The Global Magazine of Leica Geosystems - Home


The Global Magazine of Leica Geosystems - Home
The Global Magazine of Leica Geosystems
Dear Readers,
Leica Geosystems is a renowned leader in the development and manufacturing of surveying measurement instruments. With a history dating back to
Wild and Kern we have plenty of track records and
“world’s first” products to back up this statement.
Since Hexagon acquired Leica Geosystems, extensive
planning has been done in order to also position us
as a leading supplier of measurement instruments
and tools for construction applications. One key area
we are focusing on is Machine Control (MC), using
GPS technologies to monitor and direct construction vehicles. In this issue of the Reporter you will
see some exciting new projects realized with Leica
Geosystems Machine Control technology around the
Since last summer we have acquired three companies
in this area: Scanlaser, a leading systems integrator
of MC, Mikrofyn, a leading sensor and laser manufacturer within the MC segment, and SBG, a leading software manufacturer for MC solutions. With
these companies and combined with the inherent
knowledge within Leica Geosystems for sensors (TPS
and GPS) and software, we now have a strong technical as well as commercial base in MC in Europe. We
will continue our growth in this expanding market
during 2007.
In the past year we have put a lot of effort into
enhancing our product offering in the measurement
tools area. At BAUMA we will show you the integrated solutions we recognize as the key to success
on every construction site. Beyond our range of MC
products across all applications – from Grading and
Excavating to Paving – construction and indoor tools
like the new Leica Rugby 50 and Leica Rugby 55, and
of course the brand new Leica LINO™ L2, underline
our power in the world of the construction site.
2 | Reporter
in this issue:
03 Leica Geosystems
Protects Venice
06 Swedish Underground
08 In the Middle of the Rhine
09 Non-stop Paving
10 Leica Builder in the
“Green Industry”
12 Rising High with
GPS Network
14 Russia goes for Leica ADS40
16 Earth Dam Monitoring
with GPS Survey
18 Keeping Track of
Moving Structures
20 Beyond Scanning
21 Keep Up With the Youngsters
22 Sharp Lines on Site
23 News/Imprint
Get a taste of the new Leica Geosystems construction venture for yourself – with the Reporter 56 and
Ola Rollén
CEO Hexagon and Leica Geosystems
Leica Geosystems
Protects Venice
by Emilio Palchetti
The 20th century has certainly endangered Venice’s ability to keep itself above water in the
Venetian Lagoon. The city ever more frequently falls victim to intensive flooding, which not
only reduces the quality of life for Venetians
but also causes considerable damage to their
architectural heritage. Following the evaluation
of numerous alternatives the “Mose” project,
an ingenious protection system, which includes
adjustable floodgates, is now being imple-
mented. A machine automation solution with
GPS from Leica Geosystems has been chosen to
ensure their exact positioning.
Over the last one hundred years Venice has subsided
relative to mean sea level by about 23 cm, while the
tidal range has increased by about 8 cm due to morphological changes in the lagoon bed. The Ministry for
Infrastructure designed an integrated intervention
system to protect the city against high water levels:
these include local protection measures to save the
lowest-lying parts of the city and flood defences at
The Global Magazine of Leica Geosystems | 3
As soon as the water level exceeds the critical value of 110 cm, air is pumped into the floodgates,
which rise from the sea bed to keep back the water.
the entrance to the lagoon, both of which will come
into action as soon as the water level rises by more
than 110 cm.
The Mose system
As soon as this mark is reached, 78 adjustable floodgates at the entrances to the lagoon (18 in Chioggia,
19 in Malamocco and 41 at Lido) are activated to separate the city from the open sea. Further protection
measures include various initiatives to lower water
levels in the lowest-lying areas of the city during the
very frequent flooding. All measures are augmented
by an extremely effective protection system, which
optimises the management of the gates and limits
closure of the inlets to 3 to 5 occasions per year
to preserve water quality and protect morphology,
landscape and harbour activities.
Works at sea
One of the first contracts, for the foundations to
anchor the floodgate modules, was awarded to
Grandi Lavori Fincosit S.p.a. The work was situated
in the area of the harbour entrance at Lido di Venezia: 176 steel piles, each 24 m long and 508 mm in
diameter, were to be anchored in the sea bed more
4 | Reporter
than 16 m below water level in a 3 x 3 m grid. What is
a routine operation on land had to be performed at
sea without fixed reference points and in occasionally unfavourable environmental conditions such as
marine currents, tides and strong Bora winds. At the
same time, the requirements were very strict with
the maximum permissible deviation from plan being
15 cm.
Surveyor Giulio Salvador of Grandi Lavori Fincosit
S.p.a. and engineer Filippo Rettondini of the subcontractor VIPP Lavori S.p.a., technical manager of foundation works, explained the challenging task they
faced to the team from Leica Geosystems Machine
Automation: First, a piling rig had to be transported
into position at the driving site and similar measures
taken as on land to secure it in place. Then it was
up to the machine operator to drive the piles to the
highest possible accuracy directly over the specified
design coordinates.
Positioning the piling rig
To complete this first part of the operation, they
used the self-elevating platform “Lynx” provided by
Grandi Lavori Fincosit. This is specially designed to
Exact Control
The experts at Leica Geosystems developed a navigation system consisting of two antenna (A1, A 2),
a GPS receiver (B) and a special control program to
allow the machine operator to position the piles as
precisly as possible. The piles can be placed exactly
at the position specified on the drawings and driven
into the sea bed by the rig. An inclination sensor (D)
provides the machine operator with all the necessary
information to sink each pile exactly vertically.
A1 , A2
GPS receiver
Computer with control program
Inclination sensor
transport large machines over water, in this case a
piling rig, and when required transforms into a fixed
platform anchored to the sea bed with the aid of
four telescopic elements attached to its sides. The
team from Leica Geosystems specially developed
a GPS system to determine the coordinates of the
Lynx, which would guide the pontoon operator to the
best possible anchoring position. The objective was
to obtain the ideal position for the rig so that it could
place as many piles as possible from each set-up and
reduce to a minimum the time needed to reposition
the pontoon when finished at one site.
Positioning the piles
For the second requirement, namely to help the rig
operator place the piles exactly in the specified positions, the team developed a supporting navigation
system based the Leica GSM5-M20 GPS receiver. The
receiver, two antenna and appropriate control software display the planimetric position of the antenna
on the rig in relation to the specified coordinates to
the rig operator.
able to position the ram’s antenna very quickly over
the coordinates for the pile, taking into account the
minimum tolerances. The software can also provide
stored reports on the driving of the piles if necessary with information on how far the installed position deviates from the specified position of the pile.
This provides a simple way of creating a certification
report attesting to the quality of the work performed
in relation to the required standard.
Thanks to this innovative GPS positioning solution
the foundation works for the Mose project in Venice
were completed in the shortest possible time. With
this project Leica Geosystems was able to contribute
to saving the city of Venice, which is unfortunately
still at the mercy of natural forces of decay, in a very
real way.
The operator simply compares the reference points
on the monitor graphically and numerically and is
The Global Magazine of Leica Geosystems | 5
by Klas Hultman
One of the main requirements during the construction of the new Citytunnel in Malmö is to
ensure that the surrounding buildings do not
settle as a result of the tunnel driving works
– as so often is the case with underground railway projects. Therefore daily monitoring surveys are carried out to allow immediate action
to be taken should any buildings show signs of
With the new rail connection in place, train passengers will no longer have to go the long way round the
city to reach Malmö’s main station but instead will be
taken underground for a part of the journey. They
will pass through two new stations: one is situated
at the square known as “Triangeln” (The Triangle) in
the centre of Malmö, whilst the other is in the development district of “Hyllie” in the south-west corner of the city. The surveying tasks associated with
the construction of this new rail link are challenging
and multifaceted. The maximum allowable deviation
when tunnel-driving is 10 cm. At the same time the
6 | Reporter
underground work must not cause any kind of damage to the buildings above.
Mr. Kenn Hoby Andersen, surveying engineer with
Aarsleff A/S and responsible for the construction of
the Citytunnel in Malmö, makes it clear that there is
always a risk that buildings will settle when a tunnel
is installed under a built-up area: "This has happened
before on many underground rail construction sites.
One of the most serious cases was about 13 years
ago in Munich. In one tunnel the ground failed and a
bus fell into one of the cracks. That is of course an
example of an absolute catastrophe, but it is normal
for the buildings in the surrounding area to suffer
cracks as a result of settlement. These cracks should
be taken very seriously. Therefore we carry out daily
monitoring surveys so that we are always one step
ahead and can introduce immediate measures if anything changes," he explains.
One step ahead with monitoring surveys
The surveying engineers carry out daily monitoring with an invar staff using digital levels from Leica
Geosystems, one of which is the Leica DNA03. Mea-
Citytunnel Malmö
The “Citytunnel Malmö” project, a 17 km rail link
which runs on the surface and under Malmö, is made
up of several components:
11 km two-track section from Malmö’s main station
to the Öresund Bridge, 6 km of which run through
parallel tunnels below the city
6 km single track section heading east
toward Trelleborg and Ystad
Conversion of Malmö’s main station from
a terminus to a through station
New stations serving the city districts
of Triangeln and Hyllie
Work commenced on the Citytunnel in 2005 and
should be complete by 2011.
The largest contract was awarded to the Malmö
Citytunnel Group (MCG), a consortium formed by
construction companies Aarsleff A/S and E. Pihl &
Søn A/S from Denmark and Bilfinger Berger AG from
Germany. All three firms are at the forefront of terotechnology.
surements are taken from a raised drill-steel reference station anchored in the limestone stratum. The
deep and well-grounded anchor ensures that the levelling station is settlement-free.
Survey accuracy 0.15 mgon
In addition to digital levels, Aarsleff A/S uses Leica
Geosystems total stations for many surveying tasks
surrounding the Citytunnel Malmö project. The total
stations are models TCA2003, TCA1800, TCRP1201
and TCRA1101. A Leica TCRA1203 was used to control the tunnel-driving machine.
"Under the terms of our contract we were obliged
to use a total station with a measurement accuracy of 0.15 mgon. As only Leica Geosystems have
instruments available with this high level of accuracy
we had no difficulty in making the decision," recalls
Kenn Hoby Andersen and adds: "That is not the only
reason why we are using instruments from Leica
Geosystems. Our general surveying policy is based
on Leica Geosystems technology.“
The map shows the course of the “Citytunnel
Malmö“ project: From 2011 trains will no longer
have to go around the city to reach the Öresund
bridge, but can go right through – or rather under
– it. This also involves the construction of two
new stations – Triangeln and Hyllie.
The Global Magazine of Leica Geosystems | 7
In the Middle
of the Rhine
by Jürgen Reineke
The German energy provider “Energiedienst” is
undertaking an ambitious project at Rheinfelden
on the Rhine river. By 2011 four 6.5 metre diameter bulb turbines with an output of 25 megawatt each will be installed in the new turbine
house on the Swiss side of the Rhine. One of the
challenges is underwater excavation in the bed
of the Rhine.
The new facility will raise the generating capacity at
the historic hydropower site in Rheinfelden from its
present 26 MW to 100 MW. Since September 2006
contractor Schleith GmbH, Waldshut has excavated
1,200,000 m³ of rock and soil from the riverbed. A
very challenging task – as a large part of the excavation is carried out directly in the Rhine and underwater. Three crawler excavators were fitted with 3D GPS
machine control systems in order to meet the high
requirements for performance, accuracy and above
all robustness. For machine navigation Schleith opted for a robust GNSS solution, the Leica MNS1200
GG, in tandem with a 3D excavation control system
provided by Leica Geosystems distribution partner
The control system uses integrated satellite-aided
positioning. The 3D application compares the actual
8 | Reporter
survey data with the digital ground model created
during the design process and displays the difference
on the monitor in the form of a rapid 3D real-time
animation. The seamlessly combination of components and the latest CANBUS 2.0B technology make
the system a simple to operate, productive tool.
Particular emphasis was placed on the robustness
of the components. Sensors (V2A housing, accuracy
0.09°) tested under the harshest conditions, data
cables layed in a hydraulic hose and protected with
steel mesh and a PC and monitor selected to meet
the highest requirements all ensured that the excavator control system could withstand the rough conditions prevailing at this construction site.
The Leica MNS1200 GG is a surveying instrument
at the forefront of innovative technology. Leica
GPS1200 uses SmartTrack technology for excellent
signal quality and SmartCheck for the highest reliability.
Both systems in combination provided Schleith with
one of the most productive and powerful packages
currently available. Complex earthworks and underwater excavations are being carried out to centimetre-accuracy, without any other setting-out aids,
precisely and independently on each area of the
construction site.
Non-stop Paving
by Volker Kuch
Often operating around the clock, Belgian civil
engineering and building firm Betonac is using
Leica PaveSmart LMGS-S on two slip-form concrete pavers. Runways and motorways are their
main areas of application.
Leica PaveSmart LMGS-S is a 3D machine control
system developed specifically to control concrete
slip-form construction. Two total stations and various inclination sensors control the line and level of
the concrete paver. There is no longer a need for
tension wire control systems on either side of the
machine. Total station positioning allows the system
to directly control the paver in the 3D ground model
of the road or any other surface. The system can be
used for every conceivable arrangement of equipment and across the whole spectrum of slip-forming
Betonac NV specialises in the field of civil, structural
and highway engineering construction and is mainly engaged in public works. The Belgian company,
with its headquarters in Sint-Truiden, has been using
two Leica PaveSmart LMGS-S systems – one each
on a Gomaco GP2800 and a Gomaco Commander III
– since April 2003. Working with the system has long
become routine for the slip-form crew. In the meantime they have amassed an impressive list of projects
completed using this solution, mainly in Belgium, Lux-
embourg and France, such as the highways E40 (A10)
Brussels – Ostend and E411 and E25 in Luxembourg,
as well as the Airports Charles de Gaulle (Paris), Bierset (Liège) and South Charleroi (Brussels).
There were a number of deciding factors for Betonac
in the acquisition of the two systems: “We can operate non-stop for 24 hours and thus dispense with the
need for end-of-day joints. Adjustments to line and
level are possible at any time. The system displays
the actual construction tolerances and therefore
provides another excellent means of extended quality control,” says Chief Engineer Ludo Philtjens.
It is not just the modern technology that justifies
this investment for Betonac. Further directly quantifiable advantages can be seen every day in logistics, in improvements to working processes and in
quality assurance. The consistent, reliable quality of
production even during round-the-clock operation
is particularly valued. After all, any mistakes cast in
concrete are inevitably associated with high costs.
This is where the Leica PaveSmart integrated surveying routines are vital. By working in real time and
logging the achieved quality, they provide continuous
and permanent assurance to everyone involved. The
crew are able to check the operation of the paver
at any time and optimise the accuracy and material
consumption of the machine. “Concrete pavement
has never been this comfortable,” enthuses Ludo
The Global Magazine of Leica Geosystems | 9
Leica Builder in the
“Green Industry”
by Erwin Bauer
Garden and landscaping company Dukat is very
pleased with its new Leica Builder Theodolite
with electronic distance measurement combined
with a PDA and seamless interface to Dataflor
CAD and other specialist landscaping industry
software. Enormous time-savings and the ability to create drawings even without specialist
knowledge of surveying have convinced garden
and landscaping expert Jürgen Dukat.
When he attended a seminar last spring on site and
quantity surveying, hosted by Leica Geosystems
sales partner Dataflor, Jürgen Dukat was still sceptical about whether the acquisition of a CAD-supported surveying solution for his garden and landscape
construction business in the form of the Leica Builder
and PDA would really pay its way. “What finally convinced me was the ability of the system to link CAD
10 | Reporter
drawing data recorded on site with my own specialist software for producing bills of quantities. I later
confirmed in practice on several occasions that the
system was capable of being operated without any
specialist surveying knowledge,” explains Dukat. The
Leica Builder, Dataflor software CAD V6 and GreenXpert complement one another perfectly – they are
ideal for many applications in garden and landscape
Impressed by understandable
surveying system
One of the first projects was a survey of a 120 m
diameter retention basin for the re-flooding of some
marshland. The survey took less than two hours to
complete. As is common with many local authority
construction works the client required Dukat to submit an electro-optic survey for design verification and
documentation of quantities. The first stage was to
survey about 90 points and then link these using the
software module “Digital Terrain Model” from Dataflor before producing the associated earthworks volumes automatically in the form of a schedule. “Earlier I would have given such a survey to a surveying
office, which would have charged me several hundred Euro. Now we can produce fully understandable
calculations in a very short time backed up by exact
CAD drawings. The possibilities of Leica Builder have
allowed us to achieve very high standards in design,
job preparation, and quantity surveying whilst providing the customer with a thoroughly professional
service,” says Dukat.
vate garden contracts is also worthwhile. The construction manager appreciates the accuracy that the
integrated surveying solution offers: “Surveying a
site with a tape is very time-consuming. On the other
hand with Leica Builder the process is done quickly
and reliably. The brilliance of the system lies in the
fact that for each point surveyed I also receive its
height. I now have accurate information available to
me that earlier I would have had to roughly estimate
or spend a lot of time calculating. All slopes, angles,
even curved shapes correspond exactly with the real
situation on site. The system is therefore very valuable to us in design, execution and billing.”
Shortly afterwards, the new equipment was used to
survey some parkland with an area of around 40,000
square metres. Every individual tree and all the planted and grass areas were picked up and the annual
maintenance and development plan for the park
drawn up based on this accurate inventory. “Without Leica Builder we would have certainly needed
a week for the survey alone. With the new system
we were finished in a day and a half. The detailed
CAD inventory drawing allowed us to calculate areas
quickly. Based on this I estimated the cost of each
task and was able to produce an exact quotation for
the maintenance work,“ explains Dukat’s construction manager Peter Reintjes.
Not only does the total station supply precise ground
survey information for the design and tender stage:
thanks to the integrated interface with the CAD program it can transmit the drawing data from the surveyed site immediately over a wireless Bluetooth®
connection to a hand-held computer (PDA) where it
can be displayed as a CAD drawing. The user does
not have to bother with survey sheets or coordinate
lists. The newly surveyed points, lines, and areas can
be viewed on-screen. Further details can be added to
the drawing back in the office on a PC using Dataflor
CAD software.
Highly accurate drawings
About the author:
Dipl.-Betriebswirt Erwin Bauer is editor-in-chief of the
professional journal bi-GaLaBau.
Peter Reintjes believes using a total station for pri-
Leica Geosystems
and Dataflor
Dataflor is the leading software provider for the
"Green Industry" in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. It employs a staff of 60 at nine offices in Germany. Dataflor plans to increase customer satisfaction with this complete solution and has recently
become a development and sales partner of Leica
Geosystems for the garden and landscaping sector.
Dataflor now offers several surveying solutions with
Leica Geosystems sensors, for example Leica Builder,
which can seamlessly exchange data in both directions with Dataflor office software.
The Global Magazine of Leica Geosystems | 11
Rising High with
GPS Network
by Agnes Zeiner
The Burj Dubai is the highest-rise building under
construction in the world. When completed in
2008 it will be the world’s tallest building, nearly
twice the size of New York’s Empire State Building and higher than the current title holder, the
Taipei Financial Center (Taipei 101) in Taiwan. The
final height is being kept secret. Not a secret on
the other hand, is the unique monitoring system
Leica Geosystems developed together with the
Chief Surveyor of Burj Dubai.
In recent years there has been considerable interest in the construction of super high-rise buildings,
primarily in the Far East. These buildings are subject
to strong external tilt effects caused, among other
things, by wind pressures, unilateral thermal effects
through exposure to sunlight, and unilateral loads.
12 | Reporter
Such effects are a particular challenge during the
construction phase of a high-rise building, in as much
as the high-rise building under construction is also
subject to tilt effects and will at least temporarily
lose its – usually exactly vertical – alignment.
The Burj Dubai in Dubai, UAE, will rise to a height of
over 800 m when completed in 2008. In addition to
being very tall it is also quite slim and it is anticipated
that there will be movement of the building at upper
levels due to wind loads, crane loads, construction
sequence and other factors. The self-climbing formwork system for the building is complex due to the
shape of the structure and requires a large number
of control points – currently over 240 are installed.
Douglas Hayes, Chief Surveyor in Burj Dubai Tower,
and Joel van Cranenbroeck, Business Development
Director at Leica Geosystems, developed a complete-
ly new procedure to provide reliable coordinated
points at the top of Burj Dubai using GPS observations combined with a network of precision inclination sensors.
At the beginning of construction, six permanent
benchmarks were established and precisely surveyed around the site. “From ground to about Level
20 resection was possible from the external control
marks, which are located about 100 to 150 m from
the base of the tower. Observation redundancy was
possible and very high quality results were achieved”,
says Douglas Hayes. But above Level 20 this system
was not applicable anymore due to obstruction from
the upper decks of the formwork system and poor
“The movement of the structure creates several
problems for precise surveys. Theoretically, at any
particular instant in time you need to know exactly
how much the design centre line of the building is
offset from the actual vertical axis and at that same
instant you need to know the precise coordinates of
the instrument. However, a ‘mean’ position for both
elements taken over a short time period can provide
a suitable solution”, says Douglas Hayes. A complex
combination of GPS antenna/receivers, Total Stations,
Continuously Operating GPS Reference Stations Leica
GRX1200 Pro plus Leica GPS Spider and Leica Geo
Office Software, together with Leica Nivel220 dualaxis precise clinometers, accurately determines and
analyzes displacement of the tower alignment from
the vertical axis.
A dynamic model of the building has been developed and from this it has been possible to derive
values at any given level for the effect of construction sequence, building design and solar effects. This
‘smallest GPS network for the tallest building in the
world’ can be used for tower monitoring both during
construction and after completion of the structure”,
summarizes Douglas Hayes: “If the Nivel200 Network is integrated with other monitoring information it will provide a complete system of structural
The “Vertical Cities”
“The challenge taken on by the vertical conquest of
space is not to beat height records but to redefine
dignified life in large communities. Authentic social
commitment lies in developing an innovative model
of vertical construction that unites revolutionary
technological concepts capable of exceeding the
500 m height limit and the new bio-ecological models
of town planning and architecture in a new philosophy of life,” say the Spanish architects Javier Pioz and
Maria Rosa Cervera.
Overpopulation, obsolete urban models with all their
rising problems, and the non-acceptance of the common 500 m limit led them to develop their “Vertical Cities Concept”, based on the consideration that
nature shows us how to build structures (Bionic Architecture). Their thesis: In massive nuclei and where
land is scarce “Vertical Cities” allow the ecological
expansion of cities. For Pioz and Cervera, buildings
up to 1,228 m high (equivalent to 300 floors) with
100,000 inhabitants are the future – for mankind
as well as for the environment: “Nature has all the
answers; in time man will learn all the questions.”
The Global Magazine of Leica Geosystems | 13
Russia goes for
Leica ADS40
by Sergey Alexandrovich Loginov
The Russian National Research Institute for
Cadastral Surveying, VISKHAGI, has a long tradition in the fields of aerial photography and
cadastral surveying. Formed in 1932 as the
Agricultural Aerial Photography Authority, it
has been taking and working with aerial photographs for 75 years. Recently it has been using
two Leica ADS40 airborne digital sensors. Sergey Alexandrovich Loginov, First Deputy General
Director and Chief Engineer, writes about his
experience for the “Reporter”.
At the end of 2003, as a part of a World Bank tender,
VISKHAGI acquired two Leica ADS40 airborne digital
sensors. Leica Geosystems has been very support-
14 | Reporter
ive and provided us with excellent service in both
administrative and technical areas. With the help of
the experts at Leica Geosystems we have installed a
computer centre for processing digital data including 12 work stations, software and two high-performance servers, each with 12 terabytes of hard disk
storage capacity.
Delayed first use
Unfortunately we were not able to use the two new
Leica ADS40 sensors straight away. On the one hand
we were delayed by bureaucracy and on the other
by important modifications we had to make to our
existing technical equipment. We learned from the
first test flights that, in addition to weather conditions playing an important role in flight planning,
it was necessary to fly the plane in the “correct"
manner, i.e. special requirements for creating digital
aerial photographs had to be taken into account.
Expectations fully and completely fulfilled
From the results of the first working flights for data
collection it was apparent that the Leica ADS40 sensors fulfilled all our expectations. With no increase
in flight costs and elimination of photochemical processing of the aerial photographs, the result is a
reduction in total cartography costs. We have found
that the sensors deliver very high quality images,
and because of the constant stereo angle they are
eminently suitable for stereo applications and ideal
for orthophotos. Through the use of one or more
GPS base stations an accuracy can be achieved that
is adequate for 1:2,000 maps without having to use
fixed coordinate points. This allows considerable cost
reductions to be made in the associated terrestrial
geodetic surveying tasks.
VISKHAGI is a state organization and part of the
Federal Russian Land Survey Register Agency, which
employs 3,500 staff in 13 locations throughout
Russia. Between 1995-2000 the technical equipment used for aerial photography was completely
replaced; for example VISKHAGI purchased nine Leica
RC-30 cameras – and became the largest single user
of RC-30 cameras in the world. The flights were made
in AN-30 aircraft traditionally used for aerial surveying, stemming from the Soviet era. In addition to
aerial photography VISKHAGI also carries out geodetic work in other areas such as the creation and
expansion of geodetic coordinate grids, calibration
of aerial photographs and other activities involved in
highly accurate land surveying.
The Leica ADS40 sensors are used for 1:2,000 scale
maps in the following manner:
Flying height approximately 2,500 m
Ground image resolution 20-25 cm
Use of GPS base stations within
a radius of 50 km
Afterwards the recorded ground data are processed.
Aerotriangulation is carried out and corrected without coordinated land stations to a local accuracy of
15-20 cm.
Intensive use
We were able to work intensively with the Leica
ADS40 sensors. For example during summer we photographed a large part of Moscow (over 3,500 km²)
to a resolution accuracy of 15 cm. Our experience to
date with the Leica ADS40 sensors clearly shows that
not only do we have the latest technology available
to us for cadastre surveying applications, we are also
able to make considerable financial savings, which
benefit Russian taxpayers.
One of the Leica ADS40 airborne sensors, mounted
in the aircraft.
VISKHAGI traditionally uses AN-30 aircrafts, stemming
from the Soviet era.
The Global Magazine of Leica Geosystems | 15
Earth Dam
with GPS Survey
by Agnes Zeiner
The Karkheh is the third largest river in Iran by
water yield, after Karun and Dez. In the past
its water richness was a constant danger for
the west and southwest regions of the country.
Seasonal floods and resulting extensive damage were characteristic of the Karkheh river forpeople living in the region. So when Karkheh
dam was completed in 1995 it was a source of
great relief and huge benefits to the people.
Using GPS to monitor this huge structure, which
is among the world’s 10 largest dams, was a
task undertaken by MahabGhods Consulting
Engineers Company, situated in Tehran. The last
eight years MahabGhods provided an accurate
yet cost-effective method for monitoring the
Karkheh dam in Khuzestan Province.
16 | Reporter
The construction of the Karkheh dam in 1995 (located near Andimeshk) eliminated the dangers resulting
from the Karkheh river for the lands of downstream
plains in Khuzestan Province. Storage and regulation
of water, hydroelectric power generation amounting
934 GWh/year, and prevention of destructive floods
were the main objectives of Karkheh dam. The earth
dam has a total length of 3,030 meters and a height
of 127 meters, with a reservoir capacity of 7.6 billion
cubic meters.
Experts of the Microgeodesy and GPS divisions of
the Geomatic department of MahabGhods Consulting Engineers Company explain the challenge of the
project: “Because of the large extent of the structure, conventional methods failed to satisfy monitoring requirements, as they required much time and
provided less accuracy in this case. Besides, earth
dams' movements are more substantial than concrete
dams. We recommended combining vertical preciselevelling networks with horizontal GPS monitoring
networks to complete the survey of the dam.”
to collect data from a total of 119 points on- and
off-dam and nearly 125 height difference observations in both backward and forward direction were
collected using precision levels.
One dozen GPS monitoring surveys
Following analysis of the data MahabGhods reported
movements of the dam over the eight-year period to
be within the tolerance limits. “It is evident that the
displacements do not exceed the accuracy requirements and network sensitivity” says the expert.
She concludes by saying “using GPS helped to show
the movements accurately and the horizontal results
were complimented by the precise levelling network.”
Since 1999, MahabGhods has performed 12-epoch
GPS monitoring surveys in off-dam and on-dam networks of Karkheh dam. “GPS has a supreme capability in horizontal positioning, but not in the vertical
direction, because of special satellite constellation
in which satellites are configured asymmetrically
with respect to the vertical direction. Besides, GPS
heights do not always fit with the actual shape of the
earth. So it was essential to have a levelling network
together with a GPS horizontal network”, says Ms.
Nasim Rajabi Nazari, one of the experts at MahabGhods. Leica Geosystems’ GPS receivers were used
The Global Magazine of Leica Geosystems | 17
Keeping Track
of Moving
by Marc Reinhardt
How does a floodgate deform relative to the
water level? What is the behaviour of the vibrations of a wind turbine tower? The Geodetic
Institute at Leibniz University, Hanover sought
answers to these challenging questions with the
help of a Leica HDS4500 laser scanner.
Professor Hansjörg Kutterer and his Research Assistant Christian Hesse from the Geodetic Institute at
Leibniz University, Hanover have taken advantage of
the possibilities of kinematic laser scanning. Using
a stationary Leica HDS4500 scanner they studied
the rapid movements of construction works such as
canal locks and wind turbine structures. After extensive measurements they concluded that terrestrial
laser scanners can be used to considerably expand
the sensors used for engineering geodetic surveying
in the field of geometric object detection and moni-
18 | Reporter
toring. The continuous, concurrent readings in three
dimensions capture rapid changes very accurately.
Lock gates surveyed in two modes
One such project in the study was the canal lock
complex “Uelzen I” between Hanover and Hamburg.
The locks are one of two hydraulic structures of the
Elbe-Side-Canal. The lock complex is 185 metres long
and has a filled volume of 54,000 cubic metres. The
floodgate itself is twelve metres wide and eleven
metres high and stands seven metres above the
water level when closed. The scientists from Hanover
carried out 3D and 2D surveys of the locks, whereby
each method has its own strengths and weaknesses.
According to their overall findings Hansjörg Kutterer
and Christian Hesse concluded that terrestrial laser
scanning offers a unique way of determining the geometric deformation of the floodgate under changing
loads. The task is made even easier because no signal is required from the object being surveyed. Of
Geodetic Institute
at Leibniz University
The Geodetic Institute at Leibniz University, Hanover
looks back on a long history of geodetic teaching and
research (the first academic chair was established in
1881). Today there are two specialist departments
each headed by a professor. The Department of
Engineering Geodesy and Geodetic Evaluation Methods (headed by Prof. H. Kutterer) developed out of
the Department of General Surveying. The second
department focuses on Area and Real Estate Management and was established with the arrival of
Prof. Winrich Voss in 2006. Currently the Institute
employs 16 people including nine doctoral candidates. On-going research work is concentrated on
the improvement and extension of measurement
and analysis methods used in rapid and high quality precise three-dimensional object surveying and
analysis using engineering geodesy sensor systems,
in particular terrestrial laser scanning. In addition to
standard instruments such as total stations the Geodetic Institute Hanover uses terrestrial laser scanners (Leica HDS4500) and sensor systems from the
field of metrology (Leica Lasertracker LTD640 and
key importance is the system’s ability to take readings rapidly with great accuracy and time resolution.
Wind turbine vibrations
In the study of the wind turbine (manufactured by
Tacke) at the Schliekum windfarm, the team from the
Geodetic Institute decided to use the 2D-mode of
the Leica HDS4500. Because the sampling frequency
was too low and due to the lateral expansion of
the object, a survey of the surface in 3D-mode was
not suitable. 5,692 profiles were used to analyse the
data. They were recorded at a rate of 12 profiles per
second and produced a detailed record of the vibration characteristics of the tower. This data will form
an important foundation for more in-depth monitoring of structures.
One of the research areas the Geodetic Institute at
Leibniz University in Hanover focuses on is the field
of three-dimensional object surveying.
The Global Magazine of Leica Geosystems | 19
Beyond Scanning
by David Danko
At the end of 2006, CADWorx fieldPipe for Leica
fieldPro was presented by Leica Geosystems and
the software company COADE. It was launched
together with the newest version of the mobile
CAD software Leica fieldPro and is specially
designed to build 3D plant models of existing
piping systems. As-built models are created in
real-time, on-site, and without any post-processing. Customer David Danko, laser scanning
project manager with Falk Engineering & Surveying in Indiana, was among the first to try out the
system. He told the “Reporter” about his experiences with the new package.
To gather information for the production of as-built
models and drawings of plant and piping systems,
Falk Engineering and Surveying uses the precision
capabilities of laser scanning equipment. The instrument produces ‘point clouds’ – millions of 3D data
points that match the outlines of all the items in the
area being scanned. But producing 3D models of piping from point cloud data is a challenge.
The 3D Model is done while surveying.
Even though the production of the 3D model would
best be done in the field by the person doing the
surveying, this is something that has not been possible in the past. What you are left with is a faithful
20 | Reporter
representation of the site and piping systems with
its components, such as pipes, elbows and valves,
represented by cylinders, tori and blocks. While
representative and accurate, these are without any
intelligence. This is why, when we heard of a system
that would allow the person surveying the system to
leave the site with a complete intelligent model, we
had to investigate.
Leave site with complete 3D models
What we were introduced to was CADWorx fieldPipe
for Leica fieldPro. With other software we have used,
you had to go back to the office and process the
point cloud information to get a 3D model. With the
new software this is totally different. As you survey,
you actually see the piping system being built, so
when you leave you have a complete and accurate
3D model of what you’ve surveyed. Not only that:
the model is intelligent, with everything in it and all
the components identifiable as pipes, elbows, valves
etc. Just click on an item and you get all the information about it.
Working with Total Stations and CADWorx fieldPipe
proved to be so much quicker. We saved six to eight
hours just for one spool piece. That’s less than 50%
of the time it would normally take us. When we left
the site, the model was complete. With this new
package, pipe runs develop as you’re surveying the
installation. I’ve never seen anything else do that.
It was easy to set up and use. Once I started doing
it, it was pretty natural, intuitive and easy to use. It
just made sense to me right from the start. Most of
our clients are repeat customers, and to keep them
coming back, we stay up-to-date and look for solutions from which they can benefit. One of the best
things for us in CADWorx fieldPipe for Leica fieldPro
was that clients were impressed with the drawings
that we produced and gave back to them as a deliverable. That’s great for our clients, and that’s what
matters most.
Keep Up With
the Youngsters
Todd Gokey is project engineer for Barrett Paving Materials Inc., the oldest contractor in the
nation, established in 1864. Today the Syracuse,
NY, division he works for does airport and highway reconstruction work, and for the past three
months Gokey has been working with Leica
Geosystems GPS indicate systems on two dozers and an automatic system on a Cat G12 motor
Typically, operators are expected to meet tolerances
of plus or minus 6 millimeters – one-quarter of an
inch. “One of our motivations for GPS,” says Gokey,
“was that New York State DOT (Department of Transportation) has set up a Leica GPS Spider RTK network
with their own base stations. Their intent is that their
inspectors will use rovers, and they have announced
they’re going to change the spec books to accommodate automated machinery. The specifications on
a recent job included that the contractor had to buy
the state a base station and a couple of rovers.
“The way we’re set up now, we use the rover for
all our survey work, including drainage structures,
pipes, and the center line for the pavers. The excavator does the bulk of the work, and the dozer comes
behind and gets the fine grade done. Leica Geosystems just came out with a 3D system for excavators
(Leica DigSmart 3D), and I’m looking into that. If we
had GPS on the excavator, the operator would know
exactly what he’s digging and where. And with a system on an excavator, the dozer and excavator would
almost be a standalone crew.”
Reprinted with permission of Grading & Excavation
Contractor magazine.
The Global Magazine of Leica Geosystems | 21
on Site
by Petra Ammann
With its outstanding optics and proven Power
Range Technology™ the new self-levelling precision line-laser Leica LINO™ L2 is a little sensation. Its strengths: precise and perfectly visible
laser lines.
The new Leica LINO™ L2 was jointly developed with
users so that it would integrate optimally into normal
working practices. All that tedious messing about
with water levels, plumb lines or measuring rules is at
last consigned to the past: with the new Leica LINO™
L2 these everyday alignment and positioning tasks
are completed quickly and precisely. The clear red
laser beam simply displays the required lines – horizontally or vertically, and even intersecting lines.
Excellent visibility and precision
The quality of the optics in the device is important
for the lines to be highly visible and sharp. The Leica
LINO™ L2 is equipped with proven Leica Power Range
Technology™ to guarantee excellent visibility – the
lines are easy to see even in a bright environment.
Thanks to the extremely large aperture angle of the
optics, the device projects amazingly long lines on
to the wall, making it ideal for transferring reference
points onto nearby walls or ceilings. With an accuracy of +/- 1mm over 5 m the Leica LINO™ L2 is the
most precise device in its class and will help avoid
expensive mistakes caused by inaccurate measurement transfer.
22 | Reporter
Simple, quick and self-levelling
Even someone who has never worked with a level
before can project exact horizontal and vertical lines
on to a wall in next to no time. With the new Leica
LINO™ L2 these everyday alignment and positioning
tasks are completed extremely quickly and precisely.
No painstaking levelling of the device is required – it
is self-levelling! And if the inclination of the supporting surface is too large then the Leica LINO™ L2
detects this itself and does not project the line, eliminating potential errors.
The self-levelling feature can be switched off by
locking the device. This not only protects the
Leica LINO™ L2 during transport, it is also useful
when projecting from unusual positions. Using the
Leica LINO™ L2 to project over long distances outside is child’s play thanks to the pulse function with
energy saving mode and detector (accessory).
Clever accessories
With the device are included a magnetic multifunctional adapter, which allows setting up in a wide range
of situations, and a target plate – a very useful tool
when a projection surface is required in a unenclosed
space. The ball and socket adapter allows projections
from surfaces sloping at all angles and the original
Leica LINO™ bag provides a practical and safe way to
transport the device to and from site.
First Leica ADS40-II in Africa
Leica Rugby 50 and Leica Rugby 55:
Designed for interior and
general construction applications
With the Leica Rugby 50 and Leica Rugby 55, Leica
Geosystems adds two further members to the Rugby
Laser family. Similar looking, the two new lasers are
designed for different applications: The Rugby 50 is
dedicated to general construction contractors, being
a tough, affordable laser with a revolutionary simple
feature: only one single button. Whereas the Leica
Rugby 55 is designed for the interior contractor – a
versatile laser, perfect for almost any leveling and
alignment job.
Leica Rugby 50: tough and reliable.
Leica Geosystems’ distribution partner GIMS (Pty)
Ltd is proud to announce the first Leica ADS40-II
Airborne Digital Sensor is now operational in Africa.
In November 2006 Siyazi DTM Services, situated in
Longmeadow, acquired this state of the art Digital
Sensor with its pushbroom technology. This acquisition has catapulted them into the digital imaging
industry and will enable the company to meet the
urgent demand for geospatial data that is required in
the fast growing South African economy as well as in
Sub-Saharan Africa.
Chris Schutte from Siyazi DTM services says, “We are
currently working on projects for Mbombela District
Municipality, Tshwane Metro, Rustenburg Platinum
Mines, Potgietersrus Platinum Limited and Sishen
Iron Ore Mines in Thabazimbi. We are planning to
have workshops all over South Africa to introduce
the new system and its advantages to prospective
Leica ADS40-II with two new sensor heads.
Leica SmartPole: Setup On-the-Fly
With Leica SmartPole, the coordinates and orientation are determined On-the-Fly whilst conducting
the survey, using both GPS and TPS. This saves time
in planning and executing the survey. With SmartPole, the most convenient location for positioning
the total station can be chosen. Traversing is no
longer required, each TPS set up can be conducted
independently with new coordinates and orientation being determined with SmartPole GPS. Once the
TPS orientation and coordinates are known, all measured points are automatically updated. The user can
chose control points that deliver the best geometric distribution whilst simultaneously completing the
survey. This ensures maximum flexibility and hence
Reporter: Customer magazine of Leica Geosystems
Published by: Leica Geosystems AG, CH-9435 Heerbrugg
Editorial Office: Leica Geosystems AG,
CH-9435 Heerbrugg, Switzerland, Phone +41 71 727 34 08,
[email protected]
Contents responsible: Alessandra Doëll
(Director Marketing Communications)
Editor: Agnes Zeiner
Publication details: The Reporter is published in English,
German, French and Spanish, twice a year.
Reprints and translations, including excerpts, are subject to
the Editor’s prior permission in writing.
© Leica Geosystems AG, Heerbrugg (Switzerland), April 2007
Printed in Switzerland
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