corpus rubenianum ludwig burchard

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corpus rubenianum ludwig burchard
CORPUS RUBENIANUM
LUDWIG BURCHARD
PART VIII
SAINTS I
HANS VLIEGHE
1
ARCADE
CORPUS R UBE NIAN UM
L U D W IG BURCHARD
AN ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE RAISONNÉ
OF THE WORK OF PETER PAUL RUBENS
BASED ON THE MATERIAL ASSEMBLED
BY THE LATE DR. LUDWIG BURCHARD
IN TW ENTY-SIX PARTS
SPONSORED BY THE CITY OF ANTWERP
AND EDITED BY THE "NATIONAAL CENTRUM
VOOR DE PLASTISCHE KUNSTEN
VAN DE x v id e EN x v n d e EEUW "
R.-A. d ’HULST, President M. DE MAEYER -
J . DUVERGER -
F. BAUDOUIN, Secretary
L. LEBEER - H . LIEBAERS
J.- K . STEPPE - W. VANBESELAERE
SAINTS I
HANS VLIEGHE
BRUSSELS - ARCADE PRESS - MCMLXXII
N A T I O N - AL C F N T D l !,!
V OOR DÉ P L A S T I S C H E K U N S T E N
IN D E 1 6 e EN DE 1 7 b E E U W
COPYRIGHT IN BRUSSELS, BELGIUM, BY ARCADE PRESS, 19 7 2
PUBLISHED IN THE UNITED KINGDOM BY PHAIDON PRESS LTD.
5 CROMWELL PLACE, LONDON SW 7
PUBLISHED IN THE U.S.A. BY PHAIDON PUBLISHERS INC., NEW YORK
DISTRIBUTED IN THE U.S.A. BY PRAEGER PUBLISHERS INC.
I l l FOURTH AVENUE, NEW YORK, N.Y. IOOO3
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER : 6 8 -2 12 58
TRANSLATED FROM THE DUTCH
BY P.S. FALLA
PRINTED IN BELGIUM - LEGAL DEPOSIT D /19 72 /0 7 2 1/32
CO N TENTS
FOREWORD
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
SOURCES OF PHOTOGRAPHS
ABBREVIATIONS
AUTHOR’S PREFACE
INTRODUCTION
CATALOGUE RAISONNÉ
INDEXES:
I. COLLECTIONS
II. SUBJECTS
III. OTHER WORKS BY RUBENS MENTIONED IN THE TEXT
IV. NAMES AND PLACES
PLATES
FOREWORD
When the plans for the Corpus Rubenianum Ludwig Burcbard were fir§t drawn
up it was decided that the contents of each Part would determine whether it
was to take the form of a monograph or of a catalogue raisonné. It so happens
that the first three Parts to be published have each been devoted to a series of
works so closely interrelated that a monographic treatment was required,
although a catalogue was also included so as to meet the declared purposes
of the Corpus. The present Part is the firSt to be arranged entirely as a cata­
logue raisonné, and this will also be the case with moSt of the remaining Parts
of the Corpus.
The critical catalogue, in which the author has here assembled all known
data pertaining to each work, is preceded by an Introduction, dealing suc­
cinctly not only with Rubens’s Style, but also with his iconography in the
context of the Counter-Reformation and of the art of his time. Some points
briefly touched upon in the introductory text are discussed at greater length in
the catalogue entries. Although it was not the author’s aim to write a full-scale
Study of Rubens as a painter of Saints he has collected a great amount of
material which will be useful to everybody interested in aspects of iconography
during the period of the Flemish Baroque. The material to be covered was so
large that the book would have become too bulky and difficult to use if we had
not divided it into two volumes. The firSt volume, soon to be followed by the
second, deals with groups of Saints and with single Saints in alphabetical
order up to St. Francis of Assisi.
In addition to the documentation assembled by the late Dr. Ludwig Burchard,
which forms the basis of the present catalogue, the author has made use also
of the results of his own and other scholars’ later researches. He has been able
to examine moSt of the paintings and drawings in the original and to form
his own opinion about them. In cases where he disagrees with the opinions of
Dr. Burchard he has fully explained the points at issue so that the reader is
fairly informed of the arguments on both sides.
The present whereabouts of some works, many of them mentioned in Dr.
Burchard's documentation, have proved impossible to ascertain, in spite of all
efforts. In some of these cases we have not been successful in obtaining good
photographs, and it became necessary to make use of illustrations in earlier
publications; as a result some of our reproductions are not as good as might
be wished.
This catalogue is the work of Dr. Hans Vlieghe, a scientific research worker
at the “Nationaal Centrum voor de Plastische KunSten van de XVIde en de
XVIIde eeuw” , and is thus the firSt to be written by a member of our own
Staff. This would not have been possible without the increase of our scientific
Staff and without the fine spirit of cooperation prevailing within our team.
We take this opportunity to express our gratitude for the support of the
Belgian “Fonds voor Kollektief Fundamenteel Onderzoek” , which has provided
us from the beginning with financial means for our undertaking. We also thank
the municipal authorities of Antwerp, under whose auspices the Corpus Rubenianum is published, for the help they have given us in various ways, and in
particular Mrs. A. Stubbe, Town clerk, who was appointed by the Gty Council
to follow the progress of the work.
F.
Baudouin
Keeper of the Art History Museums
of the City of Antwerp
R.-A. d’HulSt
President of the ‘‘Nationaal Centrum
voor de Plastische KunSten
van de i6de en de ijd e eeuw"
SAIN TS I
L IS T O F IL L U S T R A T IO N S
1. Rubens, All Saints, oil sketch (No. i) , Rotterdam, Museum Boymans-van Beuningen
2. P. Pontius, The Face of ChriB, engraving (No. 2)
3. C. Jegher after E. Quellinus, The Face of ChriB, woodcut
4. E. Rucholle, The Face of ChriB, engraving (No. 2)
5. E. Rucholle, The Holy Virgin as Mater Dolorosa, engraving
6. The Face of ChriB, engraving (ed, by J. Galle; No. 2)
7. The Holy Virgin as Mater Dolorosa, engraving (ed. by J. Galle)
8. The Face of ChriB, engraving (ed. by G. Hendrickx; No. 2)
9. The Holy Virgin as Mater Dolorosa, engraving (ed. by G. Hendrickx)
10. After Rubens, The BuB of ChriB (No. 3). Present whereabouts unknown
it . After Rubens, The BuB of ChriB (No. 3). Present whereabouts unknown
12. After Rubens, ChriB (No. 4). Present whereabouts unknown
13. After Rubens, The Holy Virgin (No. 5). Present whereabouts unknown
14. After Rubens, ChriB as Salvator Mundi (No. 6). Ottawa, National Gallery
15. After Rubens, ChriB as Salvator Mundi (No. 6). Rome, Galleria Pallavicini
16. P. Isselburg, ChriB as Salvator Mundi, engraving (No. 6)
17. N. Ryckmans, ChriB as Salvator Mundi, engraving (No. 6)
18. Rubens, St. Peter (No. 7). Madrid, Prado
19. After Rubens, St. Peter (No. 7). Rome, Galleria Pallavicini
20. P. Isselburg, St. Peter, engraving (No. 7)
21. N. Ryckmans, St. Peter, engraving (No. 7)
22. Rubens, St. Andrew (No. 8). Madrid, Prado
23. After Rubens, St. Andrew (No. 8). Rome, Galleria Pallavicini
24. P. Isselburg, St. Andrew, engraving (No. 8)
25. N. Ryckmans, St. Andrew, engraving (No. 8)
26. Rubens, St. James the Greater (No. 9). Madrid, Prado
27. After Rubens, St. James the Greater (No. 9). Rome, Galleria Pallavicini
28. P. Isselburg, St. James the Greater, engraving (No. 9)
29. N. Ryckmans, St. James the Greater, engraving (No. 9)
30. Rubens, St. John the EvangeliB (No. 10). Madrid, Prado
I
3 1. After Rubens, St. John the Evangelist (No. io ), Rome, Galleria Pallavicini
32. P. Isselburg, St. John the Evangelist, engraving (No. 10)
33. N. Ryckmans, St. John the Evangelist, engraving (No. 10)
34. Rubens, St. Philip (No. 1 1 ) . Madrid, Prado
35. After Rubens, St. Philip (No. 1 1 ) . Rome, Galleria Pallavicini
36. P. Isselburg, St. Philip, engraving (No. 1 1 )
37. N. Ryckmans, St. Philip, engraving (No. 1 1 )
38. Rubens, St. Bartholomew (No. 12 ). Madrid, Prado
39. After Rubens, St. Bartholomew (No. 12 ). Rome, Galleria Pallavicini
40. P. Isselburg, St. Bartholomew, engraving (No. 12)
41. N. Ryckmans, St. Bartholomew, engraving (No. 12)
42. Rubens, St. Thomas (No. 13 ). Madrid, Prado
43. After Rubens, St. Simon (No. 13 ). Rome, Galleria Pallavicini
44. P. Isselburg, St. Thomas, engraving (No, 13)
45. N. Ryckmans, St. Simon, engraving (No. 13)
46. Rubens, St. Matthew (No. 14). Madrid, Prado
47. After Rubens, St. Thomas (No. 14). Rome, Galleria Pallavicini
48. P. Isselburg, St. Matthew, engraving (No. 14)
49. N. Ryckmans, St. Thomas, engraving (No. 14)
50. Rubens, St. James the Less (No. 15 ). Madrid, Prado
51. After Rubens, St. Matthew (No. 15). Rome, Galleria Pallavicini
52. P. Isselburg, St. James the Less, engraving (No. 15 )
53. N. Ryckmans, St. Matthew, engraving (No. 15 )
54. Rubens, St. Simon (No. 16). Madrid, Prado
55. After Rubens, St. Jude (No. 16). Rome, Galleria Pallavicini
56. P. Isselburg, St. Simon, engraving (No. 16)
57. N. Ryckmans, St. Jude, engraving (No. 16)
58. Rubens, St. Matthias (No. 17 ). Madrid, Prado
59. After Rubens, St. Matthias (No, 17 ). Rome, Galleria Pallavicini
60. P. Isselburg, St. Matthias, engraving (No. 17 )
61. N. Ryckmans, St. Matthias, engraving (No. 17 )
62. Rubens, St. Paul (No. 18). Madrid, Prado
2
63. After Rubens, St. Paul (No. 18). Rome, Galleria Pallavicini
64. P. Isselburg, St, Paul, engraving (No. 18)
65. N. Ryckmans, St. Paul, engraving (No. 18)
66. ? Rubens, St. Peter (No. 20). Present whereabouts unknown
67. ? Rubens, St, Andrew (No. 2 1). Present whereabouts unknown
68. ? Rubens, St. James the Greater (No. 22). Present whereabouts unknown
69. ? Rubens, St. Philty (No. 24). Present whereabouts unknown
70. ? Rubens, St. Bartholomew (No. 25). Present whereabouts unknown
71. ? Rubens, St. Matthew (No. 26), Present whereabouts unknown
72. ? Rubens, St. James the Less (No. 27), Present whereabouts unknown
73. Title-page of ApoBolorum leones, engraving (ed. by C. Galle)
74. S. a Bolswert, ChriSl as Salvator Mundi, engraving (No. 32)
75. The Holy Virgin as Regina Cosli, engraving (ed. by C. Galle; No. 33)
76. S. a Bolswert, St. Peter, engraving (No. 34)
77. P. Clouwet, St. Andrew, engraving (No. 35)
78. St. James the Greater, engraving (ed. by C. Galle; No. 36)
79. S. a Bolswert, St. John the Evangelist, engraving (No. 37)
80. St. Philip, engraving (ed. by C. Galle; No. 38)
81. St. Bartholomew, engraving (ed. by C. Galle; No, 39)
82. St. Thomas, engraving (ed. by C. Galle; No. 40)
83. St. Matthew, engraving (ed. by C. Galle; No. 41)
84. S. a Bolswert, St. James the Less, engraving (No. 42)
85. St. Simon, engraving (ed. by C. Galle; No. 43)
86. St, Jude, engraving (ed. by C. Galle; No. 44)
87. St. Matthias, engraving (ed. by C. Galle; No. 45)
88. S. a Bolswert, St. Paul, engraving (No. 46)
89. Rubens,
St. Peter (No. 49). Present whereabouts unknown
90. Rubens,
St. Paul (No. 50). Present whereabouts unknown
91. Rubens,
St, Peter and St. Paul, oil sketch (Nos. 49-503). Brussels,privatecollection
92. Rubens,
St. Peter and St. Paul (No. 5 1). Schleissheim, Schloss
93. After Rubens, St. Peter and St. Paul, drawing (No. 5 1). Vienna,Albertina
3
94- Rubens, St. Paul (No. 52). New York, Coll. Dr. and Mrs. R.J. Heinemann
95. Rubens, St. Peter (No. 53). New York, Coll. Dr. and Mrs. R.J. Heinemann
96. Rubens, The Pour Evangelies (No. 54). Potsdam-Sanssouci, Bildergalerie
97. Rubens, The Pour Evangelists, oil sketch (No. 55). Present whereabouts unknown
98. H. Snyers, The Real Presence in the Holy Sacrament, engraving (No. 56)
99. Rubens, The Real Presence in the Holy Sacrament (No. 56), Antwerp, St. Paul
100. X-radiograph of detail of Fig, 99
10 1. After Rubens, The Real Presence in the Holy Sacrament, drawing (No. 56a). Present
whereabouts unknown
102. X-radiograph of detail of Fig. 99
X03. After Rubens, The Real Presence in the Holy Sacrament, drawing (No. 56a). Vienna,
Albertina
104. J. Jordaens, The Four Latin Doâors of the Church (No, 60). Blackburn, Lancashire,
StonyhurSt College
105. C. Galle, The Four Latin Doâors of the Church, engraving (No. 60)
106. C. van Dalen the Younger, The Pour Latin Doâors of the Church, engraving
(No. 59)
107. After Rubens, The Martyrdom of St. Adrian (No. 6 1). Present whereabouts unknown
108. Rubens, The Martyrdom of St. Adrian, oil sketch (No. 61a). Antwerp, Rubenshuis
109. Rubens, The Martyrdom of St. Andrew (No. 62). Madrid, Real Hospital de San
Andrés de los Flamencos
n o . Rubens, The Martyrdom of St. Andrew, drawing (No, 62a). Rotterdam, Museum
Boymans-van Beuningen
i n . After Rubens, The Martyrdom of St. Andrew, drawing (No. 62b), London, British
Museum
112 . The Martyrdom of St. Andrew, engraving (ed. by J. Dierckx; No. 62b)
113 . Rubens, The Death of St. Anthony Abbot (No. 64). Pommersfelden, CaStle Weissenätein, Coll. Count Schönborn
114 . After Rubens, The Death of St. Anthony Abbot (No. 64). ’s Hertogenbosch, St.
John
115 . C. Galle, The Blessed Anna de Jésus, engraving (No. 63)
116 . Rubens, St. AuguStine, oil sketch (No. 65). Oxford, Ashmolean Museum
117 . Rubens, St. AuguSline between ChriSt and the Holy Virgin (No. 66). Madrid,
Academia de San Fernando
4
118 . Rubens, St. AuguStine at the Seashore (No. 67). Prague, Nârodni Galerie
119 . S. a Bolswert, St. Barbara, engraving (No. 68)
120. S. a Bolswert, St. Catherine of Alexandria, engraving (No. 69)
12 1. ? Rubens, The Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew, drawing (No. 70). New York,
The Pierpont Morgan Library
122. Rubens, The Conversion of St. Bavo, oil sketch (No. 7 1). London, National Gallery
123. Rubens, The Conversion of St. Bavo (No, 72), Ghent, St. Bavo
124. After Rubens, The Conversion of St. Bavo (No. 72a). Present whereabouts unknown
125. Rubens, The Miracles of St. Benedifi (No. 73). Brussels, Musées Royaux des BeauxArts
126. G. de Crayer, St. Benediâ and Totila. Present whereabouts unknown
127. ? Rubens, St. Catherine of Alexandria, etching (No. 75)
128. ? Rubens, St. Catherine of Alexandria, counterproof of etching (No. 75a). New
York, Metropolitan Museum of Art
129. School of Rubens, St. Catherine of Alexandria (No. 74). New York, Historical
Society
130. Rubens, The MySlic Marriage of St. Catherine of Alexandria (No. 77). Formerly
Potsdam-Sanssouci, Bildergalerie, now loSt
13 1. Rubens, The Myîïic Marriage of St. Catherine of Alexandria (No. 76). Present
whereabouts unknown
132. Rubens, The MySlic Marriage of St. Catherine of Alexandria, drawing (No. 76a).
Oberlin, Oberlin College, Allen Memorial Museum of Art
133. Rubens, The Martyrdom of St. Catherine of Alexandria (No, 78). Lille, Musée des
Beaux-Arts
134. Rubens, Head of St. Catherine of Alexandria, drawing (No. 78a). Vienna, Albertina
135. W. de Leeuw, The Martyrdom of St. Catherine of Alexandria, engraving (No. 78)
136. After Rubens, The Martyrdom of St, Catherine of Alexandria (No. 78). Ghent,
St. Bavo
137. ? Rubens, Angels Transporting the Dead Body of St. Catherine of Alexandria (No.
79). Present whereabouts unknown
138. After Rubens, Angels Transporting the Dead Body of St. Catherine of Alexandria
(No. 79). Antwerp, Coll. GuStave Faes
139. ? Rubens, St. Catherine of Siena (No. 80). Düsseldorf, Kunstmuseum
140. M. Coxcie, St. Cecilia Playing the Virginals. Madrid, Prado
5
14 1. C. Drebbel after H. Goltzius, Allegory of Music, engraving
142. After Rubens, St. Cecilia Playing the Virginals (No. 8 1). New York, Metropolitan
Museum of Art
143. H. Witdoeck, St, Cecilia Playing the Virginals, engraving (No. 82)
144. Rubens, St. Cecilia Playing the Virginals (No. 82). Berlin-Dahlem, Staatliche
Museen
145. ? Rubens, St. Cecilia (No. 84). Düsseldorf, Kunstmuseum
146. N. van den Berg, St. Charles Borromeo, etching (No. 85)
147. H. Wierix, St. Charles Borromeo, engraving
148. After Rubens, St. Charles Borromeo (No. 85), Antwerp, St. Andrew
149. Rubens, St. Dominic (No. 86). Dublin, National Gallery of Ireland
150. Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi (No. 87). Dublin, National Gallery of Ireland
15 1. Rubens, St. Dominic and St. Francis of Assisi Proteâing the World from the
Wrath of ChriSl (No. 88). Lyons, Musée des Beaux-Arts
152. After Rubens, St. Dominic and St. Francis of Assisi Proteâing the World from the
Wrath of Chrilt, drawing (No. 88a). Present whereabouts unknown
153. Rubens, Head Study of St. Catherine of Alexandria, drawing (No. 88b). Angers,
Musée Turpin de Crissé
154. ? Rubens, Head Study of St. Francis of Assisi (No. 89). Present whereabouts
unknown
155. Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Stigmata (No. 90). Cologne, WallrafRichartz Museum
156. Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Stigmata, drawing (No, 90a). Berlin,
Print Room of the Staatliche Museen
157. ? A. van Dyck, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Stigmata, drawing (No. 90b).
Paris, Cabinet des Dessins du Musée du Louvre
158. L. VorSterman, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Stigmata, engraving (No. 90b)
159. Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Stigmata (No. 9 1). Arras, Musée Muni­
cipal
160. Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Stigmata, oil sketch (No. 91a). Amster­
dam, Coll. Wetzlar
16 1. Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Stigmata (No. 92). Ghent, Museum
voor Schone KunSten
162. After Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Stigmata (No. 93). Rome, Capi­
toline Museum
6
163. After Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Stigmata, drawing (No. 93).
Copenhagen, Print Room of the Statens Museum for KunSt
164. After Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Stigmata, etching (No. 92)
165. Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Infant ChriB (No. 94). Antwerp, St.
Anthony
166. M, Lasne, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Infant ChriB, engraving (No. 94)
167. Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Infant ChriB (No. 95). Lille, Musée
des Beaux-Arts
168. Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Infant ChriB, drawing (No. 95a).
Present whereabouts unknown
169. Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Infant ChriB (No. 96). Dijon, Musée
des Beaux-Arts
X70. After Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi and St. Clare, drawing (Nos. 96-982). Present
whereabouts unknown
17 1. Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Stigmata (No. 97). Lier, St. Gummarus
172. Rubens, St. Clare (No. 98). Lier, St. Gummarus
173. Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Proteâing the World from the Wrath of ChriB (No.
100). Brussels, Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts
174. Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi (No. 99). Present whereabouts unknown
175. After Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi (No. 99). Formerly Berlin, Farr Gallery, now
loft
176. After Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi in Adoration before the Crucified ChriB (No.
iox). Vaduz, Coll. Prince of Liechtenstein
177. Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Raising his Arms in a GeBure of Adoration, drawing
(No. 10 xa). London, British Museum
178. Rubens, The LaB Communion of St. Francis of Assisi (No. 102), Antwerp, Konink­
lijk Museum voor Schone Kunften
179. H. Snyers, The LaB Communion of St. Francis of Assisi, engraving (No. 102)
180. Rubens, The LaB Communion of St. Francis of Assisi, drawing (No. 102a). Ant­
werp, Stedelijk Prentenkabinet
18 1. Rubens, The LaB Communion of St. Francis of Assisi, drawing (No. 102b).
Farnham, Coll. Wolfgang Burchard
182. Rubens, Two Studies for a Franciscan Monk, drawing (No. 102c). Chatsworth,
Coll. Duke of Devonshire
183. Rubens, Study of a Kneeling Male Nude, drawing (No. io2d). Paris, Fondation
Cuftodia, Inftitut Néerlandais
7
SOURCES OF PHOTOGRAPHS
A.C.L., Brussels, Figs. 99, 108, 123, 125,
136, 159, 160, 167, 17 1-17 3 , 178, 180,
18 1
Mas, Barcelona, Fig. 117
J. Mathey, Paris, Fig. 168
Albertina, Vienna, Figs. 93, 103, 134
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York,
Figs. 128, 142
Allen Memorial Museum of Art, Oberlin,
Fig. 132
Musée des Beaux-Arts, Dijon, Fig. 169
Archives Photographiques, Paris, Fig. 15 1
Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, Fig. 116
Baron Studios, London, Fig. 97
Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, Mu­
nich, Fig. 92
Bibliothèque Royale, Brussels, Figs. 2, 98,
105, 106, 143, 158, 164, 179
Musée des Beaux-Arts, Lille, Fig. 133
Musée du Louvre, Paris, Fig. 157
Museo del Prado, Madrid, Figs. 18, 22,
26, 30, 34, 38, 42, 46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
140
Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, Rotter­
dam, Fig. 110
Nârodni Galerie, Prague, Fig. 118
H. Breyne, Bruges, Fig. 109
National Gallery, London, Fig. 122
British Museum, London, Fig. i n
National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, Fig.
City Art Gallery, Manchester, Fig. 104
A.C. Cooper, London, Figs. 10, 152
De Schutter, Antwerp, Figs 3, 119 , 120,
146-148, 16 1, 165, 166
J. Evers, Angers, Fig. 153
14
National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin, Figs.
149, 150
Pierpont Morgan Library, New York, Fig.
121
J, t’Felt, Antwerp, Fig. 138
Prentenkabinet der Rijksuniversiteit, Lei­
den, Fig. 14 1
Fondation CuStodia, Institut Néerlandais,
Paris, Fig. 183
Rheinisches Bildarchiv, Cologne, Fig. 155
Foto-, Pers- en Filmbureau “ Het Zuiden” ,
’s-Hertogenbosch, Fig. 114
Rubenianum, Antwerp, Figs. 4 -13 , 17, 21,
A. Frequin, The Hague, Figs. 1, 89-91
Gabinetto Fotografko Nazionale, Rome,
Figs. 15, 19, 23, 27, 31, 33, 39, 43, 47,
5 1 , 55. 59. 63
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, Figs. 73-88
25. 29, 33 , 37 , 4 1 , 45 , 49 , 53 , 57, 6 l,
65-72, 10 1, 107, 115 , 124, 126, 127,
131» I 35> 139. I 54> 162, 170, 174, 175,
277
Staatliche Museen, Berlin, Figs. 130, 156
R. J. Heinemann, New York, Figs, 94, 95
Historical Society, New York, Fig. 129
InStitut Royal du Patrimoine Artistique,
Brussels, Figs. 100, 102
Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten, Potsdam,
Fig. 96
W. Steinkopf, Berlin, Fig. 144
Copenha­
Teylers Museum, Haarlem, Figs. 16, 20,
24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, 48, 52, 56, 60,
64, 112
KunStgeschichtliches Seminar der Universi­
tät, Marburg, Fig. 113
The Trustees of the Chatsworth Settlement,
Fig. 182
Kunstmuseum, Düsseldorf, Fig. 145
Wolfrum, Vienna, Fig. 176
Kongelige KobberStiksamling,
gen, Fig. 163
9
ABBREVIATIONS
l it e r a t u r e :
AA.SS. - A fla Sanflorum, quotquot toto orbe coluntur vel a catholicis scripto­
ribus celebrantur, quae ex Latinis et Graecis aliarumque gentium antiquis
monumentis collegit, digessit, notis illuflravit Joannes Bollandus servata
primigenia scriptorum phrasi, Antwerp, 1643-1925.
Bellori - G.P. Bellori, Le Vite de’ pittori, scultori ed architetti moderni, Rome,
1672
Berbie - [G. Berbie], Description des principaux ouvrages de peinture et sculp­
ture, afluellement exiflans dans les églises, couvens & lieux publics de la ville
d’Anvers, 3rd ed., Antwerp, 1757.
Bouchery-Van den Wijngaert - H.F. Bouchery and F. van den Wijngaert, P.P.
Rubens en het Plantijnsche Huis, Antwerp-Utrecht, 1941.
Burchard-d’Hulfl, 1963 - L. Burchard and R.-A. d’HulSt, Rubens Drawings,
m i,
Brussels, 1963.
Delen - A.J.J. Delen, Cabinet des eflampes de la ville d’Anvers, Catalogue
des dessins anciens, écoles flamande et hollandaise,
m i,
Brussels, 1938.
Denucê, Konftkamers - J. Denucé, De Antwerpsche “Konflkamers”, Inventa­
rissen van kunflverzamelingen te Antwerpen in de 16e en 17e eeuwen, Ant­
werp, 1932.
Descamps, Vie - J.B. Descamps, La vie des peintres flamands, allemands et
hollandais, 1, Paris, 1753.
Descamps, Voyage - J.B. Descamps, Voyage pittoresque de la Flandre et du
Brabant, Paris, 1769.
De Wit - J. de Wit, De kerken van Antwerpen, met aanteekeningen door J. de
Bosschere en grondplannen ('Uitgaven der Antwerpsche Bibliophilen, Nr
j
: 25* Antwerp-The Hague, 1910.
d’Hulft, 1968 - R.-A. d’HulSt, Olieverfschetsen van Rubens uit Nederlands en
Belgisch openbaar bezit, s.l., 1968.
Dillon - E. Dillon, Rubens, London, 1909.
Evers, 1942 - H.G. Evers, Peter Paul Rubens, Munich, 1942.
Evers, 1943 - H.G. Evers, Rubens und sein Werk, neue Forschungen, Brussels,
1943.
Fiocco, Veronese - G. Fiocco, Paolo Veronese 1328-1388, Bologna, 1928.
Glück, 1933 - G. Glück, Rubens, Van Dyck und ihr Kreis, Vienna, 1933.
Glück-Haberditzl - G. Glück and F.M. Haberditzl, Die Handzeichnungen von
Peter Paul Rubens, Berlin, 1928.
Goris-Held - J.-A. Goris and J.S. Held, Rubens in America, Antwerp, 1947.
Held - J.S. Held, Rubens, Selected Drawings,
/
h i
,
London, 1959.
Hind - A.M. Hind, Catalogue of Drawings by Dutch and Flemish Artifts... in
the British Museum, i-v, London, 1915-1932.
Janson, Véronèse-Rubens - Claire Janson, L’influence de Veronese sur Rubens,
Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 1937, pp. 26-36.
K d .K . - P.P. Rubens, Des Meifters Gemälde, ed. by R. Oldenbourg, Klassiker
der Kunft, v, 4th ed., Stuttgart-Berlin, [19 2 1].
K.d.K., ed. Rosenberg - P.P. Rubens, Des Meifters Gemälde, ed. by A. Rosen­
berg, Klassiker der Kun ft, v, iät ed., Stuttgart-Leipzig, 1906.
K.d.K., Michelangelo - Michelangelo, Des Meifters Gemälde, ed. by F. Knapp,
Klassiker der Kunfl, vu, 2nd ed., Stuttgart-Leipzig, 1907.
K.d-K., Raffael - Raffael, Des Meisters Gemälde, ed. by G. Gronau, Klassiker
der Kunft, 1, 4th ed., Stuttgart-Leipzig, 1909.
K J.K ., Van Dyck - Van Dyck, Des Meifters Gemalde, ed. by G. Glück, Klassi­
ker der Kunft, xm , 2nd ed., Stuttgart-Berlin, 1931.
Knipping - B. Knipping, De iconografie van de Contra-Reformatie in de Neder­
landen,
m i,
Hilversum, 1939-1940.
L. - F. Lugt, Les marques de collections de dessins et d’eftampes, Amsterdam,
1921.
12
Larsen - E- Latsen, P.P. Pubens, Antwerp, 1952.
Legenda Aurea - J. de Voragine, Legenda aurea, transi, by R. Benz, Mi, Jena,
19 17 -19 2 1.
Martin, Ceiling Paintings - J.R. Martin, The Ceiling Paintings for the Jesuit
Church in Antwerp (Corpus Rubenianum Ludwig Burchard, 1), Brussels,
1968.
Mensaert - G.P. Mensaert, Le peintre amateur et curieux,
m i,
Brussels, 1763.
Michel - E. Michel, Rubens, sa vie, son œuvre et son temps, Paris, 1900.
Michel, i f } i ~ J.F.M. Michel, Histoire de la vie de P.P. Rubens, Brussels,
illi.
Norris, 1933 - C. Norris, La peinture flamande à Rome, by Leo van Puy velde,
The Burlington Magazine, xcv, 1953, pp. 10 7,108.
Odevaere - [J. Odevaere], Lifte générale des tableaux et objets d’art arrivés de
Paris, ..., printed in C. Piot, Rapport à Mr le Ministre de l’Intérieur sur les
tableaux enlevés à la Belgique en 1794 et restitués en 18 1 y, Brussels, 1883,
PP- 3 I 3- 339Oldenbourg, 1922 - R. Oldenbourg, Peter Paul Rubens, ed. by W. von Bode,
Munich-Berlin, 1922.
Pallavicini, Rome, Cat. Zeri - F. Zeri, La Galleria Pallavicini in Roma, Flo­
rence, 1959.
Parthey - G. Parthey, Deutscher Bildersaal, Mi, Berlin, 1863-1864.
Prado, Cat. Madrazo - P. de Madrazo, Catalogo de los cuadros del Real Museo
de Pintura, Madrid, 1845.
Prado, Cat■ 1963 - Museo del Prado, Catalogo de las pinturas, Madrid, 1963.
Reynolds - J. Reynolds, A Journey to Flanders and Holland in the year
M D CCLXXXI, printed in The Literary Works of Sir Joshua Reynolds, ed.
by H.W. Beechey, 11, London, 1852, pp. 139-236.
Rooses - M. Rooses, L ’Œuvre de P.P. Rubens, histoire et description de ses
tableaux et dessins, i-v, Antwerp, 1886-1892.
13
Rooses-Ruelens - Correspondance de Rubens et documents épiïïolaires concer­
nant sa vie et ses œuvres, publiés, traduits, annotés par Ch. Ruelens (i),
par Max Rooses et jeu Ch. Ruelens (u-vi), Antwerp, 1887-1909.
Rubens-Bulletijn - Rubens-Bulletijn, Jaarboeken der ambtelijke Commissie in­
gefield door den Gemeenteraad der Stad Antwerpen voor het uitgeven der
Bescheiden betrekkelijk het Leven en de Werken van Rubens, i-v, Antwerp,
1882-1910.
Smith, Catalogue Raisonné - J. Smith, A Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of
the Mo fl Eminent Dutch, Blemish and French Painters, i-ix, London, 18291842.
Spruyt, 1777 - P.L. Spruyt, Lifte des tableaux appartenant à des mains mortes,
qui se trouvent dans la ville de Gand, ..., 3 septembre 1777, printed in C.
Piot, Rapport à Mr le Miniflre de l’Intérieur sur les tableaux enlevés à la
Belgique en 1794 et reflitués en 18 15, Brussels, 1883, pp. 134-162.
Spruyt, 1789-91 - E. Duverger, Filip Spruyt en zijn inventaris van kunflwerken
in openbaar en privaat bezit te Gent ( Ca. 1789-91 ), Gentse Bijdragen tot de
Kunfigeschiedenis en de Oudheidkunde, xix, 1961-1966, pp. 151-240.
Tessin - N. Tessin, Studieresor i Danmark, Tyskland, Holland, Frankrike och
Italien, ed. by O. Sirén, Stockholm, 1914.
Tietze, Tintoretto - H. Tietze, Tintoretto, The Paintings and Drawings, New
York, 1948.
Tietze, Titian - H, Tietze, Titian, The Paintings and Drawings, London, 1950.
Van Puyvelde - L. Van Puyvelde, Rubens, Paris-Brussels, 1952.
Van Puyvelde, Esquisses - L. Van Puyvelde, Les esquisses de Rubens, 2nd ed.,
Basle, 1948.
Van Puyvelde, Rome - L. Van Puyvelde, La peinture flamande à Rome, Brussels,
1950.
V S . - C.G. Voorhelm Schneevoogt, Catalogue des eftampes gravées d’après
P.P. Rubens, Haarlem, 1873.
14
EXHIBITIONS:
Amsterdam, 1933 - Rubenstentoonftelling, Gallery J. Goudstikker, Amsterdam,
1933.
Antwerp, 1956 - Tekeningen van P.P. Rubens, Rubenshuis, Antwerp, 1956.
Brussels, 19 10 - L’art belge au XVHe siècle, Museum, Brussels, 1910.
Brussels, 193 7 - Esquisses de Rubens, Museum, Brussels, 1937.
Brussels, 1933 - P.P. Rubens, esquisses et dessins, Museum, Brussels, 1953.
Brussels, 1963 - Le siècle de Rubens, Museum, Brussels, 1965.
Cambridge-New York, 1936 - Drawings and Oil Sketches by P.P. Rubens from
American Collections, Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge,
and The Pierpont Morgan Library, New York, 1956.
Detroit, 1936 - Sixty Paintings and Some Drawings by Peter Paul Rubens,
Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit, 1936.
Helsinki, 1932-33 - P.P. Rubens, esquisses, dessins, gravures, Ateneum, Hel­
sinki, 1952-1953.
London, 1930 - A Loan Exhibition of Works by Peter Paul Rubens Kt, WildenStein and Co, London, 1950.
Los Angeles, 1946 - Loan Exhibition of Paintings by Rubens and Van Dyck,
Los Angeles County Museum, Los Angeles, 1946.
Paris, 1936 - Rubens et son temps, Musée de l’Orangerie, Paris, 1936.
Rotterdam, 1933-34 - Olieverfschetsen van Rubens, Museum Boymans, Rotter­
dam, 1953-1954.
Vienna, 1889 - Sommer-Ausftellung, OeSterreichischer KunStverein, Vienna,
1889.
15
AUTHOR’S PREFACE
This eighth part of the Corpus Rubenianum contains a catalogue of all known
representations by Rubens of Saints or incidents from their lives, the central
figures being depicted either individually or in groups. It includes triptychs
in which the central panel represents a Saint or Saints, as well as some complex
compositions where the main emphasis is on a hagiographical aspect (e.g. The
Real Presence in the Holy Sacrament). Compositions forming part of a series
dealt with in a separate volume of the Corpus Rubenianum (e.g. The Ceiling
Paintings for the Jesuit Church in Antwerp, Part I) are not included, and some
other works involving Saints have been assigned to later Parts because of
certain formal or iconographical components. Examples are scenes from the
Aft,a Apoftolorum (Part V II), St. Ambrose Barring the Emperor Theodosius
from Milan Cathedral in Vienna (Part X III), the Landscape with St. George
at Buckingham Palace (Part X V III) and Rubens’s loft copy-drawing after
Titian’s St. Jerome (Part X X IV ).
Items i to 60 comprise group representations of All Saints, the Apoftles,
the Evangelists and the Doctors of the Church. They also include heads of
Chrift and of the Virgin. Having regard to the general arrangement of the
Corpus, it seemed beft to describe the latter representations, which are not
related to any incidents in the New Teftament or the life of the Virgin, in the
same part of the work as the series of the Apoftles, who are in any case
generally accompanied by figures of Chrift or the Virgin or both. The other
items represent individual Saints or scenes from their lives; they are arranged
in alphabetical order of the Saints’ names. Owing to the large quantity of the
material it has been necessary to divide it into two volumes.
It is a great pleasure to express my gratitude to all who have contributed
towards the completion of this firft volume of the book. Acknowledgment is
due in the firft place to Professor R.-A. d’Hulft and Mr. F. Baudouin, whose
clear directives and constructive criticism during the preparation and editing
of the work have been moft valuable. Many thanks are due to my colleagues
Nora De Poorter and Carl Van de Velde, who willingly relieved me of some
of my professional duties in order that I might have more time for the editing.
I am also indebted to them for many critical suggestions and for help in plan­
ning the illustrations, collecting bibliographical material and preparing the
17
indexes. I am equally indebted to Mr. P. S. Falla, who translated the text from
the Dutch.
I should be failing in gratitude if I did not mention my colleagues and the
colleftors in this country and abroad who have facilitated the work in all sorts
of ways, by providing fuller information on the provenance and present con­
dition of some works, by procuring photographs or arranging for access to
unexhibited paintings or drawings. I am happy to record this debt to Dr. R.
Andree, G. Bartoschek, Baroness Gabriele Bentinck, Dr. Liselotte Camp,
G. Eckart, Dr. P. Eikemeier, J. Foucart, C. van Hasselt, Dr. R. J. Heinemann,
H. R. Hoetink, Dr. W. Kaiser, Mlle Françoise Maison, G. Martin, J. Mathey,
H. de Morant, Dr. A. Pérez Sanchez, Dr. W. Schonath, R. Van de Walle and
Dr. G. Wilhelm. Finally a special word of thanks should be addressed to the
members of the Rubenianum Staff, who have provided valuable assistance on
numerous occasions.
Hans Vlieghe
18
INTRODUCTION
Among the many Stimuli that the Council of Trent afforded to religious life
in the part of Europe which remained Roman Catholic, one of the Strongest
was without doubt the encouragement of a fervent cult of the saints. This
revived and purified form of devotion was an answer to the challenge of
Protestants, who spoke disparagingly of the veneration of saints as a relic of
superstition. The Catholics for their part assigned a central role to the inter­
cession of the saints as a means of salvation for the faithful; at the same time,
they took draStic and effective Steps to do away with the abuses that had
caused some aspects of the cult of saints to degenerate. It was also thought
timely to diveSt the saints’ Lives of the many apocryphal elements that had
clung round them in the course of the Middle Ages and had reduced their
credibility. By far the moSt popular collection of such naïve and often charming
legends was the Legenda Aurea compiled in the late Middle Ages by Jacopo
de Voragine.
Thus it was not long before a movement took shape with the objeCt of
approaching in a more historical and critical spirit the diversity of legends and
traditions which composed the accepted picture of the saints’ Lives. Texts were
Studied and commented on with zeal. The firSt important work of this sort,
although Still somewhat amateurish and incomplete, was performed in the
1 570s by the Carthusian Surius in his six-volume collection of saints’ Lives.1
A more accurate production was the Flos Sanéiorum by Ribadeneira, a com­
panion of St. Ignatius of Loyola: this important work appeared in Spanish2
about the turn of the century and was soon translated into several languages.
A Dutch translation was published at Antwerp in 1619, the work of Heribert
Rosweyde,3 a learned Jesuit who assisted John van Bolland in the preparation
of the Aéla Sanéiorum-, this latter compilation—the firSt volume of which
appeared in 1643, three years after Rubens’s death—became an acknowledged
monument of scholarly hagiography. A good deal of important material had
appeared in the Netherlands even before the Flos Sanéiorum: e.g. the pioneer
1 L. Surius, De probatis Sanéiorum hiHoriis, i-vi, Cologne, 1570-1575.
3 P. Ribadeneira, Flos Sanéiorum o libro de las vidas de los santos, 1-11, Madrid, 15991601.
3 P. Ribadeneira & H. Rosweydus, Generale Legende der Heyligben, Antwerp, 1619.
19
work of Johannes Molanus,4 and those of Bishop Matthias Lambrecht of
Bruges5 and the secular prieSt Hendrik Adriani of Antwerp.4 These two
owed much to the celebrated Aubertus Miraeus, dean of the chapter of Ant­
werp Cathedral, an apoStolic protonotary and a man of influence at the court
of the Habsburgs and the Roman curia: he revised and supplemented Lambrecht’s work and was responsible for the publication of Adriani’s .7
During the Counter-Reformation innumerable churches, abbeys, monasteries
and convents were built or restored in consequence of the founding of new
parishes, orders and congregations. From the end of the sixteenth century
onwards these institutions afforded measureless opportunities to architefts,
sculptors, painters and craftsmen of all kinds, in the southern Netherlands as
well as in the other parts of Europe that remained Catholic. After Farnese’s
capture of Antwerp in 1585, and more especially during the governorship of
Albert and Isabella from 1598 onwards, the process of re-Catholicizing,
thorough and successful as it was, led, in the southern Netherlands as else­
where, to the establishment or restoration of religious institutions which fur­
nished exceptional opportunities to local artists.8
It is not surprising that representations of saints figured prominently among
the works newly commissioned. A well-defined function is assigned to them
in the decisions of the Council of Trent: they are to encourage the faithful to
imitate the exemplary lives of those they portray. The Council further laid
down that reliable sources muSt be followed as faithfully as possible and that
* J. Molanus, Indiculus Sanâorum Belgii, Louvain, 1573; id., Natales Sanâorum Belgii,
Louvain, 1595.
* M. Lambrecht, HiStoria ecclesiastica, oft Kerkelicke HiStorie om claerlycken te zien
d’eendrachtigheyt van de Heylige Catholycke Kercke des Heeren fesu-ChriSti, oock
tot meerder verwandt van de Legenden oft Leven der Heyligen ghenomen ende by
een int corte vergadert met verscheydene ghelooffelycke Legenden, Historien ende
oude Schryvers, Antwerp, 1607.
« H. Adriani, Legende oft d’leven, toereken, doot ende miraculen ons liefs Heeren
Jesu-ChriSti, ende van de AlderheylichSte moeder Godts ende Maghet Maria, ende
alle Godtslieve Heylighen, Antwerp, 1609.
1
On this see M.C.B. De Ridder, Aubert Le Mire, sa vie, ses écrits, Brussels, 1863,
PP- 57- 59® A. Pasture, La Restauration religieuse aux Pays-Bas Catholiques, sous les Archiducs
Albert et Isabelle, Louvain, 1925; see also E. de Moreau, in Algemene Geschiedenis
der Nederlanden, vi, Utrecht-Antwerp, 1953, pp. 307-335: an excellent article with
a full bibliography.
20
picturesque but apocryphal material should be discarded. The saints were to
be clearly depicted with their characteristic attributes.9 Another faCtor was that
the new church foundations were everywhere in search of relics of their patron
saints, and the monastic orders, which were entering on a period of major
development, were zealous for the glorification of those of their members who
had been canonized. At the same time, it was not long before iconographical
orthodoxy came to be interpreted somewhat loosely, owing in part to the
tenacity of local traditions: the Council’s decisions were applied in a somewhat
pragmatic fashion, not leaSt in the southern Netherlands, when they came into
contact with local devotions. As Mâle pointed out, the vigorous attempt to
place the cult of the saints in a more accurate historical focus did not prevent
the pious fictions of the Legenda Aurea from supplying artiSts with a good
deal of their inspiration.10 Molanus’s Strict injunctions on the form and content
of religious art11 thus failed to win systematic observance.
Rubens’s pictures of saints belong to the spirit of the Counter-Reformation,
above all by reason of their didactic character. As a true disciple of the militant
movement to revive and spread the faith, he represents the saints as Christian
heroes whose exploits muSt be so depicted as to Strengthen worshippers in their
belief and spur them to emulation. With the Counter-Reformation saints in
particular, emphasis is laid on edifying aspects: St. Ignatius’s miracles, so
comforting to the faith, St. Francis Xavier’s missionary journeys, St. Charles
Borromeo’s purity and devotion, St. Teresa of Avila’s self-surrender to Christ.
But saints of the early Church and the Middle Ages are also portrayed in a
manner that unmistakably reflects the ‘propagandizing’ spirit of Trent. Pictures
of martyrdom, for instance, are above all designed to show the saint in question
as a Steadfast witness to the true faith: he is seen immediately before being
put to death, and the composition, clearly built up to emphasize his self­
surrender to God, contrasts with the anecdotic treatment of the theme in
9 The relevant decisions of the Council and their application are well described in A.
Blunt, Artiflic Theory in Italy 1540-1600, Oxford, 1956, pp. 10 3-136 .
10 E. Mâle, L’art religieux après le Concile de Trente, Paris, 1932, pp. 368-374.
11 J. Molanus, De pi Amis et imaginibus sacris, Louvain, 1570. A second, enlarged
edition of this guide to religious iconography was published at Louvain twenty-four
years later under the title De hift oria SS. imaginum et piâurarum.
21
earlier pictures with their multiplicity of incident. The devotion of ascetics is
shown by Rubens in a very similar way: St. Jerome in the Wilderness at Dres­
den (11, No. 12 1) and St. Mary Magdalen in EcTtasy at Lille (11, No. 13 1) ,
but above all the different interpretations of St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the
Stigmata (Nos. 90-93). The Counter-Reformation emphasis on the saints as
intercessors with God is clearly reflected in such works as St. Dominic and St.
Francis of Assisi Protecting the World from the Wrath of ChriCt at Lyons
(No. 88), St. Francis of Assisi Protecting the World from the Wrath of ChriCt
at Brussels (No. 100) and St. Roch Interceding for the Plague-Stricken at Aloft
(11, No. 140). Some pictures of saints also serve to assert dogmas challenged
by the Protestants but upheld with equal fervour by the Counter-Reformation:
e.g. The Real Presence in the Holy Sacrament (No. 56), which shows an as­
sembly of saints and theologians, led by the four Latin Doctors of the Church,
defending the reality of transubftantiation. The LaCt Communion of St. Francis
of Assisi at Antwerp (No. 102) also shows a Strongly Eucharistie spirit. In The
Four Latin Doctors of the Church (No. 59) the doctrinal element is clearly
seen in the portrayal of St. Auguftine, St. Ambrose and St. Gregory, together
with St. Jerome, reading from the latter’s translation of the Vulgate which
was declared by the Council of Trent to be the sole authorized Latin version
of the scriptures.
Rubens’s pictures of saints, like his other works, were Strongly influenced by
the composition and motifs of the great Italian masters of the sixteenth and
early seventeenth century. His objective, as always, was to find models which
satisfied the demands of his own monumental Style and which he then adapted
in a very personal manner. For instance, he borrowed in a Striking way from
Raphael. The composition of The Real Presence in the Holy Sacrament (No.
56) is partly taken from the Disputa in the Vatican and St. Cecilia at Bologna.
The pair of pictures representing St. Peter and St. Paul (Nos. 49, 50), formerly
in the ten Horn collection at Nijmegen, are based on Plato and Ariftotle in
The School of Athens. The composition of The Martyrdom of St. Adrian
(No. 61) was inspired by the Borghese Entombment, There are also typical
borrowings of motifs from artifts who were themselves influenced by the
Counter-Reformation. Cigoli’s St- Francis of Assisi Receiving the Stigmata and
The Martyrdom of St. Stephen provided the basis for Rubens’s interpretation
of the same themes (No. 9 1; n, No. 146). Barocci’s Madonna del Popolo
inspired the composition of St. Dominic and St. Francis Protecting the World
22
from the Wrath of Chritt at Lyons (No. 88). AgoStino Carracci’s Laft Com­
munion of St. Jerome was clearly the basis of Rubens’s Latt Communion of
St. Francis of Assisi (No. 102). Some borrowings from Caravaggio should
also be mentioned, notably in The Four Evangelists at Potsdam (No. 54). In
addition, Rubens borrowed from his RomaniStic compatriots of the sixteenth
and early seventeenth century; for instance, Floris and Van Veen clearly fur­
nished the model for St. Michael Striking down the Rebellious Angels (n,
No. 135) and The Martyrdom of St. Andrew (No. 62) in their compositions
of the same subjefts. One may also compare the graphic work of the Wierix
brothers, in which Rubens found an iconographie prototype for his portrayal
of almoft contemporary figures such as The Blessed Anna de Jésus (No. 63)
and St. Charles Borromeo (No. 85).
However, from the point of view of form Rubens owed Still more to the
Venetians than to the schools of Florence, Bologna and Rome. MoSt of his
piftures of saints were scenes of glory and heroic deeds, and the works of the
Venice school showed him, better than any others, how to achieve a harmoni­
ous synthesis between the dignity of the subjeft and the realistic approach which
the circumstances of the time demanded. MoSt of Rubens’s works showing
martyrdoms of early Christian saints, with their variegated groups of fierce
executioners, heavily armed warriors, emperors on horseback, prieSts pointing
to idols and, not leaSt, the pompous architefture in the background, show a
clear affinity to works by Veronese. Other compositions of his remind one of
the Venetian school, especially in the surrounding architeftural décor, even
though one cannot point to specific models: e.g. the elaborate arrangement of
Steps and pillars in such works as the London sketch for The Conversion of
St. Bavo (No. 7 1), The Miracles of St. Francis Xavier (11, No. 104), The
Miracles of St. Ignatius Loyola (11, No. 115 ) and St. Ildefons0 Receiving the
Chasuble at Vienna (11, No. 117 ).
The Venetian artist to whom Rubens owed moSt in his portrayal of saints
was undoubtedly Titian. St. Jerome in the Wilderness at Dresden (11, No.
12 1) , The Martyrdom of St. Laurence at Schleissheim (11, No. 126) and
The Martyrdom of St. Sebaîiian at Berlin (n, No. 145) are all based on com­
positions of the same subjefts by the Venetian maSter. Rubens’s sketch for an
A ll Saints (No. 1) , now at Rotterdam, is based on the Gloria in the Escorial.
The composition of The Miracles of St. Benedict (No. 73) at Brussels is bor­
rowed from Titian’s Ecce Homo, now at Vienna. The rearing horse in St.
23
George Slaying the Dragon at Madrid (n, No. 105) is a copy in reverse of the
horse in a Study by Titian, to be seen at Munich, for a work that cannot now
be identified. The altarpiece of the Madonna and Six Saints in the Vatican, or
at all events Boldrini’s woodcut thereof, may have suggested the arrangement
of St. Gregory Surrounded by Saints at Grenoble (11, No. 109). The Martyr­
dom of St. Livinus at Brussels (11, No. 127) is very similar in composition
to The Martyrdom of St. Peter Martyr, formerly in SS. Giovanni e Paolo at
Venice.
On the other hand, Rubens’s pictures of saints also show clearly the survival
of a pre-Tridentine tradition. His borrowings from the Golden Legend, with
its wealth of picturesque anecdote, are legion. One of the moSt Striking of these
occurs in the St. Stephen triptych at Valenciennes, where the account of the
Saint’s martyrdom in the ACts of the ApoStles, detailed though it is, is sup­
plemented by Jacopo de Voragines Story of the burial by Gamaliel and Nicodemus. In composition, likewise, Rubens makes use of late medieval themes:
e.g. especially The Death of St. Anthony Abbot (No- 64), which is clearly
based on fifteenth-century representations of the Death of the Virgin. The
Enthronement of a Holy Bishop—a work which has disappeared but can be
judged from an etching by Soutman (11, No. 160)—shows in its Strict sym­
metry the influence of a tradition of which many examples can be found in
fifteenth-century Flemish painting.12
In conclusion it should be pointed out that Rubens in his pictures of saints
was as successful as in his other works in blending Italian with Netherlandish
sources of inspiration.
12 Attention has been drawn in another connection to the influence of late-Gothic Nether­
landish works on certain of Rubens’s religious compositions: see especially N. Verhaegen, Iconographie, in La Descente de Croix de Rubens. Etude préalable au traite­
ment, Bulletin de l’Institut Royal du Patrimoine Artistique, v, 1962, pp. 17-26, and C.
Eisler, Rubens’ Uses of the Northern PaSî. The Michiels Triptych and its Sources,
Bulletin des Musées royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, xvi, 1967, pp. 43-78.
24
CATALOGUE RAISONNÉ
1.
ALL
s a in t s : o il s k e t c h
(Fig.
i)
Oil on panel; 58 : 38 cm.
Rotterdam, Museum Boymans-van Be uningen. No, 1738.
P r o v e n a n c e : Presented to the Museum by A.J. Lamme, 1863.
E x h ib ite d : Petrus Paulus Rubens herdacht, i y T j - 1 9 2 7 , Museum, Antwerp, 19 2 7, No.
10; Amsterdam, 1933, No. 10 (repr.); Paris, 1936, No. 54; Helsinki, 1932-33, No. 8;
Brussels, 1933, No. 8; Rotterdam, 1933-34, No. 13 (repr.).
L it e r a t u r e : Jaarverslag Museum Boymans, 1863, p. x (as Van Dyck)-, P. Haverkorn
van Rijsewijk, Notice descriptive des tableaux et sculptures du Musée de Rotterdam,
Rotterdam, 1892, No. 62 (as Van Dyck) ; P. Haverkorn van Rijsewijk, Beknopte catalogus
der schilderijen en beelden van het Museum te Rotterdam, Rotterdam, 1907, No. 259;
F. Schmidt-Degener, in Jaarverslag Museum Boymans, 1920, pp. 3, 4, repr.; L. Bur­
chard, Skizzen des jungen Rubens, Sitzungsberichte der kunStgeschichtlichen Gesellschaft
Berlin, Odober 1926 - May 1927, p. 3, No. 23; K. Zoege von Manteuffel, in KunStchronik, 1930, p. 129; C. Norris, The Rubens Exhibition at Amsterdam, The Burlington
Magazine, l x i i i , 1933, p. 230; D. Hannema, Rubens in het Museum Boymans, Rotter­
dam, 1933, p. 10, No. 1 ; F. Van den Wijngaert, Inventaris der Rubeniaansche PrentkunSi, Antwerpen, 1940, p. 57; Bouchery-Van den Wijngaert, pp. 62, 132, 15 3; Evers,
I 943 > PP' 2o8> 2 i 9 > 357 ; E. Haverkamp Begemann, Rubens in Rotterdam, Apollo, July
1967, p. 38; K. Bauch, Die Elsheimer-AusSlellung in Frankfurt am Main ( 1) , KunStchronik, xx, 1967, p. 6 1; d'HulSi, 1968, pp. 90, 91, No. 3, fig. 26; H. Kaufmann,
Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini. Die figürlichen Kompositionen, Berlin, 1970, p. 26, n. 51.
This sketch represents the company of All Saints worshipping the Holy Tri­
nity. St. Laurence, seen from the back, is in the middle foreground; St. Gregory
is seen in the group to his left, while on his right are the naked St. Sebastian
and St. George in armour. In the distance can be seen two figures in the garb
of a Franciscan and a Dominican, probably St. Francis and St. Dominic them­
selves. The upper part of the sketch vaguely shows the Virgin Mary on a cloud,
approaching the Holy Trinity.
Bouchery and Van den Wijngaert have shown clearly that this composition
was inspired by Titian’s Triumph of the Holy Trinity (Tietze, Titian, fig. 230)
painted in 1554, which Rubens may have seen during his firSt visit to Spain in
1603; it was brought to the Escorial in 1574 and is now in the Prado at Madrid.
He may, however, have used as his model the engraving of Titian’s picture
27
made in 1566 by Cornelis Cort (J.C. Bierens de Haan, L ’œuvre gravé de Cor­
nells Cort, The Hague, 1948, No. n i , fig. 30). It seems less clear that, as
Bauch recently suggested, the work also contains reminiscences of Elsheimer’s
Adoration of the Cross in the Städel Institute at Frankfurt (H. Weizsäcker,
Adam Elsheimer, 11, Berlin, 1952, pi. 4).
A large painting of the same subject has not come down to us and is nowhere
mentioned in the sources. There is an engraving, made before 15 May 16 13
for the Missale Romanum and Breviarium Romanum published by B. Moretus
in 1614, and depifting the same subject (Rooses, v, pp. 64, 65; Evers, 1943,
fig. 189). The appearance and arrangement of the figures is so similar to the
Rotterdam sketch that Bouchery, Van den Wijngaert and Evers believed the
latter to have been made for the engraving; however, as early as 1926 Burchard
rightly concluded that there was no such connexion between the two works.
The faft that the sketch in oils is nearly twice as long and wide as the illus­
tration for the Missale and Breviarium (295 : 200 mm.) in itself tends to dis­
prove the supposition of Bouchery, Van den Wijngaert and Evers. Moreover
there are Striking differences of detail between the two versions of the theme,
and no preliminary Studies seem to have been painted for any of the other
engravings in the Missal and Breviary. On the other hand, we do know of a
preliminary drawing for this as for other engravings in the same series: it is
now in the Albertina at Vienna, and agrees with the engraving in every detail
(Glück-Haberditzl, pi. 70).
Zoege von Manteuffel has pointed out the Striking similarity of pose between
St. SebaStian in this sketch and the naked youth in the modello drawing in the
Louvre for The Baptism of Chriît (1604-5), now *n the Antwerp museum
(Burchard-d’Hul!t, 1963,
I,
p. 53, No. 29;
II,
pi. 29).
The close resemblance to the engraving of 16 13 permits us to assign this
sketch to about the same date.
2.
THE FACE OF CHRIST: OIL SKETCH OR DRAWING
Approximately 30 : 25 cm.
Whereabouts unknown; presumably lofl.
C o pies: (i )
Engraving by P. Pontius (Fig.
E. Rucholle (Fig. 4; VS., p.
28
73,
2;
V S.,
p. 72,
No.
7 0 ); (2)
Engraving by
No. 72); (3) Engraving, published by J, Galle (Fig. 6;
VS., p. 73, No. 74); (4) Engraving, published by G. Hendrickx (Fig. 8; VS., p. 73,
No. 78).
L it e r a t u r e : Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, ix, p. 336, No. 346; Rooses, v, pp. 199, 200,
No. 1380.
The drawing or oil sketch, which is presumably loft, may be judged from
four prints made from it. Chrift’s head is seen in profile, with long wavy hair
and a full beard. In Pontius’s engraving after the loft original, Chrift’s face is
turned to the left (Fig. 2) ; however, he is seen in right profile in the version
signed by Rucholle (Fig. 4) and those published by Jan Galle (Fig. 6) and
Gillis Hendrickx (Fig. 8).
The inscription under Paul Pontius’s engraving indicates in detail by whom
and on what occasion the work was commissioned:
speciosissimi Regis, indeficientem contemplationem vobis, imô
d e i h o m in is
universo populo Chrifliano, divina hcec imago offert; qua in manibus, in osculis,
in summa/veneratione
CHARLARTUS
deo
S. i g n a t i o
Societatis veftra Auftori fuit,
q u in tin u s
tanti Patris amicus, deinde Filius, suspicienda veritatis tabulam,
simillimam/esse divinorum participes pronuntiaverunt
ROMA
in
b e lg iv m
detulit; ac poUmodum Matri sua dono dedit, apud heredes mansit, donec toto
ferè vertente saculo, in/possessionem venit 10 . w a v e r i Antverpiensis, Equitis,
re g i c a th o lic o
à Consiliis: qui devoto adfeftu piorum amori venerabile cime-
lium consecravit, &/ propter suum suaque coniugis sepulchrum vivus, sed
morti intentus,
XXVII. m ai.
h a llis
Natali suo
in ade
d e ip a r æ v i r g i n i s
dedicavit,
[m d ]. c x x x iii.
Die
lv ii.
From this we learn that Rubens depifted the head of Chrift after an old
painting much venerated by St. Ignatius Loyola. The painting was brought from
Rome to the Netherlands by the Jesuit Father Quintin Charlat (in May 1554,
according to A. Poncelet, HiJloire de la Compagnie de Jésus dans les anciens
Pays-Bas, Brussels, 1927,1, p. 64), who presented it to his mother. It remained
in the hands of her descendants until it was acquired by the knight Jan van
den Wouwere or Woverius, an alderman of Antwerp and member of the Conseil
de Guerre of the Spanish Netherlands. Finally Woverius presented the piöure
to the Onze-Lieve-Vrouwkerk (Church of Our Lady) at Halle in Brabant, on
May 27th, 1633, at the age of 57 years. In addition the print is dedicated to
Muzio Vitelleschi, the then General of the Jesuits (see A. Poncelet, op. cit.,
passim).
29
The representation of Christ is based on medallions executed in Italy in large
numbers after 1492 and purporting to represent the True Visage of Chrift;
they are in fad based on a fifteenth-century Flemish prototype (G.F. Hill, The
Medallic Portraits of Christ, Oxford, 1920, pp. 30-37, pi. 19).
A copy was also drawn by Erasmus Quellinus from the original presented
to Halle; it is necessary to emphasize its importance for the interpretation of
the work now in question. Chriftoffel Jegher made a woodcut from it (M.D.
Henkel, ChriStoffel Jegher, in U. Thieme and F. Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon
der bildenden Künstler, xvm, Leipzig, 1925, p. 487; F. van den Wijngaert,
Inventaris der Rubeniaansche PrentkunSt, Antwerp, 1940, p. 62, No. 312), with
an inscription repeating the information accompanying the Paul Pontius ver­
sion (Fig. 3). A new information is also given in the title of the woodcut:
Raphaelis Urbinatis penicillo ad sacrae vetuStatis prototypon expressam, Eras­
mus Quell, delineabat, ChriStophorus legher sculpit [sic]. That is to say,
Raphael allegedly painted the pidure from a much older prototype. It is hard
to judge the truth of this Statement. In the firSt place, no trace can now be
found of the pidure presented to Halle, and secondly no such work is mention­
ed in the literature about Raphael.
There are also reasons for thinking that Pontius’s engraved portrait of Christ
facing to the left was published earlier than Jan Galle’s print. In the latter ver­
sion Rubens’s name occurs only in the text of the inscription below, but not in
the title before delineavit. Moreover Galle published together with this engrav­
ing, and as a counterpart to it, a representation of the Virgin which is not based
on Rubens (Fig. 7). This perhaps means that Galle decided on his own initiat­
ive to publish a pair of engravings depiding Chrift and the Virgin—an icon­
ographie combination of old Standing which had been followed in the Nether­
lands by among others, Quentin Massijs (Honderd afbeeldingen van schilderijen
uit het Koninklijk Museum voor Schone KunSten, Antwerpen, 1, Oude MeeSters,
Antwerp, n.d., pl. 32 and 33), and in Italy by Titian ('Tietze, Titian, pl. 206
and 207)—and that he used for the head of Chrift the engraving by Pontius,
reproducing it in reversed form. The combination was subsequently imitated:
a head of the Virgin Mary was reproduced as a pendant to the head of Chrift
published by Gillis Hendrickx (Fig. 9) and to that engraved by Rucholle (Fig.
5) and dedicated to the Archduke Leopold Wilhelm.
The pendant of the Hendrickx version bears, in the title, the attribution
P.P. Rubens pinxit. It is not clear from which of his paintings the print was
30
made, but in any case it does not belong, as Burchard thought, to the same type
as the Madonna of the Annunciation on the outer wings of the triptych of The
Martyrdom of St. Stephen at Valenciennes (n, No. 149); it is closer to the
Holy Virgin which also forms the counterpart to a head of Christ and may
be dated 1615-20 (No. 5). This head of the Virgin is incorrectly described
in the literature as a pendant to the Pontius version. The mistake is due to a
Statement by R. Hecquet (Catalogue des estampes gravées d’après Rubens,
Paris, 17 5 1, p. 18, No. 57), which was reproduced by subsequent authors (F.
Basan, Catalogue des eHampes gravées d’après P.P. Rubens, Paris, 1767, p. 49,
No. 25; Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, IX, p. 336, No. 346; V S., p. 72, No. 70;
E. Dutuit, Manuel de l’amateur d’eftampes, vi, Paris, 1885, pp. 90, 91, No. 26;
and Rooses, v, pp. 199, 200, No. 1380).
There is also a print of this head of Christ which bears the signature C.
Galle: it is not clear whether this was engraved by Cornelis I or II Galle.
Neither is it possible to prove that it is based on Rubens’s drawing or oil sketch,
as has been asserted (V.S., p. 73, No. 76).
3.
THE BUST OF CHRIST
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loB.
( i) Painting (Fig. 1 0 ) , whereabouts unknown; panel, 6 1 . 5 : 46 cm.; prov.: sale,
London (Christie’s), 20 June 19 58 , lot 1 3 6 (as Rubens), bought by Henri Rowland;
( 2 ) Painting (Fig. 1 1 ) , whereabouts unknown; canvas, 59.5 : 46 cm.; prov.: Berlin,
C o pies:
Viktor Modrzejewski (as Van Dyck), seen by Burchard on 1 4 April 19 3 4.
A half-length portrait of Christ, seen in three-quarter face with his head turned
to the right. The right hand is slightly raised in a gesture of blessing. Christ,
as Salvator Mundi, holds his left hand protectively over a globe, part of which
is seen below on the left; the moon and Stars are depicted on it in miniature.
A halo glimmers around the Saviour’s head.
Two copies of the loSt original are known. The better one, which as mention­
ed above was sold in London in 1958, approaches the original in quality, but
it shows weaknesses which can hardly be ascribed to Rubens. The drawing of
the fingers is not especially plaStic, and the artist’s typical undulating contours
are absent. The transition from the left to the right-hand side of Christ’s fore­
31
head is rather clumsy. The second version, seen by Burchard in 1934 at Modrzejewski’s in Berlin, is of inferior quality but should be mentioned here, as it
differs in one detail from the better version: the terrestrial globe ball is sur­
mounted by a cross, and it may be wondered whether this was not so in the
original. The type is the same as that in the panel Chrift and the Repentant
Sinners, of about 1618, in the Alte Pinakothek at Munich (K J . K ., p. 176);
it also forms a good match to the figure of Christ in the Pasce Oves of about
1614 in the Wallace Collection, London (K.d.K., p. 7 1).
The direction of Christ’s glance seems to suggest that there was a pendant
to this picture, perhaps representing the Virgin.
4-5.
4.
TWO PENDANTS; CHRIST AND THE HOLY VIRGIN
CHRIST
Oil on panel (? ); approximately 60 : 50 cm.
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loSt.
P r o v e n a n c e : ? Balthasar I Moretus, Antwerp.
C o p ie s : ( i ) Painting, whereabouts unknown; panel, 59.5 : 47 cm.; prov.: sale, London
(Christie’s), 29 July 1937, lot 86 (as Rubens) ; Tomas Harris, London, seen by Burchard,
on 9 AuguSt 1939; (2) Painting, whereabouts unknown; panel, 61 : 49 cm.; prov.:
Berlin, Dr. M.J. Binder; exh.: Gemälde alter Meilier aus Berliner Besitz, Akademie der
KiinSte, Berlin, 1925, No. 330 (as Rubens)-, (3) Painting, whereabouts unknown; panel,
60.5 : 45.5 cm.; shown to Burchard by P.O. Cargher, Carlton Galleries, London, on
i and 18 March, 1947; (4) Painting (Fig. 12 ), whereabouts unknown; panel, 63 : 49
cm.; prov.: Galerie A. de Heuvel, Brussels; sale, London (Christie’s), 26 March 19 71,
lot 124 (as Rubens)-, lit.: The Burlington Magazine, xcvii, April 1955, p. ix, repr. (5)
(6)
A buSt of Christ, in three-quarter face, with a halo visible behind his head.
This type of Christ, with handsome features and a serene expression, and with
the locks of hair treated analytically, belongs without question to the period
of Rubens’s development between about 16 15 and 1620.
The copy of this work acquired by Tomas Harris in 1937 is the only one
of the whole series that is not separated from its pendant The Holy Virgin.
32
Pendants of this kind have an old tradition (cf. entry No. 2).
Rubens may have executed this and the next work to the order of Balthazar
Moretus. In the latter’s ledger for the years 1624-55 we read; "Pedro Paulo
Rubens doibt avoir ... Pour deux visages peints sur paneel [sic] de Christus et
Maria pour B[althasar] M[oretus] à fi. 24 ... 48” (M. Rooses, Petrus Paulus
Rubens en Balthasar Moretus, Rubens-Bulletijn, 1, 1882, p. 282). Although
the item relating to these pendants appears in the ledger after 1624, it is poss­
ible that they were painted before that date. The ledger records frontispiece
designs which certainly date from before 1624, such as Bosius’s Crux Trium­
phans of 16 16 -17 , Lessius’s De luïïitia et lure of 1617, Thomas a Jesu’s De
Contemplatione Divina of 1620 (Evers, 1943, figs, 77, 80, 88), and others,
5.
THE HOLY VIRGIN
Oil on panel ( ?) ; approximately 60 : 50 cm.
Whereabouts unknown.
P r o v e n a n c e ; ? Balthasar I Moretus, Antwerp.
C o p ie s : ( i ) Painting, whereabouts unknown; panel, 60 : 47 cm.; prov.: sale, London
(Christie’s), 29 July 1937, lot 86 (as Rubens); Tomas Harris; London; (2) Painting,
whereabouts unknown; panel; prov.: Berlin, Gustav Rochlitz; London, Asscher, Koetser
and Welker, 1925; (3) Painting, whereabouts unknown; panel, 63.5 : 48 cm.; prov.: New
York, A. Seligman, Rey and C0.; Vienna, Berthold Waldner, 1933; exh.: Detroit, 1936,
No. 9 (as Rubens)-, (4) Painting (Fig. 13 ), whereabouts unknown; panel, 62 : 48 cm.;
prov.: New York, Mont and Newhouse; shown there to Burchard on 3 July 1956; (5)
Painting, whereabouts unknown; panel, 45.5 : 39 cm. (reduced copy); prov.: sale, Lon­
don (Christie’s), 18 March 1949, lot 163 (as Rubens); Brussels, A. de Heuvel, 1965;
exh.: Tableaux anciens, Galerie Brachot, Brussels, 1965, No. 58 (repr.; as Rubens).
(6)
A buSt of the Virgin, in three-quarter face, looking to the left. Her hand,
pressed to her breaSt, is seen on the left at the lower edge of the pifture. A
halo is visible behind her head.
As with the head of Christ which forms a pair with this work, the Virgin’s
countenance is of a type belonging to Rubens’s œuvre between 16 15 and 1620.
The expression and attitude are a more definite version of those seen in the
figure of St. Clare on the right-hand panel of the former triptych of St. Francis,
dating from 1618, in the church of St. Gummarus at Lier (No. 98; Fig. 172).
33
6-18.
t h e “ a p o s to la d o le r m a
”
In the well-known annex to Rubens’s letter of 28 April 1618 to Dudley Carleton, the English envoy at The Hague, in which he offered to exchange paintings
for antique sculpture, the artist spoke of “Dodeci ApoStoli con un Christo
fatti de mei discepoli dalle originali che ha il Ducca di Lerma de mia mano
dovendosi ritoccare de mia mano in tutto e per tutto” (Rooses-Ruelens, 11,
P- 137)It is generally supposed that the “originali che ha il Ducca di Lerma” are
the same as those now in the Prado, which are first recorded in the collection
at San Ildefonso of Isabella Farnese, the consort of King Philip V (N. Caïmo,
Voyage d’Espagne fait en l’année 1755, Paris, 1772, pp. 35, 36: “Le Palais
[of San Ildefonso] contient entr’autres quatre Appartemens principaux ... Ils
sont tous ornés de très belles peintures; le premier (au premier étage) surtout
... renferme quantité d’excellens ouvrages des Peintres les plus célèbres ... Parmi
lesquels on voit ... les douze Apôtres, de Rubens” ). According to Prado, Cat.
1963, p. 575, the earliest record is in the unpublished inventory of works of
art belonging to Isabella Farnese, drawn up in 1746. The identification is very
probably correft; of the many known versions of this series, only the one in the
Prado is authentic.
Two questions, however, remain unanswered. Firstly, when and how did the
series come into the Duke’s possession; and secondly, when and how did it
come into the possession of the Spanish royal house? As Christopher Norris
has pointed out, the series cannot have been painted at a date earlier than the
firSt few years after Rubens’s return to Antwerp from Italy (Norris, 1933,
p. 108). The dense filling of each of the panels, the monumental and sculptural
impression made by each of the figures, and the local colouring with accen­
tuated contrasts between bright and dark parts is very typical of that period;
moreover, in the individual works, as discussed below, types of figures are
found which Rubens also used in other paintings that date from the firSt years
after his return from Italy. This rules out the view, accepted generally before
the publication of Norris’s enlightening article and sporadically thereafter (e.g.
M. Warnke, Kommentare zu Rubens, Berlin, 1965, pp. 76, 77, and E. Larsen,
Three lesser-known Works by Rubens, Jaarboek Koninklijk Museum voor
Schone Kuniïen, Antwerpen, 1969, pp. 1 5 1—155), that Rubens presented the
paintings in 1602-3 to the then minister of King Philip III, with whom he was
34
in contaft. They were probably sent from Antwerp to M adrid soon after they
were painted, i.e. about 16 10 -12 . A s to the acquisition o f the paintings for the
Spanish royal collections, there is a gap o f a hundred and thirty years between
the date on which they were mentioned as being in the D uke’s possession and
the date on which they were recorded in Isabella Farnese’s collection, so that
in default o f further information we cannot tell precisely how they came from
one to the other. As they do not figure in the extensive descriptions, which
have been preserved, o f the royal art colleftions before 1746, there is reason
to think that they were acquired at a late date, perhaps not until the time of
Isabella Farnese herself. It remains an open question whether they were owned
by the D uke o f Lerm a’s descendants throughout the intervening period.
The series in the Prado is complete except for the figure o f Christ; this
muSt have disappeared at an early Stage, since it is not mentioned in the descrip­
tion o f Isabella Farnese’s collection. It can, however, be judged from several
painted copies o f varying quality, the beSt being that now in the National
G allery o f Canada at Ottawa (Fig. 14 ) . Another Chrilt as Salvator Mundi
forms part, together with copies o f the twelve ApoStles in the Prado, o f a
series in the G alleria Pallavicini, preserved in the Palazzo Rospigliosi-Pallavicini at Rome. T h is series is very probably identical with the “ T w eelf ApoStels
ende eene schilderye van ons Heer, alle geschildert van Rubbens” ( “ Tw elve
ApoStles and a painting o f Our Lord, all by Rubens” ), recorded in 1665 in the
possession o f Giambattista Pallavicini, an Italian merchant at Antwerp (Denucé,
Konltkamers, p. 24 4); this family later became related to the Rospigliosi
through marriage, owning together the Roman palace Still named after them
(Pallavicini, Rome, Cat. Zeri, pp. 2 3 3 -2 3 7 , Nos. 4 3 1-4 4 3 , pi. 4 3 1- 4 4 3 ) . It has
been generally supposed that this series is the one which Rubens offered to
Dudley Carleton on 28 A pril 16 18 , but which the latter did not accept.
The copies executed during Rubens’s lifetime also include two series o f
prints. One o f these was made by Peter Isselburg o f Cologne, probably between
about 16 2 3 and 1626, as he was then in the service o f G ottfried von Aschhausen, the bishop o f Bamberg, to whom the series is dedicated (U. Thiem e &
F. Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künïller, x ix , Leipzig, 1926,
p. 26 5). The other is by Nicolaas Ryckmans, who was active as an engraver o f
Rubens’s works around 1620 and inter alia provided the illustrations for the
16 22 edition o f the Palazzi di Genova (H . Hymans, Hill oire de la gravure
dans l’école de Rubens, Brussels, 1879, pp. 2 3 4 -2 4 2). The second series clearly
35
derives from the copies in the Rospigliosi-Pallavicini palace: a sufficient proof
of this is the faCt that the Prado Thomas and Simon (Nos. 13, 16, Figs. 42,
54) appear as in the Pallavicini copies, i.e. without their attributes of the lance
and saw and are misnamed Simon and Jude (Thaddeus) respectively (Figs. 43,
45. 55> 57)- It should also be noted that Ryckmans followed the Pallavicini
series in slight divergences from the Prado series as regards the treatment of
the Apoftles’ hair and clothing.
Although the Isselburg engravings show no divergence, as far as attributes
are concerned, from the originals painted for the Duke of Lerma, it is hard
to suppose that they are based direCtly on the series now in the Prado, which
was presumably not accessible for a long period. Very probably these engrav­
ings too were made from copies. The copies in queftion muft have been more
accurate than those in the Pallavicini gallery, and it may well be, therefore,
that they and not the latter are identical with those offered to Dudley Carleton.
Both series of engravings are relevant to the queftion of the iconography of
the “Apoftolado Lerma". Comparing them with each other, we find that only
eight figures occur with the same designations in both. The inscriptions Thomas
and Simon in the Isselburg series (Figs. 44, 56) appear in the other as Simon
and Jude Thaddeus (Figs. 45, 57) respectively. The figures designated as St.
Matthew in the Isselburg series (Fig. 48) appears in the Ryckmans series as
St. Thomas (Fig. 49), while the James the Less of the former series (Fig. 52)
is called St. Matthew in the latter (Fig. 53). These changes need not surprise
us: especially in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries it happened that
some of the traditional attributes based on the apocryphal biographies of the
Apoftles were confused with one another (E. Mâle, L ’Art religieux après le
Concile de Trente, Paris, 1932, pp. 367, 368; Knipping, 11, pp. 300, 302).
Another noteworthy point about the two series of engravings is that each of
them includes one figure that is not based on Rubens’s invention. In the Issel­
burg series this is Jude Thaddeus, who, like the Chrift as Salvator Mundi, is
based on one of the figures in Van Dyck’s series of the Apoftles (c. 16 18 -2 1;
K.d.K., Van Dyck, pp. 37, 42); also Ryckmans’s engraving of St. James the
Less is based on a type that owes nothing to Rubens. The explanation of these
additions is that both series are what is called Credo-series: that is to say, the
text of one of the articles of the Apoftles’ Creed is inscribed below each of the
figures of the Twelve. According to a tradition followed since the early Middle
Ages, each Apoftle was responsible for a particular article (A. Katzenellen-
36
bogen, s.v, ApoStel, in Reallexikon zur deutschen Kunstgeschichte,
I,
Stuttgart,
1937, cols, 823, 824). The order of attribution was always the same: the firSt
article (Credo in Deum patrem omnipotentem, creatorem cœli et terree) was
ascribed to St. Peter; the second (Et in Jesum Christum filium eius unicum,
dominum nostrum) to St. Andrew; the third (Qui conceptus eSt de Spiritu
SanSto, natus ex Maria Virgine) to St. James the Greater; the fourth (Passus
sub Pontio Pilato, crucifixus, mortuus et sepultus) to St. John; the fifth (Des­
cendit ad inferna, tertia die resurrexit a mortuis) to St. Philip; the sixth (Ascen­
dit ad ccelos, sedet ad dexteram Dei patris omnipotentis) to St. Bartholomew;
the seventh (Inde venturus eSt indicate vivos et mortuos) to St. Thomas; the
eighth (Credo in Spiritum SanStum) to St. James the Less; the ninth (Santtam
ecclesiam catholicam sanStorum communionem) to St. James the Less; the tenth
(Remissionem peccatorum) to St. Simon; the eleventh (Carnis resurreStionem)
to St. Jude; and the twelfth (Vitam aeternam, Amen) to St. Matthias. As
Rubens had included St. Paul in his Lerma series, an extra figure had to be
added to each of the series of engravings. Two conclusions follow from the
foregoing as regards the “ApoStolado Lerma” . Firstly, it is not to be regarded
as a Credo series, and secondly, it is not possible to determine in every case
which apoStles Rubens originally set out to represent. As a working hypothesis
the designations here used are those of the Isselburg series of engravings,
which are iconographically closest to the originals.
Glück has suggested that Rubens’s ApoStolado Lerma has been influenced
by El Greco’s famous series of ApoStles [Glück, 1933, p. 288). This hypothesis
has been accepted by some authors, recently also by Martin Warnke (op. cit.,
pp. 9, 10, 70n). However, Müller Hofstede (Eine KreideSiudie von Rubens für
den Kreuzaufrichtungsaltar, Pantheon, xxv, 1967, pp. 39, 43) has proved
convincingly that Rubens’s series had a firm Netherlandish root. He rightly
pointed at the many sets of engravings published by the Wierix family, e.g.
after Marten de Vos and Crispijn van den Broeck, and showing the apoStles
full-length as well as half-length. Also Cornells Ketel has painted “Twaelf
ApoStelen met den Christus, tronien, grooter oft also groot als t’leven” (C. van
Mander, Het Leven der Doorluchtighe Nederlandtsche en Hoogduytsche Schil­
ders, Haarlem, 1604, f° 276). Tradition is yet older: the 1595 inventory of
Archduke ErnSt of Austria’s collection makes mention of "Brustbilder von 12
ApoSteln von Francisco Floris” (M. De Maeyer, Albrecht en Isabella en de
Schilderkunst, Brussels, 1955, p. 259 [No. 4]).
37
It is undeniable that Rubens’s series has enjoyed a great popularity. Above
all, this is proved by the many copies and paffiches which were executed after
it. Moreover, other contemporary artiSts such as Van Dyck (K.d.K., Van Dyck,
pp. 3 1 et seqq.) and Abraham Janssens (the series, now in St. Charles Borromeo
at Antwerp and probably identical with the “Ons Heer, de Twaalf ApoStelen
en Sint Paulus” which were mentioned in the painter’s estate, 1644 [F.J. Van
den Branden, Geschiedenis der Antwerpsche Schilderschool, Antwerp, 1883,
p. 4 8 2 ]), have painted ApoStolado’s which undoubtedly were inspired by
Rubens’s series for the Duke of Lerma or, at leaft, by one of the copies after
the latter.
6.
CHRIST AS SALVATOR MUNDI
Oil on panel; approximately 108 : 84 cm.
Whereabouts unknown.
P r o v e n a n c e : Don Francisco Gomez de Sandoval y Royas, Duke of Lerma, 1618,
C o p ie s : ( i ) Painting (Fig. 14), Ottawa, National Gallery o f Canada, No. 3696; panel,
13 1.5
: 81.5 cm.; prov.: ? L.-J. Cocquereau, sale, Brussels, 25 AuguSt 1806 et seqq.,
lot 85 (as Rubens); Schamp d’Aveschoot, sale, Ghent, 14 September 1840 et seqq., lot
156 (as Rubens) ; English Convent, Bruges; Henry S. Roche (London; 1906-1929);
acquired by the Museum in 1929; exh.: Works by the Old Maffers, Royal Academy,
London, 1907, No. 104 (as Rubens) ; Daily Telegraph Exhibition, Olympia, London,
1928, No. X 52, repr. (as Rubens) ; lit.: M. Rooses, in Rubens-Bulletijn, v, 1910, p. 284
(as Studio of Rubens) ; K J.K ., pp. 439, 472 (as Studio of Rubens) ; R.-R. Tatlock, A
forgotten Rubens Mafferpiece, The Burlington Magazine, L, 1927, pp. 233, 234, repr.
(as Rubens)', H. Tietze, Die öffentlichen Gemäldesammlungen in Kanada, Pantheon,
XVII, 1936, p. 184 (as Rubens) ; E. Greindl, Ein unveröffentlichtes Werk aus Rubens
Jugendzeit, Pantheon, xxm , 1942, p. 43 (as Rubens)', Evers, 1943, pp. 99, 377, No.
147; W.R. Valentiner, Rubens’ Paintings in America, The Art Quarterly, ix, 1946,
p. 155, No. 4 (as Rubens)', Goris-Held, p. 34, No. 53, pl. 30 (as Rubens)', Larsen,
p. 214, No. 8 (as Rubens)', K. Arndt, Studien zu Georg Petel, Jahrbuch der Berliner
Museen, IX, 1967, p. 198; E. Larsen, Three lesser known Works by Rubens, Jaarboek
Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunffen, Antwerpen, 1969, pp. 15 1- 15 3 , fig. 3 (as
Rubens)', (2) Painting, Vienna, SchottenStift; panel, 106.5 : 82.5 cm.; prov.: Imperial
colledion, Vienna; exh.: Drei Jahrhunderte Vlämische Kun ff, Sezession, Vienna, 1930,
No. 5 (repr., as Rubens)', lit.: Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, 11, p. 98, No. 320 (as Rubens);
38
M. Rooses, in Rubens-Bulletijn, v, 1910, p. 284; K J.K ., p. 472; G. Glück, Drei Jahrhun­
derte Vlämische Kun.fi, Ausheilung in der Wiener Sezession, Belvedere, v, 1930, p.
167, pl. 94 (as Rubens); E. Greindl, op. cit., p. 43; Evers, 1943, p. 99; (3) Painting
(Fig. 15 ), Rome, Galleria Pallavicini; panel, 107 : 74 cm.; prov.: Giovanni Battifta
Pallavicini (Antwerp; died 1665; Denucê, Konflkamers, p. 244); bequeathed to his
brother Stefano (Genoa); Lazzaro Pallavicini (Genoa-Rome; 1602-1680); lit.: Smith,
Catalogue Raisonné, 11, p. 152, No. 530 (as Rubens); Rooses, 1, pp. 80-82, under Nos.
68-80; M. Rooses, in Rubens-Bulletijn, v, 1910, p. 284; Glück, 1933, p. 13 (as Studio
of Rubens, retouched by Rubens) ; Van Puyvelde, Rome, pp. 155, 156 (as Rubens')',
Norris, 1933, p. 108 (as Studio of Rubens)', Pallavicini, Rome, Cat. Zeri, p. 233, No.
431, pl. 431 (as Studio of Rubens, retouched by Rubens)', (4) Painting, Hanover, Nie­
dersächsische Landesgalerie, Cat. 1954, No. 340; canvas, 126.5 : 86 cm.; (5) Drawing
by Nicolaas Ryckmans, Vienna, Albertina, No. 8214; 179 : 137 mm.; lit.: Rooses, 1, pp.
81, 82 (as Rubens)', H. Knackfuss, Peter Paul Rubens, 5th ed., Bielefeld-Leipzig, 1898,
p. 12, fig. 9 (as Rubens)', Norris, 1933, p. 108; (6) Engraving by Nicolaas Ryckmans
(Fig. 17 ; V.S., p. 209, No. 3); (7) Engraving by J. Prenner (F. 5 ., p. 72, Nos. 62, 65).
See also No. 19 below. (8), (9)
(10)
Christ, seen frontally, is naked to the waiSt. The upper part of his body is
inclined to the left. He is clasping a wooden cross in his arms.
As Arndt pointed out, the attitude of this figure resembles in reverse that
of Michelangelo's Chrifl Holding the Cross in Santa Maria sopra Minerva at
Rome (K.d.K., Michelangelo, p. 90). It seems less probable that, as Arndt
maintained, Rubens was actually influenced by that sculpture.
7.
ST. p e t e r
(Fig. 18)
Oil on panel; 108 : 84 cm.
Madrid, Prado. No. 1646.
P r o v e n a n c e : Don Francisco Gomez de Sandoval y Royas, Duke of Lerma, 16 18 ; Queen
Isabella Farnese, San Ildefonso, 1746; Spanish Royal Collections, Aranjuez; deposited
in the Prado, 9 September 1829.
C o p ie s : ( i ) Painting (Fig. 19), Rome, Galleria Pallavicini; panel, 106 : 74.5 cm.;
prov.: see under No. 6, C o p ie s (3); lit.: Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, 11, p. 152, No. 530
(as Rubens)', Rooses, 1, pp. 80-82, under Nos. 68-80; M. Rooses, in Rubens-Bulletijn,
V, 1910, p. 284; Glück, 1933, p. 13 (as Studio of Rubens, retouched by Rubens); Van
39
Puyvelde, Rome, pp. 155, 156 (as Rubens)', Norris, 1953, p. 108 (as Studio of Rubens)-,
Pallavicini, Rome, Cat. Zeri, p. 234, No. 443, pi. 443 (as Studio of Rubens, retouched
by Rubens)-, (2) Drawing by Nicolaas Ryckmans, Vienna, Albertina, No. 8215; 185 :
124 mm.; lit.: Rooses, 1, pp. 81, 82 (as Rubens); Norris, 1953, p. 108; (3) Engraving by
Nicolaas Ryckmans (Fig. 2 1; V.S., p. 209, No. 3); (4) Engraving by Peter Isselburg
(Fig. 20; V S., p. 210, No. 5).
L it e r a t u r e : Prado, Cat. Madrazo, No. 1509; Rooses, 1, p. 79, No. 56; K J.K ,, ed.
Rosenberg, p. 10, left; Dillon, pi. xni, right; K J.K ., p. 6, left; Prado, Cat. 1963, No.
1646.
St. Peter, looking up to the right, wears a pallium over his shoulder and holds
a key in each hand.
8.
ST. ANDREW
(Fig.
22)
Oil on panel; 108 : 84 cm.
Madrid, Prado. No. 1649.
P r o v e n a n c e : Don Francisco Gomez de Sandoval y Royas, Duke of Lerma, 16 18 ; Queen
Isabella Farnese, San Ildefonso, 1746; Spanish Royal Collections, Aranjuez; deposited
in the Prado, 9 September 1829.
C o p ie s : ( i ) Painting (Fig. 23), Rome, Galleria Pallavicini; panel, 106 : 74.5 cm.;
prov.: see under No. 6, C o p ie s (3); lit.: Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, 11, p. 152, No. 530
(as Rubens); Rooses, 1, pp. 80-82, under Nos. 68-80; M. Rooses, in Rubens-Bulletijn,
V, 1910, p. 284; Glück, 1933, p. 1x3 (as Studio of Rubens, retouched by Rubens)-, Van
Puyvelde, Rome, pp. 155, 156 (as Rubens)-, Norris, 1933, p. 108 (as Studio of Rubens)-,
Pallavicini, Rome, Cat. Zeri, p. 234, No. 443, pi, 443 (as Studio of Rubens, retouched
by Rubens); (2) Drawing by Nicolaas Ryckmans, Vienna, Albertina, No. 8216; 182 :
124 mm.; lit.: Rooses, 1, pp. 81, 82 (as Rubens); Norris, 1933, p. 108; (3) Engraving by
Nicolaas Ryckmans (Fig. 25; V S., p. 209, No. 3 ); (4) Engraving by Peter Isselburg
(Fig. 24; VS., p. 210, No. 5).
L it e r a t u r e : Prado, Cat. Madrazo, No. 15 12 ; Rooses, 1, p. 79, No. 57; K J .K ., ed.
Rosenberg, p. 10, right; Dillon, pl. ix, right; K J.K ., p. 6, right; Prado, Cat. 1963,
No. 1649.
The upper part of the cross is seen, with the Saint behind it. He is looking to
the left and leaning his right arm and shoulder on one of the cross-beams.
40
9.
ST. JAM ES THE GREATER (Fig. 2 6 )
Oil on panel; 108 : 84 cm.
Madrid, Prado,
No. 1648.
P r o v e n a n c e : Don Francisco Gomez de Sandoval y Royas, Duke of Lerma, 1618; Queen
Isabella Farnese, San Ildefonso, 1746; Spanish Royal Collections, Aranjuez; deposited
in the Prado, 9 September 1829.
C op ies: ( i ) Painting (Fig. 27), Rome, Galleria Pallavicini; panel, 106 ; 76.5 cm.;
prov.: see under No. 6, C opies (3); lit.: Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, 11, p. 152, No.
530 (as Rubens) ; Rooses, I, pp. 80-82, under Nos. 68-80; M. Rooses, in Rubens-Bulle1910, p. 284; Glück, 19 3 3 , p. 13 (as Studio of Rubens, retouched by Rubens)',
pp. 155, 15 6 (as Rubens)', Norris, 1 9 3 3 , p. 108 (as Studio of
Rubens)', Pallavicini, Rome, Cat. Zeri, p. 234, No. 438, pi. 438 (as Studio of Rubens,
retouched by Rubens)', (2) Painting, whereabouts unknown; canvas, 91 : 74 cm.; prov.:
tijn, V,
Van Puyvelde, Rome,
S. Hartveld, Antwerp (19 32); (3) Drawing by Nicolaas Ryckmans, Vienna, Albertina,
No. 8220; 180 : 133 mm.; lit.: Rooses, 1, p. 81 (as Rubens)', Norris, 1 9 3 3 , p. 108; (4)
Engraving by Nicolaas Ryckmans (Fig. 29; V S ., p. 209, No. 3); (5) Engraving by Peter
Isselburg (Fig. 28; V S ., p. 210, No. 5).
L it e r a t u r e : Prado, Cat. Madrazo, No, 1 5 1 1 ; Rooses, 1, p. 79, No. 58; K .d.K ., ed.
Rosenberg, p. 1 1 , left; Dillon, pi. ix, left; K .d .K ,, p. 10 , left; Prado, Cat. 19 6 3 ,
No. 1648.
The Saint’s body is turned to the right, but he faces the spectator. He is dressed
as a pilgrim with cloak and Staff, according to the iconography adopted in the
late Middle Ages under the influence of the pilgrimage to Santiago de CompoStela (J. Braun, Tracht und Attribute der Heiligen in der deutschen Kunit,
Stuttgart, 1943, cols. 346, 347).
10.
ST. JO H N THE EVANGELIST
(Fig.
30)
Oil on panel; 108 : 84 cm.
Madrid, Prado.
No. 1647.
P r o v e n a n c e ; Don Francisco Gomez de Sandoval y Royas, Duke of Lerma, 16 18 ; Queen
Isabella Farnese, San Ildefonso, 1746; Spanish Royal Colle&ions, Aranjuez; deposited
in the Prado, 9 September 1829.
41
C o p ies: ( i) Painting (Fig. 3 1), Rome, Galleria Pallavicini; panel, 105 : 75.5 cm.;
prov.: see under No. 6, C opies (3); lit.: Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, 11, p. 152, No. 530
(as Rubens)', Rooses, 1, pp. 80-82, under Nos. 68-80; M. Rooses, in Rubens-Bulletijn,
V, 1910, p. 284; Glück, 1 9 3 3 , p. 13 (as Studio o f Rubens, retouched by Rubens) ; Van
Puyvelde, Rome,
pp. 155, 156 (as Rubens)', Norris, 1 9 5 $ , p. 108 (as Studio of Rubens)',
Pallavicini, Rome, Cat. Zeri,
p. 223, No. 433, pi. 433 (as Studio of Rubens, retouched
(2) Drawing by Nicolaas Ryckmans, Vienna, Albertina, No. 8221; 185 :
132 mm.; lit.: Rooses, 1, pp. 81, 82 (as R ubens); Norris, 19 3 3 , p. 108; (3) Engraving by
Nicolaas Ryckmans (Fig. 33; V S ., p. 209, No. 3 ) ; (4) Engraving by Peter Isselburg
by Rubens)',
(Fig. 32; V S ., p. 210, No. 5).
L i t e r a t u r e : Prado, Cat. Madrazo, No. 1 5 1 0 ; Rooses, 1, p. 79, No. 59; K .d .K ., ed.
Rosenberg, p. 1 1 , right; Dillon, pi. v iii, le ft; K .d.K ., p. 1 1 , right; Glück, 1 9 3 3 , pp. 2,
4, repr.; Prado, Cat. 19 6 3 , No. 164 7.
The Evangelist, whose face is brightly illuminated, is looking downwards to
the left. He holds in his left hand his attribute, the Communion chalice filled
with poison, with which his persecutors tried to murder him.
11.
ST. PHILIP
(Fig. 34)
Oil on panel; 108 : 84 cm,
Madrid, Prado.
No. 1650.
P r o v e n a n c e : Don Francisco Gomez de Sandoval y Royas, Duke of Lerma, 16 18 ; Queen
Isabella Farnese, San Ildefonso, 1746; Spanish Royal Collections, Aranjuez; deposited
in the Prado, 9 September 1829.
C o p ie s: (x ) Painting (Fig. 35), Rome, Galleria Pallavicini; panel, 106 : 73.5 cm.;
prov.: see under No. 6, C opies (3); lit.: Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, II, p. 152, No. 530
(as Rubens) ; Rooses, 1, pp. 80-82, under Nos. 68-80; M. Rooses, in Rubens-Bullettjn,
V, 1910, p. 284; Glück, 19 3 3 , p. 13 (as Studio of Rubens, retouched by Rubens) ; Van
pp. 155, 156 (as R u ben s); Norris, 19 3 3 , p. 108 (as Studio o f Rubens) ;
Pallavicini, Rome, Cat. Zeri, p. 234, No. 441, pi. 441 (as Studio o f Rubens, retouched
by Ru ben s); (2) Painting, St. Peter, Washington, National Gallery of Art, Cat. 1965,
No. 1584, panel, 94 : 65.5 cm.; prov.: E. Boross, New York; Mrs. W.R. Timken, New
York; acquired in 1959; exh.: Detroit, 19 3 6 , No. 15 (as Ru ben s); lit.: A rt N ew s, 15
Puyvelde, Rome,
February 1936, p. 6, repr. (as Ru ben s); Goris-Held, p. 36, No. 66 (as R u ben s); (3)
42
Drawing by Nicolaas Ryckmans, Vienna, Albertina, No. 8219; 184 : 126 mm.; lit.: Roo­
ses, 1, pp. 81, 82 (as Rubens)-, (4) Engraving by Nicolaas Ryckmans (Fig, 37; VS., p.
209, No. 3); (5) Engraving by Peter Isselburg (Fig. 36; V S., p. 210, No. 5).
L it e r a t u r e : Prado, Cat. Madrazo, No. 16 5 0 ; Rooses, 1, p. 80, N o. 6 1 ; K .J.K ., ed.
Rosenberg, p. 12 , right; Dillon, pi. x, left; K.d.K., p. 11 , right; Prado, Cat. 1963,
N o. 16 50 .
St. Philip is looking to the right and holding with his right arm the cross on
which he is said to have been martyred.
12.
ST. BARTHOLOMEW
(Fig. 38)
Oil on panel; 108 : 84 cm.
Madrid, Prado,
Pr o v e n a n c e :
No. 16 52 .
Don Francisco Gomez de Sandoval y Royas, Duke of Lerma, 16 18 ; Queen
Isabella Farnese, San Udefonso, 1746; Spanish Royal Collections, Aranjuez; deposited
in the Prado, 9 September 1829.
COPIES: ( i ) Painting (Fig. 3 9 ) , Rome, Galleria Pallavicini; panel, 105.5 : 75 c® -!
prov.: see under No. 6, C o p ie s (3); lit.: Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, 11, p. 152, No. 530
(as Rubens ) ; Rooses,
1, pp. 80-82, under Nos. 68-80; M. Rooses, in Rubens-Bulletijn,
V, 1910, p. 284; Glück, 1933, p. 13 (as Studio of Rubens, retouched by Rubens)-, Van
pp. 155, 156 (as Rubens ) ; Norris, 1933, p. 108 (as Studio o f Rubens)-,
p. 234, No. 439, pi. 439 (as Studio o f Rubens, retouched
by Rubens)-, (2) Painting, whereabouts unknown; panel, 61 : 50.5 cm.; prov.: P. Kron-
Puyvelde, Rome,
Pallavicini, Rome, Cat. Zeri,
thal, London (1949); (3) Drawing by Nicolaas Ryckmans, Vienna, Albertina, No. 8222;
180 : 130 mm.; lit.: Rooses, I, pp. 81, 82 (as Rubens)-, Norris, 1933, p. 108; (4) Engrav­
ing by Nicolaas Ryckmans (Fig. 4 1; V.S., p. 209, No. 3); (5) Engraving by Peter Issel­
burg (Fig. 40; VS., p. 2x0, No. 5).
L i t e r a t u r e : Prado, Cat. Madrazo, No. 1 5 3 1 ; Rooses, 1, p. 80, No. 6 2 ; K .d .K ., ed.
Rosenberg, p. 1 3 , le ft; Dillon, pl. x i, left; K ,d,K ., p. 9, left; Prado, Cat.
1963, No. 16 52 .
The bald Apoftle is looking up to the right in ecstasy. He presses his left hand
humbly to his breaft, while with his right he holds the knife with which he
is said to have been flayed alive.
43
13.
ST. THOMAS (F ig .
42 )
Oil on panel; 108 : 84 cm.
Madrid, Prado.
Pr o v en a n c e:
No. 1654.
Don Francisco Gomez de Sandoval y Royas, Duke of Lerma, 16 18 ; Queen
Isabella Farnese, San Ildefonso, 1746; Spanish Royal Collerions, Aranjuez; deposited
in the Prado, 9 September 1829.
Painting, St. Simon (Fig. 43), Rome, Galleria Pallavicini; panel, 105.5 : 74
cm.; prov.: see under No. 6, C o p ie s (3); lit.: Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, 11, p. 152,
C o p ie s : ( i )
No. 530 (as Rubens) ; Rooses, 1, pp. 80-82, under Nos. 68-80; M. Rooses, in RubensBulletijn,
v, 1910, p. 284; Glück, 1933, p. 13 (as Studio of Rubens, retouched by
pp. 155, 156 (as Rubens) ; Norris, 1 9 5 3 , p. 108 (as
p. 233, No. 436, pi. 436 (as Studio of
Rubens, retouched by Rubens, St. fames the Less) ; (2) Drawing by Nicolaas Ryckmans,
Rubens) ; Van Puyvelde, Rome,
Studio of Rubens) ; Pallavicini, Rome, Cat. Zeri,
St. Simon, Vienna,
Albertina, No. 8225; 180 : 13 1 mm.; lit.: Rooses, 1, pp. 81, 82 (as
Rubens)-, Norris, 19 3 3 ,
V.S.,
p. 108; (3) Engraving by Nicolaas Ryckmans, St. Simon (Fig. 45;
p. 209, No. 3); (4) Engraving by Peter Isselburg (Fig. 44; V S ., p. 210, No. 5).
(5)
No. 1533 (as St. Matthias)-, Rooses, 1, p. 80, No. 64
(as St. Simon) ; K ,d.K ., ed. Rosenberg, p. 14, left (as St. Sim on) ; Dillon, pi. x i i , left
L i t e r a t u r e : Prado, Cat, Madrazo,
(as St. Simon)-, K J . K . , p. 8, left (as St. Simon)-, Glück, 19 3 3 , p. 2, repr. (as St. Simon)-,
Prado, Cat. 19 6 3 , No. 1654; J. Müller Hofstede, Eine KreideBudie von Rubens für den
Kreuzaufrichtungsaltar, Pantheon, xxv, 1967, pp. 38-43, fig. 5; A. Monballieu, B ij de
iconografie van Rubens’ Rockox-epitafium, Jaarboek Koninklijk Museum voor Schone
KunBen, Antwerpen,
1970, p. 136.
The Apoftle, depifted as a bald, aged man, is turned to the right in threequarter face. He is absorbed in the reading of Scripture. His attribute is the
lance, the instrument of his supposed martyrdom in India.
The same type of head, in a similar attitude, was used by Rubens for the
figure of St. Amandus on the outer side of the left-hand panel of the Raising
of the Cross triptych ( 16 10 - 11) in Antwerp Cathedral (K J.K ., p. 37). The
Apoftle’s head also recurs, seen from another angle, in The Tribute Money
(c. 16 1 1- 1 2 ) in the M.H. de Young Memorial Museum at San Francisco
( K J.K ., p. 55).
44
14.
ST. MATTHEW (F ig .
46 )
Oil on panel; 108 : 84 cm.
Madrid, Prado. No. 1656.
P r o v e n a n c e : Don Francisco Gomez de Sandoval y Royas, Duke of Lerma, 16 18 ; Queen
Isabella Farnese, San Ildefonso, 1746; Spanish Royal Collections, Aranjuez; deposited
in the Prado, 9 September 1829,
C o p ie s : ( i ) Painting, St. Thomas (Fig. 47), Rome, Galleria Pallavicini; panel: 106 : 73
cm.; prov.: see under No. 6, C o p ie s (3); lit.: Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, u , p. 15 2 ,
No. 530 (as Rubens)-, Rooses, 1, pp. 80-82, under Nos. 68-80; M. Rooses, in RubensBulletijn, v, 1910, p. 284; Glück, 1933, p. 13 (as Studio of Rubens, retouched by
Rubens)-, Van Puyvelde, Rome, pp. 155, 156 (as Rubens)', Norris, 1933, p. 108, fig. 88
(as Studio of Rubens)', Pallavicini, Rome, Cat. Zeri, p. 233, No. 435, pi. 435 (as Studio
of Rubens, retouched by Rubens, St. Thomas)-, (2) Drawing by Nicolaas Ryckmans, St.
Thomas, Vienna, Albertina, No. 8223; 180 : 130 mm.; lit.: Rooses, 1, pp. 81, 82 (as
Rubens)', Norris, 1933, p. 10 8 ; (3) Engraving by Nicolaas Ryckmans, St. Thomas (Fig.
49; V.S., p. 209, No. 3); (4) Engraving by Peter Isselburg (Fig. 48; VS., p. 210, No. 5).
L it e r a t u r e : Prado, Cat. Madrazo, No. 1535 (as St. Jude); Rooses, 1, p. 79, No. 60
(as St. Thomas)', K.d.K., ed. Rosenberg, p. 12, left (as St. Thomas)', Dillon, pi. vm,
right (as St. Thomas)', K.d.K., p. 11, left (as St. Thomas)', Glück, 1933, pp. 5, 20, 24,
repr. (as St. Thomas)', Prado, Cat. 1963, No. 1656 (as St. Jude) ; M, Jaffé, Rubens in
Italy. Part 11 : Some rediscovered Works of the firß Phase, The Burlington Magazine, cx,
1968, p. 180; E. Larsen, Three lesser known Works by Rubens, Jaarboek Koninklijk
Museum voor Schone KunSlen, Antwerpen, 1969, pp. 155, 156, repr. (as St. Thomas)',
A. Monballieu, Bij de iconografie van Rubens’ Rockox-epitafium, Jaarboek Koninklijk
Museum voor Schone KunSten, Antwerpen, 1970, pp. 138 (repr.), 139 (as St. Thomas).
The Apoftle’s head is turned to the left in three-quarter face. He holds a
halberd in his right hand. The motif of a young man’s head, used for this
figure, recurs in works of about the same date such as The Judgment of Solo­
mon in the Prado (G. Glück, Ein verkanntes Werk von Rubens im Prado zu
Madrid, Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte, i, 1932, p. 272 [repr.] and the socalled Commander dressed in Armour, with two Pages in the Weitzner Gallery,
London (Cat. Exh. Weltkunîl aus Privatbesitz, Cologne, 1968, No. F25, fig.
x ix ) . It is a type that Rubens had used during his Italian years in such works as
45
The Crowning with Thorns at Grasse (K.d.K., p. 2) and The Transfiguration
at Nancy (K.d.K,, p. 15).
15.
ST. JA M E S TH E LESS
(Fig. 50)
Oil on panel; 108 : 84 cm.
Madrid, Prado.
No. 1651.
Don Francisco Gomez de Sandoval y Royas, Duke of Lerma, 16 18 ; Queen
Isabella Farnese, San Ildefonso, 1746; Spanish Royal Collections, Aranjuez; deposited
Pr o v e n a n c e :
in the Prado, 9 September 1829.
C o p ie s : ( i ) Painting, St. Matthew (Fig. 5 1), Rome, Galleria Pallavicini; panel, 106
: 74.5 cm.; prov.: see under No. 6, C o p ie s (3); lit.: Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, 11,
p. 152, No. 530 (as Rubens ) ; Rooses, 1, pp. 80-82, under Nos. 68-80; M. Rooses, in
Rubens-Bulletijn, v, 1910, p. 284; Glück, 19 3 $ , p. 13 (as Studio of Rubens, retouched
by Rubens)\ Van Puyvelde, Rome,
pp. 155, 156 (as Rubens)', Norris, 1953, p. 108 (as
p. 234, No. 440 (as Studio of Rubens,
Studio of Rubens)-, Pallavicini, Rome, Cat. Zeri,
St. Ju d e );
(2) Drawing by Nicolaas Ryckmans, St. Matthew, Vienna, Albertina, No. 8224;
180 : 127 mm.; lit.: Rooses, 1, pp. 81, 82 (as Rubens ); Norris, 1933, p. 108; (3) Engrav­
ing by Nicolaas Ryckmans, St. Matthew (Fig. 53; F.S., p. 209, No. 3 ); (4) Engraving by
Peter Isselburg (Fig. 52, V S ., p. 210, No. 5). (5)
L it e r a t u r e : Prado, Cat. Madrazo, No. 15 14 (as St. Thom as); Rooses, 1, p. 80, No. 63
(as St. M atthew ); K .d.K ,, ed. Rosenberg, p. 13, right (as St. M atthew ); Dillon, pl. x,
right (as St. M atthew ); K .d.K ., p. 9, right (as St. M atthew ); Norris, 1933, pp. 108,
109, repr. (as St. Thom as); Prado, Cat. 1963, No. 16 51 (as St. M atthew).
The Apoftle, seen from the front, wears an ample cowl and holds a carpenter’s
square in his right hand. The head in this picture was also used by Rubens for
one of the Pharisees in The Tribute Money ( 1 6 1 1- 12 ) , now in the M.H. de
Young Memorial Museum at San Francisco (K.d.K., p. 55).
16.
ST. SIMON
(Fig. 54)
Oil on canvas; 108 : 84 cm.
Madrid, Prado.
46
No. 1655.
P r o v e n a n c e : Don Francisco Gomez de Sandoval y Royas, Duke of Lerma, 1 6 1 8 ; Queen
Isabella Farnese, San Ildefonso, 1746; Spanish Royal Collections, Aranjuez; deposited
in the Prado, 9 September 1829.
C o p ie s: ( i ) Painting, St. Jude (Fig. 55), Rome, Galleria Pallavicini; panel, 106 : 74
cm.; prov.: see under No. 6, C opies (3); lit,: Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, 11, p. 152,
No. 530 (as R ubens); Rooses, 1, pp. 80-82, under Nos. 68-80; M. Rooses, in RubensV, 1910, p. 284; Glück, 1933, p. 13 (as Studio of Rubens, retouched by
Rubens)', Van Puyvelde, Rome, pp. 155, 156 (as Rubens)-, Norris, 1933, p. 108 (as
Bulletijn,
Studio of Rubens)', Pallavicini, Rome, Cat. Zeri,
retouched by Rubens, St. Sim on)
p. 234, No. 437 (as Studio of Rubens,
; (2) Drawing by Nicolaas Ryckmans, St. Jude, Vienna,
Albertina, No. 8226; 180 : 126 mm.; lit.: Rooses, 1, pp. 81, 82 (as Rubens)-, Norris,
1933, p. 108; (3) Engraving by Nicolaas Ryckmans, St. Jude (Fig. 57; V.S., p. 209, No.
3 ); (4) Engraving by Peter Isselburg (Fig. 56; V S ., p. 210, No. 5). (5)
L i t e r a t u r e : Prado, Cat. Madrazo, No. 15 3 4 ; Rooses, 1, p. 80, No. 65 (as St. Jude)-,
K .d.K ., ed. Rosenberg, p. 14 , right
K .d.K ., p.
(as St. Ju d e ); Dillon, pi. x i, right (as St. Ju d e );
8, right (as St. Ju d e ); Prado, Cat. 1963, No. 16 55 .
St. Simon, facing left in full profile, is turning the pages of a volume of Scrip­
ture. His left hand refts on the saw with which he is said to have been done
to death.
17.
ST, MATTHIAS
(Fig. 58)
Oil on panel; 108 : 84 cm.
Madrid, Prado.
No. 1653.
P r o v e n a n c e : Don Francisco Gomez de Sandoval y Royas, Duke of Lerma, 1 6 1 8 ; Queen
Isabella Farnese, San Ildefonso, 1746; Spanish Royal Collections, Aranjuez; deposited
in the Prado, 9 September 1829.
C o p ie s: (1) Painting (Fig. 59), Rome, Galleria Pallavicini; panel, 105 : 74 cm.; prov.:
see under No. 6, C op ies (3); lit.: Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, 11, p. 152, No. 530 (as
1, pp. 80-82, under Nos. 68-80; M. Rooses, in Rubens-Bulletijn, v,
1910, p. 284; Glück, 19 3 3 , p. 13 (as Studio of Rubens, retouched by R ubens); Van
Ru ben s); Rooses,
Puyvelde, Rome,
pp. 155, 156 (as R ubens); Norris, 1933, p. 108 (as Studio of Rubens);
p. 234, No. 442, pi. 442 (as Studio of Rubens, retouched
Pallavicini, Rome, Cat. Zer't,
(2) Drawing by Nicolaas Ryckmans, Vienna, Albertina, No. 8218; 183 :
130 mm.; lit.: Rooses, I, pp. 8x, 82 (as Rubens) ; Norris, 1933, p. 108; (3) Engraving by
by R ubens);
47
Nicolaas Ryckmans (Fig, 6i ; V S ., p. 209, No. 3 ); (4) Engraving by Peter Isselburg
(Fig. 60; V S . , p. 210, No. 5).
L i t e r a t u r e : Prado, Cat. Madrazo, No. 15 3 2 (as St. Matthew)', Rooses, 1, p. 80, No. 66;
K .d .K ., ed. Rosenberg,
19 6 3 ,
p. 15 , left; Dillon, pi. x n i, left; K d .K ,, p. 7, left; Prado, Cat.
No. 16 5 3 ,
The ApoStle is looking upwards to the right, with an axe in his left hand.
18 .
ST. PAUL
(Fig. 62)
O il on panel; 10 8 : 84 cm.
Madrid, Prado.
No. 1657.
P r o v e n a n c e : Don Francisco Gome2 de Sandoval y Royas, Duke of Lerma, 16 18 ; Queen
Isabella Farnese, San Ildefonso, 1746; Spanish Royal Collections, Aranjuez; deposited
in the Prado, 9 September 1829.
C o p ies: ( i ) Painting (Fig. 63), Rome, Galleria Pallavicini; panel, 105 : 74 cm.; prov.:
see under No, 6, C opies (3); lit.: Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, 11, p. 152, No. 530 (as
1, pp. 80-82, under Nos. 68-80; M. Rooses, in Rubens-Bulletijn, v,
1910, p. 284; Glück, 19 3 3 , p. 13 (as Studio of Rubens, retouched by Rubens ) ; Van
R ubens); Rooses,
Puyvelde, Rome,
pp. 155, 156 (as R u ben s); Norris, 1 9 5 3 , p. 108, fig. 90 (as Studio of
p. 233, No. 434, pi. 434 (as Studio of Rubens,
R ubens); Pallavicini, Rome, Cat. Zeri,
retouched by R ubens);
(2) Drawing by Nicolaas Ryckmans, Vienna, Albertina, No. 8217;
180 : 140 mm.; lit.: Rooses, 1, pp. 81, 82 (as Ru ben s); Norris, 19 3 3 , p. 108; (3) Engrav­
ing by Nicolaas Ryckmans (Fig. 65; V S ., p. 209, No. 3); (4) Engraving by Peter Issel­
burg (Fig. 64; V S ., p. 210, No. 5).
(5)
L i t e r a t u r e : Prado, Cat. Madrazo, No. 1536; Rooses, 1, p. 80, No. 67; K .d .K ., ed.
15, right; D illon, pi. x ii, right; K d .K ., p. 7, right; Glück, 1 9 3 3 , pp. 2,
3, 24, fig. 2; Norris, 19 3 3 , pp. 108, 109, repr.; Prado, Cat. 19 6 3 , No. 1657.
Rosenberg, p.
St. Paul is seen in three-quarter face, with two o f his attributes. W ith his right
hand he grasps the hilt o f a sword, and in his left he holds a book.
19-31 .
th e
“ apo sto lad o
leuch tenberg
”
In 1927-29 an incomplete series of pictures of the ApoStles, ascribed to Rubens
by Burchard and Glück, was in the possession of the Vienna firm of E. and A.
48
Silberman, who declared that it had belonged to the Duke of Leuchtenberg’s
collection at St. Petersburg; it is not clear, however, on what ground this
Statement was based. The paintings are not mentioned in the inventory of the
collection drawn up in 1841, when it was Still at Munich (J.N. Muxel, Gemalde
Sammlung in München seiner k'ônigl. Hoheit des Dom Auguïio Herzogs von
Leuchtenberg und Santa Cruz..., Munich, 1841). The collection was transferred
to St. Petersburg before 1871 (as Stated in C. Gould, National Gallery Cata­
logues. The sixteenth-century Venetian School, London, 1959, p. 28), and it is
possible that these paintings were added to it subsequently. However, the
attribution to Rubens is in any case untenable. Some of the paintings are
variants of those in the Prado series, and others are faithful repetitions of them,
but the quality is too mediocre for Rubens himself to have painted them.
19.
CHRIST AS SALVATOR MUNDI
Oil on panel; approximately 92.5 : 66,5 cm.
Whereabouts unknown.
Pr o v e n a n c e :
Co p y :
? Duke of Leuchtenberg, St. Petersburg.
Painting, whereabouts unknown; panel, 105 : 75.5 cm.; prov.: Count Wilhelm
von Sickingen, sale, Vienna, January 1819, lot 168; Ern§t Stainhauser; Antonia Lux
(1828); Ernft AuguS; of Cumberland, Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg (19x7); Hein­
rich Nüsslein (1922); sale, Lucerne (Fischer), x December 1956, lot 2570 (repr.); sale,
Lucerne (Fischer), 3-7 December 1963, lot 1Ó53 (repr.); exh.: Vienna, 1889, No. 173
(as Van Dyck and Rubens).
20.
ST. PETER
(Fig. 66)
Oil on panel; 92.5 : 66.5 cm.
Whereabouts unknown.
? Duke of Leuchtenberg, St. Petersburg; E. and A. Silberman, Vienna,
1928-29; sale, Vienna (Dorotheum), 1 June 1932 et seqq., lot 41 (repr.).
Pr o v e n a n c e :
49
C o p i e s : ( x ) Painting, whereabouts unknown; panel, 105 : 75.5 cm.; prov.: see under
No. 19, Copy; exh.: Vienna, 1889, No. 117 (as D e Crayer)-, (2) Painting, Onteniente-
Valencia, Museo La Ereta; canvas, 85 : 63 cm.; (3) Painting, whereabouts unknown;
panel, 81.5 : 62.5 cm.; prov.: sale, Munich (H. Helbing), 3-4 May 1933, lot 475 (repr.).
In contrast to the Prado version (No. 7, Fig. x8), in which the Apoftle holds
a key in each hand, he is here shown holding both keys in his left. The position
of his hand and the fall of his garment also differ from the Madrid original.
21.
ST. ANDREW
(Fig. 67)
Oil on panel; 93 : 66.5 cm.
Whereabouts unknown.
Pr o v e n a n c e :
? Duke of Leuchtenberg, St. Petersburg; E. and A. Silberman, Vienna,
1928-29.
C o p ie s: ( i) Painting, whereabouts unknown; panel, 103 : 75.5 cm.; prov.: see under
No. 19 , C o p y ; exh.: Vienna, 1889, No. x68 (as attributed to Jordaens)-, (2 ) Painting,
Onteniente-Valencia, Museo la Ereta; canvas, 85 : 63 cm.
Unlike the original (No. 8, Fig. 22), this shows the Apoftle holding a book.
22.
ST. JAMES THE GREATER
(Fig. 68)
Oil on panel; 92.5 : 66.5 cm.
Whereabouts unknown.
? Duke of Leuchtenberg, St. Petersburg; E. and A. Silberman, Vienna,
1927; purchased in the same year by Curt Benediâ, Berlin, who sold it in 1928; sale,
Paris (Charpentier), 10 June 1958 et seqq., lot 114 (as attributed to Rubens).
Pr o v e n a n c e :
C o p ie s: ( i) Painting, whereabouts unknown; panel, 105 : 75.5 cm.; prov.: see under
No. 19, C o p y; exh.: Vienna, 1889, No. 175 (as Jordaens)-, (2) Painting, OntenienteValencia, Museo la Ereta; canvas, 85 : 63 cm.
Unlike the original (No. 9, Fig. 26), the book here is not seen from the back;
the Apoftles Staff is shorter, and the folds of the cloak are different.
50
.
23
ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST
Oil on panel; 93 : 67 cm.
Whereabouts unknown.
P r o v e n a n c e : ? Duke of Leuchtenberg, St. Petersburg; E. and A. Silberman, Vienna,
1928; Goudstikker, sale, Amsterdam, November-December, 1929, lot 36.
C op ies: ( i ) Painting, whereabouts unknown; panel, 105 : 75.5 cm.; prov.: see under
No. 19, C o p y; exh.: Vienna, 18 89 , No. 17 1 (as T. van Thulden)-, (2) Painting, Onte-
niente-Valencia, Museo la Ereta; canvas, 85 : 63 cm.
24.
ST. PH ILIP
(Fig. 69)
Oil on panel; 92.5 : 66.5 cm.
Whereabouts unknown.
P r o v e n a n c e : ? Duke of Leuchtenberg, St. Petersburg; E. and A. Silberman, Vienna,
1927C op ies: (1) Painting, whereabouts unknown; panel, 105 : 75.5 cm.; prov.: see under
No. 19, C o p y; exh.: Vienna, 1889, No. 176 (as T. van Thulden)-, (2) Painting, Onte-
niente-Valencia, Museo la Ereta, canvas, 85 : 63 cm.
Instead of a cross as in the Prado painting (No. 1 1 , Fig. 34), St. Philip is here
seen holding a Staff.
25.
ST. BARTHOLOMEW
(Fig. 70)
Oil on panel; 92 : 67 cm.
Whereabouts unknown.
P r o v e n a n c e : ? Duke of Leuchtenberg, St. Petersburg; E. and A. Silberman, Vienna,
1927-28.
C op ies: ( i ) Painting, whereabouts unknown; panel, 10 5 : 7 5.5 cm.; prov.: see under
No. 19, C o p y; exh.: Vienna, 1889, No. 166 (as attributed to Jordaens); (2) Painting,
Onteniente-Valencia, Museo la Ereta; canvas, 85 : 63 cm.
51
Apart from slight differences in the folds of the garment, this is a fairly exaft
copy of the original (No. 12, Fig. 38).
26.
ST. THOMAS
Oil on panel; approximately 92.5 : 66.5 cm.
Whereabouts unknown.
Pr o v en a n c e:
? Duke of Leuchtenberg, St. Petersburg.
C op ies: ( i ) Painting, whereabouts unknown; panel, 105 : 75.5 cm.; prov.: see under
No. 19, C o p y ; exh.: Vienna, 1889, No. 172 (as Jordaens or De Crayer and Rubens)-,
(2) Painting, Onteniente-Valencia, Museo la Ereta; canvas, 85 : 63 cm.
27.
ST. MATTHEW
(Fig. 71)
Oil on panel; 92.5 : 66.5 cm.
Pr o v e n a n c e :
? Duke o f Leuchtenberg, St. Petersburg; E. and A. Silberman, Vienna,
1927; E. & A. Silberman, New Vork, 1946.
C o p ie s : ( i )
Painting, whereabouts unknown; panel, 105 : 75.5 cm.; prov.: see under
No. 19, C o p y ; exh.: Vienna, 188 9, No. 167 (as attributed to Jordaens)-, (2) Painting,
Onteniente-Valencia, Museo la Ereta; canvas, 85 : 63 cm.
L it e r a t u r e : The A rt Quarterly, ix , 1946, p. 18 1, repr. (as St. Thomas).
The Saint is not shown here with his attribute, the halberd, as he is in the
original (No. 14, Fig. 46). The position of his hands is also different from
that in the Madrid painting.
28.
ST. JAMES THE LESS
(Fig. 72)
Oil on panel; 92.5 : 67.5 cm.
Whereabouts unknown.
? Duke of Leuchtenberg, St. Petersburg; E. and A. Silberman, Vienna,
1928; Goudstikker, sale, Amsterdam, November-December 1929, lot 35 (repr.; as St.
Pr o v e n a n c e :
Matthew)-,
52
R. Dicop, Ucde (Brussels), 1960-61.
C o p ie s :
( i) Painting, whereabouts unknown; panel, 61.5 : 49.5 cm.; prov.: Baron Her­
mann von Nagel, Schloss Ittlingen (1964); (2) Painting, whereabouts unknown; panel,
I05 : 75-5 cm.; prov.: see under No. 19,
Crayer ) ;
C o p y ; exh.: Vienna, 1889, No. 174 (as D e
(3) Painting, Onteniente-Valencia, Museo la Ereta; canvas, 85 : 63 cm.
The only noticeable difference between this and the original (No. 15, Fig. 50)
is that the carpenter’s square carried by the ApoStle is longer.
29 .
ST. SIMON
Oil on panel; approximately 92.5 : 66.5 cm.
Whereabouts unknown.
Pr o v e n a n c e :
C o p ie s :
? Duke o f Leuchtenberg, St. Petersburg.
( i) Painting, whereabouts unknown; panel, 105 : 75.5 cm.; prov.: see under
No. 19, C o p y ; exh.: Vienna, 2889, No. 178 (as D e Crayer)-, (2) Painting, OntenienteValencia, Museo la Ereta; canvas, 85 : 63 cm.
30.
ST, MATTHIAS
Oil on panel; approximately 92.5 : 66.5 cm.
Whereabouts unknown.
PROVENANCE: ? Duke o f Leuchtenberg, St. Petersburg.
C o p ie s : ( i ) Painting, whereabouts unknown; panel, 105 : 75.5 cm.; prov.: see under
No. 19, C o p y ; exh.: Vienna, 1889, No. 170 (as D e Crayer and Rubens)-, (2) Painting,
Onteniente-Valencia, Museo la Ereta; canvas, 85 : 63 cm.
31.
ST. PAUL
Oil on panel; approximately 92.5 : 66.5 cm.
Whereabouts unknown.
Pr o v e n a n c e :
? Duke of Leuchtenberg, St. Petersburg.
53
C o p ie s : ( i )
Painting, ■whereabouts unknown; panel, 105 : 75.5 cm.; prov.: see under
No. 19, C o p y ; exh.: Vienna, 188g, No. 169 (as attributed to De Crayer); (2) Painting,
Onteniente-Valencia, Museo la Ereta; canvas, 85 : 63 cm.; (3) Painting, Oslo, Nasjonalgalleriet; panel, 92.5 : 67 cm.; (4) Painting, whereabouts unknown; panel, 92.5 : 66 cm.;
prov.: Egon Müller (Vienna, 1930); sale, London (Sotheby’s), 2 December 1964, lot
34; exh.: Drei Jahrhunderte Vlämische Kunft, Sezession, Vienna, 1930, No. 170 (repr.).
3246 .
SS. APOSTOLORUM ICONES
The following compositions form a series of fifteen full-length figures: thirteen
Apoüles (Nos. 34-46), Chriît as Salvator Mundi (No. 32) and The Holy
Virgin as Regina Cceli (No. 33). Each figure Stands on a pedeStal with a
cartouche underneath, on which the name is inscribed. The series was published
in the form of engravings by Cornelis Galle the Elder, entitled SS. ApoHolo­
rum leones a Pet. Paulo Rubenio delineatae. Apart from the title-page depict­
ing the instruments of the ApoStles’ martyrdom (Fig. 73), each engraving bears
the “ address” P.P. Rubens pinxit and Corn. Galle excudit, while five of them—
viz. Chri!t as Salvator Mundi (No. 32; Fig. 74), St. Peter (No. 34; Fig. 76),
St. John (No. 37; Fig. 79), St. James the Less (No. 42; Fig. 84) and St. Paul
(No. 46; Fig. 88)—also bear the indication S. a Bois wert sculptsit"]. One en­
graving, that of St. Andrew (No. 35; Fig. 77), is by Pieter Clouwet. As the
latter did not become a master in the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp until 1646,
while Cornelis Galle died in 1650, the series muSt have been published between
these two dates. Rubens’s designs, however, muSt clearly have been executed
about 1615. Apart from the marked plasticity of the Style, certain figures such
as Chriît as Salvator Mundi, St. Peter and St. Paul are literal repetitions from
pictures painted by him by that time.
We may also refer to an item of 14 January 16 15 in the account-book of
Balthasar I Moretus, indicating that he bought for n o guilders from his
brother-in-law, the engraver and publisher Theodoor Galle, “les tableaux des
apoStres avec noStre Seigneur, N ro Dame et St Jean, à l’imitation de Rubens”
(Rooses,
I,
p. 82, n. 3). These paintings were inherited by his nephew Baltha­
sar II Moretus: an inventory of his pictures, made up in 1658, includes “Chris­
tus, Maria en de 13 ApoStelen, in 15 Stucken copye nae Rubens” (“Christ, the
Virgin and the thirteen ApoStles, in fifteen paintings copied from Rubens” ),
valued at only 60 guilders (Bouchery-Van den Wijngaert, p. 42). Since the num­
ber of these copies is the same as that of the engravings published by Cornelis
54
Galle, and since the representations of Christ and the Virgin that accompanied
the ApoStle series are expressly mentioned in Moretus’s accounts, it is raisonable
to suppose that the copies which were in Theodoor Galle’s possession and the
engravings published by his brother Cornelis were made from the same com­
positions by Rubens, The date of 14 January 16 15 would thus be a terminus
ante quem. One might go further and conjeôture that the copies in question
were the modelli, perhaps executed by Theodoor Galle himself, from which
the engravings were later made. There would be nothing out of the ordinary in
such a lapse of time between design and execution: for instance, the modelli
designed before 1619 for the engravings of Rubens’s Miracles of St. Ignatius
Loyola and Miracles of St. Francis Xavier were engraved by Marinus van der
Goes as late as 1632-33.
In catalogues of Rubens prints the present series is wrongly extended to
comprise twenty-three items, viz. representations of four angels and four evan­
gelists in addition to the fifteen already mentioned (Cf. R. Hecquet, Catalogue
des estampes gravées d’après Rubens, Paris, 17 51, p. 108, No. 3; F. Basan,
Catalogue des estampes gravées d’après Rubens, Paris, 1767, p. 198, No. 3;
V.S., p. 209, No. 1; and E. Dutuit, Manuel de l’amateur d’eïïampes, hi, ParisLondon, 1885, p. 229, No. 1). The other eight engravings exist, but the
address shows them to have been published by Gillis Hendrickx, which rules
out a conneftion with the Galle series.
32.
CHRIST AS SALVATOR MUNDI
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loB.
C o p ie s: ( 1 ) ? Painting, whereabouts unknown; prov.: purchased from Theodoor Galle
by Balthasar I Moretus, 16 15 ; Balthasar II Moretus, 1658; lit.: Smith, Catalogue
Raisonné, IX, p. 353, No. 1; Rooses, 1, p. 82, n. 3; Bouchery-Van den Wijngaert,
pp. 42, 48; (2) Engraving by S. a Bolswert (Fig. 74; V S ., p. 209, under No. 1).
ChriSt is seen in front view, holding a globe in his left hand and raising his
right in blessing. This is a literal repetition of the figure of Christ on the
outside of the left-hand panel of the Jan Michielsen triptych of 16 17 -18 (Le
ChriSî à la Paille), now in the Antwerp Museum (C. Eisler, Rubens’ Use of
the Northern PaSt - the Michiels Triptych and its Sources, Bulletin des Musées
Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, xvi, 1967, p. 56, fig. 5).
55
.
33
THE HOLY VIRGIN AS REGINA CŒLI
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loSl.
C o p ie s : ( i )
? Painting, whereabouts unknown; prov.: purchased from Theodoor Galle
by Balthasar I Moretus, 16 15 ; Balthasar II Moretus, 1658; lit.: Smith, Catalogue
Raisonné, IX, p. 353, No. 2; Rooses, I, p. 82, n. 3; Bouchery-Van den Wijngaert,
pp. 42, 48; (2) Engraving (Fig. 75; V S ., p. 209, under No. 1.).
The Virgin, crowned and holding a sceptre, is looking to the left. Except for
a slight difference of attitude the figure is very similar to The Holy Virgin
as Regina Cceli of about 16 15, now loft, but known from an engraving by
Cornelis Galle the Elder (A. Rosenberg, Die Rubensïlecher, 11, Vienna, 1893,
repr, facing p. 14).
34.
ST. PETER
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loB.
(1) ? Painting, whereabouts unknown; prov.: purchased from Theodoor Galle
by Balthasar I Moretus, 16 15 ; Balthasar II Moretus, 1658; lit.: Smith, Catalogue
Raisonné, ix, p. 354, No. 7; Rooses, 1, p. 82, n. 3; Bouchery-Van den Wijngaert,
C o p ie s :
pp. 42, 48; (2) Engraving by S. a Bolswert (Fig. 76; V S ., p. 209, under No. 1).
This St, Peter, with a key in each hand, is an exaü repetition of the figure of
the Saint in one of the paintings, forming a pair, that were formerly in the
Capuchin church at Antwerp and date from 16x5 or somewhat later (No. 49;
Fig. 89).
35.
ST. ANDREW
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loB.
C o p ies: ( i ) ? Painting, whereabouts unknown; prov.: purchased from Theodoor Galle
by Balthasar I Moretus, 16 15 ; Balthasar II Moretus, 1658; lit.: Smith, Catalogue
Raisonné, IX, p. 354, No. 10; Rooses, 1, p. 82, n. 3; Bouchery-Van den Wijngaert,
pp. 42, 48; (2) Engraving by P. Clouwet (Fig. 77; V S ., p. 209, under No. 1).
56
The Saint, leaning on his cross, looks meditatively at the spectator, supporting
his head with his left hand and holding a book in his right.
36.
ST. JA M E S TH E GREATER
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loft.
C o p ie s : ( x)
? Painting, whereabouts unknown; prov.: purchased from Theodoor Galle
by Balthasar I Moretus, 16 15 ; Balthasar II
ix, p. 354, No. 15 ;
Moretus, 1658; lit.: Smith,
Catalogue
1, p. 82, n. 3; Bouchery-Van den Wijngaert,
pp. 42, 48; (2) Engraving (Fig. 78; V S ., p. 209, under No. 1).
Raisonné,
Rooses,
The Saint is seen full-face, in traditional pilgrim’s garb; in his left hand he
holds a Staff and drinking-bowl.
37.
ST. JO H N TH E EVANGELIST
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loft.
C o p ie s : ( i )
? Painting, whereabouts unknown; prov.: purchased from Theodoor Galle
by Balthasar I Moretus, 16 15 ; Balthasar II Moretus, 1658; lit.: Smith, Catalogue
ix, p. 353, No. 6; Rooses, 1, p. 82, n. 3; Bouchery-Van den Wijngaert,
pp. 42, 48; (2) Engraving by S. a Bolswert (Fig. 79; V S ., p. 209, under No. 1).
Raisonné,
The ApoStle is shown in three-quarter view, his body turned to the right. He
looks up ecstatically towards heaven. In his left hand he holds the poisoned
chalice; his right is held againSt his breaSt in a gesture of humility.
38.
ST. PHILIP
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loft.
C o p i e s : ( x)
? Painting, whereabouts unknown; prov.: purchased from Theodoor Galle
by Balthasar I Moretus, 16 15 ; Balthasar II Moretus, 1658; lit.: Smith, Catalogue
p. 354, No. 8; Rooses, 1, p. 82, n. 3; Bouchery-Van den Wijngaert,
Raisonné, IX,
pp. 42, 48; (2) Engraving (Fig. 80; V S ., p. 209, under No, 1),
57
The Apoftle is shown looking to the right. In his right hand he holds a book
and in his left the instrument of his martyrdom, a tall cross (here a pro­
cessional cross).
39.
ST, BARTHOLOMEW
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loft.
C o p ies: ( i ) ? Painting, whereabouts unknown; prov.: purchased from Theodoor Galle
by Balthasar I Moretus, 16 15 ; Balthasar II Moretus, 1658; lit.. Smith, Catalogue
ix, p. 354, No. n ; Rooses, I, p. 82, n. 3; Bouchery-Van den Wijngaert,
pp. 42, 48; (2) Engraving (Fig. 8 1; V S ., p. 209, under No. 1).
Raisonné,
The Saint is seen looking leftward, with a flaying-knife in his left hand and a
book in his right.
40.
ST. THOMAS
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loft.
C op ies: ( 1 ) ? Painting, whereabouts unknown; prov.: purchased from Theodoor Galle
by Balthasar I Moretus, 16 15 ; Balthasar II Moretus, 1658; lit.: Smith, Catalogue
Raisonné, ix, p. 354, No. 13 ; Rooses, 1, p. 82, n. 3; Bouchery-Van den Wijngaert,
pp. 42, 48; (2) Engraving (Fig. 82; V S ., p. 209, under No. 1).
The Saint’s head is turned to the right; he holds a book under his right arm,
and in his left hand one of the lances with which he was put to death.
41 .
ST. MATTHEW
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loft.
C o p ies: ( 1 ) ? Painting, whereabouts unknown; prov.: purchased from Theodoor Galle
by Balthasar I Moretus, 16 15 ; Balthasar II Moretus, 1658; lit.: Smith, Catalogue
ix, p. 353, No. 3; Rooses, 1, p. 82, n. 3; Bouchery-Van den Wijngaert,
pp. 42, 48; (2) Engraving (Fig. 83; V S ., p. 209, under No. 1).
Raisonné,
The ApoStle is seen full-face, plunged in meditation. In his left hand he grasps
his emblem, the halberd.
58
42.
ST. JAMES THE LESS
Whereabouts unknown; presumably losl.
C o p ie s : ( i )
? Painting, whereabouts unknown; prov.: purchased from Theodoor Galle
by Balthasar I Moretus, 16 15 ; Balthasar
ix, p. 354, No. 16; Rooses, 1,
Raisonné,
II Moretus, 1658; lit.: Smith, Catalogue
p.82, n. 3; Bouchery-Van den Wijngaert,
pp. 42, 48; (2) Engraving by S. a Bolswert (Fig. 84; V.S., p. 209, under No. 1).
The upper part of the Saint’s body is slightly inclined to the right. He holds
a book in his left hand, and leans with his left arm on a large club, with which
he is said to have been killed. His head is very similar in type to St. Ives’s in
the painting of this Saint, datable about 1617, now at Detroit (11, No. 119 ; J.S.
Held, Rubens’ St. Ives, Bulletin of the Detroit Institute of Arts,
x l iii,
1964,
p. 48, repr.).
43 .
ST. SIMON
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loSl.
C o p ie s : ( i ) ? Painting, whereabouts unknown; prov.: purchased from Theodoor Galle
by Balthasar I Moretus, 16 15 ; Balthasar
Raisonné, ix, p. 354, No. 12 ; Rooses, 1,
II Moretus, 1658; lit.: Smith, Catalogue
p.82, n. 3; Bouchery-Van den Wijngaert,
pp. 42, 48; (2) Engraving (Fig. 85; V S ., p. 209, under No. 1),
The Apoftle is seen writing, in three-quarter view to the right. Againft his left
leg is a saw, the implement with which he was done to death.
44 .
ST. JU D E
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loSt.
C o p ie s : ( i )
? Painting, whereabouts unknown; prov.: purchased from Theodoor Galle
by Balthasar I Moretus, 16 15 ; Balthasar II Moretus, 1658; lit.: Smith, Catalogue
ix, p. 354, No. 14; Rooses, 1, p. 82, n. 3; Bouchery-Van den Wijngaert,
Raisonné,
pp. 42, 48; (2) Engraving (Fig. 86; V S ., p. 209, under No. 1).
The Saint’s head is turned to the left. He holds a carpenter’s rule in his right
hand; his left, pressed to his bosom, is half-covered by his cloak.
59
45.
ST. MATTHIAS
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loft.
C o p ie s : ( i ) ? Painting, whereabouts unknown; prov.: purchased from Theodoor Galle
by Balthasar I Moretus, 16 15 ; Balthasar II Moretus, 1658; lit.: Smith, Catalogue
Raisonné, ix, p. 354, No. 9; Rooses, 1, p. 82, n. 3; Bouchery-Van den Wijngaert,
pp. 42, 48; (2) Engraving (Fig. 87; V.S., p. 209, under No. 1).
The Saint is seen in full face, gazing ecstatically to heaven. He holds an axe
in his right hand, and beats his breaSt humbly with his left. His fervent coun­
tenance clearly belongs to the “Alessandro Morente” type found in many of
Rubens’s works dating from 1615 or shortly after, e.g. Daniel in the Lions’ Den
in the National Gallery, Washington (M. Jaflfé, Some recent Acquisitions of
seventeenth-century Flemish Paintings, Report and Studies in the History of
Art, Washington, 1970, p. 6, fig. 1 ) ; The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian at Berlin
(11, No. 145); and The Stoming of St. Stephen at Valenciennes (11, No. 146).
The type is inspired by the famous HellenStic head, supposedly of Alexander
the Great (E. Schwarzenberg, From the Alessandro Morente to the Alexandre
Richelieu, Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, xxxn , 1969, pp.
398-405).
46.
ST. PAUL
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loSt,
C o p ie s : (i) ? Painting, whereabouts unknown; prov.: purchased from Theodoor Galle
by Balthasar I Moretus, 16 15 ; Balthasar II Moretus, 1658; lit.: Smith, Catalogue
Raisonné, IX, p. 354, No. 1 7 ; Rooses, I, p. 82, n. 3; Bouchery-Van den Wijngaert,
pp. 42, 48; (2) Engraving by S. a Bolswert (Fig. 88; V.S., p. 209, under No. 1).
The Saint is clad in a wide tunic. He leans with both hands on the hilt of the
sword, the instrument of his martyrdom.
Like the St. Peter in this series, this is a literal repetition of the corresponding
painting formerly in the Capuchin church at Antwerp (No. 50; Fig. 90).
60
4748.
47.
TWO PENDANTS: ST. PETER AND ST. PAUL
ST. PETER
Oil on panel; 97.5 : 70.5 cm
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loSt,
P r o v e n a n c e : Guild of the Romanists, Antwerp; sold, 7 July 1786, on occasion of the
suppression on guilds and brotherhoods by the emperor Joseph II; offered by the
Antwerp dealers Pilaer and Beeckmans to Thomas Harvey of Norwich, for 230 guineas,
6 February 1787; Bryan, sale, London, 18 May 1798, lot 24.
L it e r a t u r e : W. Buchanan, Memoirs of Painting, 1, London, 1824, p. 282; Smith,
Catalogue Raisonné, 11, p. 210, No. 754; P. Rombouts and T, van Lerius, De Liggeren en
andere historische archieven van het Antwerpsch Sint-Lucasgilde, 1, Antwerp, n.d., p. 401;
Rooses, II, p. 338, No. 482; E. Dilis, La Confrérie des Romanistes, Annales de l'Acadé­
mie royale d’Archéologie de Belgique,
lxx,
1922, pp. 445-448.
Rubens executed this and the following panel in 1614, on the occasion of his
appointment as dean of the Antwerp Guild of the Romanics. In the guild
accounts for that year we read: “Ter eeren van de glorieuse Heijlighen ende
Patronen van deser Confraterniteijt, ende oock vanden voors. deken, die met
haere naemen genoemt is, soo heeft denzelven de broederschap vereert met
twee groote conterfeitselen op panneelen by zyne handt geschildert, represen­
terende de voors. Heylighen Petrus en Paulus, die overzulx voortaen oock
komen onder de Specificatie vande meubelen de broederschap aengaende, die
jaerlix gewoonlick wordt overgelevert aende nieuwgecosen deken. Twelck hier
geStelt wort voor memorie.” ( “In honour of the glorious Saints and Patrons
of this Confraternity, and of the present dean who bears their names, the afore­
said dean has conferred on the brotherhood the gift of two large portraits on
panels by his own hand, representing Saints Peter and Paul, to be included
henceforth in the Inventory Specification of the brotherhood’s movable prop­
erty which it is the custom to deliver annually to the newly chosen dean; which
gift is here recorded pro memoria" \ E. Dilis, op, cit., pp. 445, 446).
It has not previously been remarked that this entry refers not only to the
connection between Rubens’s paintings and the patronage of the Romanics by
the Saints in question (As Dilis points out [op. cit., p. 4 2 1] the Guild was
originally known as the “College of St. Peter and St. Paul”). The additional
61
point to be emphasized is that the document refers to the fad: that the Saints
were also Rubens’s own patrons. His choice of subjed was thus probably
designed not only as a compliment to the Guild but also as a mark of honour
to his own patron Saints.
The two panels were not permanently exhibited either in the Cathedral
or in St. Joris’s (George’s), where the Guild successively possessed altars of
its own. As the above quotation shows, they and other works of art belonging
to the Guild were annually entrusted to the newly appointed dean. They were
probably exhibited only on the fead-days of Saints Peter and Paul. This in
any case was so, as Mols tells us, in about 1770 (Rooses, loc. cit.), when they
were displayed on the Guild’s altar in St. Joris’s church. We should know
nothing of the dimensions and material of these companion pieces if it were
not for an important passage in a hitherto unpublished letter of 6 February
1787, now in the Rembrandt House at Amsterdam, in which the Antwerp
dealers Pilaer and Beeckmans offer the two panels to Thomas Harvey of
Norwich:
nous venons de recevoir une partie de Tableaux de la première
classe, dont voici la note... No. 6: Deux beaux tableaux de P.P. Rubens, l’un
représente St. Pierre et l’autre St. Paul. Ces deux tableaux sont vendus derniè­
rement de la part de S.M. l’Empereur par la suppression des confréries.
Rubens en avait fait présent ici à la Confrérie des Romains dont il était le chef,
et sont peints l’année 1610 [sic] selon l’aéte authentique qui se trouve signé
par Rubens même au livre de la confrérie; ils sont peints sur Panneau, d’un
fini prétieux, et de la plus belle manière avec des Draperies superbes et des
belles mains. Le prix e§t 230 guinées, haut 36 et large 26 pouces en riches
cadres dorés, lesquelles Feu Mr. le Chanoine Knyff, qui était aussi chef de
cette confrérie, a fait présent,”
48.
ST. PAUL
Oil on panel; 97.5 : 70.5 cm.
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loft.
P r o v e n a n c e : Guild of the Romanics, Antwerp; sold, 7 July 1786, on occasion of the
suppression of guilds and brotherhoods by the emperor Joseph II; offered by the
Antwerp dealers Pilaer and Beeckmans to Thomas Harvey of Norwich, for 230 guineas,
6 February 1787; Bryan, sale, London, 18 May 1798, lot 25.
62
L it e r a t u r e : W. Buchanan, Memoirs of Painting, I, London, 1824, p. 282; Smith,
Catalogue Raisonné, II, p. 210, No. 775; P. Rombouts and T. van Lerius, De Liggeren en
andere historische archieven van het Antwerpsch Sint-Lucasgilde, i, Antwerp, n.d.,
p. 401; Rooses, II, p. 338, No. 483; E. Dilis, La Confrérie des Romanistes, Annales de
l’Académie royale d’Archéologie de Belgique, LXX, 1922, pp. 445-448.
49-50.
49.
tw o p e n d a n t s: st . p et e r and st . pau l
ST. PETER
(Fig. 89)
Oil on canvas; 214 : 104 cm.; arched at the top.
Whereabouts unknown.
P ro ven an ce:
Capuchin Chutch, Antwerp; A. De Beule, Ghent, by whom deposited in
the Museum there, 1905; K. Larisch, Aachen; Dr. C. ten Horn, Nijmegen.
C o p y : Drawing, Copenhagen, Print Room of the Statens Museum for Kunft, “Rubens-
Cantoor”, No. 1, 8.
L it e r a t u r e : De Wit, p. 124; Descamps, Voyage, p. 198; Michel, i j j i , p. 103; Reynolds,
p. 183; Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, il, p. 23, No. 80; Ninth Report of the Royal Com­
mission on Historical Manuscripts, 11, London, 1884, p. 482; Rooses, 11, p. 339, No. 484;
L. Maeterlinck, Catalogue du Musée des Beaux-Arts, Ghent, 1905, No. 135 bis; M.
Rooses, in Rubens-Bulletijn, v, 1910, p. 300.
The Saint is clad in a tunic with a mantle draped over it. He holds one of
the two keys in each hand and is pointing upwards with one, downwards with
the other.
This and the next painting were clearly designed as a pair, inspired by the
somewhat analogous figures of Plato and AriStotle, the monumental togati in
Raphael’s School of Athens in the Vatican Stanza della Segnatura (K J . K .,
Raffael, p. 69). The monitory gesture of Plato’s raised finger especially is
faithfully reproduced in the figure of St. Peter with the key.
Because of the paintings’s exceptional height and rounding at the top it may
be accepted that they are identical with the two pendants which, according to
the notes of the eighteenth-century Antwerp printer Verdussen were originally
in window-niches in the apse of the choir of the Capuchin church at Antwerp
63
(document formerly in the possession of GuStave van Havre, published in
Rooses,
II,
p. 339, n. i) . At some time during the eighteenth century they were
attached to, or displayed in front of, the doors to either side of the high altar
that gave access to the prieSts’ choir (a plan of the former Capuchin church
showing these locations will be found in De Wit, pi. xm ). They were certainly
transferred to their new location before c. 1748, the approximate date of De
Wit’s account of the Antwerp churches, in which these two pictures of apoStles
—erroneously described as saints of the Order—are mentioned as being “on
the choir doors to either side of the high altar” .
For the purpose of dating we have the terminus poft quem of 16 13-14 , at
which time the church was built with the help of Rogier Clarisse (RoosesRuelens, 11, pp. 205, 206; P. Hildebrand, Rubens chez les Capucins, Etudes fran­
ciscaines,
X LV ii,
1935, pp. 726-729). The paintings muât have been executed
fairly soon after the ere&ion of the monastic church. The monumental concep­
tion of the two Princes of the ApoStles and the powerful modelling of their
faces and attire are characteristic of Rubens’s Style between about 16 15 and
1620. As will be seen from the description of the variant of this representation
of the two ApoStles which is now at Schleissheim (No. 5 1; Fig. 92), we may
also regard 1621 as a terminus ante quem. To judge from the photograph, the
execution would seem to have been left to the Studio to a large extent; it is
no doubt relevant that De Wit says of the paintings that they “are attributed
to Rubens or at all events to his school."
Sir Joshua Reynolds wrote to Cunningham on 25 November 1785 that he
intended to buy the pictures, which were by then much damaged, for £300 in
order to have them restored to their original beauty. He proposed to have
copies made which could then occupy the place of the originals (Ninth
Report..., loc. cit.).
50.
ST. PAUL
(Fig. 90)
Oil on canvas; 214 : 104 cm.; arched at the top.
Whereabouts unknown.
P ro ven an ce:
Capuchin Church, Antwerp; A. De Beule, Ghent, by whom deposited in
the Museum there, 1905; K. Larisch, Aachen; Dr. C. ten Horn, Nijmegen.
64
L it e r a t u r e : De Wit, p. 124; Descamps, Voyage, p. 198; Michel, i j y i , p. 103;
Reynolds, p. 183; Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, 11, p. 23, No. 80; Ninth Report of the
Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts, 11, London, 1884, p. 482; Rooses, 11, p.
339, No. 485; L. Maeterlinck, Catalogue du Musée des Beaux-Arts, Ghent, 1905, No.
135 ter; M. Rooses, in Rubens-Bulletijn, v, 1910, p, 300.
Like St. Peter in the companion pifture, St. Paul is clad in a
tunic witha
mantle draped over it. He is seen leaning with both hands ona sword, his
attribute.
49-50a.
ST. PETER AND ST. PAUL: OIL SKETCH
(Fig. 91)
Oil on panel; 52 : 67 cm., including a narrow Strip ofa later addition at the bottom.
Brussels, Private Colleâion.
P r o v e n a n c e : Capt. W.A. Hankey of Beaulieu, Hastings; Charles Sedelmeyer, Paris,
1899; bought from him by Franz Philippson, Brussels; Jules Philippson, Brussels.
C o p ie s : ( i ) Painting, whereabouts unknown; canvas, 60 : 72 cm.; prov.: St. Peters­
burg, Prince Yussupoff; lit.: Rooses, 11, p. 340, No. 4841 - 4851 (as Rubens)-, (2) Engrav­
ing by R. Eynhoudts (VS., p. 108, No. 127).
E x h ib it e d : Works by the Old Mailers and by Deceased Mailers of the British School,
Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1885, No. 78; Brussels, 1910, No. 378; Flemish and
Belgian Art, 1300-1900, Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1927, No. 274; Exposition
belge d’art ancien et moderne, Société Hongroise des Beaux-Arts, Budapest, 1927, No. 17 ;
Tentoonstelling van Oud-Vlaamsche Kunlt, World Exhibition, Antwerp, 1930, No. 248;
Paris, 1936, No. 57; Brussels, 193J, No. 3 1; London, 1930, No. 3; Chefs-d'œuvres de
l’art ancien, Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, 1953, No. 39 (repr.); Rotterdam, 1933-54,
No. 23 (repr,); Herinneringen aan P.P. Rubens, Rubenshuis, Antwerp, 1958, No. 2
(repr.),
LITERATURE: H. Hymans, Zur neuesten Rubensforschung, Zeitschrift für bildende
KunSt, N.F., IV, 1893, p. 16; Sedelmeyer Gallery, The fifth Hundred Paintings by Old
Malters, Paris, 1899, p. 54, No. 45, repr.; K.d.K., ed. Rosenberg, p. 100; M. Rooses,
in Rubens-Bulletijn, v, 1910, p. 176; Dillon, p. 213, pl. cxxxvi; Trésors de l’Art belge
au XV IIe siècle, Brussels, 1912, p. 36, pl. v i i ; K.d.K., p. 107; Van Puyvelde, Esquisses,
pp. 67, 68, No. 15, pl. 14; M. Jaffé, Rubens at Rotterdam, The Burlington Magazine,
XCVI, 1954, p. 57.
65
Both the ApoSties are here sketched on a single panel. Another difference
from the finished pendants is that here they are depicted in an architectural
setting. It seems quite probable that Rubens intended this sketch to show how
the companion pictures ought to look in the two separate window-niches of
the choir.
With one exception, this sketch has always been dated either 16 15 or between
16 15 and 1620. Only Jaffé held, wrongly, that it was “ sensibly earlier” than
1615.
51.
ST. PETER AND ST. PAUL
(Fig. 92)
Oil on canvas; 243 : 190 cm.
Schleissheim, Schloss. Inv. No. 336-3904.
P r o v e n a n c e : ? Rubens’s eftate; ? private collector, Bruges; ? Johann-Wilhelm, Elector
Palatine (Düsseldorf, 16 5 8 -17 16 ); Schleissheim, Schloss, 17 6 1; Hofgartengalerie, Mu­
nich 17 8 1; transferred to the Alte Pinakothek in 1836; again removed to Schleissheim
after 1945.
C o p ie s : ( i) Drawing (Fig. 93), Vienna, Albertina, No. 8228; lit.: Rooses, v, p. 165
(as retouched by Rubens); H. Knackfuss, Rubens, Bielefeld-Leipzig, 1901, p. 5, fig. 2
(as Rubens)-, (2) Engraving by F. Piloty (Rooses, 11, p. 341, pi. 164).
L it e r a t u r e : Michel, i j j i , p. 3 11, No. 16; Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, 11, p. 74, No.
223; R, Marggraff, Die ältere K, Pinakothek zu Mönchen, Beschreibendes Verzeichnis,
Munich, 1869, No. 246; F. von Reber, Katalog der Gemäldesammlung der K . Älteren
Pinakothek zu München, Munich, 1884, p. x i; Rooses, 11, p. 340, No. 486; T. Levin,
Geschichte der KunSlbeftrebungen von dem Hause Pfalz-Neuburg, fahrbuch des Düssel­
dorfer Geschichtsvereins, xxm , 19 11, p. 10; Ältere Pinakothek München, Amtlicher
Katalog, Munich, 1936, p. 2x7, No. 336 (750).
The two ApoStles, here grouped in a single painting, are fairly exactly copied
from their representation in the two canvases from the Capuchin church at
Antwerp (Nos. 49, 50; Figs. 89, 90). The only important difference as regards
their attitudes and gestures is that in this case, no doubt on account of the lack
of space, Peter points upward with both his keys. Apart from their usual
attributes, the keys and the sword, both ApoStles have subsidiary ones. A
cherub hovers above St. Peter’s head with the Papal tiara. Below, on the right,
66
behind St. Paul there was originally a second cherub holding a book: this may
Still be seen in the copy drawing in the Vienna Albertina and in Piloty’s print.
It is expressly mentioned in J. Smith’s description and in Marggraff’s catalogue
of 1869. As Dr. Peter Eikemeier has kindly informed me, it is very probable
that the figure was painted over in the course of a restoration in 1875. The
Holy Spirit hovers above the ApoStles’ heads in the form of a dove: its pres­
ence is evidently in direft connection with the miracle of PentecoSt and the
sending forth of the apoStles. The Saints are seen Standing under a portico.
This may be related to a passage in the Golden Legend which tells how Diony­
sius the Areopagi te saw a vision of Saints Peter and Paul entering the gates
of a city together (Legenda Aurea, i, col. 566).
Rooses, quite rightly, suggested that this work was for the moSt part not
painted by Rubens himself. It was probably executed in the Studio and touched
up by the maSter not very long after the paintings in the Capuchin church at
Antwerp (Nos. 49, 50; Figs. 89, 90), for which 16 13 -14 may be given as a
terminus poll quem. A terminus ante quern is provided by the painting by A.
van Dyck of St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist, which was in the
Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum at Berlin until 1945: this belongs to the artist’s firSt
Antwerp period, i.e. before 1621, and was direftly influenced by Rubens’s
composition {K.d.K,, Van Dyck, p. 47).
In Rubens’s eState we already find, as No. 158, a “S. Petrus en S. Paulus,
op doeck” (“St. Peter and St- Paul, on canvas” ; Denucé, KonStkamers, p. 63).
On 5 December 1696, François Ignace Rosseaux, the agent in Ghent of the
Eleftor Palatine Johann Wilhelm, drew up an inventory of paintings belonging
to a Bruges collector who wanted to sell them to the Prince, in which he
described the following work: “No. 1, P.P. Rubens, représentant S. Pierre et
S. Paul, accompagnés de deux anges et du St. Esprit, plus grands que nature”
(“No. i, P.P. Rubens, representing St, Peter and St. Paul, accompanied by two
angels and by the Holy Spirit, larger than lifesize” ). The measurements of
8I/2 by 6I/2 feet (233 : 178.5 cm.) agree closely with the visible dimensions of
the canvas at Schleissheim, so that one might agree with T. Levin, who pub­
lished the above quotation, that the works may be identical. An objection to
this, however, is the faft that the St. Peter and St. Paul does not figure in the
inventory, drawn up in 1719, of Johann Wilhelm’s collections, which after­
wards became the property of the Eleftor of Bavaria. It should also not be
overlooked that J.F.M. Michel in 17 7 1 mentions as part of Catherine the
67
Great’s collection at St. Petersburg a work ascribed to Rubens and depicting
“ deux apôtres de forme colossale, représentant S. Pierre et S. Paul” (two
apoStles of colossal Stature, representing St. Peter and St. Paul” ; Michel, i y j i ,
p. 364). This of course cannot be identified with the Schleissheim canvas,
which is already mentioned as being preserved in that place in the handwritten
inventory of 1761. Identification with the painting mentioned by Rosseaux
remains a possibility; while the canvas in Rubens’s estate may of course be
identical with either of the two others.
52-53.
52.
tw o pen d a n ts:
ST. PAUL
ST. PAUL
and st. p e t e r
(Fig. 94)
Oil on panel; 65.5 : 48.5 cm.
New York, Dr. and Mrs. R.J. Heinemann,
P r o v e n a n c e : ? St. Donatus’s Church, Bruges; ChorherrenStift Sankt Florian (Austria);
bought there in 1936 by Galerie Sankt Lucas, Vienna; sold to the present owners in the
same year.
E x h ib it e d : L o s Angeles, 1946, No. 23 (repr.).
L it e r a t u r e : J. HollnSteiner, Das ChorherrenËift St, Florian, Steyr, 19 2 3 , p. 4 1, repr.;
W. Valentiner, Rubens’ Paintings in America, The Art Quarterly, ix, 1946, p. 15 9 , No.
5 3 ; Goris-Held, p. 36, No. 64, pi. 4 8; Larsen, p. 2 16 ,No. 34.
A half-length portrait of the Saint in right profile, holding in his right hand
his attribute the sword, half of which is cut off by the lower edge of the panel.
Goris and Held think that this painting and its pendant (No. 53; Fig. 95)
should be dated about 16 14 -15 , while Burchard placed them around 1620.
Perhaps the middle of the decade is the more likely date. The treatment of the
face and hair, for example, seem very like those of St. Peter in the centre panel
of the Rockox triptych of 16 13 -15 , now in the Royal Museum at Antwerp
(K.d.K., p. 84). As regards the representation of St. Paul in particular, Bur­
chard has also pointed out the Striking similarity to the Study for the Head of
68
an Old Man with a long white Beard in the Metropolitan Museum, New "York
(Goris-Held, pi. 28). He suggested that the two works muSt be based on the
same model, but this does not seem convincing to me.
This and the next panel form a pair; they may be identical with two halflength portraits that were formerly kept in a silver tabernacle at the church
of St. Donatus at Bruges (Descamps, Voyage, p. 275; Michel, i y j i , pp. 194,
195; Reynolds, p. 142; P. Thicknesse, A Year’s Journey through the Pais Bas,
London, 1786, p. 18). According to V.C. van Grimbergen (Levensbeschrijving
van P.P. Rubens, Rotterdam, 1840, p. 454, n. 52), these works were sold
between 1835 and 1840 for the benefit of needy members of the clergy. This,
however, does not agree with a letter written on 25 May 1836 by Albert Gre­
gorius, the then director of the Academy of Fine Arts at Bruges, and published
in A. Schouteet, Een onderzoek naar de werken van Pieter Paul Rubens op
nationaal plan in 1836. Het Brugse antwoord, in Miscellanea Jozef Duverger,
I,
Ghent, 1968, p. 393. Here we read: “L ’ancienne cathédrale ... possédait ...
deux tableaux de ce grand peintre ... St. Pierre et St. Paul, en buStes avec des
mains; le chapitre ... les fit enlever avant l’entrée des Français ... et les tint cachés
pendant plusieurs années, ensuite ils furent vendus et transportés, l’un dit à
Bruxelles, l’autre dit en Hollande. La première version paraît la plus vraisem­
blable” ( “The ancient cathedral ... possessed ... two paintings by this great
mafter... St. Peter and St. Paul, half-length, showing their hands; the chapter...
had them taken away before the entry of the French ... and kept them hidden
for several years; afterwards they were sold and transported, some say to
Brussels, others to Holland. The former seems more probable” ).
According to HollnSteiner (op. cit., pp. 34, 57), Michael Arneth, who was
dean of the monastery of St. Florian in Austria from 1823 to 1854, added to
the collection of paintings there. If the panels we are considering are identical
with those that were previously at Bruges, it is of course possible that they
were among those acquired by Arneth.
Max Rooses (Rooses, 11, p. 338), who evidently did not know the St. Florian
collection, attempted to identify the heads of the ApoStles at Bruges with two
works forming a pair, now in private ownership in Sweden, from the Steengracht collection at The Hague (oil on panel, 60 : 45 cm.; sale, Paris [G.
Petit], 9 July 19 13, lots 64 and 65, repr.). However, to judge from the photo­
graphs in the catalogue of the sale of this collection, the works in question
seem much too weak to have been painted by Rubens himself.
69
53.
ST. PETER (F ig .
95 )
Oil on panel; 65.5 : 48.5 cm.
New York, Dr. and Mrs. R.J. Heinemann.
P r o v e n a n c e : ? St. Donatus’s Church, Bruges; ChorherrenStift Sankt Florian (Austria);
bought there in 1936 by Galerie Sankt Lucas, Vienna; sold to the present owners in the
same year.
E x h ib ite d : L os Angeles, 1946, No. 24 (repr.).
L it e r a t u r e : J. HollnSteiner, Das ChorherrenStift St. Florian, Steyr, 1923, p. 4 1, repr.;
W , Valentiner, Rubens' Paintings in America, The Art Quarterly, IX, 1946, p. 159, No.
53; Goris-Held, p. 36, No. 65, pi. 49; Larsen, p. 216, No. 35.
A half-length portrait of the Saint in left profile, holding the keys in his right
hand. The treatment of the face and hair seems to me to resemble, in addition
to the above-mentioned of St. Peter in the Rockox triptych, the Portrait of a
man in profile to which R. Oldenbourg (K J.K ., p. 81) assigns the approximate
date of 16 14 -15.
54.
THE FOUR EVANGELISTS
(Fig. 96)
Oil on canvas; 224 : 270 cm.
Potsdam - Sanssouci, Bildergalerie. Inv. No. G K I 7580,
P r o v e n a n c e : purchased for the collection of Frederick II, King of Prussia, between
1755 and 1764.
C o p y : Painting, whereabouts unknown; panel, 57.5 : 63.5 cm.; prov.: sale, London,
3 July 1935, lot 130 (as Rubens).
E x h ib it e d : Gemälde älterer Meifter im Berliner Privatbesitz, Königliche Akademie der
Künste, Berlin, 1883, p. 37, No. 2.
L it e r a t u r e : M. OeSterreich, Beschreibung der Königlichen Bildergallerie und des
Kabinets im Sans-Souci, Potsdam, 1764, No. 99 (as Van Dyck); F. Nicolai, Beschreibung
der Königlichen Residenzstädte Berlin und Potsdam, hi, Berlin, 1786, p. 1208, No. 8
70
(as Van Dyck)-, Rooses, n, pp. 193, 194, n. 367; Dillon, p. 224; P. Seidel, W. Bode and
M. Friedländer, Gemälde alter MeiSter im Besitz ... des deutschen Kaisers, Berlin-LeipzigVienna-Stuttgart, n.d., p. 87, repr.; K.d.K., p. 68; Oldenbourg, 1922, p. 104, repr.; E.
Henschel-Simon, Die Gemälde und Skulpturen der Bildergalerie von Sanssouci, Berlin,
1930, No. 95, repr.; U. Moussalli, Rubens et Caravage, Etudes d'art publiées par le
Musée d’Alger, 11-12 , 1955-56, p. 9 1; Die Gemälde in der Bildergalerie von Sanssouci,
Potsdam, 1962, No. 66; G. Eckardt, Die Gemälde in der Bildergalerie von Sanssouci,
Potsdam, 1965, No. 83.
St. Luke, St. Matthew and St. Mark form a continuous group on the left,
sitting round a table, while St. John Stands somewhat apart from them on the
right. Very probably this grouping was meant to make clear symbolically the
coherence between the three so-called synoptic Gospels as well as to accen­
tuate the distance that separates them from the later and in many aspefts
differently conceived Gospel of St. John. All are dressed in long robes except
St. Matthew, who appears half-naked. The Evangelists’ attributes are clearly
recognizable. An ox’s head may be seen to the left of St. Luke. A half-clothed
angel hovers close to St. Matthew, who is writing. St. Mark’s lion reSts at his
feet, while the eagle spreads its wings above St. John’s head. Apart from this
there is a minimum of decoration. A drapery covers molt of the background;
a pilaSter is seen on the extreme left.
The representation of the four Evangelists in a single pidure is already
found in a canvas by Correggio dated 15 2 1, in the Muzeul de Arte at Bucharest
(illustrated in L. Bachelin, Tableaux anciens de la Galerie Charles Ier, Roi de
Roumanie, Paris, 1898, facing p. 46). As far as we know, the theme was firSt
treated in the Netherlands by Frans Floris, in a composition which has been
loSt but is known from a print dated 1566. Among others who handled it
before Rubens were Pieter Aertsen (KunSthiStorisches Museum, Vienna; illus­
trated in L. Baldass, Sittenbild und Stilleben im Rahmen des niederländischen
Romanismus, Jahrbuch der KunSthiftorischen Sammlungen in Wien, xxxvi,
1923, p. 39, No. 31) and Joachim Beuckelaer (Staatliche Gemäldegalerie,
Dresden, illustrated in L. Baldass, op. cit., p. 38, No. 30).
Ulysse Moussalli believed that a connection could be seen between this work
and the Angel Appearing to St. Matthew, Caravaggio’s early masterpiece
(about 1597-1601) in the Cappella Contarelli in the church of San Luigi dei
Francesi at Rome (W. Friedländer, Caravaggio Studies, Princeton, 1955, pi. 30).
The Lombard mailer’s painting may certainly appear to provide a Vorstufe
71
for the angel which descends here from heaven; but I think there is also a
connection with another of Caravaggio’s three famous compositions for the
chapel at Rome, The Calling of St. Matthew (W. Friedländer, op. cit., pi. 29).
This provides a model for the general arrangement of the group round the
table on the left and the monumental single figure on the right. The treatment
of St. Luke, on the extreme left, as a repoussoir has a precedent in Rubens’s
own work in one of the two Disciples at Emmaus in the painting of about 1610
in the church of St. EuStache at Paris (U. Moussalli, op. cit., p. 94, fig. 2).
Rooses dated the present work to 1630, but Oldenbourg with good reason
suggested about 1614. The painting is very typical of the classical-monumental
conception that characterized Rubens’s work around that time.
Henschel-Simon, supported by Eckardt, regards it as a work executed in
Rubens’s Studio and retouched by him. The middle group with St. Matthew,
St. Luke and the angel is in faCt weaker than the two figures on the extreme
left and right, and it is moSt probable that collaborators were at work here.
55.
THE FOUR EVANGELISTS: OIL SKETCH
(Fig. 97)
Oil on panel; approximately 20 : 30 cm.
Whereabouts unknown.
P r o v e n a n c e : V.M. Picot (19th century); Warwick CaStle.
C o p y : Engraving (V S ., p. 63, No. 464).
From left to right the sketch shows St. Luke, St. John, St. Mark and St. Mat­
thew. Apart from St. Mark they have their respective attributes: St. Luke’s ox,
St. John’s eagle and St. Matthew’s angel. St. John is seen at an oblique angle,
looking towards heaven, in a very similar attitude to St. Stephen in the triptych
at Valenciennes, which dates from c. 1615-20 (11, No. 146).
The painting for which this sketch was made was either not executed or has
been loft. Either from this sketch or from the finished composition, a variant
in reverse was painted by Pieter Soutman, similar in the main but somewhat
different as regards facial types; this is now in the Stockholm Museum (Cat.
Stockholm Nationalmuseum. Äldre Utländska Malningar och Skulpturer, Stock72
holm, 1958, p. 188, No. 343). Soutman probably painted it during his Stay at
Antwerp from 1619 to 1624. He may have seen the sketch or the finished
painting, if there was one, in Rubens’s Studio.
Burchard saw this sketch at Warwick CaStle on 28 AuguSt 1947, and I myself
saw it there in May 1965; however, it is apparently no longer there. I have
not been able to discover when it was acquired for the Warwick collection. At
the beginning of the nineteenth century it belonged to a certain M. Picot, as
may be seen from the inscription on an early nineteenth-century engraving
(VS., p. 63, No. 464).
56-58.
THE ALTAR-PIECE OF THE CHAPEL OF THE HOLY SACRAMENT IN THE DOMINICAN
CHURCH AT ANTWERP
56.
THE REAL PRESENCE IN THE HOLY SACRAMENT
(Fig, 99)
w Oil on panel; 3^9 : 241.5 cm.
Antwerp, St, Paul’s Church.
C o p ie s : ( i ) Drawing after the right side, whereabouts unknown; 355 : 280 mm.;
prov.: A. Beurdeley, sale, Paris (G. Petit), 8-10 June 1920, lot 286 (repr.; as Rubens);
(2) Drawing after the heads of the presumed saints Ambrose, AuguStine and Paul, on
the left side, whereabouts unknown; 146 : 159 mm.; prov.: sale, London, (Sotheby’s),
18 March 1959, lot 10 (as Jordaens), bought by L. Franklyn; (3) Engraving by H.
Snyers, 1643 (Fig. 98; V.S., p. 67, No. 28). (4), (5), (6) (7)
E x h ib it e d : Tableaux recouvrés ... revenus de France, Musée, Antwerp, 1816, No. 33
(as A, Sallaert).
L i t e r a t u r e : M. de Monconys, Journal des Voyages, 11, Lyon, 1 666, p. 107 (ad 1663);
Bellori, p. 223; Tessin, p. 83; De Wit, p. 57; Descamps, Vie, p. 322; Berbie, p. 61,
No. 9; Mensaert, 1, p. 203; Descamps, Voyage, p. 190; Michel, 1771, p. 88; Odevaere,
p. 3 17 ; No. 44 (as Rubens or Sallaert [sic]); Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, 11, p. 1 1 ;
T, Rombouts and P. Van Lerius, De Liggeren en andere hiïtorische archieven betreffende
het Antwerpsche Sint-Lucasgilde, 1, Antwerp, n.d., p, 402, n, 1; 11, The Hague, n.d.,
p. 3, n. 2; Rooses, 11, pp. 196-199, No. 376; Dillon, pp. 98, 105, 2 1 1 ; K.d.K., p. 28;
Oldenbourg, 1922, pp. 61, 73; Knipping, 11, pp. 86, 87; Evers, 1942, pp. 60, 61, repr.;
J. Van den Nieuwenhuizen, Antwerpse schilderijen te Parijs (1 794-1 815), Antwerpen,
vin, 1962, p. 79.
Tb
In a monumental interior, a number of saints, monks and church dignitaries
are grouped symmetrically about an altar, on which is a monstrance containing
the HoSt. In the upper part of the pifture, God the Father and the Holy Spirit
appear among clouds, together with six cherubs holding open books of the
Gospels with texts relating to the miracle of transubStantiation. On the left we
read:
caro
[ e n im ]
m e a v e r e e s t c ib v s e t s a n g v is m e v s v e r e
[ est
po tv s]
(John 6:56), and on the right
h o c e s t c o r p v s m e v m qv o d p r o v o b is d a [ t v r ]
(Luke 22:19) and
et
a c c ip it e
c o m e d it e :
hoc
est
co rpv s
m ev m
(Matt.
26:26).
The identification of the figures presents some difficulty. The imposing
personages in the foreground are certainly the four Latin Doftors of the
Church. The mitred bishops on the left muSt be St. AuguStine and St. Ambrose,
though they are not provided with attributes to indicate which is which. In the
right foreground is St. Gregory the Great, shown according to cuStom with
shaven head, and St. Jerome in cardinal’s robes. These four Saints play a
dominant role in this composition, by virtue of the authority they enjoyed
among later generations of divines as expounders and defenders of the Euchar­
istie doftrine. On the left, beside St. AuguStine and St. Ambrose, is a bearded
figure with long black hair: this may be St. Paul, who was the patron of the
Dominican church at Antwerp and to whom we owe the oldeSt account of the
LaSt Supper, other than that in the Synoptic Gospels (1 Cor. 11:2 3 et seqq.).
In the middle distance, in the centre of the pifture, are four more figures, none
of whom can be identified. On the left of the group is an aged, half-naked
man and a somewhat younger one with a black beard, who is writing. On the
right of these is a youngish man gazing ecstatically heavenwards and holding
a book from which an old, bald-headed monk is reading. St. Thomas Aquinas,
recognizable by the sun on his breaSt, is seated behind the altar on the left, in
conversation with a pope. This is certainly Urban IV, who instituted the Euchar­
istie feaSt of Corpus Christi by a bull of 1264; the text of the Office with its
hymns was composed by St. Thomas (E. Schoutens, Histoire du culte de la Très
Sainte Eucharistie en Belgique, Antwerp, 1886, pp. 13 3 -14 7). Two mitred
bishops are seated behind the altar on the right. In the extreme background,
on the left, five monks are seen in discussion; one, wearing the Dominican
habit, is pointing to the monStrance on the altar with a gesture of respeftful
devotion. In the right background are a number of young men in togas. An
X-ray photograph has shown that there were originally two more figures in
74
the painting. To the left of the young man looking up in ecStasy in the middle
distance, a man’s face was to be seen frontally, and to the left of St. Gregory
was the head, in profile, of a man reading (Figs. 10 0 ,10 2). It is not clear why
and by whom these heads were painted out; they had disappeared before
1643, as is shown by Snyers’ engraving of that year. In any case they muSt
have formed part of Rubens’s original plan, as they figured in the oil sketch
for this altar-piece which is now loSt but can be judged from two copies (No.
56a; Figs. 10 1,10 3 ) .
The scene is no doubt to be regarded as depicting the development, in the
course of church history, of the recognition by theologians and exegetes of the
doârine of transubStantiation, emphasized as an article of faith by the Council
of Trent: viz. the miraculous transformation of the Eucharistie elements of
bread and wine into Christ’s body and blood. This view is borne out by the
earliest known description of the picture, dating from 24 July 1616, in an
inventory of the chapel of the Sodality of the Sweet Name of Jesus in the
former Dominican church at Antwerp: “Een conStich Stuck schilderije van de
Realiteyt van den Heyligen Sacramente, geschildert bij mijnheer Peeter Paulo
Rubbens” ("An artful painting of the Reality of the Holy Sacrament, by Peter
Paul Rubens” ; T. Rombouts and P. van Lerius, op. cit., 1, p. 402).
The arrangement of the figures round the altar, as in an exedra, is clearly
based on Raphael’s famous Disputa in the Vatican [K.d.K., Raffael, p. 60);
St. Jerome’s attitude on the right of Rubens’s composition reflects that of the
figure on the left of Raphael’s fresco. As regards the general composition,
Rubens also seems indebted to another work by Raphael, the dimensions of
which are more similar to the present one than those of the Disputa: viz. the
St. Cecilia, now in the Pinacoteca Nazionale at Bologna but originally in the
church of San Giovanni in Monte in that city [K.d.K., Raffael, p. 117 ). The
figure of St. Paul on the left of that painting, leaning his head meditatively
on his right hand, performs the function of a frame to the composition in a
way closer to that of Rubens’s St. Jerome than does the corresponding figure
in the Disputa. In the old, half-naked man in the middle distance we may
recognize the Seneca motif: this famous Hellenistic work was copied by Rubens
(G. Fubini and J.S. Held, Padre ReHa’s Rubens Drawings after Ancient Sculp­
ture, Maïïer Drawings, 11, 1964, p. 130, fig. 7) and inspired his Death of
Seneca in the Alte Pinakothek at Munich [K.d.K., p. 44), which was painted
at about the same time as the present work.
75
This altar-piece is generally dated shortly after Rubens’s return from Italy,
c. 1609. One of the earliest records of it, that of Bellori in 1672, says that it
was “fra le prime ch’egli [sc. Rubens] dipingesse in Anversa” . Stylistically
it resembles The Adoration of the Magi, now in the Prado (K.d.K., p. 26),
which documentary evidence shows to have been painted in 1609-10. Als Olden­
bourg pointed out, the somewhat elongated figures are typical of the earliest
Antwerp paintings (Oldenbourg, 1922, p. 73); they also recall Rubens’s latest
Italian works such as the firSt altar-piece for Santa Maria in Vallicella, now in
the Grenoble Museum (11, No. 109).
The present panel, executed for the altar of the Holy Sacrament chapel in
the Antwerp Dominican church, is probably one of the works by Rubens
referred to as “diversche Stucken ... die in groote extime gehouden worden als
namentlyck ... to t... Preeckheren
die fray syn”, in a letter of 12 March i 6 n
from Jan le Grand in Antwerp to his colleague Lieven vuytten Eeckhoute at
Dunkirk (published by A, Monballieu in P.P. Rubens en het “Nachtmael"
voor St.-Winoksbergen ( 16 11 ) , een niet uitgevoerd schilderij van de meeïter,
Jaarboek Koninklijk Museum voor Schone KunSien, Antwerpen, 1965, p. 196).
Nothing is known of the circumstances in which it was commissioned. The rich
merchant and connoisseur Cornelis Van der GeeSt may have helped to provide
the money, as we know that in 1616 he advanced funds for the construction
of a marble balustrade closing off the renovated chapel of the Holy Sacrament
in the Dominican church (P. Rombouts and T. van Lerius, op. cit., 1, p. 461;
I. Leyssens, Hans van Mildert, Gentsche Bijdragen tot de Kunstgeschiedenis,
vu, 1941, pp. 100, xox).
The altar-piece has not been preserved in its original State. A comparison
with Hendrik Snyers’s engraving of 1643 (Fig. 98) shows differences of detail
and in the relation of its height to its width. The projection seen in the
engraving under St. Gregory and St. Jerome has been replaced by two books.
We also see that in the painting the raised platform has been enlarged so that
its edge is in line with the original projection. Changes were also made in the
upper part of the picture: e.g. the figure of God the Father is less close to the
upper edge than it is in the engraving, and the floating part of the Father’s
mantle looks longer. Finally, the picture would seem to have extended less
far to either side than it does now, as in the engraving the figures of saints
are slightly cut off by the border. Closer inspection shows that the picture was
enlarged on all four sides, with Strips of about 8 cm. on the left and right,
34 cm. at the top and 67 cm. at the bottom. This indicates that it was firSt of
all reduced in size, presumably on account of damage at the edges, and after­
wards enlarged as required. The circumstances that led to these enlargements
have not previously been noted. In 1654 the sculptor Pieter Verbruggen the
Elder contracted to make a completely new altar of the Holy Sacrament “van
de grootte ende materialen conforme den aultaer van Onze Lieve Vrouwe”
(“of like size and materials to Our Lady’s altar; A. Jansen, Het O.L. Vrouwaltaar in de St. Pauluskerk te Antwerpen, Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis en
Folklore, iv, 1941, p. 138) - i.e. the altar of Our Lady of the Rosary erefted
in 1650 on the opposite side of the church, in the north transept (A. Jansen,
op. cit., pp. 139 -14 5). The words quoted suggest that the intention was for
the side-altars to be wholly symmetrical. Verbruggen’s altar, like that of the
Rosary chapel, is Still extant. The date 1658 appears in a cartouche at the top
(illustrations of both altars in Jansen, op. cit., pis. 1 and 2), and this is evi­
dently the year in which it was completed. Rubens’s panel is of approximately
the same dimensions as Caravaggio’s Madonna of the Rosary (oil on panel,
364 : 249 cm., now in the KunSthiStorisches Museum at Vienna, cat. No. 483;
W. Friedländer, Caravaggio Studies, Princeton, 1955, pi. 39), which adorned
the altar in the north transept from c. 1620 to the end of the eighteenth century.
It may thus be assumed that during the reconstruction of 1654-58 the dimen­
sions of Rubens’s work were enlarged to correspond to those of the Caravaggio.
An entry in the accounts of the Sodality of the Sweet Name of Jesus suggests
that the enlargement took place during the reconstruction of the altar: the sum
of 60 guilders was paid in 1657 to Antoon Goubau (1616-1698) “voor de
schilderij van den vollen Aflaet” (“ for the painting of the Plenary Indul­
gence” ), which can scarcely refer to any other picture than the one now in
question (P. Rombouts and T. van Lerius, op. cit., 11, p. 3). There is, however,
an apparent contradiction here with items of 1680: “Aen den schrynwercker,
voor het vergrooten van de schilderye van den autaer van het AlderheylichSte
Sacrament, fl. 50. Voor het pourmueren van de schildereye, fl. 8. Voor de lijSte
van de schilderye van het AlderheylichSte Sacrament, ende van de zelve te ver­
gulden, fl. 14. Monsieur Goubau, den schilder getraCteert voor het vergrooten
van de schilderye van den autaer, par courtoisie, fl. 12." (“To the joiner, for en­
largement of the painting on the altar of the MoSt Holy Sacrament, 50 guil­
ders; for the priming thereof, 8 guilders; for the frame of the painting of the
MoSt Holy Sacrament, and for gilding the same, 14 guilders. To Monsieur
Goubau, the painter commissioned to enlarge the altar-piece, par courtoisie,
12 guilders” ; P. Rombouts and T. van Lerius, op. cit., p. 3, n. 2). Perhaps the
explanation is that when the retable was rebuilt in 1654-58 Goubau carried
out some superficial restoration of the painting, which was too small for its
new setting, but that, perhaps owing to shortage of funds, it was not finally
adapted to the new dimensions until 1680.
Other interesting points may be noted in connection with Hendrik Snyers’s
engraving of 1643. On 3 September 1642 Snyers entered the service of Abra­
ham van Diepenbeeck, who shortly afterwards secured a twelve-year privilege
on the Strength of a declaration that he had “for some years” been making
drawings of “rare and ingenious pictures” and now wished to make engravings
from them (F.J. Van den Branden, Geschiedenis der Antwerpsche Schilder­
school, Antwerp, 1883, p. 784). Abraham van Diepenbeeck’s daughter Anna
Theresa made a will of 5 December 1701, which refers inter alia to “some
copperplates after Rubens... secondly: the Disputation of the Holy Sacrament,
of the Dominican Fathers” (F.J. Van den Branden, ibid.). It is probably to be
inferred from this that Snyers’s engraving was actually made from a drawing
by Van Diepenbeeck.
In 1794 the altar-piece was removed from the church to Paris, where it was
exhibited in the Musée Central des Arts. It was returned to its original place in
1815.
56a.
THE REAL PRESENCE IN THE HOLY SACRAMENT: OIL SKETCH
Oil on panel; approximately 65 : 50 cm.
Whereabouts unknown; presumably lotf.
P r o v e n a n c e : ? Cornelis van der GeeSt (Antwerp, 1575-16 38).
C o p ie s : (i) Drawing (Fig. 10 1), attributed to J. de Bisschop by Burchard, whereabouts
unknown; approximately 730 : 480 mm.; prov.: Brussels, G. de Levai; (2) Drawing
(Fig. 103), Vienna, Albertina, No. 15 10 3; 363 : 265 mm.
L it e r a t u r e : L. Burchard, Skizzen des jungen Rubens, Sitzungsberichte der kunüge­
schichtlichen Gesellschaft Berlin, Odober 1926 - May 1927, p. 2; L. Burchard, Nach­
träge, in Glück, 1933, p. 382; L . Burchard, in Cat. Exh. Some piâures from Dulwich
Gallery, National Gallery, London, 1947, under No. 45.
78
There are several divergences between this sketch, known only from copies,
and the final version. In the firft place, the group of seated figures is differently
arranged, and the attitude and dress of the two persons sitting on the left is
altogether different. On the right of the composition are two figures, one
sitting and the other ftanding, who appeared in the finished altar-piece but
were later painted out (cf. No. 56). God the Father does not appear in the
upper part of the picture: this may be because it was intended to represent him
separately in a painting or sculpture above the principal work, as was done
shortly afterwards with the Raising of the Cross altar-piece for St. Walburgas
at Antwerp, now in the cathedral there (Rooses, 11, pp. 74, 75, Nos- 280282). There are two angels on the left inftead of three. The books in the
foreground are differently arranged, and there are some scrolls among them.
The sketch confirms that the painting was originally intended to be less
vertical in shape. St. Auguftine’s feet, for inftance, are closer to the lower edge.
The two broad fteps that are seen in the lower part of the finished work are
not in the sketch.
At some time in the seventeenth century this sketch was joined to the modelli,
now in the Dulwich Gallery, for the outer panels of The Raising of the Cross
now in Antwerp cathedral (Paintings from the Dulwich College Picture Gallery,
London, 1954, p. 17, Nos. 40 and 40a, repr.). The two copy-drawings that
have survived show the pictures thus combined. A terminus ante quern for the
separation of the panels is given by the faCt that on 4 September 1747 the
two sketches now at Dulwich were sold at The Hague, without the present
modello, as lot 56 from the eftate of Jacques de Roore (G. Hoet, Catalogus of
NaamlijH van schilderijen, met derzelver prijzen, 11, The Hague, 1752, p. 204).
We may conjecture that all three sketches were in the possession of Cornelis
van der Geeft and were joined together by him. As we know, he not only
advanced money for the adornment of the Holy Sacrament chapel in the Dom­
inican church, but was also the “praecipuus Author et promotor” of The
Raising of the Cross in St. Walburga’s (Rooses, 11, pp. 80, 81).
57.
MOSES
Oil on panel.
Whereabouts unknown, presumably loft.
79
P r o v e n a n c e : Dominican Church, Antwerp, 1616.
L it e r a t u r e : T. Rombouts and P. van Lerius, De Liggeren en andere historische archieven
van het Antwerpsehe Sint-Lucasgilde, i, Antwerp, n.d., p. 402; Rooses, 1, p. 138, No.
110 .
The inventory, drawn up in 16 16 and mentioned above (No. 56), of the chapel
of the Sweet Name of Jesus in the former Dominican church at Antwerp
records two paintings forming a predella to the altar-piece and representing
"de figuren van Moyses ende Aaron, bij den voorgeschreven mijnheer Peter
Paulo Rubbens gemaeftt” (the figures of Moses and Aaron by the aforesaid mijn­
heer Peter Paulo Rubbens). The choice of figures is explained iconographically
by the faft that Moses commanded Aaron (Exod. 16:32-34) to preserve in the
Tabernacle a supply of manna, which was regarded as prefiguring the Eucha­
rist (L. Réau, Iconographie de l’Art Chrétien, 1, Paris, 1956, p. 199).
Both parts of the predella probably disappeared when the altar was com­
pletely rebuilt in 1654-58.
58.
AARON
Oil on panel.
Whereabouts unknown, presumably loft.
P r o v e n a n c e : Dominican Church, Antwerp, 1616.
L it e r a t u r e : T. Rombouts and P. van Lerius, De Liggeren en andere historische archieven
van het Antwerpsche Sint-Lucasgilde, 1, Antwerp, n.d. p. 402; Rooses, 1, p. 138, No.
in .
This panel, together with that depifting Moses (No. 57), formed the predella
to the altar-piece in the chapel of the Holy Sacrament.
59.
THB FOUR LATIN DOCTORS OF THB CHURCH
Whereabouts unknown.
P r o v e n a n c e : ? Jeremias Wildens, Antwerp, 1653; ? J.B. Horion, sale, Brussels, 1 Sep­
tember 1788 et seqq., No. 19.
80
C o p y : Engraving by C. van Dalen the Younger (Fig. 106; F.S., p. 64, No. 3).
L i t e r a t u r e : Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, n, No. 1065 (the engraving); Rooses, 11,
p. 196, No. 369.
The four Latin Doftors are depifted in three-quarter length. From left to
right we recognize St. Ambrose with his mitre and crozier, St. Gregory with
the Papal tiara, St. Jerome with the cardinal's hat and St. AuguStine with cope
and mitre. St. Jerome holds an open book at which the others gaze with rever­
ence: this is probably his Latin translation of the Bible, the celebrated Vulgate,
which the Council of Trent had solemnly proclaimed as the only authentic
version and the text on which all interpretations muft be based.
The grouping of the figures in Jordaens’s Four Evangelists in the Louvre
(M. Rooses, Jordaens, Antwerp, 1906, repr. facing p. 28) is certainly related to
that of Rubens’s Doftors of the Church. The dating of Jordaens’s pifture
between about 16 19 and 1627 (R.A. d’Hulft, De tekeningen van Jacob Jor­
daens, Brussels, 1956, p. 91) muft thus be regarded as a terminus ante quem
for Rubens’s composition.
The latter may be identical with "De vier Doftoren met goude coorkappen
van Rubens” (“The four Doftors wearing golden copes, by Rubens” ), a pifture
that figured in the eftate of Jeremias Wildens at Antwerp on 30 December
1653 (Denucé, KonStkamers, p. 166, No. 560). In the J.B. Horion sale at
Brussels (1 September 1788 et seqq., lot 19) we hear of “Un Tableau repré­
sentant les quatre Dofteurs de l’Eglise” (oil on panel, 65 : 46 cm.), which also
may well be identical with the work engraved by Van Dalen. The item in the
sale is described, without any discussion, as a “ sketch” by both Smith (op. cit.,
ii,
60.
No. 658) and Rooses (op. cit., 11, p. 195).
THE FOUR LATIN DOCTORS OF THE CHURCH
(Fig. 104)
Oil on canvas; 209.5 : 2 52-5 cmBlackburn, Lancashire, StonyhurÜ College.
P r o v e n a n c e : E§tate of Herman de Neyt, Antwerp, 1642; bequeathed by W.T.B.
Lund, in the second half of the nineteenth century.
81
C o p ie s : ( i ) Painting, whereabouts unknown; canvas, 165 : 225 cm.; prov.: perhaps
identical with a painting of about the same size in the F. Tronchin sale, Paris, 23 March
1801 et seqq., lot 169 (as Rubens)-, Barbier, sale, Brussels (Fiévez), 12 June 1912,
lot 107 (repr,; as Jordaens)-, (2) Painting, loft; panel, 41 : 54 cm.; formerly Königs­
berg, Städtische Kunstsammlungen, as a loan from the Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum, Ber­
lin; lit.: H. Posse, Die Gemäldegalerie des Kaiser-Friedrich Museums, Berlin, 19 11,
p. 350, No. 773, repr.; (3) Engraving by C. Galle (Fig. 105; VS., p. 64, No. 2).
E x h ib it e d : Works of Art from Private Colleâions, City Art Gallery, Manchester, i960,
No. 77; Jacob Jordaens, National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, 1968, No. 69 (repr.).
L it e r a t u r e : Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, 11, pp. 2 1 1 , 2 12 , No. 759, p. 297, No. 1064
(the engraving and the copy in the F. Tronchin sale) ; Rooses, 11, pp. 19 4 -19 6 , No. 368
(the engraving); P. Tudor-Hart, The Authorship of the " Four Doélors” , The StonyhurSi
Magazine, No. 287, June, 19 30 , pp. 539, 540.
A painting executed by Jacob Jordaens from a design by Rubens.
The four Doftors are represented with their respe&ive attributes: from left
to right St. Jerome with the lion, St. AuguStine with the flaming heart with
an angel pointing to it, St. Gregory with the dove and St. Ambrose with the
beehive. Besides the angel pointing to St. AuguStine’s heart two cherubs are
seen, one with St. Jerome’s crozier and the other carrying St. Ambrose’s bee­
hive. St. AuguStine and St. Jerome are together immersed in the Study of the
Bible.
The picture was first attributed to Jordaens by P. Tudor-Hart in 1930, and
since then this has rightly become the general view. On the other hand we
read under the above-mentioned print by Galle—which corresponds to the
painting in all respefts, apart from two extensions to left and right, which are
clearly by the engraver himself—the information “ P. Paulus Rubens inventor” .
This engraving was dedicated by the well-known art dealer Herman de Neyt
to Willem van Hamme, a licentiate utriusque juris, protonotary apoStolic and
canon of Our Lady’s church at Antwerp and St. Catherine’s at Hoogstraten.
We also know that in the eState of De Neyt, who died in 1642, mention was
made of “Een groot Stuck op doeck in lySte, inhoudende de vier doftoren
vande Heylige Kercke, gemaeft door Rubbens ende Jordaens” ("A large framed
canvas depifting the four Doftors of Holy Church, the work of Rubbens and
Jordaens” ; Denucé, KonUkamers, p. 107).
82
Burchard pointed out the probable connection between the composition
engraved by Galle and the work that belonged to De Neyt. Jafïé, in the cata­
logue of the Ottawa exhibition, 1969, No. 69, also emphasized the identity
of the two and Stated that the painting at StonyhurSt was executed by Jordaens
from a sketch in oils by Rubens. Its Style is characteristic of Jordaens in the
late thirties or even about 1640: see R.-A. d’HulSt, De tekeningen van Jakob
Jordaens, Brussels, 1956, pp. 127-152. It seems quite probable that the work
was one on which Rubens was engaged shortly before his death in 1640, that
he executed the modello but was unable to accomplish the painting, so that
the task fell to Jordaens.
Rooses (op. cit., 11, p. 195) says that, according to information from Mols,
in about 1775 a Quatre dofteurs de l’église, ascribed to Rubens and connected
with Galles engraving, was in the possession of M. Simons at Amsterdam: it
was believed to measure 7 feet (about 220 cm.) across. To judge from the size,
it may have been identical with the above-mentioned copy sold at Brussels.
Jordaens painted at leaSt two variants of the same subject, with slightly
differing measurements and iconography. One of them (oil on canvas, 180 :
243 cm.) is in the Chrysler collection (Cat. Exh. Paintings from the Collection
of Walter P. Chrysler, Jr., Portland, Oregon, 1956, No. n , repr.). The other
(oil on canvas, 219 : 252 cm.) is in the National Museum at Stockholm (G.
Göthe, Musée national de Stockholm, Stockholm, 1900, No- 595, repr.). The
chief difference between these versions and the one at StonyhurSt consists in
iconographie variations as regards St. Jerome. The version in the Chrysler
collection does not show his hat, whereas at Stockholm he is fully attired as a
cardinal.
In conclusion it may be noted that De Neyt’s collection also included “De
vier DoCtoren nae Rubbens, wit ende swert" (“The four Doctors, after Rubens,
white and black” ; Denucé, Konltkamers, p. 99): the grisaille may well be the
engraver’s modello executed by Galle from the large painting.
60 a.
THE FOUR LATIN DOCTORS OF THE CHURCH: OIL SKETCH
Oil on panel.
Whereabouts unknown; presumably lotf.
P r o v e n a n c e : ? Eftate of Jeremias Wildens, 1653,
83
The modello for Jordaens’s painting may have been in Jeremias Wildens’s
collection. The inventory of the latter’s estate, drawn up in 1653, refers to “De
vier DoCtoren geschift [sic] van Rubbens” (“The Four Doctors, a sketch, by
Rubens” ; Denucé, Konftkamers, p. 166; the word geschift is misspelt geschift).
It may be recalled that Wildens was also the owner of “The four Doctors
wearing golden copes, by Rubbens” which, as I mentioned above, is perhaps to
be identified with the composition engraved by C. van Dalen the Younger
(No. 59; Fig. 106).
61 .
THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. ADRIAN
Oil on panel or canvas; approximately 310 : 220 cm.
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loft.
Painting (Fig. 107), whereabouts unknown; canvas, 312 : 220 cm.; prov.:
Douai, Chartreuse, until 1792; Douai, Musée des Beaux-Arts, 1869, Cat. N° 339; Ant­
C o p ie s : ( i )
werp, Sam Hartveld, 19 3 1; lit.: Catalogue des Ouvrages de Peinture, Sculpture, Dessin,
Gravure et Lithographie... du Musée de Douai, Douai, 1869, PP- 140. 14 1, N ° 339; M.
DechriSté, Les tableaux, vases sacrés et autres objets précieux appartenant aux Eglises
Abbatiales, Collégiales et Paroissiales,., de Douai et de son Arrondissement au moment
de la Révolution, Mémoires de la Société d’Agriculture, de Sciences et d’Arts séant à
Douai, 2nd series, xiii, 1874-76, pp. 199, 207; (2) Needlework panel, whereabouts
unknown; approximately 2 13 : 142 cm.; prov.: sale, London (Christie’s), 25 March
1959, lot 122.
L it e r a t u r e : R.-A. d’HulSt, De tekeningen van Jakob Jordaens, Brussels, 19 56 , p. 1 3 2 ;
C. Van de Velde, Recente aanwinften van het Rubenshuis. in. Een schets van P.P. Rubens:
De Marteling van de heilige Adrianus, Antwerpen, xii, 1966, pp. 4 1-4 9 .
According to the Life of Adrian in the fifth-century Martyrologium Hieronymianum, this Saint was an officer at the court of the emperor Maximian; he
embraced Christianity and was put to death in 290. His wife Natalia, who
became a Christian before him, supported him in his martyrdom. He was firSt
cruelly scourged, after which his feet and hands were cut off {Legenda Aurea,
il, col. 140-146; AA. SS., September, in).
On the left of the pifture, the naked martyr is held by a hangman’s assistant
under the right shoulder. On the right, another myrmidon holds the Saint’s
84
right leg on an anvil, while a third hoiSts his axe to cut it off. In this scene
there is also a prieSt pointing to a Statue of Apollo, a half-naked Moor and a
youth, and four or five soldiers in armour including two officers on horseback.
The aftion takes place on the Steps in front of a building, probably a temple,
two pillars of which are visible. In the upper part of the picture are two angels,
one holding a laurel wreath with which to crown the Saint.
Rubens did not follow the legend very closely: he represents St. Adrian
with his feet intaft but with Stumps for arms, whereas the text States that his
feet were cut off firSt. Another deviation from the traditional account is that
Natalia is not present at the execution.
The martyr’s attitude and the arrangement of the surrounding figures seem
closely akin to those of Christ and the persons burying and mourning him in
Raphael’s Entombment; Rubens may have seen this work in the Borghese Gal­
lery at Rome, where it has hung since March 1608 (K.d.K., Raffael, p. 48).
The date, proposed by Burchard, of shortly before 1620 was confirmed by
Van de Velde through comparison with other compositions of this date or some­
what earlier. There is a close similarity with the arrangement of figures in The
Martyrdom of St. Laurence in the Alte Pinakothek at Munich (11, No. 126),
where there is also a helmeted horseman carrying a banner. The figure of
St. Adrian himself closely resembles that of the naked man lying in the
foreground of The Miracles of St. Francis Xavier in the KunSthiStorisches
Museum at Vienna (11, No. 104). The henchman laying hold of St. Adrian
on the left displays, in reverse, the same attitude as the Prodigal Son in the
pifture of that name in the Royal Museum at Antwerp (K.d.K., p. 182). The
trunk and left arm of the man about to cut off the Saint’s foot correspond to
those of the figure of Christ in St. Dominic and St. Francis of Assisi Protecting
the World from the Wrath of Chrift, in the Musée des Beaux-Arts at Lyons
(No. 88, Fig. 15 1) .
As Van de Velde has suggested, there is some indication that this loSt altarpiece was ordered for a church or convent in Artois or Picardy, where St. Adrian
was much venerated. In the firSt place, the copy that was in the possession of
Sam Hartveld in 19 31 and previously in the Musée des Beaux-Arts at Douai
had been in the Carthusian monastery in that town until 1792. Secondly, Nico­
las Poussin, in his Martyrdom of St. Erasmus painted for St. Peter’s in Rome
in 1628-29 (A. Blunt, Nicolas Poussin, hi, London, 1969, pi. 45), adopted
several motifs from the present work: he muSt therefore have seen either the
85
original or a copy before he left northern France in the autumn of 1623.
Finally, it may be observed that around 1620, the approximate date of this
painting, Rubens was entrusted with several orders for churches in what is
now northern France, e.g. at Arras, Cambrai, Lille and Valenciennes,
61a.
THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. ADRIAN: OIL SKETCH
(Fig.
10 8 )
Oil on panel; 32 : 40 cm. Cut down above and below; originally approximately 43 : 40
cm. Above on the left, a re&angle of 15.5 : 7.5 cm. was inserted during a restoration.
Antwerp, Rubenshuis, Inv. No. S. 136.
P r o v e n a n c e : The panel is probably that lifted in the inventory of Jacob Horremans,
Antwerp 6-7 May 1678 (Denucé, Konßkamers, p. 271: "Noch een schetse vanden selven [Rubens], representerende de Marterye van Sinte Adrianus” ) ; sale, London, 7 May
1937, lot 80 (the subjedt described as “The Martyrdom of a Saint” ); Henry Leroux,
Versailles, who sold it to the Rubenshuis in 1959.
E x h ib it e d : Rotterdam,
1953-54, No. 22 (repr.).
L it e r a t u r e : Van Puyvelde, p. 186, repr.; M. Jaffé, Rubens at Rotterdam, The Bur­
lington Magazine, xcvi, 1954, p. 57; C. Van de Velde, Recente aanwinsten van bet
Rubenshuis, in. Een schets van P.P. Rubens: De Marteling van de heilige Adrianus,
Antwerpen, xii, 1966, pp. 41-49, repr. on p. 43; d’Hulfl, 1968, p. 93, No. 8, pi. 4.
There are appreciable differences between the sketch and the final version,
especially in the background architecture. To the left of the sketch we see the
temple façade, placed further forward, with plain pillars surmounted by
Corinthian capitals. On the right is a round Structure which does not figure at
all in the completed work; as Van de Velde has pointed out, it shows great
similarity, in reverse, with a Structure in the left background of The Martyrdom
of St. Catherine, painted at about the same time for St. Catherine’s church at
Lille (No. 78, Fig. 133). This motif may be derived from the famous tapeStry
from Raphael’s cartoon of St. Paul and St. Barnabas at Lyftra {K.d.K., Raffael,
p. 146). The two hovering angels are also not present in the sketch. The
Statue of Apollo can be seen almost full-length. The executioner on the left
does not have a Moorish appearance, and the horseman on the extreme right
is not carrying a banner.
From a comparison between the design and the final work it appears that
the sketch muSt originally have been considerably higher : a Strip of about
10 cm, muSt be imagined along the bottom, and of about i cm. at the top.
62.
THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. ANDREW
(Fig. 109)
011 on canvas; 306 : 216 cm.
Madrid, Real Hospital de San Andrés de los Flamencos.
P r o v e n a n c e : Chapel of the Ancient Hospital of San Andrés de los Flamencos; tempor­
arily removed to the Escorial between the end of the XVIIIth century and 1844; removed
to the chapel of the new Hospital of San Andrés de los Flamencos, 1877.
Co p y :
Engraving by K.G. Thelott, 1816, (V.5 ., p. 95, No. 7).
Ex h ib it e d :
Copy 2
L’art Flamand dans les Collefiions Espagnoles, Groeninge Museum, Bruges,
No. 102 (repr.).
A. Palomino, El Museo Piâârico, n i, Madrid, 1724, p. 298; Descamps,
Vie, p. 319 ; Michel, 177 1, p. 3 17 ; N. Caïmo, Voyage d’Espagne, fait en l’année 1733,
II, Paris, 1772, p. 13 3; R. Cumberland, Anecdotes of eminent Painters in Spain, 2nd
L it e r a t u r e :
ed., I, London, 1787, p. 187; Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, 11, p. 130; C. JuSti, Diego
Velazquez und sein fahrhundert, I, Bonn, 1888, p. 245; Rooses, 11, pp. 216-218, No.
389; W. Stirling-Maxwell, Annals of the Artills of Spain, 11, London, 1891, p. 639;
M. Rooses, De schenker der Mortelle van den H. Andreas aan het galthuis der Vlamin­
gen te Madrid, Rubens-Bulletijn, V, 1900, pp. 1 2 1- 13 7 ; M. Rooses, Trois pages d'histoire
rubênienne, Bulletin de l’Académie royale de Belgique ( Classe des Beaux-Arts), 1900,
pp. 261-267; Michel, p. 554; K.d.K., ed. Rosenberg, p. 424; Dillon, p. 17 1, pl.
ccccxin; K.d.K., p. 416; Janson, Véronèse-Rubens, p. 35.
According to an apocryphal tradition, St. Andrew was crucified in the Greek
town of Patras by order of the Roman proconsul Egeas. In this painting Rubens
faithfully depiâs the ApoStles laSt moments as described by Jacopo de Voragine
{Legenda Aurea, i, cols. 27, 28). After St. Andrew had hung on the cross for
two days, during which time he continued to preach to a crowd of 20000
people, the proconsul offered to release him at the crowd’s entreaty; but the
Saint replied that he did not wish to descend from the cross alive, as God was
awaiting him. At that moment he was surrounded by a bright glow of light,
whereupon he gave up the ghoSt.
87
The cross with the t
of the Saint fills about two-thirds of the pifture.
Egeas, on horseback 01
right, has juSt ordered the executioners to release
him. Below, on the lef
>men are unfastening his right leg, while a third,
on a ladder, is freeing
ght arm; a fourth man, lower down on the right,
is loosening the rope r^i | the ApoStles waist. At the top of the pifture, a ray
of light from heaven iJ
1 tes the Saint’s figure. On the left are two women:
one, at the edge of the pifture, is Standing upright, and in front of her, nearer
the middle, is one on her knees, looking up at Egeas with entreaty and Stretch­
ing out her arms to him. One of the women may represent Egeas’s wife Maximilla, who was converted to Christianity by the Saint. Some figures in the
background, including a woman with a child, have been watching the execution
and are no doubt part of the crowd which begged Egeas to spare the ApoStles
life. Above, on the right, two or three small angels are seen hovering with a
crown of laurel and the martyr’s palm.
Rubens’s model for this painting was an altarpiece of the same title executed
by Otto van Veen between 1594 and 1599 for St. Andrew’s church at Antwerp
(J. Müller Hofstede, Zum Werke des Otto van Veen 1590-1600, Bulletin des
Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, vi, 1957, Fig. 1 1 on p. 146).
There we see the martyr on the cross and the proconsul on horseback in the
same attitude, pointing to the Saint, and the crowd is also visible in the back­
ground behind the cross-beams. However, we can also recognize in Rubens’s
composition that of his own Coup de Lance of c. 1620, originally in the Fran­
ciscan church at Antwerp and now in the Museum there (K.d.K., p. 216). Claire
Janson, for her part, pointed out that the figure of the horseman on the right
was inspired by Veronese. This and similar figures in other piftures of martyrs
by Rubens do in faft ultimately derive from works by the Venetian master, e.g.
his Martyrdom of St- George in San Giorgio at Verona (Fiocco, Veronese, pi.
LVii). The present composition may also owe something to Hellenistic and
Roman motifs: e.g. the martyr’s head is very like that of Laocoön, and the
female suppliant is reminiscent of a figure in a similar attitude, symbolizing a
conquered province, in a Roman relief that was formerly in the Villa Medici
at Rome (P. Santo Bartoli, Admiranda Romanarum Antiquitatum,.., Rome,
1664-67, pl. 40). At an earlier date Rubens had in faft used the motif of the
suppliant in reverse in a sketch for The Entry of Henry IV into Paris, now in
the Staatliche Museen in Berlin-Dahlem (K.d.K., p. 318).
88
By a wiil dated 24 April 1639 this painting was bequeathed by Jan van
Vucht, the Madrid agent of Balthasar Moretus’s printing works, to the Real
Hospital de San Andrés de los Flamencos, a hoStel for Flemings in the Spanish
capital. The passage reads: “Mando se entregue al dh0 ospital el quadro del
martirio del glorioso san andres que e hecho traer de flandes y es pintura de la
mano del famoso maeStro p° pablo Rubens y al dh0 quadro se le heche un
marco como lo pide el mismo quadro de la mejor escultura que se pudiere â
eleftion de abraan lers y Ju° beymar ebaniSta criados de su magd. Y ansi mismo
se hagan sus colurnas y rremates y lo demas que fuere nezes0 â la mysma elec­
tion de los susodhos lo quai a de ser en el altar mayor del dh0 ospital y lo que
todo eSto coftare se a de pagar de lo que ansi debo à las dhas limosnas de mi
dispusizion” (M. Rooses, De schenker der Kartelle van den H. Andreas..., op.
cit., p. 134). It appears from this that the pifture was not yet framed—the
work of doing so was to be entrusted to the cabinet-makers Abraham Lers and
Juliaan Beymar—and it would thus seem that it had been painted only a short
time before. We may therefore take it as probable that it was painted and
delivered in 1638 or, at the latent, early in 1639.
Jan van Vucht and Rubens were not Strangers: they had corresponded in
1629-30, when Van Vucht had commissioned other works from Rubens
(.Rooses-Ruelens, v, pp. 195, 196, 294, 300, 304, 331, 333, 338).
62a.
THE MARTYRDOM O F ST. ANDREW: DRAWING
(Fig.
Iio )
Pen and brown ink on white paper; 270 : 184 mm.
Rotterdam, Museum Boymans-van Beuningen. Inv. No. Rubens 9.
P r o v e n a n c e : F.J.O. Boymans (Utrecht, 1767-1847); part of the initial collection of
the Museum Boymans, at its foundation, 1847.
L it e r a t u r e :
Catalogus van teekeningen in het museum te Rotterdam, Rotterdam, 1852,
No. 266 (as anonymous work of the school of Van Dyck) ; Beschrijving der teekeningen
in het Museum te Rotterdam, Rotterdam, 1869, No. 13 (as anonymous work of the
school of Van Dyck); J. Müller Hofstede, Opmerkingen bij enige tekeningen van Rubens
in het Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, Bulletin Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, xm,
1962, pp. 116 - 118 .
89
This is a firSt rough sketch for the altar-piece at San Andrés de los Flamencos
in Madrid.
Although executed loosely and with little detail, this drawing shows clearly
the main lines of the composition of the final altar-piece. The figures of the
crucified Saint, the proconsul on horseback and the onlookers are disposed in
the same way, though the rider’s attitude and that of his horse are different.
The proconsul is seen in profile; the horse’s flank is towards the spectator and
its head is turned to the left. Below on the left we recognize the kneeling
woman, but in the drawing her head and right arm form a gesture very similar
to that of the soldier who occupies about the same position in the final version.
On the reverse of the sheet is a very sketchy drawing of two figures in rapid
movement: these are connected with The Horrors of War in the Pitti Palace
at Florence (K d . K p. 428), a work painted in c. 1637-38, i.e. at much the
same time as the St. Andrew altar-piece.
62b.
THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. ANDREW: OIL SKETCH OR DRAWING
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loft.
P r o v e n a n c e : Rubens’s estate, 16 4 1,
C o p ie s : ( i ) Drawing (Fig. h i ) , London, British Museum, No. 1898.3.28.2; 578 : 443
mm.; prov.: Crozat, sale, Paris, 10 April 174 1 et seqq., lot 829 (as Rubens)-, La Live
de Jully, sale, Paris, 2 -14 May 1770, lot 1680 (as Rubens)-, P.J. Mariette, sale, Paris, 15
November 1775 et seqq., lot 996 (as Rubens)-, Raudon de Boisset, sale, Paris, 27 February
1777 et seqq, (as Rubens); Vassal de St. Hubert, sale, Paris, 29 March 1779 et seqq.,
lot 25 (as Rubens) ; Le Brun, sale, Paris, n April 179 1 (as Rubens); Lagoy; T. Lawrence,
London; lit.: Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, 11, p. 10, No. 13 (as Rubens); Rooses, 11,
p. 218, under No. 389; Hind, 11, p. 10, No. 13 (as Rubens); Held, 1, p. 152 (as only
retouched by Rubens); J. Müller Hofstede, Zum zeichnerischen Werk von Rubens,
Wallraf-Richartz fahrbuch, x x v ii , 1965, p. 343; (2) Drawing, Haarlem, Teylers Museum,
No. U - i; 593 : 460 mm.; lit.: Hind, p. 10 under No. 13 ; (3) Engraving (Fig. 112 )
published by J. Dierckx, probably after (1) (VS., p. 95, No. 6 ); (4) Engraving by A.
Voet, probably after (2) (K S., p. 95, No. 5).
There are many differences between this composition, known only from copies,
and the painting at Madrid. Behind the back of the kneeling woman is a man,
also kneeling, with his head turned towards the proconsul. On the extreme
90
left, behind the woman Standing upright, the head of a third female figure can
be seen. As in the version in the Boymans-van Beuningen Museum (No. 62a;
Fig. n o ) , the proconsul is Still in profile. His upraised hand is in front of the
executioner’s outstretched arm and not of the Saint’s right leg. The right hand
of the kneeling woman is drawn in profile. From the nature of these differences
and from the more concentrated Structure of the altar-piece in San Andrés de
los Flamencos, we may assume that the present composition was the modello
for that painting.
Hind regarded the engraver’s modello in the British Museum (Fig. h i ) as
a drawing by Rubens himself. He also identified it with a work mentioned as
follows in the list of the painter’s debts at the moment of his death: "Aen
het lossen van sekere teeckeninge van St. Andries, mette plaete daeraff, die den
heer afflyvigen gegeven hadde in handen van eenen plaetsnyder, van der Does
genoemt, die deselve verseth hadde, betaelt gl. 23” (“For the engraving of a
certain drawing of St. Andrew with the copper plate thereof, which the deceas­
ed had entrusted to an engraver named Van der Does: paid 23 guilders” ;
Denucé, Konftkamers, p. 83). The anonymous engraving published by Jan
Dierckx was thought by Rooses and Hind to be identical with the one made
by Antoon van der Does. Burchard did not agree with Hind’s attribution of
the modello to Rubens, but he thought it probable that the original on which
it was based was identical with that recorded in Rubens’s eState. However,
this view muSt be treated with some reserve, as the name of Van der Does is
missing from the engravings of the Martyrdom. It is also possible that the
St. Andrew mentioned in the inventory is an entirely different work, of which
we know nothing.
63.
THE BLESSED ANNA DE JÉSUS
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loSl.
C o p ie s : ( i ) Painting, whereabouts unknown; canvas, 10 0 : 82 cm.; prov.: Brussels,
Convent of the Carmelite Nuns; lit.: C. Emond, L’iconographie carmélitaine dans les
anciens Pays-Bas méridionaux, 1, 19 6 1, pp. 19 7, 19 8 ; (2 ) Painting, whereabouts un­
known; canvas, 1 2 3 : 83 cm.; prov.: Convent “ zu Himmelspforten” , near Würzburg;
(3) Engraving by Cornelis I Galle (Fig. 1 1 5 ; VS., p. 18 1, No. 231).
91
L i t e r a t u r e : Smith, Catalogue Rationné, ii, 1830, p. 297, No. 1067; Rooses, II, p. 357,
No. 497; IV, p. 125; T. Rauch, D ie Ehrw. Anna von Jesus und Rubens, D ie Christliche
KunSt, 1934, pp. 49-58; C. Emond, L ’iconographie carmélitaine dans les anciens PaysBas méridionaux, I, Brussels, 1961, pp. 197, 198.
The Blessed Anna de Jésus, a Discalced Carmelite and one of the firSt com­
panions of St. Teresa of Avila, is known to have founded several convents of
her order in the Southern Netherlands e.g. at Brussels, Louvain, Mons, Malines
and Ghent (Marie-Joseph, Anne de Jésus, in Dictionnaire d’HiSloire et de Géo­
graphie ecclêsiaSliques, ni, Paris, 1904, cols. 333-340).
The Blessed Anna is shown half-length; she is making an offering of her
heart, inflamed by love, to the Eucharist, depifted in the form of a chalice and
HoSt presented to her by a cherub. This theme of her self-immolation to the
Holy Sacrament was the subject, before Rubens, of an engraving by Antoon
Wierix (C. Emond, op. cit., 11, p. 173, fig. 88), which seems to have served
Rubens as a model from the point of view of composition also, as the Blessed
Anna’s attitude is very similar in both works. She is identified in the firSt
instance by the inscription below Galles engraving: “Vera effigies v.M.
a ie s v ,
annae
Haec, S.M. Teresiae socia, virtutum eius Hæres specialis, SS.mo Sacra­
mento devotissima, ordinem suum in Francia et Belgio fundavit” (“True face
of the Blessed Mother Anna de Jésus, companion of St. Teresa, special heir of
her virtues, moSt devoted to the Holy Sacrament, she founded her order in
France and Belgium” ). Her full, fleshy face is somewhat like St. Teresa (e.g.
II,
No. 155), which explains the faft that at a later Stage of the engraving she
was given a saint’s halo and the inscription was changed to “s.
teresa ”
64.
m a t e r e t v ir g o
(VS., p. 18 1, under No. 231).
THE DEATH OF ST. ANTHONY ABBOT
(Fig. 1x3)
Oil on canvas; 204 : 146 cm.
Pommersfelden, CaSlle WeissenStein, Count Schönborn.
P r o v e p a n c e : ? St. John’s Church, ’s Hertogenbosch; purchased, at the latent in 1719, for
the collection of prince-bishop Lothar of Schönborn; Count of Schönbom, sale, Paris,
17-2 3 May 1867, lot 165 (as Crayer), but withdrawn to the caStle of Pommersfelden.
92
C o p ies: ( i )
Painting (Fig. 114 ), ’s Hertogenbosch, St. John’s Church; canvas, ap­
proximately 200 : 150 cm.; (2) Drawing, whereabouts unknown; 300 : 250 mm.; prov.:
Havelsky, Brno; lit.: H. Leporini, A hitherto unknown drawing by Rubens, The Burling­
ton Magazine, l i i i , 1928, pp. 134, 138, repr. (as Rubens)-, (3) Drawing after the head
of St. Anthony, Copenhagen, Print Room of the Statens Museum for KunSt, “RubensCantoor”, No. v, 63. (4), (5)
LITERATURE: J.R. Byss, Fürtrefflicher Gemäld- und Bilderschatz, So ln denen Gallerie
und Zimmern, des Churfürftl. Pommersjeldischen... Privatschloss zu finden ill, Bamberg,
1719, Galerie No. 122; S. Kleiner, Wahrhafte Vorstellung beyder Hoch-Gräfl. Schlösser
Weissenftein ob Pommersfeld und Geibach, Augsburg, 1728, not paginated; Beschreibung
des fürtrefflichen Gemähld und Bilder Schützes, welcher in denen hochgräflichen Schlöss­
ern und Gehauen Deren Reichs Grafen Von Schönborn, Buchheim, Wolffthal, etc... zu
ersehen und zu finden, Würzburg, 1746, No. 36; Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, 11, p. 299,
No. 1075; Katalog der gräflich Schönbornschen Bilder-Gallerie zu Pommersfelden,
Würzburg, 1857, No. 530 (as School of Rubens) ; Mrs. Jameson, Sacred and Legendary
Art, il, London, 1857, p. 753; Parthey, 11, p. 444, No. 26 (as Art und Schule des Rubens) ;
Rooses, il, pp. 218, 219, No. 391; T. von Frimmel, Verzeichnis der Gemälde in gräfl.
Schönborn-Wiesentheid’sehen Besitze, Pommersfelden, 1894, No. 475 (as Atelier des
Rubens, Ein Sterbender Heiliger) ; M. Rooses, Rubens en Ophovius, Rubens-Bulletijn, V,
3:897, PP- I(32, 163; Oldenbourg, 1922, pp. 103, 104 (as loft) ; H. Leporini, A hitherto
unknown drawing by Rubens, The Burlington Magazine, l i i i , 1928, pp. 134, 139; H.
Hantsch and H. Fischer, Schloss Weissenftein ob Pommersfelden der Grafen von Schön­
born. Führer und Gemäldeverzeichnis, Bamberg, n.d., p. 27, No. 475.
The account of the hermit’s laSt hours is ultimately based on the Vita by his
contemporary St. Athanasius. According to this, St. Anthony died in 356 at the
age of 105 in his hermitage on Mount Kolzim, near the Red Sea. Shortly
before, he commanded his disciples Macarius and Amathas to bury his body
in secret in order that it should not be embalmed after the Egyptian cuStom,
and to distribute his garments. The sheepskin and threadbare cloak on which
he lay were to be given to the patriarch Athanasius, and another sheepskin to
the bishop St. Serapion, while the disciples were to keep their master’s camelhair robe (AA.SS., January, 11).
St Anthony is here seen lying on a bed and making known his laSt wishes.
A crucifix is seen on the blanket. On the left we recognize St. Athanasius
by his patriarchal cross and pallium: contrary to the latter’s account, St. An­
thony is shown giving him the cloak direftly. Between the two Saints one of
the disciples is seen Straightening the dying man’s pillow. On the right St.
93
Serapion is receiving another cloak: here again it is contrary to the Story that
he should be given it in person, and moreover the cloak should be a sheepskin.
Between Saints Serapion and Anthony we see another disciple holding a candle;
on his breaSt is the Tau sign with two small bells, the attribute of St. Anthony
and his fellow-hermits (L. Réau, Iconographie de l’art chrétien, ni, i, Paris,
1958, p. 105). In the foreground two other disciples kneel by the bed, holding
the Saint’s camel-hair robe. On the shoulder of the right-hand one of these we
also see the Tau sign and bells. Under the bed can be seen the head of St.
Anthony’s attribute, the pig. In the lower right-hand corner is a holy-water
Stoup of copper with an aspergillum. At the top two cherubs hover in a glow
of heavenly light, bringing the dying Saint a laurel wreath.
The composition, and especially the arrangement of the bystanders in a
circle round the bed, which is placed diagonally, seems to be direftly derived
from fifteenth-century representations of the Virgin’s death-bed. Special atten­
tion should be paid here to Martin Schongauer’s print (J. Baum, Martin Schongauer, Vienna, 1948, pi. 8) and the painting by Hugo van der Goes in the
Groeninge Museum at Bruges (M.J. Friedländer, Die altniederländische Male­
rei,
IV,
Berlin, 1926, pi. 14). There is a close resemblance between the icon­
ographie details in this work and Pieter Bruegel’s Death of the Virgin, a panel
that was in Rubens’s possession (Denucê, Konïtkamers, p. 64, No. 193) and
is now at Upton House, Banbury (F. Grossmann, Bruegel: The Paintings,
London, 1966, pi. 77). In both compositions there is a crucifix at the foot of
the bed and, in front of it, a holy-water Stoup and sprinkler; in both, the dying
person’s pillow is being set Straight, in Rubens’s work by a disciple and in
Bruegel’s by a maid. The Style of the Rubens pifture is typical of his work
around 16 15: the figures monumentally conceived and very plastically drawn,
the local colouring and Striking contrasts of light with sharply caSt shadows.
It may be, as Rooses suggested, that this painting is identical with one of
St. Anthony by Rubens that is mentioned several times in March 16 31 in the
diarium of Michiel Ophovius, then bishop of ’s Hertogenbosch : “ 10 Martii...
Recepi litteras a D° Arnoldo Godefredi van Aken Antverpiae, quibus significat,
uxorem de Moij (Buscod.) ad inStantiam junioris Swertii (canonici Buscod.)
vendidisse tabulam S. Antonii etc. Scripsi quoque de tabula, pifta per Rubens,
S. Antonii, quae debetur D° Arnoldo van Aken, quam vendidit uxor de Moij...
Domca 16 Martii... In prandio nemo nisi Da Taeterbeeck, de Moij Sylvaedu94
censis, piftor et Swertius canonicus; venerunt cum PaStore in Mirloo. Traftavi
negotium van Aken de ornamentis; et nec tabula vendita, nec ornamenta alie­
nata etc.; imo accusabant ab Aken, quod quinque candelabra aenea altaris S.
Antonii abstulisset et aliqua ornamenta...” (Diarium ofte Journael van den
letten Bisschop van ’ s-Hertogenbosche Ophovius..., published in M. Rooses,
Rubens en Ophovius, op. cit., pp. 162, 163 (incorrect and incomplete) and A.
Frenken, Het Dagboek van Michael Ophovius, 4 AuguUus 1629 - einde 1631,
Bossche Bijdragen, xv, 1-3, 1938, pp, 192, 194). From this we learn that the
painting had changed owners : Arnold Godfried van Aken, who in 1629 was
paStor of St. Peter’s church at ’s Hertogenbosch and later Studied at Louvain
(A. Frenken, op. cit., p. 192, n. 3), writes to Ophovius that Vrouw de Moij
of ’s Hertogenbosch had, with the knowledge of Canon Swertius there, sold
the picture of St. Anthony from a church that is not named but was probably
St, John’s, in the north aisle of which the hatters’ guild had an altar dedicated
to St. Anthony (J.C.A. Hezenmans, De St. Janskerk te ’s Hertogenbosch en
haar geschiedenis, ’s Hertogenbosch, 1866, p. 334). However, in a conversation
with Ophovius shortly afterwards, Rubens and Vrouw de Moij declared that
she had not sold anything from St. Anthony’s altar; on the contrary, they ac­
cused Van Aken of having made away with five copper candelabra and other
ornaments from the altar. Unfortunately, the diary does not tell us the outcome
of this regrettable dispute. It was presumably connected with the alienation of
works of art from St. John’s church in the troubled times immediately after
the capture of ’s Hertogenbosch by the troops of the States-General in Sep­
tember 1629, when the guilds and craftsmen removed pictures and other
decorations from their chapels in the cathedral. Some of the works of art
remained on the guilds’ premises thereafter; others were dispersed and some
came into South Netherlandish ownership (J.C.A. Hezenmans, op. cit., p. 275).
There are some signs to suggest that Rooses’s presumption is correct. About
the time when this pifture was painted, i.e. around 16x5, much work was being
done to embellish the cathedral, which had been severely damaged in the
religious wars of the later sixteenth century (Hezenmans, op. cit., pp. 259271). There is Still in the cathedral a seventeenth-century copy of the pifture
now at Pommersfelden (Fig. 114 ), and it is not improbable that this was com­
missioned by the hatters’ guild in order to replace the then loft original, now
at Pommersfelden.
95
65 .
ST. AUGUSTINE: OIL SKETCH (F ig . I l 6 )
Oil on panel; 38 : 17 cm.
Oxford, Ashmolean Museum. No. 379.
P r o v e n a n c e : R. Cosway, sale, London, 17 May 1821, lot 28; presented to the Ashmo­
lean Museum by Mr. Chambers Hall, 1855.
E x h ib it e d : Brussels, 19 37, No. 20.
L it e r a t u r e : P. Buschmann, Rubens en Van Dyck in het Ashmolean Museum te Oxford,
Onze KunSt, xv, 1916, p. 24, repr.; Catalogue of Paintings in the Ashmolean Museum,
Oxford, 1961, No. 379.
The Saint is depiâted full-length, wearing the black habit of the Auguftinian
Hermits, who regarded him as their founder. Over the habit he wears a heavy
brocaded cope, in addition to the episcopal insignia of the mitre and crozier.
In his left hand he holds a heart in flames, pierced by an arrow, in allusion to
his words concerning the Divine love: “Sagittaveras tu cor nostrum caritate
tua et geStabamus verba tua transfixa visceribus” (Confessions, ix, 2).
It is suggested in the Ashmolean Museum catalogue that this may have been
a sketch for one of the figures in The Reed Presence in the Holy Sacrament,
painted about 1610, in St. Paul’s church at Antwerp (No. 56; Fig. 99). It
certainly resembles St. Ambrose in the foreground of the altarpiece at St.
Paul’s, but the two works are unlikely to be direftly connefted. In the firSt
place the Saint represented in the panel is a different one, and secondly the
figure is only an approximate repetition of the St. AuguStine, as well as being
in reverse. In view of the smallness of the sketch, it seems safest to regard
it provisionally as the design for the right-hand panel of a triptych that was
never completed or has been loft. We may agree with the author of the cata­
logue in dating the sketch about 16 10 ; it may be noted that the elongated body
and small head (about one-tenth of the body's total length) are very typical of
Rubens’s work in his earlieft years at Antwerp. The saints in the foreground of
the St. Paul’s altarpiece are of the same type. There is a Still more ftriking
comparison with the sketch for the outer sides of the triptych of The Elevation
of the Cross ( 16 10 -11) in the Dulwich College Gallery (The Dulwich Piftures,
96
London, 1954, p. 17, Nos- 40 and 40 A, repr.). Apart from the similarity of
bodily type in the four saints represented, there is also a similarity of technique
in the marked impaSto and the way it is enlivened by a few lighter Strokes that
also suggest the effeft of light on the saints’ robes.
At some time after 1821 the panel was enlarged to a width of 29 cm., and
at the same time the background was painted over. In 1948 the work was
restored and was once more given its original dimensions.
66.
ST. AUGUSTINE BETWEEN CHRIST AND THE HOLY VIRGIN
(Fig. II7 )
Oil on canvas; 237 : 179 cm.
Madrid, Academia de San Fernando. No. 685.
P r o v e n a n c e : Jesuit College, Alcala de Henarés; removed to the Jesuit College of San
Isidoro, Madrid, by 1772; removed to the Academia de San Fernando, Madrid, between
1829 and 1852.
L it e r a t u r e : A. Palomino, El Museo Piftorico, in, Madrid, 1724, p. 299; [A.J. Dezallier
d’Argenville], Abrégé de la vie des plus fameux peintres, in, Paris, 1762, p. 303; A.
Ponz, Viage de Espana, 1, Madrid, 1772, p. 306; N. Caïmo, Voyage d'Espagne, fait en
l’année 1 753, Paris, 1772, pp. 129, 137; Conde de Maule, Viage de Espana, Francia e
Italia, xi, Cadiz, 1812, p. 3 1; Rooses, il, p. 220, No. 393; K .d.K ., ed. Rosenberg, p. 17;
W. Bode, Kritik und Chronologie der Gemälde von Peter Paul Rubens, Zeitschrift für
bildende Kunü, n .f ,, x v i , 1905, p. 201; G. Glück, Klassiker der KunSt in Gesamtaus­
gaben Bd. V, KunStgeschichtliche Anzeigen, u, 1905, p. 54; Dillon, pp. 90, 198, pl.
cxxxi; K J.K ., p. 95; E. Tormo, Academia de San Fernando Madrid, Madrid, 1929,
p. 36; Glück, ic/33, p. 157; Knipping, 11, Hilversum, 1940, pp. 45, 46, fig. 52; A. Pérez
Sanchez, Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando. Inventario de las Pinturas,
Madrid, 1964, p. 63, No. 685; F. Labrada, Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San
Fernando, Catalogo de las Pinturas, Madrid, 1965, p. 75, No. 685.
This pifture is based on an apocryphal Story that St. AuguStine, offered the
choice of seeking refreshment in the blood of Christ or in Mary’s milk, ex­
pressed his indecision in the verse: “ Positus in medio, quo me vertam nescio,
hic pascor a vulnere, hic laftor ab ubere.” (For this legend see especially
Knipping, n, pp. 44-48).
97
St. AuguStine of Hippo, clad as a member of the Order named after him,
is seen in the middle of the picture kneeling on two books, no doubt signifying
his role as a Doftor of the Church. His arms are crossed and he is looking
upwards. To the left is Christ with his cross, unclothed and bleeding from the
wound in his side. To the right is the Virgin, who has bared her right breaSt
as if to give suck. The Saint’s mitre and crozier lie in the foreground on the
extreme left.
Christ’s body, inclined to the left, is modelled closely on the “Torso di
Fauno” which belonged to the Gaddi family at Florence until 1778 and is now
in the Ufiizi (G.A. Mansuelli, Gdlerie degli Uffizi. Le Sculture,
I,
Florence,
1958, No. 126, Fig. 127). Altogether the attitude of Christ shows a Strong
antique influence: Rubens was undoubtedly inspired by the motif of Zeus in
triumph, famous from many classical and poStclassical models.
This work was formerly wrongly associated with one of Rubens’s visits to
Spain. Thus Rooses and Rosenberg sought to date it 1603, while Tormo thought
it might have been painted in 1628. Glück in his review of Rosenberg’s mono­
graph suggested a date of about 16 1 1; but Bode and Oldenbourg were able
to show that it muSt date from about 1615. The characteristic feature is the
“classical” conception of the middle of the second decade, expressed in the
monumental and highly plaStic treatment of the figures, their cool local colour­
ing and sharply indicated shadows.
67.
ST. AUGUSTINE AT THE SEASHORE
(Fig.
Il8 )
Oil on canvas; 264 : 175 cm.; enlarged at four sides.
Prague, N ârodni Galerie.
No. 483.
St. Thomas’s Church, the former church of the AuguStinians, Prague;
removed to the Nârodni Galerie, Prague, 1896.
Pro ven an ce:
Copy 1
E x h ib ite d : Flâmskâ figurâlni malba i j . Boleti v pra&skê N ârodni galerii, Nârodni
Galerie, Prague, 1964, No. ix.
L it e r a t u r e : Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, 11, p. 298, No. 10 7 4 ; Rooses, 11, p. 2 19 ,
No. 39 2 ; K .d.K ., ed. Rosenberg, p. 4 3 5 ; Dillon, pp. 1 7 1 , 224, pi. ccccxvi; P. Bergner,
98
Katalog det Gemälde-Galerie im Künttlerhause Rudolfnum zu Prag, Prague, 1912, No.
523; K.d.K., p. 422; Van Puyvelde, p. 163; Narodnt Galerie v Praze. Sbirka Itarêho
Umênt, Prague, 1955, No. 483.
The legend here depicted relates how St. AuguStine was walking along the
seashore and meditating on the myStery of the Holy Trinity, when he saw a
boy trying, with the help of a shell, to transfer the waters of the sea into a
small hole in the sand. When he asked why, the youth, who seems to have been
a divine messenger, replied that it would be easier to do this than fathom the
myStery of the Trinity (A A. SS., AuguSt, vi). The source of the legend is not
precisely known, but it existed in the fifteenth century, as shown e.g. by the
small panel by Filippo Lippi, formerly in Princess Eugénie of Oldenburg’s
collection at St. Petersburg (R. Oertel, Fra Filippo Lippi, Vienna, 1942, pi. 52).
The Saint is wearing his episcopal robes.
A cherub,
above on the right, holds
the mitre and crozier in one hand and in the other the Saint’s attribute of a
heart in flames. The boy, scooping with his shell, is in the lower part of the
picture to the right; the Saint is Stretching out an arm towards him. More
shells are on the beach, and gulls are hovering in the air. The monumental
figure of the Saint, bending slightly forward and wrapped in an ample cloak,
recalls that of St. Amandus on the outer side of the left-hand panel of the
Raising of the Cross triptych of 16 10 - 11, now in Antwerp cathedral (K.d.K.,
P- 37)We learn from a chronicle of the AuguStinian monastery at Prague that
Rubens’s paintings for the high altar there, dedicated to St. Thomas—viz. the
present work and The Martyrdom of St. Thomas (11, No. 156)—were deliv­
ered in 1639 and that he was paid 945 guilders for them: ” ... reperio in
libro exitus anno 1639 sequentia: Tandem Antverpia a perilluStri D. Rubens
diligentia Rev. P. Baccal. fratris Nicolai a S. AuguStino accessimus picturas
pro majori altari a Rev. P. praedecessore p.m. ordinatus, pro quibus solvi
sexcentos et triginta imperiales (id eSt ut columna exposita habet: 945 flor.)”
(Rooses,
ii,
p. 359). Rooses says that the two pictures were ordered in 1637 by
Countess Helena Martinitz, née Werschowitz, but it has not been possible to
trace the evidence for this. When the church interior was rebuilt in rococo Style
in about 1730 the rectangular canvas was enlarged on all four sides so as to
fit into a new frame.
99
68-69.
68.
TWO PENDANTS: ST. BARBARA AND ST. CATHERINE OF ALEXANDRIA
ST. BARBARA
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loSi.
C o p y: Engraving by S. a Bolswert (Fig. 119 ;
V.S., p. 113 , No. 18).
L it e r a t u r e : Rooses, n, p. 221, No. 395.
The Saint is seen Standing in front of the tower in which she was imprisoned
by her father. Her head is surrounded by a halo, and she holds a palm in her
right hand. In the upper left-hand comer two angels offer her a wreath of
flowers and a lily, the symbol of virginal purity. On the ground, to the right
of her feet, is the sword with which she was slain. On the left is a balustrade,
beyond which can be glimpsed a wooded landscape.
The figure is a repetition of that of the Virgin in The Return of the Holy
Family, an altar-piece painted in Rubens’s Studio in about 1620 for the former
Jesuit church at Antwerp, and now in the Metropolitan Museum in New "Vork
(Schelte a Bolswert’s engraving from this pifture is reproduced in Rooses, 1,
pi. 65).
It is impossible to say whether the engraving from the present composition
and that from No. 69, which together form a pair, were done from large paint­
ings or from modelli drawn or painted specially for the engraver.
69.
ST. CATHERINE OF ALEXANDRIA
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loft,
Copy: Engraving by S. a Bolswert (Fig. 120; VS., p. 114 , No. 29).
L it e r a t u r e : Rooses, 11, pp. 238, 239, No. 402; Martin, Ceiling Paintings, p. 145.
The Saint Stands upright, holding a palm in her right hand and resting her left
on the sword with which she was beheaded. In the upper right-hand corner
are two angels, one offering her a laurel wreath and Strewing flowers before
her, while the other draws her attention to the flowers. On the right, behind
100
the Saint, is the wheel on which she was tortured, and which afterwards broke
in pieces. In the left background are two spiral pillars with arabesque ornamen­
tation, such as are found in several works dated about 1620 or a little later;
e.g. Tomyris and Cyrus in the BoSton Museum of Fine Arts (K.d.K., p. 17 5);
the Portrait of Alethea Talbot and her Train in the Alte Pinakothek at
Munich (K .d.K ., p. 200); and the Baptism of Conftantine from the tapeStry
series devoted to that emperor’s life (K J . K ., p. 230). They derive, no doubt,
from Raphael’s Healing of the Lame Man in the famous Alts of the Apoltles
series {K.d.K., Raffael, p. 138). The figure of the Saint is an adaptation from
another composition; as Burchard and Martin pointed out, she is to be found
on the outer side of the right-hand panel of The Raising of the Cross (16 10 1 1 ) , now in Antwerp Cathedral (K.d.K., p. 37).
70.
THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. BARTHOLOMEW: DRAWING
(Fig.
I 2 l)
Pen and wash; 270 ; 194 mm; below on the right, mark of the colledion of the Earl
of Warwick (L. 26 0 0 ).
N e w York, The Pierpont Morgan Library.
Pr o v en a n c e:
No. 1.241 (as Van D yck),
The Earl of Warwick, Warwick CaStle; sale, London (Christie’s), 20-21
May 1896, lot 125 (as Van D yck ) ; C. Fairfax Murray, London.
Copy 1
L it e r a t u r e : C. Fairfax Murray, C olleâion o f Drawings by the O ld Matters formed by
C. Fairfax Murray, I,
London, 1905-12, No. 241 (as Van Dyck)-, Goris-Held, p. 42,
No. 107 (as Rubens).
The apoStle St. Bartholomew is said to have been flayed alive, during the
firSt century A.D., at the command of the pagan king AStyages of Armenia.
This legend, based on the apocryphal Breviarium Apoïïolorum, became wide­
spread at an early date (Legenda Aurea, il, col. 6 1; AA. SS., AuguSt, v).
The martyr is outstretched on a rack, placed diagonally in regard to the
pifture, and resting againSt a tree to which his feet are being bound by two
henchmen, while a third has juSt begun to flay the Saint’s left arm. In the
background is a horseman wearing a turban and escorted by soldiers. On the
far left is a Statue of Apollo Musagetes, symbolizing the paganism attacked
by the ApoStle. An angel hovers above, bearing the martyr’s crown. In the
101
foreground, on the extreme right, are the executioners’ implements and a dog.
The naked figure of the outstretched martyr is clearly inspired, though in
reverse, by the main figure in the Laocoön group (M. Bieber, The Sculpture of
the Hellenistic Age, New York, 1955, fig. 530).
The composition of this drawing is very similar to that of Rubens’s pictures
of martyrs painted about 1615-20, e.g. those of St. Adrian (No. 61, Fig. 107),
St. Laurence (11, No. 126) and St. Catherine (No. 78, Fig. 133). However,
despite the evident inspiration of his Style I do not believe that it was executed
by Rubens himself, as is assumed by Goris-Held, loc. cit., and Burchard. The
technique is unusual for Rubens and, more definitely, the drawing of facial
traits and extremities of the body is not up to Rubens’s Standard. I am not
convinced by Held’s comparison with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and King
David, two drawings in the Louvre (Glück-Haberditzl, Nos. 40, 4 1).
71.
THE CONVERSION OF ST. BAVO: OIL SKETCH
(Fig, 122 )
Oil on three panels; central panel: 106.5 : 83 cm.; side panels, each: 107.5 : 41 cm.
London, National Gallery, No. 57.
P r o v e n a n c e : ? Canon Hendrik van Halmale, Antwerp, 1659; Palazzo Careggi, Genoa;
purchased there by Irvine for W. Holwell-Carr via W. Buchanan, 1805; W. Holwell-Carr,
London; purchased for the National Gallery, with the Holwell-Carr BequeSt, 18 3 1; on
loan to the National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh, between 19 21 and 1932.
C o p i e s : ( i ) Painting after the two side wings, Munich, Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, Nos. 7 115 and 7 116 ; canvas, each 1 1 3 : 43 cm.; prov.: Caltle Neuburg; (2)
Painting by R.P. Bonington, whereabouts unknown; panel, 26.5 : 40.5 cm.; prov.: sale,
London, 20 November 1968, lot 55; lit.: A. Shirley, Bonington, London, 1940, p. 97,
pi. 62; (3) Painting, whereabouts unknown; panel, 45.5 : 60.5 cm.; prov.: Arnold van
Buuren, sale, Amsterdam (Mak), 26-27 May 1925, lot 1 1 3 ; (4) Watercolour by J. Welt,
whereabouts unknown; 197 : 305 mm.; prov.: Northwick Park, sale, London (Christie’s),
25 May 1965, lot 192; (5) Drawing after the central panel, Copenhagen, Print Room
of the Statens Museum for KunSt, "Rubens-Cantoor”, No.
v ii,
2; (6) Drawing after the
three women on the left, Copenhagen, Print Room of the Statens Museum for Kunlt,
"Rubens-Cantoor”, No. 1, 62; (7) Drawing after the figures in the right of the central
panel and in the foreground of the right-hand wing, London, Department of Prints and
Drawings of the British Museum, No. 1950.5.8.1; 290 : 400 mm.; prov.: J. Me Gowan;
C. Briscoe; lit.: G. Martin, National Gallery Catalogues. The Flemish School circa 1600
102
- circa 1900, London, 1970, p. 133; (8) Drawing by Fragonard after a part of the
foreground figures in the central panel and those in the inner half of the left wing,
London, Department of Prints and Drawings of the British Museum, No. 1936.5.9.57;
190 : 286 mm.; lit.: G. Martin, op. cit., p. 133. (9)
E x h ib it e d : Piâures by Rubens, Rembrandt, Vandyke, and other ArtiSts of the Flemish
and Dutch Schools, British Institution, London, 1815, No. 116 ; Cleaned Piâures,
National Gallery, London, 1947, No. 48.
L i t e r a t u r e : C.N. Cochin, Voyage d'ltalie, ill, Paris, 1758, p. 263; Description des
Beautés de Gênes et de ses environs, Genoa, 1773, p. n i (as L’Empereur Théodose aux
pieds de S. Ambroise)\ C.G. Ratti, Inflruzione di quanto puo vedersi di più bello in
Genova, ecc., 2nd ed., Genoa, 1780, p. 280 (as S. Ambrogio, chi assolve l’imperador
Teodosio) ; W. Buchanan, Memoirs of Painting, 11, London, 1824, p. 177; Smith, Cata­
logue Raisonné, 11, p. 256; ix, p. 322, No. 284; G.F. Waagen, Kunstwerke und KünStler
in England und Paris, 1, Berlin, 1837, p. 218; G.F. Waagen, Treasures of Art in Great
Britain, i, London, 1854, p. 350; Rooses, 11, pp. 230, 231, No. 396bis; Rooses-Ruelens,
H, pp. 69-74; K.d.K., ed. Rosenberg, p. 63; Dillon, pp. 12 1, 146, 195, pl.
l v i;
K.d.K.,
p. 272; F, Winkler, Klassiker der KunSt Bd. V: Rubens. Vierte neubearbeitete Auflage
von R. Oldenbourg. Stuttgart, 1921, Repertorium für Kunstwissenschaft, x l iv , 1923,
p. 133 (as not by Rubens) ; Glück, 1933, pp. 198-207, fig. 112 (as Frans II Francken)\
K. Zoege von Manteuffel, Nachträge, in Glück, 1933, p. 403; Evers, 1943, pp. 14 5-150 ;
Van Puyvelde, p. 142; M. De Maeyer, Albrecht en Isabella en de schilderkunst, Brussels,
1955, p. 100; Held, i, p. 108; Burchard-d’HulSt, 1963, I, pp. 14, 312; M. Jaffé, Rubens
and Raphael, in Studies in Renaissance and Baroque Art presented to Anthony Blunt,
London, 1967, p. 104; J. Miiller Hofstede, Eine KreideSludie von Rubens für den Kreuzaufrichtungsaltar, Pantheon, xxv, 1967, pp. 41, 42; G. Martin, Rubens’s ‘‘Dissegno
Colorito” for Bishop Maes reconsidered. The Burlington Magazine, cx, 1968, pp. 434—
437; J. Müller Hofstede, Neue Ölskizzen von Rubens, Stadel Jahrbuch, 11, 1969, p. 232;
G. Martin, National Gallery Catalogues, The Flemish School circa 1600-circa 1900,
London, 1970, pp. 12 6 -133 , No. 57.
The Story of St. Bavo’s life is based on two or three early medieval Vitae
(AA.SS., Oftober, 1). These relate how the seventh-century Count Allowin of
Haspengouw (Hesbaye) was converted from worldly ways after the death of
his wife, under the influence of St. Amandus. He distributed his possessions
among the poor and finally became a monk in St. Peter’s Abbey at Ghent, the
abbot of which was St. Floribert. At this time he took the name of Bavo.
Three Stages of his conversion are depifted in the middle panel. Below, in
the foreground, we see attendants of the Count distributing his goods among
103
the needy, who appear in the central part of the panel and also occupy the
foreground on the extreme left. In the upper part is a further scene showing
the convert, Still in armour, climbing the monumental Stairway of an imposing
building, which muSt represent the abbey at Ghent. In front of him are two
mitred bishops, no doubt St. Amandus and St. Floribert. Around and behind
him are deacons and monks, the latter wearing the black Benedictine habit.
A satisfactory interpretation of the scenes on the extreme right and left was
recently put forward by Gregory Martin. The three women on the left are, he
suggests, St. Gertrude and St. Begga, who were inspired by Bavo’s death to
make a similar resolution to his, and Bavo’s daughter Agletrude. In suggesting
this Martin based himself on the edition of Bavo’s Life by J. Molanus (Indi­
culus Sanfiorum Belgii, Louvain, 1573, pp. 14 -16 ), but Molanus’s account
does not speak of the presence of Agletrude. She is mentioned, however, in the
Vita Theodorici published by Lipomanus and Surius (L. Surius, De Vitis Sanc­
torum ah Aloysio Lipomano...,
V,
Cologne, 1581, f° 166 verso, 167). The
scene on the extreme right, which Martin associates with another passage in
Molanus’s edition, depicts two crowned personages on horseback, the one on
the left being clearly older than the other. Besides members of their retinue
we see a man in a robe adorned by the imperial eagle: he is evidently discussing
with the other two a document that he holds in his right hand. Martin referred
this to the passage in Molanus which States that the Emperor at Constantinople
refused to accept St. Bavo’s decision to become a monk, because of an edict
forbidding warriors to embrace the monastic life. Bavo, however, was supported
in his resolution by the Frankish king Clothar and his son, the future Dago­
bert I. The men on horseback may be identified as the two Frankish kings, and
the man with the scroll is no doubt the imperial messenger seeking in vain to
exaCt respeCt for the edict
The Venetian character of this composition, with its impressive architectonic
Structures and the animated grouping of figures, is obvious. It is difficult to
suggeSt a direct model; as Martin (National Gallery Catalogues, op. cit., p.
130) pointed out, a similar arrangement may be found e.g. in Andrea Vicentino’s Alexius Comnenus appealing to Venice for help in the defence of Zara,
in the Palazzo Ducale at Venice (A. Venturi, Storia dell’ Arte italiana, ix, Milan,
1929, fig. 456). The composition also shows the influence of Raphael: there
is a Striking resemblance between the persons seen from behind in the fore­
ground and the women in a similar attitude in the left foreground of The
104
Expulsion of Heliodorus from the Temple, one of the frescoes in the Stanza
d’Eliodoro in the Vatican (K J.K ., Raffael, p. 90). Jafïé also detected Raphael’s
influence in the present work, suggesting that the lame beggar on the extreme
left is inspired by the similar figure in The Healing of the Lame Man, one of
the famous cartoons of 15 15 -16 in the Victoria and Albert Museum (K J .K
Raffael, p. 138). The resemblance, however, does not seem to be very great.
The horse in profile on the extreme right, bending its head and lifting up one
forefoot, was painted by Rubens before in his Adoration of the Kings (160910), now in the Prado (K.d.K,, p. 26): as Martin observed, the motif in both
cases is derived from Elsheimer's Stoning of St. Stephen, now at Edinburgh
(I. Joit, A newly discovered Painting by Adam Elsheimer, The Burlington
Magazine, cvm, 1966, p. 2, fig. 1 ) —a composition from which Rubens himself
copied various figures in a drawing now in the British Museum, the model for
an engraving by Pieter Soutman (I. JoSt, op. cit., figs. 2 and 3 on p. 7).
This panel is one of the firSt of Rubens’s works in which he depicts a
medieval event in “ archaeological” fashion: he makes a point of giving his
Merovingians medieval coStume, even if it is that of the fifteenth century. His
interest in the coStume of this period is shown by his Coftume Book in the
British Museum, a collection of Studies based on sculpture, paintings, minia­
tures, carpets and prints, mostly of the late middle ages (Hind, 11, pp. 36-44;
Burchard-d’Hulïî, 1963, 1, pp. 1 1 - 1 4 ) . This connection was also observed by
Gregory Martin, who referred more particularly to folios 1, 21 and 31 of the
CoSlume Book.
The ascription to Rubens was rejected by Winkler and Glück : the latter
even attributed the work to Frans Francken the Younger. Doubts have also
been expressed from time to time about the authenticity of parts of the work.
In a letter of 1806 to Buchanan, Irvine took the view that only the central part
was by Rubens (W. Buchanan, op. cit., p. 177). Not long ago, Gregory Martin
pointed out that moSt of the architectural background is overpainted (G.
Martin, National Gallery Catalogues, op. cit., p. 128).
On 19 March 1614 Rubens wrote to the archduke Albert that he would
no doubt remember, from two years previously, a “ dissegno colorito fatto di
mia mano, per servicio della tavola colle porte del altar maggior del duomo
di Gandt, ad inStanza del Riverenmo Masio, vescovo di quella città, che sia in
gloria...” (Rooses-Ruelens, 11, pp. 69, 70). The letter goes on to say that Maes’s
successor, Bishop Van der Burch, did not want the project to be completed :
105
inSlead of a painted triptych he wanted an altar without any painting, only an
effigy of St. Bavo in a marble niche with single pillars. Rubens requests the
archduke to intervene with Van der Burch to allow him to execute the painting
designed two years before. This Albert did, but without success. The bishop’s
reasons for refusing to agree to the large-scale painting are not clear: he may
have had money trouble or aesthetic objections. Gregory Martin suggested,
without adducing much evidence, that he may have had reservations about the
orthodoxy of the Vita followed by Rubens.
Since Rooses (loc. cit.), it has been generally accepted that the dissegno
mentioned in the letter is identical with the work in the National Gallery,
which means that the latter was painted in 16 12; some authors, however, date
it differently. Oldenbourg suggested 1623, i.e. juSt before the final version Still
to be seen in St. Bavo’s church in Ghent (No. 72; Fig. 123). Müller Hofstede
for his part (Eine Kreideïïudie, op. cit., pp. 41, 42) recently dated it about
1618, in view of what he considered the Striking resemblance to the sketches
for The Miracles of St, Ignatius and St. Francis Xavier in the KunSthiStorisches
Museum at Vienna. In reply to this, Gregory Martin rightly observed that the
workmanship of the modello is much more like that of the sketches at Dulwich,
made shortly before, for the side-panels of the triptych of The Raising of the
Cross (The Dulwich Pictures, London, 1954, p. 17, Nos. 40 and 40 A, repr.).
However, Müller Hofstede Stood his ground in a later article, though he modi­
fied the date to about 1616 (Neue Ölskizzen, op. cit., p. 232).
In 1659 or thereabouts, Canon Van Halmale, a relative of the celebrated
mayor of Antwerp, made out a list of the damage done to his household effects
in the disturbances of that year. This includes a list of “paintings and works
of art” together with the coSt of making good the damage. Here we read:
“ ... ende een ander groot Stuck van Rubbens, dat overmidts ghebroken is, ’t
gene oytbeldt de bekeeringhe van sinte Bavo: 30 [gulden]... Een Stuck van
Rubbens vytbellende het leven van sinte Bavo: 60 [gulden]...” (“ ... and another
large work by Rubens, broken in the middle, representing the conversion of
St. Bavo: 30 [guilders]... A work by Rubens depicting the life of St. Bavo:
60 [guilders]...” ; A. Pinchart, Archives des Arts, 11, Ghent, 1863, p. 187). One
of these is probably identical with the work now in question. It may in faCt be
the second, the “life of St. Bavo” : an argument in favour of this is the faft
that the sketch under discussion tells the Story of the Saint’s conversion in
successive scenes. There is, moreover, other evidence that the London sketch
106
was in Antwerp for a time. Frans Francken the Younger made a free but recog­
nizable copy of the central portion which is now in the KunSthiStorisches
Museum at Vienna {Glück, *933, fig. 115)- It is perhaps to be inferred from
this that the sketch consisted from the Start of three separate panels.
72.
THE CONVERSION OF ST. BAVO
(Fig. 123)
Oil on canvas; 475 : 280 cm.; arched at the top.
Ghent, St. Bavo’s Church.
C o p ie s : ( i ) Drawing, Berlin, Print Room of the Staatliche Museen; 407 : 319 mm.;
lit.: E. Bock and J. Rosenberg, Zeichnungen Niederländischer Meister im KupferStichkabinett Berlin, 1, Berlin, 1930, p. 256, No. 13769; (2) Drawing, Copenhagen, Print
Room of the Statens Museum for Kunft; “Rubens-Cantoor” , No. 1, 63; (3) Engraving
by F. Pilsen, ca. 173 0 -174 1 (V.S., p. 96, No. 14 ); (4) Etching by P. Spruyt (VS.,
p. 96, No. 15 ) ; (5) Engraving after the left one of the two female figures on the left,
by P. Clouwet (VS., p. 154, No. 142).
(6)
E x h ib it e d : Brussels, 1910, No. 343; Brussels, 196$, No. 194 (repr.).
L it e r a t u r e : A. Sanderus, Flandria llluSlrata, 1, Cologne, 1641, p. 12 3; Bellori, p. 225
(as la tavola di San Sebaltiano) ; De Sadeleire, Beschryvinge der 7 parochiaele kercken der
Stad Ghendt, haere raeriteyten van schilderijen, ende door wat meeSters die gemaeckt
sijn, c. 1734, printed in C. Piot, Rapport à M. le Ministre de l’Intérieur sur les tableaux
enlevés à la Belgique en 1794 et restitués en 18 15, Brussels, 1883, p. 126; Descamps,
Vie, p. 324 (as S. Liévin)\Descamps, Voyage, p. 221 (as Charles V, Empereur, abdiquant
sa Couronne en faveur de Philippe son fils)', Michel, 177 1, p. 190; E.A, Hellin, Histoire
chronologique des évêques et du chapitre exempt de l’église cathédrale de S. Bavon à
Gand, Ghent, 1772, p. 501 ; Spruyt, 1777, p. 138; Reynolds, pp. 142, 143; Spruyt, 17899 1, p. 17 3 ; F.X. de Burtin, Traité des connaissances nécessaires aux amateurs de tableaux,
I, Brussels, 1808, p. 104 (as Jordaens) ; Notice des Tableaux exposés au Musée, Brussels,
18 x1, pp. 34-36, No. 5 1; Notice des Tableaux exposés au Musée, Brussels, 1814, p. 3 1;
Odevaere, p. 329, No. 149 (as Sainte Gudule)\ P.F. de Goesin-Verhaeghe, Description
historique et pittoresque de l’église cathédrale de Saint-Bavon à Gand, Ghent, 1819,
p. 19 ;Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, n, pp. 36, No. 105, 256, 257; P. Kervyn de Volkaersbeke,
Les églises de Gand, I, Ghent, 1857, pp. 72, 234; Rooses, 11, pp. 222-230, No. 396; Michel,
p. 364; Dillon, p. 146, pl. cccxxxi; K.d.K., p. 275; A. Van Werveke, Bijdragen tot de
geschiedenis en de oudheidkunde, Ghent, 1927, p. ix ; Glück, 1933, pp. 198-207; Janson,
107
Véronèse-Rubens, p. 35; Evers, 1943, pp. 14 5 -150 ; Van Puyvelde, pp. 142, 143; E.
Dhanens, Inventaris van het Kunstpatrimonium van OoSivlaanderen, v, Sint-Baafskathedraal Gent, Ghent, 1965, pp. 206, 208, No. 460, figs. 204, 205.
This painting comprises several scenes of the conversion of St. Bavo, which
are depiâed in detail on three panels in the London sketch of 1612.
In the foreground we see the distribution of the Saint’s goods to the poor,
and in the upper part St. Bavo being received by Bishops Amandus and Floribert. The meeting between the Merovingian kings and the Imperial messenger,
which was originally on the right of the pifture, no longer appears. The arms
of Bishop Antoon TrieSt are to be seen in the bottom left-hand corner.
In this essentially vertical composition Rubens was probably following Tin­
toretto’s Presentation of the Virgin of 1552 in the Madonna dell’Orto, Venice
( Tietze, Tintoretto, pi. 98). His Strong interest in the work of the Venetians is
shown in a particular detail : Claire Janson has pointed out the Striking resem­
blance between the woman seen from behind in the foreground and a similar
motif in the foreground of Veronese’s Martyrdom of St. Marcus and St. Marcellinus (1565) in San SebaStiano, Venice (Piocco, Veronese, pi. xxi). Burchard
for his part observed the close resemblance between the aged, half-naked
man with outstretched arms in the lower pifture and the attitude of Michel­
angelo’s Sibylla Libyca in the SiStine Chapel (K J . K ., Michelangelo, p. 40).
It was not until 1623 that it was decided to adorn the high altar at St. Bavo’s
in Ghent with a painting (cf. No. 7 1). An agreement was concluded on 9
February of that year between Antoon TrieSt, who had become bishop of Ghent
in 1622, and the sculptor Robrecht de Noie, for the alteration of the carved
altar that had been made in De Nole’s Studio between 1615 and 1623. The effigy
of St. Bavo was to be removed and “the sculptor shall remove and cut away at
his own risk the centre decoration and the place where the high altar is at
present adorned and shall make there a smooth surface and a space above it
sixteen and a half feet high and ten feet broad, with a half-circle above, for
the placing of such a painting as may be found suitable” (M. CaSteels, De
beeldhouwers De Noie te Kamerijk, te Utrecht en te Antwerpen, Brussels,
1962, p. 382). On 27 September 1624 Jan Breughel certified on Rubens’s
behalf that he had received 600 guilders for the painting from the bishop’s
Steward, Jacques de Witt (Rooses, 11, p. 229).
It appears from the contract of February 1623 that it was intended from the
108
beginning that the canvas should be rounded at the top. This is confirmed by
the ornamentation around the altar, which has now disappeared but can be
judged to some extent from an old photograph (M. Calteels, op, cit., pi. 42).
It is hard therefore to understand A. Van Werveke’s view that the canvas was
originally rectangular and was not rounded until 1682. Van Werveke based his
opinion on a payment made to the artist Jan van Cleef in that year for “ altering
the painting on the high altar” . This may signify that the canvas was removed
for restoration, as happened fairly often in the course of the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries: e.g. payments were made to Pieter Hals in 1628-29,
Filips Beernaert in 1647, Pieter Hals in 1648-49, Louis van Voorenemberck in
3:658—59, Filips Beernaert in 1658-59 and 1662-63, Pieter le Plat in 1670-71,
Jan van Cleef in 1701, Albert Forthuyn in 1722-23 and Van Laer in 1759
(E. Dhanens, op. cit., pp. 207, 208).
De Nole’s high altar was demolished about 1702, and Rubens’s Conversion
of St. Bavo was then removed to the former chapel of St. Sebastian in Ghent
Cathedral. With the exception of the period 1794-1825, when it was success­
ively in the Louvre (1794), the Brussels museum ( 18 11) and the Ghent
museum (18 17 ), it has remained in the chapel ever since.
72 a.
THE CONVERSION OF ST. BAVO: OIL SKETCH
Oil on panel.
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loSt.
P r o v e n a n c e : ? Canon Hendrik van Halmale, Antwerp, 1659.
C o p ie s : ( x) Painting (Fig. 124), whereabouts unknown; panel, 82 : 55.5 cm.; prov.:
Paris, F. Kleinberger, 1927; Paris, Trotti and Co., 1928; Paris, J. Guerlain, 1953; (2)
Painting, whereabouts unknown; panel, 68.5 : 46 cm.; prov.: A. Febvre, sale, Paris,
17 April 1882, lot 81 (as Rubens) ; baron de Beumonville, sale, Paris, 21-22 May 1883,
lot 85 (as Rubens) ; J. Friedlander, sale, London, 27 Odober 1943, lot 109 (as Rubens) ;
Tomas Harris, London, 1957; lit.: Rooses, 11, p. 231.
A sketch, now known from copies only, for the painting of 1624 in St. Bavo’s
Church at Ghent (No. 72, Fig. 123). It shows two or three important differ­
109
L
ences from the final composition: it is rectangular, and on the right-hand side
is a man seen from behind, wearing a plumed cap, who does not figure in the
altarpiece. The banisters in the sketch are larger.
This sketch too may have been in the possession of Canon van Halmale ca
1659 (cf. No. 7 1). In eighteenth- and nineteenth-century collections, frequent
mention is made of oil sketches for the Ghent altarpiece. In the Calonne, Nagel
and Joshua Reynolds sale, London, 27 April 1795, we find : “Lot 13. Rubens,
a sketch for a large picture in the Cathedral of Ghent." On 9 May 1807 the
sale took place in London, from an unnamed eState in Cheshire, of “46. Old
Franks [sic]. St. Bavon resigning the world and devoting his substance to the
Poor... an unequalled Picture of the MaSter... the design for his celebrated
Altar Piece, on the same subject at Antwerp" [sic]. Before 1808, François
Xavier de Burtin at Brussels possessed a work that he believed to be a sketch
for the painting in St. Bavo’s (F.X. de Burtin, Traité des connaissances néces­
saires aux amateurs de tableaux, 1, Brussels, 1808, p. 104). However, he ascrib­
ed both the design and the execution to Jordaens. In the F.-J. Despinoy sale
at Versailles, 14 -19 January 1850, we find: “ 284. P.P. Rubens. H. 71, L. 52.
Toile. 22 figures. Saint Bavon, tableau en deux parties. Dans le bas du tableau,
saint Bavon distribue ses biens aux pauvres. Dans le haut, on le voit entrer
dans le couvent de Saint-Amand. Esquisse pour le grand tableau qui eSt à
Gand.” Finally it may be mentioned that Jacob Burckhardt in 1855 spoke of
a “treffliche aber doch verdächtige Skizze des Bildes von S. Bavon in Gent” ,
to be seen at that time in the Palazzo Manfrin at Venice (J. Burckhardt, Der
Cicerone, Basle, 1855, p. 1020).
73.
THE MIRACLES OF ST, BENEDICT
(Fig. 125)
Oil on canvas; 157 : 238 cm.
Brussels, Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique.
No. 809.
P r o v e n a n c e : ? Rubens’s eäate; ? Gaspar de Crayer, 1 6 4 1 ; Benedictine Abbey, A ffi­
gem; Schamp d’Aveschoot, sale, Ghent, 14 September 1840, lot 5; Georges, Paris,
Tencé, Lille, sale, Paris, 12 December 1881, lot 48, bought by King Leopold II of
Belgium; bequeathed to the Musées Royaux, Brussels, 19 14 .
no
C o p ie s : ( i ) Painting by E. Delacroix, 1841, Brussels, Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts
de Belgique; canvas, 130 : 185 cm.; prov.: E. Delacroix, sale, Paris, 17-29 February
1864, lot 162; Pereire, sale, Paris, 6 March 1852, lot n ; King Leopold II of Belgium;
exh.: Delacroix, Louvre, Paris, 1930, No. 225 (repr.); Delacroix, ses maîtres, ses amis,
ses élèves, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux, No. 27 (repr.); lit.: A. Robaut, L’œuvre
de Eugène Delacroix, Paris, 1885, No. 736; L. Hourticq, Rubens et Delacroix, Revue
de l’art ancien et moderne, xxvi, 1909, pp. 215-228; K.E. Maison, Copies and Interpret­
ations in Painting, Apollo, Odober 1958, pp. 99-103; B. Ehrlich White, Delacroix’s
Painted Copies after Rubens, The Art Bulletin, x l i x , 1967, p. 42; T.W. Gaehtgens,
Delacroix, Einzug der Kreuzfahrer in Konîlantinopel, fahrbuch der Berliner Museen,
XI, 1969, pp. 195-198, fig. ió ; (2) Painting by F. Souchon (1786-1857), Lille, Musée
des Beaux-Arts; canvas, 95 : 140 cm.; prov.: bought in 1844; lit.: E. Reynart, Catalogue
des tableaux, bas-reliefs et Statues... du Musée des tableaux de Lille, Lille-Paris, 1872,
No. 318.
E x h ib it e d : Tableaux de maîtres anciens, Académie royale de Belgique, Brussels, 1886,
No. 186; Brussels, 1910, No. 387; Amsterdam, 1933, No. n (repr.); Paris, 1936, No.
69; Brussels, 19 31, No. 2 1; Il Seicento Europeo, Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Rome, 1956—
57, No. 256 (repr.); Flamanska UmetnoSi X V II Veka, Narodni Muzej, Belgrado, 1957,
No, 35; Delacroix, ses maîtres, ses amis, ses élèves, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux,
No. 19 1 (repr.); Brussels, 1963, No. 195 (repr.).
L i t e r a t u r e : Michel, 1 7 J 1 , p. 185; Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, 11, pp. 57, 58, No. 16 1;
IX, p. 330, No. 318; H. Hymans, Correspondance de Belgique, Gazette des Beaux-Arts,
XXXIV, 1886, pp. 426-428; Rooses, 11, pp. 231, No. 397; Dom Bernard, Geschiedenis
der Benediâijner abdij van Affligem, Ghent, 1890, pp. 360, 361; Michel, pp. 364-366;
W. Roberts, The King of the Belgians’ Colleâion, The Connoisseur, xxiv, 1909, pp. 204,
206, repr.; M. Rooses, De Vlaamsche KunSi in de XV IIe eeuw tentoongeSield in het
Jubelpaleis te Brussel in 1910, Onze KunSt, xix, 19 11, p. 6; P. Bautier, Les Miracles de
Saint Benoit de Rubens, Bulletin des Musées Royaux du Cinquantenaire, xiii, 1914,
pp. 33, 34; K.d.K., p. 302; C. Norris, The Rubens Exhibition at Amsterdam, The Bur­
lington Magazine, LXiii, 1933, p. 229; A. Joubin, Correspondance générale de Eugène
Delacroix, il, Paris, 1936; C. Janson, L'Influence de Tintoret sur Rubens, Gazette des
Beaux-Arts, 1938, p. 86; Van Puyvelde, pp. 77, 13 3 ; Held, 1, p. 109; Burchard-d’HulSt,
1963, I, p. 16 1.
The painting shows three episodes from St. Benedict’s life as described in
the Dialogues of St. Gregory the Great and later popularized by the Golden
Legend etc. (Legenda Aurea, I, col. 307-319; AA. SS., March, III). The Saint,
attended by two brothers of the Order, §tands on the right on a platform
in front of the monumental entrance to Monte Cassino abbey. He is shown
hi
discovering the ruse of Totila, king of the Ostrogoths, who had heard of the
Saint’s miracles and tried to deceive him by sending an officer dressed in royal
garments; Benedict, however, at once realized that the man before him was
not the king. We see the shamefaced officer on the right in front of St. Bene­
dict, on the Steps leading to the platform. Lower down on the same Steps, in
the right foreground, is the whole royal escort. At the same time Rubens
recalled another of the Saint’s miracles. Immediately in front of him is a black
crow on a perch, no doubt with reference to the Story that the Devil appeared
in this form and tried to tempt the Saint, but was put to flight by the sign of
the cross. In the extreme left foreground is a rider in armour on a black horse,
and beside him a white horse led by an attendant. We may perhaps suppose
that the rider is Totila and that he has lent his own white horse to the disguised
officer. In the middle foreground is a group of invalids and cripples who have
come to implore the help of the sainted abbot. The upper part of the painting
shows Christ enthroned on clouds, with Saints Peter and Paul to either side
and the Virgin Mary as Mediatrix at his feet; immediately below is a group of
frolicking cherubs.
As Rooses observed, Rubens in this picture followed the general lines of a
scheme that he had used for other compositions on a similar theme such as The
Conversion of St. Bavo (No. 72; Fig. 123) and St. Roch (11, No. 140), but
its dramatic character is here enhanced by the Stronger diagonal emphasis.
Some details recall earlier works by Rubens: the group of sick and maimed
people occurs in the Miracles of St. Ignatius Loyola and St. Francis Xavier
(about 16 18 ), now at Vienna (11, Nos. 115 , 104). The men below on the
right, one with a fur cap and the other wearing a bonnet and cape, are defi­
nitely dressed as Hungarians or Poles. As Rooses also pointed out, similar
figures are seen in Tomyris receiving the Head of Cyrus, painted in the 1620s
and now in the Museum of Fine Arts at BoSton (Goris-Held, pi. 67). Held, like
Burchard and d’HulSt, observed that the attitude of St. Paul is identical with
that of St. Andrew on the outer side of the right-hand wing of The Miraculous
Draught of Fishes triptych of 16 18 -19 in the church of Our-Lady-across-theDijle at Malines (K.d.K., p. 174). A preliminary drawing for the Malines altarpiece, now at Copenhagen (Burchard-d’Hulft, 1963,
II,
pi. 96), played a part
in the creative process for the present work. Rubens is also particularly indebted
in it to Titian’s Ecce Homo, now in the KunfthiStorisches Museum at Vienna
(Tietze, Titian, pi. 139), which was in Venetian ownership until 1620, when
112
it was acquired by George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham. Rubens may have
seen it while Staying at Venice during his Mantuan period. It prefigures in a
Strikingly similar way not only the diagonal composition but the motif of the
Steps and the attitudes of the characters, such as the two men in Polish or
Hungarian garb. It may be noted that Rubens made several drawings after
details of Titian’s painting, one formerly in the V. Koch collection, London
(Held,
II,
pi. 174; present whereabouts unknown; sale, London, Christie’s, 18
april 1967, lot 158) and one in the Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, Rotter­
dam (J. Miiller Hofstede, Opmerkingen bij enige tekeningen van Rubens in het
Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, Bulletin Museum Boymans-van Beuningen,
X III,
1962, pp. 10 1-10 5 , fig. 14; idem, Rubens und Tizian: Das Bild Karls V.,
Münchner fahrbuch der bildenden Kunîl, 3.
f
.,
x v iii,
1967, p. 79, fig. 45).
A copy drawing of the entire Titian painting in the Louvre, Paris (No. 20.253)
has recently been attributed to Rubens by M. Jaffé (Rubens as a Collector of
Drawings, Mallet Drawings, iv, 1966, pp. 128, 129, pi. 3).
The canvas’s destination has been a matter of conjecture. Rooses thought it
might have been intended for the abbey of Affligem : he based this view on
J.F.M. Michel's Statement that the abbey ordered from Rubens “une esquisse
pour un plus grand tableau, dont ils vouloient couvrir la muraille, faisant face
à l’entrée de leur réfectoire : nota que cette esquisse se trouve dans cette Ab­
baye, au quartier des étrangers, dans la dernière chambre au second étage, elle
représente les Miracles de S. Benoit.” Van Puyvelde did not accept that the
picture belonged to Affligem; Burchard was also not convinced of this, and
thought it might have been ordered for the French Benedictine abbey of NotreDame des Guîtres, where Peiresc was abbot between 1623 and 1625 (P. Hum­
bert, Peiresc, Paris, 1933, pp. 113 -13 0 ). I believe nevertheless that the picture
really was painted for the famous Brabant abbey. In the firft place it is certain
that the painting mentioned by Michel is identical with the composition now
in the Brussels Museum. In a letter from October 14th, 1777, Beda Regaus, the
then provoft of Affligem abbey, gave a detailed lift of the moft important paint­
ings which belonged to the religious community. Among the mentioned works
one can safely be considered as the canvas here discussed: “ ... 2do eene schetse
van den selven Rubbens langh 9 v[oet] 7 D[uim], de persoonen van 19 duijm
groot behelsende de mirakelen van den H. BenediCtus in generali. In de locht
is eenen glorie, behelsende Chriftus met sijn cruijs, de voeten in de wokken
tegen den bol van de weireldt, vergeselschapt met onse lieve vrouwe, en de
113
apoSlelen Petrus en Paulus, ende onder de wolcken eenige engelen, buijten
welcke glorie men daer bevint 52 persoonen, de welcke langhx den rechten
kant van de schilderije bijnaer volmaeckt geschildert sijn, ende verminderende
allenxkens in den slincken kant wat meer als geteekent sijn...” (“ ... 20. A sketch
by the same Rubens, 9 feet 7 inches wide..., the figures 19 inches high, rep­
resenting a general survey of the miracles of St. Benedict In the sky Christ
bearing his cross is shown in a glory. His feet are resting on the clouds and on
a terrestrial globe. He is accompanied by Our Lady and the ApoStles Peter and
Paul. Underneath the clouds are a few angels. Apart from the figures in the
glory, 52 persons are shown. Those at the right side of the painting are nearly
finished. The figures at the left, however, are only a little more than drawn...”
[without any doubt Beda Regaus has confused here the left and right sides of
the painting]; the document published in Dom Bernard, loc, cit.). In the
second place there is an important iconographical argument to which attention
has not previously been drawn. The presence of Saints Peter and Paul in the
Brussels pifture has nothing to do with the subjefit, but is to be explained by
the fafl: that they were the patron saints of the abbey at Affiigem: the account
of the abbey written by Hubertus Phalesius before 1638 is entitled MonaHerii
SS. Petri et Pauli Affligeniensis Chronicum (Brussels, Bibliothèque Royale, No.
7037/7042).
The painting is not completely finished, especially on the extreme right and
in the upper centre: this was no doubt what led J.F.M. Michel and Regaus to
regard it as a sketch, a view shared by Van Puyvelde. It is, however, contradicted
by the size of the work and the far from sketchy execution of the centre and
the lower left.
Another disputed point is the dating. Dillon placed the work at the very end
of Rubens’s career, in 1639. In the catalogue of the Brussels exhibition, 1965,
Van Puyvelde suggests a date of about 1636. Oldenbourg puts it in about 1628
and Sterling, in the Paris exhibition catalogue of 1936, argues for the late
1620’s or very early 1630’s. This laSt view seems to be the correfl: one. Sterling
pointed out the Striking Stylistic resemblance between this work and the paint­
ing of St. George and the Dragon (1629-30) in Buckingham Palace (K.d.K
p. 3x 1), which is of approximately the same size as the painting under dis­
cussion (153 : 226 cm.). The fluent workmanship and occasional close attention
to detail is an essential element in the Style of both works. In both of them,
one may notice the white horse, the light shining on armour and the facial
114
types of the women in the foreground. As regards composition there is also a
remarkable likeness to another work of the late twenties, The Madonna adored
by Saints (1628) in St. AuguStine’s at Antwerp {K.d.K., p. 305) : in both cases
the upper and lower parts of the picture are linked by a similar diagonal
schema, I think it probable that the present work was begun in 1628, shortly
before Rubens set out on his long diplomatic travels to Spain and England in
August of that year, and that after his return he failed for some reason to
complete it.
Although Rubens’s work was unfinished, we know that the abbey at Affligem ordered from another maSter a work similar in composition and icon­
ography to the Miracles of St. Benedict. This is St. Benedict and Totila, painted
by Gaspar de Crayer in 1633 for the new refeftory and laSt heard of in 1955
at the Wilftach sale in Philadelphia (Fig. 126; canvas, 280 : 550 cm.; H.
Vlieghe, Gaspar de Crayer, in print). The figures on the right and the group
of monks on the left show that De Crayer took Rubens’s version as a point of
departure. It is tempting to suppose that this work was intended to fill the
place of the one left unfinished by Rubens. In that case, the considerable
difference in size may be accounted for by the dimensions of the new refectory,
which was perhaps larger than the old. It may be added that there is quite a
Strong possibility—as suggested by Rooses and also by Van Puyvelde in Cat.
Exh. Brussels, 196y— that The Miracles of St. Benedict was in De Crayer’s
possession. In 1641 he received from Hélène Fourment a “painting of StBenedift” by way of recompense for his intervention on the occasion of the
purchase by Philip IV of Spain of a large number of paintings from Rubens’s
estate {Denucê, Konîtkamers, p. 76). Arguments for the view that this is the
same as the Brussels painting are (1) that the latter is Rubens’s only known
work depicting St. Benedift, and (2) that De Crayer muft in any case have
seen the Brussels pifture, since it clearly inspired his own pifture for Affligem,
already mentioned.
74.
ST. CATHERINE OF ALEXANDRIA
(Fig.
1 29)
Oil on panel; 100.5 : 72-5 cm.; slightly enlarged at the left and right sides.
New York, The New York HiBorical Society. No. B. 158.
115
P r o v e n a n c e : ? Purchased from a church in the neighbourhood of Brussels by M.J.L.
Nieuwenhuys; Count Perregaux, sale, Paris 8-9 December 1841, lot 30; purchased by
M. Weles; Thomas J. Bryan; presented to the New York Historical Society with the
remainder of the latter’s colledtion, 1867.
L i t e r a t u r e : L e cabinet de l’amateur et de l ’antiquaire, 1, Paris, 1842, p. 9 1; Smith,
Catalogue Raisonné, IX,
p. 346, No. 388; Catalogue of the Gallery of A rt of the N e w
New York, 19 15, pp. 76, 77, No. B. 158; Goris-Held, p. 35,
No. 61, pi. 5 1; Larsen, p. 217, No, 36.
York Historical Society,
A knee-length picture of the Saint, whose head is turned to the left. She holds
a palm in her right hand, while the other is pressed to her robe. Below on the
left is her attribute, the wheel.
The dry Style of the work prevents our ascribing it to Rubens himself: it is
a good Studio piece which, in view of its marked plasticity, muSt date from
about 1615.
75.
ST. CATHERINE OF ALEXANDRIA: ETCHING
(Fig. 127)
Etching; 292 : 198 mm.; signed below, at the left: P. Paul Rubens fecit.
L i t e r a t u r e : R. Hecquet, Catalogue des eîtampes gravées d ’après P.P. Rubens, Paris,
1767, p. 83, No. 15 ; Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, 11, p. 295, No. 1056; Abécédaire de
P.J. Mariette,
ed. by P. de Chennevières and A. de Montaiglon, v, Paris, 1858-59,
p. X08 (as Rubens, retouched by Bolswert)-, V S ., p. 114 , No. 35; H. Hymans, Histoire
de la gravure dans l’ école de Rubens, Brussels, 1879, pp. 144-146 (as Rubens, retouched
by L. VorSterman) ; E. Dutuit, Manuel de I’amateur d ’ eStampes, vi, Paris-London, 1885,
p. 13 1, No. 15 ; Rooses, 1, pp. 35, 36, under No. 26; H. Hymans, Lucas VorSterman,
Brussels, 1893, pp. 97, 98, No. 57 (as Rubens, retouched by VorSterman) ; A.M. Hind,
Rubens as Etcher, The Print Colleftor’s Quarterly, x, 1, 1923, pp. 61-63, 65, repr., 70,
72, 74; F. Van den Wijngaert, Inventaris der Rubeniaansche Prentkunst, Antwerp, 1940,
p. 21 (as P. Soutman, retouched by L . VorSterman)-, Martin, Ceiling Paintings, 1, pp.
145-147.
This etching is based on Rubens’s painting of the same subject, executed in
1620-21 for the ceiling of the Jesuit church at Antwerp {Martin, Ceiling Paint­
ings, pis. 139 -14 2). The figure of St. Catherine is the same as that in the
116
painting except for one detail: the body of Maximin is replaced by St. Cathe­
rine’s attribute of the broken wheel. Martin has pointed out that this engraving
was undoubtedly made from Rubens’s modello, now loft, for the painting in
the former Jesuit church, which has also disappeared but can be judged from
copies.
It is generally accepted, except by Van den Wijngaert, that this etching is
by Rubens’s own hand. Some writers, however, have thought that it was par­
tially executed by other engravers: Mariette suggefted one of the Bolswerts,
while Hymans thought of Vorfterman. The dashing lines and the exceptionally
plaftic effeft of contrasts between light and dark testify to a brilliance not to
be found among the routine engravers with whom Rubens was in contaft. But
we may speculate whether an etching in this spontaneous Style may not have
been the work of the young Van Dyck, who was working in Rubens’s Studio
around the time when the ceiling paintings for the Jesuit church at Antwerp
were being executed, and in fad took an important part in this work {Martin,
Ceiling Paintings, pp. 39, 40). We also know that Van Dyck was engaged at
the same period in drawing modelli for engravings after Rubens’s compositions
{Bellori, p. 254). Finally, the Iconography may be cited as indicating Van
Dyck’s superior skill as an etcher.
75a.
ST. CATHERINE OF ALEXANDRIA: COUNTERPROOF OF ETCHING
(Fig.
12 8 )
Counterproof of etching, retouched with the pen; 292 : 198 mm.
N e w York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Rogers Fund,
Pr o v e n a n c e :
1922.
Spencer, sale, London (Christie’s), 2 5 June 1 9 19 , lot 15 5 .
L i t e r a t u r e : A.M. Hind, Rubens as Etcher, The Print ColleéloPs Quarterly, x , 1, 1923,
pp. 62, 63, repr., 70, 72; J. Poortenaar, The Technique of Prints and A rt Reproduâion
Processes, London, 1933, pp. 62, 63, fig. 39; W.M. Ivins, jr., H ow Prints look. Photo­
New York, 1943, p. 14 1, repr.; J.S. Held, Rubens, London,
1955, pi. 38; Martin, Ceiling Paintings, pp. 146, 147, under No. 26 b, pi. 143.
graphs with a commentary,
A counter-proof, retouched with the pen, of the etching at No. 75.
“ 7
76.
THE MYSTIC MARRIAGE OF ST. CATHERINE OF ALEXANDRIA
(Fig,
13 1)
Oil on canvas; 90 : 127 cm.
Whereabouts unknown.
P r o v e n a n c e : Sir. J.C. Robinson; Paris, Sedelmeyer Galleries, c. 1894; Rodman Wana-
maker, Philadelphia, c. 1905; anonymous sale, New York (Anderson), 4 February 1931
et seqq., lot 1 7 1 ; Carlberg, New York, c. 1933; Mrs. William Fox, sale, New York
(Kende), 1 December 1942 et seqq., lot 40.
L it e r a t u r e : The prit hundred of Paintings by O ld MaBers belonging to the Sedelmeyer
Gallery,
Paris, 1894, p. 48, No. 38; M. Rooses, in Rubens-Bulletijn, v, 1897, pp. 70, 7 1;
K .d .K ., ed. Rosenberg,
pp. 2, 463; W. Bode, Kritik und Chronologie der Gemälde von
N.F., XVI, 1905, p. 201; K .d.K .,
pp. 440, 472 (as not by Rubens) ; Glück, 1933, p. 156; L. Burchard, Nachträge, in
Peter Paul Rubens, Zeitschrift für bildende Kunlt,
Glück,
1933, pp. 376, 391.
After her conversion to Christianity St. Catherine is said to have had a vision
of the Virgin Mary and the Child Jesus: the latter gave her a wedding-ring
with the words: “Lo, I take thee for my unspotted bride” . As far as is known,
the firSt mention of this theme was in the Painter’s Book from Mount Athos
(Das Handbuch der Malerei vom Berge Athos, ed. by G. Schäfer, Trier, 1855,
p. 355) ; it became very popular in WeSt European art from the fifteenth century
onwards.
The figures in this composition are in three-quarter length. The Madonna
sits on the right with the Child on her lap; the Saint kneels on the left, and the
Child places the ring on the fourth finger of her right hand. St. Peter, with
his keys, Stands between the Virgin and St. Catherine. The reason for his
presence, and the significance of the organ on the extreme left, are not clear.
There is a conspicuous gap between the organ and St. Peter, and one may
wonder if it was not originally occupied by a figure of St. Cecilia, which was
later painted out. This conjecture is supported by the Study for this composition
in the Allen Memorial Art Museum at Oberlin, Ohio (No. 76a; Fig. 132),
where an unidentified female saint occupies the space that is empty in the final
version. If this view is correft, the composition is rather to be regarded as a
Sacra Conversazione than as a Myltic Marriage of St. Catherine. However, this
could only be elucidated by an X-ray examination of the painting. As all trace
118
of it has been loft since 1942, such an examination could not be carried out for
the present ftudy.
The schema of the composition with half-length figures is Titianesque: one
may think in particular of Titian’s Madonna and Child with St. Dorothy and
St. George in the Prado (H. Wethey, The Paintings of Titian, 1, London, 1969,
pi, 13) or his Madonna and Child with St. Stephen, St. Jerome and St. Maurice
in the Louvre (H. Wethey, op. cit., pi. 15 ). The ftyliftic qualities of the pifture,
especially the filling up of the area with figures that give an impression of size,
and the detailed treatment of their garments and hair, are typical of Rubens’s
work in the firft years after his return from Italy. The Child Jesus is repeated
in several other works of this period, notably The Education of the Virgin in
the colleftion of the Prince of Liechtenstein at Vaduz (Glück, 1933, p. 25, fig.
18) and Romulus and Remus in the Carey colleftion at Silver Springs, Mary­
land (Cat. Exh. Detroit, 1936, No. 2, repr.). We may also note that Van Dyck
used this motif in one of his earlieft compositions, The Triumph of Silenus
(c. 16 18), formerly in the Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum at Berlin (K.d.K., Van
Dyck, p. 15).
As far as can be judged from a photograph, this pifture was for the moft
part executed by Rubens’s ftudio.
76a.
THE MYSTIC MARRIAGE OF ST. CATHERINE OF ALEXANDRIA: DRAWING
(Fig. 132)
Pen and brown ink; 158 : 217 mm.
Oberlin, Ohio, Oberlin College, A llen Memorial A rt Museum.
Pr o v en a n c e:
Inv. No. 54.24.
H.M. Calmann, London; M. Komor, New York; purchased for the
Museum, 1954.
E x h ib it e d : Cam bridge-New York, 19 36 , No. 3 (repr.); Antwerp, 19 36 , No. 33;
Treasures from the A llen Memorial A rt Museum,
The Minneapolis Institute of Arts,
Minneapolis, 1966 (not numbered).
L i t e r a t u r e : A llen Memorial A rt Museum Bulletin,
xn, 1954, p. 42;
The Art Quarterly,
xviii, 1955, p. 84.
In this cursory sketch for the painting formerly in the Wanamaker colleftion
at Philadelphia (No. 76; Fig. 13 1) , the attitudes of the Child Jesus and St.
119
Catherine are similar to those in the final version; there are, however, differ­
ences in the other figures. The Madonna is seen in full face, while St. Peter is
in three-quarter face and is leaning towards the Child. On the left, next to St.
Peter, is a woman’s head, whereas in the final version this space is empty. The
edge of the composition is vaguely indicated below and on the right.
77.
THE MYSTIC MARRIAGE OF ST, CATHERINE OF ALEXANDRIA
(Fig. 130)
Oil on canvas; 204 : 245 cm.
Formerly in the Bildergalerie of Sanssouci, Potsdam. Inv. No. G K I 10633; lo§t since
1945P r o v e n a n c e : Purchased for the collection of Frederick II, the Great, King of Prussia,
1763; temporarily exhibited in the Gallery at Berlin, between 1830 and 1929.
C o p ie s : ( i ) Painting, Louvain, St. Quintinus’s Church; canvas, appr. 200 : 250 cm.; lit,:
E. Van Even, Louvain Monumental, Louvain, i860, p. 215 (as copy after Van Thulden);
(2) Painting, whereabouts unknown; prov.: London, Walter J. Abrahams (19 12).
M. Oesterreich, Beschreibung der Königlichen Bildergalerie und des Kabinets im Sans-Souci, Potsdam, 1764, p. 86, No. 89; F. Nicolai, Beschreibung der Königli­
L it e r a t u r e :
chen Residenzstädte Berlin und Potsdam, hi, Berlin, 1786, p. 1209, No. 27; Smith,
Catalogue Raisonné, 11, p. 109, No. 263; ix, p. 289, No. 167; C.F. Waagen, Verzeichnis
der Gemälde-Sammlung des königlichen Museums zu Berlin, Berlin, 1833, p. 210, No.
306 (as A. van Diepenbeeck); Parthey, 11, p. 422, No. 137; R. Oldenbourg, Die Vlämische Malerei des XV II. Jahrhunderts, Berlin, 1922, p. 127, pl. 58 (as a pupil of
Rubens before 1620) ; E. Henschel-Simon, Die Gemälde und Skulpturen in der Bilder­
galerie von Sanssouci, Berlin, 1930, No. 118 (as a pupil of Rubens before 1620)1
Burchard-d'HulSt, 19 6 3 ,1, p. 195; M. Bernhard, Verlorene Werke der Malerei in Deutsch­
land in der Zeit von 19 3 9 bis 194 3, Munich, 1965, p. 56.
The myätic marriage is taking place in the foreground of the pidure. The
Virgin, in left profile, is seated on a bench holding the Child, who places the
ring on the kneeling Saint’s finger. Three other saints witness the miraculous
event: St. Francis leans over from the left, the infant John the Baptist with his
lamb looks up from the right at the Virgin and Child, and in the background
is an aged man, possibly St. Joseph, with long hair and a long beard.
120
The classical eff eft of the quiet, harmonious composition and the monu*
mentality and plaftic conception of the figures may suggeft a date shortly
before or after 1615. The head of the Madonna is of the same type as in St.
Francis of Assisi receiving the Infant Christ, a painting of the same period,
now in the Lille Museum (No. 95; Fig. 167). The present work muft have
been largely executed by Rubens’s Studio.
78.
THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. CATHERINE OF ALEXANDRIA
(Fig. 1 33)
Oil on canvas; 364 : 243 cm.
Lille, Musée des Beaux-Arts. Inv. No. D 65-8.
Pr o v en a n c e:
St. Catherine’s Church, Lille; deposited in the Museum there since 17
February 1965.
Painting (Fig. 136), Ghent, St. Bavo’s Church; canvas, 239 : 180 cm.; lit.:
De Sadeleire, Beschryvinge der 7 parochiaele kercken der Stad Ghendî, haere raeriteyten
C o p ie s : ( i )
van schilderyen, ende door wat meeSters die gemaeckt syn (c, 1734), printed in C. Piot,
Rapport à M. le Ministre de l’Intérieur sur les tableaux enlevés à la Belgique en 1794
et restitués en 18 15, Brussels, 1883, p. 127; Mensaert, 11, p. 23; Spruyt, îy-jy, p. 138;
Spruyt, ij8 $ - $ i, p. 174; P. Kervyn de Volkaersbeke, Les églises de Gand, 1, Ghent,
1857, p. 80; E. Dhanens, Inventaris van het kunstpatrimonium van OoStvlaanderen,
Sint Baafskathedraal Gent, Ghent, 1965, p. 209, No. 461; (2) Engraving by W. de
Leeuw (Fig, 13 5 ; V.S., p. 115 , No. 45).
V,
L i t e r a t u r e : Descamps, Vie, p. 326; Mensaert, 11, p. 74; Descamps, Voyage, pp. 7, 8;
Michel, ly y i, pp. 197, 198; Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, 11, p. 40, No. 1 1 5 ; Rooses, II,
pp. 235, 236, No. 399; Dillon, p. 146, pi. c c x x x v ii; F.M. Haberditzl, Über einige Hand­
zeichnungen von Rubens in der Albertina, Die graphischen KünSte, x x x v , 1912, p. 5
(as School of Rubens)] K.d.K., p. 242; Burchard-d’HulSt, 196$, 1, pp. 223, 312.
After being subjected to many cruel tortures for the faith and enduring them
unscathed, St. Catherine was finally beheaded ('Legenda Aurea, 11, col. 448,
449). Rubens here shows the executioner about to deal the fatal blow with his
sword: he Stands to the right of the Saint, who is kneeling on a cushion. Three
women are in attendance: one is blindfolding the Saint, another holding her
tresses clear of her neck, while the third is helping the executioner to lay bare
her shoulder. A fourth, elderly woman looks on in tears. On the left, a prieft
121
admonishes St. Catherine for the laSt time by pointing to a Statue of Apollo
Musagetes, erefted in front of a round temple. Beyond him on the extreme
left are two soldiers wearing helmets. Some onlookers Stand in the background
on the extreme right, while angels descend from heaven bearing the martyr’s
palm and laurel wreath. In the very front of the scene is a sacrificial lamb,
lying on the ground, and a bundle of fasces.
This painting was presented to St. Catherine’s Church at Lille by Jean de
Seur, member of the Council of State under the Archduke Albert and the
Infanta Isabella, and by de Seur’s wife Marie Patyn, as recorded in their epitaph
formerly in the church; “Cy devant reposent noble homme Jean de Seur, con­
seiller de leurs Altèzes Sérénissimes Albert, Archiduc d’Autriche etc. et Isabelle,
Infante des Espaignes et commis ordinaire de leurs finances, et dame Marie
de Patyn, sa femme, lesquels ont fondez l ’office de l’Ange gardien qui se célè­
bre en cette église le premier mercredy d’Oftobre et ont donné aussy la table
d’autel et peinture de Ste-Catherine au chœur de cette église; ledit Sr décéda
le 2 de Juin 16 21 et ladite dame le 25 de janvier 1668. Requiescant in pace.”
(.Rooses, il, p. 236, under No. 399). The year 1621 is thus a terminus ante
quem, while the Style with its plasticity and cool local colouring suggests an
earlier date, say 16 15 or somewhat later.
Burchard believed that this pifture was entirely Rubens’s work, but its rather
“ dry” brushwork suggest that much of it was done by the Studio.
The painting muSt originally have been wider on the right-hand side. The
engraving by Willem de Leeuw (Fig. 135) shows two more figures in the right
background that are not now to be seen. A comparison between the engraving
and the pifture also shows that the right side of the scaffold is not visible in
the latter. It appears that after the pifture was made narrower on the right,
it was once more enlarged with a Strip of about 15 cm. When this was done,
the male figure immediately to the right of the executioner’s right leg was
altered into a woman, while the bundle of fasces on the ground was made
smaller. This change muSt have been made at a relatively early date: this is
proved by the copy, firSt mentioned in Ghent Cathedral c. 1734 and Still in
situ (Fig. 136), which closely resembles the Lille altar-piece in its aftual State.
Besides Willem de Leeuw’s engraving in reverse, there is another engraving
of inferior quality by Adriaan Lommelin (V.S., p. 115 , No. 46). It was made
in the same sense as the painting and was clearly copied from Willem de
Leeuw’s print.
122
78a.
HEAD OF ST. CATHERINE OF ALEXANDRIA: DRAWING
(Fig. 1 34)
Black chalk on paper, heightened with white body-colour; 375 : 235 mm., including a
later added piece of paper in the right corner below; above, slightly cut by the edge of
the sheet, the word Catarina, written in red chalk by a foreign hand.
Vienna, Albertina. No, 42283.
P r o v e n a n c e : Duke Albert of Sachsen-Teschen (Moritzburg near Dresden, 1738 -
Vienna, 1822).
L it e r a t u r e : Rooses, 11, p. 236, under No. 399; v, p. 234, No. 1443; F.M. Haberditzl,
Über einige Handzeichnungen von Rubens in der Albertina, Die graphischen KüriHe,
XXXV, 19 12, p. 5; Glück-Haberditzl, p. 48, No. 143, repr.; Held, 1, p. 138.
This is a preliminary Study for the figure of the Saint in the painting in the Lille
Museum (No. 78; Fig. 133).
Held pointed out that the inscription at the top is by the same hand as those
on several other drawings by Rubens, particularly those described in GlückHaberditzl, Nos. 152, 156, 157, 16 2 ,16 4 ,16 5 .
79.
ANGELS TRANSPORTING THE DEAD BODY OF ST. CATHERINE OF ALEXANDRIA
(Fig- 137)
Oil on panel; 70 : 10 1 cm.
Whereabouts unknown.
P r o v e n a n c e : J.A. Snyers, Antwerp, 1830; according to Rooses, purchased from the
latter by D. van den Schrieck, Louvain, 18 3 1; D. van den Schrieck sale, Louvain 8 April
1861 et seqq., lot 88, (as Rubens), purchased by Mr. Grieten; sale, Brussels, 24 March
1868 et seqq., lot 47 (as Rubens) ; J.-B. Foucart, Valenciennes, 12 Oftober 1898 et seqq.,
lot 91 (repr.; as Rubens), purchased by Mr. Duflot, Verviers.
C o p y : Painting (Fig. 138), Antwerp, G. Faes; canvas, 70 : 10 1 cm.
L i t e r a t u r e : Rooses, 11, p. 76, No. 284; M. Rooses, in Rubens-Bulletijn, iv, 1896,
p. 210, No. 284; L. Burchard, Nachträge, in Glück, 1933, p. 38 1; Evers, 1943, p. 132,
/ JL
~~
fig. 38; S. Heiland, Two Rubens Paintings rehabilitated, The Burlington Magazine, cxi,
z969, P- 420123
According to legend, after St. Catherine had been beheaded her body was taken
by angels to Mount Sinai and buried there (Legenda Aurea, ii, col. 449). The
picture shows two angels, one/lifting the body from the scaffold while the other
wraps the Saint’s head in a cloth. In the left foreground are the instruments
with which she was tortured before being executed.
The marked plasticity of the figures points to a date of c. 1615 or shortly
after. As Evers observed, the motif of the headless body is direftly inspired by
Stefano Maderno’s sculpture of St. Cecilia (1599) in the famous sepulchral
monument at Santa Cecilia in TraStevere, Rome (J. Pope-Hennessy, Italian
High Renaissance and Baroque Sculpture, London, 1963, pi, 159).
Rooses, Burchard and Evers, accepting the information in the catalogues of
the Van den Schrieck and Foucart sales, identified this panel with a painting
of the same title from the predella of the Raising of the Cross altarpiece, which
was formerly in St. Walburga’s church at Antwerp and was sold at The Hague
on 4 September 1747 as lot 29 of the de Roore collection. However, Suzanne
Heiland recently showed that: this identification is mistaken, as the latter work
included six angels: this appears from the description in the catalogue of the
Campe sale held at Leipzig in September 1827, 'which is the moSt recent men­
tion of it.
The dimensions of the present work make it very likely that it was part of
a predella. A pifture of “H. Catharina onthoofd zijnde die vervoert word van
de engelen naar den berg Sinaij” (“the body of the beheaded St. Catherine being
carried by angels to Mount Sinai” ) formed part of the predella of the altarpiece of St. Teresa, formerly in the church of the Discalced Carmelites at
Brussels (11, Nos. 15 0 -152). But identification with this work is not possible
either, since the dimensions (62.5 : 90.5 cm.) of the painting that formed the
remainder of the predella, The Appearance of the Holy Spirit to St. Teresa,
now in the Stichting W. van der Vorm at Rotterdam (11, No. 15 1; D. Hannema,
Beschrijvende Catalogus van de schilderijen uit de kunstverzameling Stichting
Willem van der Vorm, Rotterdam, 1962, No. 7 1), differ considerably from
those of the painting now under discussion.
It is difficult to judge from a photograph the authenticity of the painting,
laSt heard of as part of the Foucart collection. At the sale of the latter and at
the previous Van den Schrieck.sale it was regarded as an original, but there is
evidence that its genuineness was doubted while it was Still in the Snyers col-
124
leftion at Antwerp. This would appear, at all events, from a previously un­
known letter of 5 June 1830 addressed by the governor of the Antwerp province
to the “Administrator” for education, arts and sciences at The Hague. The
latter had asked for advice regarding an offer by Snyers to sell to King William
I of the United Netherlands a pifture in his possession entitled Angels trans­
porting the body of St. Catherine of Alexandria. The governor’s somewhat
discouraging advice was as follows: “ De heer J.A. Sneyers alhier, bezit inder­
daad eene schilderij, vertoonende het opnemen door twee Engelen van het lijk
van de Heilige Catharina, naardat van het lichaam het hoofd was afgezonderd
geworden. Gemeld Stuk is niet zonder waarde, doch vindt men daarvan, zoo
het meeSt het geval van Stukken van groote meeSters is, geene hoegenaamde
melding in boeken of noticien; geen mensch kan zeggen, wanneer of waar, of
voor wien de schilderij vervaardigd werd, en omtrent deszelfs afkomSt uit zich
de heer J.A. Sneyers bij hier terugkeerend rekwest ook niet duidelijk. In ge­
sprekken geeft hij daaromtrent geene voldoende inligtingen. Ik geloof dus niet
dat de meeSt beroemde levende schilders of deskundige in het werk zouden
durven wagen te verklaren dat zij het Stuk in kweStie voor een voorbrengsel
van P.P. Rubens houden; of evenmin dat het zelve fl. 3000 waard is. Alhier
werd zulks niet verklaard.” (“Mr. J.A. Sneyers of this city does indeed possess
a pifture showing the decapitated body of St. Catherine being taken up by
two angels. It is a work of some merit, but no mention of it can be found in
books or other documents, as is usual with paintings by great masters. No one
knows when or where or for whom it was painted; in the petition which I
return herewith Mr. Sneyers is not explicit as to its origin, and he does not
give an adequate account of this in conversation either. For these reasons I do
not believe that the beStknown living painters or experts would acknowledge
it as a work by Rubens, or that it is worth 3000 guilders. At all events, no
such acknowledgment of its origin has been made here.” ). The governor con­
cludes with an observation, which is probably typical of early nineteenthcentury taSte: “Eindelijk moet ik nog opmerken dat in allen gevallen het voor­
werp dezer schilderij dezelve ongetwijfeld van bewoonde vertrekken of galereien van een of ander tusschen koninklijke paleizen uitsluiten zal.” (“I would
remark that in any case, in view of the subjeft of this painting, it could certainly
not be hung in the living apartments or galleries of any of the Royal palaces.” ;
Antwerp, Rijksarchief, Fonds “Provincie", No. 449).
125
80 .
ST. CATHERINE OF SIENA (F ig . 1 3 9 )
Oil on panel; 53 : 43 cm.
Düsseldorf, Kunstmuseum.
Inv. No. 56.
P r o v e n a n c e : Count von Benckendorff, St. Petersburg, until 1 9 1 7 ; H. Rothmann, Berlin
(?), who sold it to Prof. L. Goldis, Czechoslovakia, in 19 3 1; Prof. L. Goldis, Berlin,
sale, Munich (H. Helbing), 22 March 1932, lot 78 (repr.); purchased by J. and S. Gold­
schmidt, Berlin; Hinrichsen Gallery Berlin; purchased there by the Düsseldorf Museum,
1935; disappeared in 1945; rediscovered in the U.S.A., 19 51, and returned to the
Museum.
H. Ebel and H.W. Hupp, Drei fahre Museumsarbeit in Düsseldorf 1 9 3 4 Düsseldorf, n.d., not paginated, repr.
L it e r a t u r e :
19 3 6 ,
A buSt of the Saint, who belonged to the Third Order of St. Dominic; accord­
ing to tradition, she is shown with the crown of thorns, a crucifix and lilies
denoting purity (L. Réau, Iconographie de l’Art chrétien, ni, 1, Paris, 1958,
p. 273). She is looking towards the spectator and shedding a tear. I cannot
agree with Burchard in attributing this work to Rubens: the pictorial treatment
seems to me inferior to his work.
81.
ST. CECILIA PLAYING THE VIRGINALS
Approximately 125 : xoo cm.
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loSt.
Painting, whereabouts unknown; panel, 1 2 3 : 94.5 cm.; prov.: Dresden,
collections of the Electors of Saxony, fir§t mentioned there in 1722; Dresden, Gallery,
C o p ie s : ( i )
until 1925; Dresden, art trade P. Rusch; Brno, G. Haas, c. 1930; seen by Burchard
in one of the Store-rooms at Christie’s, London, 13 November 1950; lit.: Katalog der
königlichen Gemäldegalerie zu Dresden, Dresden-Berlin, 1912, No. 997; (2) Painting
(Fig. 142), New York, Metropolitan Museum, No. 29.100; canvas, 122 : 103 cm.; prov.:
Baron de Beumonville, sale, Paris, 9-16 May 1881, lot 437; Paris, Tabourier collection;
A. Marmontel, sale, Paris, 28, 29 March 1898, lot 5 (repr.) ; bequeathed to the Museum
by Mrs. H.O. Havemeyer, 1929; lit.: W. Valentiner, Rubens’ Paintings in America, The
ix, 1946, p. 164, No. 10 1 (as Rubens)', Goris-Held, p. 52, A.64 (as
p. 218, No. 79 (as R ubens); J.L. Allen & E.E. Gardner, A concise
Catalogue o f the European Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York,
A rt Quarterly,
Ru ben s); Larsen,
1954. p' 87 (as Rubens); (3) Painting, whereabouts unknown; panel, 37 : 33.5 cm.;
prov.: sale, Vienna (Kende), 16 December 19 21 et seqq., lot 13 (as W. van Herp) ;
(4) Engraving by W. Panneels (VS., p. 115 , No. 47); (5) Engraving by A. Lommelin
(F-S., p. 116 , No. 48).
L it e r a t u r e : Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, 11, p. 18 1, No. 628; Rooses, 11, pp. 240, 241,
No. 404; R. Klessmann, Rubens’s Saint Cecilia in the Berlin Gallery after Cleaning, The
Burlington Magazine, cv ii , 1965, p. 557, n. 19.
This work, which can only be judged from copies, is a half-length portrait of
the Saint, gazing upward as she sings to her own accompaniment on the vir­
ginals. Two cherubs on the left are joining in the song from a musical score,
and one seems to be beating time with his right arm. As is well known, the
association of music with St. Cecilia is based on the misreading of a sentence
from her legendary Passio, which runs; "Cantantibus organis Caecilia in corde
suo solo Domino decantabat, dicens: Fiat cor et corpus meum immaculatum.”
The firSt two words do not refer to the Saint herself playing (cf. L. Réau,
Iconographie de l’art chrétien, ni, 1, Paris, 1958, p. 280).
As Klessmann pointed out, this half-length composition belongs to a sixteenthcentury tradition, a notable example of which is Coxcie’s St. Cecilia of 1569,
now in the Prado (Fig. 140); Klessmann also drew attention to the faft that
Rubens had a St. Cecilia by Coxcie in his possession (Denucé, Konîikamers,
p. 65). A Still closer resemblance to Rubens’s St. Cecilia is shown by the engrav­
ing Musica by C. Drebbel, after Goltzius (Fig. 14 1), particularly in the ar­
rangement of the three singers and the diagonally placed virginals.
The Saint’s facial type and hair are similar to those of the midmoSt of the
three women on the left of The Conversion of St. Bavo in Ghent Cathedral
(No. 72; Fig. 123). As far as can be judged from the copies mentioned above,
this loft composition would seem to belong to the early 1620s rather than later
in the decade as supposed by Valentmer and Larsen.
The original or a copy is reproduced in a 17th century Flemish "Konftkamer”
(J.E, Wigmore sale, London [Christie’s], 29 June 1923, lot 12 1).
82.
ST. CECILIA PLAYING THE VIRGINALS
(Fig. 144)
Oil on panel; 177 : 139 cm.
Berlin-Dahlem, Staatliche Museen. No. 781.
127
? Received by the Brussels nobleman Jacob van Ophem from Rubens’s
estate, 16 41; Prince de Carignan, sale, Paris, 30 July 1742, lot 72; Duc de Tallard, sale,
Paris, 22 March 1756, lot 139; purchased by King Frederick II, the Great, of Prussia, for
Pro venance:
his gallery in Sanssouci, Potsdam; removed to the Berlin Museum by King William III
of Prussia, 1830.
C o p ie s : ( i ) Painting, whereabouts unknown; copper, 34.5 : 27 cm.; prov.: Paris, Marquis
de Blaisel; London, C.T. Hawkins, sale, London (Christie’s), 30 Odober 1936, lot 128
(as Rubens)-, (2) Painting by F. von Lenbach, whereabouts unknown; canvas, 177 : 140
cm.; prov.: sale, Munich (Helbing), 10 July 19 31, lot 68 (repr.); (3) Drawing attributed
to A. Watteau, after the upper part of the saint’s body, whereabouts unknown; 210 :
162.5 mm ; prov.: Stockholm, Count Tessin; Stockholm, Queen Louise of Sweden;
Princess Albertine of Sweden; Count Stenbock; Count Nils Barck; J. Klein; sale, Brussels
(Giroux), 27-28 June 1952, lot 354 (repr.; as Rubens)-, Albert Niels, sale, London
(Sotheby), lot 35 (repr.); lit.: K.T. Parker & J. Mathey, Dessins de Watteau, 1, Paris,
1957, No. 317, repr.; (4) Engraving by J. Witdoeck, the third date of it being retouched
by S. a Bolswert (Fig. 143; V.S., p. 116 , No. 50).
(5)
L i t e r a t u r e : Descamps, Vie, p, 316; M. Oederreich, Beschreibung der Königlichen
Bildergallerie und des Kabinets im Sans-Souci,
Catalogue Raisonné,
Potsdam, 1764, p. 74, No. 70; Smith,
11, p. 106, No. 350, p. 180, No. 627; ix, p. 286, No. 158; G.F.
Waagen, Verzeichnis der Gemälde-Sammlung des Königlichen Museums zu Berlin, Ber­
lin, 1833, No. 286; Parthey, 11, p. 423, No. 13 3; Rooses, 11, pp. 239, 240, No. 403;
p. 453; Dillon, p. 172, pl. ccccn n ; H. Posse, Königliche Museen
zu Berlin. D ie Gemäldegalerie des Kaiser-Priedrich-Museums, 11, Berlin, 19 11, pp. 346,
347, No. 781, repr.; K .d .K ., p. 435; R. Klessmann, D ie H l. Caecilie von Rubens in der
K .d .K ., ed. Rosenberg,
Berliner Galerie nach der Restaurierung, Sitzungsberichte der KunStgesch. Gesselschaft
zu Berlin, N.F., x i i ,
1963-64, pp. 6- 8 ; R. Klessmann, Rubens’s Saint Cecilia in the Berlin
cvii, 1965, pp. 550-559, figs. 1-6,
Gallery after Cleaning, The Burlington Magazine,
10; Martin, Ceiling Paintings, p. 136.
St. Cecilia, with the features of Hélène Fourment, is seated at the virginals and
gazing upward, singing as she plays. Her body is slightly inclined to the left;
her left foot is covered by her right. On the left a putto is trying to climb on
to the instrument, Standing on the carved sphinx that aâs as its support. Two
other cherubs, also on the left, are singing from a score. Behind them is a pair
of marble columns with Corinthian capitals, and in the distance a sunny, wood­
ed landscape. In the upper right-hand corner is a fourth putto holding a wreath
of flowers for the Saint. Below, on the right, a dog is sleeping on the edge of
Cecilia’s robe.
128
The restoration of this painting in about 1961 brought to light some sur­
prising fafts. These were interpreted by Rüdiger Klessmann, who showed that
Rubens added, on the left, a Strip 23 cm. wide in order to modify the compo­
sition. Originally there was a garland above on the left, juSt below the top
of the columns, and on the right a curtain only; there was more to be seen
of the Saint’s garment, and her right hand was partly concealed by the
instrument. The landscape, the climbing putto, the dog, the pillar on the
right and the cherub with the wreath all belong to Rubens’s revised compo­
sition. As Klessmann has clearly established, the new version differed radically
from the traditional portrayal of the organ-playing Saint in an indoor space,
which Rubens had followed in the 1620s (No. 81) and in the firSt version of
the Berlin canvas. The chief novelty of the second version lies in the addition
of details such as the landscape and the dog, which give the scene a more
intimate and less Striftly devotional character. Klessmann also pointed out that
large parts of the pifture surface show an unusual amount of craquelé, which
muSt be due to the “wet on wet” technique. Rubens’s use of this slovenly
method, in contract to his usual meticulousness, may, as Klessmann suggested,
have been due to the break-up of his health during his laSt year of life. This
would support the generally accepted dating of 1639-40. The work may be
identical with “ een Stuck van Ste Cecilia” acquired from Rubens’s estate by
Jacob van Ophem, the High Steward of the Domains of the Spanish king
(Denucé, KonUkatners, p. 77).
Finally it may be noted that the engraving by Witdoeck (Fig. 143) differs in
some respefts from the Berlin painting: e.g. the composition in the upper part
is somewhat longer and the Saint’s hair is done differently.
83.
ST. CECILIA
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loJt,
P ro v en a n ce:
? Canon Hendrik van Halmale, Antwerp, 1659; ? Chevalier de Julienne,
sale, Paris, 30 March 1767 et seqq., lot 103.
A. Pinchart, Archives des Arts et des Lettres, 11, Ghent, 1863, p. 187;
p. 241, under No. 405.
L it e r a t u r e :
Rooses, il,
12 9
In 1659 Canon Hendrik van Halmale, a relative of the burgomaster Hendrik
van Halmale, owned a “Sinte Cecilia van Rubbens, wit ende swert” (“St. Cecilia
by Rubens, in black and white” ), valued at 36 guilders (A. Pinchart, loc. cit.).
This may be identical with the grisaille sketch after the St. Cecilia now in
Berlin (No. 82; Fig. 144), which was sold in 1767 from the de Julienne collec­
tion and was intended as the modello for the engraving (Fig. 143) by Jan
Witdoeck (“Sainte Cecile chantant les louanges du Seigneur et touchant du
clavecin. Cette esquisse en grisaille, peinte sur bois. Gravé par Jean Witdoeck,
15 po[uces} X 10 po[uces] 3 lignes [ = 40.5 : 28 cm.]).
84.
st.
Ce c i l i a
(Fig. 145)
Oil on panel; 78.5 : 58 cm.
Düsseldorf, Kunstmuseum.
P r o v e n a n c e : Prince Lobkowitz, New York; private colle&ion, Stuttgart; Julius Böhler,
Munich, approx. 1926-28; purchased by Heinrich, Baron Thyssen-Bornemisza for his
collection at Schloss Rohoncz; Baroness Gabriele Bentinck-Thyssen, Paris; given on long
loan by the latter to the Düsseldorf Kunstmuseum, 197/.
j.-t
.
... *
-—
Co p y :
Painting, whereabouts unknown; canvas, 75 : 62 cm.; prov.: ? Private collection,
Great Britain, around 1903; sale, London (Christie’s), 3 March 1950, lot 126.
E x h ib ite d : Sammlung Schloss Rohoncz, Neue Pinakothek, Munich, 1930, No. 2 8 1
(repr.); Amsterdam, 1933, No. 12 (repr.); Choix de la Colleâion Bentinck, Institut
Néerlandais, Paris, 1970, No. 36 (repr.); D ie Sammlung Bentinck-Thyssen, Kunstmu­
seum, Düsseldorf, 1970-71, No. 44 (repr.).
L ite ra tu re : A.L- Mayer, Some recently discovered Paintings, The Burlington Magazine,
L,
1927, pp. 114 , repr., 1 1 5 ; C. Norris, The Rubens Exhibition at Amsterdam, The
Burlington Magazine,
lv i, 1932, p, 229, n. 4 (as not by Rubens ); Schloss Rohoncz
Foundation Colleâion'. Catalogue of Paintings,
Lugano, 1937, No. 361, pi. 107; R.
Klessmann, Rubens’s Saint Cecilia in the Berlin Gallery after Cleaning, The Burlington
Magazine, evil, 1965, pp. 550-553, fig. 13 ; H.J.M., A u s der Arbeit der Museen, Pan­
theon, XXIX, pp. 60, 61, repr.
The Saint, in half-length, is seen from the front, gazing upwards ecstatically
and apparently singing from a music-book, the pages of which she is turning
with her left hand while beating time with the right.
130
The expression of the face, the position of the head, the upper part of the
body and the left arm, as well as the treatment of the Saint’s clothing, are
derived from St. Cecilia playing the Virginals in Berlin (No. 82; Fig. 144).
However, the piftorial treatment indicates a different authorship from the
Berlin painting. We may agree with Norris in refusing to admit the authenticity
of this paStiche, though even Burchard attributed it to Rubens.
85.
ST. CHARLES BORROMEO
Oil on panel or canvas; approximately 145 : 100 cm.
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loSt.
C o p ie s : ( i )
Painting (Fig, 148), Antwerp, Presbytery of St. Andrew’s Church; canvas,
145 : 100 cm.; (2) Etching by N. van den Berg (Fig. 146; V.S., p. 96, No. 16).
L it e r a t u r e:
Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, ix, p. 334, No. 332; Rooses, 11, p. 241, No.
406,
This loSt pifture can be judged from two copies, a painted one in St. Andrew’s
church at Antwerp and an eighteenth-century etching in reverse by Nicolaas
van den Bergh (1725-74), the address of which bears the indication “P.P.
Rubens pinx.” . The Saint is here depifted as far as below the knee. He is
wearing a plain surplice and over it the cappa magna in token of his archi­
épiscopal rank. He is Standing absorbed in prayer in front of a small altar with
a crucifix. His Cardinal’s hat is seen againSt the wall behind him.
The pifture clearly derives direftly from the engraving by Hieronymus
Wierix, showing the Saint in the same attitude (Fig. 147): this is the firSt
known representation in the Netherlands of the great Counter-Reformation
prelate. Even such a Striking detail as the Saint’s bony fingers was borrowed
by Rubens from this prototype. The date of the loSt composition is hard to
determine owing to the inferior quality of the painted copy and the etching,
which are all we have to go on.
13 1
86 -87 .
86.
TWO PENDANTS: ST. DOMINIC AND ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI
ST. DOMINIC
(Fig. 149)
Oil on panel; 183 : 91.5 cm.; arched at the top; below on the left, inscribed in white,
the old Leganés number 274.
Dublin, National Gallery of Ireland. No. 427.
P r o v e n a n c e : Marquess of Leganés, 16 5 5 , No. 274 ; Matthew Anderson, Jesmond
Cottage (near Newcaftle/Tyne); W. Ellis, sale, London (Christie’s), 1 8 7 1 ; Marquess of
Bristol; purchased from the latter for the Dublin Gallery, 189 5.
E x h ib it e d : National Exhibition of Works of Art, Leeds, 1868, No. 568.
L it e r a t u r e : G. Waagen, Galleries and Cabinets of Art in Great Britain, London, 1857,
p. 480; Rooses, II, p. 244, No. 408; v, p. 3 3 1; G. Redford, Art Sales, 11, London, 1888,
p. 322; Poleró, Colección de Pinturas que reunio en su Palacio el Marqués de Leganés,
Boletin de la Sociedad Espanola de Excursiones, vi, 1898, p. 130; M. Rooses, La galerie
du Marquis de Léganès, Rubens Bulletijn, V, 1900, p. 169; E. Duncan, The National
Gallery of Ireland, The Burlington Magazine, X, 1906, p. xo; Catalogue of Piâures and
other Works of Art in the National Gallery of Ireland, Dublip, 1928, No. 427; T.
Bodkin, Dismembered Masterpieces, London, 1945, p. 25, pi. 33; J.L. Navio, La gran
colección de pinturas del Marqués de Leganés, Analeâa Calasanâiana, 1962, p. 281,
No. 274; National Gallery of Ireland. Concise Catalogue of the Oil Paintings, Dublin,
n.d., No. 427.
The Saint, in right profile, is wearing the black and white habit of his Order.
He holds a book in his right hand, no doubt in connection with his role as a
champion of orthodoxy. The Star on his forehead and the dog, seen below on
the right, with a blazing torch in its jaws belong to a dream that the Saint’s
mother is said to have had while expecting him (Legenda Aurea, i, col. 702).
Like St. Francis in the pendant to this work (No. 87; Fig. 150), St. Dominic
is seen beneath a semicircular Stone arch. A similar composition of saints’ fig­
ures is seen in Rubens’s companion pictures of St. Peter and St- Paul, from the
former Capuchin church at Antwerp (Nos. 49, 50; Figs. 89, 90); these were
probably intended as decoration for window-niches, and perhaps the same was
the case with St. Francis and St. Dominic.
132
Rubens’s Studio probably took a large part in the execution of the latter
works. Their melting transitional tones and the rather loose brushwork suggest
a date in the 1630s. The same tired and slightly swollen face of St. Francis is
to be seen in the pifture of him receiving the Stigmata, painted c. 1635 and
now in the Museum at Ghent (No. 92; Fig. 16 1).
87.
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI
(Fig. 150)
Oil on panel; 183 : 91.5 cm.; arched at the top; below on the right, inscribed in white,
the old Leganés number 265.
Dublin, National Gallery of Ireland, No. 51.
P r o v e n a n c e : Marquess of Leganés, 1655, No. 265; Matthew Anderson, Jesmond Cot­
tage (near NewcaStle/Tyne); W. Ellis, sale, London (Christie’s), 18 7 1; purchased there
for the Dublin Gallery.
C o p y : Painting, Strasbourg, Musée des Beaux-Arts, No. 29 3; canvas, 200 : 83 cm.;
prov.: London, C. Robinson; purchased for the Museum by W . Bode, 18 9 3 ; lit.: H. Haug,
Musée des Beaux-Arts de la Ville de Strasbourg, Catalogue des peintures anciennes,
Strasbourg, 19 38 , No. 99 (as Rubens).
L it e r a t u r e : G. Waagen, Galleries and Cabinets of Art in Great Britain, London, 1857,
p. 480; Rooses, il, p. 258, No. 427; G. Redford, Art Sales, 11, London, 1888, p. 322;
Poleró, Colección de Pinturas que reunio en su Palacio el Marqués de Leganés, Boletin
de la Sociedad Espanola de Excursiones, vi, 1898, p. 129; M. Rooses, La galerie du Mar­
quis de Léganès, Rubens Bulletijn, v, 1900, p. 169; E. Duncan, The National Gallery of
Ireland, The Burlington Magazine, X, 1906, p. 10 ; Catalogue of Piâures and other Works
of Art in the National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin, 1928, No. 5 1; T. Bodkin, Dismem­
bered MaSlerpieces, London, 1945, p. 25, pi. 34; J.L. Navio, La gran colección de pinturas del Marqués de Leganés, Analeâa Calasanâiana, 1962, p. 280, No. 265; National
Gallery of Ireland. Concise Catalogue of the Oil Paintings, Dublin, n.d., No. 51.
St. Francis, clad in the coarse habit of the Capuchins, Strikes his breaSt with his
right hand in a gesture of humility. The scar on this hand, recalling the miracle
of the Stigmatization, is illuminated by a ray of light falling from the upper left
of the pifture. The lamb, below on the right, is an attribute of the Saint which,
like St. Dominic’s dog, refers to a specific passage in his history: in the biogra­
phy by his contemporary and fellow-friar Thomas of Celano we are told that
133
St. Francis showed especial fondness for lambs as a symbol of the humility of
Jesus Christ (The Lives of St. Francis of Assisi by Brother Thomas of Celano,
ed. by A.G. Ferrers Howell, London, 1908, pp. 74-77).
88.
ST. DOMINIC AND ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI PROTECTING THE WORLD FROM THE
WRATH OF CHRIST
(Fig.
15 1)
Oil on canvas; ƒ 55 : 3 6 1 cm.; arched at the top.
Lyons, Musée des Beaux-Arts, No. 166.
P r o v e n a n c e : Dominican Church (St. Paul’s), Antwerp; brought to the Louvre, Paris,
in 1794; sent to the Museum at Lyons, 18 11.
L it e r a t u r e : B. de Monconys, Journal des Voyages, 11, Lyons, 1666, p. 107 (as seen in
July 1663, erroneously in the "Carmes” at Antwerp); Tessin, p. 83; De Wit, p. 53;
Descamps, Vie, p. 321; Berbie, pp. 59, 60, No. 1 ; Mensaert, 1, pp. 201, 202; Descamps,
Voyage, pp. 192, 193; Michel, i j y i , p. 90; Notice des grands tableaux de Paul Veronese,
Rubens... dont l’exposition provisoire aura lieu dans le Grand Salon du Musée..., Paris,
1803, No. 55; Odevaere, p. 317, No. 47; Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, II, pp. 12, 13,
No. 25; F.L. Clément de Ris, Les Musées de Province, il, Paris, 1861, p. 378; Rooses, 11,
pp. 242-244, No. 407; K.d.K., ed. Rosenberg, p. 174; Dillon, p. 219, pl. c l x x x i i ;
P. Dissard, Le Musée de Lyon. Les peintures, Paris, 1912, p. 54; R. Jullian, Collections
publiques... France... Lyon, Paris, i960, p. 31.
The central theme of this painting is a vision that St. Dominic is said to have
-
had while in Rome. Christ appeared to him with a threatening countenance,
holding three thunderbolts with which to destroy sinful man. The Virgin Mary
thereupon fell at her son’s feet and persuaded him to relent, by declaring that
she had two faithful servants who between them could convert the world.
She then presented to him St. Dominic and St. Francis. The Story is related by
Gerard de Fracheto, a contemporary of St. Dominic and member of his Order.
It was also illustrated by Theodoor Galle in Johannes Nys’s Vita S.P. Dominici,
Antwerp, 16 11, p. 13 (Knipping, 11, fig. 28),
Rubens’s composition is clearly divided into an upper and a lower zone.
Above, we see the wrathful Christ about to hurl down his thunderbolts. To the
left Mary pleads with him, and on the right are the two other Persons of the
Holy Trinity. The two Saints are in the lower part of the pifture, separated
134
by clouds from the upper. Their hands are outstretched protectively over a
globe with a serpent coiled round it, symbolizing the sinful world. About them
is a large company of Saints, including (from left to right) St. Catherine,
St. George, St. Mary Magdalene and St. SebaStian. The two mitred bishops on
the left are probably the Church Doctors St. Ambrose and St. AuguStine. To
their right is an unidentified Dominican saint. On either side of St. Mary
Magdalene are two female saints, whose identity is also unknown. To the right
of St. Sebastian is a bearded cardinal, whom Rooses believed to be St. Jerome;
it is possible, however, that Rubens intended the figure for the Franciscan
St. Bonaventure. Behind this group and among the clouds several more figures
can be seen, the only identifiable one being St. Cecilia playing the virginals.
Rooses dates this work about 1619-20, Rosenberg about 1618-20. All the
signs indeed point to its having been painted at that time. Various motifs recur
in other works by Rubens during these years. St. George, looking heavenward,
is met with again in the Great Laîî Judgement at Munich (K.d.K., p. 118 ),
ordered c. 1616. There is in the Louvre a Study for a head, ascribed to Van
Dyck by Glück (K.d.K, Van Dyck, p. 33, left), which shows the same facial
type. The head of St. Sebastian is the same as that of St. John the Evangelist
in The Assumption (c. 16 16 -17 ) in the Brussels museum (K.d.K., p. 120).
Rooses already pointed out the Striking resemblance between the mitred saint
on the left, probably St. Ambrose, and the central figure in St. Ambrose Barring
the Emperor Theodosius from Milan Cathedral, Vienna (c. 16 18 -19 ; K.d.K.,
p. 19 1). The closest similarity, however, is that between the pose of St. Cathe­
rine and the woman in the right foreground of The Miracles of St. Ignatius
in the KunSthiStorisches Museum at Vienna (11, No. 113 ) , an altar-piece ex­
ecuted about 1618. There seems also to be a link with the Madonna del Popolo,
Federigo Barocci’s masterpiece painted in 1579 for the Pieve church at Arezzo
and now in the Uffizi at Florence (H. Voss, Die Malerei der Spätrenaissance in
Rom und Florenz, 11, Berlin, 1920, p. 483, fig. 189). Rubens may have seen
this work if he Stopped at Arezzo on the way to Rome. The Virgin kneeling
on clouds is very similar, in reverse, to the corresponding figure in Barocci’s
work.
The history of St. Paul’s church at Antwerp may afford some evidence as
regards the date of this pifture, for which no direft archival records survive.
Seventeenth and eighteenth-century accounts of the church mention it as being
over the high altar. The choir and transept are known to have been begun in
135
i6i8, while the nave certainly was completed before that date (A. Sanderus,
Chorographia Sacra Brabantiae, 2nd ed., ill, The Hague, 1727, p. 3). Perhaps
the Start of the building-work in the latter year was the occasion for com­
missioning this pifture, whose Stylistic features are characteristic for the Stage
which had been reached in the evolution of Rubens’s work by the end of the
second decade.
Rooses held that only the lower half of the painting is by Rubens himself
and that the upper half is by one of his pupils : he suggested somewhat arbi­
trarily the name of Cornelis Schut (1597-1655). There is, in faft, no reason to
see in the work any other hand than Rubens’s. We may, however, disregard
the 50-cm. addition at the top; this is no doubt connefted with the adaptation
of the painting to the altar, rounded at the top, which was erefted in 1670
by the sculptor Pieter Verbruggen the Elder (the engraving by his son, Pieter
the Younger, showing clearly the altar and the date 1670 on it, is reproduced
in P. Génard, Anvers à travers les ages,
I,
Brussels, 1888, p. 329). The faft
that Rubens’s painting was originally square in shape may also be inferred
from the oil sketch discussed below (No. 88a).
88a .
ST. DOMINIC AND ST. FRANCIS O F ASSISI PROTECTING THE WORLD FROM THE
WRATH OF CHRIST: OIL SKETCH OR DRAWING
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loU.
C o p y : Drawing (Fig. 152), whereabouts unknown; 53.5 : 39 cm.; prov.: London,
Agnew’s, where seen by Burchard, 1947.
There are several marked differences between the painting at Lyons and this
sketch, known only from a copy, especially in the representation and grouping
of the various saints. Instead of St. Sebastian and the cardinal who has been
taken for St. Jerome, the sketch showed four other characters on the right of
St. Francis and St. Dominic. Of these, the two mitred saints may be the Church
Fathers St. Ambrose and St. AuguStine, and the half-naked greybeard may
perhaps be their fellow-Doftor St. Jerome. All we can see of the fourth is his
tonsured head, indicating that he belongs to one of the two great mendicant
Orders. The group to the left of St. Dominic and St. Francis was also con­
ceived quite differently. Of the four characters in the design, one is veSted as
136
a bishop and another is a knight in armour, probably St. George. Another
Striking difference between the sketch and the final version is in the position
occupied by the group of the Trinity and the Virgin Mary. This was originally
more or less confined to the left-hand side, leaving room on the right for a
company of saints and Old Testament prophets, who in the final version were
mainly replaced by putti. They include Saints Peter and Paul, St. Laurence
with his grid and King David with his harp. Originally, too, there were angels
supporting the cloud above which the Virgin is represented; these do not
appear in the Lyons picture. All these figures formed, as it were, an organic
link between the upper and lower parts of the composition.
In this work Rubens makes use of ideas that occur in related scenes by him
such as the two representations of A ll Saints, one in the Missale Romanum of
1613-14 (Evers, 1943, fig. 189), the other in the modello of about the same
date in the Boymans - van Beuningen Museum at Rotterdam (No. 1; Fig. 1).
The Saint in bishop's robes on the left is very similar to a figure that occupies
the same position in these two works.
88b.
HEAD STUDY OF ST. CATHERINE OF ALEXANDRIA: DRAWING
(Fig.
15 3 )
Black chalk, heightened with white body-colour; 280 : 245 mm.; inscribed with ink in
the right corner below, Rubens.
Angers, Musée Turpin de Crissé, No. 201.
P r o v e n a n c e : Bequeathed to the Museum by Count E. de Saint Genys, 1915.
L it e r a t u r e : A. Recouvreur, Ville d’Angers. Musée Turpin de Crissé (Hôtel de Pincé).
Catalogue guide, Angers, 1933, p. 238, No. 201.
A Study from life of a woman’s head in right profile. Some drapery is sketched
on the extreme right near the edge of the sheet. This drawing, not known
to Burchard, was regarded by A. Recouvreur as a Study for the head of St.
Catherine in the altar-piece now at Lyons (No. 88; Fig. 15 1). The two indeed
resemble each other closely, except that in the drawing no veil is seen on the
Saint’s hair. From the point of view of technique the drawing may be com­
pared with similar Studies of heads dating from 1615-20, such as the sketch
at Chatsworth for The LaSt Communion of St. Francis (No. 102c; Fig. 182)
137
or the Study, whose whereabouts are unknown, for one of the three Maries in
The Assumption of the Virgin, formerly in the Jesuit church at Antwerp and
now in the KunlthiStorisches Museum at Vienna (Burchard-d’Hulfi,
,
1965
II,
pi. h i ) . In all these cases Rubens managed, in a very similar way, to suggest
the maximum plasticity with a minimum of graphic means.
89.
HEAD STUDY OF ST, FRANCIS OF ASSISI
(Fig. 1 54)
Oil on panel; 42.5 : 40.5 cm.
Whereabouts unknown.
P r o v e n a n c e : Anonymous sale, London, 19 March 1943, lot n o (as A. Van Dyck);
Leger Galleries, London; Terry Engell Galleries, London, where seen by Burchard in
1957-
C opy : Drawing, Turin, Palazzo Reale, No. 9830.
L it e r a t u r e : [H. Granville Fell], A Rubens Head, The Connoisseur, Oftober, 1951,
p. 119 .
A head Study of the Saint, looking upward to the left.
Burchard regards this as a work by Rubens and is inclined to date it 1615-20
or later. I cannot, however, accept the attribution.
90.
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI RECEIVING THE STIGMATA
(Fig.
1 55)
Oil on canvas; 382 : 243 cm.
Cologne, Wallraf-Richartz Museum. No. 1043.
P r o v e n a n c e : Capuchin Church, Cologne; given to Canon Ferdinand-Franz Wallraf by
the Fathers, 179 4 , to be hidden from the French troops.
C op ies: ( i ) Painting, Antwerp, St. Anthony’s Church; canvas, 2 32 : 1 7 1 . 5 cm.; prov.:
Antwerp, Capuchin Church; lit.: De Wit, plan x m , No. 4 (as Rubens); Rooses, 11,
p. 250 ; (2) Painting after the Head of St. Francis, Moscow, Pushkin Museum; canvas,
64 : 52 cm.; prov.: bought by the Empress Catherine II for the imperial colleftions,
St. Petersburg; St. Petersburg, later Leningrad, Ermitage; lit.: Rooses, 11, p. 250, No. 4x5
138
(as Rubens)-, A. Somof, Ermitage Impérial - Catalogue de la galerie des tableaux, II,
St. Petersburg, 1901, No. 585 (as Rubens)-, Dillon, pl. l x x x v i i (as Rubens)-, K J.K .,
p. 452; (3) Watercolour, attributed to Delacroix, whereabouts unknown; 270 : 180 mm.;
prov. : Paris, Galerie Katia Granoff ; lit. : A.M. KeSting and H. Vey, Niederländische Ge­
malde von 1550 bis 1800 im Wallraf-Richartz Museum und im öffentlichen Besitz der
Stadt Köln, Cologne, 1967, p, xoo.
L i t e r a t u r e : C.S, Schier, Briefe aus Köln, Agrippina, 1, 1824, p. 235; J.J. Merlo, Nach­
richten von dem Leben und den Werken Kölnischer Künfller, Cologne, 1850, p. 382;
Parthey, 11, p. 421, No. 105; J. Niessen, Katalog des Museums Wallraf-Richartz in Köln,
Cologne, 1868, No. 617; Rooses, 11, pp. 249, 250, No. 414; J. Burckhardt, Erinnerungen
aus Rubens, Basle, 1898, p. 28; K.d.K., ed. Rosenberg, p. 145; K.d.K., p. 94; Knipping,
I, pp. 205, 206; Evers, 1942, pp. 146-148; W. Schöne, Über das Licht in der Malerei,
Berlin, 1954, p. 155; G. AuSt, Entwurf und Ausführung bei Rubens, Wallraf-Richartz
Jahrbuch, XX, 1958, p. 198; W. Friedländer, Early to Full Baroque: Cigoli and Rubens,
Studien zur toskanischen KunSt, Munich, 1964, p. 82; A.M. KeSting and H. Vey, Nieder­
ländische Gemälde von 1550 bis 1800 im Wallraf-Richartz Museum und im öffentlichen
Besitz der Stadt Köln, Cologne, 1967, No. 1043, fig, 133; H, Vey, Südniederländische
KünStler und ihre kölnischen Auftraggeber, Jaarboek Koninklijk Museum voor Schone
KunSten, Antwerpen, 1968, pp. 16, 17, fig. 8; J. Müller Hofftede, Neue Ölskizzen von
Rubens, Städel Jahrbuch, N.F., 11, 1969, pp. 213, 214; H. Vey, Zeugnisse der RubensVerehrung in Köln während des 19. Jahrhunderts, Wallraf-Richartz Jahrbuch, xxxi, 1969,
p. 12 1.
The fullest description of the miracle of the Stigmata is to be found in the
second part of the Fioretti di San Francesco, dated about 1322-28 (ed. by A.
Mori, Turin, 1923, pp. 192-202). In 1224, two years before his death, St. Fran­
cis had a vision on Mount Alverna near Arezzo, where he had retired with
Friar Leo. The crucified Christ appeared to him in the form of a six-winged
seraph, with two wings extended over his head, two spread out as if in flight,
and two covering his body. Thereupon the five wounds of Christ were miracu­
lously imprinted on the Saint’s hands and feet and in his side.
St. Francis is seen in the left-hand part of the pifture, with Brother Leo
sitting in the foreground. Above, on the right, is the winged Christ in a bright
nimbus, surrounded by heads of angels. To the left, behind St. Francis, is a
tree with a perching falcon: according to the Fioretti (op. cit., p. 19 1), this
bird used to awaken the Saint to prayer during his Stay on Mount Alverna. We
also see a death’s head, symbolizing the hermit’s life of mortification, and a
crucifix, before which the Saint is absorbed in prayer.
139
As has often been pointed out, this painting muât be regarded as largely the
work of Rubens’s Studio, and it is not possible precisely to identify his own
contribution. Rooses mistakenly thought that the figures were executed by Cor­
nells Schut; he ascribed the landscape to Jan Wildens, a view recently shared
by Müller Hofstede, but until Wildens’s work is better known it seems wiser
not to pronounce definitely on this. It also does not seem evident that, as W.
Friedländer thought, the composition is based on Cigoli’s painting of the same
subjeft in the Palazzo Pitti at Florence.
Except for Jacob Burckhardt, who proposed a date of about 1635-40, all the
writers who have discussed this work place it shortly before or after the middle
of the second decade. Vey recently showed that it was recorded at the Capuchin
church in Cologne when that building was consecrated in Oftober 1616 (see
J. Müller Hofstede, op, cit., p. 238, n. 113 ) , and it was probably painted a
very short time before.
KeSting and Vey also pointed out that the pifture of 1620 of the same subjeft
by Frans Pourbus the Younger, now in the Louvre, was inspired by Rubens
(Cat. Exh. Ile de France - Brabant, Brussels, 1962, fig. xxvi). The observation
is very pertinent: Brother Leo’s characteristic gesture of the arm is an almost
literal repetition of that in the pifture at Cologne.
90a.
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI RECEIVING THE STIGMATA: DRAWING
(Fig. 1 56)
Black chalk, pen and brown wash, heightened with white body-colour, on brown paper;
520 : 371 mm.; below in the left, mark of the colleftion van Parijs (L. 2531) and the
inventory number 749, followed by an only partially readable text, in brown ink: Nr. 2
Paulus !?[...] ft.
Berlin-Dahlem, Print Room of the Staatliche Museen. No. 5738.
P r o v e n a n c e : van Parijs (Brussels, c. 1800); A. von Beckerath (Berlin, 18 3 4 -19 15 );
purchased for the Print Room, 1902.
L it e r a t u r e : Glück-Haberditzl, p. 38, No. 79, repr.; E. Bock and J. Rosenberg, Zeichnun­
gen Niederländischer Meiner im KupferUichkabinett Berlin, I, Berlin, 1930, p. 250, No.
5738; F. Lugt, Beiträge zu dem Katalog der niederländischen Handzeichnungen in Ber­
lin, fahrbuch der preussischen KunflSammlungen, lii, 19 31, p. 65; G. AuSt, Entwurf und
Ausführung bei Rubens, Wallraf-Richartz fahrbuch, xx, 1958, p. 198; M. Jaffé, Rubens
as a Colleftor of Drawings, i, Malter Drawings, 11, 1964, p. 385, Fig. 2.
140
This drawing, as has been generally noted, is a composition-sketch for the altarpiece from the Capuchin church at Cologne (No. 90; Fig. 155). There are some
notable differences from the final version: St. Francis is in the centre of the
pifture and is kneeling on his right knee instead of the left; the winged Christ
in the upper right-hand corner is considerably smaller. Lesser differences are
to be seen in the position of the falcon in the tree on the left and the winged
heads of cherubs.
The figure of the Saint himself is almoSt exaftly repeated in an engraving
by Cornelis Galle inscribed Petrus Paulus Rubens pinxit (F.S., p. 97, No. 25).
90b.
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI RECEIVING THE STIGMATA: DRAWING
(Fig. 157)
Black chalk, pen and brown wash, heightened with white body-colour, on paper; 518 :
352 mm.; a Strip of 3-5 mm. added below; below, in the centre and on the right, two
marks of the Louvre (L . 1899 and 2207). - Verso: mark of the collection of E. Jabach
(I. 2959).
Paris, Cabinet des Dessins du Musée du Louvre.
No. 20312 (as after Rubens).
P r o v e n a n c e : E. Jabach (Cologne-Paris, 1610-1695); sold to Louis XIV, King of
France, 1671.
C o p y : Engraving by
L. VorSterman, 16 20 (Fig. 1 5 8 ; V S ., p. 97, N o . 2 6 ).
E x h ib it e d : Dessins flamands du X V IIè m e siècle, Cabinet des Dessins du Musée du
Louvre, Paris, 1952, No. 114 7 (as after Rubens) ; Dessins de Pierre-Paul Rubens, Cabinet
des Dessins du Musée du Louvre, Paris, 1959, No. 50 (as after Rubens).
L it e r a t u r e : F. Reiset, Notice des Dessins, etc. au Musée National du Louvre, 1, Paris,
1866, No. 582 (as after Rubens)', Rooses, V, p. 162 (as L . Vorsterman); F. Van den
Wijngaert, Inventaris der Rubeniaansche Prentkunît, Antwerp, 1940, p. 102, No. 723
(as L . VorSterman) ; F. Lugt, Musée du Louvre, Inventaire général des dessins des écoles
du N ord... Ecole flamande, 11, Paris, 1949, p. 41, No. 1147, pl. l x ii (as after Rubens)-,
H. Vey, D ie Zeichnungen Anton van Dycks, Brussels, 1962, 1, pp. 230, 231, No. 160;
II, pl. 204 (as A . van D yck).
There are no differences of importance between this drawing and the painting
of the same subjeft (No. 90; Fig. 155) : the only one worth mentioning lies in
the treatment of the branches seen on the left under the Saint’s arm.
14 1
Opinions as to the authorship of the drawing differ widely. Rooses, sup­
ported by Van den Wijngaert, attributed it to Lucas Vorfterman. It should be
remarked that this modello shows great smoothness of line compared with
other drawings for engravings which were made by VorSterman after Rubens
and which are also to be seen in the Cabinet des Dessins at the Louvre (F. Lugt,
op. cit., Nos. 112 6 et seqq.). This is probably why Burchard ascribed it to
Rubens himself. It is difficult in faft to discern Rubens’s hand in the work, yet
it seems to be of better quality than VorSterman’s drawings such as his portraits
of Spinola and Buckingham in the British Museum (Hind, 11, pis.
L x x v ii).
lxxv i
and
Vey made the interesting suggestion that the author might be Van
Dyck, who, as the latter’s friend Kenelm Digby told Bellori, was "uno allievo
ehe sapesse tradurre in disegno le sue [sc. Rubens’s] inventioni, per farle
intagliare al bulino” ; in this connection Bellori refers to the preliminary draw­
ing, now loSt, for VorSterman’s engraving of The Battle of Amazons (Bellori,
p. 254). Vey’s theory may be correft; on the other hand, Rubens’s hand may
be discernible in the pen-and-ink retouching and the heightening.
As Vey also pointed out, the engraving after this drawing, though dated
1620, muSt have been made earlier; Rubens mentions it in a letter of 23 January
1619 (Rooses-Ruelens, 11, p. 199), from which it appears that the engraving,
and therefore the drawing, already existed in 1618.
91.
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI RECEIVING THE STIGMATA
(Fig. 1 59)
Oil on canvas; 193.5 : T4^ cmArras, Musée Municipal.
P r o v e n a n c e : Purchased by the Museum at an unknown date after 1907.
The seraph is seen above on the left. St. Francis, on his knees, looks up in
ecStasy, Stretching out both arms in a gesture of humble submission. The woundmarks in his hands can be clearly seen. On the ground in front of him are a
prayer-book, a crucifix and a skull, the Vdnitas symbols of the hermit. The head
of the Startled Friar Leo is seen on the right, and there is a wooded slope in
the background. On the left is a view of a distant landscape with a small church,
some trees, and a ridge of hills on the horizon.
14 2
The typical oblique poSture of St. Francis is an invention of the late Italian
mannerists. The model may have been a work such as Cigoli’s St. Francis of
Assisi Receiving the Stigmata, now in the Pitti Palace at Florence (Cat. Exh•
MoStra del Cigoli e del suo ambiente, San Miniato, 1959, pp. 59-61, pl. X V ).
The present work, which was not known to Burchard, was for the moSt part
executed by Rubens’s Studio, from the modello in the Wetzlar collection at
Amsterdam (No. 91a; Fig. 160); however, Rubens himself painted the Saint’s
head. Pentimenti can be seen at the level of the Saint’s right elbow and in his
left shoulder and upper left arm: in the two latter places, rather less of the
Saint’s mozzetta was originally visible.
The marked plasticity with which the face and garments are treated suggest
a date of about 1615-20.
91 a.
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI RECEIVING THE STIGMATA: OIL SKETCH
(Fig. 160)
Oil on panel; 23.5 : 18 cm.
Amilerdam, The Heirs of Dr. H .A . Wetzlar.
P r o v e n a n c e : Unknown German collection, until 1932; Dr. Ludwig Burchard, Berlin,
later London; Matthiesen Gallery, London.
E x h ib it e d : Helsinki, 1 9 5 2 -5 3 , No. 9 (repr.); Brussels, 19 5 3 , No. 9 (repr.); Keuze uit
de verzameling Dr. H .A . Wetzlar,
Singer Museum, Laren, 1968-69, No. 23 (repr.).
L it e r a t u r e : J.S. Held, A propos de l’ exposition Rubens à Bruxelles, Les Arts Plastiques,
VI, 2, 19 53, p. 1x6; J. Müller HofStede, N eue Ölskizzen von Rubens, Städel Jahrbuch,
N.F., II, 1969, pp. 213, 215, 216, 237, fig. 22.
This sketch, almost entirely in grey and brown tones, was discovered by Bur­
chard, who thought that it might well have been painted for an engraving.
Clearly, however, it is in faft the sketch for the composition in the Musée
Municipal at Arras (No. 9 1; Fig. 159), which was unknown to Burchard. It
differs only in some details from the finished work: e.g. the position of the
skull, book and crucifix, the upper part of the Saint’s body and the view of a
distant horizon and the open air.
14 3
92 .
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI RECEIVING THE STIGMATA (F ig , l 6 l )
Oil on canvas; 264 : 192 cm.
Ghent, Museum voor Schone KunSien.
No. S-9.
P r o v e n a n c e : Franciscan Church, Ghent; deposited in the new Museum, c. 1797.
C o p ie s : ( i ) Painting, whereabouts unknown; prov.: Bruges, Church of the Franciscan
Friars; lit.: Descamps, Voyage, p. 297; (2) Painting, Brussels, A. de Heuvel; panel, 52 :
38 cm.; lit.: J.G. van Gelder, Rubens in Holland in de zeventiende eeuw, Nederlands
KunSthiRorisch Jaarboek, in, 1950-51, p. 124, fig. 13 ; (3) Engraving by F. Pilsen, 1770
(KA., p. 98, No. 3 1) ; (4) Etching by P. Spruyt (V.S., p. 97, No. 24); (5) Etching after
the figure of St. Francis (Fig. 164; V S ., p. 97, No. 22). (6)
L it e r a t u r e : Descamps, Vie, pp. 56, 325; Mensaert, 11, p. 47; Descamps, Voyage, p. 243;
p. 193; Spruyt, 1 7 7 7 , p. 149; Reynolds, p. 145; Spruyt, 1 7 8 9 - 9 1 , p. 195;
11, p. 38, No. n o ; A.P. Sunaert, Catalogue descriptif du
Musée de la ville de Gand, Ghent, 1870, No. 9; Rooses, pp. 250, 251, No. 416; Dillon,
Michel, 1 7 7 1 ,
Smith, Catalogue Raisonné,
p. 217 (as by a pupil of R ubens); Stad Gent, Museum van Schone KunSten. Catalogus,
Ghent, 1938, No. S-9; J. Müller Hofstede, N eue Ölskizzen von Rubens, Stadel Jahrbuch,
N.F., II, 1969, pp. 213-2 16 , 238, 239, fig. 21.
In this version of the theme of the Stigmatization, St. Francis is seen in full
face, seated on the right, while the seraph-like Christ appears from above on
the left. Instead of gazing at the apparition as in the other known versions
by Rubens, the Saint’s eyes are turned towards the spectator. Below, on the
left, Brother Leo looks up in alarm.
The colour-scheme with its melting transitional tones is typical of the laSt
decade of Rubens’s work. The dominant grey tonality recalls that of two other
paintings from the church of the Friars Minor at Ghent: St. Francis of Assisi
Protesting the World from the Wrath of Christ (c. 1635, now at Brussels:
No. 100; Fig. 173) and St. Mary Magdalene in EcStasy, now at Lille (11, No.
13 1 ) . One may surmise that all three works were commissioned together to
adorn the church. The St. Francis of Assisi at Dublin (No. 87; Fig. 150) shows
the same type of countenance as in the present painting.
An etching was made of the figure of St. Francis only, the second State of
which is signed below on the left P. Paul Rubens (Fig. 164). This etching was
ascribed to Willem Buytewech by J.G. van Gelder (De etsen van Willem
I44
Buytewech, Oud Holland,
x l v iii,
19 31, pp. 51-53, No.
6,
fig.
11)
and, with
some reservation, by E. Haverkamp Begemann (Willem Buytewech, Amster­
dam, 1959, 165-167, No. vG 6). As Buytewech died in 1624 this would mean
either that the present painting was executed before that year, which is im­
possible, or, as seems very improbable, that at some time before 1624 Rubens
painted a figure of a type and in an attitude exaftly similar to those of the
present work and its slightly altered replica (No. 93). As Müller Hofstede
already concluded, it would accordingly seem that the attribution to Buytewech
should be reconsidered. The immediate model for the etching was in any case
the small copy at de Heuvel’s, mentioned above.
93.
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI RECEIVING THE STIGMATA
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loSt.
C o p ie s : (i) Painting (Fig. 162), Rome, Capitoline Museum, No. 12; canvas, 195 : 160
cm.; lit.: Rooses, 11, p. 251, under No. 416; The Capitoline Colleâions, Rome, 1950,
p. 384, No. 12 ; lit.: Rooses, 11, p. 251, under No. 416; (2) Drawing (Fig. 163), Copen­
hagen, Print Room of the Statens Museum for KunSt, “Rubens-Cantoor”, No. 1, 7;
308 : 278 mm.
This composition, known only from copies, is an almoSt exaft repetition of the
painting of the same subject at Ghent (No. 92; Fig. 16 1). The only important
difference is that the Saint’s companion in the present work is a greybeard
instead of a beardless young man.
94.
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI RECEIVING THE INFAN T CHRIST
(Fig. 165)
Oil on canvas; 230 : 173 cm,
Antwerp, St. Anthony’s Church,
P r o v e n a n c e : Capuchin’s Church, Antwerp; brought to Paris, 17 9 4 ; returned to the
city of Antwerp, 18 15 ; deposited in the Sint-Antoniuskerk there.
C o p i e s : ( i ) Drawing after the figures of St. Francis and the Christ Child, probably by
M. Lasne, London, Count A. Seilern; 372 : 262 mm.; prov.: Amsterdam, C. Josi; C.
Ploos van AmStel, sale, Amsterdam, 31 July 1810, lot G-42 (as Rubens)-, sale, AmSter-
145
dam, 2i November 1929, lot 29 (repr.; as Rubens ); N. Beets, sale, Amsterdam (F.
Muller), 9 - 11 April 1940, lot 149 (repr.; as Rubens ); London, V. Koch; sale, London
(Sotheby’s), 25 March 1965, lot 100 (repr.; as Rubens ); lit.: Rooses, II, p. 254 (as
Rubens); [A. Seilern], Flemish Paintings and Drawings at 56 Princes Gate London,
Addenda, London, 1969, p. 59, No. 324, pi, xxx ix (as Rubens ) ; (2) Drawing after the
figures of St. Francis, the Virgin and the Christ Child, probably by C. Visscher, Oxford,
Ashmolean Museum, No. 206; 207 : 261 mm.; prov.: Wellesley; Sir Thomas Barlow,
by whom presented to the Museum, 1937; lit.: K.T. Parker, Catalogue of the Colledion
of Drawings in the Ashmolean Museum, I, Oxford, 1938, No. 206; (3) Engraving by
M, Lasne (Fig. 166; V S ., p. 98, No. 35); (4) Engraving by C. Visscher (FA., p. 98,
No. 34); (5) Engraving by A. Lommelin (V S ., p. 99, No. 37).
E x h ib ite d : Tableaux recouvrés... revenus de France, Musée, Antwerp, 1816, No. 38.
L i t e r a t u r e : De Wit, p. 124; Descamps, Vie, p. 323; Berbie, p. 65, No. 3; Mensaert,
1, pp. 214, 215; Descamps, Voyage, p. 197; Michel, 17 7 1, pp. 103, 104; Odevaere, p.
319, No. 66; Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, 11, p. 24, No. 8 1; Rooses, 11, p. 254, No. 420;
Oldenbourg, 1922, p. 103; J. Van den Nieuwenhuizen, Antwerpse schilderijen te Parijs
( 17 9 4 -18 15 ) , Antwerpen, v in , 1962, p. 78; [A. Seilern], Flemish Paintings and Draw­
ings at 56 Princes Gate London, Addenda, London, 1969, p. 59.
The legend here depicted belongs to the time of the Counter-Reformation, as
shown by E. Mâle (L ’Art religieux après le Concile de Trente, Paris, 1932,
p. 174). As the Story is related e.g. in L. Wadding, Annales Minorum (2nd
ed.,
I,
Rome, 17 3 1, p. 237), the Virgin appeared to St. Francis in a blaze of
light and laid the infant Christ in his arms. One of the friars witnessed the
miracle and was so overwhelmed that he loft consciousness. St. Francis is seen
kneeling in the left foreground in front of the Virgin, who is Standing on a
cloud and holding out the Christ Child towards him. The astonished friar is on
the extreme left behind St. Francis, part of his figure being cut through by the
edge of the picture, In accordance with the legend, the Virgin’s head is sur­
rounded by a sublime radiance and is wreathed, as it were, by four or five
frolicking cherubs.
As Rooses and Oldenbourg remarked, the rather weak execution of this
work is probably to be ascribed in the main to Rubens’s Studio. For dating
purposes we have a terminus pofl and a terminus ante quem. On the one hand,
the former Capuchin church at Antwerp was consecrated on 3 June 16 14 (P.
Hildebrand, Rubens chez les Capucins. Un témoignage de 1617, Etudes francis­
caines,
146
X L V ii,
1935, p, 728). On the other, we have a letter of 10 March 1617
from Paolo da Cesena, the General of the Capuchin Order, complaining that
its members in the Netherlands paid little attention to the rule of poverty,
and expressing indignation at the rich adornment of certain monasteries. He
writes: “Che si è fatta fare un’ imagine da un famoso pittore per il luogo di
Cambray, ehe vale quattrocento ducati senza altri ornamenti. Un’altra se ne
fà hora per il luogo di Lilla, del medesimo prezzo e forse maggiore. Un’altra
per il luogo d’Anversa, quasi del medesimo valore...” (P. Hildebrand, op. cit.,
p. 727). As P. Hildebrand points out, the “famoso pittore” is almost certainly
Rubens, who painted pictures for the monasteries at Cambrai and Lille: an
Entombment of Chrift (Held, 1, fig. 34) now in the church of Saint-Géry at
Cambrai, a St. Francis of Assisi receiving the Infant Chrift and a Descent from
the Cross, now in the Lille Museum (No. 95; Fig. 167; K.d.K., p. 89). The
Stylistic evidence for the date of these pictures admits of their being the same
as those referred to by Paolo da Cesena.
95 .
ST, FRANCIS OF ASSISI RECEIVING THE INFAN T CHRIST (Fig. 16 7 )
Oil on canvas; 234 : 184 cm.
Lille, Musée des Beaux-Arts. No. 310.
P r o v e n a n c e : Capuchin’s Church, Lille; presented to the Museum, on the occasion of
its foundation in 1801.
C o p ie s : ( i )
Painting, Madrid, Descalzas Reales; canvas, appr. 230 : 180 cm.; lit.: E.
Tormo, En las Descalzas Reales, Madrid, 19 15 -17 , p. 67, fig. 25; (2) Painting, Enghien,
Capuchin cloister; canvas; lit.: P. Gerlachus, St. Antonius of St. Felix, De Kunft der
Nederlanden, I, 1930, p. 108, fig. 4; (3) Painting, Lille, Minorite Church; canvas;
lit.: P. Gerlachus, op. cit., p. 109.
E x h ib it e d : Kunflwerke aus dem besetzten Nordfrankreich, Musée des Beaux-Arts,
Valenciennes, 1918, No. 306.
LITERATURE: Descamps, Voyage, p. 14; Michel, 1771, pp. 198, 199; Guide des étrangers
à Lille, Lille, 1772, p. 100; Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, 11, p. 41, No. 118 ; E. Reynart,
Catalogue des tableaux, bas-reliefs et ftatues... du Musée de Lille, Lille-Paris, 1872, No.
310; Rooses, il, pp. 252, 253, No. 419; K.d.K., ed. Rosenberg, p. 104; Dillon, pp. 90,
n o , pi. cxxx; K.d.K., p. 69; Oldenbourg, 1922, pp. 10 1, 103, h i , fig. 6 1; F.W. Holler,
Letters of Sir Joshua Reynolds, Cambridge, 1929, pp. 143, 144; Evers, 194}, p. 100;
147
J. Müller Hofstede, Beiträge zum zeichnerischen Werk von Rubens, Walraf-Richartz
Jahrbuch, x x v ii , 1965, pp. 335-337, fig. 238.
The grouping of the figures is very similar to that in the painting of the same
subjeft in St. Anthony’s church at Antwerp (No. 94; Fig. 165). St. Francis
kneels to receive the Child from Mary, while a member of his Order, to one
side of the pifture, looks up in surprise. Angels form a kind of wreath about
Mary’s head. St. Francis wears the coarse brown habit of the Capuchins.
Stylistically this work, with its emphasis on plasticity, its well-defined con­
tours and its local colouring, belongs to about the middle of the second decade.
The head of the Madonna bears a close resemblance to that in Alexander
Goubau’s votive painting of 16 14 -15 in the Tours museum (K .d.K ., p. 72, left).
It may also be noted that the head of the friar with St. Francis is a repetition
of the head of the Saint himself in the pifture of him receiving the Stigmata,
in the Wallraf-Richartz Museum at Cologne (No. 90; Fig. 155), painted in 1615
or 1616.
In the Harrach colleftion at Vienna there is a painting of a girl’s head,
dating from about this time and wrongly attributed to Rubens, in which the
same type is to be seen as in the second angel on the right {K.d.K., ed. Rosen­
berg, p. 135, right, as Rubens).
Both the present painting and The Descent from the Cross, now also in the
Lille museum (K.d.K., p. 89), very probably were among the works by Rubens
in the Capuchin monasteries of the Southern Netherlands lifted by Paolo da
Cesena in his letter of 16 17 (cf. No. 94). As will be seen from the discussion of
the preliminary drawing for this pifture (No. 95a; Fig. 168), we have in any
case a terminus ante quern of 16 17 -18 .
A letter by Sir Joshua Reynolds dated 25 November 1785 indicates that he
wished to buy the painting at that time.
95a.
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI RECEIVING THE IN FAN T CHRIST
(Fig. 168)
Drawing, pen and brush and brown ink; 392 : 200 mm.; below on the right, inscribed
in ink, 59.
Whereabouts unknown.
P r o v e n a n c e : J. Mathey, Paris.
148
C o p ie s : ( i ) Drawing by M. Lasne, Antwerp, Stedelijk Prentenkabinet, No.
a .x l v .i .;
320 : 210 mm.; lit.: Delen, 1, No. 372; (2) Engraving by M. Lasne (F. 5 ., p. 99,
No. 42). (3)
L it e r a t u r e : J. Müller Hofstede, Beiträge zum zeichnerischen Werk von Rubens, Wallraf-
Richartz Jahrbuch,
x x v ii ,
1965, pp. 335-338, fig. 237.
This sketch for the altarpiece in the Capuchin church at Lille (No. 95; Fig.
167) is elaborated in great detail. The only important difference from the final
version is that the figure of Brother Leo, on the left behind St. Francis, is
missing, as are the two angels in the right-hand upper corner. The latter, how­
ever, as Müller Hofstede thought, may be discerned in vague outline.
This sketch was used by Michel Lasne as the basis for his engraving of
St. Francis of Paola (F .5 ., p. 99, No. 42) : he followed the composition very
carefully and made only the minimum alterations, chiefly by way of adapting
it to the iconography of the later Saint. Thus he added to the Capuchin habit
the scapular of the Minim Friars, and placed in the right-hand upper corner
the latter’s emblem, the word
c h a r it a s
in a circle of rays. The design for the
engraving, executed and signed by Lasne, is Still in the Print Room at Antwerp
{Delen, 1, No. 372); it is about the same size as the present sketch. Lasne’s
engraving provides us with a terminus ante quem for the Madonna of the
Capuchins at Lille and the design for that work. We know that the French
artist paid a sum of 6 guilders in the financial year 1617-18 to be allowed to
work at Antwerp “ for the space of two months” (P. Rombouts and T. van
Lerius, De Liggeren en andere historische archieven van het Antwerpsch SintLucasgilde, 1, Antwerp, n.d., pp. 540, 541).
Muller HofStede’s identification of the figure 59, below on the right, with
an inventory number relating to the colleftion of Count C.G. Tessin (L. 2985),
is not convincing,
96-98.
96.
THE TRIPTYCH OF THE TAILORS’ GUILD OF LIER
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI RECEIVING THE INFANT CHRIST
(Fig. 169)
Oil on panel; 18 1 : 157 cm.; dated below, on a Stone, 1618.
Dijon, Musée des Beaux-Arts, No. 163.
149
P r o v e n a n c e : Lier, St. Gummarus’s Church; removed to Paris by the French troops,
1794; sent to the Dijon Museum around 18 14 .
C o p y : Painting by Wouters, Lier, St. Gummarus’s Church; canvas, 180 : 160 cm.; lit.:
F. Donnet, L’Eglise Saint-Gommaire à Lierre, Antwerp, 19 13 , p. 27.
L i t e r a t u r e : Mensaert, pp. 270, 2 7 1; Descamps, Voyage, p. 13 4 ; Michel, l yyi, p. 16 3 ;
Notice des tableaux exposés dans la Galerie du Musée, Paris, 18x4, No. 6 0 1; Odevaere,
p. 323, No. 10 2 ; Rooses, 11, p. 255, No. 4 2 1; K.d.K., p. 16 8 ; J. Magnin, La peinture
au Musée de Dijon, Besançon, 1929, pp. 157, 158, No. 16 3 ; Evers, 1943, pp. 49, 208;
Van Puyvelde, p. 1 1 0 ; Burchard-d’Hulît, 1963, 1, p. 14 1, under No. 84; Martin, Ceiling
Paintings, p. 176.
Centre panel of the triptych. For the scene here depicted cf. the description,
above, of the versions in St. Anthony’s church at Antwerp (No. 94) and in the
Lille Museum (No. 95). The present version is in reverse compared with these,
and the Saint’s companion is absent. Instead of the cherubs fluttering about the
Virgin’s head, a single one on the extreme left of the picture is holding her
robe.
The features of the Virgin and the head of the Child Jesus in this picture
very closely resemble those in The Virgin and St, Elizabeth with the Infant
ChriU and St. John in the Pitti Palace at Florence (K . d . K p. 65).
The triptych of which this is the centre panel was painted in 16 18 -19 for
the altar of the tailors’ guild in St. Gummarus’s church at Lier. An item in a
set of accounts formerly in the possession of GuStave van Havre at Antwerp,
entitled “Ex manuscriptis praenobilis domini van Renne eqs. consulis Lirensis” ,
reads; “In de choor van St. Franciscus zyn de schilderyen geschilderd van Rub­
bens als blykt in de rekeninge van Jan Willems beginnende 4 8ber 1618 tot
4 8ber 1619. Item aen Mynheer Rubbens voor onse schilderyen betaeld 50 gld.
Item i n ’t draegen v a n ’t geld aen den heere Rubbens als over het maken der
lySten, vergulden derzelve, vrachten, verteir en drinkgeld beloopende ’t saemen
400 gld. in toto.” (“The paintings in the choir of St. Francis are by Rubens,
as appears from Jan Willems’s account covering the period 4 October 1618 4 October 1619. Paid 50 guilders to Mynheer Rubens for our paintings. Paid
400 guilders for bringing the money to Mr. Rubens, for the manufacturing of
the frames, the gilding of the same, the transport, the food and the fees” ;
Rooses,
150
II,
p. 256).
97 .
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI RECEIVING THE STIGMATA (F ig . 1 7 1 )
Oil on panel; 181 : 64 cm.
D er, St. Gummarus’s Church.
1, p. 271; Descamps, Voyage, p. 134; M ichel, i j y i , p. 163;
p. 323, No. 104; Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, 11, p. 48, under No. 136; Rooses,
II, pp. 255, 256, No. 423; F. Donnet, L ’ église Saint-Gommaire à Lierre, Antwerp, 1913,
p. 26, repr.; K J . K . , p. 169.
L it e r a t u r e : Mensaert,
Odevaere,
The inner side of the left-hand panel of the triptych. The monumental figure
of the Saint is wholly in the foreground and fills some three-quarters of the
narrow panel. He is shown in profile, his arms outstretched. Brother Leo,
wearing a cowl, sits on the left behind a boulder. A very small figure in the
right upper corner represents the seraphic Christ.
Much of this panel, like that of St. Clare (No. 98; Fig. 172), muSt have
been painted by the Studio. Its outer side depicts St. Francis of Assisi with an
Angel playing the Violin, a composition not attributable to Rubens nor to his
Studio.
Together with the centre and right-hand panels, this painting was removed
by French troops in 1794 from St. Gummarus’s church at Lier. The side-panels
were returned to the church in 1815.
98.
ST. CLARE
(Fig. 1 72)
Oil on panel; 18 1 : 64 cm.
D er, St. Gummarus’ s Church.
L i t e r a t u r e : Mensaert, I,
Odevaere, p.
Rooses, II, p.
p. 2 7 1; Descamps, Voyage, p. 134; M ichel, ï y y i , p. 163;
323, No, 10 3; Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, II, p. 48, under No. 136;
255, No. 422; F. Donnet, L ’ église Saint-Gommaire à Uerre, Antwerp,
19 13, p. 26, repr.; K .d .K ., p. 169.
The Saint is dressed in the habit of the order of the “ Poor Clares” , which she
founded. She is seen from the front, but her head is turned three-quarters to
151
the left. Like St. Francis in the left-hand panel, she is wholly in the foreground
and fills about three-quarters of the pifture. Beyond her a partly wooded
landscape can be seen. She is displaying a monStrance, thus recalling the Story
probably originating from her contemporary Tommaso da Celano that by so
doing she prevented the plundering of Assisi by Saracen troops in the service
of the emperor Frederick II (A. Butler, The Lives of the Saints, ed. by H.
ThurSton and D. Attwater, vu, London, 1941, pp. 145, 146).
The outer side of this panel depifts St. Francis of Assisi and the Lamb, This
subjeft, like that on the outer side of the left-hand panel (No. 97), has nothing
to do with Rubens nor with his Studio.
96-98a.
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI AND ST. CLARE: DRAWING
Probably pen in brown, washed; approximately 300 : 170 mm.
Whereabouts unknown.
C o p y : Drawing (Fig. 17 0 ), whereabouts unknown; 30 : 17 cm .; prov.: sale, Cologne,
1 8 - 1 9 January 1892, lot 15 5 (as Rubens ) ; E. Wouters, Paris; sale, Paris (Drouot), 27
January 1909, lot 13 6 (as Rubens).
St. Francis is seen Standing upright, in left profile, dressed in a coarse habit.
In the upper left corner is a somewhat cursory head Study of a female saint,
carrying a heart.
This drawing is known only from a copy; Burchard did not relate it to any
pifture. However, the figures are closely similar in type to those of St. Francis
and St. Clare in the St. Francis triptych of 1618, now partly in the Dijon
museum and partly in the church of St. Gummarus at Lier (Nos. 96-98; Figs.
169, 17 1, 172). The bearded head of St. Francis is almost exaftly similar to
that on the central panel of the triptych. There is also an unmistakable resem­
blance between the somewhat sketchy drawing of the female head and that of
St. Clare on the right-hand panel at Lier, although the heart is not one of this
saint’s common attributes. I therefore think it legitimate to assume that the loSt
original of this drawing contained preliminary Studies for the Lier triptych.
152
99 .
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI (F ig . I 7 4 )
Oil on panel; 109 : 78 cm.
Whereabouts unknown.
Schönborn Collection, Pommersfelden; Galerie de Pommersfelden Sale,
Paris, 17-24 May, 1867, lot 123; purchased for the collection of Grand-Duke Nikolaus
Friedrich Peter von Oldenburg; exhibited in the Museum at Oldenburg before 1940.
Pr o v en a n ce:
Co p ie s : ( i ) Painting (Fig. 175), destroyed; panel, 105 : 73 cm.; prov.: Berlin, art dealer
Farr, where seen by Burchard in 1927; (2) Painting by Carl Spitzweg, whereabouts
unknown; canvas, 81 : 59 cm.; prov.: Carl Spitzweg bequeSt; sale, Munich (Weinmüller),
23 September 1970 et seqq., lot 1778 (repr.); exh.: Gedächtnisausstellung, KunStverein,
Munich, 1908, No. 225.
L it e r a t u r e :
J.R. Byss, Fürtrefflicher Gemälde-und Bilder-Schatz so in denen Gallerie
v, Bam­
berg, 1719, p. 334; W. Bode, D ie grossherzogliche Gemäldegalerie zu Oldenburg,
und Zimmern des ChurfürStl. Pommersfeldischen... Privatschloss zu finden ist,
Vienna, 1888, p. 72; K J . K . , ed. Rosenberg, p, 99; Dillon, p. 110 ; K.d.K ., p. 100.
A knee-lengfti, frontal representation of the Saint, holding a crucifix to his
breaSt with one hand crossed over the other. The mozzetta (hooded cape),
formerly on the left of the panel, was removed by Professor Kinkelin during
a restoration at Munich, but in faft belonged to the original work. It can be
seen in a copy probably made in Rubens’s Studio which was formerly in the
possession of the Berlin art dealer Farr (Fig. 175). As Burchard detected under­
neath this copy the original portrait of a woman, the figure of St. Francis was
removed so as to reveal the previous painting. The Saint is also seen with the
mozzetta in the nineteenth-century copy by Spitzweg, which was sold recently.
Rosenberg dated the present work about 1612-15, while Oldenbourg is in­
clined to place it somewhat later, about 1615. The workmanship is very similar
to that of the heads of Franciscan friars in The LaSt Communion of St. Francis,
painted in 16 18 -19 (No. 102; Fig. 178).
100.
ST. FRANCIS O F ASSISI PROTECTING THE WORLD FROM THE WRATH OF CHRIST
(Fig- 173 )
Oil on canvas; 413 : 280 cm.
Brussels, Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique,
No. 376.
153
P r o v e n a n c e : Franciscan Church, Ghent; brought to Paris, 17 9 4 ; sent to the Brussels
Museum, 1802.
C o p i e s : ( i ) Painting, Bergues, Saint-Martin (as G. de Crayer)\ (2) Drawing after the
head o f Saint Francis, Frankfurt, Stâdelsches KunStinStitut, No. 3045; 1 4 1 : 10 5 mm.;
lit.: H eld, 1, pp. 14 2 , 14 3 , No. 12 2 ; n, pl. 13 6 (as Rubens)-, (3) Engraving by A.
Possemiers ( F .S., p. 99, No. 38) ; (4) Etching by P. Spruyt ( F .S., p. 99, No. 39).
L it e r a t u r e : Descamps, Vie, p. 3 2 5 ; Mensaert, 11, p. 4 7 ; Descamps, Voyage, p. 244;
Michel, 1 7 J 1 , pp. 1 9 1 , 19 2 ; Spruyt, 17 7 7 , p. 14 9 ; Reynolds, p. 14 4 ; Spruyt, 17 8 9 -9 1,
pp. 194, 19 5 ; Notice des tableaux... exposés au Musée, Brussels, 18 x 1, No. 67; Smith,
Catalogue Raisonné, 11, p. 37, N o. 10 8 ; E. Fromentin, Les maîtres d ’autrefois, Paris,
1876, pp. 49, 50; Rooses, 11, p. 257, No. 42 5; H eld, 1, pp. 14 2 , 14 3 , under No. 12 2 ;
O. von Simson, Rubens und der “ M erkur” des Giambologna, Feiïschrift Ulrich M iddel­
dorp, Berlin, 1968, p. 443, n. 9; J . Müller Hofftede, Neue Ûlskizzen von Rubens, St'àdelJahrbuch, N.F., 11, 1969, pp. 216 , 239.
Rubens had treated this subjeö in a more elaborate form in the painting for the
Dominican church at Antwerp, now in the Lyons museum (N o. 88; Fig. 1 5 1 ) .
In the present version St. Dominic is omitted, the canvas having been intended
for the Franciscan church at Ghent.
St. Francis, represented in the right foreground, kneels and holds his hands
protectively over a globe with a snake curled round it, symbolizing sinful man­
kind. Above him, on clouds, M ary is persuading her w rathful Son not to hurl
his thunderbolts at the earth. Four cherubs hover round the figure o f Christ.
Below, on the left, is a viSta o f a wooded landscape with a more realiStic
présentation o f m an’s sinful deeds: burning houses and the horrors o f war.
This picture, generally dated in the 1630s, is quite unlike the more complex
version at Lyons, painted in c. 16 18 -2 0 . The number o f figures is reduced,
so that ChriSt, the V irgin and St. Francis form a dramatic unity. Their attitudes
and gestures also differ completely from the earlier work. The types are in fact
quite new : in the Striding figure o f ChriSt we recognize Mercury from the
Mercurius abituriens, intended for the Pompa Introïtus executed in 16 34 -35
(J.R. Martin, T h e Décorations fo r the Pompa Introïtus Ferdinandi [ Corpus
Rubenianum L u d w ig Burchard, x v i] , Brussels, 19 7 1, fig. 98). A s Burchard and
von Simson pointed out, this m otif may be based on Giam bologna’s famous
Mercury in the Bargello at Florence (E. Dhanens, fean Boulogne, Brussels,
154
1956, pl. 34). The softly flowing colours and delicate shadows are also characteriStic o f Rubens’s work in the thirties. The small piece o£ background, below
on the left, is fu lly in keeping with the technique o f his late landscapes.
A t the top o f the painting marles prove that at one moment the canvas had
been fixed in a rounded frame.
101 .
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI IN ADORATION BEFORE THE CRUCIFIED CHRIST
Whereabouts unknown; presumably loft.
C o p ie s: ( i ) Painting (Fig. 1 7 6 ) , Vaduz, Colledion of the Prince of Liechtenstein, No.
60; panel, 78 : 47 cm.; prov.: Vienna, Colledion of the Prince o f Liechtenstein; lit.:
Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, in , p. 3 3 3 , N o. 1 1 2 (as A . van D yck) ; Rooses, 11, p. 10 4 ,
N o. 305 (as Rubens) ; K .d .K ., ed, Rosenberg, p. 45 (as Rubens) ; D illon, p. 10 8 , pl.
XLVili (as Rubens ) ; K .d .K ., p. 17 0 (as Rubens ); K .d .K ., Van Dyck, p. 27 (as A. van
Dyck ? ) ; [A . Seilern], Flemish Paintings and Drawings at 56 Princes Gâte London,
Addenda, London, 19 6 9 , p. 67, fig. 72 (as Rubens or Van D yck ); (2 ) Painting, where­
abouts unknown; panel, 75 : 53 cm.; prov.: ? Ghent, J.B . du Bois; ? Baron de Willebroeck, sale, Brussels, 25 June 1 7 8 1 , lot 2 (as Rubens); Vicomte de Buisseret, sale, Brus­
sels, 2 9 -3 0 A pril 1 8 9 1 , lot 92 (repr.; as Rubens); (3 ) Painting, whereabouts unknown;
panel, 66 : 5 1 cm.; prov.: A . Sels, Brussels, sale, 2 4 - 2 5 November 19 2 2 , lot 29 (repr.; as
Rubens); lit.: Rooses, V, p. 326, N o. 305 (as R ubens); (4 ) Painting, Valenciennes,
Musée des Beaux-Arts, N o. 9 2 ; panel, 62 : 37 cm.; prov.: Valenciennes, M. Rousseau
de l’Aunois (as School o f Rubens); Rooses, 11, p. 10 4 ; Catalogue illuétré et annoté des
œuvres exposées au Palais des Beaux-Arts de la ville de Valenciennes, Valenciennes,
1 9 3 1 , N o. 92, pl. x x i (as Rubens); (5 ) Painting o f the Crucified ChriSt, with an
anonymous donor replacing the figure of Saint Francis, whereabouts unknown; prov.:
Antwerp, A . TrooSt ( 1 9 3 1 ) ; (6) Engraving by J. de Meere, 17 6 4 (V .S., p. 4 7, N o. 3 2 3 ) .
(7)
St. Francis kneels before the crucified Christ, his arms outStretched and his
eyes cast upward in ecstasy.
T he exadt source o f this theme is not known : it may be the dialogue between
St. Francis and his crucified Lord at San Damiano, as related in the Legenda
Trium Sociofum o f about 12 4 1- 4 6 (Legenda Trium Sociorum, ed. S.J. Fïamburger, Munich, 19 2 3 , p. 29). It is a typical post-Tridentine représentation o f St.
Francis (L. Réau, Iconographie de l ’A rt chrétien, 1, Paris, 19 5 5 , p. 4 6 1).
A s Glück and Burchard observed, the figure o f St. Francis is almoSt the same
as on the left panel o f the triptych at Lier (No. 97; Fig. 1 7 1 ) : the centre panel
155
of this work is dated 1618. However, the space being narrower, the position
of his left arm is somewhat different. We may add that the motif of the cruci­
fied Chriät seen at on oblique angle is closely related to the same figure in the
Coup de lance, painted somewhat later (ca. 1620) and now in the Antwerp
museum (K.d.K., p. 216).
101a.
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI RAISING HIS ARMS IN A GESTURE OF ADORATION:
DRAWING
(Fig. 177)
Drawing, black chalk; 423 : 287 mm.
London, Department of Prints and Drawings of the British Museum.
No.
Payne Knight
O0-9-27.
P r o v e n a n c e : Richard Payne Knight BequeSt, 1824.
L i t e r a t u r e : A.W. Seaby, Drawings for A rt Students and Illustrators, London, 1921,
p. 180, fig. 54; H ind,
ii,
p.
ii
, No. 15 ; K .d.K ., Van Dyck, p. 520 (as A . van D yck).
As Hind has shown, this drawing was a Study for St. Francis of Assisi in
adoration before the crucified ChriU, a painting that can only be judged from
copies, the beSt of which is in the Liechtenstein Colledtion at Vaduz (Fig. 176).
The similar Study, probably from the same model but in a slightly different
poSture, mentioned by Hind as being in the possession of Mrs. Baird, of
ColStoun (Harrington) in 1921, has not been discussed or reproduced since
then. It had come from the Earl Dalhousie colleftion.
102.
THE LAST COMMUNION OF ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI
(Fig. 178)
Oil on panel; 420 : 225 cm.; arched at the top.
Antwerp, Koninklijk Museum voor Schone KunSten.
No. 305.
P r o v e n a n c e : Franciscan Church, Antwerp; seized by the French in
1794 and
brought to Paris; brought back to Antwerp, 1815, and deposited at the recently founded
Museum there.
156
C o p ies: ( i ) Painting, London, private collection; panel, 105 : 74.5 cm.; prov.: 2nd
Viscount PalmerSton; Lord Mount Temple; Countess Mountbatten of Burma; London,
Mrs. Sophie Speelman; lit.: J.P. Neale, Views of Seats of Noblemen and Gentlemen in
England, etc., 11, 1819, not paginated; M. Jaffé, Rediscovered Oil Sketches by Rubens.
in, The Burlington Magazine, c x ii, 1970, p. 432, fig. 1 (as Rubens)', (2) Painting,
whereabouts unknown; canvas, 69 : 37 cm.; prov.: F. Burton; sale, Brussels (Fiévez),
8 May 1929, lot 10 1; NeuStadt/Haardt, E. Abresch, 1932; (3) Painting by P.J. Verhaghen, destroyed 19 14 -18 ; prov.: Haacht, parish church, where placed in 1803; lit.: V.
De Munter, Pierre-]oseph Verhaghen, Brussels, 1932, p. 144; (4) Painting after the head
of St. Francis of Assisi, whereabouts unknown; oil on paper, 42 : 30 cm.; prov.: Colo­
gne, Hermann Abels; (5) Engraving by H. Snyers (Fig. 179; V S ., p. 99, No. 4 1).
E x h ib it e d : Tableaux recouvrés... revenus de France, Musée, Antwerp, 1816, No. 10.
LITERATURE: Bellori, p. 224; Tessin, p. 83; A. Sanderus, Chorographia Sacra Braban-
2nd ed., in, The Hague, 1727, p. 200; D e W it, pp. 75, 76; Berbie, p. 63, No. 1 1 ;
Mensaert, I, p. 205; Descamps, Voyage, p. 194; M ichel, 17 7 1, p. 94; Reynolds, p. 18 1;
tiae,
Notice des Tableaux des écoles française et flamande, exposés dans la grande galerie...,
Paris, 1801, No. 485; Notice des Tableaux exposés dans la Galerie du Musée, Paris,
1814, No. 600; Odevaere, p. 315, No. 28; Smith, Catalogue Raisonné, 11, pp. 14, 15,
No. 29; E. Fromentin, Les maîtres d ’autrefois, Paris, 1876, p. 100; Rooses, 11, pp. 259262, No. 429; S. Schoutens, Geschiedenis van het voormalige Minderbroederskloo 3 er
van Antwerpen,
Antwerp, 1894, pp. 245, 246; Michel, pp. 246, 247; K .d .K ., ed. Rosen­
p. 18 1; Dillon, p. 129, pl. c l x x iv ; K .d .K ., p. 190; Evers, 19 4 3, pp. 4 9 -51; J.
Knipping, Rubens. D e laatiïe communie van Sint-Franciscus van Assisië, Leiden, 1949;
Van Puyvelde, pp. 132, 13 3; J. Van den Nieuwenhuizen, Antwerpse schilderijen te Parijs
( 1 7 9 4 - 1 8 1 5 ) , Antwerpen, vin, 1962, p. 78; Burchard-d’H ulß, 19 6 3, 1, p, 197; M. Jaffé,
Rediscovered OU Sketches by Rubens, l i l , The Burlington Magazine, cxn, 1970, p. 432.
berg,
The close of the Saint’s life is fully described in the Vita by St. Bonaventure
(ed. by T. Okey, in Everyman’s Library, London, 1917, pp. 391-393). When
he felt his death approaching, St. Francis begged the friars to lay him naked
on the floor of the church of Santa Maria de Portiuncula near Assisi. When
they had done so he looked towards heaven, laid his left hand over the wound
in his right side and said to his companions: “I have done what was mine to
do, may Chrift teach you what is yours.” The brethren thereupon wept,
“Stricken with keen pangs of pity". St. Bonaventure adds that his master wished
to quit the world naked so as to be “ in all things like unto Christ crucified” .
The scene is depicted in front of the church altar, in close accordance with
the Vita but with the addition, on the upper of the two altar-Steps on the left,
157
of a prieSt administering the Viaticum to the Saint, a theme not to be found
in any of the accounts of his life. On either side of the prieSt are two attendant
friars: each holds a torch in one hand and is wiping away tears with the other.
On the right, opposite the prieSt and acolytes, is a group of nine friars Standing
close together, two of them supporting the dying Saint. This group is illumi­
nated by an open window at the back, and another source of light muSt be
imagined at approximately the place where the observer Stands. Two or three
cherubs hover above the baldaquin of the altar. There is a Striking contrast
between the brightly lit figures and the semi-darkness of the setting.
Rooses already pointed out the close affinity in composition between this
pifture and two masterpieces from the Bolognese academic school, namely
AgoStino Carracci’s Lalt Communion of St. Jerome, painted in the 1590s for
the Carthusians at Bologna and now in the Museum there (Cat. Exh. Mollra
dei Carracci, Bologna, 1956, No. 39, repr.), and Domenichino’s version of the
same subjeft, painted in 16 14 for San Girolamo della Carità in Rome and now
in the Vatican Museum (E. Borea, Domenichino, Rome, 1965, pp. 148, 149,
pis.
X,
27). Rubens cannot have known Domenichino’s famous composition
at firSt hand, though he may have seen a copy; but he could easily have visited
Bologna from nearby Mantua. As Burchard and d’HulSt pointed out, in paint­
ing the figure of St. Francis Rubens may well have recalled the antique Seneca
Borghese, which he copied from various angles: copies of these drawings are
in the Copenhagen Print Room (“Rubens Cantoor” , No. hi, 28-32; see e.g. G.
Fubini and J.S. Held, Padre Rella’s Rubens Drawings after ancient sculpture,
Mailer Drawings, 11,1964, p. 130, fig. 7).
According to the second, posthumous edition of Sanderus’s Chorographia
Sacra (loc. cit.), Rubens executed this altar-piece in 16x8. The only surviving
document relating to it is a receipt dated 17 May 1619, which shows that the
work was in the Franciscan church at Antwerp before that date. It reads:
"Ie onderschreven bekenne ontfanghe te hebben ut handen van Mijnheer Jaspar
Charles de somme van seven hondert en vijftich guldens, tot volcomen betaelinghe van een Stuck schilderije door mijne handt gemaeckt Staende in Ste
Franciscus kercke tot Antwerpen. Ende t’oirconde der waerheyt hebbe ic dese
quittande geschreven ende onderteekent. Desen 17 may 1619. Pietro Pauölo
Rubens.” (“I the undersigned confirm that I have received from Mijnheer
Jaspar Charles the sum of seven hundred and fifty guilders in full payment for
a painting by my hand which is now in St. Francis’s church at Antwerp; in
158
attestation whereof I have written and signed this receipt on the 17th day of
May 1619. Pietro Pauolo Rubens." (Rooses, 11, p. 261, n. 1).
Schoutens (op. ch., p. 359) has shown that the Charles family at Antwerp
were closely attached to the monastery of Recollefts there. Petrus Charles, son
of the merchant Gaspar Charles who paid for the ereftion of the altar of St.
Francis, was one of the Friars Minor living in the Antwerp convent. We also
know that the Charles family had a vault built at the foot of this altar: see
Verzameling der graf- en gedenkschriften van de provincie Antwerpen, vi,
Antwerp, 1871, p. 186. The painting should in faft be considered in relation
to the family burial-place, and we notice in this conneftion the funerary charac­
ter of the iconography and the choice of this particular moment in the Saint’s
life.
The engraving of this composition executed by Snyers (Fig. 179) and dedi­
cated to the Franciscan Petrus Steenberghen was published by Abraham van
Diepenbeeck. It was undoubtedly engraved from one of the drawings made by
Van Diepenbeeck himself “ from very rare and artistic paintings” , a work which
the latter wanted Snyers to carry out and for which he received a “privilege”
in September 1642 (F.J. Van den Branden, Geschiedenis der Antwerpsche Schil­
derschool, Antwerp, 1883, p. 784). The will, dated 1701, of the artist's daughter
Anna Theresia van Diepenbeeck speaks of "the Altar-piece of St. Francis of
the Friars Minor, one of nine copperplates ... after Rubens” in her possession
(F.J. Van den Branden, loc. cit.). A terminus ante quern is the death in 1660
of Petrus Steenberghen, the Guardian of the Antwerp friary and later definitor,
cuStos and visitator of the Order (S. Schoutens, op. cit., pp. 293, 294). As
Burchard and d’Hulft also pointed out, the pifture muSt originally have extend­
ed further to both the right and left. In particular, the friar on the extreme
right, of whom we only see the head and cowl, is visible as far as the waift in
the reversed image in the engraving, with his hands in his sleeves. This attitude
exaftly corresponds to that in the Study from life for this figure, now at Chatsworth (No. 102c; Fig. 182).
102a.
THE LAST COMMUNION OF ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI: DRAWING
(Fig. 180)
Pen and brown ink; 222 : 3x0 mm.; cut on the top and at the right.
Antwerp, Stedelijk Prentenkabinet. No. A .xiv.5.
159
P r o v e n a n c e : Clément van Cauwenberghs, Antwerp; presented by the "Dotatiefonds” .
E x h ib it e d : Teekeningen en prenten van Antwerp sehe meeSters der X V I I e eeuw, Konink­
lijk Kunstverbond, Antwerpen, 1927, No. 34 (as A . van D yck) ; Amsterdam, 1 9 3 3 , No.
86 (repr.); Tentoonstelling van Teekeningen en Prenten van Antwerp sehe KunStenaars,
StadsfeeStzaal, Antwerp, 1936, No. 33; Teekeningen, Grauwschetsen en Prenten van en
naar P.P. Rubens, Rubenshuis, Antwerp, 1946, No. 6; Anvers, ville de Plantin et de
Rabens, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, 1954, No. 417 (repr.) ; Antwerp, 19 3 6 , No. 72
(repr.); Plantin-Rubens, Biblioteca dell’ Archiginnasio, Bologna, 1965, No. 49 (repr.);
Narodni Galerie, Prague, 1966, No. 42; Rubens en zijn
Rubenshuis, Antwerp, 19 71, No. 61 (repr.).
Tri Stoleti Nizozemské Kresby,
tijd,
L i t e r a t u r e : A .J.J. Delen, Unpublished Drawings by Rubens in the Antwerp Print
Room, O ld Matter Drawings,
vu, 1932-33, p. 32, fig. 3; M. Delacre, L e dessin dans
Brussels, 1934, pp. 233, 235, fig, 108; Delen, 1, No. 195; il, pl.
x xx ix ; H eld, 1, pp. 6, 24, 70, 112 , No. 44; il, pl. 45; Burchard-d’HulSt, 19 6 3 , 1, pp.
l’ œuvre de Van Dyck,
194, 195, No. 12 3; il, pl. 123.
A cursory sketch for the lower part of the altar-piece; the main lines of the
composition may be clearly discerned. On the other side of the sheet are seven
pen and ink Studies of monks and cardinals and two variants of a female figure
in right profile ( Burchard-d’HulSt, 19 6 3 , 1, p. 19 5 , 11, pl.
102b.
12 3V ).
THE LAST COMMUNION OF ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI: DRAWING
(Fig. 18 1)
Red chalk, heightened with white body-colour; partly pen and brown ink; 285 : 235 mm.;
several inscriptions in Rubens’s hand: above in the centre, geschildert venSter (black
chalk) ; above on the right, Engel (red chalk) ; on the right, halfway up to the column,
colum metsrije
(red chalk); below frs, franciscani. Tutto il gruppo in umbra et una luce
vehemente del sole baStenda per la pneStra.
Farnham, Collection of Wolfgang Burchard.
P r o v e n a n c e : Rosenbaum and Delbanco, London; purchased there by Ludwig Burchard,
19 31.
E x h ib it e d : Amsterdam, 19 3 3 , No. 104 (repr.); Antwerp, 19 3 6 , No. 75 (repr.).
L i t e r a t u r e : C. Norris, The Rubens Exhibition at Amsterdam, The Burlington Magazine,
LX111,
1933, p. 230; H. Konow, Eine Zeichnungssamlung aus dem Besitz Matthäus
Merians des Jüngeren, Berliner Museen, l x i , 1940, p. 62; H eld, 1, pp, 45, 1 1 2 ; Burchardd'HulSt, 1 9 6 3 , 1,
160
p. 192, No. 122; II, pl. 122.
The reverse side of a sheet with a drawing of CalliSto on the other (Burchardd’HulH, 1963,
II,
pi.
I2 2 r).
A rapid sketch of the whole composition, including
the architectural décor. The pillar which closes the scene on the right does not
appear in the final version- This sketch may have been executed later than the
one in the Antwerp Print Room, since, as Burchard and d’HulSt observed, the
figure of St. Francis is closer to that in the final version.
Burchard and d’HulSt’s reading of the detailed indications in Rubens’s own
hand could be completed at some points (see above). The laSt sentence of these
notes is of importance as regards the painter’s intentions when designing the
altar-piece: it shows that at this early Stage he already had a clear idea of the
effective contrast between light and dark in the final painting. As regards the
note Engel, it is written here at a place corresponding more or less to that part
of the painting where two cherubs are visible.
102c.
TWO STUDIES FOR A FRANCISCAN MONK: DRAWING
(Fig.
18 2 )
Black chalk, with red chalk in the faces and heightened with body-colour on grey paper;
561 : 404 mm.; restored in the right upper corner.
Chatsworth, Collection of the Duke of Devonshire.
P r o v e n a n c e : ? N.A. Flinck (Rotterdam, 1646-1723); probably purchased c. 1723 by
the second Duke of Devonshire.
E x h ib it e d : Dessins de Pierre-Paul Rubens, Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, 1938-39,
No. 45 (repr.); Teekeningen van Petrus Paulus Rubens, Museum Boymans, Rotterdam,
19 39 , No. 35 (repr.); Tekeningen van fan van Eyck tot Rubens, Museum Boymans, Rot­
terdam, 19 4 8-4 9 , No. 1 1 9 ; Helsinki, 1 9 5 2 - 3 5 , No. 28 (repr.); Brussels, 19 5 3 , No. 28
(repr.); Antwerp, 19 56 , No. 73; O ld Matter Drawings from Chatsworth, City Art Gal­
lery, Manchester, 19 6 1, No. 9 5 ; O ld Matter Drawings from Chatsworth, National Gal­
lery of Art, Washington, 19 6 2 -6 3 , No. 99 (repr,).
L i t e r a t u r e : Gläck-Haberditzl, p. 43, No. 1 1 3 , repr.; Cat. Exh. Cambridge - N e w York,
19 56 , under
No. 1 7 ; H eld, 1, pp. 73, i r 2 , 13 3 , No. 9 3; 11, pi. 10 8 ; Burchard-d’Hultt,
No. 1 2 5 ; II, pi. 12 5 .
19 6 3 , I, pp. 196, 19 7 ,
Two Studies for young Franciscan friars, done from the same model. On the
right the man is seen in three-quarter length, bending slightly forward, with
his cowl thrown back. Part of his habit, at waiSt-level, is drawn separately to
161
the left of him. In the lower left-hand corner the model is seen in a different
attitude, as far as the waift only; the cowl is over his head, his arms are folded
in his sleeves and he is bending to the left. The figure on the right was used
for the monk in the painting who is supporting St. Francis with his left arm;
the head of the figure on the left may be seen on the extreme right of the
altar-piece.
102d .
STUDY OF A K N EELIN G MALE NUDE: DRAWING
(Fig. 183)
Black and some white chalk; 423 : 292 mm.
Paris, Fondation Cußodia, InStitul néerlandais, Inv. No. 551 x.
P r o v e n a n c e : P.O. Dubaut; purchased by F. Lugt, 1938.
L i t e r a t u r e : Held, i, pp. 73, 112 , 133, No. 92; 11, pi. 107; Burchard-d’HuW, 1963, 1,
pp. 195, 196, No. 124; II, pi. 124; M. Winner, An unknown Drawing by Peter Paul
Rubens, Maßet Drawings, 1,19 6 3, No. 3, p. 35.
A Study from life of a naked man, kneeling and facing slightly leftward. It
was used for the figure of the dying St. Francis in the altar-piece in the Francis­
can church at Antwerp. The left hand of the monk supporting St. Francis is
also seen in the drawing.
162
IN D EX I: COLLECTIONS
This index lifts all the extant paintings, oil sketches and drawings catalogued in the
present volume. Copies have also been included. The works are lifted alphabetically
according to place.
AMSTERDAM, THE HEIRS
OF DR, H.A. WETZLAR
Rubens, oil sketch:
St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the
Stigmata, Cat. 91a, 143, fig. 160
ANGERS, MUSÉE TURPIN DE CRISSÉ
Rubens, drawing:
Head Study of St. Catherine of Alexan­
dria, Q t. 88b, 137, 138, fig. 153
ANTWERP, G. FAES
Anonymous, painting after Rubens:
Angels Transporting the Dead Body
of St. Catherine of Alexandria, Q t.
79, 123, fig. 138
ANTWERP, KONINKLIJK MUSEUM VOOR
SCHONE KUNSTEN
Rubens, painting:
The Laft Communion of St. Francis
of Assisi, Cat. 102, 156-162, fig,
178
ANTWERP, PRESBYTERY OF ST. ANDREW’S
CHURCH
Anonymous, painting after Rubens:
St. Charles Borromeo, Cat. 85, 13 1,
fig. 148
ANTWERP, RUBENSHUIS
Rubens, oil sketch:
The Martyrdom of St. Adrian, Cat.
61a, 86, 87, fig. 108
ANTWERP, ST. ANTHONY’S CHURCH
Rubens, painting:
St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the
Infant Chrift, Cat. 94, 145-148,
150, fig. 165
Anonymous, painting after Rubens:
St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the
Stigmata, Cat. 90, 138
ANTWERP, ST. PAUL’S CHURCH
Rubens, painting:
The Real Presence in the Holy Sacra­
ment, Cat. 56, 22, 73-79, 96, figs.
99, too, 102
ANTWERP, STEDELIJK PRENTENKABINET
Rubens, drawing:
The Laft Communion of St. Francis
of Assisi, Cat. 102a, 15 9 -16 1, fig.
180
M. Lasne, drawing after Rubens:
St. Francis of Paola, Q t. 95a, 149
ARRAS, MUSÉE MUNICIPAL
Rubens, painting:
St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the
Stigmata, Cat. 91, 142, 143, fig.
159
BERGUES, ST. MARTIN
Anonymous, painting after Rubens:
St. Francis of Assisi Protecting the
World from the Wrath of Chrift,
Cat. 100, 154
BERLIN-DAHLEM, STAATLICHE MUSEEN
Rubens, painting:
St. Cecilia Playing the Virginals, Cat.
82, 12 7 - 13 1, fig. 144
BERLIN-DAHLEM, STAATLICHE MUSEEN,
PRINT ROOM
Rubens, drawing:
St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the
Stigmata, Cat. 90a, 140, 14 1, fig.
156
Anonymous, drawing after Rubens:
The Conversion of St. Bavo, Q t. 72,
I07
BLACKBURN, LANCASHIRE, STONYHURST
COLLEGE
J. Jordaens, painting:
The Four Latin Doflors of the Church,
Q t. 60, 81-83, fig- I04
BRUSSELS, A. DE HEUVEL
Anonymous, painting after Rubens:
St. Francis of Assisi, Cat. 92, 144, 145
BRUSSELS, MUSÉES ROYAUX DES BEAUXARTS
163
COLLECTIONS
Rubens, paintings:
The Miracles of St. Benedid, Cat. 73,
23, n o - 1 1 5 , fig. 125
St. Francis of Assisi Proteding the
World from the Wrath of Chrid,
Cat. 100, 22, 144, 15 3 -15 5 , fig.
*73
E. Delacroix, painting after Rubens:
The Miracles of St. Benedid, Cat. 73,
h i
BRUSSELS, PRIVATE COLLECTION
Rubens, oil sketch:
St. Peter and St. Paul, Cat. 49-503,
65, 66, fig. 91
CHATSWORTH, DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE
Rubens, drawing:
Two Studies for a Franciscan Monk,
Cat. I02C, 137, 159, 16 1, 162, fig.
182
COLOGNE, WALLRAF-RICHARTZ MUSEUM
Rubens, painting:
St. Frauds of Assisi Receiving the
Stigmata, Cat. 90, 22, 13 8 -14 1,
148, fig. 155
COPENHAGEN, STATENS MUSEUM FOR
KUNST, PRINT ROOM
Anonymous, drawings after Rubens:
Head of St. Anthony Abbot, Cat. 64,
93
The Conversion of St. Bavo (central
panel), Cat. 71, 102
The three Women on the left of The
Conversion of St. Bavo, Cat. 71,
102
The Conversion of St. Bavo, Cat. 72,
107
St. Frands of Assisi Receiving the
Stigmata, Cat. 93, 145, fig. 163
St. Peter, Cat. 49, 63
DIJON, MUSÉE DES BEAUX-ARTS
Rubens, painting:
St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the
Infant Christ, Cat. 96, 149, 150,
152, fig. 169
DUBLIN, NATIONAL GALLERY OF IRELAND
Rubens, paintings:
St. Dominic, Cat. 86, 132, 133, fig.
149
164
St. Francis of Assisi, Cat. 87, 132-134,
144, fig. 150
DÜSSELDORF, KUNSTMUSEUM
? Rubens, paintings:
St, Catherine of Siena, Cat. 80, 126,
fig. 139
St. Cecilia, Cat. 84, 130, 1 3 1 , fig. 145
ENGHIEN, CAPUCHIN CLOISTER
Anonymous, painting after Rubens:
St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the
Infant Christ, Cat. 95, 147
FARNHAM, WOLFGANG BURCHARD
Rubens, drawing:
The LaSt Communion of St. Frands
of Assisi, Cat. 102b, 160, 16 1, fig.
18 1
FRANKFURT, STÄDELSCHES KUNSTINSTITUT
Anonymous, drawing after Rubens:
Head of St. Francis of Assisi, Cat.
100, 154
GHENT, MUSEUM VOOR SCHONE KUNSTEN
Rubens, painting:
St. Frands of Assisi Receiving the
Stigmata, Cat. 92, 22, 133, 144,
145, fig. 16 1
GHENT, ST. BAVO’S CHURCH
Rubens, painting:
The Conversion of St. Bavo, Cat. 72,
10 6 -110 , 112 , 127, fig. 123
Anonymous, painting after Rubens:
The Martyrdom of St. Catherine of
Alexandria, Cat. 78, 12 1, 122, fig.
136
HAARLEM, TEYLERS STICHTING
Anonymous, drawing after Rubens:
The Martyrdom of St. Andrew, Cat.
62b, 90
HANOVER, NIEDERSÄCHSISCHE LANDES­
GALERIE
Anonymous, painting after Rubens:
Chrid as Salvator Mundi, Cat. 6, 39
’s HERTOGENBOSCH, ST. JOHN’S CHURCH
Anonymous, painting after Rubens:
The Death of St, Anthony Abbot, Cat.
64, 93, 95, fig. 114
LIER, ST. GUMMARUS’S CHURCH
Rubens, paintings:
COLLECTIONS
St. Clare, Cat. 98, 33, 15 1, 152, fig.
172
St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the
Stigmata, Cat. 97, 15 1, 152, 155,
156, fig. 17 1
Wouters, painting after Rubens:
St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the
Infant Christ, Cat. 96, 150
LILLE, MINORITE CHURCH
Anonymous, painting after Rubens:
St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the
Infant ChriSt, Cat. 95, 147
LILLE, MUSÉE DES BEAUX-ARTS
Rubens, paintings:
The Martyrdom of St. Catherine of
Alexandria, Cat. 78, 86, 102, 1 2 1 123, fig. 133
St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the
Infant ChriSt, Cat. 95, 12 1, 14 7 150, fig. 167^
F. Souchon, painting after Rubens:
The Miracles of St. Benedift, Cat. 73,
h i
LONDON, BRITISH MUSEUM
Rubens, drawing:
St. Francis of Assisi Raising his Arms
in a Gesture of Adoration, Cat.
101a, 156, fig. 177
H. Fragonard, drawing after Rubens:
The foreground figures in the central
panel and the left wing of The
Conversion of St. Bavo, Cat. 71,
103
Anonymous, drawings after Rubens:
The Martyrdom of St. Andrew, Cat.
62b, 90, 91, fig. h i
The figures in the right of the central
panel and in the foreground of the
right-hand wing of The Conversion
of St. Bavo, Cat. 71, 102
LONDON, NATIONAL GALLERY
Rubens, oil sketch:
The Conversion of St. Bavo, Cat. 71,
23, 102-106, 108, fig. 122
LONDON, COUNT A. SEILERN
? M. Lasne, drawing after Rubens:
St. Francis of Assisi and the Infant
Christ, Cat. 94, 145, 146
LOUVAIN, ST. QUINTINUS S CHURCH
Anonymous, painting after Rubens:
The MyStic Marriage of St. Catherine
of Alexandria, Cat. 77, 120
LYONS, MUSÉE DES BEAUX-ARTS
Rubens, painting:
St, Dominic and St. Francis of Assisi
Protefting the World from the
Wrath of ChriSt, Cat. 88, 22, 23,
. - . . % 151
85 134 137 154
MADRID, ACADEMIA DE SAN FERNANDO
Rubens, painting:
St. AuguStine between ChriSt and the
Holy Virgin, Cat. 66, 97, 98, fig.
117
MADRID, DESCALZAS REALES
Anonymous, painting after Rubens:
St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the
Infant ChriSt, Cat. 95, 147
MADRID, PRADO
Rubens, paintings:
St. Andrew, Cat. 8, 34, 35, 40,
fig. 22
St. Bartholomew, Cat. 12, 34, 35,
52, fig. 38
St. James the Greater, Cat. 9, 34,
41, 50, fig. 26
St. James the Less, Cat. 15, 34,
46, 53, fig. 50
St. John the Evangelist, Cat. 10,
35, 41, 42, fig. 30
St. Matthew, Cat. 14, 34, 35, 45,
52, fig. 46
St. Matthias, Cat. 17, 34, 35, 47,
fig. 58
St. Paul, Cat. 18, 34, 35, 37, 48,
62
St. Peter, Cat. 7, 34, 35, 39, 40,
fig. 18
St. Philip, Cat. 1 1 , 34, 35, 42, 43,
50,
43,
35,
35,
34,
46,
48,
fig.
50,
51,
% • 34
St. Simon, Cat. 16, 34-36, 46, 47,
fig- 54
St. Thomas, Cat. 13, 34-36, 44, fig.
42
MADRID, REAL HOSPITAL DE SAN ANDRÉS
DE LOS FLAMENCOS
Rubens, painting:
165
COLLECTIONS
The Martyrdom of St. Andrew, Cat.
6a, 23, 87-90, fig. 109
MOSCOW, PUSHKIN MUSEUM
Anonymous, painting after Rubens:
Head of St. Francis of Assisi, Cat. 90,
138
MUNICH, BAYERISCHE STAATSGEMÄLDE­
SAMMLUNGEN
Anonymous, painting after Rubens:
The two side-wings of The Conver­
sion of St. Bavo, Cat. 71, 102
NEW YORK, DR. AND MRS. R. J . HEINEMANN
Rubens, paintings:
St. Paul, Cat. 52, 68, 69, fig. 94
St. Peter, Cat, 53, 68-70, fig. 95
NEW YORK, METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF
ART
? Rubens, counterproof of etching:
St. Catherine of Alexandria, Cat. 75a,
117 , fig. 128
Anonymous, painting after Rubens:
St. Cecilia Playing the Virginals, Cat.
81, 126, fig. 142
NEW YORK, THE NEW YORK HISTORICAL
SOCIETY
School of Rubens, painting:
St. Catherine of Alexandria, Cat. 74,
115 , 116 , fig. 129
NEW YORK, THE PIERPONT MORGAN
LIBRARY
? Rubens, drawing:
The Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew,
Cat. 70, 10 1, 102, fig. 12 1
OBERLIN, OBERLIN COLLEGE,
ALLEN MEMORIAL ART MUSEUM
Rubens, drawing:
The Myftic Marriage of St. Catherine,
Cat. 76a, 118 -12 0 , fig. 132
ONTENIENTE-VALENCIA, MUSEO LA ERETA
Anonymous, paintings after Rubens:
St. Andrew, Cat. 21, 50
St. Bartholomew, Cat. 25, 51
St. James the Greater, Cat. 22, 50
St. James the Less, Cat. 28, 53
St. John the Evangelist, Cat. 23, 51
St. Matthew, Cat. 27, 52
St. Matthias, Cat. 30, 53
St. Paul, Cat. 31, 54
166
St.
St.
St.
St.
Peter, Cat. 20, 50
Philip, Cat. 24, 51
Simon, Cat. 29, 53
Thomas, Cat. 26, 52
OSLO, NASJONALGALLERIET
Anonymous, painting after Rubens:
St. Paul, Cat. 31, 54
OTTAWA, NATIONAL GALLERY OF CANADA
Anonymous, painting after Rubens:
Chrift as Salvator Mundi, Cat. 6, 35,
38, fig. 14
OXFORD, ASHMOLEAN MUSEUM
Rubens, oil sketch:
St. AuguStine, Cat. 65, 96, 97, fig.
116
? C. Visscher, drawing after Rubens:
St. Francis of Assisi, The Virgin and
the Infant Christ, Cat. 94, 146
PARIS, FONDATION CUSTODIA, INSTITUT
NÉERLANDAIS
Rubens, drawing:
Study of a Kneeling Male Nude, Cat.
i02d, 162, fig. 183
PARIS, MUSÉE DU LOUVRE, CABINET DES
DESSINS
? A. Van Dyck, drawing:
St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the
Stigmata, Cat. 90b, 14 1, 142, fig.
*57
POMMERSFELDEN, CASTLE WEISSENSTEIN,
COUNT SCHÖNBORN
Rubens, painting:
The Death of St. Anthony Abbot,
Cat. 64, 24, 92-95, fig. 1 1 3
POTSDAM - SANSSOUCI, BILDERGALERIE
Rubens, painting:
The Four Evangelists, Cat. 54, 70-72,
fig. 96
PRAGUE, NÂRODNÎ GALERIE
Rubens, painting:
St. AuguStine at the Seashore, Cat. 67,
98, 99, fig. 118
ROME, CAPITOLINE MUSEUM
Anonymous, painting after Rubens:
St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the
Stigmata, Cat. 93, 145, fig. 162
ROME, GALLERIA PALLAVICINI
Anonymous, paintings after Rubens:
COLLECTIONS
Christ as Salvator Mundi, Cat. 6, 35,
39. % 15
St. Andrew, Cat. 8, 35, 40, fig. 23
St. Bartholomew, Cat. 12, 35, 43, fig.
39
St. James the Greater, Cat. 9, 35, 41,
fig. 27
St. John the Evangelist, Q t. 10, 35,
42, fig. 31
St. Jude, Cat. 16, 35, 36, 47, fig. 55
St. Matthew, Cat. 15, 35, 46, fig. 51
St. Matthias, Cat. 17, 35, 47, fig. 59
St. Paul, Cat. 18, 35, 48, fig. 63
St. Peter, Cat. 7, 35, 39, fig. 19
St. Philip, Cat. 1 1 , 35, 42, fig. 35
St. Simon, Cat. 13, 35, 36, 44, fig. 43
St. Thomas, Cat. 14, 35, 45, fig. 47
ROTTERDAM, MUSEUM BOYMANS-VAN
BEUN INGEN
Rubens, oil sketch:
All Saints, Cat. 1, 23, 27, 28, 137,
fig. i
Rubens, drawing:
The Martyrdom of St. Andrew, Cat.
62a, 89-91, fig. n o
SCHLEISSHEIM, SCHLOSS
Rubens, painting:
St. Peter and St. Paul, Cat. 51, 64,
66-68, fig. 92
STRASBOURG, MUSÉE DES BEAUX-ARTS
Anonymous, painting after Rubens:
St. Francis of Assisi, Q t. 87, 133
TURIN, PALAZZO REALE
Anonymous, drawing after Rubens:
Head Study of St. Francis of Assisi,
Cat. 89, 138
VADUZ, PRINCE OF LIECHTENSTEIN
Anonymous, painting after Rubens:
St. Francis of Assisi in Adoration be­
fore the Crucified Chrift, Cat. 10 1,
i5
6 >
%
!7 6
VALENCIENNES, MUSÉE DES BEAUX-ARTS
Anonymous, painting after Rubens:
St. Francis of Assisi in Adoration be­
fore the Crucified Chrift, Cat. 101,
155
VIENNA, ALBERTINA
Rubens, drawing:
Head of St. Catherine of Alexandria,
Cat. 78a, 123, fig. 134
N. Ryckmans, drawings after Rubens:
Chrift as Salvator Mundi, Q t. 6, 39
St. Andrew, Cat. 8, 40
St. Bartholomew, Q t. 12, 43
St. James the Greater, Cat. 9, 41
St. John the Evangelift, Cat. 10, 42
St. Jude, Cat. 16, 47
St. Matthew, Cat. 15, 46
St, Matthias, Cat, 17, 47
St. Paul, Q t. 18, 48
St. Peter, Q t. 7, 40
St. Philip, Cat. 1 1 , 43
St. Simon, Q t. 13, 44
St. Thomas, Cat. 14, 45
Anonymous, drawings after Rubens:
The Real Presence in the Holy Sacra­
ment, Q t. 56a, 75, 78, 79, fig. 103
St. Peter and St. Paul, Q t. 51, 66, 67,
fig- 93
VIENNA, SCHOTTENSTIFT
Anonymous, painting after Rubens:
Chrift as Salvator Mundi, Cat. 6, 38
WASHINGTON, NATIONAL GALLERY
St. Peter, Q t. 1 1 , 42
x6 7
IN D EX II: SUBJECTS
This index lifts all the subjects here catalogued. Under each title are gathered all the
known representations; these include both works by Rubens himself and copies made by
other artifts after these.
OLD TESTAMENT
Cat. 58
Rubens, painting (formerly Antwerp,
Dominican Church) Cat. 58, 80
AARON,
Cat. 57
Rubens, painting (formerly Antwerp,
Dominican Church) Cat. 57, 79, 80
m o ses,
NEW TESTAMENT
Cat. 2
Rubens, oil sketch or drawing (present
whereabouts unknown) Cat. 2, 28-31
P. Pontius, engraving, Cat. 2, 28-31,
fig. 2
E. Rucholle, engraving, Cat. 2, 28-30,
THE FACE OF CHRIST,
%• 4
Anonymous, engraving, Cat. 2, 28-30,
fig. 6
Anonymous, engraving, Cat. 2, 29, 30,
fig. 8
THE BUST OF CHRIST, Cat. 3
Rubens, painting (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 3, 31, 32
Anonymous, painting (present where­
abouts unknown) Cat, 3, 31, 32, fig.
10
Anonymous, painting (formerly Berlin,
V. Modrzejewski) Cat. 3, 31, 32, fig.
11
Cat. 4
Rubens, painting, Cat. 4, 32, 33
Anonymous, painting (formerly Berlin,
Dr. M.J. Binder) Cat. 4, 32
Anonymous, painting (formerly Brus­
sels, A. de Heuvel) Cat. 4, 32, fig. 12
Anonymous, painting (formerly London,
Carlton Galleries), Cat. 4, 32
Anonymous, painting (formerly London,
T. Harris) Cat. 4, 32
Cat. 6
Rubens, painting (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 6, 34, 35, 38, 39
Anonymous, painting (Hanover, Nieder­
sächsische Landesgalerie) Cat. 6, 39
Anonymous, painting (Ottawa, National
Gallery of Canada) Cat. 6, 35, 38, fig.
CHRIST AS SALVATOR MUNDI,
*4
Anonymous, painting (Rome, Galleria
Pallavicini) Cat. 6, 35, 39, fig. 15
Anonymous, painting (Vienna, Schottenftift) Cat. 6, 38
N. Ryckmans, drawing (Vienna, Alber­
tina) Cat. 6, 39
J. Prenner, engraving, Cat. 6, 39
N. Ryckmans, engraving, Cat. 6, 35, 39,
% *7
Cat. 19
? Rubens, painting, Cat. 19, 49
Anonymous, painting (formerly H, Nüsslein) Cat. 19, 49
CHRIST AS SALVATOR MUNDI, Cat. 32
Rubens, painting, Cat. 32, 54, 55
Anonymous, painting, Cat. 32, 54, 55
S. a Bolswert, engraving, Cat. 32, 54,
55. % 74
THE HOLY VIRGIN, Cat. 5
Rubens, painting, Cat. 5, 33
Anonymous, painting (formerly Brus­
sels, A. de Heuvel) Cat. 5, 33
Anonymous, painting (formerly London,
Asscher, Kcetser and Welker) Cat. 5,
CHRIST AS SALVATOR MUNDI,
33
c h r is t ,
168
Anonymous, painting (formerly London,
T. Harris) Cat. 5, 32, 33
Anonymous, painting (formerly New
York, Mont and Newhouse) Cat. 5,
33. fig- !3
Anonymous, painting (formerly Vienna,
B.
Waldner) Cat. 5, 33
THE HOLY VIRGIN AS REGINA CŒLI, Cat.
33
SU BJECTS
Rubens, painting (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 33, 54-56
Anonymous, painting, Cat. 33, 54-56
Anonymous, engraving, Cat. 33, 54-56,
% 75
SAINTS
Cat. I
Rubens, oil sketch (Rotterdam, Museum
Boymans-van Beuningen) Cat. 1, 23,
27, 28, 137, fig. i
THE FOUR EVANGELISTS, Cat. 54
Rubens, painting (Potsdam-Sanssouci,
Bildergalerie) Cat. 54, 70-72, fig. 96
Anonymous, painting (present where­
abouts unknown) Cat. 54, 70
THE FOUR EVANGELISTS, Cat. 55
Rubens, oil sketch (formerly Warwick
CaStle) Cat. 55, 72, 73, fig. 97
Anonymous, engraving, Cat. 55, 72, 73
ALL SAINTS,
THE REAL PRESENCE IN THE HOLY
SACRAMENT, Cat. 56
Rubens, painting (Antwerp, St. Paul’s
Church) Cat. 56, 22, 73-79, 96, figs.
99, 100, 102
Rubens, oil sketch (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 56a, 75, 78, 79
? J. de Bisschop, drawing (formerly
Brussels, G. de Levai) Cat. 56a, 75,
78, 79, fig. 10 1
Anonymous, drawing after the right
side (formerly Paris, A. Beurdeley)
Cat. 56, 73
Anonymous, drawing (Vienna, Alberti­
na) Cat. 56a, 75, 78, 79, fig. 103
Anonymous, drawing after the heads of
the presumed saints Ambrose, AuguStine and Paul, on the left side
(present whereabouts unknown) Cat.
56> 73
H. Snyers, engraving, Cat. 56, 73, 75,
76, 78, fig. 98
■ THE FOUR LATIN DOCTORS OF THE CHURCH,
Cat. 59
Rubens, painting (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 59, 80, 81, 84
C. van Dalen the Younger, engraving,
Cat. 59, 22, 81, 84, fig. 106
THE FOUR LATIN DOCTORS OF THE CHURCH,
Cat. 60
J. Jordaens, painting (Blackburn, Lan­
cashire, Stonyhurft College) Cat. 60,
81-83, fig. 104
Rubens, oil sketch (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 60a, 83, 84
Anonymous, painting (formerly Brus­
sels, Barbier) Cat, 60, 82
Anonymous, painting (formerly Königs­
berg, Städtische Kunstsammlungen;
loSt) Cat. 60, 82
C. Galle, engraving, Cat. 60, 82, fig. 105
THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. ADRIAN, Cat.
Rubens, painting (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 61, 22, 84-87, 102
Rubens, oil sketch (Antwerp, Rubens­
huis) Cat. 61a, 86, 87, fig. 108
Anonymous, painting (formerly Antwerp,
S. Hartveld) Cat. 61, 84, 102, fig. 107
Anonymous, needlework panel (present
whereabouts unknown) Cat. 61, 84
ST. ANDREW, Cat. 8
Rubens, painting (Madrid, Prado) Cat.
8, 34, 35, 40, 50, fig. 22
Anonymous, painting (Rome, Galleria
Pallavicini) Cat. 8, 35, 40, fig. 23
N. Ryckmans, drawing (Vienna, Alber­
tina) Cat. 8, 40
P. Isselburg, engraving, Cat. 8, 35, 40,
fig. 24
N. Ryckmans, engraving, Cat. 8, 35, 40,
fig. 25
ST. ANDREW, Cat. 21
Rubens, painting (formerly Vienna, E.
and A. Silberman) Cat. 21, 50, fig. 67
Anonymous, painting (Onteniente-Valencia, Museo la Ereta) Cat. 21, 50
Anonymous, painting (formerly H.
Niisslein) Cat. 21, 50
ST. ANDREW, Cat. 35
Rubens, painting (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 35, 54-57
Anonymous, painting (present where­
abouts unknown) Cat. 35, 54-56
169
SUBJECTS
P. Clouwet, engraving, Cat. 35, 54-56,
%• 77
Cat. 62
Rubens, painting (Madrid, Real Hospital
de San Andrés de los Flamencos) Cat.
62, 23, 87-90, fig. 109
Rubens, oil sketch or drawing (present
whereabouts unknown) Cat. 62b, 90,
THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. ANDREW,
91
Rubens, drawing (Rotterdam, Museum
Boymans-van Beuningen) Cat. 62a,
89-91, fig. n o
Anonymous, drawing (Haarlem, Teylers
Stichting) Cat. 62b, 90
Anonymous, drawing (London, British
Museum) Cat. 62b, 90, 91, fig. i n
K.G. Thelott, engraving, Git. 62, 87
A. Voet, engraving, Cat. 62b, 90
Anonymous, engraving, Cat. 62b, 90,
91, %• 112
Cat. 63
Rubens, ? painting (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 63, 23, 91, 92
Anonymous, painting (formerly Brus­
sels, Convent of the Carmelite Nuns)
Cat. 63, 91
Anonymous painting (formerly Würz­
burg, Convent "zu Himmelspforten” )
Cat. 63, 91
C. Galle the Elder, engraving, Cat. 63,
91, fig. 115
THE DEATH OF ST. ANTHONY ABBOT, Cat.
64
Rubens, painting (Pommersfelden, CaStle
WeissenStein, Count Schönborn) Cat.
64, 24, 92-95, fig. 1 1 3
Anonymous, painting (’s Hertogenbosch,
St. John’s Church) Cat. 64, 93, 95,
fig. 114
Anonymous, drawing (formerly Brno,
Havelsky) Cat. 64, 93
Anonymous, drawing after the head of
St. Anthony Abbot (Copenhagen, Sta­
tens Museum for KunSt, Print Room)
Cat. 64, 93
ST. AUGUSTINE, Cat. 65
Rubens, oil sketch (Oxford, Ashmolean
Museum) Cat. 65, 96, 97, fig. 116
THE BLESSED ANNA DE JÉSUS,
170
ST. AUGUSTINE BETWEEN CHRIST AND THE
HOLY VIRGIN, Cat. 66
Rubens, painting (Madrid, Academia de
San Fernando) Cat, 66, 97, 98, fig.
117
ST. AUGUSTINE AT THE SEASHORE, Cat. 67
Rubens, painting (Prague, Nârodni Ga­
lerie) Cat. 67, 98, 99, fig. 118
ST. BARBARA, Cat. 68
Rubens, ? painting (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 68, 100
S. a Bolswert, engraving, Cat. 68, 100,
fig. 119
ST. BARTHOLOMEW, Cat. 12
Rubens, painting (Madrid, Prado) Cat.
12, 34 , 35, 43 , 52 , fig- 38
Anonymous, painting (formerly London,
P. Kronthal) Cat. 12, 43
Anonymous, painting (Rome, Galleria
Pallavicini) Cat. 12, 35, 43, fig. 39
N. Ryckmans, drawing (Vienna, Alber­
tina) Cat. 12, 43
P. Isselburg, engraving, Cat. 12, 35, 43,
fig. 40
N. Ryckmans, engraving, Cat. 12, 35,
43 , % 4 1
ST. BARTHOLOMEW, Cat. 25
? Rubens, painting (Vienna, E. and A.
Silberman) Cat. 25, 51, 52, fig. 70
Anonymous, painting (Onteniente-Va­
lencia, Museo la Ereta) Cat. 25, 51
Anonymous, painting (H. Nüsslein)
Cat. 25, 51
ST, BARTHOLOMEW, Cat. 39
Rubens, painting (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 39, 54, 55, 58
Anonymous, engraving, Cat. 39, 54, 55,
58, fig. 81
THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. BARTHOLOMEW,
Cat. 70
? Rubens, drawing (New York, The
Pierpont Morgan Library) Cat. 70,
10 1, 102, fig. 12 1
THE CONVERSION OF ST. BAVO, Cat. 71
Rubens, oil sketch (London, National
Gallery) Cat. 7 1, 23, 102-106, 108,
fig. 122
SUBJECTS
R.P. Bonington, painting (present where­
abouts unknown) Cat. 71, 102
Anonymous, painting (formerly Amster­
dam, A. van Buuren) Cat. 71, 102
Anonymous, painting after the two
side-wings (Munich, Bayerische Staats­
gemäldesammlungen) Cat. 71, 102
Fragonard, drawing after the foreground
figures in the central panel and the
left wing (London, British Museum)
Cat. 71, X03
J. Weft, watercolour (formerly Northwick Park) Cat. 71, 102
Anonymous, drawing after the central
panel (Copenhagen, Statens Museum
for Kunft, Print Room) Cat. 71, 102
Anonymous, drawing after the three wo­
men on the left (Copenhagen, Statens
Museum for Kunft, Print Room) Cat.
71, 102
Anonymous, drawing after the figures
on the right of the central panel and
in the foreground of the righthand
wing (London, British Museum) Cat.
71, 102
THE CONVERSION OF ST. BAVO, Cat, 72
Rubens, painting (Ghent, St. Bavo’s
Church) Cat. 72, 106^110, 112 , 127,
fig. 123
Rubens, oil sketch (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 72a, 109, n o
Anonymous, painting (formerly London,
T, Harris) Cat. 72a, 109
Anonymous, painting (formerly Paris, J.
Guerlain) Cat. 72a, 109, fig. 124
Anonymous, drawing (Berlin-Dahlem,
Staatliche Museen, Print Room) Cat.
72, 107
Anonymous, drawing (Copenhagen, Sta­
tens Museum for Kunft, Print Room)
Cat. 72, 107
P. Clouwet, engraving after the left one
of the female figures on the left, Cat.
72, 107
F. Pilsen, engraving, Cat, 72, 107
P. Spruyt, etching, Cat. 72, 107
THE MIRACLES OF ST. BENEDICT, Cat. 73
Rubens, painting (Brussels, Musées
Royaux des Beaux-Arts) Cat. 73, 23,
n o - 1 1 5 , fig. 125
E. Delacroix, painting (Brussels, Musées
Royaux des Beaux-Arts) Cat. 73, n i
F. Souchon, painting (Lille, Musée des
Beaux-Arts) Cat. 73, i n
ST. CATHERINE OF ALEXANDRIA, Cat. 69
Rubens, ? painting (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 69, 100, 10 1
S. a Bolswert, engraving, Cat. 69, 100,
fig. 120
ST. CATHERINE OF ALEXANDRIA, Cat. 74
School of Rubens, painting (New York,
The New York Historical Society)
Cat. 74, 115 , 116, fig. 129
ST. CATHERINE OF ALEXANDRIA, Cat. 75
? Rubens, etching, Cat. 75, 116 , 117 ,
fig. 127
? Rubens, counterproof of etching (New
York, Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Cat. 75a, 117 , fig. 128
THE MYSTIC MARRIAGE OF ST. CATHERINE
Cat. 76
Rubens, painting (formerly Philadelphia,
R. Wanamaker) Cat. 76, 118 , 119,
fig. 13 1
Rubens, drawing (Oberlin, Oberlin Col­
lege, Allen Memorial Art Museum)
Cat. 76a, 118 -12 0 , fig. 132
OF ALEXANDRIA,
THE MYSTIC MARRIAGE OF ST. CATHERINE
OF ALEXANDRIA, Cat. 77
Rubens, painting (formerly PotsdamSanssouci, Bildergalerie) Cat. 77, 120,
12 1, fig. 130
Anonymous, painting (formerly London,
J. Abrahams) Cat. 77, 120
Anonymous, painting (Louvain, St. Quintinus’s Church) Cat. 77, 120
THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. CATHERINE OF
ALEXANDRIA, Cat. 78
Rubens, painting (Lille, Musée des BeauxArts) Cat. 78, 86, 102, 1 2 1-12 3 , fig.
133
Rubens, Head of St. Catherine of
Alexandria, drawing (Vienna, Alber­
tina) Cat. 78a, 123, fig. 134
Anonymous, painting (Ghent, St, Bavo’s
Church) Cat. 78, 12 1, 122, fig. 136
171
SUBJECTS
W. de Leeuw, engraving, Cat. 78, 12 1,
122
ANGELS TRANSPORTING THE DEAD BODY
OF ST. CATHERINE OF ALEXANDRIA,
Cat.
79
? Rubens, painting (formerly Valencien­
nes, J.-B. Foucart) Cat. 79, 12 3-12 5,
fig- 137
Anonymous, painting (Antwerp, G. Faes)
Cat. 79, 123, fig. 138
ST. CATHERINE OF SIENA, Cat. 8o
? Rubens, painting (Düsseldorf, Kunst­
museum) Cat. 80, 126, fig. 139
ST, CECILIA PLAYING THE VIRGINALS, Cat.
81
Rubens, painting (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 81, 126, 127, 129
Anonymous, painting (formerly Brno,
G.
Haas) Cat. 81, 126
Anonymous, painting (New York, Me­
tropolitan Museum of Art) Cat. 81,
126, fig. 142
Anonymous, painting (present where­
abouts unknown) Cat. 81, 126, 127
A. Lommelin, engraving, Cat. 81, 127
W Panneels, engraving, Cat. 81, 127
ST. CECILIA PLAYING THE VIRGINALS, Cat.
82
Rubens, painting (Berlin-Dahlem, Staat­
liche Museen) Cat. 82, 12 7 -13 1, fig.
144
F. von Lenbach, painting (whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 82, 128
Anonymous, painting (formerly London,
C.T. Hawkins) Cat. 82, 128
? A. Watteau, drawing after the upper
part of the Saint’s body (formerly A.
Niels) Cat. 82, 128
J. Witdoeck, engraving, Cat. 82, 128130
ST. CECILIA, Cat. 83
Rubens, painting (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 83, 129, 130
ST. CECILIA, Cat. 84
? Rubens, painting (Düsseldorf, Kunst­
museum) Cat. 84, 130, 13 1, fig. 145
Anonymous, painting (present where­
abouts unknown) Cat. 84, 130
172
ST. CH A RLES BORROMEO,
Cat. 85
Rubens, painting (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 85, 23, 13 1
Anonymous, painting (Antwerp, Pres­
bytery of St. Andrew’s Church) Cat.
85, 13 1, fig. 148
N. van den Berg, etching, Cat. 85, 13 1
s t . c l a r e , Cat. 98
Rubens, painting (Lier, St. Gummarus’s
Church) Cat. 98, 33, 15 1, 152, fig.
172
Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi and St.
Clare, drawing (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 96-982, 152
Anonymous, St. Francis of Assisi and
St. Clare, drawing (formerly Paris, E.
Wouters) Cat. 96-982, 152
ST. d o m in ic , Cat. 86
Rubens, painting (Dublin, National Gal­
lery of Ireland) Cat. 86, 132, 133,
fig. 149
ST. DOMINIC AND ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI
PROTECTING THE WORLD FROM THE
Cat. 88
Rubens, painting (Lyons, Musée des
Beaux-Arts) Cat. 88, 22, 23, 85, 134—
I 37> Î 54. fig- I 5 I
Rubens, oil sketch or drawing (present
whereabouts unknown) Cat. 88a, 136,
WRATH OF CHRIST,
*37
Rubens, Head Study of St. Catherine of
Alexandria, drawing (Angers, Musée
Turpin de Crissé) Cat. 88b, 137, 138,
fig- 153
Anonymous, drawing (formerly London,
Agnew’s) Cat. 88a, 136, fig. 152
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI, Cat. 87
Rubens, painting (Dublin, National Gal­
lery of Ireland) Cat. 87, 132-134 ,
144, fig. 150
Anonymous, painting (Strasbourg, Musée
des Beaux-Arts) Cat. 87, 133
HEAD STUDY OF ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI,
Cat. 89
? Rubens, painting (formerly London,
Terry Engell Galleries) Cat. 89, 138,
fig- 154
SU BJECTS
Anonymous, drawing (Turin, Palazzo
Reale) Cat. 89, 138
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI RECEIVING THE
STIGMATA, Cat. 90
Rubens, painting (Cologne, Wallraf-Richartz Museum) Cat. 90, 22, 138 141, 148, fig. 155
Rubens, drawing (Berlin-Dahlem, Staat­
liche Museen, Print Room), Cat. 90a,
140, 14 1, fig. 156
Anonymous, painting (Antwerp, St. An­
thony’s Church) Cat. 90, 138
Anonymous, painting after the Head of
St. Francis of Assisi (Moscow, Push­
kin Museum) Cat. 90, 138
? Delacroix, watercolour (formerly Pa­
ris, Galerie Katia Granoff) Cat. 90,
139
? A. van Dyck, drawing (Paris, Musée
du Louvre, Cabinet des Estampes)
Cat. 90b, 14 1, 142, fig. 157
L. Vorfterman, engraving, Cat. 90b, 141,
142, fig. 158
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI RECEIVING THE
STIGMATA, Cat. 9 1
Rubens, painting (Arras, Musée Munici­
pal) Cat. 91, 22, 142, 143, fig. 159
Rubens, oil sketch (Amsterdam, The
Heirs of Dr. H.A. Wetzlar) Cat. 91a,
143, fig. 160
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI RECEIVING THE
STIGMATA, Cat. 92
Rubens, painting (Ghent, Museum voor
Schone Kunften) Cat. 92, 22, 133,
J 44 . H 5, % • 16 1
Anonymous, painting (formerly Bruges,
Franciscan Church) Cat. 92, 144
Anonymous, painting after the figure of
St. Francis of Assisi (Brussels, A. de
Heuvel) Cat. 92, 144, 145
F. Pilsen, engraving, Cat. 92, 144
P. Spruyt, etching, Cat. 92, 144
Anonymous, etching after the figure of
St. Francis of Assisi, Cat. 92, 144,
fig. 164
ST, FRANCIS OF ASSISI RECEIVING THE
STIGMATA, Cat. 93
Rubens, painting (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 93, 22, 145
Anonymous, painting (Rome, Capitoline
Museum) Cat. 93, 145, fig. 162
Anonymous, drawing (Copenhagen, Sta­
tens Museum for Kunft, Print Room)
Cat. 93, 145, fig. 163
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI RECEIVING THE
STIGMATA, Cat. 97
Rubens, painting (Lier, St. Gummarus’s
Church) Cat. 97, 15 1, 152, 155, 156,
fig. 17 1
Rubens, St, Francis of Assisi and St.
Clare, drawing (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 96-983, 152
Anonymous, St. Francis of Assisi and
St. Clare, drawing (formerly Paris, E.
Wouters) Cat. 96-988, 152
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI RECEIVING THE
INFANT CHRIST, Cat, 94
Rubens, painting (Antwerp, St. Antho­
ny’s Church) Cat. 94, 145-148, 150,
fig. 165
? M. Lasne, drawing after the figures of
St. Francis of Assisi and the Infant
Chri§t (London, Count A, Seilern)
Cat. 94, 145, 146
? C. Visscher, drawing after the figures
of St. Francis of Assisi, the Virgin
and the Infant Chrift (Oxford, Ashmolean Museum) Cat. 94, 146
M. Lasne, engraving, Cat. 94, 146, fig.
166
A. Lommelin, engraving, Cat. 94, 146
C. Visscher, engraving, Q t. 94, 146
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI RECEIVING THE
INFANT CHRIST, Q t. 95
Rubens, painting (Lille, Musée des
Beaux-Arts) Cat. 95, 12 1, 147-150,
fig. 167
Rubens, drawing (formerly Paris, J.
Mathey) Cat. 95a, 148, 149, fig. 168
Anonymous, painting (Enghien, Qpuchin Cloifter) Cat. 95, 147
Anonymous, painting (Lille, Minorite
Church) Cat. 95, 147
Anonymous, painting (Madrid, Descalzas Reales) Q t. 95, 147
173
SUBJECTS
M. Lasne, St, Francis of Paola, drawing
(Antwerp, Stedelijk Prentenkabinet)
Cat. 95a, 149
M. Lasne, St. Francis of Paola, engrav­
ing, Cat. 95a, 149
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI RECEIVING THE
INFANT CHRIST, Cat. 96
Rubens, painting (Dijon, Musée des
Beaux-Arts) Cat. 96, 149, 150, 152,
fig. 169
Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi and St.
Clare, drawing (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 96-98a, 152
Wouters, painting (Lier, St. Gummarus’s
Church) Cat. 91, 150
Anonymous, St. Francis of Assisi and
St. Clare, drawing (formerly Paris, E.
Wouters) Cat. 96—98a, 152
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI, Cat. 99
Rubens, painting (formerly Oldenburg,
Museum) Cat. 99, 153, fig. 174
C. Spitzweg, painting (present where­
abouts unknown) Cat. 99, 153
Anonymous, painting (loft) Cat. 99, 153,
fig. 174
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI PROTECTING THE
WORLD FROM THE WRATH OF CHRIST,
Cat. 100
Rubens, painting (Brussels, Musées
Royaux des Beaux-Arts) Cat. 100, 22,
. - . % 173
144 153 155
Anonymous, painting (Bergues, St. Mar­
tin) Cat. 100, 154
Anonymous, drawing after the Head of
St. Francis of Assisi (Frankfurt, Städelsches Kunftinftitut) Cat. 100, 154
A. Çossemiers, engraving, Cat. 100, 154
P. Spruyt, etching, Cat. 100, 154
ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI IN ADORATION BE­
FORE THE CRUCIFIED CHRIST, Cat. 10 1
Rubens, painting (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 10 1, 155, 156
Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Raising his
Arms in a Gesture of Adoration, draw­
ing (London, British Museum) Cat.
101a, 156, fig. 177
Anonymous, painting after the Crucified
Christ with an anonymous donor re­
placing the figure of St. Francis
(formerly Antwerp, A. TrooSt) Cat.
10 1, 155
Anonymous, painting (formerly Brus­
sels, Vicomte de Buisseret) Cat. 10 1,
I 55
Anonymous, painting (formerly Brus­
sels, A. Sels) Cat. 10 1, 155
Anonymous, painting (Vaduz, Prince of
Liechtenstein) Cat. 1 0 1 , 1 5 5 , 156,
fig. 176
Anonymous, painting (Valenciennes,
Musée des Beaux-Arts) Cat. io i, 155
J. de Meere, engraving, Cat. 10 1, 155
THE LAST COMMUNION OF ST. FRANCIS OF
Cat. 102
Rubens, painting (Antwerp, Koninklijk
Museum voor Schone Kunften) Cat.
102, 22, 153, 156-162, fig. 178
Rubens, drawing (Antwerp, Stedelijk
Prentenkabinet) Cat. 102a, 15 9 -16 1,
fig. 180
Rubens, drawing (Farnham, W. Bur­
chard) Cat. 102b, 160, 16 1, fig. 18 1
Rubens, Two Studies for a Franciscan
Monk, drawing (Chatsworth, Duke of
Devonshire) Cat. 102c, 137, 159, 16 1,
162, fig. 182
Rubens, Study of a Kneeling Male Nude,
drawing (Paris, Fondation Cuftodia,
Inäitut Néerlandais) Cat. io2d, 162,
fig. 183
P.J. Verhaghen, painting (loft) Cat. 102,
ASSISI,
157
Anonymous, painting after the Head of
St. Francis (formerly Cologne, H.
Abels) Cat. 102, 157
Anonymous, painting (London, private
colleâion) Cat. 102, 157
Anonymous, painting (formerly Neuftadt/Haardt, E. Abresch) Cat. 102,
H.
*57
Snyers, engraving, Cat. 102, 157, 159
Cat. 9
Rubens, painting (Madrid, Prado) Cat.
ST. JAMES THE GREATER,
9 » 34. 35. 4 1 . 5°. fiS- 26
Anonymous, painting (formerly Ant­
werp, S. Hartveld) Cat. 9, 41
SU BJECTS
Anonymous, painting (Rome, Galleria
Pallavicini) Cat. 9, 35, 41, fig. 27
N. Ryckmans, drawing (Vienna, Alber­
tina) Cat. 9, 41
P. Isselburg, engraving, Cat. 9, 35, 41,
fig. 28
N. Ryckmans, engraving, Cat. 9, 35, 41,
fig. 29
ST. JAMES THE GREATER, Cat. 22
? Rubens, painting (formerly Berlin, C.
Benedid) Cat. 22, 50, fig. 68
Anonymous, painting (Onteniente-Valen­
cia, Museo la Ereta) Cat. 22, 50
Anonymous, painting (formerly H.
Niisslein) Cat. 22, 50
ST. JAMES THE GREATER, Cat. 36
Rubens, painting (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 36, 54, 55, 57
Anonymous, painting (present where­
abouts unknown) Cat. 36, 54, 55, 57
Anonymous, engraving, Cat. 36, 54, 55,
57, fig- 78
ST. JAMES THE LESS, Cat. 1 5
Rubens, painting (Madrid, Prado) Cat.
15, 34, 35, 46, 53, fig. 50
Anonymous, St. Matthew, painting
(Rome, Galleria Pallavicini) Cat. 15,
35, 4 6> fig- 51
N. Ryckmans, St. Matthew, drawing
(Vienna, Albertina) 46
P. Isselburg, engraving, Cat. 15, 35, 36,
46, fig. 52
N. Ryckmans, St. Matthew, engraving,
Cat. 15, 35, 46, fig. 53
ST. JAMES THE LESS, Cat. 28
? Rubens, painting (formerly Uccle
[Brussels}, R. Dicop) Cat. 28, 52, 53,
fig. 72
Anonymous, painting (Onteniente-Valen­
cia, Museo la Ereta) Cat. 28, 53
Anonymous, painting (formerly Schloss
Ittlingen, Baron H. von Nagel) Cat.
28, 53
Anonymous, painting (formerly H.
Niisslein) Cat. 28, 53
ST. JAMES THE LESS, Cat. 42
Rubens, painting (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 42, 54, 55, 59
Anonymous, painting (present where­
abouts unknown) Cat. 42, 54, 55, 59
S. a Bolswert, engraving, Cat. 42, 54,
55 , 59, fig- 84
Cat. 10
Rubens, painting (Madrid, Prado) Cat.
ïo, 34 , 35 , 4 1 , 4 2, fig- 3°
Anonymous, painting (Rome, Galleria
Pallavicini) Cat. 10, 35, 42, fig. 31
N. Ryckmans, drawing (Vienna, Alber­
tina) Cat. 10, 42
P. Isselburg, engraving, Cat. 10, 35, 42,
fig- 32
N. Ryckmans, engraving, Cat. 10, 35,
42 , fig. 33
ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST, Cat. 23
? Rubens, painting (formerly Amster­
dam, Goudstikker) Cat. 23, 51
Anonymous, painting (Onteniente-Valen­
cia, Museo la Ereta) Cat. 23, 51
Anonymous, painting (formerly H.
Niisslein) Cat, 23, 51
ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST, Cat. 37
Rubens, painting (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 37, 54, 55, 57
Anonymous, painting (present where­
abouts unknown) Cat. 37, 57
S. a Bolswert, engraving, Cat. 37, 57,
fig- 79
ST. JUDE, Cat. 44
Rubens, painting (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 44, 54, 55, 59, 60
Anonymous, painting (present where­
abouts unknown) Cat. 44, 54, 55, 59
Anonymous, engraving, Cat. 44, 54, 55,
59, fig- 86
ST. MATTHEW, Cat. 1 4
Rubens, painting (Madrid, Prado) Cat.
H, 34 , 35, 45 , 4^, 52, fig- 46
Anonymous, St. Thomas, painting (Rome,
Galleria Pallavicini) Cat. 14, 35, 45,
ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST,
fig- 47
N. Ryckmans, St. Thomas, drawing
(Vienna, Albertina) Cat. 14, 45
P. Isselburg, engraving, Cat. 14, 35, 36,
45 , fig- 48
N. Ryckmans, St. Thomas, engraving,
Cat. 14, 35, 36, 45, fig. 49
SUBJECTS
Cat. 27
? Rubens, painting (formerly New York,
E. and A. Silberman) Cat. 27, 52,
fig. 7 1
Anonymous, painting (Onteniente-Valen­
cia, Museo la Ereta) Cat. 27, 52
Anonymous, painting (H. Nüsslein)
Cat. 27, 52
ST. MATTHEW, Cat. 41
Rubens, painting (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 41, 54, 55, 58
Anonymous, painting (present where­
abouts unknown) Cat. 41, 58
Anonymous, engraving, Cat. 41, 58, fig.
83
ST. MATTHIAS, Cat. 1 7
Rubens, painting (Madrid, Prado) Cat.
* 7> 34 , 35 , 47 . 4 «, fig. 58
Anonymous, painting (Rome, Galleria
Pallavicini) Cat. 17, 35, 47, fig. 59
N. Ryckmans, drawing (Vienna, Alber­
tina) Cat. 17, 47
P. Isselburg, engraving, Cat. 17, 35, 48,
fig. 60
N. Ryckmans, engraving, Cat. 17, 35,
47, 48, fig. 61
ST. MATTHIAS, Cat. 30
? Rubens, painting (present where­
abouts unknown) Cat. 30, 53
Anonymous, painting (Onteniente-Valen­
cia, Museo la Ereta) Cat. 30, 53
Anonymous, painting (formerly H.
Nüsslein) Cat. 30, 53
ST. MATTHIAS, Cat. 45
Rubens, painting (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 45, 54, 55, 60
Anonymous, painting (present where­
abouts unknown) Cat. 45, 54, 55, 60
Anonymous, engraving, Cat. 45, 54, 55,
60, fig. 87
ST. PAUL, Cat. 18
Rubens, painting (Madrid, Prado) Cat.
18, 34, 35, 37, 48, fig. 62
Anonymous, painting (Rome, Galleria
Pallavicini) Cat. 18, 35, 48, fig. 63
N. Ryckmans, drawing (Vienna, Alber­
tina) Cat. 18, 48
ST. MATTHEW,
17 6
P. Isselburg, engraving, Cat. 18, 35, 48,
fig. 64
N. Ryckmans, engraving, Cat. 18, 35,
48, fig. 65
ST. PAUL, Cat. 31
? Rubens, painting (present where­
abouts unknown) Cat. 31, 53, 54
Anonymous, painting (Onteniente-Valen­
cia, Museo la Ereta) Cat. 31, 54
Anonymous, painting (Oslo, Nasjonalgalleriet) Cat. 31, 54
Anonymous, painting (formerly Vienna,
E.
Muller) Cat. 31, 54
Anonymous, painting (formerly H.
Nüsslein) Cat. 3 1, 54
ST. PAUL, Cat. 46
Rubens, painting (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 46, 54, 55, 60
Anonymous, painting (present where­
abouts unknown) Cat. 46, 54, 55, 60
S. a Bolswert, engraving, Cat. 46, 54,
55, 60, fig. 88
ST. PAUL, Cat. 48
Rubens, painting (formerly London,
Bryan) Cat. 48, 61-63
s t . Pa u l , Cat. 50
Rubens, painting (formerly Nijmegen,
Dr. C. ten Horn) Cat. 50, 22, 64-67,
132, fig. 90
Rubens, St. Peter and St. Paul, oil sketch
(Brussels, private collection) Cat. 4950a, 65, 66, fig. 91
Anonymous, St. Peter and St. Paul, paint­
ing (formerly St. Petersburg, Prince
Yussupoff) Cat. 49~5oa, 65
R. Eynhoudts, St. Peter and St. Paul, en­
graving, Cat. 49~5oa, 65
ST. PAUL, Cat. 52
Rubens, painting (New York, Dr. and
Mrs. R.J. Heinemann) Cat. 52, 68,
69, fig. 94
ST. PETER, Cat. 7
Rubens, painting (Madrid, Prado) Cat.
7 . 34. 35. 39. 40. 50. fig. 18
Anonymous, painting (Rome, Galleria
Pallavicini) Cat. 7, 35, 39, fig. 19
N. Ryckmans, drawing (Vienna, Alber­
tina) Cat. 7, 40
SUBJECTS
P. Isselburg, engraving, Cat. 7, 35, 40,
fig. 20
N. Ryckmans, engraving, Cat. 7, 35, 40,
fig. 21
ST. PETER, Cat. 20
? Rubens, painting (formerly Vienna, E.
and A. Silberman) Cat. 20, 49, 50,
fig. 66
Anonymous, painting (Onteniente-Valen­
cia, Museo la Ereta) Cat. 20, 50
Anonymous, painting (formerly H.
Niisslein) Cat. 20, 50
s t . p e t e r , Cat. 34
Rubens, painting (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 34, 54-36
Anonymous, painting (present where­
abouts unknown) Cat. 34, 54-56
S. a Bolswert, engraving, Cat, 34, 5456, fig. 76
ST. PETER, Cat. 47
Rubens, painting (formerly London,
Bryan) Cat. 47, 61, 62, 63
s t . p e t e r , Cat, 49
Rubens, painting (formerly Nijmegen,
Dr. C. ten Horn) Cat. 49, 22, 56, 6367, 132, fig. 89
Rubens, St. Peter and St. Paul, oil sketch
(Brussels, private colleftion) Cat. 4950a, 65, 66, fig. 91
Anonvmous, St. Peter and St, Paul, paint­
ing (formerly St. Petersburg, Prince
Yussupoff) Cat. 49~5oa, 65
Anonymous, drawing (Copenhagen, Sta­
tens Museum for Kunft, Print Room)
Cat. 49, 63
R. Eynhoudts, St. Peter and St. Paul, en­
graving. Cat. 49~5oa, 65
s t . p e t e r , Cat. 53
Rubens, painting (New Yirk, Dr. and
Mrs. R.J. Heinemann) Cat. 53, 687°, fig. 95
ST, PETER AND ST. PAUL, Cat. 51
Rubens, painting (Schleissheim, Schloss)
Cat. 51, 64, 66-68, fig. 92
Anonymous, drawing (Vienna, Alber­
tina) Cat. 51, 66, 67, fig. 93
F. Piloty, engraving, Cat. 51, 66, 67
Cat. I I
Rubens, painting (Madrid, Prado) Cat.
i i , 34, 35, 42, 43, 51, fig. 34
Anonymous, painting (Rome, Galleria
Pallavicini) Cat. 1 1 , 35, 42, fig. 35
Anonymous, St. Peter, painting (Wash­
ington, National Gallery) Cat. 1 1 , 42,
N. Ryckmans, drawing (Vienna, Alber­
tina) Cat. i i , 43
P. Isselburg, engraving, Cat. 1 1 , 35, 43,
figN. Ryckmans, engraving, Cat. 1 1 , 35,
43 .
fig- 37
ST. PHILIP, Cat. 24
? Rubens, painting (formerly Vienna, E.
and A. Silberman) Cat. 24, 51, fig. 69
Anonymous, painting (Onteniente-Valen­
cia, Museo la Ereta) Cat. 24, 51
Anonymous, painting (formerly H.
Niisslein) Cat. 24, 51
ST. PHILIP, Cat. 38
Rubens, painting (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 38, 54, 55, 57, 58
Anonymous, painting (present where­
abouts unknown) Cat. 38, 54, 55, 57
Anonymous, engraving, Cat. 38, 54, 55,
ST. PHILIP,
57, fig- 80
Cat. 16
Rubens, painting (Madrid, Prado) Cat.
16, 34-36, 46, 47, fig. 54 ^
Anonymous, St. Jude, painting (Rome,
Galleria Pallavicini) Cat. 16, 35, 36,
47 , fig- 55
N. Ryckmans, St. Jude, drawing (Vien­
na, Albertina) Cat, 16, 47
P. Isselburg, engraving, Cat. 16, 35, 36,
ST. SIMON,
47 , fig- 5<$
N. Ryckmans, St. Jude, engraving, Cat.
l6 , 35, 36, 47 , fig- 57
ST, SIMON, Cat. 29
? Rubens, painting (present where­
abouts unknown) Cat. 29, 53
Anonymous, painting (Onteniente-Valen­
cia, Museo la Ereta) Cat. 29, 53
Anonymous, painting (formerly H.
Niisslein) Cat. 29, 53
ST, SIMON, Cat. 43
I77
SUBJECTS
Rubens, painting (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 43, 54, 55, 59
Anonymous, painting (present where­
abouts unknown) Cat. 43, 54, 55, 59
Anonymous, engraving, Cat. 43, 54, 55,
59. % 85
ST. THOMAS, Cat. 1 3
Rubens, painting (Madrid, Prado) Cat.
* 3» 34~ 36. 44 . % 4 2
Anonymous, St. Simon, painting (Rome,
Galleria Pallavicini) Cat. 13, 35, 36,
44 . fig- 43
N. Ryckmans, St. Simon, drawing (Vien­
na, Albertina) Cat. 13, 44
P. Isselburg, engraving, Cat. 13, 35, 36,
44 . fig- 44
178
N. Ryckmans, St. Simon, engraving, Cat.
13. 35. 36, 44 . fig- 45
Cat. 26
? Rubens, painting (present where­
abouts unknown) Cat. 26, 52
Anonymous, painting (Onteniente-Valen­
cia, Museo la Ereta) Cat. 26, 52
Anonymous, painting (formerly H.
Niisslein) Cat. 26, 52
ST. THOMAS, Cat. 40
Rubens, painting (present whereabouts
unknown) Cat. 40, 54, 55, 58
Anonymous, painting (present where­
abouts unknown) Cat. 40, 58
Anonymous, engraving, Cat. 40, 58, fig.
82
ST. THOMAS,
IN D EX III : OTHER WORKS BY RUBENS
M ENTIONED IN THE T E X T
The following abbreviations are used throughout this index : D - drawing;
E - engraving; P - painting; S - oil sketch; T - tapeftry.
OLD TESTAMENT
Abraham, Isaac and Jacob (D) (Paris,
Louvre) 102
King David (D) (Paris, Louvre) 102
The Judgment of Salomon (P) (Madrid,
Prado) 45
Daniel in the Lion’s Den (P) (Washington,
National Gallery) 60
NEW TESTAMENT
The Holy Virgin as Regina Gœli (P) (loft)
56
— (E, by Cornelis Galle) 56
The Education of the Virgin (P) (Vaduz,
Prince of Liechtenstein) 119
The Annunciation (P) (Valenciennes, Mu­
sée des Beaux-Arts) 31
The Adoration of the Magi (P) (Madrid,
Prado) 76, 105
The Return of the Holy Family (P) (New
York, Metropolitan Museum) 100
— (E, by S. a Bolswert) 100
The Virgin and St. Elizabeth with the
Infant Chrift and St. John (P) (Floren­
ce, Pitti Palace) 150
The Madonna Adored by Saints (P) (Ant­
werp, St. Auguftine’s) 115
The Virgin and the Infant Chrift Adored
by Alexander Goubau and his Wife (P)
(Tours, Musée des Beaux-Arts) 148
The Baptism of Chrift (P) (Antwerp, Ko­
ninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunften)
28
The Miraculous Draught of Fishes (P)
(Malines, Our-Lady-across-the-Dij le) 112
The Transfiguration (P) (Nancy, Musée
des Beaux-Arts) 46
46
The Tribute Money (P) (San Francisco, The
M.H. de Young Memorial Museum)
44 , 46
The Crowning with Thorns (P) (Grasse,
Hôpital) 45, 46
The Raising of the Cross (P) (Antwerp,
Cathedral) 44, 79, ior, 124
Chrift on the Cross, “ Coup de Lance” (P)
(Antwerp, Koninklijk Museum voor
Schone Kunften) 88, 156
The Entombment of Chrift, "Le Chrift à
la Paille” (P) (Antwerp, Koninklijk Mu­
seum voor Schone Kunften) 55
The Disciples at Emmaus (P) (Paris, St.
Euftache) 72
St. Thomas Doubting (P) (Antwerp, Ko­
ninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunften)
68-70
Pasce Oves (P) (London, Wallace Collec­
tion) 32
The Assumption of the Virgin (P) (Brus­
sels, Musées royaux des Beaux-Arts) 135
— (P) (Vienna, Kunfthiftorisches Mu­
seum) 138
The Great Laft Judgment (P) (Munich,
Alte Pinakothek) 135
Chrift and the Repentant Sinners (P) (Mu­
nich, Alte Pinakothek) 32
SAINTS
St. Amandus and St. Catherine (S) (Dul­
wich, College Pifture Gallery) 79, 96,
106
St. Andrew, left wing of The Miraculous
Draught of Fishes (P) (Malines, OurLady-across-the-Di j le) 112
Two Studies for St. Andrew (D) (Copen­
hagen, Statens Museum for Kunft, Print
Room) 112
St. Catherine of Alexandria, from the
Jesuit Ceilings (P) (loft)
itC
179
OTHER W O RKS B Y RUBEN S
St, Eligius and St. Walburga (S) (Dulwich,
College Pidure Gallery), 79, 96, 106
The Miracles of St. Francis Xavier (P)
(Vienna, Kunfthiftorisches Museum) 23,
85, 112
— (S) (Vienna, Kunfthiftorisches Mu­
seum) 106
— (E, by M. van der Goes) 55
St. George Slaying the Dragon (P) (Ma­
drid, Prado) 23, 24
St. Gregory Surrounded by other Saints
(P) (Grenoble, Musée des Beaux-Arts)
24, 76
The Miracles of St. Ignatius of Loyola (P)
(Vienna, Kunfthiftorisches Museum) 23,
112 , 135
— (S) (Vienna, Kunfthiftorisches Mu­
seum) 106
— (E, by M, van der Goes) 55
St, Ildefonso Receiving the Chasuble from
the Virgin (P) (Vienna, Kunfthiftorisches Museum) 23
St. Ives (P) (Detroit, Detroit Institute of
Arts) 59
St. Jerome in the Wilderness (P) (Dresden,
Gallery) 22, 23
The Martyrdom of St, Laurence (P)
(Schleissheim, Schloss) 23, 85, 102
The Martyrdom of St. Livinus (P) (Brus­
sels, Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts)
24
St. Mary Magdalen in Ecftasy (P) (Lille,
Musée des Beaux-Arts) 22, 144
St. Michael Striking down the Rebellious
Angels (P) (Munich, Alte Pinakothek)
23
St. Roch Interceding for the PlagueStricken (P) (Aloft, St. Martin) 22, 112
The Martyrdom of St. Sebaftian (P) (Berlin-Dahlem, Staatliche Museen) 23, 60
The Stoning of St. Stephen (P) (Valen­
ciennes, Musée des Beaux-Arts) 24, 31,
60, 72
The Appearance of the Holy Spirit to St.
Teresa of Avila (P) (Rotterdam, Stich­
ting W. van der Vorm Museum) 124
St. Teresa of Avila Interceding for Bernar­
dino de Mendoza (P) (Antwerp, Ko180
ninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunften)
92
The Martyrdom of St. Thomas (P) (Pra­
gue, Nârodni Galerie) 99
The Enthronement of a Holy Bishop (P)
(whereabouts unknown) 24
— (E, by P. Soutman) 24
MYTHOLOGY
The Battle of Amazons (E, by L. Vorfter­
man) 142
Callifto (D) (Farnham, Wolfgang Bur­
chard) 16 1
ALLEGORY
The Horrors of War (P) (Florence, Pitti
Palace) 90
Mercurius Abituriens (P) (loft) 154
HISTORY
St. Ambrose Barring the Emperor Theo­
dosius from Milan Cathedral (P) (Vien­
na, Kunfthiftorisches Museum) 135
The Baptism of Conftantine (T) 10 1
The Death of Seneca (P) (Munich, Alte
Pinakothek) 75
The Entry of Henri IV into Paris (S)
(Berlin-Dahlem, Staatliche Museen) 88
Romulus and Remus (P) (Silver Springs,
Carey Colle&ion) 119
Tomyris and Cyrus (P) (Bofton, Bofton
Museum of Fine Arts) 10 1, 112
PORTRAIT
Portrait of a Man in Profile (P) (Phila­
delphia, Pennsylvania Museum of Art)
70
Alethea Talbot and Her Train (P) (Mu­
nich, Alte Pinakothek) io i
OTHER W O RKS B Y RUBENS
BOOK ILLUSTRATIONS
All Saints (D) (Vienna, Albertina) 28
— (E, Breviarium Romanum and Missale
Romanum) 28, 135
Design for the frontispiece of De Con­
templatione Divina by Thonaas a Jesu
(D) (Present whereabouts unknown) 33
Design for the frontispiece of Crux Trium­
phans by J. Bosius (D) (London, Victo­
ria and Albert Museum) 33
Design for the frontispiece of De Ju flitia
et Jure by L. Lessius (D) (Present where­
abouts unknown) 33
MISCELLANEOUS SUBJECTS
Commander Dressed in Armour with two
Pages (P) (London, Weitzner Gallery)
45
CoStume Book (D) (London, British Mu­
seum) 105
Ecce Homo, after Titian (D) (London, V.
Koch) 1x3
Figure Study (D) (formerly ColStoun, Mrs.
Baird) 156
Landscape with St. George and the Dragon
(P) (London, Buckingham Palace) 114
Naked Youth (D) (Paris, Louvre) 28
Palazzi di Genova (E) (engravings by N.
Ryckmans) 35
The Prodigal Son (P) (Antwerp, Konink­
lijk Museum voor Schone KunSten) 85
Copies after the Seneca Borghese (D) (Co­
penhagen, Statens Museum for KunSt,
Print Room) 158
Studies of Monks and Cardinals and two
Variants of a Female Figure (D) (Ant­
werp, Stedelijk Prentenkabinet) x6o
Study for the Head of an Old Man with
a Long White Beard (P) (New York,
Metropolitan Museum) 69
Turkish Prince on Horseback (D) (Lon­
don, British Museum) 105
— (E, by P. Soutman) 105
Two Horsemen, after Titian (D) (Rotter­
dam, Museum Boymans-van Beuningen)
"3
A Young Woman with Raised Left Arm (D)
(Present whereabouts unknown) 138
181
IN D EX IV: NAMES A N D PLACES
This index lists names of artists, authors, colledors, owners, historical persons and
antique models. Works of art are included; but, in order to avoid duplication, no
reference is made to works by Rubens and his assistants or to the copies after these works.
Abels, Humana. 157
Abrahams, Walter J. 120
Abresch, E. 157
Adriani, Hendrik 20
Aertsen, Pieter
The Tour Evangelifts, Vienna, KunSthiStorisches Museum 71
Affligem, Benedidine Abbey, 110 , 113 , 115
Aken, Arnold Godfried van 95
Albert, Archduke of Austria 20, 105, 106,
122
Albertine, Princess of Sweden 128
Alcala de Henarés, Jesuit College 97
Alessandro Morente (antique sculpture) 60
AloSt, St. Martin’s Church 22, 112
Amsterdam, Rembrandt House 62
Anderson, Matthew 132, 133
Antwerp
Capuchin Church 56, 60, 63, 64, 66,
67, 132, 138, 145, 146
Cathedral 44, 62, 79, 82, 10 1, 124
Dominican Church (St. Paul) 75-77,
80, 134-136, 154
Altar of the Holy Sacrament Chapel
76, 77, 79, 80
Altar of Our Lady of the Rosary 77
Franciscan Church 88, 156, 158, 162
Guild of the Romanics 61, 62
Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kun­
sten 28, 30, 55, 68-70, 85, 88, 92,
156
St. Andrew’s Church 88
St. AuguStine’s Church 115
St. George’s Church 62
Jesuit Church (St. Charles Borromeo)
38, 100, 1 1 6 , 1 1 7 , 138
St. Walburga’s Church 79, 124
Sodality of the Sweet Name of Jesus 75,
77
Stedelijk Prentenkabinet 160
Aranjuez, Spanish Royal Colledions 39-47
Arezzo, Pieve Church 135
Arneth, Michael 69
182
Aschhausen, Gottfried von 35
Baird, Mrs. 156
Banbury, Upton House 94
Barbier 82
Barck, Count Nils 128
Barlow, Sir Thomas 146
Barocci, Federico
Madonna del Popolo, Florence, Uffizi
22, 135
Beckerath, A. von 140
Beeckmans 61, 62
Beernaerts, Filips 109
Beets, N. 146
Benckendorff, Count von 126
Benedid, Curt 50
Bentinck-Thyssen, Baroness Gabriele 130
Berg, N. van den 13 1
Berlin
J. and S. Goldschmidt 126
Hinrichsen Gallery 126
Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum 82, 119
Staatliche Museen 88
Beuckelaer, Joachim
The Pour Evangelies, Dresden, Staat­
liche Gemäldegalerie 71
Beule, A. De 63, 64
Beurdeley, A. 73
Beumonville, Baron de 10 9 ,12 6
Beymar, Juliaan 89
Binder, Dr. M.J. 32
Bisschop, J. de 78
Blaisel, Marquis de 128
Bode, W. 133
Böhler, Julius 130
Bois, J.B. du 155
Boldrini, Niccolo
Madonna and Six Saints (woodcut after
Titian) 24
Bolland, John van 19
Bologna
Carthusians 158
Pinacoteca Nazionale 22, 75, 158
San Giovanni in Monte 75
N A M ES A N D PLACES
Bolswert 1 1 6 , 1 1 7
Bolswert, Schelte a 55-57, 59, 60, 100,
128
Bonington, R.P. 102
Boross, E. 42
Bosius, J, 33
BoSton, BoSton Museum of Fine Arts iox,
112
Boymans, F.J.O. 89
Breughel, Jan 108
Briscoe, C. 102
Bristol, Marquess of 132
Broeck, Crispijn van den
ApoStles (engravings) 37
Bruegel, Pieter
Death of the Virgin, Banbury, Upton
House 94
Bruges
Academy of Fine Arts 69
English Convent 38
Groeninge Museum 94
St. Donatus’s Church 68-70
Brun, Le 90
Brussels
Church of the Discalced Carmelites 124
Convent of the Carmelite Nuns 91
Galerie A. de Heuvel 32, 144
Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Bel­
gique 24, 109, 135
Bryan 61
Bryan, Thomas J. 116
Buchanan, W. 102, 105
Bucharest, Muzeul de Arte 71
Buckingham, Georges Villiers, Duke of 113
Buisseret, Vicomte de 15
Burch, Bishop Franciscus van der 105, 106
Burchard, Dr. Ludwig 143, 160
Burchard, Wolfgang 161
Burtin, François Xavier de 110
Burton, F. 157
Buuren, Arnold van 102
Buytewech, Willem 144, 145
Calmann, H.M. 119
Calonne 110
Cambrai
Capuchin Convent 147
Saint-Géry 147
Campe 124
Caravaggio
The Angel Appearing to St. Matthew,
Rome, San Luigi dei Francesi 23, 71,
72
The Calling of St. Matthew, Rome, San
Luigi dei Francesi 72
Madonna of the Rosary, Vienna, KunSthiStorisches Museum 77
Carey 119
Cargher, P.O. 32
Carignan, Prince de 128
Carlberg 118
Carleton, Dudley 34-36
Carracci, AgoStino
The LaSt Communion of St. Jerome,
Bologna, Pinacoteca Nazionale 23,
158
Catherine II the Great, Empress 68, 138
Cauwenberghs, Clément van 160
Celano, Tommaso da 133, 152
Cesena, Paolo da 147, 148
Chambers Hall, Mr. 96
Charlat, Quintin 29
Charles, Jaspar 158
Charles, Petrus 159
Chrysler, Walter P. 83
Cigoli, Ludovico
The Martyrdom of St. Stephen, Floren­
ce, Palazzo Pitti 22
St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Stig­
mata, Florence, Palazzo Pitti 22, 140,
143
Clarisse, Rogier 64
Cleef, Jan van 109
Clouwet, P. 56, 107
Cocquereau, L.-J. 38
Cologne, Capuchin Church 138, 140, 14 1
A Conquered Province Supplicating (anti­
que relief), Rome, Villa Medici 88
Copenhagen, Statens Museum for KunSt,
158
Correggio
The Four Evangelists, Bucharest, Muzeul
de Arte 71
Cort, Cornelis
The Triumph of the Holy Trinity (en­
graving after Titian) 28
183
N AM ES A N D PLACES
Cosway, R. 96
Coxde, Michiel
St, Cecilia, formerly Antwerp, Rubens
Collection 127
St. Cecilia, Madrid, Prado 127, fig. 140
Crayer, Gaspar de 50, 52-54, 92, n o , 154
St. Benediâ and Totila, present where­
abouts unknown 115 , fig. 126
Crozat, P. 90
Cumberland, ErnSt August of 49
Cunningham 64
Dalen, C. the Younger 81
Dalhousie, Earl 156
Delacroix, Eugène i n , 139
Despinoy, F.J. n o
Detroit, Detroit Institute of Arts 59
Devonshire, Duke of 161
Dicop, R. 52
Diepenbeeck, Abraham van 78, 120, 159
Diepenbeeck, Anna Theresa van 78, 159
Dierckx, Jan 90, 91
Digby, Kenelm 142
Dionysius the Areopagite 67
Does, Antoon van der 91
Domenichino
The Last Communion of St. Jerome,
Vatican, Museum 158
Douai
Carthusian Monastery 84, 85
Musée des Beaux-Arts 84, 85
Drebbel, C.
Musica (engraving after H. Goltzius)
127, fig. 14 1
Dresden, Gallery 22, 23, 71, 126
Dubaut, P.O. 162
Duflot, Mr. 123
Dulwich, College Picture Gallery 79, 96,
106
Dyck, Anthony van 27, 31, 49, 70, 71, 89,
10 1, 117 ,13 8 , 14 1, 142, 155, 156
ApoBles 38
St. John the BaptiB and St. John the
Evangelist, formerly Berlin, KaiserFriedrich-Museum 67
Study for a Head (attributed to Van
Dyck), Paris, Louvre 135
The Triumph of Silenus, formerly Ber­
lin, Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum 119
18 4
Edinburgh, National Gallery of Scotland
102, 105
Eeckhoute, Lieven vuytten 76
Ellis, W. 132, 133
Elsheimer, Adam
The Adoration of the Cross, Frankfurt,
Städelsches KunStinStitut 28
The Stoning of St. Stephen, Edinburgh,
National Gallery of Scotland 105
ErneSt, Archduke of AuStria 37
Escorial 27, 87
Eynhoudts, R. 65
Fairfax Murray, C, 10 1
Farnese, Alessandro 20
Farr 153
Febvre, A. 109
Flinck, N.A. 16 1
Florence
Bargello 154
Palazzo Pitti 22, 90, 140, 150
Uffizi 22, 98, 135, 143
Floris, Frans
ApoStles, loSt 37
The Four Evangelists, loSt 71
St. Michael Striking down the Rebellious
Angels, Antwerp, Koninklijk Museum
voor Schone KunSten 23
Forthuyn, Albert 109
Foucart, J.-B . 123, 124
Fourment, Hélène 128
Fox, Mrs. William 118
Fracheto, Gerard de 134
Fragonard, Honoré 103
Francken, Frans the \bunger 105
The Conversion of St. Bavo, Vienna,
KunSthiStorisches Museum 107
Frankfurt, Städelsches KunStinStitut 28
Franklyn, L. 73
Frederick II, King of Prussia 70, 120, 128
Friedlander, J. 109
Gaddi 98
Galle, Cornelis 56, 82, 91
St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Stig­
mata, engraving 14 1
Galle, Jan 28-30
Galle, Theodoor 54-60, 134
GeeSt, Cornelis van der 76, 78, 79
Genoa, Palazzo Careggi 102
N A M ES A N D PLACES
Ghent
Convent of the Discalced Carmelites 92
Franciscan Church 144, 154
Museum voor Schone Kunden 109
St. Bavo’s Church, Chapel of St. Se­
bastian X09
Giambologna
Mercury (Statue), Florence, Bargello 154
Goes, Hugo van der
The Death of the Virgin, Bruges, Groeninge Museum 94
Goes, Marinus van der 55
Goldis, Prof. L, 126
Goltzius, Hendrik
Musica (engraving after) 127
Goubau, Alexander 148
Goubau, Antoon 77, 78
Goudstikker 51, 52
Grand, Jan le 76
Grasse, Hôpital 45, 46
Greco, El 37
Gregorius, Albert 69
Grenoble, Museum 24
Grieten, Mr. 123
Guerlain, J. 109
Haacht, Parish Church 157
Haas, G. 126
Halle, Our Lady’s Church 29, 30
Halmale, Burgomaster Hendrik van 130
Halmale, Canon Hendrik van 102, 106,
109, 110 , 12 9 ,13 0
Hals, Pieter 109
Hamme, Willem van 82
Hankey of Beaulieu, Capt. W.A. 65
Harris, Tomas 32, 33, 109
Hartveld, Sam 41, 84, 85
Harvey, Thomas 61, 62
Havelsky 93
Havemeyer, Mrs. H.0 . 126
Havre, GuStave van 64, 150
Hawkins, C.T. 128
Hendrickx, Gillis 29, 30
Herp, W. van 127
’s Hertogenbosch
St. John’s Church 92, 95
St. Peter’s Church 95
Holwell-Carr, W. 102
Hoogstraten, St. Catherine 82
Horion, J.B. 80, 81
Horn, Dr. C. ten 63, 64
Horremans, Jacob 86
Ignatius of Loyola 19, 29
Irvine 102, 105
Isabella Farnese, Queen of Spain 34, 35,
39-47
Isabella Clara Eugenia, Infanta 20, 122
Isselburg, Peter 40-48
Jabach, E. 141
Janssens, Abraham
ApoËles, Antwerp, St. Charles Borromeo’s Church 38
Jegher, ChriStoffel
The Face of ChriSi (woodcut after
anonymous painting) 30
Johann-Wilhelm, Eledor Palatine 66, 67
Jordaens, J. 50-52, 73, 81-83, 107, n o
The Four Latin Doâors of the Church,
Norfolk, Virginia, Walter P. Chrysler
83
The Four Latin Doâors of the Church,
Stockholm, National Museum 83
Joseph II, Emperor 61, 62
Josi, C. 145
Julienne, Chevalier de 129, 130
Ketel, Cornelis
Apoâles, loSt 37
Kinkelin, Professor 153
Klein, J. 128
Kleinberger, F. 109
Knyff, Canon 62
Koch, V. 113 , 146
Königsberg, Städtische Kunstsammlungen
82
Komor, M. 119
Kronthal, P. 43
Laer, Van 109
Lagoy 90
La Live de Jully 90
Lambrecht, Bishop Matthias 20
Lamme, A.J. 27
Laocoön (antique sculpture) 88, 102
Larisch, K . 63, 64
Lasne, M. 145, 146, 149
Lawrence, T. 90
Leeuw, W. de 12 1
Leganés, Marquess of 132, 133
X85
N AM ES A N D PLACES
Lenbach, F. von 128
Leningrad, Hermitage 23
Leopold II, King of Belgium n o , i n
Leopold Wilhelm, Archduke 30
Lerma, Duke of 34-36, 38-47
Leroux, Henry 86
Lers, Abraham 89
Lessius, L. 33
Leuchtenberg, Duke of 49-53
Levai, G. de 78
Liechtenstein, Prince of 119 , 155
Lier, St. Gummarus’s Church 150 -152
Lille
Capuchin Church 147, 149
Musée des Beaux-Arts 22, 144, 148
St. Catherine’s Church 86, 12 1, 122
Lipomanus, A. 104
Lippi, Filippo
St. AuguBine at the Seashore (formerly
Princess Eugénie of Oldenburg) 99
Lobkowitz, Prince 130
Lommelin, A. 127, 146
London
Agnew’s 136
Asscher, Koetser and Welker 33
British Museum 105
Buckingham Palace 114
Carlton Galleries 32
Leger Galleries 138
Matthiesen Gallery 143
Rosenbaum and Delbanco 160
Terry Engell Galleries 138
Vidoria and Albert Museum 33, 86,
xoi, 105
Wallace Colledion 32
Weitzner Gallery 45
Louis XIV, King of France 14 1
Louise, Queen of Sweden 128
Louvain, Convent of the Discalced Car­
melites 92
Lugt, F. 162
Lund, W.T.B, 81
Lux, Antonia 49
Me. Gowan, J. 102
Maderna, Stefano
St. Cecilia (sculpture), Rome, Santa Ce­
cilia in TraStevere 124
186
Madrid
Ancient Hospital of San Andrés de los
Flamencos 87, 89
Jesuit College of San Isidoro 97
Prado 23, 24, 30, 45, 76, 105, 119 , 127
Maes, Bishop Carolus 105
Malines
Convent of the Discalced Carmelites 92
Our-Lady-across-the-Dijle 112
Mariette, P.J. 90
Marmontel, A. 126
Martinitz, Countess Helena, née Werschowitz 99
Massijs, Quentin
ChriB, Antwerp, Koninklijk Museum
voor Schone Kunften 30
The Virgin, Antwerp, Koninklijk Mu­
seum voor Schone KunSten 30
Mathey, J. 148
Meere, J. de 155
Michelangelo
ChriB Holding the Cross (sculpture),
Rome, Santa Maria sopra Minerva 39
Sibylla Libyca (fresco), Vatican, Siftine
Chapel 108
Michielsen, Jan 55
Milan, Brera 23
Miraeus, Aubertus 20
Modrzejewski, Viktor 31, 32
Moij, Vrouw de 95
Molanus, Johannes 20, 21, 104
Moretus, Balthasar I 28, 32, 33, 54-60, 89
Moretus, Balthasar II 54-60
Mount Temple, Lord 157
Mountbatten of Burma, Countess 157
Müller, Egon 54
Munich
Alte Pinakothek 32, 66, 75, 85, io i,
102, 135
Hofgartengalerie 66
Staatliche Graphische Sammlungen 24
Nagel 110
Nagel, Baron Hermann von 53
Nancy, Musée des Beaux-Arts 46
Neuburg, CaJtle 102
New York
Metropolitan Museum of Art 69, 100
Mont and Newhouse 33
N A M ES A N D PLACES
A. Seligman, Rey and C° 33
Neyt, Herman de 81-83
Nicolaus a Santo Auguftino 99
Niels, Albert 128
Nieuwenhuys, M.J.L. 116
Nole, Robrecht de 108, 109
Northwick Park 102
Notre-Dame des Guîtres, Benedidine
Abbey 113
Nüsslein, Heinrich 49
Nys, Johannes 134
Oldenburg, Museum 153
Oldenburg, Grand-Duke Nikolaus Fried­
rich Peter von 153
Oldenburg, Princess Eugénie of 99
Ophem, Jacob van 12.8, 129
Ophovius, M. 95
Pallavicini, Giovanni Battifta 35, 39
Pallavicini, Lazzaro 39
Pallavicini, Stefano 39
PalmerSton, Viscount 157
Panneeis, W. 127
Parijs, van 140
Paris
Galerie Katia Granoff 139
Louvre, 28, 102, 109, 113 , 119 , 134,
*55,
I 4°>
H2
Musée Central des Arts 78
St. EuStache 72
Sedelmeyer Galleries 118
Trotti and C° 109
Patyn, Marie 122
Payne Knight, Richard 156
Peiresc, Nicolas Claude 113
Pereire i n
Perregaux, Count 116
Phalesius, Hubertus 114
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Museum of
Art 70
Philip III, King of Spain 34
Philip V, King of Spain 34, 115
Philippson, Franz 63
Philippson, Jules 65
Picot, V.M. 72, 73
Pilaer 61, 62
Piloty, F, 66
Pilsen, F. 107, 144
Plat, Pieter le 109
Ploos van AmStel, C. 145
Pommersfelden, Schönborn Colledion 153
Pontius, Paul 28
Possemiers, A. 154
Potsdam, Sanssouci 128
Pourbus, Frans the Younger
St, Francis of Assisi Receiving the Stig­
mata, Paris, Louvre 140
Poussin, Nicolas
The Martyrdom of St. Erasmus, Vatican,
Museum 85, 86
Prague, St. Thomas’s Church (former
Church of the Auguftinians) 98, 99
Prenner, J. 39
Quellinus, Erasmus
The Face of Chrift, after anonymous
painting 30
Raphael
The Disputa (fresco), Vatican, Stanza
della Segnatura 22, 75
The Entombment, Rome, Borghese Gal­
lery 22, 85
The Expulsion of Heliodorus from the
Temple (fresco), Vatican, Stanza
d’Eliodoro 104, 105
The Face of Chrift (attributed to Ra­
phael) 30
The Healing of the Lame Mm (cartoon),
London, Vidoria and Albert Museum
10 1, 105
The School of Athens (fresco), Vatican,
Stanza della Segnatura 22, 63
St, Cecilia, Bologna, Pinacoteca Nazionale 22, 75
St. Paul and St. Barnabas at Lyftra (car­
toon), London, Vidoria and Albert
Museum 86
Raudon de Boisset 90
Regaus, Beda 113 , 114
Renne, van 150
Reynolds, Sir Joshua 64, n o , 148
Ribadeneira, P. 19
Rijckmans, Nicolaas 39-48
Robinson, Sir J.C. 118
Robinson, C. 133
Roche, Henry S. 38
Rochlitz, GuStav 33
Rockox, N. 68
187
N A M ES A N D PLACES
Rohoncz, Schloss 130
Rome
Borghese Gallery 22, 85
St. Peter’s Church 85
San Girolamo della Carità 158
San Luigi dei Francesi 23, 7 1, 72
Santa Cecilia in Traftevere 124
Santa Maria sopra Minerva 39
Villa Medici 88
Roore, Jacques de 79, 124
Rospigliosi 35
Rosseaux, François Ignace 67, 68
Rosweyde, Heribert 19
Rothmann, H. 126
Rotterdam
Museum Boymans-van Beuningen 113
Stichting W. van der Vorm Museum 124
Rousseau de l’Aunois, M. 155
Rowland, Henri 31
Rucholle, E. 28
Rusch, P. 126
Sachsen-Teschen, Duke Albert of 123
St. Francis of Assisi with an Angel Playing
the Violin (Lier, St. Gummarus) 15 1
St. Francis of Assisi and the Lamb (Lier,
St. Gummarus) 152
Saint-Genys, Count E. de 137
St. Petersburg, Imperial Collections 138
San Francisco, M.H. de Young Memorial
Museum 44
San Ildefonso, Royal Palace 33, 39-48
Sankt Florian, ChorherrenStift 68, 69
Saxony, Electors of 126
Schamp d’Aveschoot 38, n o
Schleissheim, Schloss 23
Schönborn, Count of 92
Schönborn, Prince-Bishop Lothar of 92
Schönborn Collection 153
Schongauer, Martin
The Death of the Virgin (engraving) 94
Schrieck, D. van den 123, 124
Schut, Cornelis 13 6 ,14 0
Sedelmeyer, Charles 65
Sels, A. 155
Seneca Borghese (antique sculpture) 75,
158
Seur, Jean de 122
Sickinghen, Count Wilhelm von 49
18 8
Simons, M. 83
Snyers, H. 73, 157
Snyers, J.A. 123-125
Souchon, F. i n
Soutman, Pieter 116
The Four Evangelists, Stockholm, Natio­
nal Museum 72, 73
Speelman, Mrs. Sophie 157
Spencer 117
Spitzweg, Carl 153
Spruyt, P. 107, 14 4 ,15 4
Stainhauser, Ernft 49
Steenberghen, Petrus 159
Steengracht 69
Stenbock, Count 128
Stockholm, National Museum 72, 83
Surius, L. 19, 104
Swertius, Canon 95
Tabourier 126
Taeterbeeck 94
Tallard, Duc de 128
Teresa of Avila 92
Tessin, Count C.G. 128, 149
Thelott, K.G. 87
Thomas a Jesu 33
Thulden, Theodoor van 51, 120
Thyssen-Bornemis2a, Baron Heinrich 130
Timken, Mrs W.R. 42
Tintoretto
The Presentation of the Virgin, Venice,
Santa Maria dell’Orto 108
Titian
ChriSt, Madrid, Prado 30
Ecce Homo, Vienna, Kunfthiftorisches
Museum 2 3 , 1 1 2 , 1 1 3
Madonna and Child with St. Dorothy
and St. George, Madrid, Prado 119
Madonna and Child with St. Stephen,
St. Jerome and St. Maurice, Paris,
Louvre 119
Madonna and Six Saints, Vatican, Mu­
seum 24
The Martyrdom of St. Laurence (draw­
ing), whereabouts unknown 23
The Martyrdom of St. Peter Martyr,
formerly Venice, SS. Giovanni e Pao­
lo, 24
N A M ES A N D PLACES
St. Jerome in the Wilderness, Milan,
Brera 23
Study for a Man on Horseback (draw­
ing), Munich, Staatliche Graphische
Sammlungen 24
Triumph of the Holy Trinity (Gloria),
Escorial 23, 27
The Holy Virgin, Madrid, Prado 30
Torso di Fauno (antique sculpture), Flo­
rence, Uffizi 98
Tours, Musée des Beaux-Arts 148
Trieft, Bishop Antoon 108
Tronchin, F. 82
Trooft, A. 155
Urban IV, Pope 74
Valenciennes, Musée des Beaux-Arts 24,
3 1 » 6°. 72
Vassal de St. Hubert 90
Vatican
Museum 22, 24, 75, 85, 158
Siftine Chapel 108
Stanza d’Eliodoro 104,105
Stanza della Segnatura 22, 63
Veen, Otto van
The Martyrdom of St. Andrew, Ant­
werp, St. Andrew’s Church 23, 88
Venice
Palazzo Ducale 104
Palazzo Manfrin n o
San Sebaftiano 108
Santa Maria dell’Orto 108
SS. Giovanni e Paolo 24
Verbruggen, Pieter the Elder
Altar of the Holy Sacrament, Antwerp,
St. Paul’s Church 77
High Altar, Antwerp, St. Paul 136
Verbruggen, Pieter the Younger
View of the Choir of the Antwerp St.
Paul’s Church (engraving) 136
Verdussen 63
Verhaghen, P.J. 157
Verona, San Giorgio 88
Veronese 23
The Martyrdom of St. George, Verona,
San Giorgio 88
The Martyrdom of St. Marcus and St.
Marcellinus, Venice, San Sebaftiano
108
Vicentino, Andrea
Alexius Comnenus Appealing to Venice
for Help in the Defence of Zara,
Venice, Palazzo Ducale 104
Vienna
Albertina 28
Galerie Sankt Lucas 68
Harrach Colleftion 148
Imperial Colleftion 38
Kunfthiftorisches Museum 23, 55, 71,
77, 85, 106, 107, 112, 135, 138
E. and A, Silberman 48-52
Visscher, C. 146
Vitelleschi, Muzio 29
Voet, A. 90
Voorenemberck, Louis van 109
Voragine, Jacopo de 19, 24, 87
Vorfterman, Lucas 116, 117, 141, 142
Portrait of Buckingham (drawing), Lon­
don, British Museum 142
Portrait of Spinola (drawing), London,
British Museum 142
Vos, Marten de
ApoStles (engravings after) 37
Vucht, Jan van 89
Waldner, Berthold 33
Wanamaker, Rodman 118, 1 19
Warwick Caftle 72, 73
Warwick, Earl of 10 1
Washington, National Gallery 60
Watteau, Antoine 128
Weles, M. 116
Wellesley 146
Weft, J. 102
Wierix, Antoon
ApoStles (engravings after Marten de
Vos) 37
The Blessed Anna de Jésus (engraving)
23, 92
Wierix, Hieronymus
ApoStles (engravings after Crispijn van
den Broeck) 37
ApoSlles (engravings after Marten de
Vos) 37
St. Charles Borromeo (engraving) 23,
131, fig. 147
Wigmore, J.E. 127
Wildens, Jan 140
189
N AM ES A N D PLACES
Wildens, Jeremias 8o, 81, 83, 84
Willebroeck, Baron de 155
Willems, Jan 150
William I, King of the United Netherlands 125
William III, King of Prussia 128
WilStach 1 1 5
190
Witdoeck, J. 128
Witt, Jacques de xo8
Wouters 150
Wouters, E. 152
Woverius, Johannes 29
Würzburg, Carmelite Convent 91
Yussupoff, Prince 65
PLATES
IE.S V
n V L C IS S JM E . A M A N T IS S IM E . B E N IG N IS S IM E . C H A R IS S IM E . P R E T IO S IS S IM E .
D E S ID E R A T IS S IM E . A M A B IL IS S IM E . P V L C H E R R IM F -.
<£'AN1X> V F.M A M . E.T APPAREBO ANTE FACIEM TV A M : D. Auyvilw«
.«»■t-i-.,
F.VKKEND1SSIME IN CHRISTO PATER MVTIMTEJJJMCE GENERALIS. E T \IW' .SOCIETATIS H>V-OMNES. VERE VIRI DRI
JMOil.A fa cto tb m RiJu. mJeêeseiaaaeæsteafitùonem ivtü im.' itnvrjjpopulo Cbnjtuino.J*mo tieoia imo erin .
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1. P. Pontius, TA«’ Edre <?ƒ ChriSt, engraving (N o. 2)
I E SV D V L C I S S I M E , B E N I G N I S S I M E , A M A N T I S S I M E , C H A R I S S I M E , P O T E N T I S S I M E ,
D E S ID E R A T IS S IM E , P R E T IO S IS S IM E , A M A B IL IS S IM E , P V L C H E R R IM E ,
Q JA N D O
V E N IA M , E T
APPAREBO
ANTE
F A C IE M
T V A M I D. AogoCftawinMediuocoiW.
REVERENDISSIME I N CHRISTO PATER MVTI VITELLESCE GENERALIS. ET VOS SOCIETATIS IE SV OMNES. VERE VIRI DEI.
D * I-HOMINIS , ßeeioßßinü Xegi, indeßcitntem comeruflationem etu,hr,i vsssuerfo popule Chriffiauo,diuina huc imagg eßert -, assa in mustus, in eftu lisjn
psnuni vcntratiasst S.IcmaTIO Sseietstis-.tßrajiocierifuU.Qviirtlisvi C h a r l a r t v s , tanti Parris snuut,deinde Fuisss.fsißsaesda-errirslü taiafam fD i 0
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tentefacuis,in psçfcfu nem venit l o . V V a v e k I t^ intuentesßs, Equilis , R e g i C a t h o l i c o i Cenfiltis : qm deusta *dfc3u piorum oneri -jenersit le timelusm cenfccruu:,drf repterfisamfuni.cmingisf'murtus fipnlchrnmvinusJ c J morti tneentus,HaLLII sn a ie D e i p a r a V i r g i n i s dcdicaisit.M. DC. X X x m
3.
C. Jegher after E. Quellinus, The Face of Christ, woodcut
PRAE
ÿPECIOSVS
FORMA
F I L I 15 H O M I N V M
R e u e re n tlo
« im o Ju m
S e r e n i.# « “ A R C H I D V C li
4.
P«l
++
i n C h r i/ V o P a t r i P l O A J N l S C H t O A e S o c ie t a t*
LE O P O L D I C o y fe fW t o c ftic ie m
h a n c D .C Q .
E. Rucholle, 1'he Face of Christ, engraving (No. 2)
1ESV
5. E. Rucholle, The H oly Virgin 'as Mater Dolorosa, engraving
6.
T h e Face o f C hr iff,
engraving (ed. by J. Galle; No. 2)
7.
T h e H o ly V irg in as M ater Dolorosa,
engraving (ed. by J. Galle)
U BE ATA' M A R IA
R E P E N D E R E q V .C
Q V L * T I B I D I G N E . V A L E A T . I V R A C '.R A X I A R V M A C L A V B V M P K .E O W flW
.'I N G V L A R I T V O A 5S C W V M V N E K ) S V C C V .R R « T I IT R tM T O S *
.w «
0 lI c v L tt n u u e t .« .( U M
a n-ènJerirc C e ^ U r r m
.J e n I f f e r t e r j i e i Û M rte u se m j j e t
j j
o en Je w e e r J e n
E r p e ls J e . a t re tl
v cemne» je m u d > k i t * enJe J a n e ie a : Jie Jeer
U i d ? je e e m m e , r. Jee y r r b r e * » W - •
Cl B ien H e u r e u f c v ie r e r M A R ir. a n e rt c e q u i p o u r r a v rn u rcm ercw r .le w m c n l. r t ta u e In te r Ö r o v o & r m urer
p io / que p a r v d l r r a d m ir a b le .- o o fc o te ra riu a u » parafiez de 1 A t* * . to u s e a rs h ecaa rré le m m sk q u i d ia r t pe rda .
8.
9.
The Face of ChriSt,
engraving (ed. by G. Hendrickx; No. 2)
TAe H oly Virgin as Mater Dolorosa,
engraving (ed. by G. Hendrickx)
io .
A fter Rubens, The B uff of Chriff (No. 3).
Present whereabouts unknown
i i . A fte r Rubens, The Buff o f Chriff (N o. 3 ).
Present whereabouts unknown
12 . A fter Rubens, C hriiï (No. 4). Present whereabouts unknown
1 3 . A fte r Rubens, The H oly Virgin (N o . 5 ).
Present whereabouts unknown
14- After Rubens, Chritt as Salvator M undi (No. 6). Ottawa, National Gallery
15 . After Rubens, Chriiï as Salvator M undi (No. 6).
Rome, Galleria Pallavicini
16 . P. Isselburg, ChriSl as
Salvator Mundi, engraving (N o. 6)
17 . N . Ryckmans, Chrifl as
Salvator Mundi, engraving (N o. 6)
i8. Rubens, St. Peter (No. 7 ). Madrid, Prado
19- After Rubens, St. Peter (No. 7).
Rome, Galleria Pallavicini
P O T E N T E M ,C R E A T O R E M
TERRA.
CCELl E T
20. P. Isselburg, St. Peter,
engraving (N o. 7)
2 1. N . Ryckmans, St. Peter,
engraving (N o. 7)
22. Rubens, St. Andrew (No. 8). Madrid, Prado
23. After Rubens, St. Andrew (No. 8).
Rome, Galleria Pallavicini
24. P. Isselburg, St. Andrew,
engraving (N o. 8)
25. N . Ryckmans, St. Andrew,
engraving (N o. 8)
26. Rubeas, St. James the Greater (N o. 9 ). M adrid, Prado
27. After Rubens, St. James the Greater (No. 9).
Rome, Galleria Pallavicini
28. P. Isselburg, St. James the Greater,
engraving (N o. 9)
29. N . Ryckmans, St. James
the Greater, engraving (N o. 9)
30. Rubens, St. John the Evangelist (N o. 1 0 ) . M adrid, Prado
3 1. After Rubens, St. John the Evangelist. (No. 10 ).
Rome, Galleria Pallavicini
S
l o i 1A N N E S
Pa s s u s s u b
C RU CinxU .S
ponti o
p i i.a t o
MO R TU US
.
ET
.S F.PUI.TU s
32. P. Isselburg, St. John
the Evangelist, engraving (N o. 10 )
33. N . Ryckmans, St. John
the Evangelist, engraving (N o. 10 )
34- Rubens, St. Philip (N o. x i ) . M adrid, Prado
35- After Rubens, St. Philip (No. n ) .
Rome, Galleria Pallavicini
De
scen dit
ad
in fern a , t e r
t i a
DIE RESURREXIT A MOR
TUIS
­
P. Isselburg, St. Philip,
engraving (N o. n )
37. N . Ryckmans, St. Philip,
engraving (N o. n )
38. Rubens, St. Bartholomew (No. 12 ) . Madrid, Prado
39. After Rubens, St. Bartholomew (No. 12 ) .
Rome, Galleria Pallavicini
40. P. Isselburg, St. Bartholomeiv,
engraving (N o. 1 2 )
4 1. N . Ryckmans, St. Bartholomeiv,
engraving (N o. 1 2 )
42. Rubetis, St. Thomas (N o. 1 3 ) . M adrid, Prado
43. After Rubens, St. Simon (No. 13 ) .
Rome, Galleria Pallavicini
INDE
R l
VENTURUS
V IV O S
LT
EST, l U D K ' A -
M O RTU O S
44. P. Isselburg, St. Thomas,
engraving (N o. 1 3 )
45. N . Ryckmans, St. Simon,
engraving (N o. 1 3 )
46. Rubens, St. Matthew (N o. 1 4 ) . M adrid, Prado
47- After Rubens, St. Thomas (No. 14 ).
Rome, Galleria Pallavicini
48. P. Isselburg, St. Matthew,
engraving (N o. 14 )
49. N . Ryckmans, St. Thomas,
engraving (N o. 14 )
50. Rubens, St. James the Less (N o. 1 5 ) . M adrid, Prado
5 1, After Rubens, St. Matthew (No. 15 ) .
Rome, Galleria Pallavicini
S
1 A C O B U S M IN O R
i
• SA NC TAM E C C L E S I A M C A T H O ­
L IC A M SA NC TO KU M COM MU
N IONEM
52. P. Isselburg, St. James the Less,
engraving (N o. 1 5 )
53. N . Ryckmans, St. Matthew,
engraving (N o. 1 5 )
54- Rubens, St. Simon (N o. i6 ) . M adrid, Prado
55- After Rubens, St. Jude (No. 16 ).
Rome, Galleria Pallavicini
R E M I SS I ON EM
I’ F.CCATO RUM
56. P. Isselburg, St. Simon,
engraving (N o. 16 )
57. N . Ryckmans, St. Jude,
engraving (N o. 16 )
58. Rubens, St. Matthias (N o. 1 7 ) . M adrid, Prado
59- After Rubens, St. Matthias (No. 17 ) .
Rome, Galleria Pallavicini
60. P. Isselburg, St. Matthias,
engraving (N o. 1 7 )
6 1. N . Ryckmans, St. Matthias,
engraving (N o. 1 7 )
62. Rubens, St. Paul (N o. 1 8 ) . M adrid, Prado
63- After Rubens, St. Paul (No. 18 ).
Rome, Galleria Pallavicini
64. P. Isselburg, St. Paul,
engraving (N o. 18 )
65. N . Ryckmans, St. Paul,
engraving (N o. 18 )
66. ? Rubens, St. Peter (No. 20 ). Present whereabouts unknown
67. ? Rubens, St. A n drew (No. 2 1 ) . Present whereabouts unknown
6 8 . ? Rubens, St. ]ames the Greater (N o . 2 2 ) .
Present whereabouts unknown
69. ? Rubens, St. P hilip (No. 24).
Present whereabouts unknown
70. ? Rubens, St. Bartholomew (N o. 2 5 ) .
Present whereabouts unknown
7 1 . ? Rubens, St. Matthew (No. 26 ).
Present whereabouts unknown
72 . ? Rubens, St. James the Less (N o . 2 7 ) .
Present whereabouts unknown
73- Title-page o f Apostolorum leones,
engraving (ed. by C. G alle)
74. S. a Bolswert, Chrift as Salvator Mundi,
engraving (N o. 3 2 )
75- The Holy Virgin as Regina Cœli,
engraving (ed. by C. Galle; No. 33)
76. S. a Bolswert, St. Peter,
engraving (N o. 34)
77- P. Clouwet, St. Andrew,
engraving (No. 35)
78. St. James the Greater,
engraving (ed. by C. Galle; No. 36)
79- S. a Bolswert, St. John the Evangelist,
engraving (N o. 37 )
80. St. Philip,
engraving (ed. by C. G alle; N o. 38)
8 i. St. Bartholom ew,
engraving (ed. by C. Galle; No. 39)
82. St. Thomas,
engraving (ed. by C. G a lle; N o. 40)
83. St. Matthew,
engraving (ed. by C. G alle; N o. 4 1 )
84. S. a Bolswert, St. James the Less,
engraving (N o. 4 2)
85. St. Simon,
engraving (ed. by C. G alle; N o. 4 3 )
86. St. Jude,
engraving (ed. by C. G alle; N o. 44)
'
87. St. Matthias,
engraving (ed. by C. G alle; N o. 4 5)
88. S. a Bolswert, St. Paul,
engraving (N o
89. Rubens, St. Peter (N o. 4 9 ).
Present whereabouts unknown
90. Rubens, St. Paul (N o. 50).
Present whereabouts unknown
9 1. Rubens, St. Peter and St. Paul, oil sketch (Nos. 49~5oa).Brussels, private colledtion
92. Rubens, St. Peter and St. Paul (N o. 5 1 ) . Schleissheim, Schloss
93- A fte r Rubens, St. Peter and St. Paul, drawing (N o. 5 1 ) . Vienna, Albertina
94- Rubens, St. Paul (N o. 5 2 ) . N ew Y o rk , Coll. D r. and M rs. R .J. Heinemann
95- Rubens, St. Peter (N o. 5 3 ) . N ew Y ork, Coll. D r. and M rs. R .J. Heinemann
96. Rubens, The Tour Evangelists (N o. 5 4 ). Potsdam-Sanssouci, B ildergalerie
97- Rubens, The Four Evangelists, oil sketch (N o. 5 5 ) . Present whereabouts unknown
98. H . Snyers, The R e d Presence in the Holy Sacrament, engraving (N o. 56)
99- Rubens, The Real Presence in the tlo ly Sacrament (N o. 5 6 ). Antwerp, St. Paul
io i. After Rubens, The Real Presence in the Holy Sacrament, drawing (No. 56a).
Present whereabouts unknown
102. X-radiograph of detail of Fig. 99
10 3. After Rubens, The Real Presence in the Holy Sacrament, drawing (No. 56a).
Vienna, Albertina
104- J. Jordaens, The Four Latin Doélors o f the Church (No. 60).
Blackburn, Lancashire, Stonyhurft College
R KA' K R K N D O A D M O D V M . N O M L I D O C T IS 5 1 M O Q V I R O D O M 1 NO D N O ^ f
P R O T O N O T A R IO A P O s T O L I C O , N E C N O N C A T H E D U A L 1 5 E C C K I Æ . B . A ï
5 T R A T E N C A N O N IC O D 1 G N I S 5 I M O . P I C T O R J Æ A H T I S A l) M IR A T O R I I / '
« G V 1 L L I E L M O V A N H A M . M E P B R O , 1 V R 15 V T K I V S Q ,l.K T N T I A T I
b A m A 'R I Æ . A N T V E R P ; K T C O L L E G I A T E . 5 , C A T H A R I N E I X H O O C H .
i A ) k T A M A T O R I S V M M O . D D . C . H E R M A N N V S D K N K Y T A N T V K R I ’,
10 5 . C. G alle, The Four Latin D oäors of the Church, en graving (N o. 60)
n (Quatuor V aro ru m AMIÎROSH G R K G O R Il H IE RON V M I <■ A U G U S T I N I , Patrun: d<- E f f Jr l/ .i i'h:
j-rti.-j C .e/e/iu 'Patre* .
r J e j ju,Vj>e \-;ula e: ta/ét ere fu e
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^ a /iu ta t _)tup etce _U r e a r t .
K- .'k«r Pterate / e r u a r .
10 6. C. van Dalen the Younger,
The Tour Latin D ofiors o f the Church, engraving (No. 59)
10 7 . A fte r Rubens, The Martyrdom of St. Adrian (N o. 6 1 ) .
Present whereabouts unknown
io 8 . Rubens, The Martyrdom o f St. Adrian, oil sketch (No. 6 ia ). Antwerp, Rubenshuis
109- Rubens, The Martyrdom of St. Andrew (No. 62).
Madrid, Real Hospital de San Andrés de los Flamencos
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n o . Rubens, 2%* Martyrdom of St. Andrew, drawing (No. 62a).
Rotterdam, Museum Boymans-van Beuningen
m . A fter Rubens, The Martyrdom of St. Andrew, drawing (N o. 6 2b ). London, British Museum
112 .
The Martyrdom of St. Andrew, engraving (ed. by J. D ierckx; N o. 62b)
1 13 . Rubens, The Death of St. Anthony Abbot (No. 64).
Pommersfelden, Ca§tle WeissenStein, Coll. Count Schönborn
114 - A fte r Rubens, The Death of St. Anthony Abbot { N o. 6 4 ). ’s Hertogenbosch, St. John
11 5 - C. Galle, The Blessed Anna de Jésus, engraving (N o. 6 3)
ii6 .
Rubens, St. Auguiïine, oil sketch (No. 65).
Oxford, Ashmolean Museum
1 17 .
Rubens, St. Augustine between Chritt and the Holy Virgin (No. 66).
Madrid, Academia de San Fernando
i i 8 . Rubens, St. AuguStine at the Seashore (N o. 6 7 ). Prague, N ârodni Galerie
SAN CTA
BARBARA
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1 1 9 . S. a Bolswert, St. Barbara, engraving (N o. 68)
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12 0 . S. a Bolswert, St. Catherine of Alexandria, engraving (N o. 69)
%Y
? Rubens, The Martyrdom o f St. Bartholomew,
drawing (No. 70 ). New York, The Pierpont Morgan Library
12 2 . Rubens, The Conversion o f St. Bavo, oil sketch (No. 7 1 ) . London, National Gallery
12 3- Rubens, The Conversion of St. Bavo (N o. 7 2 ). Ghent, St. Bavo
12 4 . A fter Rubens, The Conversion of St. Bavo (N o. 72 a ). Present whereabouts unknown
I2Ó. G. de Crayer, St. Benedict and Totila. Present whereabouts unknown
12 7 . ? Rubens, St. Catherine of Alexandria, etching (N o. 7 5 )
128. ? Rubens, St. Catherine of Alexandria, counterproof of etching (No. 75a).
N ew York, Metropolitan Museum of Art
130. Rubens, The M yiïic Marriage of St. Catherine of Alexandria (No. 77).
Formerly Potsdam-Sanssouci, Bildergalerie, now lofl:
V
13 2 . Rubens, The M yltic Marriage of St. Catherine o f Alexandria, drawing (No. 76a).
Oberlin, Oberlin College, Allen Memorial Museum of Art
133- Rubens, The M arty dom of St. Catherine of Alexandria (No. 78).
Lille, Musée des Beaux-Arts
134- Rubens, Head of St. Catherine of Alexandria, draw ing (N o. 78 a ). Vienna, Albertina
1 35 - W- de Leeuw, The Martyrdom of St. Catherine of Alexandria, engraving (N o. 78)
13 6 . A fter Rubens, The Martyrdom of St. Catherine of Alexandria (N o. 7 8 ). Ghent, St. Bavo
13 7 ' ■ Rubens, Angels Transporting the Dead Body of St. Catherine of Alexandria
(No. 79). Present whereabouts unknown
13 8 . A fte r Rubens, Angels Transporting the Dead Body of St. Catherine of Alexandria
(N o. 7 9 ). Antw erp, Coll. GuStave Faes
139- ? Rubens, St. Catherine of Siena (N o. 8 0 ). Present whereabouts unknown
illffl I
gipHa
fu n / n d ?
m ir é s efC ecrc c a rm in e m en tesj
D rp effètp g jm v e s ru m s, r e û r e p ia fe r e s . <2.
14 0 . M. Coxcie, St. Cecilia Playing the Virginals. Madrid, Prado
14 1 .
C. Drebbel after H. Goltzius, A llegory o f Ainsic, engraving
14 2 .
A fter Rubens, St. Cecilia Playing the Virginals (No. 8 1) .
N ew York, Metropolitan Museum of Art
14 3 .
H . Witdoeck, St. Cecilia Playing the Virginals,
engraving (No. 82)
1 4 4 - Rubens, St. Cecilia Playing the Virginals (N o. 8 2 ). B erlin -D ah lem , Staatliche M useen
145-
'■ Rubens, St. Cecilia (N o. 8 4 ) . D ü sseld orf, Kunstm useum
S . CAROLVS BOROMÆV5. CARD. A R C H IE E MEDIOLAN.
n a t u s z .O d r o b .o b i j t i . N o u e m b . i f l S ^ . c a n o n . i . N o u . i o i c .
QuasifitlL i matutvui m inciü> iwjwlir: st quoji' hma ^Irna in Jtcbus fias lucet-,
er quasijol -rrftym s, (tc lUe Opiisit "in rnr.ph V ei.
146 . N . van den Berg, St. Charles Borromeo, etching (No. 85)
14 7 .
H. W ierix, St. Charles Borromeo, engraving
148.
After Rubens, St. Charles Borromeo (No. 85).
Antwerp, St. Andrew
149- Rubens, St. Dominic (N o. 8 6 ). Dublin, N ational G allery o f Ireland
150. Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi (No. 87).
Dublin, National Gallery of Ireland
1 5 1 . Rubens, St. Dominic and St. Francis of Assisi Proteâing the World
from the Wrath of Christ (N o. 8 8 ). Lyons, Musée des Beaux-Arts
15 2 . A fter Rubens, St. Dominic and St. Francis of Assisi Protecting the World
from the Wrath of Chrift, drawing (N o. 88a). Present whereabouts unknown
153- Rubens, Head Study of St. Catherine of Alexandria, drawing (No. 88b).
Angers, Musée Turpin de Crissé
155- Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Stigmata (N o. 9 0 ).
Cologne, W allraf-Richartz Museum
15 6 . Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Stigmata, draw ing (N o. 90a).
Berlin, Print Room o f the Staatliche Museen
15 7 - ? A . van Dyck, St. Francis o j Assisi Receiving the Stigmata, draw ing (N o. 90b).
Paris, Cabinet des Dessins du Musée du Louvre
O R NAM'I.S SIM I:
r.T KOCiERIO CLARISSE KRATRIBVS
PF.THVS l'AVl.V
15 8 . L. Vorfterm an,
■F.HMANI S . IN IHVl KRAN CMSCI ORDINEM CAPPVCINOR-. PlÈ OPTTMEQ. ADFECT1S, ADFECT?
IVBENS CVM ANIMO ET EX ANIMO N V N C V PA V IT .
57. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Stigmata,
engraving (N o. 90b).
MNEMOSYSVM
X59- Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Stigmata (N o. 9 1 ) . Arras, Musée M unicipal
i6o. Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Stigmata, oil sketch (No. 9 1a ).
Amsterdam, Coll. Wetzlar
i 6 i . Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Stigmata (N o. 9 2 ).
Ghent, Museum voor Schone KunSten
IÓ 2 .
After Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Stigmata (No. 9 3).
Rome, Palazzo dei Conservatori
16 3.
After Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Stigmata, drawing (No. 9 3).
Copenhagen, Print Room of the Statens Museum for KunSt
164.
After Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Stigmata,
etching (No. 92)
16 5. Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Infant Chri.it (N o. 94 ). Antwerp, St. Anthony
.1jiu iiia s alms, altos j i’bi ijutrrat honoris
Quisquis, et immunda lumina J u jiit liurno.
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‘Dulce, m o ri: ha' mihi ïïtiî diuitiœ, hic jit honos:
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SANC TISSIMI SACRAMENTI APVD ÆGROTÔS INCEDENTIS; PRIMO CERTARVM LEGVM CO ND ITO RI,QVARVM
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VIRTVTE STRAGES, ET TORMENTA L ITIV M .A C LITIG ÄTIVM OMNINO EXCLVDV NTVR,AC PACE AG1TVR; H ANC
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•NEMPE TANTAS EX DEI MANIBVS GRATIAS ACCIPIENTIXh.GaLLÆVS V T VIRTVT1S AMICO AM1CVS EX ANIMO DD.
i6 6 . M . Lasne, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Infant Chritt, engraving (N o. 94)
16 7• Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Infant ChriSt (N o. 9 5 ).
Lille, Musée des Beaux-Arts
i6 8 . Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Infant Chrift, drawing (N o. 9 5a).
Present whereabouts unknown
169. Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving the Infant ChriSt (No. 96).
Dijon, Musée des Beaux-Arts
17 0 . A fte r Rubens, St. F fancis of Assisi and St. Clare,
drawing (Nos. 9 6 -9 8 a ). Present whereabouts unknown
1 7 1 . Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Receiving
the Stigmata (No. 97). Lier, St. Gummarus
17 2 . Rubens, St. Clare (N o. 9 8 ).
Lier, St. Gummarus
17 3 - Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Protecting the World from the Wrath of Chrift
(N o. 10 0 ). Brussels, Musées R oyaux des Beaux-Arts
174- Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi (N o. 9 9 ). Present whereabouts unknown
175- A fter Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi (N o. 99 ). Formerly Berlin, Farr Gallery, now loft
176. After Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi in Adoration before the Crucified ChriSi
(No. 1 0 1 ) . Vaduz, Coll. Prince of Liechtenstein
177 - Rubens, St. Francis of Assisi Raising his Arms in a Gesture of Adoration,
draw ing (N o. r o r a ) . London, British Museum
178. Rubens, The Laß Communion of Si. Francis of Assisi (No. 10 2 ).
Antwerp, Koninklijk Museum voor Schone KunSten
179- H. Snyers, The Laii Communion of St. Francis of Assisi, engraving (N o. 10 2 )
i8o. Rubens, The Laß Communion of St. Francis of Assisi, drawing (No. 10 2a).
Antwerp, Stedelijk Prentenkabinet
i 8 i . Rubens, The LaSt Communion of St. Francis of Assisi, drawing (No. 10 2b ).
Farnham, Coll. Wolfgang Burchard
i 82.
Rubens, Two Studies for a Franciscan Monk, drawing (N o. 10 2 c ).
Chatsworth, Coll. Duke o f Devonshire
18 3 . Rubens, Study of a Kneeling Male Nude, draw ing (N o. i0 2 d ) .
Paris, Fondation Cuftodia, Institut N éerlandais

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