INDIRECT SPEECH/ REPORTED SPEECH Hablamos de estilo

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INDIRECT SPEECH/ REPORTED SPEECH Hablamos de estilo
INDIRECT SPEECH/ REPORTED SPEECH
Hablamos de estilo indirecto cuando dentro de nuestro discurso incluimos palabras o ideas que
dijimos o dijeron con anterioridad. Utilizamos verbos llamados “reporting verbs” para introducir
las frases, estos verbos son por ejemplo, say, tell, ask, suggest, advise...etc. seguido de la
partícula THAT.
STATEMENTS: (AFIRMATIVAS Y NEGATIVAS). Al hacerlo hay que cambiar:
1. PRONOMBRES  I, you , he, she, ...........depende de la persona que diga la frase.
2. TIEMPO Y LUGAR
HERE  THERE
TODAYTHAT DAY
THIS  THAT/THE
TONIGHT THAT NIGHT
THESE THOSE
THIS MORNING THAT MORNING
NOW  THEN
TOMORROW  THE FOLLOWING DAY
LAST WEEK  THE WEEK BEFORE
NEXT WEEK  THE FOLLOWING WEEK
YESTERDAY  THE DAY BEFORE
3. TIEMPO VERBAL:
1) NO SE CAMBIA
-
Si el “reporting verb” está en presente o si lo que se dice no ha cambiado ni cambiará,
(“La tierra gira alrededor del Sol”), o con predicciones meteorológicas, el tiempo verbal
le podemos dejar igual o cambiarlo.
“The earth goes round de sun”He proved that the earth goes/went round the sun.
“It will be windy tomorrow” The forecast said it will/would be windy today.
-
Si el verbo en activa está en past perfect, porque ya no hay otro tiempo más pasado.
-
Si el verbo en activa es un modal que no tenga pasado.
2) En el resto de los casos hay que cambiar el tiempo verbal un paso para el pasado. El
“reporting verb” va a estar generalmente en pasado (Él dijo, declaró, exclamó, explicó,
sugirió…
PRESENTE
-------------------
PASADO
PRESENTE CONTINUO
-------------------
PASADO CONTINUO
PASADO SIMPLE
-------------------
PAST PERFECT
PRESENT PERFECTO
-------------------
PAST PERFECT
WILL
------------------
WOULD
CAN
-------------------
COULD
MUST
-------------------
HAD TO
QUESTIONS EN REPORTED SPEECH
Aparte de los cambios de pronombres, el lugar y el tiempo (verbal y adverbios), para hacer
preguntas hay que tener en cuenta lo siguiente:
A. PREGUNTAS THE YES OR NOT (las que en el directo comienzan con el auxiliar).
1. No se utiliza el auxiliar,(do, have, to be) ni se pone el símbolo de ¿ porque ya deja de ser
una pregunta, es indirecta. En su lugar se pone IF, WETHER......OR
2. El orden vuelve a ser el sujeto antes que el verbo.
B. PREGUNTAS CON PARTÍCULA: what, who, when, .......
1. Detrás del “reporting verb” se coloca la partícula interrogativa y luego el sujeto y el verbo.
2. RECUERDA: No se utiliza el auxiliar ni ¿?.
“Do you live near here?” He asked if I lived near there
“Have you lived here for long?” He asked me if I had lived there for long.
“Where do you live?” He asked me where I lived.
“What did you do yesterday?”He asked me what I had done the day before.
PROMESAS, ORDENES, CONSEJOS Y PETICIONES
TODAS PASAN AL REPORTED SPEECH COMO INFINITIVOS. La estructura es:
Reporting clause +
CI
+ (not) TO INFINITIVE
Orders
He ordered/told
the students
to complete the sentences
Requests
My mother asked/told
me
to finish the washing up.
Advises
The doctor advised
him
Promises
She
Offers
He offered
to finish the job on his own.
Refuse (negarse)
The teacher refused
to retake the test.
Agree
The teacher agreed
To retake the test
promised
*
to go walking every day.
to visit us when she had time
*Otros verbos que se usan así: invite, encourage, persuade, remind, warn, ....
THAT+ SUJETO+ SHOULD+ VERBO  That he should stop smoking.
SUGGEST(ED)
VERBO + ING  el que lo sugiere está metido también en la sugerencia.
Marta suggested going to the amusement park. (Marta is going)
APOLOGISED +FOR+ VERB (ING) DISCULPARSE POR HACER ALGO
“Sorry I’m late” She apologised for being late.
1. “I can’t swim very well”, I told her.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2. “Switch off the TV”, he said to her.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. “What happened to Mr Budd?” asked one of the men.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4. “Let’s organize a sponsored cycle race” suggested the children.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5. “I’m sorry I’m late,” she said.” “The bus broke down.”
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6. “Mr Mason has gone out”, the secretary told me.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7. “Shut the door, Tom”, she said.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8. “Is a return ticket cheaper than two singles?” asked my aunt.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9. “I don’t want to go swimming”. Andrew said.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10. “Let’s leave the washing up till tomorrow.” he suggested.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11. “Lend me you pen for a moment,” I told Mary.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------12. “We’re leaving on Friday,” we said.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13. “Don’t watch late-night horror movies”, I warned them.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14. “We had lunch in Luigi’s restaurant,” they said.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15. “Why don’t you put an advertisement in the local paper?” they suggested to me.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16. “Who is going to live in the big house?” asked Peter.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------17. “I’ll phone you later,” Sarah told Simon.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------18. “Don’t believe everything you hear,” he warned me.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19. “I can’t type,” I told them.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20. “Are you English?” They asked me.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------21. “I should have called you, I’m really sorry.” He apologised.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22. “Why don’t you take tennis up again? He suggested to me.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------23. “Please fill up this form” the secretary told me.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------24. “Where are you going?” I asked her.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------25. “We’re going into town,” they said.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------26. “Don’t hurry!” I said.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------27. “I haven’t got any money,” he told me.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------28. “Could you speak more slowly?” he asked her.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------29. “Don’t touch the wire”, he warned us.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------30. “What about giving me a hand with the work?” he suggested to us.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------31. “I was on holiday in July,” she told her.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------32. “What time did you get home?” they asked him.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------33. “Don’t touch that switch, Mary” I said.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------34. “Can you do me a favour? She asked me.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------35. “I’m sorry but we don’t have any room available at the moment.” the receptionist
apologised.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------36. “Why don’t you ask Paul to run in the marathon?” he suggested to me.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------37. “We won’t be home late,” we told them.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------38. “Open the safe” the raiders ordered the bank clerk.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------39. “I’ve posted the letters”, I said.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------40. “Which team has won?” asked Ann.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------41. “What about renting a caravan?” her husband suggested to her.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------42. “My sister doesn’t know”, he said.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------43. “Please do as I say”, he begged me.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------44. “My parents had gone to bed”, she said.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------45. “You should go to the doctor”, she told him.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------46. “Do puppies travel free?” asked a dog owner.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------47. “We’ll do the dishes”, they promised.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------48. “Where do you work?” I asked her.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------49. ““I don’t know what to do.” I said.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------50. “I’m sorry but it has been impossible to find the book you requested” The librarian
apologised.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Steve advised me to tell Paul about it.
Steve suggested ...
I didn’t make a note of it in my diary, so I forgot about it.
If ...
She lost the race in spite of running well.
Although
It’s possible that her boyfriend is coming to the wedding.
Her boyfriend ....
9.
10.
11.
12.
My new neighbours have got a baby. Her name is Wendy.
My
It’s such a pity you can’t come along!
I wish
13. Bananas are more expensive than apples.
14. Apples
I last had flu five years ago.
I haven’t ..............................................................................................
I’m sure she’s telling lies.
She …..................................................................................................
1. The teenager in red has broken the window.
The window …………........................................................................
2. The meat was better than the fish.
The fish ...............................................................................................
3. You can make green paint by mixing blue and yellow.
Green paint ..........................................................................................
4. I have been playing the piano for twenty years.
I started .................................................................................................
5. It’s such a pity you can’t come along!
I wish …..............................................................................................
6. Write the correct question for the underlined words:
- ............................................................................................................
- I have English classes three times a week.
7. ‘Where is the nearest cinema, please?’
Could you tell me …….........................................................................
8. I haven’t seen your wife for a long time.
It’s ........................................................................................................
9. He didn’t revise for the test so he failed.
If ...........................................................................................................
10. The ophthalmologist tests her eyes every year.
She ........................................................................................................
11. The Da Vinci Code is a best-seller. It was written by Dan Brown.
The Da Vinci Code, ...............................................................................
12. Write the correct question for the underlined words:
- .............................................................................................................
- Mary goes swimming twice a week.
13. In my opinion, taking some exercise would be good for you.
You ...................................................................................................
14. The teacher didn’t tell us the answer.
We .....................................................................................................
15. I last visited London fifteen years ago.
I haven’t .............................................................................................
16. She asked me: “What time does your party start?”
............................................................................................................
17. Will you close the door when you leave, please?
Do you mind ........................................................................................
18. We bought our tickets on the Web because it was much cheaper.
Since .....................................................................................................
19. I am sorry I didn’t remember your birthday.
I wish …….…..................................................................................
20. He told us: ‘Don’t make so much noise!’
He .....................................................................................................
21. As it was Friday, the children stayed up late.
The children .....................................................................................
22. I have never read such an interesting book.
This is the ..........................................................................................
23. If you don’t hurry up, you won’t get tickets for the concert.
Unless .................................................................................................
24. Write the correct question for the underlined words:
- ............................................................................................................
- I have to wear a uniform whenever I work in front of the customers.
25. Although Orson was over seventy, he continued to cycle to work every day.
Despite …..…….................................................................................
26. I haven’t read a play by George Bernard Shaw for eight years.
It is .....................................................................................................
27. ‘Perhaps it would be better to go out in the afternoon’, Sharon’s mother said.
Sharon’s mother recommended ..........................................................
28. The fireman managed to rescue the child from the burning house.
The fireman was .................................................................................
29. The police don’t oblige the suspects to say anything.
The suspects .........................................................................................
30. Write the correct question for the underlined words:
- ............................................................................................................
- My grandfather is eighty-two years old.
31. Sheila is 1.55 m tall. Her brother is 1.70 m tall.
Sheila is …….................................................................................
32. Although it was cold, we went to the countryside.
In spite of ......................................................................................
33. The hairdresser cut my hair yesterday morning.
I ……...............................................................................................
34. This is the man. His dog bit my brother in the park.
This is the man.................................................................................
35. I didn’t go to the gym yesterday because my foot hurt.
If ....................................................................................................
36. The teacher said: ‘You have to hand your papers in at the end of this class.’
The teacher .....................................................................................
37. She hasn’t enjoyed herself so much for years.
It is years ……….................................................................................
38. I’m going to the theatre tomorrow, and I’m really looking forward to it.
I’m really looking ..............................................................................
39. She’s getting someone to mend the windows.
She’s having ........................................................................................
40. I thought it would be better than that.
It’s not … ……….................................................................................
41. Mary said to us “Don’t be late”.
She told ............................................................................................
42. She made a lot of mistakes because she didn’t study hard for the exam.
If she……………………………………………………………….
43. If your boyfriend doesn’t arrive before eight, we will have to leave.
Unless …….................................................................................
44. The children couldn’t go out to the playground because it was raining.
As ...............................................................................................
45. The last time we saw that movie was six months ago.
We have …....................................................................................
46. Smoking is forbidden in most restaurants.
You ………….................................................................................
47. The shop assistant didn’t give us the ticket.
We ..................................................................................................
48. Al swims faster than Peter.
Peter ...............................................................................................
49. Albert is coming back from hospital tomorrow. He has just broken his ankle.
Albert ……….................................................................................
50. “How much is this T-shirt?”, she asked.
She asked ......................................................................................
51. If you want my advice, don’t eat so many cakes!
You ................................................................................................
52. I am sorry I didn’t work hard enough last year.
I wish ……….................................................................................
53. Although he was exhausted, he managed to finish reading the novel.
Despite ............................................................................................
54. Write the correct question for the underlined words:
- ………….....................................................................................
- Gerard plays tennis twice a week.
55. “Will you open the door, please?” he said to me.
He asked …….................................................................................
56. They gave John a prize for winning a medal in the last Olympics.
John .........................................................................................
57. I hadn’t expected this task to be so difficult.
This task …..................................................................................
58. I spoke to a shop assistant at Harrods. She was very polite.
The shop assistant…………...........................................................
59. I can’t go on holiday because I can’t afford it.
If I ..................................................................................................
60. Despite the good weather, we stayed indoors.
Although ......................................................................................
61. Her jokes are not as good as his.
His jokes …
62. It´s possible we’ll be together soon
We…
63. Sue didn't miss the train. Her son woke her up in time.
If Sue's son …
64. The report will be published soon
They …
65. I forgot to book a room.
I wish …
66. Helen and I became friends when we were children.
We….
67. He studied German although his mind was limited
Despite…
68. I didn’t go to the concert…what a pity!!
I wish ……………
69. It's compulsory to fasten your seatbelt when landing and taking off.
You …
70. He said he was sorry to disturb them.
He….
71. It's not necessary for you to attend the meeting.
You …………………
72. They say Heidi was one of the most successful TV cartoons.
Heidi …………………
73. I'd like to be on a deserted island right now.
I …………………………
74. Nobody has heard anything about the workers' strike.
Nothing ……………………
75. “Portuguese is the official language of Brazil”, the teacher declared.
The teacher declared that…
76. You must send her the letter immediately.
The setter….
77. Brad said, “Let’s not walk home. I’m too tired.”
Brat …..
78. He said not to touch the wet paint.
He said:”…..
79. The collector asked whether anyone had got the rare stamp.
The collector asked:”…
80. This is the restaurant. My father asked my mother to marry him here.
This is …
81. The city library is a place. People can spend hours there.
The city…
82. Computers are machines. They make our lives easier.
Computers….
83. I passed the exam only because Tom had helped me.
If….
84. We visited the old part of the city. The film was shot there
We…

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