecutivo de Massachusetts Immigrant and Refugee Advocacy Coalition: "We
strongly object to this executive order. We feel that an unintended consequence of this order will be
discrimination against workers who look or sound like immigrants. Regardless of their status, an
employer is now going to hold an immigrant, regardless of their status, to a higher standard."
(27/feb/07)
Cyndi Roy, vocera del gobernador: "The executive order gives the state a tool, once it has been
determined that an employer has hired undocumented workers. If evidence that [an employer has
hired illegal immigrants] is gleaned from a federal investigation or a state wage-and-hour
investigation, then the executive branch can sanction the employer or terminate the contract"
(27/feb/07).
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
MASSACHUSETTS
AN ACT to promote fair employment and security in the commonwealth (SB 1010)
Pendiente.
SECTION 1. Chapter 149 of the General Laws is hereby amended by inserting after section 19(c)
the following new section:
“19(d): Whoever utilizes in any way a false identification document for the purposes of
soliciting, securing, or maintaining employment from a public employer as defined in section 1
of chapter 30C shall be punished by a fine of not more than five thousand dollars or by
imprisonment in the state prison for not more than five years or in a jail or house of correction
for not more than two years.”
SECTION 2. Section 24B of chapter 90 of the general laws is hereby amended by adding, after
the first paragraph, the following:“ Whoever falsely makes, steals, alters, forges or counterfeits a learner’s permit, a license to
operate motor vehicles or an identification card issued under section 8E with the intent to
distribute such learner’s permit, license to operate motor vehicles or identification card or
assists another to do so shall be punished as follows:
…
SECTION 3. The general laws are hereby amended by inserting after chapter 30B the following:“Chapter 30C. PUBLIC CONTRACT INTEGRITY
…Section 2. No public employer shall enter into a contract for the provision of goods or
services within the commonwealth unless the contractor registers and participates in a work
authorization program to verify information of all new employees and certifies to that effect in
writing to the director of the department of labor.
Section 3. No contractor or subcontractor who enters a contract with a public employer shall enter
into such a contract or subcontract in connection with the provision of goods or services in the
commonwealth unless the contractor or subcontractor registers and participates in a work
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authorization program to verify information of all employees and certifies to that effect in writing to
the director of the department of labor.
…
Section 7. The Inspector General shall develop and promulgate regulations for the purpose of
ensuring that any person receiving funds pursuant to a contract awarded subject to the provisions
of chapter 30B and section 44A of chapter 149 of the general laws is in compliance with federal
laws pertaining to immigration and citizenship, including but not limited to 42 U.S.C. 1436(a). Such
regulations shall include but not be limited to the ascertaining and verification of immigration and/or
citizenship status through a work authorization program maintained by the United States
Department of Homeland Security or its substantial equivalent.
…
SECTION 4. Chapter 149 of the General Laws, as appearing in the 2002 Official Edition, is hereby
amended in the second paragraph of section 19c by adding the following at the end thereof:
“Such regulations shall include but not be limited to ascertaining and verifying immigration
and/or citizenship status utilizing a work authorization program maintained by the United States
Department of Homeland Security or a similarly authorized and efficacious system.”
SECTION 5. Chapter 149 of the General Laws, as appearing in the 2002 Official Edition, is hereby
amended in Section 2 by adding the following at the end thereof:
“Compliance with this section shall include but not be limited to entering into, maintaining and
enforcing any and all memoranda of understanding with the Attorney General of the United
States pertaining to the enforcement of federal laws regarding immigration and citizenship.”
SECTION 6. Section 2 of chapter 149 of the general laws, as appearing in the 2004 Official
Edition, is hereby amended by inserting at the end thereof the following:”The attorney general shall make available to the residents of the commonwealth a 24-hour tollfree hotline which may be used for reporting any suspected violations of the provisions of this
chapter, including sections 19c and 26, relative to immigration status and wage laws, or of 8
U.S.C. 1324a, relative to the unlawful employment of unauthorized aliens. Calls to the hotline
shall be treated confidentially, and callers shall have the option of reporting any violations
anonymously. All complaints, whether received through the hotline, in writing, electronically, or
in any other form, shall be recorded and documented by the attorney general and shall
immediately refer any violations of federal law, including but not limited to 8 U.S.C. 1324a, to
the attorney general of the United States and shall investigate all alleged violations of state law
as authorized by the general laws. The attorney general shall annually prepare a year-end
report detailing all reported violations of sections 19C and 26 of this chapter and of 8 U.S.C.
1324a, the nature of said violations, the date on which each complaint was received and
documented, any enforcement action taken against an employer who knowingly employs illegal
aliens in the commonwealth, and any violations of federal law forwarded to the attorney general
of the United States. Said report shall be submitted to the house and senate committees on
ways and means and to the joint committee on labor and workforce development on or before
February 1 of each year.
SECTION 7. Notwithstanding any general or special law to the contrary, the Attorney General is
hereby authorized and directed to facilitate and enter into a memorandum of understanding with
the Attorney General of the United States, pursuant to the provisions of 8 U.S.C. 1357(g), for the
purpose of enforcing state and federal laws pertaining to immigration and citizenship, not later than
eight months following the passage of this act.
SECTION 8. Notwithstanding any general or special law to the contrary, when any person charged
with a felony or with driving under the influence pursuant to section 24 of chapter 90 of the general
laws is confined, for any period, in any correctional institution or prison in the commonwealth, the
commissioner of the department of corrections, the county sheriff, or the municipal police chief or
other officer shall make a reasonable effort to verify that the prisoner has been lawfully admitted to
the United States and if lawfully admitted, that such lawful status has not expired. If verification of
lawful status can not be made from documents in the possession of the prisoner, verification shall
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be made within 48 hours through a query to the Law Enforcement Support Center (LESC) of the
United States Department of Homeland Security or other office or agency designated for that
purpose by the United States Department of Homeland Security. If the prisoner is determined not
to be lawfully admitted to the United States the commissioner of the department of corrections, the
county sheriff, the municipal police chief or an other officer shall notify the United States
Department of Homeland Security…
1/may/08 – Forma parte de un studio sobre ciertos documentos del Senado relacionados a
procedimientos y sanciones cirminales, y otros asuntos legales.
12/mar/08 – Se llevó a cabo una audiencia en el Comité Judicial conjunto.
10/ene/07 – Introducida por Bruce Tarr (R-Gloucester)
Penaliza la producción illegal de tarjetas de identificación y documentos. Requiere a los servidores
públicos estatales el verificar el número de seguridad social de los trabajadores que les sean
otorgados contratos públicos. Requiere al Procurador estatal el firmar un memorando de
entendimiento con la Agencia de Migración y Aduanas (ICE) para que las autoridades locales
colaboren en la ejecución de las leyes federales de migración. Crea una línea telefónica donde se
pueden denunciar las posibles violaciones a las leyes de migración. Requiere que las Cortes de
Massachussets verifiquen el estatus migratorio de aquellas personas presentadas ante ellas.
JURISDICCIÓN CITY OF NEWTON, MA
TITULO
ESTATUS
Pendiente
CONTENIDO New rule requiring city contractors to sign a verification clause that they do not use undocumented
or illegal workers when accepting city contracts
FECHAS
30/sept/07 - A recent vote by the Public Facilities Committee ended in a tie, 3-3, with one member
absent and one member abstaining, on a new rule requiring city contractors to sign a verification
clause that they do not use undocumented or illegal workers when accepting city contracts. (The
Bostos Globe)
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
BARNSTABLE COUNTY, MA.
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Barnstable County Sheriff's Office under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
25/ago/07 – Firma del Memorandum.
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EFECTOS
El acuerdo permitirá a los agentes de detención del aguacil el entrevistar a nacionales extranjeros
dentro de los centros de detención para determinar si existe causa probable de una violación a la
ley de migración. Bajo el programa, los agentes completaran el procesamiento de cualquier
delincuente extranjero y prepararán la documentación para iniciar los procedimientos de
deportación.
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
FRAMINGHAM COUNTY, MA.
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Framingham County Sheriff's Office under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
14/ago/07 – Firma del Memorandum.
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
Otorga facultades a los agentes del alguacil del Condado para indagar el estatus migratorio de
aquellas personas detenidas por otros delitos, y en caso de que dichas personas tengan un
estatus migratorio irregular les otorga facultades para mantenerlas en detención en lo que son
deportadas de los EE.UU.
MICHIGAN
JURISDICCIÓN MICHIGAN
TITULO
An act to provide for an official personal identification card; to provide for its form, issuance and
use; to regulate the use and disclosure of information obtained from the card; to prescribe the
powers and duties of the secretary of state; to prescribe fees; to prescribe certain penalties for
violations; and to provide an appropriation for certain purposes (HB No. 4957)
ESTATUS
Pendiente
CONTENIDO …Sec. 1. (1) A person who is a resident of this state may apply to the department of state for an
official state personal identification card. Upon application the applicant shall supply a birth
certificate attesting to his or her age, or a photo identity document, a nonphoto identity document if
it includes both the person's full legal name and date of birth, proof of the person's social security
number or verification that the person is not eligible for a social security number, documentation
showing the person's name and the address of his or her principal residence, any valid
documentary evidence of lawful status, and any other sufficient documents or identification as the
secretary of state may require. The secretary of state shall not accept a document issued by
another country, other than an official passport, to satisfy these requirements.
…
FECHAS
20/jun/07 – Introducida por David Agema.
20/jun/07 – Referida al Comité de Operaciones Gubernamentales.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
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EFECTOS
Busca restringir la utilización de la matrícula consular, así como evitar que se emitan cédulas de
identificación estatales a personas con estatus migratorio irregular.
MINNESOTA
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
MINNESOTA
H.F. 2576
En vigor
Revoca las ordenanzas locales (vigentes hasta entonces en ciudades como Minneapolis y St.
Paul) que prohíben a los empleados del gobierno hacer averiguaciones sobre el estatus migratorio
de una persona y compartir información migratoria con las autoridades federales.
Una vez aprobada, permitiría establecer un memorando de entendimiento con el Departamento de
Seguridad Interna para dar facultades a las autoridades locales para verificar el estatus migratorio
de individuos.
FECHAS
3/ene/06 – El gobernador Tim Pawlenty presenta una serie de propuestas para combatir la
migración indocumentada en el estado. Las medidas incluirían firmar un memorando de
entendimiento para autorizar a la policía estatal hacer averiguaciones sobre el estatus migratorio
de las personas; aumentar las sanciones por el uso de documentos falsos; reforzar el monitoreo
de los migrantes indocumentados que sean arrestados; multar a empleadores que contraten a
trabajadores indocumentados.
20/mar/06 – Se aprueba la propuesta HF 2576 para revocar las resoluciones locales que prohibían
a los empleados del gobierno hacer averiguaciones sobre el estatus migratorio de las personas.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
La organización Minnesota Advocates for Human Rights se pronunció en contra de la propuesta.
Los alcaldes y jefes de la policía de Minneapolis y St. Paul se han pronunciado en contra de un
acuerdo que obligue a las autoridades locales a verificar el estatus migratorio de las personas.
OPINIONES
Bill McManus, jefe de la policía de Minneapolis: "It's difficult now to get members of those
communities to report crime and to work with the police. So I can see that magnifying exponentially
if local police were given the authority of INS officers." (3/ene/06)
John Harrington, Jefe de la Policía de St. Paul: "The City of St. Paul doesn't have enough cops to
handle the load of things we already have on the books, the basic city ordinances and statutes and
those egregious federal crimes — drug trafficking, kidnapping, bank robbery — that we have now"
(20/jun/06).
EFECTOS
MISSISSIPPI
JURISDICCIÓN MISSISSIPPI
TITULO
AN ACT TO CREATE THE MISSISSIPPI EMPLOYMENT PROTECTION ACT (SB 2988)
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ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
Aprobada (en vigor a partir del 1 de julio de 2008)
SECTION 2. (1) This act shall be known as the "Mississippi Employment Protection Act."
(2) The provisions of this section shall be enforced without regard to race, gender, religion,
ethnicity or national origin.
…
(4) (a) Employers in the State of Mississippi shall only hire employees who are legal citizens of the
United States of America or are legal aliens. For purposes of this section, a legal alien is an
individual who was lawfully present in the United States at the time of employment and for the
duration of employment, or was permanently residing in the United States under color of law at the
time of employment and for the duration of employment.
(b) (i) Every employer shall register with and utilize the status verification system to verify the
federal employment authorization status of all newly hired employees.
(ii) No contractor or subcontractor shall hire any employee unless the contractor or subcontractor
registers and participates in the status verification system to verify the work eligibility status of all
newly hired employees.
(iii) No contractor or subcontractor who enters into a contract with a public employer shall enter into
such a contract or subcontract unless the contractor or subcontractor registers and participates in
the status verification system to verify information of all newly hired employees. (c) The provision of
this section shall not apply to any contracts entered into on or before July 1, 2008.
(d) It shall be a discriminatory practice for an employer to discharge an employee working in
Mississippi who is a United States citizen or permanent resident alien while retaining an employee
who the employing entity knows, or reasonably should have known, is an unauthorized alien hired
after July 1, 2008, and who is working in Mississippi in a job category that requires equal skill, effort
and responsibility, and which is performed under similar working conditions, as defined by 29 USC,
Section 206(d)(1), as the job category held by the discharged employee.
(e) An employing entity which, on the date of the discharge in question, was enrolled in and used
the status verification system to verify the employment eligibility of its employees in Mississippi
hired after July 1, 2008, shall be exempt from liability, investigation or suit arising from any action
under this section.
(f) No cause of action for a violation of this section shall lie under any other Mississippi law but shall
arise solely from the provisions of this section.
…
(b) Third-party employers shall provide proof of registration and any participation in the status
verification system to any Mississippi employer with whom they do business.
(7) (a) State of Mississippi agencies and political subdivisions, public contractors and public
subcontractors and private employers with two hundred fifty (250) or more employees shall meet
verification requirements not later than July 1, 2008.
(b) Employers with at least one hundred (100) but less than two hundred fifty (250) employees shall
meet verification requirements not later than July 1, 2009.
(c) Employers with at least thirty (30) but less than one hundred (100) employees shall meet
verification requirements not later than July 1, 2010.
(d) All employers shall meet verification requirements not later than July 1, 2011.
(e) (i) Any employer violating the provisions of this section shall be subject to the cancellation of
any state or public contract, resulting in ineligibility for any state or public contract for up to three (3)
years, the loss of any license, permit, certificate or other document granted to the employer by any
agency, department or government entity in the State of Mississippi for the right to do business in
Mississippi for up to one (1) year, or both.
(ii) The contractor or employer shall be liable for any additional costs incurred by the agencies and
institutions of the State of Mississippi, or any of its political subdivisions, because of the
cancellation of the contract or the loss of any license or permit to do business in the state.
(iii) Any person or entity penalized under this section shall have the right to appeal to the
appropriate entity bringing charges or to the circuit court of competent jurisdiction.
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FECHAS
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EN CONTRA
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EFECTOS
(f) The Department of Employment Security, State Tax commission, Secretary of State,
Department of Human Services and the Attorney General shall have the authority to seek penalties
under this section and to bring charges for noncompliance against any employer or employee.
17/mar/08 – Firmada por el Gobernador de Mississippi.
10/mar/08 – Aprobada por las dos cámaras.
4/feb/08 – Introducida y referida al Comité Judicial.
Establece los procedimientos a llevar a cabo para la contratación de nuevos empleados,
requiriendo que los empleadores verifiquen su estatus migratorio a través de los sistemas
electrónicos establecidos. Así como también establece la penalidades a los empleadores que
violen la presente ley.
MISSOURI
JURISDICCIÓN MISSOURI
TITULO
SB 348 - Missouri Omnibus Immigration Act (auspiciada por el Senador Chris Koster (RHarrisonville))
ESTATUS
Pendiente aprobación
CONTENIDO 1. Considera como delito la contratación de un inmigrante indocumentado, sujeto a multas de
hasta $250,000. Requiere que todos los empleadores verifiquen el estatus migratorio de sus
trabajadores por medio del Basic Pilot Program. Las compañías contratadas por el estado que
violen esta ley no podrían participar en proyectos municipales por 10 años. La propuesta incluye la
posibilidad de apelación por parte de los empleadores que sean sancionados. Además, antes de
imponer sanciones o cancelar una licencia, daría un aviso y establecería un periodo para que el
contratista pudiera despedir a un empleado indocumentado o el casero pudiera desalojar a un
inquilino indocumentado.
2. Considera como delito rentar propiedades a inmigrantes indocumentados. Impone multas y
cancela o suspende permisos de renta a caseros que alquilen vivienda a personas
indocumentadas. Antes de imponer sanciones o cancelar una licencia, daría un aviso y
establecería un periodo para que el casero pudiera desalojar a un inquilino indocumentado.
3. Requiere que la policía verifique el estatus migratorio de cualquier persona detenida. Si la
policía determina que es un inmigrante indocumentado debe reportarlo a las autoridades
federales.
4. Establecer un acuerdo con la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas para que policías de la ciudad
participen en acciones para garantizar el cumplimiento de las leyes migratorias.
5. Autoriza a ciudades y poblados aprobar ordenanzas que prohíban el empleo de inmigrantes
indocumentados y negar licencias de negocios a compañías que los contraten.
6. Establecer una división especial para el cumplimiento de las leyes migratorias (Division of
Immigration Compliance) bajo el mandato de la Secretaria de Estado Robin Carnahan.
FECHAS
23/ ene/07 – Primera Lectura en el Senado estatal.
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25/ene/07 – Segunda Lectura. Referida al Comité de Pensiones, Asuntos de Veteranos y Leyes
Generales.
Audiencia programada para el 14 de marzo de 2007.
18/may/07 – Calendarizada para perfeccionarla.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
El capítulo de la AFL-CIO en Missouri se ha pronunciado a favor de las medidas para sancionar a
empresas que contraten a trabajadores indocumentados.
Rep. Will Kraus (R-Jackson County), "At various points in our country's history we have become
addicted to cheap, illegal labor. We are again becoming addicted to cheap, illegal labor. Unless we
remove the needle of addiction from our arm in the very near future, we will not be able to ever get
it out." (7/mar/07)
Joan Suarez, Missouri Immigrant and Refugee Advocates Coalition: "The legislative attitude does
not mirror public attitude. The general public is much less interested and much more
compassionate." (7/mar/07)
Rep. Mike Talboy, D-Jackson County: "When we start doing things to make sure people know that
they're different, it defeats the very idea of what America is all about". (7/mar/07)
Sen. Chris Koster, R-Harrisonville: "The bottom line is that most state legislatures are somewhere
between angry and furious at the federal government's complete failure in the area of immigration
enforcement". (7/mar/07)
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN MISSOURI
TITULO
AN ACT To repeal sections 8.283, 302.720, and 544.470, RSMo, and to enact in lieu thereof
twenty-four new sections relating to illegal aliens, with penalty provisions, and an effective date for
certain sections (HB 1549, 1771, 1395 & 2366)
ESTATUS
En vigor desde el 28 de agosto de 2008.
Las secciones 67.307, 285.525-285.555 & 650.681 entrarán en vigor el 1 de enero de 2009.
La sección 292.675 entrará en vigor el 28 de agosto de 2009.
CONTENIDO Section A. Sections 8.283, 302.720, and 544.470, RSMo, are repealed and twenty-four new
sections enacted in lieu thereof, to be known as sections 43.032, 67.307, 208.009, 285.309,
285.500, 285.503, 285.506, 285.512, 285.515, 285.525, 285.530, 285.535, 285.540, 285.543,
285.550, 285.555, 292.675, 302.063, 302.720, 544.470, 577.722, 577.900, 578.570, and 650.681,
to read as follows:
43.032. Subject to appropriation, the superintendent of the Missouri state highway patrol
shall designate that some or all members of the highway patrol be trained in accordance with a
memorandum of understanding between the state of Missouri and the United States Department of
Homeland Security concerning the enforcement of federal immigration laws during the course of
their normal duties in the state of Missouri, in accordance with 8 U.S.C. Section 1357(g). The
superintendent shall have the authority to negotiate the terms of such memorandum. The
memorandum shall be signed by the superintendent of the highway patrol, the governor, and the
director of the department of public safety.
…
2. No municipality shall enact or adopt any sanctuary policy. Any municipality that enacts or
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adopts a sanctuary policy shall be ineligible for any moneys provided through grants administered
by any state agency or department until the sanctuary policy is repealed or is no longer in effect.
Upon the complaint of any state resident regarding a specific government entity, agency, or
political subdivision of this state or prior to the provision of funds or awarding of any grants to a
government entity, agency, or political subdivision of this state, any member of the general
assembly may request that the attorney general of the state of Missouri issue an opinion stating
whether the government entity, agency, or political subdivision has current policies in contravention
of this section.
3. The governing body, sheriff, or chief of police of each municipality shall provide each law
enforcement officer with written notice of their duty to cooperate with state and federal agencies
and officials on matters pertaining to enforcement of state and federal laws governing immigration.
4. This section shall become effective on January 1, 2009.
208.009. 1. No alien unlawfully present in the United States shall receive any state or local
public benefit, except for state or local public benefits that may be offered under 8 U.S.C. 1621(b).
Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the rendering of emergency medical care,
prenatal care, services offering alternatives to abortion, emergency assistance, or legal assistance
to any person.
…
285.530. 1. No business entity or employer shall knowingly employ, hire for employment, or
continue to employ an unauthorized alien to perform work within the state of Missouri.
…
3. All public employers shall enroll and actively participate in a federal work authorization
program.
4. An employer may enroll and participate in a federal work authorization program and shall
verify the employment eligibility of every employee in the employer's hire whose employment
commences after the employer enrolls in a federal work authorization program. The employer shall
retain a copy of the dated verification report received from the federal government. Any business
entity that participates in such program shall have an affirmative defense that such business entity
has not violated subsection 1 of this section.
5. A general contractor or subcontractor of any tier shall not be liable under sections
285.525 to 285.550 when such general contractor or subcontractor contracts with its direct
subcontractor who violates subsection 1 of this section, if the contract binding the contractor and
subcontractor affirmatively states that the direct subcontractor is not knowingly in violation of
subsection 1 of this section and shall not henceforth be in such violation and the contractor or
subcontractor receives a sworn affidavit under the penalty of perjury attesting to the fact that the
direct subcontractor's employees are lawfully present in the United States.
…
6. The correction of a violation with respect to the employment of an unauthorized alien
shall include the following actions:
(1) (a) The business entity terminates the unauthorized alien's employment. If the business
entity attempts to terminate the unauthorized alien's employment and such termination is
challenged in a court of the state of Missouri, the fifteen-business-day period for providing
information to the attorney general referenced in subsection 3 of this section shall be tolled while
the business entity pursues the termination of the unauthorized alien's employment in such forum;
or
(b) The business entity, after acquiring additional information from the employee, requests
a secondary or additional verification by the federal government of the employee's authorization,
under the procedures of a federal work authorization program. While this verification is pending, the
fifteen-business-day period for providing information to the attorney general referenced in
subsection 3 of this section shall be tolled; and
(2) A legal representative of the business entity submits, at an office designated by the
attorney general, the following:
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(a) A sworn affidavit stating that the violation has ended that shall include a description of
the specific measures and actions taken by the business entity to end the violation, and the name,
address, and other adequate identifying information for any unauthorized aliens related to the
complaint; and
(b) Documentation acceptable to the attorney general which confirms that the business
entity has enrolled in and is participating in a federal work authorization program.
7. The suspension of a business license or licenses under subsection 5 of this section shall
terminate one business day after a legal representative of the business entity submits the affidavit
and other documentation required under subsection 6 of this section following any period of
restriction required under subsection 5 of this section.
8. For an entity that violates subsection 1 of section 285.530 for a second time, the court
shall direct the applicable municipal or county governing body to suspend, for one year, the
business permit, if such exists, and any applicable license or exemptions of the business entity. For
a subsequent violation, the court shall direct the applicable municipal or county governing body to
forever suspend the business permit, if such exists, and any applicable license or exemptions of
the business entity.
9. In addition to the penalties in subsections 5 and 8 of this section:
(1) Upon the first violation of subsection 1 of section 285.530 by any business entity
awarded a state contract or grant or receiving a state-administered tax credit, tax abatement, or
loan from the state, the business entity shall be deemed in breach of contract and the state may
terminate the contract and suspend or debar the business entity from doing business with the state
for a period of three years. Upon such termination, the state may withhold up to twenty-five percent
of the total amount due to the business entity;
(2) Upon a second or subsequent violation of subsection 1 of section 285.530 by any
business entity awarded a state contract or grant or receiving a state-administered tax credit, tax
abatement, or loan from the state, the business entity shall be deemed in breach of contract and
the state may terminate the contract and permanently suspend or debar the business entity from
doing business with the state. Upon such termination, the state may withhold up to twenty-five
percent of the total amount due to the business entity.
…
302.063. The department of revenue shall not issue any driver's license to an illegal alien
nor to any person who cannot prove his or her lawful presence pursuant to the provisions of this
chapter and the regulations promulgated thereunder. A driver's license issued to an illegal alien in
another state shall not be honored by the state of Missouri and the department of revenue for any
purpose. The state of Missouri hereby declares that granting driver's licenses to illegal aliens is
repugnant to the public policy of Missouri and therefore Missouri shall not extend full faith and
credit to out-of-state driver's licenses issued to illegal aliens. As used in this section, the term
"illegal alien" shall mean an alien who is not lawfully present in the United States, according to the
terms of 8 U.S.C. Section 1101, et seq.
…
577.900. 1. If verification of the nationality or lawful immigration status of any person who is
charged and confined to jail for any period of time cannot be made from documents in the
possession of the prisoner or after a reasonable effort on the part of the arresting agency to
determine the nationality or immigration status of the person so confined, verification shall be made
by the arresting agency within forty-eight hours through a query to the Law Enforcement Support
Center (LESC) of the United States Department of Homeland Security or other office or agency
designated for that purpose by the United States Department of Homeland Security. If it is
determined that the prisoner is in the United States unlawfully, the arresting agency shall notify the
United States Department of Homeland Security. Until August 28, 2009, this section shall only
apply to officers employed by the department of public safety to include: the highway patrol, water
patrol, capitol police, fire marshal's office, and division of alcohol and tobacco control.
…
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EN CONTRA
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TITULO
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CONTENIDO
578.570. Any person who:
(1) Knowing or in reckless disregard of the truth, assists any person in committing fraud or
deception during the examination process for an instruction permit, driver's license, or nondriver's
license;
(2) Knowing or in reckless disregard of the truth, assists any person in making application
for an instruction permit, driver's license, or nondriver's license that contains or is substantiated
with false or fraudulent information or documentation;
(3) Knowing or in reckless disregard of the truth, assists any person in concealing a
material fact or otherwise committing a fraud in an application for an instruction permit, driver's
license, or nondriver's license; or
(4) Engages in any conspiracy to commit any of the preceding acts or aids or abets the
commission of any of the preceding acts;
is guilty of a class A misdemeanor.
650.681. 1. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no government entity, political
subdivision, or government official within the state of Missouri shall prohibit, or in any way restrict,
any government entity or official from communicating or cooperating with the United States Bureau
of Immigration and Customs Enforcement regarding the citizenship or immigration status, lawful or
unlawful, of any individual.
…
8/ene/08 –Introducida.
4/feb/08 – Remitida al Comité Especial de Migración.
10/abr/08 – Aprobada por la Asamblea.
14/abr/08 – Remitida al Senado.
16/may/08 – Aprobada por el Senado.
29/may/08 – Remitida al Gobernador.
7/jul/08 – Firmada por el Gobernador.
La presente iniciativa busca tipificar como delito el asistir a una persona a obtener de manera
fraudulenta una licencia de conducir, busca prohibir que ciudades se erigan como santuarios
migratorios. Obliga a advertir a los empleados públicos de su obligación de hacer cumplir las leyes
federales de migración. Propone que los efectivos de la policia de caminos realicen funciones de
agentes de migración y que se establezca un acuerdo con el departamento de seguridad interna
para capacitar a los efectivos de policía.
MISSOURI
AN ACT To repeal sections 172.360, 173.030, 174.130, 178.635, 178.780, 302.720, and 544.470,
RSMo, and to enact in lieu thereof twenty-six new sections relating to illegal aliens, with penalty
provisions and an effective date for certain sections (SB 858, 750, 751, 927, 1186, 1255, 1268, &
1269)
Pendiente.
143.032. Subject to appropriation, the superintendent of the Missouri state highway patrol shall
designate that some or all members of the highway patrol be trained in accordance with a
memorandum of understanding between the state of Missouri and the United States Department of
Homeland Security concerning the enforcement of federal immigration laws during the course of
their normal duties in the state of Missouri, in accordance with 8 U.S.C. Section 1357(g). The
superintendent shall have the authority to negotiate the terms of such memorandum. The
memorandum shall be signed by the superintendent of the highway patrol, the governor, and the
129
director of the department of public safety.
…
2. No municipality shall enact or adopt any sanctuary policy. Any municipality that enacts or adopts
a sanctuary policy shall be ineligible for any moneys provided through grants administered by any
state agency or department until the sanctuary policy is repealed or is no longer in effect. Upon the
complaint of any state resident regarding a specific municipality of this state or prior to the
provision of funds or awarding of any grants to any municipality of this state, any member of the
general assembly may request that the attorney general of the state of Missouri issue an opinion
stating whether the municipality has a sanctuary policy in contravention of this section.
3. The governing body, sheriff, or chief of police of each municipality shall provide each law
enforcement officer with written notice of their duty to cooperate with state and federal agencies
and officials on matters pertaining to enforcement of state and federal laws governing immigration.
172.360. 1. All youths, resident of the state of Missouri, shall be admitted to all the privileges and
advantages of the various classes of all the departments of the University of the State of Missouri;
provided, that each applicant for admission therein shall possess such scholastic attainments and
mental and moral qualifications as shall be prescribed in rules adopted and established by the
board of curators; provided that aliens unlawfully present in the United States shall not be eligible
for enrollment in the university; and provided further, that the board of curators may charge and
collect reasonable tuition and other fees necessary for the maintenance and operation of all
departments of the university, as they may deem necessary.
2. Prior to approval of any appropriations by the general assembly for the University of Missouri,
the registrar for each campus of the University of Missouri shall annually certify to the coordinating
board for higher education that its campus has not knowingly enrolled any aliens unlawfully
present in the United States in the preceding year.
…
174.130. 1. Each board may make such rules and regulations for the admission of students as
may be deemed proper; provided that aliens unlawfully present in the United States shall not be
eligible for enrollment in the university or college.
2. Prior to approval of any appropriations by the general assembly for the university or college, the
registrar for each university or college shall annually certify to the coordinating board for higher
education that its university or college has not knowingly enrolled any aliens unlawfully present in
the United States in the preceding year. Within thirty days of receipt of the certification, the
coordinating board for higher education shall forward the certification to the governor, the pro tem
of the senate, the speaker of the house of representatives, and the chair of the committee for
appropriation of state funds in the house of representatives and the senate.
175.025. 1. The board of curators of Lincoln University may make such rules and regulations for
the admission of students as it may be deemed proper; provided that aliens unlawfully present in
the United States shall not be eligible for enrollment in the university.
…
178.785. Prior to approval of any appropriations by the general assembly for a junior college, the
registrar for the college shall annually certify to the coordinating board for higher education that its
junior college has not knowingly enrolled any aliens unlawfully present in the United States in the
preceding year. Within thirty days of receipt of the certification, the coordinating board for higher
education shall forward the certification to the governor, the pro tem of the senate, the speaker of
the house of representatives, and the chair of the committee for appropriation of state funds in the
house of representatives and the senate.
208.009. 1. No person who is not a citizen or a permanent resident of the United States or who
does not possess lawful immigration status shall receive any state or local public benefit, as
defined in 8 U.S.C. Section 1621(c)(1)(B), under this chapter, except for a state or local public
benefit that is specified under 8 U.S.C. Section 1621(b) or otherwise mandated by federal law.
…
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2. As a condition for the award of any state contract or grant in excess of five thousand dollars by
the state or any political subdivision of the state to a business entity, or for any business entity
receiving a state-administered tax credit, tax abatement, or loan from the state, the business entity
shall, by sworn affidavit and provision of documentation, affirm its enrollment and participation in
any federal work authorization program. Every business entity shall also sign an affidavit affirming
that it does not knowingly employ any person who is an unauthorized alien.
3. All public employers shall enroll and actively participate in any federal work authorization
program.
…
(2) If the federal government notifies the division that an employee is not authorized to work in the
United States, and the employer of the unauthorized alien does not participate in any federal work
authorization program, the division shall, after notice and a hearing, determine whether the
business entity knowingly violated this section and section 285.530:
…
6. The correction of a violation with respect to the employment of an unauthorized alien shall
include the following actions:
(1) (a) The business entity terminates the unauthorized alien's employment. If the business entity
attempts to terminate the unauthorized alien's employment and such termination is challenged in a
court of the state of Missouri, the fourteen-day period referenced in subsection 5 of this section
shall be tolled while the business entity pursues the termination of the unauthorized alien's
employment in such forum; or
…
7. The suspension of any applicable licenses, permits, or exemptions under subsection 5 of this
section shall terminate one business day after a legal representative of the business entity submits
the affidavit and other documentation required under subsection 6 of this section.
8. For a second violation of this act, the division shall direct the applicable municipal or county
governing body to suspend any applicable license, permit, or exemptions of the business entity for
a minimum of thirty days and a maximum of sixty days. For a third violation of this act, the division
shall direct the applicable municipal or county governing body to suspend any applicable license,
permit, or exemptions of the business entity for a minimum of one year and a maximum of five
years. The division shall direct the applicable municipal or county governing body to reinstate any
applicable license, permit, or exemptions after the end of the suspension period, and upon receipt
by the division of the prescribed affidavit under subsection 6 of this section and documentation
which confirms that the business entity has enrolled in and is participating in any federal work
authorization program. The division shall forward the affidavit, complaint, and associated
documents to the Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement of the United States
Department of Homeland Security.
9. In addition to the penalties in subsections 7 and 8 of this section:
(1) Upon the first violation of this section or section 285.530 by any business entity awarded a
state contract or grant or receiving a state-administered tax credit, tax abatement, or loan from the
state, the business entity shall be deemed in breach of contract and the state shall terminate the
contract and suspend or debar the business entity from doing business with the state for a period
of three years. Upon such termination, the state may withhold up to twenty-five percent of the total
amount due to the business entity;
(2) Upon a second or subsequent violation of this act by any business entity awarded a state
contract or grant or receiving a state-administered tax credit, tax abatement, or loan from the state,
the business entity shall be deemed in breach of contract and the state shall terminate the contract
and permanently suspend or debar the business entity from doing business with the state.
10. Sections 285.525 to 285.560 shall not be construed to deny any procedural mechanisms
included in any federal work authorization program.
11. Any business entity subject to a complaint and subsequent enforcement under this act, or any
employee of such a business entity, may challenge the enforcement of this section with respect to
131
such entity or employee in the courts of the state of Missouri.
…
15. Any business entity which terminates an employee in accordance with this section shall not be
liable for any claims made against the business entity under chapter 213, RSMo.
…
302.063. The department of revenue shall not issue any driver's license to an illegal alien nor to
any person who cannot prove his or her lawful presence pursuant to the provisions of this chapter
and the regulations promulgated thereunder. A driver's license issued to an illegal alien in another
state shall not be honored by the state of Missouri and the department of revenue for any purpose.
The state of Missouri hereby declares that granting driver's licenses to illegal aliens is repugnant to
the public policy of Missouri and therefore Missouri shall not extend full faith and credit to out-ofstate driver's licenses issued to illegal aliens. As used in this section, the term "illegal alien" shall
mean an alien who is not lawfully present in the United States, according to the terms of 8 U.S.C.
1101, et seq.
…
4. Beginning July 1, 2005, the director shall not issue an instruction permit under this section
unless the director verifies that the applicant is lawfully present in the United States before
accepting the application. The director may, by rule or regulation, establish procedures to verify the
lawful presence of the applicant under this section. No rule or portion of a rule promulgated
pursuant to the authority of this section shall become effective unless it has been promulgated
pursuant to chapter 536, RSMo.
544.470. 1. If the offense is not bailable, or if the person does not meet the conditions for release,
as provided in section 544.455, the prisoner shall be committed to the jail of the county in which
the same is to be tried, there to remain until he be discharged by due course of law.
2. There shall be a presumption that releasing the person under any conditions as provided by
section 544.455 shall not reasonably assure the appearance of the person as required if the circuit
judge or associate circuit judge reasonably believes that the person is an alien unlawfully present
in the United States. If such presumption exists, the person shall be committed to the jail, as
provided in subsection 1 of this section, until such person provides verification of his or her lawful
presence in the United States to rebut such presumption. If the person adequately proves his or
her lawful presence, the circuit judge or associate circuit judge shall review the issue of release, as
provided under section 544.455, without regard to previous issues concerning whether the person
is lawfully present in the United States. If the person cannot prove his or her lawful presence, the
person shall continue to be committed to the jail and remain until discharged by due course of law.
577.722. 1. It shall be unlawful for any person to transport, move, or attempt to transport in the
state of Missouri any illegal alien who is not lawfully present in the United States, according to the
terms of U.S.C. 1101, et seq., knowing or in reckless disregard of the fact that the alien has come
to, entered, or remained in the United States in violation of law, in furtherance of the illegal
presence of the alien in the United States.
2. It shall be unlawful for any person to conceal, harbor, or shelter from detection any such alien in
any place within the state of Missouri including any building or means of transportation, knowing or
in reckless disregard of the fact that the alien has come to, entered, or remained in the United
States in violation of law.
3. Any person violating the provisions of subsection 1 or 2 of this section shall be guilty of a felony
for which the authorized term of imprisonment is a term of years not less than one year, or by a
fine in an amount not less than one thousand dollars, or by both such fine and imprisonment.
4. Individuals shall not be liable under this section for transporting an illegal alien who is unlawfully
present in the state for the purposes of delivering the individual to a medical facility, soup kitchen,
institution for crisis counseling and intervention, or short-term shelter, or for sheltering such an
alien who has been the victim of abuse.
577.900. 1. If verification of the nationality or lawful immigration status of any person who is
charged with a crime and confined to jail for any period of time cannot be made from documents in
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FECHAS
the possession of the prisoner or after a reasonable effort on the part of the arresting agency to
determine the nationality or immigration status of the person so confined, verification shall be
made by the arresting agency within forty-eight hours through a query to the Law Enforcement
Support Center (LESC) of the United States Department of Homeland Security or other office or
agency designated for that purpose by the United States Department of Homeland Security. If it is
determined that the prisoner is in the United States unlawfully, the arresting agency shall notify the
United States Department of Homeland Security. Until August 28, 2009, this section shall only
apply to officers employed by the highway patrol, water patrol, capitol police, fire marshal's office,
and alcohol and tobacco control, within the department of public safety.
…
650.681. 1. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no government entity, political subdivision,
or government official within the state of Missouri shall prohibit, or in any way restrict, any
government entity or official from communicating or cooperating with the United States Bureau of
Immigration and Customs Enforcement regarding the citizenship or immigration status, lawful or
unlawful, of any individual.
2. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person or agency within the state of Missouri
shall prohibit, or in any way restrict, a public employee from doing any of the following with respect
to information regarding the immigration status, lawful or unlawful, of any individual:
(1) Sending such information to, or requesting or receiving such information from, the United
States Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement;
(2) Maintaining such information;
(3) Exchanging such information with any other federal, state, or local government entity;
(4) Asking an individual his or her citizenship or immigration status.
3. Upon the complaint of any state resident regarding a specific government entity, agency, or
political subdivision of this state or prior to the provision of funds or awarding of any grants to a
government entity, agency, or political subdivision of this state, any member of the general
assembly may request that the attorney general of the state of Missouri issue an opinion stating
whether the government entity, agency, or political subdivision has current policies in
contravention of subsections 1 and 2 of this section.
4. No state agency or department shall provide any funding or award any monetary grants to any
government entity, agency, or political subdivision determined under subsection 3 of this section to
have a policy in contravention of subsections 1 and 2 of this 25 section until the policy is repealed
or no longer in effect.
Section B. The provisions of sections 67.307, 285.525, 285.530, 285.535, 285.540, 285.550,
285.555, 285.560, and 650.681 of section A of this act shall take effect on January 1, 2009.
15/may/08 – Referida al Comité de Reglas.
9/ene/08 – Primera lectura.
1/dic/07 – Introducida.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
MISSOURI
AN ACT To repeal sections 8.283, 302.720, and 544.470, RSMo, and to enact in lieu thereof
twenty-four new sections relating to illegal aliens, with penalty provisions, and an effective date for
certain sections (HB 1549)
En vigor
43.032. Subject to appropriation, the superintendent of the Missouri state highway patrol shall
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designate that some or all members of the highway patrol be trained in accordance with a
memorandum of understanding between the state of Missouri and the United States Department of
Homeland Security concerning the enforcement of federal immigration laws during the course of
their normal duties in the state of Missouri, in accordance with 8 U.S.C. Section 1357(g). The
superintendent shall have the authority to negotiate the terms of such memorandum. The
memorandum shall be signed by the superintendent of the highway patrol, the governor, and the
director of the department of public safety.
67.307. 1. As used in this section, the following terms mean:
…
2. No municipality shall enact or adopt any sanctuary policy. Any municipality that enacts or adopts
a sanctuary policy shall be ineligible for any moneys provided through grants administered by any
state agency or department until the sanctuary policy is repealed or is no longer in effect. Upon the
complaint of any state resident regarding a specific government entity, agency, or political
subdivision of this state or prior to the provision of funds or awarding of any grants to a
government entity, agency, or political subdivision of this state, any member of the general
assembly may request that the attorney general of the state of Missouri issue an opinion stating
whether the government entity, agency, or political subdivision has current policies in
contravention of this section.
3. The governing body, sheriff, or chief of police of each municipality shall provide each law
enforcement officer with written notice of their duty to cooperate with state and federal agencies
and officials on matters pertaining to enforcement of state and federal laws governing immigration.
4. This section shall become effective on January 1, 2009.
208.009. 1. No alien unlawfully present in the United States shall receive any state or local public
benefit, except for state or local public benefits that may be offered under 8 U.S.C. 1621(b).
Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the rendering of emergency medical care,
prenatal care, services offering alternatives to abortion, emergency assistance, or legal assistance
to any person.
…
6. An applicant who is an alien shall not receive any state or local public benefit unless the alien's
lawful presence in the United States is first verified by the federal government. State and local
agencies administering public benefits in this state shall cooperate with the United States
Department of Homeland Security in achieving verification of an alien's lawful presence in the
United States in furtherance of this section. The system utilized may include the Systematic Alien
Verification for Entitlements Program operated by the United States Department of Homeland
Security.
…
285.530. 1. No business entity or employer shall knowingly employ, hire for employment, or
continue to employ an unauthorized alien to perform work within the state of Missouri.
2. As a condition for the award of any contract or grant in excess of five thousand dollars by the
state or by any political subdivision of the state to a business entity, or for any business entity
receiving a state-administered or subsidized tax credit, tax abatement, or loan from the state, the
business entity shall, by sworn affidavit and provision of documentation, affirm its enrollment and
participation in a federal work authorization program with respect to the employees working in
connection with the contracted services. Every such business entity shall also sign an affidavit
affirming that it does not knowingly employ any person who is an unauthorized alien in connection
with the contracted services.
3. All public employers shall enroll and actively participate in a federal work authorization program.
…
285.535. 1. The attorney general shall enforce the requirements of sections 285.525 to 285.550.
2. An enforcement action shall be initiated by means of a written, signed complaint under penalty
of perjury as defined in section 575.040, RSMo, to the attorney general submitted by any state
official, business entity, or state resident. A valid complaint shall include an allegation which
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describes the alleged violator as well as the actions constituting the violation, and the date and
location where such actions occurred. A complaint which alleges a violation solely or primarily on
the basis of national origin, ethnicity, or race shall be deemed invalid and shall not be enforced.
…
9. In addition to the penalties in subsections 5 and 8 of this section:
(1) Upon the first violation of subsection 1 of section 285.530 by any business entity awarded a
state contract or grant or receiving a state-administered tax credit, tax abatement, or loan from the
state, the business entity shall be deemed in breach of contract and the state may terminate the
contract and suspend or debar the business entity from doing business with the state for a period
of three years. Upon such termination, the state may withhold up to twenty-five percent of the total
amount due to the business entity;
(2) Upon a second or subsequent violation of subsection 1 of section 285.530 by any business
entity awarded a state contract or grant or receiving a state-administered tax credit, tax abatement,
or loan from the state, the business entity shall be deemed in breach of contract and the state may
terminate the contract and permanently suspend or debar the business entity from doing business
with the state. Upon such termination, the state may withhold up to twenty-five percent of the total
amount due to the business entity.
…
13. The determination of whether a worker is an unauthorized alien shall be made by the federal
government. A determination of such status of an individual by the federal government shall create
a rebuttable presumption as to that individual's status in any judicial proceedings brought under
this section or section 285.530. The court may take judicial notice of any verification of an
individual's status previously provided by the federal government and may request the federal
government to provide automated or testimonial verification.
14. Compensation, whether in money or in kind or in services, knowingly provided to any
unauthorized alien shall not be allowed as a business expense deduction from any income or
business taxes of this state.
…
302.063. The department of revenue shall not issue any driver's license to an illegal alien nor to
any person who cannot prove his or her lawful presence pursuant to the provisions of this chapter
and the regulations promulgated thereunder. A driver's license issued to an illegal alien in another
state shall not be honored by the state of Missouri and the department of revenue for any purpose.
The state of Missouri hereby declares that granting driver's licenses to illegal aliens is repugnant to
the public policy of Missouri and therefore Missouri shall not extend full faith and credit to out-ofstate driver's licenses issued to illegal aliens. As used in this section, the term "illegal alien" shall
mean an alien who is not lawfully present in the United States, according to the terms of 8 U.S.C.
Section 1101, et seq.
…
(1) The written and driving tests shall be held at such times and in such places as the
superintendent may designate. A twenty-five dollar examination fee shall be paid by the applicant
upon completion of any written or driving test. The director shall delegate the power to conduct the
examinations required under sections 302.700 to 302.780 to any member of the highway patrol or
any person employed by the highway patrol qualified to give driving examinations. The written test
shall only be administered in the English language. No translators shall be allowed for applicants
taking the test.
…
2. There shall be a presumption that releasing the person under any conditions as provided by
section 544.455 shall not reasonably assure the appearance of the person as required if the circuit
judge or associate circuit judge reasonably believes that the person is an alien unlawfully present
in the United States. If such presumption exists, the person shall be committed to the jail, as
provided in subsection 1 of this section, until such person provides verification of his or her lawful
presence in the United States to rebut such presumption. If the person adequately proves his or
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her lawful presence, the circuit judge or associate circuit judge shall review the issue of release, as
provided under section 544.455, without regard to previous issues concerning whether the person
is lawfully present in the United States. If the person cannot prove his or her lawful presence, the
person shall continue to be committed to the jail and remain until discharged by due course of law.
577.722. 1. It shall be unlawful for any person to knowingly transport, move, or attempt to transport
in the state of Missouri any illegal alien who is not lawfully present in the United States, according
to the terms of 8 U.S.C. Section 1101, et seq., for the purposes of trafficking in violation of sections
566.200 to 566.215, RSMo, drug trafficking in violation of sections 195.222 to 195.223, RSMo,
prostitution in violation of chapter 567, RSMo, or employment.
2. Any person violating the provisions of subsection 1 of this section shall be guilty of a felony for
which the authorized term of imprisonment is a term of years not less than one year, or by a fine in
an amount not less than one thousand dollars, or by both such fine and imprisonment.
…
577.900. 1. If verification of the nationality or lawful immigration status of any person who is
charged and confined to jail for any period of time cannot be made from documents in the
possession of the prisoner or after a reasonable effort on the part of the arresting agency to
determine the nationality or immigration status of the person so confined, verification shall be
made by the arresting agency within forty-eight hours through a query to the Law Enforcement
Support Center (LESC) of the United States Department of Homeland Security or other office or
agency designated for that purpose by the United States Department of Homeland Security. If it is
determined that the prisoner is in the United States unlawfully, the arresting agency shall notify the
United States Department of Homeland Security. Until August 28, 2009, this section shall only
apply to officers employed by the department of public safety to include: the highway patrol, water
patrol, capitol police, fire marshal's office, and division of alcohol and tobacco control.
…
578.570. Any person who:
(1) Knowing or in reckless disregard of the truth, assists any person in committing fraud or
deception during the examination process for an instruction permit, driver's license, or nondriver's
license;
(2) Knowing or in reckless disregard of the truth, assists any person in making application for an
instruction permit, driver's license, or nondriver's license that contains or is substantiated with false
or fraudulent information or documentation;
(3) Knowing or in reckless disregard of the truth, assists any person in concealing a material fact
or otherwise committing a fraud in an application for an instruction permit, driver's license, or
nondriver's license; or
(4) Engages in any conspiracy to commit any of the preceding acts or aids or abets the
commission of any of the preceding acts; is guilty of a class A misdemeanor.
650.681. 1. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no government entity, political subdivision,
or government official within the state of Missouri shall prohibit, or in any way restrict, any
government entity or official from communicating or cooperating with the United States Bureau of
Immigration and Customs Enforcement regarding the citizenship or immigration status, lawful or
unlawful, of any individual.
2. Municipalities and political subdivisions may collect and share the identity of persons by the
same means the Federal Bureau of Investigation or its successor agency uses in its Integrated
Automated Fingerprint Identification System or its successor program.
3. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person or agency within the state of Missouri
shall prohibit, or in any way restrict, a public employee from doing any of the following with respect
to information regarding the immigration status, lawful or unlawful, of any individual:
(1) Sending such information to, or requesting or receiving such information from, the United
States Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement;
(2) Maintaining such information; or
(3) Exchanging such information with any other federal, state, or local government entity.
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FECHAS
…
5. No state agency or department shall provide any funding or award any monetary grants to any
government entity, agency, or political subdivision determined under subsection 4 of this section to
have a policy in contravention of subsections 1 and 3 of this section until the policy is repealed or
no longer in effect.
…
Section B. The provisions of sections 67.307, 285.525, 285.530, 285.535, 285.540, 285.543,
285.550, 285.555, and 650.681 of section A of this act shall become effective on January 1, 2009.
Section C. The enactment of section 292.675 of section A of this act shall become effective on
August 28, 2009.
28/ago/09 – Entrada en vigor de la sección 292.675.
1/ene/09 – Entrada en vigor de las secciones 67.307, 285.525, 285.530, 285.535, 285.540,
285.543, 285.550, 285.555, y 650.681 de la sección A.
7/jul/08 – Firmada por el Gobernador.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
MISSOURI STATE HIGHWAY PATROL
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Missouri’s State Highway Patrol under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía estatal que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes federales migratorias.
11/jul/08 – Se gradúan 10 oficiales estatales del programa de entrenamiento del ICE para la
ejecución de leyes de migración federales.
25/jun/08 – Firma del Memorandum.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
El acuerdo otorga facultades a los agentes estatales para indagar el estatus migratorio de
aquellas personas detenidas por otros delitos, y en caso de que dichas personas tengan un
estatus migratorio irregular les otorga facultades para mantenerlas en detención en lo que son
deportadas de los EE.UU.
JURISDICCIÓN VALLEY PARK, MO
TITULO
ESTATUS
Suspendida temporalmente
Nueva versión (7/feb/07)
CONTENIDO 1. Impone multas de $500 dls a caseros que alquilen vivienda a personas indocumentadas.
Nueva versión (7/feb/07): Requiere que los propietarios de bienes raíces soliciten permisos de
ocupación en donde reporten la ciudadanía de los inquilinos y la relación que tengan con otros
inquilinos.
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2. Cancela permisos y contratos a empresas y negocios que contraten a trabajadores
indocumentados. Obliga a que los empleadores verifiquen el estatus de sus empleados en una
base de datos federal.
Nueva versión (7/feb/07): Niega licencias de funcionamiento y contratos con la ciudad a firmas que
contraten a inmigrantes indocumentados.
FECHAS
Jul/07 – El Concejo de la ciudad aprueba las iniciativas.
Sep/07 – La juez Barbara Wallace suspende la entrada en vigor de las ordenanzas.
4/ene/07 – La juez del condado, Barbara Wallace, establece el 1 de marzo como la fecha para
iniciar las audiencias sobre la ordenanza. Mientras tanto, la ordenanza continuará suspendida.
7/feb/07 – Se presenta una nueva versión sobre las iniciativas relacionadas con caseros y
empleadores.
27/feb/07- El Concejo de la ciudad aprobó una nueva ley que obligue a los caseros a solicitar la
identificación oficial y el estatus migratorio de sus inquilinos. De lo contrario perderían su permiso
de renta. El inspector de los edificios de la ciudad recibió instrucciones para poner en práctica esta
medida inmediatamente.
1/mar/07 – Inician las audiencias para determinar si la ordenanza es inconstitucional.
18/jun/07 – En respuesta a una petición ciudadana, el Concejo de la Ciudad aprueba una
resolución para no introducir ninguna ley relacionada con el control de la inmigración
indocumentada, aunque continuarán las audiencias respecto a la constitucionalidad de la
ordenanza.
17/jul/07 - El concejo de la ciudad volvió a votar en contra de una ley que consideraría un crimen
que los arrendadores alquilen propiedad a indocumentados. La propuesta de eliminar esta
resolución fue vetada anteriormente por el gobernador y se espera que tenga el mismo resultado
en esta ocasión.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
La ACLU y otras organizaciones argumentan que la ordenanza es inconstitucional, es demasiado
vaga, y promueve la discriminación.
OPINIONES
Eric Martin, abogado representante de la ciudad: “The new ordinances, if passed, represent a
completely new procedural way of looking at the issue by requiring the city to verify the citizenship
status of potential tenants, which would alleviate landlords' risk and liability”. (6/feb/07)
Eric Martin, abogado representante de la ciudad: "To endorse someone's presence when they're
not here legally is tantamount to violating federal law. We're certainly not assisting the federal
government or our own community by endorsing the employment of these people, or sanctioning
landlords to harbor them."(1/mar/07)
Linda M. Martinez, abogada defensora de los demandantes: "Local officials should not be
enforcing federal law…Cities are not trained to be immigration agents…it's not their job." (1/mar/07)
Larry Mueller, residente de Valley Park: "What was passed by the board has nothing to do with
what was presented by citizens (earlier this month) to the city. Residents are saying they want to
stop the legal spending on this issue -- now. The resolution says (the city) will finish spending
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money to defend the current legislation and then not introduce any new laws. That's an
irresponsible dodge of what we've requested." (26/jun/07)
EFECTOS
LUGAR
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
MISSOURI
Executive Order 07-13
En vigor.
Each state agency shall audit all of the contractors doing business with the state to ensure that the
current employees of those contractors are legally eligible to work within the United States. Each
agency shall collect the information required to make such a determination and verify its accuracy. If
the state determines that a current contractor employs any persons who are not eligible to work in
the United States in violation of federal law, the contractor shall be in breach of contract and the
state may lawfully terminate the contract and suspend or debar the contractor from doing business
with the State of Missouri.
All future state contracts shall include a provision that allows the state to declare a breach and to
cancel the contract immediately, with no penalty, if the state has reasonable cause to believe that
the contractor has knowingly employed individuals who are not eligible to work in the United States
in violation of federal law. All state agencies shall require every contractor who does business with
the state to certify in writing that any employee of the contractor assigned to perform services under
the contract is eligible to work in the United States.
28/ago/07 - Gov. Matt Blunt issued a directive that will tighten oversight of state-financed
construction projects to ensure that contractors don't employ illegal immigrants
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
LUGAR
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
ST. CHARLES COUNTY, MO
Pendiente
Solicitaría un Memorandum de Entendimiento con la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
10/sep/07 - The St. Charles County Council voted unanimously Monday night to take the first step
toward a partnership with federal authorities to combat illegal immigration.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
MONTANA
JURISDICCIÓN MONTANA
TITULO
An act prohibiting the granting of certain professional and occupational licenses or renewals of
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ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
those licenses to unlawful aliens; and providing an immediate effective date and a retroactive
applicability date (SB 258)
No aprobada.
Section 1. Unlawful alien not to be licensed. (1) before granting a license for the first time after [the
effective date of this act] or renewing an expired or lapsed license on or after that date, a board, or
the department for a department program, shall determine whether the individual to be licensed or
renewed is an unlawful alien. if a board or department determines that the individual is an unlawful
alien, the board or department may not grant or renew the license.
(2) this section:
(a) does not authorize or require a board or the department to take disciplinary action, such as
the revocation of a license, against an individual only because the individual is an unlawful alien;
(b) does not prevent a board or the department from taking appropriate action against a
licensee or applicant who is an unlawful alien who has misrepresented the unlawful alien's
immigration status or otherwise committed unprofessional conduct, of the type specified in 37-1316, with regard to that status and a license application or renewal; and
(c) applies to licenses granted by:
(i) a board or the department pursuant to this title;
(ii) the board of athletics, provided for in 2-15-1772, pursuant to title 23, chapter 3;
(iii) the department pursuant to title 50, chapter 74, part 3; and
(iv) the department pursuant to title 50, chapter 76, part 1.
(3) Once an applicant for a license or renewal of a license has been determined by the
department not to be an unlawful alien, that determination may be used by the department for the
purposes of subsequent license renewals or applications.
(3)(4) (a) as used in this section, "unlawful alien" is an unauthorized alien, as defined in 8 u.s.c.
1324a(h)(3).
(b) the term does not include an individual who has:
(i) a u.s. passport, a tribal photo identification, or a birth certificate issued by a state, county,
municipal authority, or outlying possession of the united states and bearing an official seal; or
(ii) a federally issued document used to verify employment eligibility, including the following
documents or documents that succeed them:
(a) a u.s. citizen identification card (ins form i-197);
(b) an identification card of a resident citizen of the united states (ins form i-179);
(c) a certificate of u.s. citizenship (ins form n-560 or n-561);
(d) a certificate of naturalization (ins form n-550 or n-570);
(e) an unexpired foreign passport with i-551 stamp or attached ins form i-94;
(f) an unexpired temporary resident card (ins form i-688);
(g) an unexpired employment authorization card or document (ins form i-688a or i-688b with a
photograph);
(h) a permanent resident card or alien registration receipt card with photograph (ins form i-151
or i-551);
(i) a department of defense dd form 214 or an active military identification card if on active duty;
or
(j) an unexpired reentry permit (ins form i-327) or unexpired refugee travel document (ins form i571).
Section 2. Codification instruction. [section 1] is intended to be codified as an integral part of title
37, chapter 1, part 1, and the provisions of title 37, chapter 1, part 1, apply to [section 1].
Section 3. Effective date. [This act] is effective on passage and approval.
Section 4. Retroactive applicability. [This act] applies retroactively, within the meaning of 1-2-109,
to an individual who received a license referred to in [section 1(2)(c)] before [the effective date of
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FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
this act].
20/abr/07 – La iniciativa no es aprobada durante la tercera lectura.
15/feb/07 – El Senado aprueba la propuesta de ley con 27 votos a favor y 23 en contra.
Sen. Jim Shockley, R-Victor, who has sponsored four other bills designed to restrict illegal
immigrants this session, said the majority of Montanans want the government to punish unlawful
workers. He told the Senate that he was "nibbling around the edges" of the issue because
immigration is the federal government's responsibility. "The problem is the Congress passes laws
they don't want the president to enforce. And guess what, he doesn't enforce them.” (15/feb/07)
Sen. Dave Wanzenried, D-Missoula, said a similar effort had been tried in Colorado but failed and
wound up costing taxpayers there $2 million. (15/feb/07)
Sen. Jesse Laslovich, D-Anaconda, said he voted against Shockley's bill because it was bad
policy, not for partisan reasons. "There are already codes in place that protect Montana's workers.”
(15/feb/07)
EFECTOS
Prohíbe a trabajadores indocumentados obtener o renovar licencias de trabajo requeridas para
profesiones como plomero o médico. Los solicitantes tendrían que presentar un número de
seguridad social (SSN), un número de identificación para pago de impuestos, o un permiso de
trabajo para Estados Unidos.
NEBRASKA
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
NEBRASKA
FOR AN ACT relating to labor; to provide a cause of action against 2 employers of illegal
immigrants (LB 1170)
Pospuesta de forma indefinida.
Section 1. The Attorney General, a political 1 subdivision, or a citizen of the state may bring an
action against an employer who knowingly or recklessly recruited or employed illegal immigrants
for recovery of costs related to the provision of public services, including but not limited to public
education costs, health care costs, and public assistance programs, to illegal immigrants and their
family, spouse, or other dependents.
17/abr/08 – Pospuesta de forma indefinida.
25/ene/08 – Enviada al Comité Judicial.
23/ene/08 – Introducida.
Castigaría a aquellos que contraten empleados indocumentados.
NEBRASKA
Encourage law enforcement agencies in Nebraska to enter into a Memoranda of Agreement with
the Secretary of Homeland Security to perform immigration law enforcement functions (LR 224)
Pospuesta de forma indefinida.
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FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
WHEREAS, the State of Nebraska holds an interest in preventing illegal immigration and securing
the public health, safety, and welfare against terrorism and criminal activity; and
WHEREAS, protection of the public health, safety, and welfare is most effectively accomplished by
the utilization of federal, state, and local law enforcement resources; and
WHEREAS, section 287(g) of the federal Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility
Act of 1996 authorizes the Secretary of Homeland Security to enter into agreements with
municipal, county, and state law enforcement agencies granting designated officers of those
agencies the authority to perform immigration law enforcement functions, pursuant to a
Memorandum of Agreement; and
WHEREAS, the Memorandum of Agreement allows municipal, county, and state law enforcement
officers to receive appropriate training in immigration law enforcement from United States
Immigration and Customs Enforcement officers; and
WHEREAS, the Memoranda of Agreement between the secretary and municipal, county, and state
law enforcement agencies have improved immigration law enforcement in several other states.
NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED BY THE MEMBERS OF THE ONE HUNDREDTH
LEGISLATURE OF NEBRASKA, SECOND SESSION:
1. That the Legislature encourages all municipal, county, and state law enforcement agencies in
Nebraska to enter into Memoranda of Agreement, as authorized by section 287(g) of the federal
Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, with the Secretary of
Homeland Security to perform immigration law enforcement functions.
2. That a copy of this resolution be delivered to all municipal, county, and state law enforcement
agencies in the State of Nebraska.
04/mar/08 – Pospuesta de forma indefinida.
11/ene/08 – Enviada al Comité Judicial.
11/ene/08 – Introducida.
Reforzaría la cooperación entre las Agencias policiales del Estado de Nebraska, y el
Departamento de Seguridad Interna de los EE.UU. para la ejecución de las leyes de migración.
NEVADA
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NEVADA
AN ACT relating to employment; requiring the Labor Commissioner to include a link on his website
to the Social Security Administration for employers to verify employee social security numbers; and
providing other matters properly relating thereto. (AB 383)
En vigor.
Section 1. Chapter 200 of NRS is hereby amended by adding thereto the provisions set forth as
sections 1.3 and 1.5 of this act.
Sec. 1.3. 1. A person shall not transport, procure transportation for or assist in the transportation of
or procurement of transportation for another person into the State of Nevada whom he knows or
has reason to know does not have the legal right to enter or remain in the United States with the
intent to:
(a) Subject the person to involuntary servitude or any other act prohibited pursuant to NRS
200.463 or 200.465;
(b) Violate any state or federal labor law, including, without limitation, 8 U.S.C. § 1324a; or
(c) Commit any other crime which is punishable by not less than 1 year imprisonment in the state
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prison.
2. A person who violates the provisions of subsection 1 is guilty of trafficking in persons for illegal
purposes and shall be punished for a category B felony by imprisonment in the state prison for a
minimum term of not less than 1 year and a maximum term of not more than 20 years, and may be
further punished by a fine of not more than $50,000.
Sec. 1.5. 1. A person shall not transport, procure transportation for or assist in the transportation of
or procurement of transportation for another person into the State of Nevada whom he knows or
has reason to know does not have the legal right to enter or remain in the United States in
exchange for money or other financial gain.
2. A person who violates the provisions of subsection 1 is guilty of trafficking in persons and,
unless a greater penalty is provided pursuant to NRS 200.464 or section 1.3 of this act, shall be
punished for a category B felony by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not
less than 1 year and a maximum term of not more than 10 years, and may be further punished by
a fine of not more than $50,000.
…
Sec. 6. Chapter 232 of NRS is hereby amended by adding thereto a new section to read as
follows:
1. The Director shall include on the Internet website maintained by the Department a link which
connects to the Social Security Administration where an employer may verify the social security
number of an employee.
2. The link required pursuant to subsection 1 must be maintained in the area of the website that
encourages and promotes the growth, development and legal operation of businesses within the
State of Nevada.
…
Sec. 9. “Unauthorized alien” has the meaning ascribed to it in 8 U.S.C. § 1324a(h)(3).
Sec. 10. 1. Upon finding that the Attorney General of the United States has made a final decision
and entered an order that a person who holds a state business license has engaged in the
unlawful hiring or employment of an unauthorized alien pursuant to U.S.C. § 1324a(e), the Nevada
Tax Commission shall hold a hearing to determine whether to take action against the person.
2. The Nevada Tax Commission shall consider any proof submitted by the person who holds a
state business license which demonstrates that the person attempted to verify the social security
number of the unauthorized alien within 6 months from the date on which the unauthorized alien
was allegedly employed. Such proof may include, without limitation, a printout from the link
maintained on the Internet website of the Department of Business and Industry pursuant to section
6 of this act. Such proof may be used as prima facie evidence that the violation was not willful,
flagrant or otherwise egregious.
3. If the Nevada Tax Commission determines that the person who holds the state business license
violated the federal law willfully, flagrantly or otherwise egregiously, the Commission shall impose
an administrative fine against the person in an amount established by the Commission by
regulation. Any such administrative fine imposed must be deposited in the State General Fund.
4. The Nevada Tax Commission shall adopt such regulations as it determines necessary to carry
out the provisions of this section.
1/oct/07 – Entrada en vigor.
2/jun/07 – Aprobada por el gobernador de Nevada.
26/may/07 – Aprobada por el Senado.
23/abr/07 – Declarada como medida de emergencia bajo la Constitución de Nevada.
16/mar/07 – Introducida y referida al Comité de Comercio y Labor.
Karen Dickerson, del Departamento Estatal de Impuestos, señaló que la ley se encuentra
obstaculizada por la ley federal de migración ya que la misma “expressly pre-empts state and local
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laws which impose criminal or civil sanctions on employers who hire illegal immigrants.”
Dino DiCianno, Director Estatal de Impuestos, señaló que la Comisión Estatal de Impuestos
“doesn’t have the authority to establish a fine because that pre-empts federal law”. “It doesn’t
mean that they can’t pull a business license. It’s just that they can’t issue a fine.”
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Lee Rowland, American Civil Liberties Union de Nevada, señaló que ella estaba “heartened that
Attorney General Cortez Masto has done the right thing and told the state that this is
unenforceable”.
La ley impone multas a aquellos negocios que empleen migrantes irregulares, asimismo, require
que la Comisión del Trabajo incluya en su página de Internet un vínculo a la Administración de
Seguridad Social para que el patrón verifique los números de seguridad social de sus
trabajadores.
LAS VEGAS METROPOLITAN POLICE DEPARTMENT
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and Las
Vegas Metropolitan Police Department under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality
Act.
En vigor.
Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
8/sep/08 – Firma del Memorandum.
El acuerdo permitirá a los agentes de detención el entrevistar a nacionales extranjeros dentro de
los centros de detención para determinar si existe causa probable de una violación a la ley de
migración. Bajo el programa, los agentes completaran el procesamiento de cualquier delincuente
extranjero y prepararán la documentación para iniciar los procedimientos de deportación.
NUEVA HAMPSHIRE
JURISDICCIÓN
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HUDSON CITY, NH.
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Hudson City Police Department under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Otorga facultades a los agentes del Departamento de Policia de la Ciudad Hudson para indagar el
estatus migratorio de aquellas personas detenidas por otros delitos, y en caso de que dichas
personas tengan un estatus migratorio irregular les otorga facultades para mantenerlas en
detención en lo que son deportadas de los EE.UU.
5/may/07 – Firma del Memorandum.
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NEW JERSEY
Law Enforcement Directive No.2007-3
22/ago/07 – Entrada en vigor.
Attorney General Anne Milgram issued a directive to state law enforcement agencies regarding their
relationship with federal immigration authorities. Local police must inquire about immigration status
after an officer has arrested an individual on serious criminal charges, and shall notify Immigration
Customs Enforcement (“ICE”), the prosecuting agency, and the court if there is a reason to believe
that the arrestee may be an undocumented immigrant.
The directive lists specific indictable offenses and driving while intoxicated as crimes for which a
police officer should ask about an individual’s citizenship, nationality, and immigration status after an
arrest.
The directive also declares that no law enforcement officer shall inquire about or investigate the
immigration status of any victim, witness or person requesting assistance from the police.
22/ago/07 - Attorney General Anne Milgram issued a directive to state law enforcement agencies
regarding their relationship with federal immigration authorities
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NEW JERSEY
An Act concerning certain inmates in correctional facilities and supplementing Title 30 of the
Revised Statutes (A.3286)
Pendiente
1. a. The administrator, superintendent, warden or other person responsible for the operation of a
prison, jail, youth detention or other correctional facility shall identify by documentary evidence the
nationality of every inmate incarcerated in the facility.
b. If an inmate is not a United States citizen as determined pursuant to subsection a. of this section,
the administrator, superintendent, warden or other person responsible for the operation of the
prison, jail, youth detention or other correctional facility shall identify by documentary evidence
whether the inmate is lawfully present in the United States.
c. An administrator, superintendent, warden or other person responsible for the operation of the
prison, jail, youth detention or other correctional facility who cannot determine by documentary
evidence, after due diligence, whether the inmate is a United States citizen as required by
subsection a. of this section or cannot determine whether the inmate is lawfully present in the United
States as required by subsection b. of this act, shall deem the inmate to be unlawfully present in the
United States.
d. An inmate shall not be released from incarceration if the inmate is not a United States citizen or
is not lawfully present in the United States except to the custody of officials of United States
Citizenship and Immigration Services.
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e. An administrator, superintendent, warden or other person responsible for the operation of a
prison, jail, youth detention, or other correctional facility who releases an inmate from incarceration
in violation of this section shall be subject to a civil penalty as set forth by the Commissioner of
Corrections.
12/jun/2006 – Introducida a la Asamblea.
12/jun/2006 – Turnada al Comité Legal y de Seguridad Pública.
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Requiere que los administradores, superintendentes y personal de los centros de prisión estatal,
determinen la nacionalidad de los convictos así como su estatus migratorio. En caso de que el
convicto no sea residente legal, éste no podrá ser puesto en libertad y se les notificará a los
oficiales del USCIS.
JURISDICCIÓN FREEHOLD, NJ (Monmouth County)
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO Ordenanza que requeriría a los arrendadores verificar el estatus migratorio legal o la ciudadanía
de sus inquilinos, basada en una de las quince recomendaciones que presentó el Comité Asesor
de Renta de Propiedades en la población de Freehold (Freehold Borough Rental Property
Advisory Committee) al Cabildo.
FECHAS
5/feb/07 - El Comité Asesor de Renta de Propiedades en la población de Freehold (Freehold
Borough Rental Property Advisory Committee) presenta sus recomendaciones al Cabildo,
incluyendo la propuesta de ordenanza.
5/mar/07 – Audiencia pública en el Cabildo (Freehold Borough Council) para evaluar la posibilidad
de adoptar una ordenanza que requeriría a los arrendadores verificar el estatus migratorio legal o
la ciudadanía de sus inquilinos.
- Protesta pacífica fuera del Cabildo organizada por Casa Freehold, United Day Laborers of
Freehold (Jornaleros Unidos de Freehold) y el capítulo de Monmouth County de la Latino
Leadership Alliance en contra de la ordenanza y pidiendo la renuncia del Concejal Levine, quien
hizo comentarios que se consideraron discriminatorios en contra de la comunidad latina. El
Concejal Marc Levine se disculpó frente a los manifestantes por sus declaraciones y el alcalde
Michael Wilson señaló que las opiniones del concejal no reflejan la posición de las autoridades.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
Frank Argote-Freyre, miembro del Comité Asesor de Renta, expresó su desacuerdo con esta
recomendación de sus colegas y envió una carta al Alcalde Michael Wilson en la que manifiesta su
oposición a una ordenanza de este tipo. Argumentó que medidas de esta naturaleza son
discriminatorias e impondrán a los arrendadores responsabilidades que no les corresponden.
300 personas acuden a la protesta fuera del Cabildo. Los participantes eran mayoritariamente de
origen latino y llevaban banderas mexicanas y estadounidenses y pancartas en inglés y español.
No se reportaron disturbios ni arrestos.
OPINIONES
Carta de Frank Argote-Freyre, miembro del Comite de Rentas al Alcalde Michael Wilson: the
enactment of such a law would "turn borough landlords into immigration officials, a role that would
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place an unjust burden on them and which would have a discriminatory impact on some renters."
Such an ordinance is "likely unconstitutional." (13/feb/07)
Concejal Marc Le Vine: "Bad landlords and their tenants may want to think twice about setting up
shop in a town that is positioning itself to hit them very hard when they cross over the line. The
Rental Property Advisory Committee deserves the town's appreciation and additional support for
continuing to lead the way. They have proved to us that a group of average citizens ... are quite
capable of coming up with local solutions to local issues". (13/feb/07)
Concejal Robert Crawford "We have to get tough with landlords and if we have to embarrass them,
we're going to do this publicly. Hopefully, these proposed recommendations will address the 95
percent absentee landlords in our town. We need to make it tough on them and keep trying to bring
about stability in our town." (13/feb/07)
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN MORRISTOWN, NJ
TITULO
Memorandum of Agreement for 287(g) with the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE)
to establish a task force to investigate, detect, and deter violations of federal immigration law by
employers within the town of Morristown.
ESTATUS
Pendiente
CONTENIDO Solicitud a la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas (Immigration and Customs Enforcement) del
Departamento de Seguridad Interior, con el fin de firmar un memorándum de entendimiento
conforme a la sección 287(g) de la Ley de Inmigración y Naturalización que permitiría entrenar y
otorgar facultades de autoridad migratoria a 10 miembros de la policía local (de un total de 58
policías). De ser aprobada esta solicitud, el memorándum le conferiría dicha jurisdicción a un
número determinado de miembros de la policía de esa ciudad para verificar el estatus migratorio
de personas detenidas bajo la sospecha de haber cometido un delito, e imponer cargos por
violaciones migratorias y entregarlos a las autoridades federales.
FECHAS
9/mar/07 - El Alcalde de la ciudad de Morristown, Nueva Jersey, Donald Cresitello, presenta la
solicitud a la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas.
27/mar/07 – El martes el Concejo municipal votó 6 a 1 a favor de la medida, aunque por ley el
Alcalde no necesitaba la aprobación y ya había enviado la petición al ICE.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
23/ago/07 – El Alcalde de la ciudad de Morristown, Nueva Jersey, Donald Cresitello, envió una
carta al representante del gobierno federal, Christopher J. Christie, United Status Attorney,
solicitando se firme el memorando de entendimiento propuesto.
29/mar/07 – Un grupo de personas, incluyendo al grupo jornaleros Cajola, protestó a las afueras
del Concejo en contra de la iniciativa.
Abr/07 - Organizaciones comunitarias en Nueva Jersey, lideradas por la Alianza de Liderazgo
Hispano (la organización latina más grande del estado) enviaron una carta al secretario de
Seguridad Nacional, Michael Chertoff, solicitando que rechace el pedido de la municipalidad de
Morristown para que policías actúen como agentes de inmigración.
OPINIONES
Concejal Dick Tighe: "We have stacking issues, we have education issues, and in fairness to the
workers, a lot of them are being ripped off because they don't have proper documentation".
(13/mar/07)
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Elissa Steglich, abogada de American Friends Service Committee: "To strike fear of adverse immi
gration consequences, that's going to build silence and it's going to make communities less safe"
(13/mar/07).
Peter Demnitz, Jefe de la Policia de Morristown: "I believe that the mayor's heart's in the right
place. He's trying to respond to concerns about stacking issues...However, "right now, I don't see
how it's going to work in Morristown and whether it's going to have the effect that people and the
mayor are hoping it will have." (13/mar/07)
Gayle Kesselman, presidente de New Jersey Citizens for Immigration Control en Carlstadt: "I'd like
to see it happening all over New Jersey. We can't rely on the federal government to enforce our
immigration laws. It is a local problem as well as a federal problem." (13/mar/07)
Alison Hunt, Wings of the Spirit: “Estuvimos presentes para oponernos porque la Policía no puede
tener los mismos poderes que Inmigración; aunque no hay nada decidido, los inmigrantes están
temerosos porque al final la propuesta tiene un perfil racial”. (29/mar/07)
Editorial The New York Times: “The one thing you can say for certain about the controversy over
day laborers is that it incites people to the boiling point. That is certainly true in Morristown , where
the mayor, instead of trying to calm tempers, seems to be doing everything he can to turn up the
heat. […] At this point, Mayor Cresitello should lower his voice and pursue a constructive approach.
An essential first step would be to set up a hiring site, with toilets, where day laborers looking for
work could gather and contractors could hire them. Officials at the site would monitor and register
both workers and contractors, to discourage worker disorderliness and deter unscrupulous
contractors. This could go a long way towards defusing the issue.” (8/abr/07)
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RIVERSIDE TOWNSHIP, NJ
Ordinance No. 2006#16: “Riverside Township Illegal Immigration Relief Act”."
Abrogada.
Sanciona a empleadores que contraten a migrantes indocumentados con multas y cancelación de
sus licencias y permisos.
Sanciona a caseros que alquilen propiedades a migrantes indocumentados con multas de un
mínimo de $1000 dls.
La ordenanza describe como su objetivo “abatir la molestia de la migración indocumentada” y
acusa a la población de migrantes indocumentados de los altos costos de los servicios públicos, el
aumento del crimen y de afectar negativamente la calidad de vida de los residentes legales.
17/sep/07 – El Concejo de la ciudad, en una votación de 3 a 1, abrogó la ordenanza.
18/jun/07 – El Concejo de la ciudad acuerda formalmente no aplicar la ordenanza debido a un
litigio pendiente.
Jul/06 – Aprobada por el Concejo de la ciudad.
15/ago/06 –la Nacional Coalition of Latino Clergy and Christian Leaders presenta una demanda en
contra de la ordenanza. Esta demanda busca la anulación de la ordenanza y pide 10 millones de
dólares en compensación para los inmigrantes que han dejado la ciudad por miedo a ser víctimas
de discriminación.
20/ago/06 – Protesta de 200 personas en contra de la ordenanza y contraprotesta de un grupo
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mayor a favor de la ordenanza.
21/sep/06 – El PRLDEF, ACLU y Riverside Coalition of Business Owners and Landlords, entre
otros grupos, envían una carta al Concejo de la ciudad y al alcalde solicitando que se revoque la
ordenanza.
18/oct/06- EL PRLDEF, ACLU, People For the American Way Foundation, entre otros
representantes legales, presentan una demanda en contra de la ordenanza.
Dic/06 - El alcalde Charles Hilton, quien propuso la ley, considera la posibilidad de revocar la
ordenanza ante los altos costos del proceso legal.
REACCIONES
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OPINIONES
Las demandas en contra de la ordenanza argumentan que sobrepasa la autoridad federal; que
viola las leyes de vivienda y la Ley de Derechos Civiles; y que la terminología es vaga y ambigua.
Marlene Lao-Collins, directora asociada de New Jersey Catholic Conference: "This can only lead
to more separation, more hostility, more hatred, more anger. As we have seen, this ordinance has
already created hostility toward all immigrants, whether they are illegal or not." (20/ago/06)
Paul Tursi, jefe de la policía: “Riverside hasn't fined any employers or landlords yet because
officials want to make sure they get all their "ducks in a row" first. The first time this is enforced, it
could be a test case, so we want to make sure to do it right." (15/oct/06)
James Katx, abogado de Spear Wilderman, P.C., colaborador de ACLU en el proceso de
demanda: “State law simply does not permit Riverside to exclude immigrants from the township.
Nor can they regulate the rental or hiring decisions of Riverside businesses and landlords.”
(18/oct/06)
Elliot Mincberg, vice presidente y director legal de People For the American Way Foundation: “This
ordinance is so vague and overbroad that it’s virtually impossible to obey and appears to ban a
large amount of innocent conduct. Even a hospital or church that allows an immigrant on its
premises could be charged with a violation.” (18/oct/06)
Carta de ACLU, PRLDEF y otros grupos al Concejo de la Ciudad y al Alcalde: "[the ordinance]
infringes on the exclusive federal power over immigration. ... Though the Township may disagree
with federal policies or the manner in which the federal government is performing its job with
respect to immigration, neither Riverside nor the thousands of other cities and municipalities across
this country can take on that task." (21/sep/06)
EFECTOS
The Coalition of Riverside Business Owners and Landlords will probably drop its lawsuit
challenging the ordinance, said David Verduin, president of the group. (18/sep/07, New York
Times)
Junto con el caso de Hazleton, PA la demanda en contra de la ordenanza de Riverside se ha
considerado como un caso de prueba para el resto de las localidades que han presentado
ordenanzas similares. (30/oct/06)
Riverside fue el primer municipio de Nueva Jersey que adoptó una ordenanza de este tipo.
Los negocios de la ciudad han reportado pérdidas de hasta 40% desde que se aprobó la
ordenanza y se estima que un gran número de migrantes, principalmente brasileños, han salido de
la ciudad.
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BURLINGTON COUNTY, NJ
Pendiente
Solicitaría un Memorandum de Entendimiento con la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
12/sep/07 - The Burlington County Board of Freeholders today approved a proposal by the county
sheriff to deputize sheriff’s officers and corrections officers for immigration enforcement duties.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
NUEVA YORK
JURISDICCIÓN NUEVA YORK
TITULO
AN ACT to amend the state administrative procedure act, in relation to denial, suspension and
revocation of a license by a state agency for violations of the federal immigration reform and
control act of 1986 (S76) (A608)
ESTATUS
Pendiente
CONTENIDO § 402. Denial, suspension and revocation of license for immigration law violations. Any agency may
deny, suspend or revoke a license, for a period not to exceed five years, on the ground that the
licensee, within a five year period, violated either section 274A (a)(1)(A) or section 274A(a)(2), or
both such sections of the federal immigration reform and control act of 1986 (8 U.S.C. Sec.
1324a (a)(1)(A) and section 1324a(a)(2), respectively) on two or more separate occasions,
each involving one or more employees, in connection with the business, profession, or other
activity for which that license is required. For purposes of this section, a violation of section 274A
(a)(1)(A) or section 274A(a)(2) of the federal immigration reform and control act of 1986 shall be
deemed to have occurred only if there has been a final determination, pursuant to such act,
that the licensee violated either such section. ….
FECHAS
31/mar/08 – Avanza para tercer lectura.
9/ene/08 – Enviada al Comité de Comercio, Desarrollo Económico y Pequeñas Empresas.
21/jun/07 – Iniciativa S76 turnada al Comité de Reglas.
30/may/07 – Iniciativa S76 avanza a tercera lectura.
3/ene/07 – Iniciativa S76 introducida al Senado y turnada al Comité de Comercio, Desarrollo
Económico y Pequeñas Empresas.
3/ene/07 – Clark introduce la iniciativa A608 al Senado de Nueva York y es turnada al Comité de
Operaciones Gubernamentales.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
La legislación en comento busca revocar la licencia –para aquellas actividades laborales que la
requieran- a aquellas personas que violen la ley federal a través de la contratación de migrantes
ilegales. Esta iniciativa tiene por objeto sancionar a los inmigrantes indocumentados que laboran
en los Estados Unidos en un negocio, ejerciendo una profesión u otra actividad para la cual la
licencia fue solicitada.
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JURISDICCIÓN NUEVA YORK
TITULO
AN ACT to amend the executive law, in relation to cooperation between police agencies and
the United States bureau of immigration and customs enforcement (A6495)
ESTATUS
Pendiente
CONTENIDO § 838-a. Cooperation between police agencies and the United States bureau of immigration and
customs enforcement. 1. Every police agency in the state as defined in subdivision eight of
section eight hundred thirty-five of this article, shall fully cooperate with the United States
bureau of immigration and customs enforcement regarding any person who is arrested under
state law and who is reasonably suspected of being present in the United States in violation of
federal immigration laws.
2. With respect to any such person who is so arrested and who is reasonably suspected of
being present in the United States in violation of federal immigration laws, every law enforcement
agency shall do the following: (a) Attempt to verify the status of such person as one of the
following: (i) a citizen of the United States; (ii) an alien lawfully admitted as a permanent resident;
(iii) an alien lawfully admitted for a temporary period of time; (iv) a person who is otherwise
authorized under federal law to be present in the United States; or (v) an alien who is present
in the United States in violation of federal immigration laws.
FECHAS
9/ene/08 – Turnada nuevamente al Comité de Operaciones.
12/mar/07 – Introducida a la Asamblea y turnada al Comité de Operaciones.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
Obligará a las agencias estatales a verificar el estatus migratorio de aquellas personas detenidas
por violaciones a la ley estatal y que sean sospechosas de ser migrantes irregulares, de igual
forma dichas agencias deberán notificar al Procurador y al Servicio de Inmigración y Control de
Aduanas (BICE) sobre el status las personas detenidas y cooperarán con las agencias federales.
Prohibe que se adopte cualquier medida por parte de los gobiernos locales que limite dicha
cooperación.
JURISDICCIÓN NUEVA YORK
TITULO
AN ACT to amend the executive law, in relation to the state office of Homeland Security; and
making an appropriation therefor (A08560)
ESTATUS
Pendiente
CONTENIDO § 715. Memorandums of agreement and grants. 1. The director shall coordinate Memorandums of
Agreement (MOA) between the secretary of the United States Department of Homeland Security
(DHS) and state and local law enforcement agencies, including but not limited to the Division of the
State Police, permitting designated officers to perform immigration law enforcement functions in
accordance with the provisions of section 287(g) of the federal Illegal Immigration Reform and
Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRAIRA).
2. Notwithstanding any other provision of law and subject to the availability of an appropriation,
the director shall administer and distribute grants to interested local law enforcement agencies in
order that their officers are able to receive appropriate training and function under the supervision
of sworn U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) officers according to the provisions of
section 287(g) of IIRAIRA. The director shall promulgate all appropriate rules and regulations
pertaining to applications for and awards of such grants.
FECHAS
9/ene/08 – Turnada nuevamente al Comité de Operaciones Gubernamentales.
18/may/07 - Introducida a la Asamblea y turnada al Comité de Operaciones Gubernamentales.
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REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
Faculta al director de la Oficina de Seguridad Interna para que vele por el cumplimiento de las
leyes de inmigración y administre y distribuya becas para brindar entrenamiento a las autoridades
locales.
JURISDICCIÓN NUEVA YORK
TITULO
AN ACT to amend the executive law, in relation to cooperation between police agencies and the
United States bureau of immigration and customs enforcement (S71)
ESTATUS
Pendiente
CONTENIDO § 838-a. Cooperation between police agencies and the United States bureau of immigration and
customs enforcement. 1. Every police agency in the state as defined in subdivision eight of
section eight hundred thirty-five of this article, shall fully cooperate with the United States
bureau of immigration and customs enforcement regarding any person who is arrested under
state law and who is reasonably suspected of being present in the United States in violation of
federal immigration laws.
2. With respect to any such person who is so arrested and who is reasonably suspected of
being present in the United States in violation of federal immigration laws, every law enforcement
agency shall do the following:
(a) Attempt to verify the status of such person as one of the following: (i) a citizen of the United
States; (ii) an alien lawfully admitted as a permanent resident;
(iii) an alien lawfully admitted for a temporary period of time; (iv) a person who is otherwise
authorized under federal law to be present in the United States; or (v) an alien who is present in the
United States in violation of federal immigration laws. The verification process may include, but
shall not be limited to, questioning the person regarding his place and date of birth and entry into
the United States and requesting to see documentation indicating his legal status.
(b) Notify the person of his suspected status as an alien who is present in the United States in
violation of federal immigration laws.
(c) Notify the attorney general and the United States bureau of immigration and customs
enforcement of such person's suspected illegal immigration status and provide any additional
information that may be requested by any other public entity.
3. Any legislative, administrative or other action by a city, county or other local governmental entity,
or by a law enforcement agency, to prevent or limit the cooperation required by subdivision one of
this section shall be prohibited.
4. Whenever a state, city, county or other local governmental entity reports a person who is
suspected of being present in the United States in violation of federal immigration laws to the
attorney general, that report shall be transmitted to the United States bureau of immigration and
customs enforcement. The attorney general shall be responsible for maintaining complete and
accurate records of such reports, and shall provide any additional information that may be
requested by any other government entity.
FECHAS
9/ene/08 – Turnada nuevamente al Comité de Finanzas.
21/jun/07 – Turnada al Comité de Reglas
30/abr/07 – Promovida a la tercera lectura.
3/ene/07 – Introducida al Senado de Nueva York y turnada al Comité de Finanzas.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
Establece la cooperación entre las agencies de policía y la oficina de Servicio de Inmigración y
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Control de Aduanas de Estados Unidos (BICE, por sus siglas en inglés), ante la detención de un
individuo con base en la ley estatal y de quien se sospecha residir en los Estados Unidos en
violación de las leyes federales de inmigración. Prohíbe cualquier acción administrativa o de otra
índole ejecutada por localidades que prevenga o limite dicha colaboración.
JURISDICCIÓN SUFFOLK COUNTY, NY
TITULO
Introductory Resolution 2025 - Adopting Local Law No. 52 -2006, A Local Law to require
companies doing business with the County to certify compliance with Federal Law with respect to
lawful hiring of employees.
ESTATUS
En vigor
CONTENIDO Requiere que las empresas, organizaciones y negocios que obtengan contratos del condado
firmen una declaración jurada anual confirmando que todos sus empleados tienen estatus legal en
Estados Unidos.
Las sanciones incluyen penalizaciones hasta por $2000 dólares, encarcelamiento por periodos de
hasta 6 meses y cancelación de los contratos para las compañías que reincidan en este tipo de
violaciones a la ley.
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
19/sep/06 – Adoptada por la Legislatura de Suffolk.
12/jul/06 –Steve Levy introduce la iniciativa en la Legislatura de Suffolk.
8/ago/06 –Audiencia pública
16/ago/06 – Enmienda para incluir una cláusula de anti-discriminación a empleados.
22/ago/06 –Audiencia pública.
5/sep/06 –Audiencia pública.
19/sep/06 -Aprobada por la Legislatura de Suffolk.
4/oct/06 –Firmada como ley por el Ejecutivo del Condado.
1/ene/07 –Entrada en vigor
Durante la audiencia pública en la Legislatura, varios representantes de grupos de migrantes
(Hispanic American Association, Central American Refugee Center y el Workplace Project, entre
otros) y líderes de sindicatos (entre ellos el 1199 SEIU United Health Care Workers East) pidieron
a los legisladores rechazar la propuesta. (8/ago/06)
En una carta a los legisladores, el PRLDEF señaló que la propuesta de Levy es ilegal porque
infringe sobre la autoridad federal para aplicar las leyes migratorias. (16/ago/06)
La Long Island Association (LIA), la asociación más grande de negocios de la región de Long
Island, se pronunció en contra de la iniciativa de ley de Steve Levy considerando que dejaría
desprotegidos a negocios que actúan de “buena fe” y significaría penalizaciones excesivas.
(20/ago/06)
Más de 200 miembros de sindicatos, miembros de organizaciones de defensa de migrantes e
individuos se reunieron fuera de las instalaciones de la Asamblea para manifestarse en contra de
la iniciativa del Ejecutivo del Condado. (22/ago/06)
Durante la segunda sesión de la Asamblea Pública sobre la iniciativa IR 2025, el Ejecutivo Levy
anunció cuatro enmiendas a su iniciativa original. Esta nueva versión incluye sanciones más
severas en contra de las empresas que discriminen al hacer contrataciones así como medidas
para proteger a los empleadores que actúen de “buena fe” al verificar que sus trabajadores
cumplan los requisitos para trabajar en Estados Unidos. (5/sep/06)
153
El Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund y American Civil Liberties Union, entre otras
organizaciones, considerarán la posibilidad de presentar una demanda en contra del condado,
bajo el argumento de que la instrumentación de estas leyes es responsabilidad del gobierno
federal y no el gobierno local. (5/sep/06)
OPINIONES
El 1199 SEIU United Health Care Workers East, declaró que esta propuesta es discriminatoria y
que el Ejecutivo del Condado ha ido demasiado lejos en su campaña en contra de la migración
indocumentada. (8/ago/06)
Levy argumenta que frente al estancamiento de la reforma migratoria en el Congreso y la
ineficiente aplicación de la ley por parte de las autoridades a nivel federal, es necesario que los
gobiernos locales tomen la iniciativa para reducir la migración indocumentada. NY. (8/ago/06)
Carlos Canales, miembro del Workplace Project, llamó a Levy "un político anti-inmigrante” que
está utilizando el asunto con fines políticos. “Todo lo que ha hecho es tomar un látigo para golpear
al inmigrante, para atacarnos” (16/ago/06)
El Representante Peter King (R-NY) “endosó” la propuesta del Ejecutivo del Condado de Suffolk y
argumentó que en la medida que el Gobierno federal no logre controlar los flujos migratorios no
regulados, la iniciativa presentada en Suffolk “debería ser reproducida en todo el país”.
(17/ago/06)
Algunos contratistas del condado de Suffolk expresan su apoyo a la iniciativa de Levy,
argumentando que han perdido contratos por la competencia de compañías con trabajadores nosindicalizados que han sido contratadas para realizar proyectos del gobierno local. (20/ago/06)
Entre los grupos que apoyaron la iniciativa destacan la Greater Farmingville Civic Association y el
Suffolk County Minuteman Defense Corps, quienes describieron a la migración indocumentada
como una “invasión” que afecta la calidad de vida en la zona. (22/ago/06)
Los legisladores que se opusieron a esta medida (Ricardo Montano (D-Central Islip), Elie Mystal
(D-Amityville) y Vivian Viloria-Fisher (D-Setauket)) argumentaron que es innecesaria ya que no hay
evidencia de compañías contratadas por el condado que empleen a trabajadores indocumentados.
Asimismo, señalaron que esta ley no contribuye a resolver los problemas relacionados con la
migración indocumentada en la zona. (22/ago/06)
EFECTOS
Se calcula que la propuesta de Levy afectaría a 6,000 de los 10,000 contratos del condado y se
extendería además a organizaciones no lucrativas y de servicio social que también trabajan para
el condado.
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
SUFFOLK COUNTY, NY
s/t
Pendiente
Fortalecer la labor de investigación y deportación de inmigrantes indocumentados en las cárceles
del condado por medio del programa Criminal Alien Program, el cual contará con el apoyo de
tiempo completo de oficiales de la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas (ICE) y utilizará la base de
datos federal Basic Pilot Program para identificar a inmigrantes indocumentados.
28/feb/07 - El Ejecutivo del Condado de Suffolk, Steve Levy, anuncia una serie de medidas para
FECHAS
154
controlar la presencia de jornaleros e inmigrantes indocumentados en este condado, entre ellas: el
fortalecimiento de la investigación y procesos de deportación de inmigrantes indocumentados y
una propuesta anti-vagabundeo en contra de los jornaleros de la zona.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
Patrick Young, Long Island Immigrant Alliance: "This is Levy doing his sort of pathetic headline
grabbing" (28/feb/07)
Steve Levy, Ejecutivo del Condado: [The aim of all these measures is to protect residents who] "do
not want to see their neighborhood turned upside down"..."There's frustration on the local level
regarding our nation's broken borders"... "We're trying to chip away at the problem by creating local
legislation." (28/feb/07)
Jack Eddington (WFP- Shirley), co-autor de la iniciativa anti-vagabundeo: "If you're here in Suffolk
County illegally, you will not stay here. If you are on the street looking for work and causing unsafe
conditions, you will not stay. Suffolk County residents will not be victimized anymore." (28/feb/07)
Joseph T. Caracappa (R-Selden), co-autor de la iniciativa anti-vagabundeo: Taxpayers have "had
enough" and people had begun to move out of the county. "Go down your block and see all the
For Sale signs" (28/feb/07)
Vincent DeMarco, Sheriff del condado: "We want them out of county jails and into federal prisons
ASAP" (28/feb/07).
Nadia Marin-Molina, Directora Ejecutiva, Workplace Project: "He's attacking a community for
political gain. He's making sure the public remembers that he is anti-immigrant. He's playing to antiimmigrant sentiment for political gain, just to get additional votes. Suffolk County has low wages
and a high cost of living, and he's telling them to blame the immigrants. We've tried to meet with
him, but he's refused. He won't work with us and won't do anything to address the real issues. He'll
only attack us." (28/feb/07)
Rev. Allan Ramirez: "They should be out looking for criminals who are actually running around
loose and trying to harm our country. That's what they should be doing rather than promoting
Levy's anti-Latino agenda." (28/feb/07)
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN SUFFOLK COUNTY, NY
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO § 275-3. Application procedure; qualifications; examinations.
B. Qualifications of applicant.
(6) All applications shall include a representation by the applicant that they will use the E-Verify
Internet-based system, operated by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in partnership
with the Social Security Administration (SSA), to verify the employment eligibility of their newly
hired employees, and maintain records documenting their use of E-Verify during the term of their
license. If such representation is not made, a license will not be issued. A licensee’s failure to
utilize E-Verify as described herein, shall constitute grounds for the imposition of a fine or the
suspension or revocation of a license or the denial of a application for the renewal of a license, in
accordance with the applicable provisions of this Chapter.
155
…
Chapter 345 LICENSED OCCUPATIONS
ARTICLE I, Provisions Applicable to All Licenses
§ 345-5. Application Procedure; information required; qualifications; issuance of license.
(M) All applications shall include a representation by the applicant that they will use the E-Verify
Internet-based system, operated by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in partnership
with the Social Security Administration (SSA), to verify the employment eligibility of their newly
hired employees, and maintain records documenting their use of E-Verify during the term of their
license. If such representation is not made, a license will not be issued. A licensee’s failure to
utilize E-Verify as described herein, shall constitute grounds for the imposition of a fine or the
suspension or revocation of a license or the denial of an application for the renewal of a license, in
accordance with the applicable provisions of this Chapter.
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN SUFFOLK COUNTY, NY
TITULO
Adopting Local Law No. -2008, A Local Law to promote fair business practices by strengthening
requirements for occupational licenses (Introductory Resolution 1105)
ESTATUS
Invalidada por un Juez.
CONTENIDO Chapter 345 LICENSED OCCUPATIONS
ARTICLE I, Provisions Applicable to All Licenses
****
§ 345-5. Application Procedure; information required; qualifications; issuance of license.
****
K.
All license applications shall include a representation by the applicant that they are in
compliance with Title 8 U.S.C. Section 1324a, with respect to the hiring of employees. If such
representation is not made, a license shall not be issued. An applicant shall be obligated to
continue to comply with the requirements of Title 8 U.S.C. Section 1324a, during the term of their
license and their failure to so comply shall constitute grounds for the imposition of a fine or the
suspension or revocation of a license or the denial of an application for the renewal of a license, in
accordance with the applicable provisions of this Chapter.
L.
All applications shall include a representation by the applicant that they are making all
required payroll tax payments for their employees including Social Security taxes, Medicare taxes,
and state and federal unemployment taxes. If such representation is not made, a license will not
be issued. The applicant’s failure to make required payroll tax payments during the term of their
license shall constitute grounds for the imposition of a fine or the suspension or revocation of a
license or the denial of an application for the renewal of a license, in accordance with the
applicable provisions of this Chapter.
FECHAS
2/jun/08 – Un juez de la Suprema Corte de Nueva York invalidó dicha ley, por considerar que la
asamblea no siguió el proceso debido en la adopción de la misma.
13/may/08 – Aprobada.
5/feb/08 – Introducida por Brian Beedenbender.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
De ser aprobada dicha iniciativa obligaría a los cerca de 15,000 contratistas de Suffolk, NY, a
156
probar que sus empleados pueden trabajar legalmente en los EE.UU.
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
VILLAGE OF BREWSTER, NY
Adopting the 287(g) Program.
Adoptada.
Requiere que la policía municipal reciba entrenamiento para actuar como agentes de inmigración.
Esta capacitación está contemplada en la sección 287 (g) del programa del Acta de Inmigración y
Nacionalidad, creado en 2002, inicialmente para dar entrenamiento a los policías de los
correccionales y a miembros de la oficina del alguacil para que éstos puedan verificar los
documentos de una persona y les dé autoridad para referirlos a una corte de inmigración.
14/ago/07 – Introducida y adoptada.
John Dignan, Alcalde de Brewster, “Taken together, I am confident that these solutions will benefit
the Village of Brewster and Town of Southeast substantially. Since we need assistance from our
federal, state and county representatives to see this effort come to fruition, I will continue to lead
the effort to gain commitments from each of our elected representatives.
In closing, I spoke with the president of the local Fraternal Order of Police, Jim O’Neil, about the
issues of enforcement of criminal illegal alien law. Jim’s an expert. He stated to me that the federal
government does not have the means or the will to deal with the illegal immigrant problem
effectively. He stated that the solutions will be found at the local level with good work by the
professionals of law enforcement, and the 287(g) program– and he is right. That is why I believe
we must continue forward with my proposed solutions, for the benefit of our entire community.”
(From the Desk of Mayor John DegnaFrom Degnan - August 14, 2007, p.4)
EFECTOS
NUEVO MÉXICO
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
NEW MEXICO DEPARTMENT OF CORRECTIONS
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and New
Mexico Department of Corrections under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
17/sep/07 – Firma del Memorandum.
El acuerdo permitirá a los agentes de detención el entrevistar a nacionales extranjeros dentro de
los centros de detención para determinar si existe causa probable de una violación a la ley de
migración. Bajo el programa, los agentes completaran el procesamiento de cualquier delincuente
extranjero y prepararán la documentación para iniciar los procedimientos de deportación.
157
OHIO
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
BUTLER COUNTY, OH.
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Butler County Sheriff’s Office under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
5/feb/08 – Firma del Memorandum.
El acuerdo permitirá a los agentes de detención del aguacil el entrevistar a nacionales extranjeros
dentro de los centros de detención para determinar si existe causa probable de una violación a la
ley de migración. Bajo el programa, los agentes completaran el procesamiento de cualquier
delincuente extranjero y prepararán la documentación para iniciar los procedimientos de
deportación.
Asimismo, otorga facultades a los agentes del alguacil del Condado para indagar el estatus
migratorio de aquellas personas detenidas por otros delitos, y en caso de que dichas personas
tengan un estatus migratorio irregular les otorga facultades para mantenerlas en detención en lo
que son deportadas de los EE.UU.
OKLAHOMA
JURISDICCIÓN OKLAHOMA
TITULO
HB 1804, "Oklahoma Taxpayer and Citizen Protection Act of 2007"
Auspiciada por Rep. Randy Terrill.
ESTATUS
En vigor desde el 1 de noviembre de 2007.
Firmada por el gobernador el 8/may/07.
CONTENIDO Requiere a los empleadores verificar el estatus de nuevos trabajadores por medio del sistema de
verificación federal (Basic Pilot Program).
Además, restringe la emisión de licencias de manejo y tarjetas de identificación a ciudadanos e
inmigrantes con estatus migratorio regular. Requiere a las agencias estatales y locales verificar el
estatus migratorio de los solicitantes de beneficios estatales o locales, incluyendo acceso a la
salud y a la educación pública.
Considera como delito encubrir o transportar a un inmigrante indocumentado dentro del estado. La
pena sería un mínimo de un año en la cárcel, multas de hasta $1000 dólares, o ambas.
FECHAS
28/feb/07 – Aprobada por el Comité Judicial y de Seguridad Pública de la Asamblea por 14 votos
contra 3.
158
8/mar/07 – Aprobada por la Asamblea por 88 votos contra 9.
16/abr/07 – Aprobada por el Senado Estatal con algunas enmiendas por 41 votos contra 6.
8/may/07 – El gobernador Brad Henry firma la iniciativa de ley.
21/jun/07 – El Asambleista Randy Terrill (R), autor de la iniciativa, se reúne con grupos de
ciudadanos en Dallas para hablar sobre la iniciativa, la cual ha sido considerada como modelo
para otros estados que consideran medidas similares.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
31/oct/07 – El Juez de Distrito, de la Corte para el Distrito Norte de Oklahoma, James H. Payne,
rechaza la petición de suspensión promovida por ‘National Coalition of Latino Clergy’ y otro
peticionarios, en contra de la entrada en vigor de la HB 1804.
Grupos religiosos y organizaciones pro-inmigrantes se manifestaron en contra de la iniciativa,
argumentando que afectará el desarrollo económico y provocará el hostigamiento en contra de
grupos inmigrantes.
La Cámara de Comercio expresó su preocupación por las consecuencias que puede tener esta
iniciativa.
Organizaciones hispanas y pro-inmigrantes solicitaron al gobernador vetar la iniciativa.
OPINIONES
LULAC y MALDEF advirtieron que la nueva ley puede conducir a barreras discriminatorias en el
empleo y la vivienda.
Joyce Mucci, Federation for American Immigration Reform: "Mass illegal immigration is having a
negative effect on Americans, their communities and their resources” (1/mar/07)
Rep. Glen Bud Smithson, "We have a history of treating people bad and regretting it later. The
majority of the people in my district asked me to vote for this bill, and for them I will vote for it. I am
not for it. It is my job to vote for it and I'm not going to be proud of it. I just hope, fellow
representatives, that some day 10 years from now, 20 years from now we don't look back and
regret the way we do this." (8/mar/07)
Rep. Shane Jett (R-Tecumseh): "We should not villainize and we should definitely not criminalize
their desire to improve themselves. We cannot put a Band-Aid the size of Oklahoma on this, a
national problem." (8/mar/07)
Rep. Randy Terrill (R): "Illegal aliens will not come here if there are no jobs waiting for them. They
will not come if there are no taxpayer subsidies. And they certainly won't come if they know they
will be physically detained until they are deported. Oklahoma is obviously not the wealthiest state in
the union. We can't afford to become a welfare state for the rest of the world." (3/abr/07)
Sen. Constance Johnson (D-Oklahoma City): "To me, this amounts to a license to harass”.
(16/abr/07)
Patricia Fennell, directora de la Latino Community Development Agency: "We're wondering, and so
is every other nonprofit in town. We're not alone in this. I don't think anybody knows or has thought
about how toxic this is” (16/abr/07)
Gobernador Brad Henry: "States can take some actions on their own, but until the U.S. Congress
enacts a comprehensive, national immigration policy, citizens will see little progress on this issue"
(9/may/07)
159
Asambleista Randy Terrill (R): "House Bill 1804 is a model bill for the state and even the nation, if
they will just take the hint" (21/jun/07).
Asambleista Randy Terrill (R): “Illegal immigrants will not come to Oklahoma if there are no jobs
waiting for them. They will not stay here if there are no government subsidies, and they certainly
will not stay here if they know that if they come in contact with one of our officers, they will be
physically detained until they are deported.” (25/jun/07)
EFECTOS
Considerada como una de las leyes más restrictivas a nivel estatal. Varios legisladores y grupos
de ciudadanos la han tomado como modelo de lo que deberían hacer en otros estados para
controlar la migración indocumentada.
La Asociación de Banqueros de Oklahoma, en un estudio donde calcula los efectos económicos
que tendrá en el producto interno bruto de dicho estado la ley HB 1804, señala que considerando
la emigración de aproximadamente 50,000 extranjeros y los nuevos flujos de migrantes hacia el
estado, los efectos de la ley supondrán una reducción del 1% en el PIB de Oklahoma, que a valor
corriente de 2006 equivale a 1,300 millones de dólares. (vid. A computable general equilibrium,
Análisis of the Impact of the Oklahoma Taxpayer and Citizen Protection Act of 2007, Economic
Impact Group, LLC, March 24, 2008)
JURISDICCIÓN TULSA, OK
TITULO
HB 1804
s/t
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and Tulsa
County Sheriff's Office under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
ESTATUS
HB 1804 – Firmada por el gobernador
s/t – entraria en vigor el 1º de noviembre de 2007.
Solicitud de acuerdo conforme a la sección 287(g) de la Ley de Inmigración.
CONTENIDO HB 1804 – Requiere a oficiales de cárceles verificar el estatus migratorio de las personas
detenidas.
FECHAS
s/t- Requiere a la policía verificar el estatus migratorio de las personas detenidas por delitos
menores. De no poder comprobar su estatus, serán entregados a las autoridades federales.
22/may/07 – El Concejo de la ciudad debate sobre la iniciativa.
24/may/07 – El Concejo vota a favor de la iniciativa por 6 votos contra 3.
9/jul/07 - La propuesta de la Oficina del Sheriff de Tulsa para solicitar un acuerdo con la Oficina de
Migracion y Aduanas para participar en el programa 287(g) fue aprobada por el Comité de
Comisionados del Condado. 30 policias iniciarán el entrenamiento correspondiente el 20 de
agosto.
8/ago/07 – Firma del Memorandum 287(g)
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
Alcalde de Tulsa, Kathy Taylor: 'It's frustrating that once again municipal governments are left on
the front lines without the support that we need at the federal level...If they commit a felony, we
160
want to know whether they've committed other felonies.” (22/may/07)
The Rev. Victor Orta II, pastor de "People of God Baptist Church" en Tulsa y presidente de
"American Dream Coalition": 'It adds to the present turmoil... There's a lot of unrest in the
immigrant community. There is a real fear among them because they stand to lose a lot.”
(22/may/07)
Ex-jefe de la policía, Drew Diamond: called the resolution -- quote "redundant and unnecessary."
(25/may/07)
EFECTOS
OREGON
JURISDICCIÓN OREGON
TITULO
Standards for issuance of Oregon driver licenses and identificacion cards (Executive Order No. 0722)
ESTATUS
Pendiente.
CONTENIDO 4. The administrative rules shall require any applicant for an original, renewal, or replacement
driver license, driver permit or identification card to provide to DMV primary identity document(s)
that establishes the applicant's identity to the satisfaction of DMV.
a. For applicants who provide a verifiable Social Security number, an applicant must provide at
least one primary document which includes, but is not necessarily limited to:
i. A United States, Canadian or U.S. territorial government- issued birth certificate;
ii. United States Military ID or other U.S. military documentation determined by rule by DMV to
be acceptable;
iii. A valid United States passport;
iv. A valid foreign passport with valid United States Citizen and Immigration Service (USCIS)
documentation that has not expired; v. Other valid USCIS documents that have not expired and
are determined by rule by DMV to be acceptable, such as, but not necessarily limited to, a
Temporary Resident ID card, Resident Alien Card or Permanent Resident Card;
vi. An Oregon driver license, driver permit or identification card that is valid or expired for less
than one year;
vii.A driver license, driver permit or identification card issued by another state of the United
States or by a Canadian province that is valid or expired for less than 60 days; or
viii. A valid Confederated Tribes of Oregon tribal identification card, as approved by DMV.
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
b. For applicants who are unable to provide a verifiable Social Security number, DMV shall require
the applicant to provide additional identity documents. DMV shall determine by administrative rule
the number and type of identity documents that must be provided. If the applicant presents an
identity document issued by a foreign government, the applicant must provide one of the following:
i. A valid foreign passport with valid United States Citizen and Immigration Service (USCIS)
documentation that has not expired; or
ii. Other valid USCIS documents that have not expired and are determined by rule by DMV to
be acceptable, such as, but not necessarily limited to, a Temporary Resident ID card, Resident
Alien Card or Permanent Resident Card.
16/nov/07 – Emitida por el gobernador de Oregon, Ted Kulongoski.
161
EFECTOS
Aumenta la rigidez de los requisitos a cumplir para la obtención o renovación de identificaciones,
permisos o licencias de conducir en el Estado de Oregon. Deja de aceptar la matrícula consular de
alta seguridad como medio de identificación.
JURISDICCIÓN BAKER CITY, OR
TITULO
ESTATUS
Rechazada
CONTENIDO Penalizaría a dueños de negocios que contraten a inmigrantes indocumentados.
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
feb/07 – El Concejo de la Ciudad rechazó proceder con la ordenanza pero solicitó la opinión del
Procurador de la Ciudad, David Fine. El Procurador recomendó no proceder con el asunto
considerando las demandas que se han presentado en otras ciudades.
Baker City Police Chief Wyn Lohner said he has not received any reports of local businesses
employing illegal immigrants, or of landlords renting to illegal immigrants. (16/feb/07)
Steve Culley, autor de la iniciativa: "I would like to see the city do something. Anything we can do
to stop this invasion." (16/feb/07)
Steve Culley: "These things started at the grass-roots level because George Bush has no intention
of doing anything on the border. I'm just trying to stir the pot a little." (16/feb/07)
EFECTOS
PENNSYLVANIA
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
PENNSYLVANIA
HB 2319: Prohibition of Illegal Alien Labor on Assisted Project Act
En vigor a partir del 11/jul/06
Prohíbe el uso de mano de obra de trabajadores indocumentados en proyectos financiados por el
gobierno del estado.
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
11/may/06- Firmada como ley, con fecha de entrada en vigor 60 días más tarde.
JURISDICCIÓN PENNSYLVANIA
TITULO
Paquete legislativo: The National Security Begins at Home (Daryl Metcalfe (R), Tom Creigthon (R),
Mark Mustio (R) y Scott Perry (R))
ESTATUS
Pendiente
CONTENIDO El paquete contiene las siguientes iniciativas:
162
Proyecto de ley 750 o Fair Employment Act: Patrocinado por cuarenta legisladores republicanos.
Prohíbe a las empresas contratar inmigrantes ilegales. Requiere a los empleadores utilizar el
Programa Piloto Básico para la verificación electrónica de la autorización de trabajo de los
empleados. La falta de verificación de las empresas puede resultar en la revocación de las
licencias comerciales, permisos, registros y certificados de negocios privados. El proyecto fue
introducido en la Cámara de Representantes y turnado al Comité de Gobierno (State Government
Comittee).
Proyecto de ley 751 o Security and Immigration Compliance Act: Promovido por cuarenta y seis
legisladores republicanos. Busca negociar un memorando de entendimiento entre el
Departamento de Justicia de los Estados Unidos o el Departamento de Seguridad Interna y la
Commonwealth de Pensilvania, para vigilar el cumplimiento de las leyes federales de inmigración
y de aduanas a través de la intervención de la policía estatal. El proyecto fue turnado al
Intergovernmental Affairs Committee.
Proyecto de ley 752: Presentado por cuarenta y cuatro Representantes republicanos, la iniciativa
busca enmendar el Título 18 (Delitos y Ofensas) de The Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes, para
hacer una identificación efectiva de inmigrantes indocumentados que cuentan con un récord
criminal, permitiendo a la policía estatal utilizar información de carácter federal en sus registros
criminales locales (sección 9102). La enmienda incluye además, una adición a la sección 9112.1
Mandatory determination of citizenship and immigration status, autorizando a aquellas autoridades
facultadas para realizar detenciones, a investigar sobre el estatus migratorio y la ciudadanía de las
personas arrestadas por un delito u ofensa menor. Es importante destacar igualmente, las
adiciones a la sección 9124 relativas a la imposición de una condena, ya que la enmienda sugiere
utilizar dicha información para determinar el otorgamiento de licencias, certificados, registros o
permisos en actividades de comercio, profesionales o de negocios, así como para verificar la
elegibilidad o no de un solicitante de empleo. Este proyecto fue turnado al Committee on Judiciary.
Proyecto de ley 753 o Professional Licensees Illegal Employment Act: Presentado por cuarenta y
seis Representantes republicanos. Su objetivo es la cancelación de las licencias profesionales a
comerciantes o a cualquier otro empleador que contrate a indocumentados, de conformidad con la
sección 274A del Immigration and Nationality Act. Esta propuesta fue turnada al Professional
Licensure Committee para su estudio.
Proyecto de ley 754 o Protection of Public Benefits Act: Promovido por treinta y ocho legisladores
republicanos. Tiene como objetivo la verificación del estatus legal de una persona de 18 años
cumplidos o mayor, que desee aplicar para obtener beneficios públicos. La verificación se realiza a
través de un medio de inspección conocido como el Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlement
Program, utilizado por el Departamento de Seguridad Interna. Es importante destacar que la
sección cuarta de esta iniciativa busca eliminar la atención médica, no de emergencia, y cualquier
otro beneficio público a los indocumentados, salvo en los casos en que deba observarse el
cumplimiento de un estatuto federal o una decisión de la corte. El proyecto fue referido al
Committee on Health and Human Services.
FECHAS
21/mar/07: Los cuatro legisladores republicanos de la Cámara de Representantes estatal dan a
conocer el paquete de iniciativas de ley relativas a cuestiones migratorias. El paquete ya había
sido presentado en 2006 por los mismos legisladores, aunque de manera infructuosa.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
La American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) de Pennsylvania considera que el paquete no tiene
posibilidades de ser aprobado ya que sus disposiciones son ilegales y porque no se vislumbra la
posibilidad de un consenso al interior de la Cámara de Representantes.
163
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
Cabe destacar las disposiciones del paquete de iniciativas en cuestión son prácticamente las
mismas que han promovido alcaldes y Concejos de diversas ciudades de Pensilvania, como en el
caso de la Ordenanza de Hazleton (Illegal Immigration Relief Act). El resultado del juicio contra la
Ordenanza de Hazleton influirá, seguramente, en el futuro de esas iniciativas.
Pensilvania es probablemente el estado de Unión Americana con el mayor número de ciudades y
municipalidades que están considerando la adopción de legislaciones que abordan cuestiones
migratorias (treinta y tres).
JURISDICCIÓN ALLENTOWN, PA
TITULO
ESTATUS
Pendiente votación del Concejo
CONTENIDO
Propone establecer un acuerdo con la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas (ICE) para entrenar y
autorizar que los policías de la ciudad participen en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
En caso de no aprobarse dentro del Concejo, propone una a votación general sobre la ordenanza
en mayo de 2007.
Originalmente la propuesta incluía secciones sobre sanciones a empleadores y caseros por
contratar o alquilar vivienda a indocumentados pero estas fueron retiradas ante la oposición de
varios grupos y concejales.
FECHAS
Jul/06 – El Concejal Louis Hershman propuso una ordenanza para sancionar a empleadores que
contraten mano de obra indocumentada y a caseros que alquilen propiedades a migrantes con
estatus migratorio irregular, pero la retira antes de llegar a la votación en el Concejo.
Posteriormente somete la propuesta para firmar el acuerdo con la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas.
4/dic/06- El comité encargado de evaluar la propuesta decide someterla al Concejo para votación
en enero, con la recomendación de rechazarla.
El Concejal Hershman señala que si el concejo rechaza su propuesta iniciará un proceso de
recolección de 2,000 firmas para poder someter la propuesta a votación general como iniciativa
ciudadana.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
2/mar/07 – El Comité del Concejo recomienda que la ordenanza no sea sometida a votación
general en mayo y que se proceda con el acuerdo para entrenar a los policías para asumir
responsabilidades migratorias. Algunos miembros del Concejo se opusieron, argumentando que
no hay suficiente evidencia de que los inmigrantes indocumentados estén creando problemas en
la ciudad.
Líderes de la comunidad hispana se pronuncian en contra de la iniciativa bajo el argumento de
que creará tensiones y miedo entre la población inmigrante.
El jefe de la policía, Roger MacLean: "The department already works with federal immigration
authorities when it arrests suspects who are in the country illegally. Entering into a more
aggressive partnership would sap the department's already thin force and undermine efforts to
164
improve community policing. We could end up providing manpower for them and right now that is
nothing I have to spare". (5/dic/06)
Reverendo Neftali Olmeda de Third Day Worship Center y presidente de National Hispanic
Christian Leadership Conference: “The plan would foster racial profiling and put Hispanics in an
unneccesarily defensive posture”. (5/dic/06)
Lazaro Fuentes, presidente de la Cámara Hispana de Comercio de Lehigh Valley: “The city has
enough trouble fighting crime with its strapped police force without diverting its resources. We
cannot ask the brave men and women to go on a witch hunt for illegal immigrants. The problem is
not illegal immigrants, the problem is crime.'' (5/dic/06)
Bill Dorward, ex-agente de negocios de un sindicato de trabajadores de metal: “More active
enforcement of immigration laws would protect the wages of union members and tradesmen who
are citizens, and would also prevent illegal immigrants from being taken advantage of by
unscrupulous employers. It protects the community by going after employers who hire these
illegals". (5/dic/06)
Concejal Hershman: ''We arrest people for selling drugs and guns under federal laws. 'What's
wrong with this? Do we pick and choose what federal laws we enforce?'' (5/dic/06)
Concejal Julio Guridy: ''The issue is divisive. Then what is going to happen is you are going to have
people voting for it because they don't want Hispanics.'' (5/dic/06)
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
ALTOONA, PA
“Undocumented Alien Control Ordinance”
En vigor
Sanciona a empleadores que contraten a trabajadores indocumentados y cancela sus licencias de
negocio.
Prohíbe albergar a migrantes indocumentados y sanciona a caseros que les alquilen propiedades.
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
Sep/06- Tras el juicio en contra de un inmigrante mexicano acusado de homicidio en agosto de
2005, el alcalde Wayne Hippo propone la ordenanza.
Oct/06 – El Concejo de la ciudad aprueba la ordenanza, con fecha de entrada en vigor 10 días
después de su aprobación.
Oct/06 - ACLU se pronunció en contra de la ordenanza y anunció que aceptara quejas de
cualquier persona afectada por la ley, a partir de lo cual decidirá si presentará una demanda.
El alcalde Wayne Hippo declara que su propuesta se inspiró en la ordenanza de Hazleton.
(15/oct/06)
Editorial, New York Times: “If Hazleton, where the immigrant population grew sharply in just a few
years, started the current trend for dealing with a surge in illegal immigrants, Altoona may be the
beginning of the next wave: trying to prevent a situation from developing in the first place” (“Altoona
With No Immigrant Problem, Decides to Solve It”, NYT, 7/dic/06).
165
Steven A. Camarota, director de investigación de Center for Immigration Studies (CIS): "If you
were to look for the area for the fewest immigrant settlements in the country, you would look to
south central Pennsylvania. There just aren't many immigrants — legal or illegal — around Altoona
because there aren't many jobs." (7/dic/06)
Concejal Joe Rieker: "We don't have a problem here with immigrants. But we want to stay ahead of
the curve." (7/dic/06)
Ira Mehlman, vocero de FAiR (Federation for American Immigration Reform), organización que ha
colaborado en la elaboración de las iniciativas por medio de su brazo legal, Immigration Reform
Law Institute: “When places like Altoona pass such laws, it is a sign of a growing frustration with
the federal government's lack of immigration enforcement. We certainly hope we see more towns
like Altoona approving ordinances restricting illegal immigrants. And as the message gets out that
there aren't a lot of communities that are welcoming, it will be a deterrent." (7/dic/06)
Vic Walczack, director de ACLU Pennsylvania: "When you have towns like Altoona enacting a
solution in search of a problem, you worry if there's a nativist impulse there. There's a fair bit of
politics involved here, and illegal immigrants are an easy and effective scapegoat for a small town's
problems." (7/dic/06)
Reverendo Luke Robertson, director ejecutivo de Catholic Charities: "I don't think they thought
through the unintended consequences. It promotes bigotry." (7/dic/06)
EFECTOS
Influenciada por la ordenanza de Hazleton, PA.
Se ha considerado un caso ejemplar debido a que es una ciudad con baja población de migrantes
por lo que la medida se ha presentado como “preventiva” y “disuasiva” en lugar de una reacción al
crecimiento de la población inmigrante, como ha sido el caso en la mayoría de los otros casos a
nivel nacional.
JURISDICCIÓN BERWICK, PA
TITULO
ESTATUS
Pendiente
CONTENIDO Requiere a los caseros exigir comprobantes del estatus migratorio legal de sus inquilinos. Impone
multas a los caseros que no cumplan con este requisito.
FECHAS
21/feb/07 - Un grupo de arrendadores de vivienda e inquilinos entablaron una demanda ante un
juzgado federal para impugnar la ordenanza bajo el argumento de que es discriminatoria y
considera a los arrendatarios como "ciudadanos de segunda clase" al exigirles que muestren
documentos de identificación.
REACCIONES Un grupo de arrendadores entabla una demanda y exige la suspensión de la ordenanza.
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN BRIDGEPORT, PA
TITULO
ESTATUS
Aprobada por el Cabildo
166
CONTENIDO
- Sanciones a caseros que renten propiedades a inmigrantes indocumentados.
- Sanciones a empleadores que contraten a inmigrantes indocumentados.
Bridgeport enacted the law in the summer after a similar measure in Hazleton, Pa., set off a trend
spreading to 27 states
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
Aprobada en el verano de 2006.
Influenciada por la propuesta de Hazleton, PA.
Se ha reportado que una tercera parte de las comunidades que han introducido este tipo de leyes,
están en Pennsylvania.
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
HAZLETON, PA
Illegal Immigration Relief Act Ordinance
http://www.bcgov.net/news/Illegal%20Immigration%20Relief%20Act/Illegal%20Immigration%20Rel
ief%20Act%20Ordinance%20Hazelton,%20%20PA.pdf
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
Bloqueada temporalmente
Declarada inconstitucional por un juez federal (26/jul/07)
- Sanciona con $1,000 dls. a caseros que alquilen propiedades a migrantes indocumentados, más
una multa de $250 dls. al día por cada inquilino indocumentado. Además, requiere que los
inquilinos registren su nombre, dirección y teléfono en el ayuntamiento de la ciudad (City Hall) y
pagar un permiso de renta de $10 dls.
- Niega permisos a compañías que empleen a trabajadores indocumentados, elimina su licencia
de negocios por un periodo de 5 años, y establece multas por $1000 dls. al día por contratar a
personas indocumentadas.
- Otorga facultades a la Oficina de Aplicación de Código para investigar quejas escritas sobre el
estatus migratorio de cualquier individuo, utilizando una base de datos del gobierno federal.
Adiciones a la versión revisada de la ley (sep/06):
- Establece excepciones de multas para empleadores que hagan un esfuerzo por revisar la
documentación de sus empleados y, sin tener conocimiento de ello, reciban documentos falsos.
- Retiraría los permisos de los empleadores de trabajadores indocumentados pero se les otorgaría
un plazo de tres días para responder al aviso antes de revocar el permiso. En caso de confirmarse
la violación, el permiso se suspendería hasta que se compruebe haber resuelto la violación.
FECHAS
Jun/06 – Tras el asesinato de un hombre a cargo de dos migrantes indocumentados, el Alcalde de
Hazleton, Lou Barletta, presenta la propuesta de la ordenanza.
13/jul/06 – Aprobada por el Concejo de la ciudad con fecha de entrada en vigor programada para
167
septiembre de 2006.
15/ago/06 – La ACLU y el PRLDEF presentan una demanda en contra de la ordenanza.
7/sep/06: La ciudad decide posponer la entrada en vigor de la ley para hacer revisiones de
acuerdo a los argumentos de la ACLU y los demás demandantes.
12/sep/06: El Concejo de la ciudad aprueba la nueva versión de la ordenanza por cuatro votos
contra uno. Asimismo, aprueban unánimemente la propuesta para establecer el inglés como
idioma oficial de la ciudad. Se establece que la ciudad debe dar un aviso veinte días antes de la
entrada en vigor de la ley, lo cual permitiría a los grupos opositores volver a presentar una
demanda.
30/oct/06 – La ACLU y el PRLDEF presentan una demanda en contra de la nueva versión de la
ordenanza.
nov/06 - El juez federal James M. Munley bloquea la entrada en vigor de la ordenanza hasta que
se determine la respuesta a la demanda de ACLU y el PRLDEF en las cortes.
19/nov/06 - Programa especial sobre la iniciativa de Hazleton: One Mayor's Controversial Plan To
Deal With Illegal Immigration, CBS, 60 Minutes.
5/dic/06 – La ciudad de Hazleton somete una petición a la corte para pedir que se descarte la
demanda en contra de la ordenanza.
18/dic/06 – El Alcalde Lou Barletta declara que la ciudad ha recibido más de $50,000 dls. en
donativos para la defensa de la ordenanza en la corte.
9/ene/07 – El juez Munley establece que la identificada de los demandantes se mantendrá en el
anonimato y establece la fecha de 12 de marzo para la audiencia sobre el caso, descartando la
petición de ambas partes de posponerla hasta agosto y la demanda de la ciudad para llevar el
caso a una corte más alta.
6/mar/07 – Días antes de que inicie el juicio para determinar si la ordenanza es constitucional, el
abogado defensor de la ciudad presenta un estudio en el que señala que los inmigrantes
indocumentados representan altos costos para la ciudad; por ejemplo que cada vez que una
persona indocumentada utiliza servicios de emergencia en los hospitales, tiene un costo de
$2,000 dólares. Además, argumenta que provocan que los tiempos de espera en las salas de
emergencia aumenten. También señala que los costos en educación por medio del programa de
“English as a Second Language” han aumentado de $500 en el año 2000 a $1.145 millones en
2006. Asimismo, señala que una tercera parte de las detenciones por drogas en 2005 han
involucrado a inmigrantes indocumentados y que representan una tercera parte de los costos por
“tiempo extra” para los investigadores de crímenes y pandillas.
7/mar/07- La organización Judicial Watch argumenta que las ordenanzas propuestas por la ciudad
de Hazleton son constitucionales y somete una carta de apoyo ante la corte de distrito.
9/mar/07 - El PRLDEF anuncia que llevara a cabo una reunión el domingo 11 de marzo para
responder a preguntas de la comunidad sobre el caso y las posibles implicaciones del fallo de la
corte, que puede tardar hasta 3 meses. Asimismo, líderes comunitarios y religiosos anuncian que
organizarán una manifestación el lunes 12 de marzo a las 3pm fuera de la corte en la que se
discutirá el caso.
168
12/mar/07 – Inicia el juicio sobre la ordenanza.
14/mar/07 – El abogado de la alcaldía de Hazleton, Chris Slusse, indicó que la alcaldía decidió
modificar el texto de la ordenanza respondiendo a algunos de los argumentos de los
demandantes.
22/mar/07 – Termina el juicio sobre la ordenanza. Se espera que la decisión se dé a conocer en
mayo de 2007.
26/jul/07 - El juez de distrito James Munley declaró la ordenanza de Hazleton inconstitucional tras
el jucio de nueve días llevado acabo en marzo. El juez Munley señaló que las leyes federales
“prohíben que Hazleton ponga en vigencia cualquiera de las disposiciones de esa ordenanza” y
que “la naturaleza del sistema político estadounidense prohíbe a la ciudad de ejercer ordenanzas
que pertuben un cuidadosamente realizado esquema estatutorio federal”. El Alcalde Barletta
declaró que la ciudad no desistirá. Se prevé que apelará la decisión ante la Suprema Corte.
La aprobación de la inciativa fue considerada como una señal para otras ciudades que
actualmente consideran iniciativas similares.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
Demanda de la ACLU de Pennsylvania y el PRLDEF (a nombre de varios grupos incluyendo la
Hispanic Business Association, varios migrantes indocumentados desalojados, caseros y un
dueño de un negocio) se basa en el argumento de que el gobierno federal tiene la facultad
exclusiva para regular la migración, y que la ley promoverá la discriminación en contra de la
población hispana en Estados Unidos.
Sep/ 06 – Cerca de 300 personas participan en una manifestación en contra de la ordenanza.
OPINIONES
Witold Walczak, director de asuntos jurídicos de la ACLU de Pennsylvania: “It makes every person
who looks or sounds foreign a suspect, including those who are here legally" (15/ago/06)
Alcalde Lou Barletta: "I believe this will be a landmark case. A line has been drawn here in
Hazleton. This will impact cities all across the country," (15/ago/06)
Cesar Perales, presidente del PRLDEF, opinó que una Victoria en la corte no logrará calmar el
enojo de la población en los suburbios del país, en donde se acusa a los migrantes de una
variedad de problemas sociales: “There is now this crazy climate of `get these people out of
town…The laws are a reaction and a response to this sentiment. But it is also feeding it, and
saying to people in these small towns that these [immigrants] are bad and they shouldn't be here
with us.” (16/ago/06)
Witold J. Walczak (ACLU Pennsylvania): "Immigration reform is an important issue, but if every
little town like Hazleton across the 50 states makes up their own rules about immigration, we're
going to be left with an even bigger mess”. (30/oct/06)
Alcalde Lou Barletta: “It's unfortunate that these special interest groups would choose to file a
lawsuit against a small city that is struggling to protect itself…Hazleton is prepared to fight, and we
will take this challenge to the highest court in the United States if that's what it takes to protect our
legal citizens and quality of life.” (30/oct/06)
Alcalde Lou Barletta: "We're expecting, regardless of the result of that trial, for it to be appealed to
169
the Third Circuit court in Philadelphia, and I believe it will go on from there to the Supreme
Court…I believe both sides have pretty well made up their mind that we're going to fight this to the
end." (18/dic/06)
Editorial New York Times: “Since June, when Hazleton, Pa […] began debating what to do about
illegal immigrants, more than 60 local governments in 21 states have followed its lead and
considered new ordinances to drive them away. At least 15 have approved the measures, typically
intended to punish landlords who rent to illegal immigrants and business owners who employ
them”. (“Altoona, With No Immigrant Problem, Decides to Solve It”, NYT, 7/dic/06)
David Vaida, abogado de Allentown por parte de los demandantes: Alego que los documentos que
presento la ciudad sobre los costos de los inmgirantes pueden tener informacion correcta pero no
pueden atribuirse solamente a los inmigrantes indocumentados. "They can't trace any of that to
undocumented aliens, which is the whole issue here" (6/mar/07)
Linda Kaiser, abogada de Cozen O'Conner: "El juicio será histórico porque marcara el futuro de lo
que puede ocurrir con las decenas de ciudades y poblados en los que se han propuesto
ordenanzas similares" (9/mar/07)
Alcalde Lou Barletta: ''This is the day we've been waiting for for a long time. 'Small cities can no
longer sit back and wait for the federal government to do something.'' (12/mar/07)
Alcalde Lou Barletta: "I realize we're not fighting for Hazleton anymore. We're fighting for the whole
country. I'm trying to protect the people of my community. We can't rely on the federal government
anymore. We've got to stand up for ourselves." (12/mar/07)
Director Ejecutivo de ACLU, Anthony D. Romero, "I hope to stop the whole anti-immigrant
movement dead in its tracks” (13/mar/07)
Witold Walczak, director de asuntos jurídicos de la ACLU de Pennsylvania: “We know this is the
first local ordinance, the first trial. We know that a lot of these small towns across America are
saying, 'We'd like to do something, but let's see what happens in Hazleton ". (13/mar/07)
Regan Cooper, Director Ejecutivo de Pennsylvania Immigration and Citizenship Coalition: "There
is one thing we all agree on. Our immigration system is badly broken." (13/mar/07)
Alcalde Barletta (respondiendo a críticas de alcaldes de otras ciudades respecto a la ordenanza
propuesta en Hazleton): “We are not regulating immigration. In fact, we would be defying federal
law by picking and choosing which (laws) we enforce. I’m not talking about immigrants, I’m talking
about illegal aliens. We’re not the ones determining who is illegal, we’re not even doing anything to
illegal aliens. We’re just punishing people who knowingly break the law and hire illegal aliens and
who rent to them.” (22/jun/07)
Omar Jadwat, ACLU: "Today's decision sends an unmistakable message to local officials across
the nation that these types of ordinances are a waste of taxpayers' money, anathema to American
values and a violation of the Constitution" (27/jul/07)
Stephen Yale-Loehr, profesor y experto en asuntos de inmigración de Cornell University: "Esta es
una victoria histórica para los inmigrantes, y el dictamen demuestra que la Constitución de EU se
aplica a todos por igual en este país, incluyendo a los extranjeros". (27/jul/07)
Michelle Waslin, analista del Consejo Nacional de La Raza (NCLR): "Ojalá con decisión se envíe
170
un mensaje de que medidas extremas contra los inmigrantes no serán toleradas, y que el
Congreso debe aprobar una reforma migratoria para no dar pie a propuestas como la de Hazleton.
Los estados y localidades que están gastando mucho dinero de los contribuyentes en la defensa
de medidas similares deberían revaluar sus esfuerzos". (27/jul/07)
MALDEF: "La decisión en contra de Hazleton se suma a las victorias judiciales en Escondido
[California], y Valley Park [Missouri]". (27/jul/07)
A federal judge has dealt what we can only hope is a decisive blow against a dangerous trend of
freelance immigration policies by local governments....The ruling was a well-earned
embarrassment for Mayor Louis J. Barletta and his proclaimed goal of making Hazleton "one of the
toughest places in the United States " for illegal immigrants. In doing so, Judge Munley laid down
basic truths that every American should remember. First, immigration is a federal responsibility.
State and local governments have no right to usurp or upend a vast, "carefully drawn federal
statutory scheme" that governs who enters the country and the conditions under which immigrants
stay, study, work and naturalize. Congress may be botching the job, but it has not delegated it.
Second, the Constitution's guarantee of equal protection applies to all persons, not just citizens.
The presumption that the 14th Amendment can be set aside while immigrants are hunted down
and punished is widespread but false. The judge wrote: "We cannot say clearly enough that
persons who enter this country without legal authorization are not stripped immediately of all their
rights because of this single illegal act." (“Humanity v. Hazleton”, Editorial, The New York Times,
28/jul/07)
EFECTOS
Según el Alcalde Barletta, aproximadamente 5,000 hispanos han salido de Hazleton desde que se
comenzó a discutir la ordenanza. Los dueños de negocios señalan que sus ventas han disminuido
entre 20% y 50% y al menos dos establecimientos tuvieron que cerrar a falta de clientela.
El caso de Hazleton ha sido tomado como ejemplo en la mayoría de las ciudades y condados que
han propuesto ordenanzas e iniciativas similares para controlar la migración indocumentada. Por
ejemplo, la ordenanza propuesta en el condado de Beaufort se basó en la ordenanza de
Hazleton.
La demanda de la ACLU y el PRLDEF se ha considerado como un caso de prueba desde el punto
de vista de otros gobiernos locales que pretenden proponer iniciativas similares.
JURISDICCIÓN CITY OF PHILADELPHIA, PA
TITULO
ESTATUS
Desechada (20/sep/07)
CONTENIDO An ordinance to require Philadelphia police to check the immigration status of all felony suspects
and notify federal immigration authorities and the District Attorney's Office when a suspect is
undocumented.
FECHAS
20/sep/07 - Se presentó ante el Concejo de la Ciudad de Philadelphia
20/sep/07 - Rechazada por el Concejo de la Ciudad de Philadelphia (4 votos a favor y 12 en
contra)
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
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RHODE ISLAND
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
RHODE ISLAND
Illegal Immigration Control Order (Executive Order 08-01)
En vigor.
WHEREAS, Congress and the President have been unable to resolve the problem of illegal
immigration, leaving the states to deal with the consequences of 11 to 20 million illegal immigrants
residing in the United States, the number in Rhode Island being between 20,000 and 40,000, more
than the population of 32 of Rhode Island’s 39 cities and towns; and
WHEREAS, the presence of significant numbers of people illegally residing in the State of Rhode
Island creates a burden on the resources of state and local human services, law enforcement
agencies, educational institutions and other governmental institutions and diminishes opportunities
for citizens and legal immigrants in Rhode Island; and
WHEREAS, in 1996 Congress amended the Immigration and Nationality Act, 8 U.S.C. §1373(c), to
allow government entities or officials to send to or receive from the Immigration and Naturalization
Service information regarding the citizenship or immigration status, lawful or unlawful, of any
individual and the federal government established the E-Verify program to help employers
electronically verify the employment eligibility of new hires and the validity of their Social Security
numbers; and
WHEREAS, the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRAIRA) added
Section 287(g), performance of immigration officer functions by state officers and employees, to
the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), and authorizes the Secretary of the U.S. Department of
Homeland Security to enter into agreements with state and local law enforcement agencies,
permitting designated officers to perform immigration law enforcement functions pursuant to a
Memorandum of Agreement (MOA), provided that the local law enforcement officers received
appropriate training and function under the supervision of sworn U.S. Immigration and Customs
Enforcement (ICE) officers; and
WHEREAS, law enforcement can more effectively combat criminal activity related to illegal
immigration if federal, state and local authorities work on a cooperative basis.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, DONALD L. CARCIERI, by virtue of the authority vested in me as Governor
of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations do hereby order as follows:
1. The Department of Administration shall register and use the federal government’s E-Verify
program to electronically verify the employment eligibility of new hires in the Executive Branch and
the validity of their Social Security numbers to ensure that all employees of the Executive Branch
are legally eligible to be employed in the United States and take appropriate action against those
that are not eligible for employment, consistent with federal and state law. For purposes of this
Order, the Executive Branch of government is considered to be all agencies and departments in
the Executive Branch, excluding the offices of general officers, said officers being the Department
of Attorney General, Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of State, and General Treasurer.
2. The Department of Administration shall require that all persons and businesses, including
grantees, contractors and their subcontractors and vendors doing business with the State of Rhode
Island also register with and utilize the services of the E-Verify program to ensure compliance with
federal and state law.
…
4. The Rhode Island State Police, pursuant to the authority set forth in Section 287(g) of IIRAIRA
and INA, shall work to secure a MOA with ICE to receive training necessary to enable them to
assist ICE personnel in the enforcement of federal immigration laws.
5. The Department of Corrections shall also work with ICE officials to secure an MOA that will
define the scope of state correctional personnel authority to perform certain immigration law
enforcement functions which shall be subject to the cross-supervision of ICE and permit certain
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EFECTOS
correctional personnel to complete appropriate training and function under the supervision of sworn
ICE officers to combat illegal immigration issues at the Adult Correctional Institution, consistent with
federal and state law.
6. It is urged that all law enforcement officials, including state and local law enforcement agencies
take steps to support the enforcement of federal immigration laws by investigating and determining
the immigration status of all non-citizens taken into custody, incarcerated, or under investigation for
any crime and notifying federal authorities of all illegal immigrants discovered as a result of such
investigations.
7. The Parole Board and the Department of Corrections shall work cooperatively with ICE
personnel to provide for the parole and deportation of criminal aliens.
8. Nothing in this Executive Order shall be construed to supersede, contravene or conflict with any
federal or state law or regulation or deny a person’s rights under the Rhode Island or United States
Constitution and to this extent employees of the Executive Branch may act independently of this
Executive Order in order to avoid such conflict or violation.
27/mar/08 – Emitida por el gobernador de Rhode Island, Donald L. Carcieri.
Ordena que el Departamento de Administración del estado, así como todas las personas y
negocios que trabajen con el estaod, utilicen los mecanismos electrónicos establecidos por el
gobierno federal para verificar la eligibilidad laboral de la persona a contratar. Ordena que la
Policia estatal firme un memorandum de entendimiento con la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas
para capacitar y facultar a las autoridades locales en la ejecución de las leyes federales de
migración. De igual forma, ordena que el Departamento de Correccionales firme un memorandum
de entendimiento con la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas para verificar el estatus migratorio de
aquellas personas en reculsión.
JURISDICCIÓN RHODE ISLAND
TITULO
An Act Relating To State Affairs And Government - The Rhode Island Taxpayer And Citizen
Protection Act Of 2008 (S 2076)
ESTATUS
Pendiente
CONTENIDO 42-150-2. Legislative findings. -- It is hereby found and declared as follows:
(a) That illegal immigration is causing economic hardship and lawlessness in this state and that
illegal immigration is encouraged by public agencies within this state that provide public benefits
without verifying immigration status.
(b) That illegal immigrants have been harbored and sheltered in this state and encouraged to
reside in this state through the issuance of identification cards that are issued without verifying
immigration status, and that these practices impede and obstruct the enforcement of federal
immigration law, undermine the security of our borders, and impermissibly restrict the privileges
and immunities of the citizens of Rhode Island.
(c) That it is a compelling public interest of this state to discourage illegal immigration by requiring
all agencies within this state to fully cooperate with federal immigration authorities in the
enforcement of federal immigration laws.
(d) That other measures are necessary to ensure the integrity of various governmental programs
and services.
(e) That chapter seeks to secure to those lawfully present in the United States and this state,
whether or not they are citizens of the United States, the right to live in peace free of or the threat
of crime, to enjoy the public services provided by this state without being burdened by the cost of
providing goods, support and services to aliens unlawfully present in the United States, and to be
free of the debilitating effects on their economic and social well being imposed by the influx of
173
illegal aliens to the fullest extent that these goals can be achieved consistent with the Constitution
and Laws of the United States and the state of Rhode Island.
…
42-150-4. Transporting and harboring illegal aliens. -- (a) It shall be unlawful for any person to
transport, move, or attempt to transport in the state of Rhode Island any alien knowing or in
reckless disregard of the fact that the alien has come to, entered, or remained in the United States
in violation of law, in furtherance of the illegal presence of the alien in the United States.
(b) It shall be unlawful for any person to conceal, harbor, or shelter from detection any alien in any
place within the state of Rhode Island, including any building or means of transportation, knowing
or in reckless disregard of the fact that the alien has come to, entered, or remained in the United
States in violation of law.
(1) For the purposes of this section, to let, lease, or rent a dwelling or business unit to an illegal
alien, knowing or in reckless disregard of the fact that the alien has come to, entered, or remains in
the United States in violation of law, shall be deemed to constitute harboring. To suffer or permit
the occupancy of the dwelling or business unit by an illegal alien, knowing or in reckless disregard
of the fact that the alien has come to, entered, or remains in the United States in violation of law,
shall also be deemed to constitute harboring.
…
42-150-5. Detainee status verification. -- (a) When a person charged with a felony or with driving
under the influence of liquor or drugs pursuant to chapter 31-27 et seq., is confined, for any period,
in the jail of any municipality or a jail operated by the department of corrections, a reasonable effort
shall be made to determine the citizenship status of the person so confined.
(b) If the prisoner is a foreign national, the keeper of the jail or other officer shall make a
reasonable effort to verify that the prisoner has been lawfully admitted to the United States and if
lawfully admitted, that such lawful status has not expired. If verification of lawful status can not be
made from documents in the possession of the prisoner, verification shall be made within fortyeight (48) hours through a query to the Law Enforcement Support Center of the United
States Department of Homeland Security or other office or agency designated for that purpose by
the United States Department of Homeland Security. If the lawful immigration status of the prisoner
cannot be verified, the keeper of the jail or other officer shall notify the United States Department of
Homeland Security.
…
42-150-6. Employee status verification. -- (a) Every public employer shall register and participate
in the status verification system to verify the work authorization status of all new employees.
(1) No public employer shall enter into a contract for the physical performance of services within
this state unless the contractor registers and participates in the status verification system to verify
the work authorization status of all new employees.
(2) No contractor or subcontractor who enters a contract with a public employer shall enter into
such a contract or subcontract in connection with the physical performance of services within this
state unless the contractor or subcontractor registers and participates in the status verification
system to verify information of all new employees.
…
42-150-7. Public assistance -- Applicant status. -- (a) Except as provided in subsection 42-1507(c) or where exempted by federal law, every agency or a political subdivision of this state shall
verify the lawful presence in the United States of any natural person fourteen (14) years of age or
older who has applied for state or local public benefits, as defined in 8 U.S.C. Section 1621, or for
federal public benefits, as defined in 8 U.S.C. Section 1611, that is administered by an agency or a
political subdivision of this state.
…
42-150-9. Memorandum of understanding. -- (a) The Rhode Island Attorney General is
authorized and directed to negotiate the terms of a Memorandum of Understanding between the
State of Rhode Island and the United States Department of Justice or the United States
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FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
Department of Homeland Security, as provided by Section 1357(g) of Title 8 of the United States
Code, concerning the enforcement of federal immigration and custom laws, detention and
removals, and investigations in the state of Rhode Island.
…
42-150-10. Educational benefits. -- An individual who is not lawfully present in the United States
shall not be eligible on the basis of residence within the state for:
(1) Any postsecondary education benefit including, but not limited to, scholarships or financial aid;
or
(2) Resident tuition.
42-150-11. Investigation of fraudulent documents. -- Subject to the availability of funding, the
Rhode Island State Police shall establish the Fraudulent Documents Identification (FDI) Unit for the
primary purpose of investigating and apprehending persons or entities that participate in the sale or
distribution of fraudulent documents used for identification purposes. The unit shall additionally
specialize in fraudulent identification documents created and prepared for persons who are
unlawfully residing within the state of Rhode Island. The bureau shall employ sufficient employees
to investigate and implement the FDI Unit.
…
31-10-3. Persons ineligible for licenses. -- (a) The division of motor vehicles shall not issue any
license under this chapter:
…
(10) To any person who is not a United States citizen, national or legal permanent resident alien.
…
31-10.3-15. Persons not eligible for licensing. -- (a) The department shall not issue any license
pursuant to this chapter:
…
(8) To any person who is not a United States citizen, national or legal permanent resident alien.
15/ene/08 – Introducida por los Senadores Maselli, Felag, P Fogarty, Walaska, y Blais.
15/ene/08 – Enviada al Comité de Servicios Humanos y Salud.
21/may/08 – El Comité recomienda un mayor estudio de la propuesta.
Requiere a las agencias estatales el cooperar con el gobierno federal en relación a la ejecución de
las leyes de migración. Establece restricciones en materia de licencias y beneficios públicos para
los migrantes irregulares, entre otras.
RHODE ISLAND
An Act Relating to Labor and Labor Relations (S 2091)
Pendiente
28-5-43. Legislative declaration -- Definitions -- Employee's work eligibility status -- Federal
basic employment verification pilot program -- Department of labor and employment -Duties. -- (1)(a) The general assembly hereby finds and determines that:
(I) Ensuring that Rhode Island employers employ persons eligible to work within Rhode Island is
an issue of statewide concern.
(II) It is in the best interest of the employers in Rhode Island for all employers to follow federal law
as it applies to the hiring of persons who are authorized to work in the United States.
(III) Employers who violate the federal employment laws with respect to the hiring of persons who
are unauthorized to work in the United States places an undue economic burden on employers
who attempt to hire only persons who are authorized to work in the United States.
(IV) Employers in Rhode Island who hire unauthorized persons create an attractive environment
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EFECTOS
for illegal immigrants to locate within Rhode Island, which costs taxpayers millions of dollars to
provide public education, health care, and other services and, in addition, negatively affects our
judicial system.
(b) The general assembly further finds and determines that it is in the best interest of the state for
all employers to verify the social security numbers and work eligibility status of newly hired
employers and that it is important that every employer in the state of Rhode Island apply for
participation in the extended federal basic employment verification pilot program for the purpose of
verifying the work eligibility status of newly hired employees.
(2) As used in this section:
(a) "'Employer" means a person transacting business in Rhode Island who, at any time, employs
three (3) or more persons to perform services of any nature and who has control of the payment of
wages for such services or is the officer, agent, or employee of the person having control of the
payment of wages; except that "Employer" does not include the federal government, the state of
Rhode Island, another state, or a political subdivision of Rhode Island or another state.
(b) "Program" means the basic employment verification pilot program created pursuant to 8 U.S.C.
sec. 1324a, as expanded to include all fifty states in the "Basic Pilot Program Extension and
Expansion Act of 2003", Pub. L. No. 108-156.
…
15/ene/08 – Introducida por los Senadores Cote, Sheehan, Lenihan, y Maselli.
15/ene/08 – Enviada al Comité de Trabajo.
7/may/08 – El Comité de Trabajo recomienda retener la iniciativa para mayor estudio.
14/may/08 – El Comité de Trabajo recomienda retener nuevamente la iniciativa para mayor
estudio.
Requiere a todos los empleadores privados el verificar el estatus migratorio de sus empleados, a
través del programa piloto federal, en caso de omisión, les impone multas.
TENNESSEE
JURISDICCIÓN TENNESSEE
TITULO
HB 111
www.abc.org/userassets/Documents/Government%20Affairs/IssuePages/Immigration/TN%20HB%20111.pdf
HB 0074
HB 0070
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
SB 1604/ HB 491
SB 576 / HB 1216
SB 193/ HB 600
SB 252 / HB 66
SB 1616 / HB 407
SB 254 / HB 74
HB 111 - En vigor (1/ene/07)
SB 1604 - En vigor.
SB 193/ HB 600: En vigor..
HB 111 - Prohíbe a todas las oficinas de gobierno contratar a empresas que utilicen mano de obra
de migrantes indocumentados.
176
HB 0074 – Requiere a los empleadores verificar que sus empleados tienen estatus migratorio
legal. De lo contrario puede enfrentar multas de hasta $1,500 dls. y sería considerado un delito.
HB 0070 – Prohíbe vender o rentar propiedades a personas que no tengan estatus migratorio
legal.
SB 1604/ HB 491: La Patrulla de Caminos de Tennessee tendría la facultad de establecer un
acuerdo de entendimiento (MOU) con el la Oficina de Aduanas e Inmigración (ICE) para hacer
valer leyes migratorias federales.
SB 576 / HB 1216: Transfiere amplios poderes para hacer valer leyes migratorias federales al
estado de Tennesee, incluyendo la figura de “oficiales de paz” estatales y la participación de
empresas privadas.
SB 193/ HB 600: Crea una nueva figura de crimen por manejar con un inmigrante en el estado, si
el conductor “debió saber” que el inmigrante entró o permaneció ilegalmente en los Estados
Unidos. De acuerdo a los patrocinadores de esta iniciativa, el objetivo es atacar el problema de
tráfico y abuso de inmigrantes.
SB 252 / HB 66: Considera un crimen trabajar en Tennessee habiendo ingresado de manera ilegal
en el país. Confiscaría toda compensación obtenida.
SB 1616/ HB 407: Considera un crimen el que los empleados estatales y locales no verifiquen el
estatus migratorio de cualquier persona que solicite servicios del gobierno.
SB 254/ HB 74: Requiere a los empleadores verificar el estatus de sus empleados y mantener un
record con ciertos documentos. La multa por incumplimiento sería de $1,500 dólares.
FECHAS
24/may/07 –HB600 Firmada por el Gobernador.
15/may/07 – SB1604 Firmada por el Gobernador.
9/may/07 – HB600 Aprobada por la Asamblea.
25/may/06 – HB 111 aprobada por la asamblea estatal.
15/jun/06 – HB 111 firmada como ley.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
TENNESSEE DEPARTMENT OF SAFETY
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Tennessee Department of Safety under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
25/jun/08 – Firma del Memorandum.
177
EFECTOS
Otorga facultades a los agentes estatales para indagar el estatus migratorio de aquellas personas
detenidas por otros delitos, y en caso de que dichas personas tengan un estatus migratorio
irregular les otorga facultades para mantenerlas en detención en lo que son deportadas de los
EE.UU.
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
DAVIDSON COUNTY, TN.
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Davidson County Sheriff's Office under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Otorga facultades a los agentes de la Oficina del Alguacial del Condado de Davidson para indagar
el estatus migratorio de aquellas personas detenidas por otros delitos, y en caso de que dichas
personas tengan un estatus migratorio irregular les otorga facultades para mantenerlas en
detención en lo que son deportadas de los EE.UU.
31/ene/07 – Firma del Memorandum.
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN NASHVILLE, TN
TITULO
ESTATUS
Aprobada por el Cabildo
CONTENIDO Acuerdo con la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas conforme a la sección 287(g) para entrenar a
oficiales de la ciudad y darles autorización para participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
FECHAS
20/feb/07 – Aprobada por el Cabildo. Incluye ciertas medidas para verificar que el programa y la
base de datos federal se utilice adecuadamente.
21/feb/07 – Inicia el entrenamiento para oficiales de la oficina del Sheriff con autoridades
migratorias federales.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
Daron Hall, Sheriff del condado de Davidson: "Our role is to release people into the community
with some assurance that we've done all we can do to identify their criminal and their civil
immigration matters that are outstanding." (21/feb/07)
Ginger Hausser, co-autora de la propuesta, presidente del Comite de Seguridad Publica: "We
spent a whole, whole lot of time talking about illegal immigration, and it was a whole lot of talk
without a lot of action, frankly. What we did tonight with this sheriff's legislation, is we actually did
something that has an impact." (21/feb/07)
Hausser: "I'm very happy that we're given assurances that this database won't be misused on the
front end either by the police department or to profile people. I think it's our obligation, as the
Council, and it's the mayor's obligation, to make sure that we have those checks in place, and that
we make sure it's not misused." (21/feb/07)
EFECTOS
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JURISDICCIÓN WILLIAMSON COUNTY, TN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO Acuerdo con la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas conforme a la sección 287(g) para entrenar a
oficiales de la ciudad y darles autorización para participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
FECHAS
19/jul/07 - El Sheriff del condado, Ricky Headley, anunció que considera la posibilidad de que
algunos oficiales de la cárcel del condado reciban entrenamiento sobre el procedimiento para
deportar a inmigrnates indocumentados. La Oficina del Sheriff solicitó el acuerdo con la Oficina de
Migracion y Aduanas conforme a la seccion 287(g) de la ley de inmigracion.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
TEXAS
JURISDICCIÓN TEXAS
TITULO
HB29 – Propone una cuota de 8% por giros de dinero al extranjero por parte de migrantes
indocumentados.
HB 351 - Prohíbe otorgar fondos del Texas Enterprise Fund a empresas que utilicen mano de obra
de migrantes indocumentados.
SB268 - Impone una cuota por transferencias de dinero al extranjero.
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
Pendiente aprobación
HB 351 – Retirada
Representante Rafael Anchía – Introdujo la propuesta para prohibir otorgar fondos del Texas
Enterprise Fund a empresas que utilicen mano de obra de migrantes indocumentados.
10/may/07 – SB268 Pendiente en Comités.
31/ene/07 – HB 351- Introducida por el representante estatal, Rafael Anchía (D-Dallas)
29/ene/07 – HB29 Referida al Comité de Asuntos Estatales.
16/feb/07 – Ante las presiones de la Texas Association of Business y la coalición de
organizaciones en contra de esta legislación, el representante Anchía retira la iniciativa HB 351.
El Presidente del Comité de Asuntos Estatales, David Swinford (R-Dumas) solicita al Procurador
General, Greg Abbott, revisar toda la legislación migratoria pendiente para determinar si son
asuntos que corresponden a la ley estatal o federal y si se apegan a la Constitución.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
La Texas Association of Business se manifestó en contra de las propuestas de ley estatales para
sancionar a empleadores que contraten a trabajadores indocumentados, limitar el acceso de
migrantes a servicios públicos, así como las medidas para imponer cuotas al envío de remesas.
Se formó una coalición en contra de las leyes anti-inmigrantes que incluye a: Texas Association of
179
Business, Texas Employers for Immigration Reform, Mexican-American Legislative Caucus, Texas
Association of Mexican-American Chambers of Commerce, LULAC, MALDEF y ACLU.
OPINIONES
Rafael Anchía (D-Dallas): “Aquí siempre se ha criminalizado a los inmigrantes indocumentados,
ellos son los que pagan las consecuencias de todo, sin embargo nunca se toca a los empleadores,
quienes son responsables en gran parte de este problema”. (31/ene/07)
Luis de la Garza, líder comunitario y miembro de LULAC: “Esta no es más que una maniobra
política donde como siempre se utiliza a los inmigrantes como anzuelo. Lo único que busca el
representante es echarle más leña al fuego, justo en estos momentos de agitación política".
(31/ene/07)
Bill Hammond, Presidente de la Texas Association of Business: "The Texas Legislature should
take no action with regard to immigration unless and until the U.S. Congress passes a law for
comprehensive immigration reform. The federal government is perfectly capable of inflicting pain
and suffering on business. We don't believe the Texas Legislature needs to be piling on."
(16/feb/07)
Luis Figueroa, MALDEF: "Texas should not pass blatantly unconstitutional legislation that will only
push immigrants farther into the shadows". (16/feb/07)
Rafael Anchia (D-Dallas): "As a symbol of our solidarity and cooperation, I'm withdrawing HB 351
from further consideration in thanks to the business community who is bringing their power, their
might and their heft to making sure the immigration debate is fought on the floor in Washington ,
not in Austin". (16/feb/07)
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
TEXAS
SB 773 - Dan Patrick (R)
Pendiente.
Reformaría el código penal de Texas para definir como delito de Clase B, la presencia de un
extranjero en esta entidad sin autorización legal.
El delito se consideraría "traspaso criminal por extranjero ilegal" y quedaría de la siguiente
manera: "una persona comete un delito si es un ciudadano de cualquier país distinto a Estados
Unidos y entra o permanece en una propiedad pública o privada en esta entidad, en violación a las
secciones 1325 y 1326 del Título Octavo del Código Federal de Estados Unidos". El delito
implicaría multas de hasta dos mil dólares y encarcelamiento por hasta 180 días.
La iniciativa de ley propone también el que los agentes que realicen el arresto, tomen las huellas
digitales de la personas detenidas por este delito y estarían autorizados para transferir a los
violadores a las autoridades federales de inmigración para su procesamiento.
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
6/mar/07 – Referida al Comité de Transportes y Seguridad Nacional.
6/mar/07 – Primera lectura.
20/feb/07 - Introducida
Senador Dan Patrick (R) - "Yo he patrullado el Valle (del sur de Texas) con agentes del Sheriff. Me
180
molestó el saber que los agentes no tienen las herramientas para detener personas
por estar en esta entidad en forma ilegal". (23/feb/07)
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
TEXAS (DALLAS, HARRIS COUNTY, HOUSTON), CAROLINA DEL NORTE, algunas cárceles
de California. Se pretende aplicar a nivel federal.
Secure Communities: A Comprehensive Plan to Identify and Remove Criminal
Aliens
Adoptado
Secure Communities: A Comprehensive Plan to Identify and Remove Criminal Aliens o
Comunidades Seguras modifica la aplicación de la ley migratoria al usar tecnología que, ayuda a
compartir información entre diferentes agencias de orden público (law enforcement agencies) y
con la aplicación de una nueva tecnología, por medio de la cual se clasificará a los criminales de
acuerdo a su “nivel de riesgo”.
En la actualidad, el programa ICE 287(g) ha proveído a más de 40 agencias locales de orden
público con acceso a la base de datos del Department of Homeland Security y sus centros de
detención, donde oficiales entrenados pueden ver la información de inmigración, determinar su
status migratorio (alienage), e iniciar los procedimientos de traslado. Hay un total de 67 cárceles,
fuerzas especiales (task foce), o de manera combinada 287(g) acuerdos nacionales acreditados
para identificar a más de 75,000 de individuos por posibles violaciones migratorias.
Con el programa de Secure Communities, el Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) integra
ahora una base de datos a nivel federal y local entre las agencias de orden público (law
enforcement agencies). La operación conjunta (Interoperability) entre el Federal Bureau of
Investigation’s (FBI’s), el Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS) y el DHS’
Automated Biometric Identification System (IDENT) ayudará al ICE y a las agencias públicas
locales a identificar a los reos extranjeros en prisiones y cárceles.
Los procesados extranjeros que son potencialmente deportables son, entre otros: inmigrantes
indocumentados en los Estados Unidos que han sido condenados por cualquier crimen y
residentes legales (como los poseedores de la Tarjeta de Residente Permanente en EU) que han
sido condenados por una “ofensa removible” (removable offense) definida por el Immigration and
Nationality Act (INA).
Las metas estratégicas del programa Secure Communites son:
1. Identificar a los reos extranjeros que pueden ser deportados mientras se encuentren en
custodia federal, estatal o local.
2. Intensificar las estrategias de detención para asegurarse que ningún extranjero que
puede ser deportado, sea liberado en la comunidad, debido a la falta de espacio de
detención o a una alternativa apropiada al arresto.
3. Implementar iniciativas de deportación que acorten el tiempo en que los extranjeros
permanecen en custodia del ICE antes del traslado, para así maximizar el uso de los
recursos de arresto y reducir los costos.
El programa se basa en tres niveles de riesgo. Estos niveles serán usados para ubicar los
recursos apropiados al identificar y determinar el status migratorio de los inmigrantes arrestados.
• Nivel 1: Individuos que han sido detenidos por delitos graves relacionados con las
drogas y delitos violentos como, asesinato, violación, robo o secuestro.
• Nivel 2: Individuos que han sido detenidos por delitos menores relacionaos con las
drogas y en general delitos a la propiedad como robo, latrocinio, fraude y lavado de
dinero.
• Nivel 3: Individuos que han sido acusados de otros delitos.
El ICE detecta, en todas las cárceles federales y estatales, a los prisioneros que claman haber
nacido en el extranjero. Además, cualquier agencia de orden público puede consultar el status
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FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
migratorio de cualquier individuo que ha sido encontrado por medio del ICE’s Law Enforcement
Support Center (LESC).
La mayoría de las agencias de orden público notifican al ICE sobre las detenciones de
extranjeros; entonces un oficial del ICE conduce una entrevista y determina el status migratorio
(alienage) del sospechoso y, de ser procedente, inicia los procesos de deportación,
Fechas: Por el momento el programa se ha aplicado en las cárceles de Houston y Dallas que
están enlazadas a este sistema en Texas. Otras cinco más en California y otros puntos del país
como Carolina del Norte también participan.
El ICE estima que puede tardar más de dos años, desarrollar un proceso automatizado para
buscar y dar prioridad a la “interoperabilidad” basada en niveles de criminalidad. Hasta entonces,
el ICE desarrollará estrategias para implementar de manera gradual la introducción de la
“interoperabilidad” usando un proceso de búsqueda manual
El ICE continuará con la ampliación del Rapid REPAT (Removal of Eligible Parolees Accepted for
Transfer Program), donde los inmigrantes procesados recibirán libertad condicional temprana a
cambio de que cooperen en su repatriación. Estos programas están restringidos a aquellos
criminales que no han cometido delitos graves y que no tienen historia de violencia. El programa
ha sido exitoso en Nueva York y Arizona.
Por el momento el programa se ha aplicado en las cárceles de Houston y Dallas que están
enlazadas a este sistema en Texas. Otras cinco más en California y otros puntos del país como
Carolina del Norte también participan.
El ICE estima que puede tardar más de dos años, desarrollar un proceso automatizado para
buscar y dar prioridad a la “interoperabilidad” basada en niveles de criminalidad.
La iniciativa ha sido fuertemente criticada por grupos defensores de inmigrantes en el área de
Dallas, que afirman resultará en la deportación de "gente trabajadora" que caiga en la cárcel por
alguna falta administrativa o delitos menores, aparte que va a separar familias con la deportación
de uno de los padres.
“Este programa no va incluir nada más a los criminales, también a la gente que arrestan y que no
tiene documentos y llegan a la cárcel y que son personas que quizás sus ofensas no son delitos
criminales” Héctor Flores (Consejero del IME 2003-2005), ex presidente nacional de la Liga de
Ciudadanos Latinoamericanos Unidos (LULAC).
Para más información consultar: http://www.ice.gov/pi/news/factsheets/secure_communities.htm
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN CARROLLTON, TX
TITULO
Solicitud de acuerdo con la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas conforme a la sección 287(g) de la
Ley de Migración y Naturalización
ESTATUS
En vigor
CONTENIDO Dar facultades a autoridades de dos cárceles de la ciudad para participar en el cumplimiento de
las leyes migratorias en el caso de personas detenidas por algún delito.
FECHAS
12/ago/08 – Firma del memorandum de entendimiento.
9/mar/07 – Concejales de la ciudad proponen solicitar el acuerdo con la Oficina de Migración y
Aduanas. En diciembre de 2006 ya se había rechazado una propuesta similar.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
Leonard Martin, Administrador de la ciudad: “Carrollton will be applying to participate in the
182
program by training jailers because the program is intended for only people involved in criminal
activity. If we are accepted into the program, residents should understand that this is a program
that only involves arrested criminals. Police will not be conducting any kind of street checks or
raids.” (9/mar/07).
Concejal Matthew Marchant: "The discussion before [in December] was not conclusive in my mind,
so I thought the time was right to bring it back up. I think it makes our city safer because it gives
our officers another tool to identify criminals. Getting into 287(g) gives you the ability to flesh out
your investigation." (9/mar/07)
Concejal Tim Hayden: [the program] "is more a symbolic gesture than anything...People in the
community want something done. Everybody is frustrated with illegal immigration. But if it's about
public safety, we're better off hiring more police officers and letting them work on crime." (9/mar/07)
EFECTOS
Concejal John Mahalik: "Illegal immigration is the hot topic right now, and all of our constituents
had expressed that somebody do something about it. 'Somebody' meaning the federal government,
the state, the local [authorities]. I believe this is a program that is something the cities actually can
do, where we can partner with the federal government, the immigration department. We're looking
at the people we arrest and the illegal immigrants committing serious crimes and getting them
taken care of, as we should," (9/mar/07)
El acuerdo permitirá a los agentes de detención el entrevistar a nacionales extranjeros dentro de
los centros de detención para determinar si existe causa probable de una violación a la ley de
migración. Bajo el programa, los agentes completaran el procesamiento de cualquier delincuente
extranjero y prepararán la documentación para iniciar los procedimientos de deportación.
JURISDICCIÓN FARMERS BRANCH, TX
TITULO
City of Farmers Branch Ordinance No. 2903
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
Resolution No. 2006-130: Resolution Declaring English As The Official Language Of The City Of
Farmers Branch.
http://www.farmersbranch.info/Communication/Proposed%20Ordinance%202903.doc
Aprobada en referéndum el 12 de mayo, 2007.
Suspendida por juez federal el 21 de mayo, 2007.
1) Obliga a los caseros a comprobar el estado migratorio legal de los inquilinos antes de otorgarles
un contrato de arrendamiento. Establece multas de hasta $500 dls. para los propietarios que
alquilen propiedades a migrantes indocumentados. Tras revisión de la propuesta de ley en
enero/07: permite alquilar propiedades a familias con algún miembro que sea ciudadano
estadounidense o residente permanente y que ya sean inquilinos. En caso de que alguna
persona sea rechazada para rentar un lugar, existe la posibilidad de tener una audiencia con un
inspector de edificios o un oficial designado por el gobierno municipal, dentro de un plazo de 10
días. En la audiencia los inquilinos tendrán la oportunidad de explicar y demostrar con pruebas
que tienen el estatus para ser elegibles para rentar en ese suburbio.
2) Establece un acuerdo con las autoridades federales para que la policía participe en la aplicación
de las leyes migratorias en los casos de personas que se encuentren bajo custodia.
FECHAS
Ago/06 – El Concejal Tim O’Hare propone la ordenanza 2892
13/nov/06 – El Concejo de la ciudad adopta la ordenanza. La resolución sobre el idioma inglés es
183
aprobada por unanimidad.
21/nov/06 - Líderes religiosos sostuvieron una junta donde aprobaron medidas a seguir para
alertar a la población y prevenir iniciativas similares. Se comprometen a traducir las ordenanzas
para que la mayoría de los afectados puedan entenderlas, enviar una carta al Alcalde Bob Phelps
manifestando su oposición a estas medidas y asistir a las reuniones del Concejo en las que se
discuta la ordenanza.
Dic/06 – Los grupos que apoyan la ordenanza crean un sitio de Internet para recabar fondos para
apoyar esta propuesta: www.supportfarmersbranch.com. Se reportó que la de agosto a octubre, la
ciudad gastó más de $35,000 dls. en cuotas legales relacionadas con la ordenanza.
4/dic/06 – Guillermo Ramos, residente de la ciudad presenta una demanda en contra de la ciudad
por medio de la firma Bickel & Brewer Storefront alegando que violó la ley de audiencias públicas
al aprobar la ordenanza a puerta cerrada.
4/dic/06 - La firma de abogados Bickel & Brewer Storefront participa en la campaña del grupo Let
the Voters Decide para reunir firmas solicitando que la ordenanza se someta a referéndum.
19/dic/06 – La ciudad ofrece un acuerdo a Guillermo Ramos para que retire su demanda a cambio
de someterla a votación general en mayo. Los abogados representantes señalan que la oferta es
inaceptable.
26/dic/06 – ACLU y MALDEF presentan su demanda en contra de la ordenanza alegando que
viola las leyes federales e implica que los dueños de propiedades asuman labores
correspondientes a la policía.
Ene/07 – Un grupo de residentes llamado Uniting Farmers Branch y LULAC reúne más de 900
firmas de votantes de la ciudad para pedir que la ordenanza se someta a referendum.
8/ene/07 – La sección sobre renta de vivienda es aprobada unánimemente por el Concejo de la
ciudad. El Concejo aprueba que la ordenanza se someta a votación general en mayo pero
mantiene la fecha de entrada en vigor para el 12 de enero.
10/ene/07 – ACLU y MALDEF piden al juez de distrito que suspenda la entrada en vigor de la
ordenanza.
11/ene/07 – El Juez de Distrito, Bruce Priddy, emite una orden que suspende temporalmente la
entada en vigor de la ordenanza hasta que se resuelva el caso en la corte bajo el argumento de
que la ciudad violó varios códigos estatales al mantener en privado reuniones sobre temas de
interés público.
11/ene/07 – El Concejo se compromete a revisar el texto de la ordenanza.
12/ene/07 – Fecha originalmente prevista para la entrada en vigor de la ordenanza.
Un grupo de comerciantes de Farmers Branch presentó una demanda judicial contra el
ayuntamiento porque alegan pérdidas de dinero en sus negocios debido al éxodo de hispanos en
las últimas semanas.
19/ene/07 – El Concejo decide hacer cambios a la ordenanza original (2892) y publica el texto de
la nueva ordenanza 2903 en el sitio de Internet de Farmers Branch (www.farmersbranch.info)
184
21/ene/07 - El grupo de 42 comerciantes autores de la cuarta demanda contra la ciudad se
reunieron y acordaron conformar el comité directivo de la Cámara de Comercio Hispana de
Farmers Branch.
22/ene/07 – El Juez de distrito extiende la suspensión de la ordenanza hasta el 9 de febrero, fecha
en que tendrá lugar la audiencia sobre el caso.
23/ene/07 – El Concejo hace ajustes a la ordenanza para resolver los problemas legales que
suscitó el texto original y adecuarse a las leyes federales.
31/ene/07 - En la primera de una serie de ocho reuniones, los líderes comunitarios no lograron
consenso sobre la viabilidad de realizar una posible mega marcha en Farmers Branch.
9/feb/07 – Fecha programada para la audiencia sobre la primera demanda en contra de la
ordenanza.
28/mar/07 - Elizabeth Villafranca, directora del capítulo de LULAC en Farmers Branch, presentó su
renuncia al cargo argumentando que no está de acuerdo con la manera en que se manejó el caso
que derivó en una orden de restricción contra un miembro del grupo Support Farmers Branch, que
la acusó en días pasados de retirar publicidad de los candidatos Tim Scott y David Koch en
vecindarios de ese suburbio.
12/may/07 – La iniciativa es aprobada en referéndum por 68% contra 32%. Entraría en vigor el 22
de mayo de 2007.
15/may/07 - La ACLU y MALDEF presentan una demanda frente a la corte de distrito para
suspender la entrada en vigor de la ordenanza.
21/may/07 – El juez Sam A. Lindsay suspende la entrada en vigor de la ordenanza, bajo el
argumento de que corresponde al gobierno federal determinar quien se encuentra en el pais de
forma indocumentada.
6/jun/07 – Los abogados de la ciudad proponen que el juez elimine algunas secciones de la ley y
mantenga otras con el fin de eliminar la disputa de la constitucionalidad de la ordenanza y
garantizar su entrada en vigor. El juez Lindsay extiende la suspensión de la ordenanza hasta el 19
de junio. Unos días antes, el juez declinó la propuesta de admitir a FAIRUS a la demanda.
Asimismo, eliminó una de las demandas presentadas por negocios de la ciudad que argumentaron
que la ordenanza estaba afectando el comercio en Farmers Branch.
19/jun/07 – El juez Lindsay rechazó la propuesta de “editar” la ordenanza e impuso un
requerimiento judicial que obliga a la ciudad a defender la ordenanza en un juicio para que pueda
entrar en vigor. Su decisión se basó en el argumento de que la ordenanza no se ajusta a los
estándares federales y es demasiado vaga. La ordenanza permanecerá suspendida hasta que se
tome una decisión en el juicio. El Concejal Tim O’Hare señaló que la ciudad buscará apelar la
decisión, defenderá la ordenanza en el juicio e incluso está dispuesta a llevarla a la Suprema
Corte.
REACCIONES
14/jul/07- La ciudad de Farmers Branch planea una campaña para revitalizar a la ciudad y reforzar
su identidad. Sin embargo, consideran que no es necesario cambiar su imagen de ciudad no
amigable hacia inmigrantes indocumentados
Líderes religiosos aprobaron medidas a seguir para alertar a la población y prevenir iniciativas
185
EN CONTRA
similares.
Guillermo Ramos, residente de la ciudad, presentó una demanda por medio de la firma Bickel &
Brewer Storefront argumentando que el alcalde violó la ley de audiencias públicas durante el
proceso de deliberación de las ordenanzas.
Los dueños de tres condominios presentaron una demanda Bickel & Brewer Storefront en contra
de la ordenanza argumentando que es inconstitucional, discrimina en contra de la población
hispana e impide a los dueños de condominios desempeñar su trabajo al convertirlos en agentes
policiales.
ACLU y MALDEF presentaron una demanda en contra de la ordenanza en representación de un
grupo de residentes y caseros. Argumentan que la ordenanza está redactada de manera tal que
incluso excluiría a migrantes legales y a ciudadanos de alquilar propiedades, además de que no
proporciona directrices claras para los propietarios y los administradores de edificios. Significaría
que todos los residentes de la ciudad tendrían que cargar con un acta de nacimiento o un
pasaporte. Solicitan que la ordenanza se someta a votación general.
Un grupo de 42 comerciantes, representados por un grupo de activistas comunitarios y LULAC,
presentó una cuarta demanda contra la ciudad, por perjuicio de sus negocios a raíz de la
ordenanza.
Un grupo de residentes llamado Uniting Farmers Branch y LULAC reúnen más de 900 firmas de
votantes de la ciudad para pedir que la ordenanza se someta a referendum.
La presión de estos grupos logró que los comisionados acordaran un plebiscito para aprobar o
derogar esa ordenanza.
Carlos Quintanilla, representante de LULAC y varios miembros de la comunidad pusieron en
marcha la campaña "Compra en Farmers Branch" para contrarrestar el efecto de la ordenanza.
Grupos de activistas pro-inmigrantes iniciaron una campaña de registro de votantes con la meta
de conseguir 700 registros nuevos antes de las elecciones de mayo en donde posiblemente se
vote sobre la ordenanza. La coordinadora de asuntos bilingües del departamento de elecciones
del condado Dallas, habló en una reunión sobre el proceso de registro de nuevos votantes y los
requisitos para voluntarios.
Un grupo de líderes latinos planea una mega marcha de cerca de 100,000 personas en contra de
la ordenanza que se realizaría el primero de abril.
ACLU y MALDEF demandan ante la corte de distrito, la suspensión de la entrada en vigor de la
ordenanza.
OPINIONES
Concejal Tim O'Hare, autor de la propuesta: "One of the glues that holds our society together and
unifies us is a common language, and we are losing that common language in a lot of areas. The
people that don't speak English are only hurting themselves, but never would I consider ... or
attempt to keep people from speaking any language they chose to in their homes or in their
churches or out in public." (8/dic/06)
Lisa Graybill, directora de ACLU, Texas: “Immigration enforcement must be left to the federal
government, not each local municipality. Otherwise Texas will end up with a patchwork system that
is impractical and unenforceable". (26/dic/06)
186
Salvador Parada, residente de FB: "The issue has divided the city. It has put neighbor against
neighbor. I don't think we're going to sit down and agree on things. It's just going to get worse."
(15/ene/07)
Concejal Tim O'Hare, autor de la ordenanza: "We are not mistreating anyone, we are not being
inhumane in any way, and I am unaware of any passage in the Bible where it encourages anyone
to break the law. Jesus never broke the law." (15/ene/07)
Christopher McGuire, residente de FB: "The City Council, composed entirely of white men, does
not know enough about Latino culture. They have trouble pronouncing the names of Hispanic
people who want to speak. People try to find somebody weaker to blame, and that's what's
happening now. The weakest people are illegal workers, but they're really attacking Hispanics,
particularly poor Hispanics." (15/ene/07)
Carlos Quintanilla, representante de LULAC: "Esta medida perjudica no sólo a los bolsillos de los
comerciantes, también al de la población hispana porque se ha creado un pánico y se están yendo
de Farmers Branch." (18/ene/07)
Marisol Perez, abogada de MALDEF: "Hopefully, the City Council will decide to abandon its efforts
to turn landlords into immigration agents". (19/ene/07)
Tom Bohmier, líder de Support Farmers Branch (www.supportfarmersbranch.com ), un grupo que
apoya la ordenanza: "I guess I'm frustrated that once again, outsiders are manipulating our city's
direction. The law is black and white, not shades of gray. People who are here illegally do not have
any rights at all, yet we're giving them more rights than residents". (19/ene/07)
Mr. Brewer, abogado de Bickel & Brewer Storefront: "If you look at the record of what came down
here, this was done in violation of the Open Meetings Act in as many ways as you could do it and
still think you were fooling everybody. They conducted negotiations and deliberations in the
background, and this was all wrong." (19/ene/07)
Chris McGuire, líder de Uniting Farmers Branch, un grupo opositor a la ordenanza: “This is an
attempt by the City Council to kind of pull an end-run and stop the lawsuits". (19/ene/07)
David Urias, abogado de MALDEF: "They made slight refinements based on some of the
challenges that were made to it, but overall it is still an attempt to turn apartment owners into
immigration officials. The city would still mandate that they check persons' documents and that is
going to be a big problem for our client tenants and apartment owners." (20/ene/07)
Administradora del complejo Cooks Creek: "Desde la suspensión de la ordenanza hasta lo que
pretenden hacer de querer poner otra ordenanza, nosotros no hemos recibido respuesta alguna, y
la nueva ordenanza 2903, no sólo no cambió su contenido sino que nos sigue colocando a
nosotros como agentes de inmigración sin serlo y con responsabilidades que no nos
corresponden, además de que va a seguir perjudicando a la industria". (20/ene/07)
Guillermo Ramos, autor de una demanda contra la ciudad respecto a la ordenanza previa (2892):
“La 2903, viene a mejorar en algo la situación y es una pequeña victoria a la lucha que hemos
abanderado durante todo este tiempo. Lo más importante de todo esto es que la ordenanza será
sometida a voto popular, lo que permitirá que los residentes decidan con su voto; es seria la
situación en cuanto a los documentos requeridos por el municipio, pero al menos las familias
mixtas podrán continuar dentro de sus viviendas". (20/ene/07)
187
Ramón Pacheco, dueño de Luxor's Furniture en Farmers Branch: "Los clientes huyen de FB, ya no
quieren acercarse a nosotros, el miedo es total, piensan que en cualquier momento van a ser
detenidos por la policía". (21/ene/07)
Elizabeth Villafranca, presidenta de LULAC en FB y voluntaria del grupo Let the Voters Decide:
"They're trying to send a message that minorities aren't welcome. I have had been told to go back
to Mexico even though I was born in the United States". (23/ene/07).
Alcalde Bob Phelps: "Walls, fences, that's not going to solve the problem. It's got to start from
Washington". (23/ene/07)
Raymundo Flores, trabajador de la construcción y quien tiene dos menores nacidos en EU: “La
ordenanza no hace otra cosa que darle vuelta a la tortilla. Es exactamente lo mismo, pero de
diferente manera, ¿creen que somos estúpidos o que? Simplemente le dan crédito a los que ya
tienen un poco más de tiempo, pero en realidad no cambia en nada". (23/ene/07)
Tom Bohmier, representante de Support Farmers Branch: “Esa ordenanza es claramente hermosa
y tiene exitosos alcances a nivel migratorio". (23/ene/07)
Brenda Reyes, organizadora de la marcha del 9 de abril: "Yo creo que si hacemos una marcha
vamos a asustar a los americanos que viven en FB, el ver tantas 'caras cafés' podría tener un
efecto negativo, y eso podría dañar el movimiento, sugiero que si se hace la marcha sea después
de las votaciones y que sea en Washington, pues ahí es donde los congresistas pueden
escucharnos mejor". (31/ene/07)
Héctor Flores, ex presidente nacional de LULAC: "Debemos aprovechar el momento, FB tiene que
ser el símbolo de la voz de los latinos, nuestra fuerza debe sentirse desde FB" (31/ene/07)
Álvaro Méndez, vicepresidente de la recién creada cámara de comercio hispana de FB:
"Considero que sería mejor realizar la marcha después de las votaciones, pues ahorita no
queremos que se incrementen esos roces con el anglosajón, que de por si ya nos ven de una
forma diferente". (31/ene/07)
Laura González, antropóloga: “Este movimiento debe ser observado como un todo y no por
separado, que tengan el concepto de que la marcha ya empezó en Los Ángeles, los ayunos en
California, y la caminata de los padres en San Diego, es parte de, no es un movimiento aislado".
(31/ene/07)
Concejal Tim O’Hare: “We have a large population of illegals in our city, and to say that does not
affect property values or schools is just plain ignorant” (4/feb/07)
Jefe de la Policía de Farmers Branch, Sid Fuller: "My goal is to maintain the trust and cooperation
of the entire community. There's not going to come a time when we're stopping people and asking
for their citizenship papers." (3/feb/07)
Alcalde Bob Phelps: “"My deal all along is the federal government is responsible for this, and the
courts have ruled that they are. Trying to circumvent the federal government – you can't do that….
"I don't want to be responsible for more dollars being spent on that...” (16/abr/07)
Elizabeth Villafranca, exdirectora del capítulo de LULAC en Farmers Branch: “No quiero seguir
dividiendo a la comunidad, nunca estuve de acuerdo en que se presentara una orden de
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restricción en contra de la policía, ni de la ciudad de Farmers Branch. LULAC me utilizó a
sabiendas de que nunca aprobé que se usara mi declaración para presentar una orden de
restricción” (28/mar/07).
Concejal Tim O’Hare: "I'd be shocked if I didn't see other cities follow suit. I've been contacted by
representatives from other cities. Any city that wants to protect their town, give me a call, and let us
work together." (13/may/07)
Alcalde Bob Phelps: The ordinance has whipped up a "social and financial crisis that it will take
years to recover from." (13/may/07)
William McKenzie, Op-Ed: "I don't like putting a bull's-eye on strangers among us. But [Farmers
Branch is] the kind of vote that could persuade the nervous in Washington to finally pass a
comprehensive measure. So could Oklahoma's recent decision to crack down on companies that
hire illegal immigrants" (15/may/07)
Juez Sam Lindsay: "The court recognizes that illegal immigration is a major problem in this country,
and one who asserts otherwise ignores reality. The court also fully understands the frustration of
cities attempting to address a national problem that the federal government should handle;
however, such frustration, no matter how great, cannot serve as a basis to pass an ordinance that
conflicts with federal law." (21/may/07)
Juez Sam Lindsay: "Farmers Branch, rather than deferring to the federal government's
determination of immigration status, has created its own classification scheme for determining
which noncitizens may rent an apartment" (19/jun/07).
Juez Lindsay: "The court rejects the city's thinly veiled argument that tries to distinguish its
ordinance as no more than a system of record-keeping that is intended to assist the federal
government in its enforcement of immigration laws. While the city may describe the ordinance in
this way, it is clear that the actual text of the ordinance makes the provision of immigration
documentation a 'prerequisite' to the renting of an apartment in Farmers Branch." (20/jun/07)
Lisa Graybill, directora de asuntos legales de ACLU-Texas: "Today's decision should serve as a
cautionary tale for other Texas municipalities that have considered similar ordinances" (19/jun/07)
Matthew Boyle, abogado de la ciudad: "We believe still that the city fundamentally has the right to
inquire of apartment rental applicants whether or not they are legally entitled to live in the United
States, and that's what our ordinance would do" (19/jun/07)
Concejal Tim O'Hare: "I'm certainly disappointed the judge has chosen to ignore the overwhelming
will of the people in our town, but I can't say I'm totally surprised." (20/jun/07)
Concejal Tim O'Hare: "The residents of Farmers Branch can rest assured that we will explore all
options and plan to appeal to the 5th Circuit Court of Appeals in the event we lose this trial, and
take it to the Supreme Court if that's what's necessary” (20/jun/07).
EFECTOS
Varios negocios de la zona han reportado pérdidas desde la adopción de la ordenanza.
Es uno de los casos más destacados en los medios y ha sido tomado como ejemplo en varios
casos, tanto en la redacción de ordenanzas similares como en la suspensión de propuestas en
espera de la conclusión del proceso legal de FB.
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La iniciativa es la primera de este tipo de medidas que se somete a votación.
9/ago/07 - Un año después de que el concejal Tim O'Hare convirtiera a Farmers Branch en la
primera ciudad de Texas que intentara cerrar las puertas a los indocumentados, el balance que la
discusión ha dejado a ese suburbio es negativo. (Diario La Estrella).
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
FARMERS BRANCH, TX
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Farmers Branch Police Department under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
8/jul/08 – Firma del Memorandum.
Otorga facultades a los agentes estatales para indagar el estatus migratorio de aquellas personas
detenidas por otros delitos, y en caso de que dichas personas tengan un estatus migratorio
irregular les otorga facultades para mantenerlas en detención en lo que son deportadas de los
EE.UU.
HARRIS COUNTY, TX
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Harris County Sheriff's Office under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor
Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
5 de noviembre de 2008 se permite que el condado adopte el programa, aunque ya se había
puesto en práctica unos meses antes.
El acuerdo permitirá a los agentes de detención el entrevistar a nacionales extranjeros dentro de
los centros de detención para determinar si existe causa probable de una violación a la ley de
migración. Bajo el programa, los agentes completaran el procesamiento de cualquier delincuente
extranjero y prepararán la documentación para iniciar los procedimientos de deportación
JURISDICCIÓN IRVING, TX
TITULO
ESTATUS
Pendiente
CONTENIDO Solicitar un memorando de entendimiento a la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas para permitir que la
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policía local participe en el cumplimiento de las leyes migratorias.
Cabe mencionar que desde septiembre de 2006, los policías de Irving participan en un programa
denominado Criminal Aliens Program en conjunto con la Agencia de Inmigración y Aduanas (ICE),
destinado a detectar a inmigrantes indocumentados que tienen antecedentes penales y son
arrestados en las calles de la ciudad.
FECHAS
Oct/06 – La petición ciudadana fue rechazada por el Concejo de la Ciudad.
4/feb/07 – La ciudadana Sue Richardson reúne 800 firmas y vuelve a presentar la petición.
15/jun/07 – El Concejo de la ciudad votó a favor de mantener el “Criminal Aliens Program” en lugar
de pedir un acuerdo con ICE por medio de la sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración bajo el
argumento de que el CAP ya cumple las funciones que incluiría el acuerdo, e incluso las rebasa.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
Sue Richardson, líder del Irving Republican Club: “Enrolling in 287(g) would be a proactive way for
Irving to identify illegal immigrants, while also relieving pressure on Border Patrol agents. It will also
eventually encourage self-deportation because people don't want to be caught” (4/feb/07).
Alcalde de Irving, Herbert Gears: “La comunidad inmigrante debe estar tranquila, pero a la vez
también nuestra responsabilidad como gobierno es dar seguridad y protección a nuestros
habitantes” (30/may/07)
EFECTOS
Desde que inició, el programa ‘Criminal Aliens Program’, 510 inmigrantes indocumentados con
antecedentes penales han sido arrestados y 299 han sido deportados a México, El Salvador,
Honduras y Argentina.
Según reportes de la policía de Irving , en el periodo comprendido entre el 30 de abril y el 13 de
mayo de 2007, se arrestaron 55 inmigrantes indocumentados con cargos penales.
Según reportes de la policía de Irving, desde el otoño de 2006 hasta junio de 2007, 700
inmigrantes indocumentados han sido “retirados” en colaboración con ICE.
UTAH
JURISDICCIÓN UTAH
TITULO
H.B. 105 - “Illegal Immigration Enforcement Act” (autor: Glenn A. Donnelson (R))
ESTATUS
Rechazada por el Poder Legislativo
CONTENIDO
Dar facultades la policía local y estatal para que participen en el cumplimiento de las leyes
migratorias.
FECHAS
14/feb/07 – La Cámara Baja aprueba la medida por 43 votos contra 30, a pesar de la oposición
generalizada por parte de las agencias de policía.
1/mar/07 – El Congreso rechaza la HB 105 junto con otras iniciativas contenidas dentro de un
paquete de propuestas de ley que restringirían los derechos de los inmigrantes indocumentados
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en el estado.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
El Jefe de la Policía de Salt Lake City, Chris Burbank y el Procurador General Mark Shurtleff se
pronuncian en contra de esta propuesta de ley.
Chris Burbank, Jefe de la Policía de Salt Lake City: “HB 105, the Illegal Immigration Enforcement
Act, paves the way for state and local police officers to be deputized as federal immigration agents.
The bill is antithetical to effective law enforcement, and would hurt police efforts to ensure public
safety and solve crime. Undocumented residents will be less likely to report crimes and cooperate
with police if they fear they'll be deported. […] Allowing police officers to be deputized as
immigration agents will make police work more difficult, creating an increased environment of
mistrust between police officers and minority communities, leading to reduced public safety and
security in our city. HB 105 is bad for local law enforcement, public safety and all Utah residents,
and should be vigorously opposed”. (Chris Burbank, “HB105: Bad for police, Utah residents, and
public safety”, Salt Lake Tribune, Op-Ed, 3/feb/07)
Procurador General de Utah, Mark Shurtleff: "The answer is to let the federal agents do their job
and let us do our job in Utah ." (5/feb/07)
Editorial, Salt Lake Tribune, “To summarize, the law is not only unnecessary but inflammatory. The
police don't like it, the state attorney general doesn't like it, and we don't like it either…Utah law
enforcement officers should enforce the local and state crime codes. Federal immigration officers
should enforce federal immigration laws. That's the way it's always been. That's the way it should
be”. (“Don't burden police: Enforcing immigration law up to feds”, Salt Lake Tribune, 5/feb/07)
Rep. Glenn Donnelson, autor de la iniciativa: HB105 will give Utah law enforcement "an opportunity
to work with federal government." The state-federal Immigration Customs and Enforcement (ICE)
agreement is needed before Utah becomes a "magnet state for illegal immigration” (14/feb/07).
Rep. Jennifer Seelig, D-Salt Lake City: I am concerned that people could be stopped just for
"looking foreign" in Utah and the state would appear culturally insensitive. "Do we really want to
look backwards with all the progress we've [made] in our state?" (14/feb/07)
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN UTAH
TITULO
Illegal Immigration Enforcement Act (HB 237)
ESTATUS
Archivada.
CONTENIDO
CHAPTER 15. ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION ENFORCEMENT ACT
53-15-101. Title.
This chapter is known as the "Illegal Immigration Enforcement Act."
Section 2. Section 53-15-102 is enacted to read:
53-15-102. Definitions.
As used in this chapter:
(1) "Alien" is as defined in 8 U.S.C. Sec. 1101(a)(3).
(2) "Law enforcement officer" is as defined in Section 53-13-103.
Section 3. Section 53-15-103 is enacted to read:
53-15-103. Agreement to enforce immigration law.
(1) The commissioner shall:
(a) on behalf of the state, enter into an agreement with the Secretary of Homeland
Security, pursuant to 8 U.S.C. Sec. 1357(g), to allow a state law enforcement officer to perform a
function of a federal immigration officer in relation to the investigation, apprehension, or detention
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EFECTOS
of aliens in the United States; and
(b) ensure that the state, and state law enforcement officers, comply with the terms of
the agreement described in Subsection (1)(a) and the provisions of 8 U.S.C. Sec. 1357(g).
(2) A local law enforcement agency may enter into an agreement with the Secretary of
Homeland Security, pursuant to 8 U.S.C. Sec. 1357(g), to allow a local law enforcement officer to
perform a function of a federal immigration officer in relation to the investigation, apprehension, or
detention of aliens in the United States.
(3) If a local law enforcement agency enters into an agreement described in Subsection
(2), the local law enforcement agency shall ensure that the local law enforcement agency, and the
local law enforcement agency's law enforcement officers, comply with the terms of the agreement
and the provisions of 8 U.S.C. Sec. 1357(g).
Section 4. Section 53-15-104 is enacted to read:
53-15-104. Authority of a state or local law enforcement officer to enforce immigration law.
A state or local law enforcement officer may enforce federal immigration law and otherwise perform
a function of a federal immigration officer if the law enforcement officer:
(1) is authorized to enforce federal immigration law or perform a function of a federal
immigration officer under:
(a) an agreement described in Section 53-15-103 ; and
(b) 8 U.S.C. Sec. 1357(g); and
(2) complies with the requirements of:
(a) the agreement described in Subsection (1)(a); and
(b) 8 U.S.C. Sec. 1357(g).
5/mar/08 – Archivada en la Asamblea.
5/feb/08 – Introducida por el representante Glenn Donnelson (R-North Orden)
Da a ciertos oficiales locales y estatales la autoridad para ejecutar leyes de imigración federal y
hacer funciones de oficiales de imigración federal.
JURISDICCIÓN UTAH
TITULO
Illegal Immigration (S.B. 81)
ESTATUS
Aprobada (entrará en vigor en julio de 2009)
CONTENIDO
Section 1. Section 17-22-9.5 is enacted to read:
17-22-9.5. Citizenship determination of incarcerated persons.
(1) The sheriff shall make a reasonable effort to determine the citizenship status of a person
charged with a felony or driving under the influence under Section 41-6a-502 when the person is
confined to the county jail for a period of time.
(2) If the confined person is a foreign national, the sheriff shall make a reasonable effort to verify
that the person:
(a) has been lawfully admitted into the United States; and
(b) the person's lawful status has not expired.
(3) (a) If the sheriff cannot verify the confined person's lawful status from documents in the
person's possession, the sheriff shall attempt to verify that status within 48 hours of the person's
confinement at the jail through contacting:
(i) the Law Enforcement Support Center of the United States Department of Homeland Security; or
(ii) an office or agency designated for citizenship status verification by the United States
Department of Homeland Security.
(b) The sheriff shall notify the United States Department of Homeland Security of a person whose
lawful citizenship status cannot be verified under Subsection (2) or (3)(a).
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(4) It is a rebuttable presumption for the purpose of determining the grant or issuance of a bond
that a person who is verified under this section as a foreign national not lawfully admitted into the
United States is at risk of flight.
…
Section 6. Section 63-99a-103 is enacted to read:
63-99a-103. Status verification system -- Registration and use -- Performance of services -Unlawful practice.
…(2) (a) Each public employer shall register with and use a Status Verification System to verify the
federal employment authorization status of a new employee.
(b) This section shall be enforced without regard to race, religion, gender, ethnicity, or national
origin.
(3) (a) Beginning July 1, 2009:
…
Section 7. Section 63-99a-104 is enacted to read:
63-99a-104. Receipt of state, local, or federal public benefits -- Verification -- Exceptions -Fraudulently obtaining benefits -- Criminal penalties -- Annual report.
(1) Except as provided in Subsection (3) or where exempted by federal law, an agency or political
subdivision of the state shall verify the lawful presence in the United States of an individual at least
18 years of age who has applied for:
(a) a state or local public benefit as defined in 8 U.S.C., Sec. 1621; or
(b) a federal public benefit as defined in 8 U.S.C., Sec. 1611, that is administered by an agency or
political subdivision of this state.
(2) This section shall be enforced without regard to race, religion, gender, ethnicity, or national
origin.
…
(4) An agency or political subdivision required to verify the lawful presence in the United States of
an applicant under this section shall require the applicant to certify under penalty of perjury that:
(a) the applicant is a United States citizen; or
(b) the applicant is:
(i) a qualified alien as defined in 8 U.S.C., Sec. 1641; and
(ii) lawfully present in the United States.
(5) An agency or political subdivision shall verify a certification required under Subsection (4)
through the Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements Program, hereafter referred to in this
section as the "program," operated by the United States Department of Homeland Security or an
equivalent program designated by the Department of Homeland Security.
(6) (a) An individual who knowingly and willfully makes a false, fictitious, or fraudulent statement or
representation in a certification under Subsection (4) is subject to the criminal penalties applicable
in this state for:
…
Section 8. Section 67-5-22.5 is enacted to read:
67-5-22.5. Fraudulent Documents Identification Unit.
Subject to the availability of funding, the attorney general shall establish a Fraudulent Documents
Identification Unit:
(1) for the primary purpose of investigating, apprehending, and prosecuting individuals or entities
that participate in the sale or distribution of fraudulent documents used for identification purposes;
and
(2) to specialize in fraudulent identification documents created and prepared for individuals who
are unlawfully residing within the state.
Section 9. Section 67-5-26 is enacted to read:
67-5-26. Memorandum of Understanding regarding enforcement of federal immigration laws -Communications regarding immigration status -- Private cause of action.
(1) The attorney general shall negotiate the terms of a Memorandum of Understanding between
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the state and the United States Department of Justice or the United States Department of
Homeland Security as provided in 8 U.S.C., Sec. 1357(g) for the enforcement of federal
immigration and customs laws within the state by state and local law enforcement personnel, to
include investigations, apprehensions, detentions, and removals of persons who are illegally
present in the United States.
(2) The attorney general, the governor, or an individual otherwise required by the appropriate
federal agency referred to in Subsection (1) shall sign the Memorandum of Understanding on
behalf of the state.
(3) (a) A unit of local government, whether acting through its governing body or by an initiative or
referendum, may not enact an ordinance or policy that limits or prohibits a law enforcement officer,
local official, or local government employee from communicating or cooperating with federal
officials regarding the immigration status of a person within the state.
(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a government entity or official within the state may
not prohibit or in any way restrict a government entity or official from sending to, or receiving from,
the United States Department of Homeland Security information regarding the citizenship or
immigration status, lawful or unlawful, of an individual.
(c) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a person or agency may not prohibit or in any way
restrict a public employee from doing the following regarding the immigration status, lawful or
unlawful, of an individual:
(i) sending information to or requesting or receiving information from the United States
Department of Homeland Security;
(ii) maintaining the information referred to in Subsection (3)(c)(i); and
(iii) exchanging the information referred to in Subsection (3)(c)(i) with any other federal, state, or
local government entity.
(d) This Subsection (3) allows for a private right of action by a natural or legal person lawfully
domiciled in this state to file for a writ of mandamus to compel a noncompliant local or state
governmental agency to comply with the reporting laws of this Subsection (3).
Section 10. Section 76-10-2701 is enacted to read:
Part 27. Transporting or Harboring of Illegal Aliens
76-10-2701. Transporting or harboring aliens -- Definition -- Penalty.
(1) For purposes of this part, "alien" means an individual who is illegally present in the United
States.
(2) It is unlawful for a person to:
(a) transport, move, or attempt to transport into this state or for a distance of greater than 100
miles within the state an alien for commercial advantage or private financial gain, knowing or in
reckless disregard of the fact that the alien is in the United States in violation of federal law, in
furtherance of the illegal presence of the alien in the United States; or
(b) knowingly, with the intent to violate federal immigration law, conceal, harbor, or shelter from
detection an alien in a place within this state, including a building or means of transportation for
commercial advantage or private financial gain, knowing or in reckless disregard of the fact that the
alien is in the United States in violation of federal law.
(3) A person who violates Subsection (2)(a) or (b) is guilty of a class A misdemeanor.
(4) Nothing in this part prohibits or restricts the provision of:
(a) a state or local public benefit described in 8 U.S.C., Section 1621(b); or
(b) charitable or humanitarian assistance, including medical care, housing, counseling, food,
victim assistance, religious services and sacraments, and transportation to and from a location
where the assistance is provided, by a charitable, educational, or religious organization or its
employees, agents, or volunteers, using private funds.
(5) (a) It is not a violation of this part for a religious denomination or organization or an agent,
officer, or member of a religious denomination or organization to encourage, invite, call, allow, or
enable an alien to perform the vocation of a minister or missionary for the denomination or
organization in the United States as a volunteer who is not compensated as an employee,
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OPINIONES
EFECTOS
notwithstanding the provision of room, board, travel, medical assistance, and other basic living
expenses.
(b) Subsection (5)(a) applies only to an alien who has been a member of the religious
denomination or organization for at least one year.
13/mar/08 – Firmada por el Gobernador de Utah.
30/ene/08 – Introducida por John W. Hickman.
Dicha ley prevé que las agencias locales sirvan para hacer cumplir leyes de inmigración, obligará a
los empleadores del sector público a verificar el estatus migratorio de sus trabajadores y prevé
sanciones a los que den alojamiento, oculten o transporten a personas indocumentadas.
VIRGINIA
JURISDICCIÓN VIRGINIA
TITULO
Petición de acuerdo con la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas 287(g)
HB 2937
HB 2629
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
Acuerdo 287(g) – Aprobado (23/mar/07).
HB 2937- Pendiente aprobación
HB 2629 – Retirada
1) Establecer un acuerdo con la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas para dar facultades a la policía
estatal y local para garantizar el cumplimiento de las leyes migratorias en los casos de personas
detenidas por delitos graves.
2) HB 2937 -Prohibir a grupos de caridad y organizaciones no lucrativas utilizar fondos del gobierno
estatal o local para proveer asistencia a migrantes indocumentados. Bajo esta ley, estos grupos
tendrían que verificar el estatus migratorio de una persona antes de ofrecer cualquier servicio.
3) HB 2629 - Prohibir el uso de la Matrícula Consular mexicana como un medio para establecer la
residencia legal de sus portadores.
Otras propuestas que actualmente se consideran en la asamblea incluyen: sancionar a
empleadores que contraten a migrantes indocumentados; y considerar como delito la presencia en
el estado sin estatus migratorio regular.
FECHAS
17/ene/07 – El Procurador General de Virginia, Robert F. McDonnell (R) propuso aprobar una ley y
una orden ejecutiva para dar facultades a la policía local y estatal para garantizar el cumplimiento
de las leyes migratorias, específicamente con respecto a individuos sospechosos de crímenes
violentos.
31/ene/07 – La propuesta sobre el uso de los fondos para organizaciones sin fines de lucro es
aprobada por la asamblea del estado. Aún requiere el voto del senado.
6/feb/07 – El Comité de Justicia del Senado rechaza la petición del acuerdo con la Oficina de
Migración y Aduanas conforme a la sección 287(g) bajo el argumento de que la policía local no
196
tiene recursos para participar en el cumplimiento de las leyes migratorias.
7/feb/07 – Se retira la iniciativa HB 2629 tras una reunión entre el autor de la propuesta sobre las
matrículas consulares, John “Jack” Reid, y el Jefe de la Sección Consular de la Embajada de
México en Washington en la que se explicó que las matrículas consulares son un documento
seguro y no contienen información relacionada con el estatus migratorio de una persona.
23/mar/07 - El Concejo de Herndon aprobó 6-0, la firma del Memorándum de Entendimiento entre
el Departamento de Policía de Herndon con el ICE para capacitar a elementos del cuerpo
policiaco en actividades de arresto y deportación de inmigrantes indocumentados.
4/abr/07 – La Comisión de Crímenes de Virginia establece un grupo de trabajo de 16 personas
para examinar crímenes por y hacia inmigrantes indocumentados en el estado para determinar su
impacto financiero en el sistema de justicia criminal.
27/jun/07- Legisladores de Virginia consideran crear una Comisión para investigar los efectos de la
inmigración indocumentada en el estado y determinar que elementos de la legislación en este
ámbito recaerían bajo la responsabilidad del gobierno estatal. Hasta el momento, sólo el Alcalde
de Culpeper, Pranas Rimeikis, ha sido designado como miembro del comité.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
La organización “Mexicanos Sin Fronteras” y otros grupos llevarán a cabo una serie de actos de
protesta del 2 al 5 de febrero en Richmond, en la llamada “Journey for Immigrant Justice”.
Grupos pro-inmigrantes como VACOLAO y la Virginia Hispanic Chamber of Commerce
organizaron el el “Latino Lobby Day” el 5 de febrero para trabajar en contra de la legislación antiinmigrante y promover los proyectos que favorecen a la comunidad latina.
OPINIONES
El gobernador de Virginia, Timothy M. Kaine (D), reiteró que no es su intención firmar una orden
ejecutiva de este tipo ya que la aplicación de las leyes migratorias es responsabilidad del gobierno
federal, no el estatal. “What we want to do is demand of our federal delegation and legislators that
they provide appropriate funding for anti-immigration activity, and not take the pressure off by
having the Virginia taxpayers pay the bill”. (17/ene/07)
Cristina M. Rebeil, abogada del Virginia Poverty Law Center, opinó que estas medidas aumentaran
la persecución basada en perfiles raciales y que disuadirán a los inmigrantes de reportar crímenes
o presentarse como testigos. "We're seeing a huge amount of hostility from law enforcement. From
our side, we only see it increasing, so we can only imagine what would happen." (17/ene/07)
Asambleísta Jackson H. Miller (R-Manassas), autor de la propuesta sobre los fondos para
organizaciones sin fines de lucro: "This is to make sure the monies that are going to charities and
organizations go to the people they are intended to go to, which is legal immigrants. The ultimate
goal is to make the commonwealth of Virginia an unwelcome place if you are in this country
illegally." (31/ene/07)
Kitty Hardt, directora de operaciones de Commonwealth Catholic Charities: "We don't stop services
to look for documentation." (31/ene/07)
Asambleísta A. Donald McEachin (D-Richmond): "I think they have put together an agenda that
says we are going to beat up on illegal aliens, regardless of their status as children or adults.”
(31/ene/07)
William Buchanan, director de American Council for Immigration Reform: "Virginia is receptive.
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There are a lot of people hearing from their constituents saying, 'This has got to stop,'. All across
Northern Virginia , communities are being swept away." (31/ene/07)
Bob Rudine, miembro de la organización Help Save Herndon: "The problem is not with legal
immigrants; they try to assimilate. The problem is the illegal aliens; they are not assimilating”.
(31/ene/07).
Claire Guthrie Castañaga, Virginia Coalition of Latino Organizations: “…the General Assembly is
considering legislation that will create a hostile environment for all people of color." (31/ene/07)
McDonnell, autor de la propuesta sobre facultades migratorias para la policía: "Local law
enforcement, like me, are frustrated we have no ability to enforce the laws, and our citizens are
frustrated”. (31/ene/07)
Senador estatal James K. “Jay” O’Brien (R-Fairfax): "People are very concerned about the
message on these things. We need to balance the humanity requirements of every person with the
public safety needs of our communities but without a vindictive and mean-spirited approach."
(2/feb/07)
Jeffrey M. Frederick (R-Prince William), co-autor de varias de las propuestas: "The fact is, illegal
immigrants are costing taxpayers a fortune and putting our citizens at risk because they don't even
belong here. They have no right to be here." (2/feb/07)
Editorial, Washington Post: “Lawmakers who propose anti-immigrant legislation may be responding
to the legitimate complaints of their constituents or to the worst instincts in American politics. Either
way, their measures could inflict considerable pain while failing to solve a problem whose causes,
and ultimate solution, lie with the federal government.” (“Next Stop: Underground”, Washington
Post, 7/feb/07)
Asambleísta C.L. "Clay" Athey Jr. (R-Warren): "We are trying to put things in place so Virginia is
not a magnet for illegal immigrants". (7/feb/07)
Cónsul general de México en Washington, Enrique Escorza: "La iniciativa 2629 lo que buscaba
era, de alguna manera, criticar la matrícula consular mexicana como un documento que no podía
probar la presencia legal. Lo que hacemos con la matrícula es dar identidad a las personas, que
puedan tener un documento que les permita decir quiénes son, no probar un estatus legal (de
permanencia en este país)" (7/feb/07).
Kent Willis, director de ACLU-Virginia: "On paper, the 287(g) program sounds fine. It simply
attempts to recruit local enforcement to assist with legitimate federal immigration law. Clearly, their
interest in this program stems more from the growing bias against the Latino community than it
does from concerns about public-safety issues related to illegal immigration." (4/abr/07)
EFECTOS
Esta propuesta fue influenciada por los casos de Manassas, Prince William County y Herndon, en
donde se discuten iniciativas de este tipo.
Herndon es la primera ciudad del Estado de Virginia en aceptar el programa federal del
Departamento de Inmigración y Aduanas (ICE), bajo la Sección 287(g) de la Ley de Inmigración y
Nacionalidad de Estados Unidos.
JURISDICCIÓN CULPEPER, VA
198
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
1) Limitar el número de personas que pueden vivir en una casa para una sola familia.
2) Crear un grupo de trabajo para estudiar el impacto de la migración indocumentada en la ciudad
y proponer un acuerdo con la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas para permitir a las autoridades
locales tomar responsabilidades para garantizar el cumplimiento de las leyes migratorias.
3) Imponer sanciones contra caseros y empleadores que alquilen propiedades a migrantes
indocumentados o los contraten como trabajadores, respectivamente.
FECHAS
Jul/06 – El concejal Jenkins introduce la primera iniciativa.
Ago/06 – ACLU presenta una demanda en contra de la ciudad en la que argumenta que la
propuesta es inconstitucional porque discrimina en contra de las familias de origen hispano.
30/ago/06 - El concejal Steve Jenkins introduce la segunda iniciativa. Presenta una petición con
225 firmas de residentes de la ciudad que aprueban esta propuesta.
4/sep/06 – Jenkins organiza una reunión en la biblioteca de la ciudad para discutir sus iniciativas
de ley. Varios grupos hispanos organizan una protesta en contra de la legislación.
21/sep/06 – Tras una discusión a puerta cerrada, el Concejo rechaza como tal la propuesta de
Jenkins sobre limitar el número de personas sin parentesco en una vivienda pero vota a favor de
contratar a un oficial especial que garantice el cumplimiento de las leyes de vivienda existentes
que limitan a 5 el número de personas sin parentesco que pueden residir en una vivienda para una
familia. Además enviarán una carta a las autoridades federales solicitando asistencia y
recomendaciones sobre medidas para controlar la migración indocumentada.
4/dic/06 – El capítulo del Grupo Minuteman en Virginia lleva a cabo una reunión en Culpeper con
el objetivo de proveer información a ciudadanos y autoridades de la ciudad sobre las acciones que
pueden tomar para enfrentar el impacto de la migración indocumentada en la ciudad.
Ene/07 – La tercera iniciativa aún se discuten dentro del Concejo de la ciudad.
30/ene/07 – El Concejo de la ciudad comisiona un estudio para determinar los costos de los
migrantes indocumentados para la ciudad, a partir del cual se determinarán las decisiones
respecto al control de la migración en la localidad.
8/mar/07 – El Concejal Steve Jenkis propone someter a votación general en noviembre una
pregunta sobre las opiniones de la población respecto a cómo responder a la migración
indocumentada.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
El Alcalde de la ciudad y algunos miembros del Concejo consideran que las propuestas de Jenkins
están dirigidas en contra de la población de origen hispano.
Protestas por parte de grupos hispanos.
ACLU presenta una demanda en contra de la primera iniciativa.
ACLU se ha pronunciado en contra de la segunda iniciativa, señalando que la ciudad no tiene
199
autoridad para legislar en asuntos migratorios, pues la responsabilidad recae en el gobierno
federal.
OPINIONES
Kent Willis, director de ACLU en Virginia: “Jenkins’ initiative and others like it are rooted in a newly
but deeply developed prejudice against people from other countries” (30/ago/06)
Martín Bernal, representante de varios grupos latinos y residentes de Culpeper: “I don’t know what
Mr. Steve Jenkins has against Hispanics. We need to work on this matter.” (30/ago/06)
Concejal Chris Snider: “Once there is any mention of race, nationality, gender or age in crafting
ordinances or codes we are violating the Constitution, which was written to protect all people – not
just WASPS”. (30/ago/06)
Alcalde Pranas A. Rimeikis: “There's a perception that there's a significant drain on social services.
We haven't gotten any reports, so we don't really have a handle on to what extent there's a
problem… When you get to the reality of taking on this thing, going after employers for verifying
legal presence, or going after landlords, we don't have the resources to do that. We'd have to
double our police force." (21/sep/06)
Concejal Chris Snider: “The issue of overcrowding in Culpeper should be approached in a way that
is nondiscriminatory and from a health and safety perspective”. (13/ene/07)
Senador por Virginia, John Warner (R) en una carta al administrador de la ciudad: “I value the
thoughts of the Culpeper Town Council regarding immigration policy…I will be certain to keep your
views and those of the citizens of Culpeper in mind as Congreso moves forward with border
security and immigration issues.” (13/ene/07)
EFECTOS
Concejal Steve Jenkins: “The question I would propose is as such: We the citizens of the county
and town of Culpeper expect our local governments to take actions possible and appropriate to
deter and prevent illegal aliens from residing in our community". (8/mar/07)
La ordenanza de Hazleton, PA influyó en las propuestas de Jenkins.
JURISDICCIÓN CULPEPER, VA
TITULO
ESTATUS
En vigor.
CONTENIDO Culpeper County Board of Supervisors unanimously approved a resolution declaring English to be
the county's official language.
The Board also resolved to join other counties in seeking the Virginia General Assembly's help in
grappling with problems caused by undocumented immigrants.
FECHAS
7/Ago/07 …the voting unanimously on resolutions to affirm the county's English-speaking primacy
and to join a growing coalition of Virginia jurisdictions asking the General Assembly for help in
cracking down on illegal immigrants. (Washington Post)
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
9/ago/07 - "We just wanted to clarify that this was an English-speaking county and make sure we
reflected that," said Supervisor Bill Chase (I-Stevensburg). "But I don't think this really changes
anything." (The Washington Post)
EFECTOS
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JURISDICCIÓN HERNDON, VA
TITULO
An ordinance amending the Town Code to add new Division 5, Vehicle Solicitation, Article III,
Specific Street Regulations , Chapter 42, Motor Vehicles and Traffic, Herndon Town Code (2000),
as amended to prohibit employment solicitation using a motor vehicle (Anti-solicitation ordinance)
ESTATUS
Declarada inconstitucional.
CONTENIDO Sec. 42-135. Findings.
The town council makes the following findings:
(a) The activity of unregulated pedestrians’ soliciting employment from occupants of vehicles
distracts drivers from their primary duty to watch traffic and be alert for potential hazards in the
highway, to observe all traffic control signs and to be prepared to move through the town with
safety.
(b) The activity of unregulated soliciting employment by occupants of vehicles to pedestrians on
highways, sidewalks, driveways, parking areas, or alleys distracts drivers from their primary duty to
watch other vehicles or pedestrians and to move through the town with safety.
(c) The practice of unregulated soliciting employment from within a highway, sidewalk, driveway,
parking area, or alley constitutes a visual blight, inconvenience to workers, and a public nuisance;
and subjects the solicitor, pedestrians and vehicle driver to an unacceptable level of danger by
distracting drivers from their primary duty to watch traffic; results in the delay and obstruction of the
public’s free flow of travel, and results in congestion and blockage of the streets, parking area,
driveways, and sidewalks.
…(e) The cumulative impact of this type of unregulated solicitation on the highways, sidewalks,
driveways, parking areas, or alleys on a daily basis creates a safety hazard and a significant and
substantial risk to the interest of the public in the free flow of travel.
Sec. 42-136. Vehicle Solicitation.
(a) It is unlawful for any person, while occupying as a pedestrian any portion of a highway,
sidewalk, driveway, parking area, or alley to solicit or attempt to solicit employment from any
pedestrian who temporarily exits a vehicle or person traveling in a vehicle on a highway, sidewalk,
driveway, parking area, or alley.
(b) It is unlawful for any person occupying or traveling in any vehicle, or who temporarily exits a
vehicle to solicit, or attempt to solicit, emp loyment from a person who is pedestrian on a highway,
sidewalk, driveway, parking area, or alley.
FECHAS
Sec. 42-137. Penalty.
Any person violating the provisions of this article shall be guilty of a class 2 misdemeanor,
punishable as set forth in Section 1-14 of this code. Any such person shall be deemed guilty of a
separate offense for each act of solicitation which is a violation of this article.
17/ago/05 - The Herndon Town Council approved the creation of a formal, taxpayer-funded
gathering spot for day laborers.
16/sept/06 - Herndon resident Stephen Thomas was charged with vehicle solicitation under the
ordinance
03/ago/07 - Fairfax County announced that it will terminate its contract with non-profit organization
Reston Interfaith to operate the Herndon Official Workers Center by Sept. 6.
15/ago/07 - The Herndon Town Council voted to keep open its two-year-old hiring center for day
laborers but to find a new manager who will ban illegal immigrants
29/ago/07 - A Fairfax Circuit Court judge threw out Herndon's anti-solicitation ordinance yesterday,
201
finding that the town's two-year-old prohibition against laborers and motorists discussing
employment on the streets violates First Amendment rights to free speech.
The 11-page opinion by Judge Leslie Alden was a legal setback for town officials, who regarded
the ordinance as an important tool in their crackdown on illegal immigrants. Some town leaders say
such immigrants account for most of those seeking work.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
Creation of a formal, taxpayer-funded gathering spot for day laborers.
JURISDICCIÓN HERNDON, VA
TITULO
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Herndon Police under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
ESTATUS
Acuerdo conforme a 287(g) – en vigor
CONTENIDO
1. Entrenamiento para que la policía de la ciudad participe en el cumplimiento de las leyes
migratorias conforme a la sección 287 (g) de la Ley de Migración.
2. Prohibir a oficinas del gobierno emplear a contratistas cuyos trabajadores sean migrantes
indocumentados y prohibir que migrantes indocumentados obtengan licencias de negocios.
Exige a los solicitantes de una licencia de negocios presentar un juramento sobre su
autorización para trabajar en el país.
FECHAS
26/sep/06 – El Concejo de la ciudad aprueba la propuesta de establecer un Memorando de
Entendimiento con la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas con base en la sección 287(g) de la Ley de
Migración.
28/nov/06 – El Concejo de la ciudad vota 6-1 a favor de la iniciativa para requerir que los
contratistas certifiquen que sus empleados tienen estatus migratorio legal.
28/nov/06– El Concejal William B. Tirrell introduce la propuesta para que los documentos oficiales
de la ciudad sean publicados en inglés.
17/dic/06 – El Concejo de la ciudad rechaza la propuesta de que todos los documentos de la
ciudad se publiquen en inglés ya que el uso del español se justifica.
5/ene/07 – El Jefe del Departamento de Policía de Herndon, Toussaint E. Summers Jr., anuncia
que la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas ha aceptado a la ciudad para que 70 oficiales y personal
civil de la ciudad en el programa de entrenamiento para la policía local.
El Concejo de la ciudad vota a favor de la iniciativa pero llevará a cabo una audiencia pública
antes de firmar el acuerdo final con el Departamento de Seguridad Interna.
feb/07 – Entra en vigor la ley que requiere un juramento sobre el estatus migratorio de las
personas que soliciten una licencia de negocios.
15/jun/07 - Concluye el entrenamiento de policías de Herndon con la ICE.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
El periódico Herndon Observer publica un gran número de cartas que critican la propuesta de
declarar al inglés como idioma oficial de la ciudad.
202
OPINIONES
Concejal J. Harlon Reece: “Herndon is not a crime-ridden community”. (1/oct/06)
De acuerdo a datos publicados por el Washington Post, la policía de Herndon ha reportado que los
delitos graves se han reducido en 26% de 2002 a 2005 (“Police Enforcement of Immigration Laws
Raises Worry”, 1/oct/06).
Alcalde DeBenedetis “This isn't about immigrants. It's about crime and criminal behavior. It's about
reducing crime and making all of us safe." (1/oct/06)
Editorial, Washington Post: “[Herndon’s] proposals are small-minded and, if enacted, are likely to
be futile in resolving any problems. But we understand local officials' frustration with the federal
government's inability to craft an immigration policy for the country”. The new initiatives are, as one
official conceded, an effort to just do something. But, toward what end, and at what cost? The
business proposals duplicate existing laws. Letting the police officer on the corner take over the
federal role in the complex world of immigration law could lead to heartbreaking mistakes and
unintended consequences. People who look "foreign" to one police officer or another might
become targets for unfair scrutiny. Many law enforcement authorities fear that such policies will
chill relations with immigrant communities and, as a result, more serious crimes will go unreported
and unsolved” (“Immigration in Herndon”, Washington Post, 2/oct/06)
Concejal Dennis Husch: "What we're really doing here is we're changing the perception ... that
Herndon was very open to illegal aliens. This town council is attempting to change that perception."
(12/oct/06)
Concejal Charlie Waddell: "We have had crimes committed in this town by folks not here legally,
and we need to protect the community; anything we need to do to protect the community is our
duty". (2/dic/06)
Concejal David Kirby: "Some people would never try to come here legally because they know
they wouldn't pass muster. They may have some sort of disease, or they may be criminals".
(2/dic/06)
Richard Kaufman, abogado de la ciudad: “The federal government is not in a position to enforce
immigration law in respect to Herndon and current state law is ambiguous” (2/dic/06)
Concejal William B. Tirrell, autor de la propuesta sobre el uso del inglés: "It's too big a battle to fight
tonight, but I don't know why we don't do everything we can possibly do to let illegal aliens know
that they are not welcome here. We need to turn over all the rocks and expose what's out there."
(2/dic/06)
Alcalde Steve DeBenedetis: “I think I am comfortable with where we are right now. I don’t think we
are translating too many things into Spanish” (17/dic/06)
Stephen F. Owen, administrador de la ciudad: "The cost of not doing it [printing certain documents
in Spanish] would be greater than the cost to do it when it comes to people not understanding their
Miranda rights or when to put out the trash." (17/dic/06)
Concejal William B. Tirrell: “The proposal was not a matter of belittling any group of people. It
reflected my concern about a lack of commitment by immigrants to learn English” (17/dic/06)
Alcalde Steve DeBenedetis: “We have an excellent police force. I think this will benefit
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enforcement.” (5/ene./07)
Alcalde SteveDeBenedetis (Op-Ed): “Is it asking too much to require people to obey the law and
enter the country legally? I don't think so, nor do many of my constituents. This does not mean we
are unwelcoming to immigrants, nor does it mean we are against any ethnic group. It means that
we respect and seek to follow the law of the land. The efforts we have undertaken in Herndon
since my colleagues on the Town Council and I took office on July 1 do not deal with federal
immigration policy. Our efforts instead deal with the detrimental effect the state and federal
governments' abject failure to enforce immigration laws has on a local community”. ("In Herndon,
We Respect Immigrants -- and the Rule of Law", Washington Post, 28/ene/07)
Chuck Tievsky, abogado de inmigracion en Reston: "If somebody took [the affidavit requirement] to
federal court, it would be very difficult for a judge to uphold. In this country, you don't need the right
to work to register and own a business, you can be a tourist — or an international investor. There is
no law impeding these people from owning and operating a business in our country." (21/feb/07)
Chuck Tievsky: "The reality is that you don't need legal work authorization status to own a business
in the United States … there are no foreign business limitations in this country." (21/feb/07)
Ex-alcalde de Herndon Mike O'Reilly: "I don't personally see how anyone holding a business
license and paying taxes to the town, regardless of their immigration status, is a danger to the
community and public safety. I think you'd be hard-pressed to find anyone to tell you a solid reason
why that would negatively impact Herndon." (21/feb/07)
EFECTOS
Grupos de latinos han expresado su temor ante las posibles consecuencias de estas leyes y su
preocupación por tener que mudarse de la ciudad.
Herndon es la primera ciudad de la región en participar en el programa 287(g)
JURISDICCIÓN LOUDOUN COUNTY, VA
TITULO
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Loudoun County Sheriff's Office under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
ESTATUS
En vigor.
CONTENIDO Solicitaría un Memorando de Entendimiento con la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades y entrenamiento a autoridades del
condado que les permitirían participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
FECHAS
25/jun/08 – Firma del Memorandum.
Ene/07 - El Sheriff de Loudoun County ha expresado su interés en solicitar el acuerdo y ha tenido
conversaciones con oficiales de la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas para evaluar si se requiere
entrenamiento adicional para la policía del condado.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
Otorga facultades a los agentes estatales para indagar el estatus migratorio de aquellas personas
detenidas por otros delitos, y en caso de que dichas personas tengan un estatus migratorio
irregular les otorga facultades para mantenerlas en detención en lo que son deportadas de los
EE.UU.
204
JURISDICCIÓN LOUDOUN COUNTY, VA
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO La resolución limita el acceso de inmigrantes indocumentados a servicios del condado y penaliza a
los empleadores que los contraten. La resolución también pide a la Oficina del Sheriff que
establezca un acuerdo con la Oficina de Inmigración y Aduanas conforme a la sección 287(g) de la
ley de migración para dar facultades migratorias a la policía local.
FECHAS
Loudon County, VA:
17/jul/07 - El Comité de Supervisores del condado aprobó la resolución.
19/ago/07 - La Voz, a nonprofit group that provides information and referral services to immigrants,
organized the session in response to a Loudoun County Board of Supervisors resolution last month
that seeks to cut off county services to illegal immigrants, hasten their deportation and penalize
employers who hire undocumented workers…… Panel members included Loudoun Sheriff
Stephen O. Simpson; Rob Rutland-Brown, executive director of Just Neighbors, an organization
that provides legal services to low-income immigrants; Flavia Jimenez of the National Council of La
Raza, the nation's largest Latino civil rights organization; and Laura Valle, executive director of La
Voz (Washington Post)
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
Eugene A. Delgaudio (R-Sterling), el principal autor de la iniciativa: "We need help in Loudoun. We
are struggling. We are a small county, and we can't handle the hordes that are coming here and
using up our services. Illegal immigration is taking a greater and greater toll on our community."
(18/jul/07)
Joseph W. Budzinski, vocero del grupo Help Save Loudoun: "I think this is the first step of
Virginians taking back their state...What Herndon did last year, what Prince William did last week
and these two votes today are an indication that, at least in this section of the state, we're
beginning to take back our state one community at a time." (18/jul/07).
Bruce E. Tulloch, vicepresidente del Comité de supervisores: "What we are doing is standing up for
the taxpayers ... and we're standing up for the school systems ... and we're standing up for the
constituents who want this addressed. Prince William County took a very forward-moving step on
addressing the issue and forced other counties to take steps also to protect the citizens within their
counties." (18/jul/07)
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN MANASSAS, VA
TITULO
Anti-crowding ordinance
ESTATUS
Revocada.
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
Limitaría el número de personas sin relación de parentesco que pueden residir en un hogar.
Dic/06 – Aprobada por el Concejo de la ciudad.
205
Ene/07 - Revocada ante presiones de grupos civiles como ACLU y la posibilidad de una
investigación federal respecto a prácticas discriminatorias.
2/abr/07 – Se crea el grupo Help Save Manassas (siguiendo la pauta de grupos del mismo nombre
en Herndon y Loudon, VA, que han cabildeado a favor de iniciativas en contra de los inmigrantes
indocumentados)
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
ACLU se pronuncia en contra de la ordenanza y considera la posibilidad de imponer una demanda
bajo el argumento de que es discriminatoria en contra de grupos hispanos y migrantes
indocumentados.
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
CIUDAD DE MANASAS, VA
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and City
of Manassas Police Department under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
5/mar/08 – Firma del Memorandum.
Otorga facultades a los agentes estatales para indagar el estatus migratorio de aquellas personas
detenidas por otros delitos, y en caso de que dichas personas tengan un estatus migratorio
irregular les otorga facultades para mantenerlas en detención en lo que son deportadas de los
EE.UU.
MANASAS PARK, VA
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Manassas Park Police Department under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
10/mar/08 – Firma del Memorandum.
Otorga facultades a los agentes estatales para indagar el estatus migratorio de aquellas personas
detenidas por otros delitos, y en caso de que dichas personas tengan un estatus migratorio
irregular les otorga facultades para mantenerlas en detención en lo que son deportadas de los
EE.UU.
206
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
MANASAS & PRINCE WILLIAM COUNTY, VA
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Prince William-Manassas Adult Detention Centerunder Section 287(g) of the Immigration and
Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
9/jul/07 – Firma del Memorandum.
El acuerdo permitirá a los agentes de detención del aguacil el entrevistar a nacionales extranjeros
dentro de los centros de detención para determinar si existe causa probable de una violación a la
ley de migración. Bajo el programa, los agentes completaran el procesamiento de cualquier
delincuente extranjero y prepararán la documentación para iniciar los procedimientos de
deportación.
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
PRINCE WILLIAM COUNTY, VA
The Prince William Criminal Alien Initiative
En vigor.
Solicitaría un Memorandum de Entendimiento con la Oficina de Migración y Aduanas conforme a
la sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades y entrenamiento a oficiales de la
cárcel de la ciudad que les permitirían participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
FECHAS
18/ene/07 - El consejo de la cárcel regional de Prince William aprobó la propuesta para autorizar
que las autoridades de la cárcel regional participen en el cumplimiento de las leyes migratorias e
inicien los procesos de deportación de inmigrantes con antecedentes criminales. El programa
estaría sujeto a una evaluación dentro de un año a partir de su entrada en vigor.
La iniciativa será revisada por un Comité de Supervisión del Condado, cuyo presidente ha
expresado su apoyo.
22/ene/07 – La asamblea del condado de Prince William recibe los resultados de un estudio que
comisionó para determinar los costos de los migrantes indocumentados para la ciudad. El estudio
estimó que el condado gastó $3 millones de dólares en servicios públicos para esta población en
2005. El condado señaló que probablemente esta era una subestimación porque no se tomaron en
cuenta los servicios de salud y educación.
6/feb/07 – Fecha programada para el voto final.
6/jun/07 – Un grupo de ciudadanos presentó una propuesta frente al Concejo de la Ciudad,
solicitando que los policías tengan la facultad para investigar el estatus migratorio de las personas,
detenidas por delitos menores.
1/ago/07 - On Aug. 1, Prince William County chief of police Charlie T. Deane, Prince William Sheriff
Glendell Hill, Manassas police chief John Skinner and Manassas Park police chief John Evans
signed a letter requesting that the recent memorandum of agreement between Immigration &
Customs Enforcement and the regional jail board would be amended to include their respective
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jurisdictions.
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
That would mean each jurisdiction represented would receive the necessary ICE training that
select members of the regional jail have already received. (22/ago/07, Potomac News)
Nancy Lyall, representante de Woodbridge Workers Committee y Ricardo Juárez, coordinador del
grupo Mexicans Without Borders expresaron su desacuerdo con la medida, argumentando que
eliminará incentivos para que los migrantes reporten crímenes a la policía.
Activistas hispanos planean un boycott de una semana, comenzando este lunes de negocios
propiedad de no-hispanos y no-imigrantes y un día de paro laboral en octubre (25/ago/07, New
York Times)
Concejal de Manassas, Andrew L. Harrover (R): "I am happy that the jail board has taken it up at
the local level. That is where the program belongs and it also, frankly, allows the municipalities to
share the cost of it. That is a real advantage. For me, there is a realization that [the program] will
cost money, but it is something our citizens have been very clear about. It is a program they
support." (21/ene/07)
Los jefes de la policía de la ciudad de Manassas, John Skinner, y el condado de Prince William,
Charlie T. Deane, se oponen a que las policías locales tomen la responsabilidad de asegurar el
cumplimiento de las leyes migratorias porque en su opinión erosionará la relación entre los
departamentos de policía y la comunidad inmigrante pero están de acuerdo con implementar este
tipo de medidas dentro de las cárceles. Deane: When it's focused on criminals, I think the majority
of people are supportive of it”. (21/ene/07)
Nancy Lyall, Woodbridge Workers Committee: “"It's not a policy of public safety. It's a policy of
neighborhood cleansing. It's a policy by politicians to lighten their community and that's
deplorable." (21/ene/07)
Ricardo Juárez, Mexicans Without Borders: “People are afraid again. The fear is coming back.”
(5/ene/07)
EFECTOS
21/ago/07 - Miguel Rivera president of the National Coalition of Latino Clergy and
Christian Leaders said a resolution directing police to inquire into people's legal residence would
certainly target Hispanics…..Rivera said the coalition, which has similar lawsuits pending in New
Jersey and Texas, doesn't see way to approach the problem other than taking local governments
to court. (Potomac News)
Parte de las consideraciones sobre esta propuesta se basaron en la evaluación del programa
existente en la cárcel de Charlotte, Carolina del Norte.
Es el primer condado en adoptar esta medida.
Se calcula que el programa tendrá un costo de $220,000 al año para contratar a cuatro empleados
adicionales en la cárcel.
JURISDICCIÓN PRINCE WILLIAM COUNTY, VA
TITULO
ESTATUS
Aprobada por el Consejo de Supervisores del Condado
CONTENIDO La resolución requiere a los policías investigar el estatus migratorio de todas las personas
arrestadas si hay motivo para creer que violaron la ley migratoria federal. Asimismo, los
empleados del condado deben verificar el estatus migratorio de las personas que soliciten ciertos
208
servicios.
FECHAS
10/jul/07 - El Consejo de Supervisores del Condado voto unánimemente a favor de una resolución
para aumentar el control a la inmigración y limitar servicios para inmigrantes indocumentados.
19/07/07- Representantes de los condados de Montgomery, Prince George y Arlington declararon
que no seguirán la tendencia de los condados de Prince William y Loudon County de negar
servicios a personas indocumentadas. Sin embargo, en Culpeper, el concejal Steve Jenkins
aplaudió la medida aprobada en Prince William y expresó su interes porque este tipo de medidas
se extiendan a otras municipalidades a lo largo del estado.
30/jul/07 - Organizaciones latinas planean un boicot de negocios no-inmigrantes como protesta en
contra de la resolución.
7/ago/07 - El grupo anti-inmigrante "Help Save Manassas" pidió ayer a las autoridades locales de
Prince William (Virginia) que impidan que la Comisión de Derechos Humanos revise la resolución.
16/ago/07 - Board Chairman Corey A. Stewart (R-At Large) sent a letter this week to the
commission on behalf of the board seeking to head off any criticism of the policies by commission
members in an upcoming subcommittee report. (Washington Post)
19/ago/07 - About 500 people rallied yesterday against recently passed anti-illegal immigrant
measures in Prince William County, and Latino religious leaders threatened a federal lawsuit and
local boycott if the county does not rescind or alter its resolution cracking down on undocumented
residents.
Leaders of the National Coalition of Latino Clergy and Christian Leaders, which organized the
event, said they hope to meet with county officials in the next two weeks to alter the resolution.
2/sept/07 - …several thousand Latinos rallied at the seat of Prince William County government
yesterday to denounce the Board of Supervisors' plan to curb services to illegal immigrants.
Protesters from as far as Minnesota converged on the Sean T. Connaughton Community Plaza for
speeches and a two-mile march, organized by Mexicans Without Borders and other immigrant
advocacy groups. (3/sep/07, Washington Post)
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
5/sep/07 - Dozens of Ku Klux Klan leaflets calling for a ban on 'all non-white immigration' were
distributed last weekend in Manassas
Grupos como Woodbridge Workers Committee y Help Save Manassas se pronunciaron en contra
de esta iniciativa.
MALDEF denunció el proyecto de ley como contradictorio con resoluciones de la Suprema Corte
de Justicia sobre la educación abierta y sobre el papel del gobierno federal en el cumplimiento de
las leyes migratorias.
Hasta el momento ACLU ha declarado que no tiene intención de presentar una demanda en
contra de la iniciativa, aunque esperará a conocer los detalles específicos.
Organizaciones latinas planean un boicot de negocios no-inmigrantes como protesta en contra de
la resolución.
21/ago/07 - With the vote and in their public comments, Manassas Park council members made
209
clear that they would not follow in the footsteps of Manassas City Council members and
supervisors in Prince William and Loudoun counties. Those jurisdictions have approved resolutions
that direct local officials to take steps to address illegal immigration. (Washington, Post 23/ago/07)
OPINIONES
23/ago/07 - Empresarios del condado, empero, armaron un fondo monetario para una campaña de
cabildeo ante los supervisores para que entiendan que las iniciativas perjudican el comercio, esos
comercios pagan impuestos y si se ven afectados, el condado también se verá afectado. Es algo
que, dicen, el gobierno entiende claramente. (Ricardo Juárez, del grupo Mexicanos sin Fronteras,
La Opinión)
John T. Stirrup, supervisor del condado: "The problem of illegal immigrants in Prince William is
exacerbated by their general disregard for the rule of law, abuse of taxpayer-funded services and
obvious lack of interest in seeking citizenship or ever embracing American ideals. Rather, it seems
their sole motivation is economic. Last year, illegal immigrants sent an estimated $45 billion out of
the U.S. economy to their home countries...Left unchecked, illegal immigration will almost certainly
put our county on a downward spiral, similar to the patterns to be found in the Third World
countries these illegal immigrants left. Our citizens want to reclaim their neighborhoods and
communities, and they recognize the federal government's inability or unwillingness to resolve or
even address this chronic problem. They will no longer accept inaction. They want us to act, and so
we are. We recognize that one local jurisdiction cannot solve the problem of uncontrolled borders,
but we can address our corner of America. We hope that other jurisdictions will be emboldened to
act similarly." ("Reclaiming our County", Washington Post, 15/jul/07)
Walter Tejada, vicepresidente de la Junta de Supervisores del Condado de Arlington: "A vocal,
angry minority in their locality has manipulated the system ... to convince the political leaders to
enact a very punitive, anti-immigrant resolution. We now see in Prince William County an example
of government-sanctioned xenophobia. If anger and divisiveness is what they intended to achieve,
they have succeeded."(13/jul/07)
"The Senate's failure last month to come to grips with immigration reform is certain to accelerate
the nationwide trend of localities cracking down on undocumented foreigners in their midst. The
impulse is understandable, if not always attractive: Towns, cities and counties bear the burden of
providing immigrants with health care, education, law enforcement and other services. And in
places with fast-growing communities of undocumented immigrants, native-born citizens tend to
bristle at the problems sometimes associated with them -- gangs, flophouses, day workers
thronging parking lots and a general clash of cultures." ("Hounding Immigrants", Editorial,
Washington Post, 8/jul/07).
"The effects of Mr. Stirrup's proposal are apt to be poisonous. Does he really think that denying
thousands of illegal immigrant children the right to attend school -- which the Supreme Court has
granted them -- would contribute to social harmony? More likely, it would put a lot of youths on the
street with little to do but make trouble. If police become immigration agents, immigrants will be
leery of providing information and cooperating as witnesses to crimes, as police have said. If health
clinics deny care to illegal immigrants or scare them off by asking about their status, that will make
them only more likely to end up as uninsured, non-paying visitors to a hospital emergency room."
("Hounding Immigrants", Editorial, Washington Post, 8/jul/07).
"The resolution in Prince William, like other such laws and ordinances around the country, is a
symptom of a larger failure by this country to devise a workable, realistic immigration system. The
result will be a society that beckons to immigrants by offering them jobs with one hand, then slaps
them around with the other once they are settled here. It's shameful, hypocritical and ugly. And it's
what the Senate has bequeathed the nation by failing to enact meaningful reform." ("Hounding
Immigrants", Editorial, Washington Post, 8/jul/07).
210
Greg Letiecq, presidente del grupo Help Save Manassas: "No more — no more tolerance for
criminal illegal aliens who commit assault and battery, stalking, indecent exposure, driving while
intoxicated or hit-and-run because these crimes aren't supposedly serious enough to warrant even
notifying the immigration authorities. No more protection for illegal aliens who attempt to obtain
taxpayer-funded services, which they are not entitled to receive in order to make their continued
unlawful presence in the county more comfortable. No more selective enforcement of our laws in
order to make it easier for vast numbers of illegal aliens to maintain in our midst." (11/jul/07)
EFECTOS
En enero, un reporte calculó que el condado gasta cerca de $3 millones de dólares en servicios
para inmigrantes indocumentados (aunque se considera una subestimacion porque no incluye
datos de escuelas públicas y el departamento de salud).
JURISDICCIÓN PRINCE WILLIAM COUNTY, VA
TITULO
Implement Recommendations Derived from the Illegal Immigration Service Analysis, and Restrict
Identified Services.
ESTATUS
Aprobada.
CONTENIDO “WHEREAS, the Prince William Board of County Supervisors and the community have expressed
concerns regarding the impact of illegal immigrants in Prince William County; and
...
WHEREAS, On August 7, 2007, the Prince William Board of County Supervisors, by Res. No. 07707 budgeted, appropriated and trasferred $900,000 to the Police Department for the purpose of
supporting potential immigration enforcement policies; and
...
WHEREAS, the Police Chief reported to the Prince William Board of County Supervisors on
September 18, 2007 regarding the department's efforts to ascertain legal status given probable
cause and to enter into a 287(g) agreement with Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
the resources needed to implement that agreement; and
WHEREAS, the Police Chief proposals include the creation of a Criminal Alien Unit and appropriate
staff increases to address the new immigration-related responsibilities; and
WHEREAS, on October 2, 2007 the Board of County Supervisors by resolution 07-828 directed
staff to a number of legislative initiatives at the state and federal level to support Prince William
County's efforts to implement illegal immigrant enforcement; and
...
WHEREAS, on October 2, 2007 the Prince William Board of County Supervisors by Res. No. 07828 directed staff to explore a 287(g) agreement with Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE)
at the Juvenile Detention Center similar to the 287(g) agreement at the Adult Detention Center with
ICE;
NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the Prince William Board of County Supervisors
authorizes the creation of seven (7) FTEs in the Police Department - six detective positions and
one crime analyst position - to create the Criminal Alien Unit;
...
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Prince William Board of County Supervisors reffirms its
August 7, 2007 budgetary action and directs the staff to use up to $575,000 of that funding to
support police operations that may otherwise have been de-funded due to cuts in the State's
HB599 funding, and to use any remaining funds to implement the Police Department's efforts in
creating and training the Criminal Alien Unit and educating the community about the Department's
new policies and procedures in the most expeditious manner possible; and
...
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Prince William Board of County Supervisors directs staff to
211
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
develop processes to restrict services identified in the attachment and report them back to the
Board; and
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Prince William Board of County Supervisors hereby thanks
and congratulates staff on the tremendous work that was done in the interest of maintaining the
Rule of Law in Prince William County and in comporting with existing county, state and federal
policy that mandates denial of many taxpayer funded services to individuals who are not legally
present in the United States.
...
ATTACHMENT A
Sevices recomended for restriction from illegal immigrants
- Adult services to allow elderly and disabled to remain in homes
- Aging in-home services
- Sheriff adult identification services
- Rental and mortage assistance programs
- DORM substance abuse program
- HIDTA prevention program
- Elderly/disabled tax releif program
- Tax exemption for renovation/rehabilitation of residential properties".
16/oct/07 - Resolución aprobada por la Junta de Supervisores del Condado de Prince William.
Las medidas establecen negar a indocumentados el acceso a servicios públicos excepto aquellos
que garantizan las leyes federales como son los de emergencia médica y educación. La Junta
aprobó negar asistencia domiciliaria a ancianos, así como la posibilidad de que indocumentados
soliciten subvenciones en los alquileres e hipotecas de casas habitación. Crea una unidad
especial policiaca para ejecutar la legislación sobre migración.
Asimismo, recomendó las siguientes medidas contra las personas que no puedan acreditar su
estancia legal en Estados Unidos: a) rechazar solicitudes de exención tributaria, b) negar licencias
para la apertura de comercios y establecimientos mercantiles y c) firmar un acuerdo entre el
Departamento de Inmigración y Aduanas, ICE, y los centros juveniles para facilitar la deportación
de jóvenes delincuentes. También otorga a la policía local fuero para verificar el estatus migratorio
de cualquier persona sobre la que exista una "sospecha razonable" de que pudiera ser
indocumentada.
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
PRINCE WILLIAM COUNTY, VA
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Prince William County Sheriff's Office under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Memorandum de Entendimiento con el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional conforme a la
sección 287(g) de la Ley de Migración para dar facultades a la policía local que les permitirían
participar en la aplicación de las leyes migratorias.
26/feb/08 – Firma del Memorandum.
212
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
Otorga facultades a los agentes estatales para indagar el estatus migratorio de aquellas personas
detenidas por otros delitos, y en caso de que dichas personas tengan un estatus migratorio
irregular les otorga facultades para mantenerlas en detención en lo que son deportadas de los
EE.UU.
ROCKINGHAM COUNTY, VA.
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Rockingham County Sheriff's Office under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Otorga facultades a los agentes de la Oficina del Alguacial del Condado de Rockingham para
indagar el estatus migratorio de aquellas personas detenidas por otros delitos, y en caso de que
dichas personas tengan un estatus migratorio irregular les otorga facultades para mantenerlas en
detención en lo que son deportadas de los EE.UU.
25/abr/07 – Firma del Memorandum.
SHENANDOAH COUNTY, VA.
Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and
Shenandoah County Sheriff's Office under Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.
En vigor.
Otorga facultades a los agentes de la Oficina del Alguacial del Condado de Shenandoah para
indagar el estatus migratorio de aquellas personas detenidas por otros delitos, y en caso de que
dichas personas tengan un estatus migratorio irregular les otorga facultades para mantenerlas en
detención en lo que son deportadas de los EE.UU.
10/may/07 – Firma del Memorandum.
WISCONSIN
JURISDICCIÓN WISCONSIN
TITULO
ESTATUS
Pendiente
CONTENIDO Cities and counties would be unable to pass laws prohibiting government employees from
demanding proof of immigration status or notifying the federal government of the presence of illegal
aliens.
FECHAS
18/sep/07 - State Republicans introduced legislation restricting local governments from offering
sanctuary to illegal immigrants throughout Wisconsin.
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REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
GREEN BAY, WI
City of Green Bay Citizen and Legal Immigrant Protection Act.
En vigor (23/jun/07)
Los negocios que contraten mano de obra indocumentada serán penalizados y perderán su
licencia.
FECHAS
REACCIONES
EN CONTRA
19/jun/07 – Aprobada por el Concejo de la ciudad
Varias organizaciones religiosas e hispanas se opusieron a la ordenanza.
El Consejo Asesor de Asuntos Hispanos de la Oficina del Alcalde, creado hace 10 años, se
pronunció en contra de la ordenanza y declaró su separación oficial de la oficina del alcalde.
OPINIONES
Alcalde Jim Schmitt: "Look, had Congress done their job we wouldn't have this (ordinance) in
Green Bay...I think at this time it's the right thing to do, given what's not happening at the federal
level." (23/jun/07)
Matt Hollenbeck, Presidente de Mayor’s Hispanic Advisory Council "Needless to say, we are
extremely disappointed by the council's vote, and so we are divorcing ourselves from the Mayor's
Office as an organization" (23/jun/07).
Paul Jadin, Presidente de la Cámara de Comercio de Green Bay y ex-alcalde de la ciudad: "Given
the demographics, we are certainly in need of that work force. But this is a matter for Washington
— not local governments — to address, he added. Without the cooperation with the federal
government, this ordinance has no teeth. I think it makes a certain element of the community feel
good that their local government is doing something while the federal government is not, but in the
meantime this could expose some people to needless harassment." (23/jun/07)
Alcalde Schmitt: "If there's any harassment, we'll shut it down right away. We won't allow that. We
understand the city will be built on diversity; we've all got to work together. That's what this is all
about" (23/jun/07).
EFECTOS
WYOMING
JURISDICCIÓN
TITULO
ESTATUS
CONTENIDO
WYOMING
AN ACT relating to illegal immigration (HB 62)
Pendiente
6-5-214. Transportation or concealment of illegal aliens.
(a) No person shall transport, move or attempt to transport in the state of Wyoming any alien
knowing or in reckless disregard of the fact that the alien has come to, entered or remained in the
United States in violation of law, in furtherance of the illegal presence of the alien in the United
States.
(b) No person shall conceal, harbor or shelter from detection any alien in any place within the state
of Wyoming, including any building or means of transportation, knowing or in reckless disregard of
214
the fact that the alien has come to, entered or remained in the United States in violation of law.
…
CHAPTER 16
ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION
…9-16-102. Status verification system.
(a) Every public employer shall register and participate in the status verification system to verify
the work authorization status of all new employees.
(b) No public employer shall enter into a contract for the physical performance of services within
this state unless the contractor registers and participates in the status verification system to verify
the work authorization status of all new employees.
(c) No contractor or subcontractor who enters a contract with a public employer shall enter into
such a contract or subcontract in connection with the physical performance of services within this
state unless the contractor or subcontractor registers and participates in the status verification
system to verify information of all new employees.
…9-16-103. Public benefits.
(a) Except as provided by subsection (c) of this section or where exempted by federal law, each
agency or political subdivision of this state shall verify the lawful presence in the United States of
any natural person fourteen (14) years of age or older who has applied for state or local benefits as
defined in 8 U.S.C. § 1621(c), or for federal public benefits as defined in 8 U.S.C. § 1611(c) that
are administered by an agency or political subdivision of this state.
…
9-16-104. Memorandum of understanding; communication of immigration status.
(a) The attorney general is authorized and directed to negotiate the terms of a memorandum of
understanding between the state of Wyoming and the United States department of justice or the
United States department of homeland security, as provided by 8 U.S.C. § 1357(g), concerning the
enforcement of federal immigration and custom laws, detentions and removals and investigations
in the state of Wyoming.
…
(c) No local government, whether acting through its governing body or by an initiative, referendum
or any other process, shall enact any ordinance or policy that limits or prohibits a law enforcement
officer, local official or local government employee from communicating or cooperating with federal
officials with regard to the immigration status of any person within this state.
(d) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no government entity or official within the state of
Wyoming may prohibit or in any way restrict any government entity or official from sending to, or
receiving from, the United States department of homeland security information regarding the
citizenship or immigration status, lawful or unlawful, of any individual.
…
7-13-104. Record of prisoners; citizenship.
(a) The department of corrections shall keep a complete record of the background and current
status of all prisoners sentenced and confined in any state penal institution. The administrator of
the institution where a prisoner is incarcerated, the division of criminal investigation, and the clerk
of court and sheriff of the county from which the prisoner is committed shall, at the request of the
department or the board of parole, furnish any information in their possession relating to the
prisoner or the offense committed.
9-1-618. Agents to be safeguarded as peace officers; general assistance to state, county or local
authorities; investigative duties; fraudulent documents identification unit.
(c) Subject to the availability of funding, the division shall establish the fraudulent documents
identification unit for the primary purpose of investigating and apprehending persons or entities that
participate in the sale or distribution of fraudulent documents used for identification purposes. The
unit shall additionally specialize in fraudulent identification documents created and prepared for
persons who are unlawfully residing in the state of Wyoming. Subject to legislative authorization,
the division shall employ sufficient employees to investigate and implement the fraudulent
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FECHAS
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EN CONTRA
OPINIONES
EFECTOS
documents identification unit.
12/feb/08 –No logró recibir los dos tercios necesarios para ser presentada en la ‘sesión de
presupuesto’ de la Cámara de Representantes.
Convierte en una “felonía” el transportar o albergar a inmigrantes indocumentados y establecía
una penalización de no menos de 1 año en prisión y hasta 2, así como una multa de no menos de
$1000 dólares y no más de $5,000 dólares. Además, estaba dirigida a los empleadores, así como
a las agencias estatales y subdivisiones políticas, quienes tendrían que verificar el estatus
migratorio de los empleados y de las personas mayores de 14 años que solicitaran beneficios
públicos. Asimismo, la iniciativa autorizaba al procurador general a negociar un memorándum de
entendimiento sobre migración y establecía reglas de comunicación sobre el estatus migratorio de
una persona, así como prisioneros. Por último, creaba una “Unidad” para investigar la elaboración
de documentos falsos y establecía requisitos para expedir licencias de conducir y otros
documentos de identificación.
216

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