En este apartado se sugieren direcciones electrónicas que sirven como apoyo para las actividades propuestas
en cada una de las unidades del Programa de Estudios Inglés V y se incluyen los artículos sugeridos.
Con base en un principio de interculturalidad, las tareas buscan evitar confrontaciones abruptas entre dos
visiones del mundo, y anima a la comparación del propio mundo con el ajeno, a reflexionar sobre lo que se
percibe como diferente. En este sentido, se considera importante percibir, observar y tomar en consideración
la multiplicidad cultural tanto de una comunidad como de un individuo.
Los contenidos seleccionados como input promueven el reconocimiento del derecho a la identidad cultural y a
la convivencia equitativa y respetuosa de diferencias lingüísticas y culturales, de diversas formas de
construcción y transmisión de conocimiento.
Coincidiendo con la hipótesis del input+1, se seleccionaron materiales que promueven la adquisición de los
contenidos por medio de proveer a los aprendientes de input comprensible que esta un paso adelante de su
estado actual de competencia lingüística.
Everybody wants to rule the world
1.-Meta: que los alumnos aporten información personal sobre sí mismos y sobre un tercero
1. Lee el artículo.
2. Elige un personaje, que te resulte interesante, de entre los propuestos.
3. Busca información sobre su perfil personal.
4. Crea una ficha que incluya: foto, nacionalidad, profesión, actividades primordiales, datos importantes sobre
la razón por la que fueron nominados.
5. Crea otra ficha que incluya: tu foto o un icono distintivo, tu perfil personal, algún talento o característica que
te ligue a la persona elegida.
6. Comparte ambas fichas con la clase.
and we are powerful)
Se representa un mapamundi.
Se localizan los lugares de origen de cada una de las personas elegidas por los miembros del grupo.
Se ubican las fichas de los elegidos, junto con las de los alumnos generadores de información, en los
lugares de origen.
Se expone el periódico mural.
4. Rol del aprendiente: aportar información acerca de una persona poderosa que resulta influyente en su
proyecto de vida.
5.- Escenario: individual /fuera del salón del clase y en grupo /dentro del salón de clase.
6.- Producto: Periódico mural o banner, que expone un mapamundi localizando el lugar de origen de diversas
personas que influyen a la sociedad actual así como información personal sobre quien aporta la información y
el personaje elegido.
Oldies but goodies
1.- Meta: que los alumnos describan y comparen actividades diarias del pasado con las actuales.
2.- Input: http://www.crystalinks.com/ancient.html
Parejas o equipos:
Visita la página http://www.crystalinks.com/ancient.html
Explora la página, selecciona una cultura ancestral.
Investiga acerca de sus costumbres y actividades cotidianas.
Selecciona y resume anécdotas. Completa tabla KWL. Intercambia información con tus compañeros.
que revele secretos de esa cultura apoyándose en la tabla KWL.
Ilustra el artículo.
Se selecciona un equipo editor.
Cada equipo aporta la información obtenida.
La información se compila en un solo documento.
4.- Rol del aprendiente: recopilar información y transmitirla a través de un artículo de revista.
5.- Escenario: parejas o equipos/fuera del salón de clases, grupo/dentro y fuera del salón de clases
6.- Producto: Revista
Get dressed for success
1.- Meta: que los alumnos expresen opiniones y
hagan sugerencias sobre la elección de una imagen personal.
Visita la página http://www.macys.com/ .
Crea un portafolio que incluya atuendos para 3 ocasiones diferentes y guarda las imágenes en un
Visita la página http://simplygokwan.com/article.html
Selecciona corta y pega en un archivo las frases con las que estés de acuerdo.
Navega en la página http://www.channel4.com/4beauty/style
Decide la forma de tu cuerpo.
Escoge prendas adecuadas a tu forma de cuerpo y otras que nunca deberías usar. Guarda las imágenes
Decidan las formas de cuerpo más comunes en el plantel.
Con base en las sugerencias de GokWan, diseñen un guardarropa, dirigido a la población del plantel,
para cada estación del año.
Pueden utilizar la página http://www.dressupgirl.net/dressup/1430/College-Boy-Dress-Up.html
Impriman sus creaciones y argumenten sus elecciones.
Expongan el catálogo de ropa informal y compartan opiniones y sugerencias al respecto.
4.- Rol del aprendiente: diseña y opina acerca de la pertinencia de diferentes prendas de vestir.
5.- Escenario: individual y parejas/fuera del salón de clases, grupo/dentro del salón de clases
6.- Producto: Catálogo de uniformes, pertinentes para la población del plantel y el clima de la ciudad.
All around the world
1.- Meta: que los alumnos describan y comparen ciudades importantes.
Parejas o equipos.
Visita el sitio http://www.theworldgeography.com/2011/03/seven-cities-you-should-visit-before.html
Selecciona una ciudad a visitar.
Busca información acerca de los sitios más representativos de cada ciudad y recomienda 4.
Localiza información acerca de su ubicación, las actividades a realizar, horarios y costo.
Organiza la información en rutas y turísticas sencillas y económicas.
Despliega la información e ilustraciones en un documento electrónico.
Comparte la información con tus compañeros de grupo en la página.
Dentro de la página, participa en la encuesta planteada.
Comenten los resultados de la encuesta.
4.- Rol del aprendiente: compila información y genera un documento descriptivo.
5.- Escenario: parejas o equipos/fuera del salón de clases, grupo/dentro y fuera del salón de clases.
6.- Producto: Folleto electrónico
In my life
1.-Meta: que los alumnos describan experiencias de vida de personas que han cambiado destinos.
Visita la página http://watcheverydayheroes.com/about_us.html y lee acerca del proyecto.
Selecciona un personaje.
Infórmate acerca de su experiencia de vida y de sus logros. Puedes utilizar información de la página
Con base en información sobre la vida de alguno de los héroes mencionados, elabora una línea del
Selecciona una persona conocida o cercana a
Crea un poster que contenga información sobre su experiencia de vida y sus logros. Incluye gráficos
donde personifiques a esta persona como un superhéroe.
Puedes utilizar la página http://marvel.com/games/play/31/create_your_own_superhero
Comparte el poster con tu grupo.
Organicen una exhibición de sus héroes.
4.-Rol del aprendiente: recopila y genera información acerca de logros y experiencias de vida.
5.-Escenario: individual/fuera del salón de clases, grupo/dentro del salón de clases.
6- Producto: Exhibición gráfica.
1.-Meta: que los alumnos predigan el futuro con base en eventos actuales.
Visiten la página http://www.profuturists.org/futurists
Siguiendo los parámetros expuestos, sugieran un escenario futurista en alguna de las áreas discutidas
a lo largo del curso.
Creen un documental donde se narre el producto de su predicción.
4.- Rol del Aprendiente: recopila información acerca de predicciones futuras y genera información acerca del
futuro que visualiza
5.- Escenario: equipos/fuera de clase
6.- Producto: Documental que puntualiza predicciones acerca de los temas discutidos a lo largo del programa.
Home Page for the World's Business
Free Trial Issue
The World's Most Powerful People
Michael Noer and Nicole Perlroth, 11.11.09, 06:00 PM EST
The 67 heads of state, criminals, financiers and philanthropists who really run the world.
"I love power. But it is as an artist that I love it. I love it as a musician loves his violin, to draw out its
sounds and chords and harmonies." --Napoleon Bonaparte
Power has been called many things. The ultimate aphrodisiac. An absolute corrupter. A mistress. A
violin. But its true nature remains elusive. After all, a head of state wields a very different sort of power
than a religious figure. Can one really compare the influence of a journalist to that of a terrorist? And is
power unexercised power at all?
In compiling our first ranking of the World's Most Powerful People we wrestled with these questions-and many more--before deciding to define power in four dimensions. First, we asked, does the person
have influence over lots of other people? Pope Benedict XVI, ranked 11th on our list, is the spiritual
leader of more than a billion souls, or about one-sixth of the world's population, while WalMart ( WMT - news -people ) CEO Mike Duke (No. 8) is the largest private-sector employer in the
Then we assessed the financial resources controlled by these individuals. Are they relatively large
compared with their peers? For heads of state we used GDP, while for CEOs, we looked at a
composite ranking of market capitalization, profits, assets and revenues as reflected on our annual
ranking of theWorld's 2000 Largest Companies. In certain instances, likeNew York Times Executive
Editor Bill Keller (No. 51), we judged the resources at his disposal compared with others in the
industry. For billionaires, like Bill Gates (No. 10), net worth was also a factor.
Next we determined if they are powerful in multiple spheres. There are only 67 slots on our list--one for
every 100 million people on the planet--so being powerful in just one area is not enough to guarantee
a spot. Our picks project their influence in myriad ways. Take Italy's colorful prime minister, Silvio
Berlusconi (No. 12) who is a politician, a media monopolist and owner of soccer powerhouse A.C.
Milan, or Oprah Winfrey (No. 45) who can manufacture a best-seller and an American President.
Lastly, we insisted that our choices actively use their power. Ingvar Kamprad, the 83-year-old
entrepreneur behind Ikea and the richest man in Europe, was an early candidate for this list, but was
excluded because he doesn't exercise his power. On the other hand, Russian autocrat Vladimir Putin
(No. 3) scored points because he likes to throw his weight around by jailing oligarchs, invading
neighboring countries and periodically cutting off Western Europe's supply of natural gas.
To calculate the final rankings, five Forbes senior editors ranked all of our candidates in each of these
four dimensions of power. Those individual rankings were averaged into a composite score, which
determined who placed above (or below) whom.
U.S. President Barack Obama emerged, unanimously, as the world's most powerful person, and by a
wide margin. But there were a number of surprises. Former President George W. Bush didn't come
close to making the final cut, while his predecessor in the Oval Office, Bill Clinton, ranks 31st, ahead of
a number of sitting heads of government. Apple's ( AAPL -news - people ) Steve Jobs easily made the
list, while Arnold Schwarzenegger, the movie star governor of California (which alone has an economy
larger than Canada's) did not.
This ranking is intended to be the beginning of a conversation, not the final word. Is the Dalai Lama
(No. 39) really more powerful than the president of France (No. 56)? Do despicable criminals like
billionaire Mexican drug lord Joaquín Guzmán (No. 41) belong on this list at all? Who did we overlook?
What did we get wrong? Join the conversation by commenting now.
Read more about the World's Most Powerful People.
Tattooing is one of the oldest art forms on the planet, dating to prehistoric times and cave dwellers who often
created tattooes as part of ritual practices linked to shamanism, protection, connection with their gods, and
embuing them with magica powers. Early tattooing was used to symbolize the fertility of the earth and of
womankind, preservation of life after death, the sacredness of chieftainship and other cultural factors.
Tattooed markings on skin and incised markings in clay provide some of the earliest evidence that humans have
long practiced a wide range of body art. The written accounts of early European explorers also attest to the
elaborate and widespread nature of tattooing in various parts of the world, providing an insight into traditions
that had their origins deep in the past.
Marriage tattoos have been particularly popular to insure that you can find your lawful spouse or spouses in the
afterlife, even if you have passed 'through the veil,' many years apart. Ancient Ainu marriage rites state that a
woman who marries without first being tattooed, in the proper manner, commits a great sin and when she dies;
she will go straight to God.
Tattooing as a rite of adulthood, or passage into puberty, was another common tattoo ritual. If a girl can't take the
pain of tattooing, she is un-marriageable, because she will never be able to deal with the pain of child birth. If a
boy cannot deal with the pain of his puberty tattoos, he is considered to be a bad risk as a warrior, and could
become an outcast.
Since the dawn of tattooing, people have been marking themselves with the signs of their totem animals. On the
outer level of meaning, they are trying to gain the strengths and abilities of the totem animal. On a more inner
and mystical level, totem animals mean that the bearer has a close and mysterious relationship with this animal
spirit as his guardian. Totem animal tattoos often double as clan or group markings. Modern dragon, tiger, and
eagle tattoos often subconsciously fall into this category. My snake tattoos are examples of DNA and the human
Another common practice was tattooing for health wherein the tattooing of a god was placed on the afflicted
person, to fight the illness for them. An offshoot of tattooing for health is tattooing to preserve youth. Maori girls
tattooed their lips and chin, for this reason. When an old Ainu lady's eyesight is failing, she can re-tattoo her
mouth and hands, for better vision. This is still practiced today.
Tattoos for general good luck are found world-wide. A man in Burma who desires good luck will tattoo a parrot
on his shoulder. In Thailand, a scroll representing Buddha in an attitude of meditation is considered a charm for
good luck. In this charm, a right handed scroll is masculine and a left handed scroll is feminine. Today, in the
West, you can see dice, spades, and Lady Luck tattoos, which are worn to bring luck.
Tattooing has been a Eurasian practice since Neolithic times. "Otzi the Iceman", dated circa 3300 BC, exhibits
possible therapeutic tattoos (small parallel dashes along lumbar and on the legs). Tarim Basin (West China,
Xinjiang) revealed several tattooed mummies of a Western (Western Asian/European) physical type. Still
relatively unknown (the only current publications in Western languages are those of J P. Mallory and V H. Mair,
The Tarim Mummies, London, 2000), some of them could date from the end of the 2nd millennium BCE.
The world's most spectacular tattooed mummy was discovered by Russian anthropologist Sergei Ivanovich
Rudenko in 1948 during the excavation of a group of Pazyryk tombs about 120 miles north of the border
between China and Russia.
These mummies were found in the High Altai Mountains of western and southern Siberia and date from around
2400 years ago. The tattoos on their bodies represent a variety of animals. The griffins and monsters are thought
to have a magical significance but some elements are believed to be purely decorative. Altogether the tattoos are
believed to reflect the status of the individual.
Three tattooed mummies (c. 300 BCE) were extracted from the permafrost of Altaï in the second half of the 20th
century (the Man of Payzyrk, during the 1940s; one female mummy and one male in Ukok plateau, during the
1990s). Their tattooing involved animal designs carried out in a curvilinear style.
The Man of Pazyryk was also tattooed with dots that lined up along
the spinal column (lumbar region) and around the right ankle.
Pazyryk Mummies - Pazyryk Culture
The Pazyryks were formidable iron age horsemen and warriors who inhabited the steppes of Eastern Europe and
Western Asia from the sixth through the second centuries BC. They left no written records, but Pazyryk artifacts
are distinguished by a sophisticated level of artistry and craftsmanship. The Pazyryk tombs discovered by
Rudenko were in an almost perfect state of preservation. They contained skeletons and intact bodies of horses
and embalmed humans, together with a wealth of artifacts including saddles, riding gear, a carriage, rugs,
clothing, jewelry, musical instruments, amulets, tools, and, interestingly, hash pipes, described by Rudenko as
"apparatus for inhaling hemp smoke".
Also found in the tombs were fabrics from Persia and China, which the Pazyryks must have obtained on journeys
covering thousands of miles. Rudenko's most remarkable discovery was the body of a tattooed Pazyryk chief: a
thick-set, powerfully built man who had died when he was about 50. Parts of the body had deteriorated, but
much of the tattooing was still clearly visible. The chief was elaborately decorated with an interlocking series of
designs representing a variety of fantastic beasts.
The best preserved tattoos were images of a donkey, a mountain ram, two highly stylized deer with long antlers
and an imaginary carnivore on the right arm. Two monsters resembling griffins decorate the chest, and on the
left arm are three partially obliterated images which seem to represent two deer and a mountain goat.
On the front of the right leg a fish extends from the foot to the knee. A monster crawls over the right foot, and on
the inside of the shin is a series of four running rams which touch each other to form a single design. The left leg
also bears tattoos, but these designs could not be clearly distinguished. In addition, the chief's back is tattooed
with a series of small circles in line with the vertebral column. This tattooing was probably done for therapeutic
reasons. Contemporary Siberian tribesmen still practice tattooing of this kind to relieve back pain.
No instruments specifically designed for tattooing were found, but the Pazyryks had extremely fine needles with
which they did miniature embroidery, and these were undoubtedly used for tattooing In the summer of 1993
another tattooed Pazyryk mummy was discovered in Siberia's Umok plateau. It had been buried over 2,400 years
ago in a casket fashioned from the hollowed-out trunk of a larch tree. On the outside of the casket were stylized
images of deer and snow leopards carved in leather. Shortly after burial the grave had apparently been flooded
by freezing rain and the entire contents of the burial chamber had remained frozen in permafrost.
The body was that of a young woman whose arms had been tattooed with designs representing mythical
creatures like those on the previously discovered Pazyryk mummy. She was clad in a voluminous white silk
dress, a long crimson woolen skirt and white felt stockings.
On her head was an elaborate headdress made of hair and felt - the first of its kind ever found intact. Also
discovered in the burial chamber were gilded ornaments, dishes, a brush, a pot containing marijuana, and a hand
mirror of polished metal on the wooden back of which was a carving of a deer. Six horses wearing elaborate
harnesses had been sacrificed and lay on the logs which formed the roof of the burial chamber.
Considering the number of tattooed mummies which have been discovered, it is apparent that tattooing was
widely practiced throughout the ancient world and was associated with a high level of artistic endeavor. The
imagery of ancient tattooing is in many ways similar to that of modern tattooing.
All of the known Pazyryk tattoos are images of animals. Animals are the most frequent subject matter of
tattooing in many cultures and are traditionally associated with magic, totemism, and the desire of the tattooed
person to become identified with the spirit of the animal. Tattoos which have survived on mummies suggest that
tattooing in prehistoric times had much in common with modern tattooing, and that tattooing the world over has
profound and universal psychic origins.
Tattooing in Japan (Jomon Period)
Tattooing for spiritual and decorative purposes in Japan is thought to extend back to at least the Jomon or
paleolithic period (approximately 10,000 BCE) and was widespread during various periods for both the Japanese
and the native Ainu. Chinese visitors observed and remarked on the tattoos in Japan (300 BCE).
In Japanese the word used for traditional designs or those that are applied using traditional methods is irezumi
("insertion of ink"), while "tattoo" is used for non-Japanese designs. The earliest evidence of tattooing in Japan
comes from figurines called dogu. Most of these date to 3000 years ago and display similar markings to the
tattooed mouths found among the women of the Ainu (the Indigenous people of Japan).
Tattoo enthusiasts may refer to tattoos as tats, ink, art or work, and to tattooists as artists. The latter usage is
gaining support, with mainstream art galleries holding exhibitions of tattoo designs and photographs of tattoos.
Tattoo designs that are mass-produced and sold to tattoo artists and studios and displayed in shop are known as
Tattooing has also been featured prominently in one of the Four Classic Novels in Chinese literature, Water
Margin, in which at least three of the 108 characters, Lu Zhi Chen, Shi Jin, and Yan Chen are described as
having tattoos covering nearly the whole of their bodies. In addition, Chinese legend has it that the mother of
Yue Fei, the most famous general of the Song Dynasty, tattooed the words jin zhong bao guo on his back with
her sewing needle before he left to join the army, reminding him to "repay his country with pure loyalty".
Tattooing has actually been practiced since the time of the ancient Egyptians and is common throughout the
world. In 1891, archaeologists discovered the mummified remains of Amunet - Dynasty XI, Egypt, c. 4040 3994 years ago. This mummy was found at Thebes. Amunet (various spellings) was a priestess of Hathor. This
female mummy displayed several lines and dots and dashes tattooed on her body, aligned in abstract geometrical
These dot-and-dash patterns have been seen for many years throughout Egypt. This pattern and skill of tattoo
may have been borrowed from the Nubians. The art of tattoo developed during the Middle Kingdom and
flourished beyond. The evidence to date suggests that this art form was restricted to women only, and usually
these women were associated with ritualistic practice. These mummies give us site into how long this art form
has been practiced and how their art was displayed. From continent to continent this art form has developed and
transformed. Through the Egyptian eyes to other cultures, tattoo is something that satisfies various needs and
A second mummy also found depicted this same type of line pattern (the dancer). This mummy also had a
cicatrix pattern over her lower pubic region. In the figure to the right you can see the various patterns as they are
displayed on the body. The various design patterns also appeared on several figurines that date to the Middle
Kingdom, these figurines have been labeled the "Brides of Death." The figurines are also associates with the
goddess Hathor. All tattooed Egyptian mummies found to date are female. The location of the tattoos on the
lower abdomen are thought to be linked to fertility.
Egyptian tattooing was someitmes related to the sensual, erotic, and emotional side of life, and all these themes
are found in tattooing today.
An archaic practice in the Middle East involved people cutting themselves and rubbing in ash during a period of
mourning after an individual had died. It was a sign of respect for the dead and a symbol of reverence and a
sense of the profound loss for the newly departed; and it is surmised that the ash that was rubbed into the selfinflicted wounds came from the actual funeral pyres that were used to cremate bodies. In essence, people were
literally carrying with them a reminder of the recently deceased in the form of tattoos created by ash being
rubbed into shallow wounds cut or slashed into the body, usually the forearms.
Early Aussie Tattoos Match Rock Art Discovery - June 2, 2008
Body art was all the rage in early Australia, as it was in many other parts of the ancient world, and now a new
study reports that elaborate and distinctive designs on the skin of indigenous Aussies repeated characters and
motifs found on rock art and all sorts of portable objects, ranging from toys to pipes. The study not only
illustrates the link between body art, such as tattoos and intentional scarring, with cultural identity, but it also
suggests that study of this imagery may help to unravel mysteries about where certain groups traveled in the past,
what their values and rituals were, and how they related to other cultures.
"Distinctive design conventions can be considered markers of social interaction so, in a way (they are) a cultural
signature of sorts that archaeologists can use to understand ways people were interacting in the past," author
Liam Brady of Monash University's Center for Australian Indigenous Studies, told Discovery News.
For the study, published in the latest issue of the journal Antiquity, Brady documented rock art drawings; images
found on early turtle shell, stone and wood objects, such as bamboo tobacco pipes and drums; and images that
were etched onto the human body through a process called scarification. "In a way, a scarred design could be
interpreted as a tattoo," Brady said. "It was definitely a distinctive form of body ornamentation and it was
permanent since the design was cut into the skin. Evidence for scarification is primarily via (19th century)
anthropologists -- mainly A.C. Haddon -- who took black and white photographs of some designs, as well as
drawing others into his notebooks in the late 1800's," he added.
Both Haddon and Brady focused their attention on a region called the Torres Strait. This is a collection of islands
in tropical far northeastern Queensland. The islands lie between Australia and the Melanesian island of New
Guinea. Although people were living in the Torres Strait as early as 9,000 years ago, when sea levels were lower
and a land bridge connected Australia with New Guinea, archaeological exploration of the area only really began
with Haddon's 19th century work. Since body art, rock art, wooden objects and other tangible items have a
relatively short shelf life, Haddon's collections and data represent some of the earliest confirmed findings for the
Brady determined that within the body art, rock art and objects, four primary motifs often repeated: a fish
headdress, a snake, a four-pointed star, and triangle variants. The fish headdress, usually made of a turtle shell
decorated with feathers and rattles, was worn during ceremonies and has, in at least one instance, been linked to
a "cult of the dead." The triangular designs, on the other hand, were often scarred onto women's skin and likely
indicated these individuals were in mourning. Analysis of the materials found that two basic groups -horticulturalists and hunter-gatherers -- inhabited the Torres Strait during its early history. Aboriginal people at
Cape York, a peninsula close to Australia, had "a different artistic system in operation, which did not incorporate
many designs from Papua New Guinea," Brady said.
Based on land locations where the body art and object imagery were found, as well as the nature of the designs,
Brady concludes that the Cape York residents were the hunter-gatherers, while groups in more northerly
locations within Torres Strait appear to have been horticulturalists. Since imagery mixed and matched more
among the early farmers, Brady concludes they enjoyed kinship links, and engaged in extensive trade, with
Papua New Guinea groups. In the future, similar studies could help to identify cultural groups in other regions,
while also revealing their social interactions. Such studies could prove particularly useful for other parts of
Australia and New Zealand, where tattooing and body art, as well as totems -- protection entities often depicted
with colorful imagery -- were common.
Recently, for example, the Field Museum in Chicago returned the human remains of 14 Maori native New
Zealanders back to their country of origin. The remains are now at the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa.
Included in the collection of mandibles, crania and other bones is "one preserved head with facial tattoos,"
according to a Field Museum announcement. In an act of repatriation, nine tattooed Maori heads were also
recently gifted to Te Papa by Scotland's Aberdeen Museum. Te Taru White, a Maori specialist at Te Papa, said
the "ancestors" made "the long journey home to New Zealand and to their people." The heads are now in a
consecrated, sacred space within the New Zealand museum, where they may be studied and researched further.
In Brady's case, his work was undertaken as part of collaborative research projects initiated by certain Torres
Strait and Aboriginal communities.
Tattooing in Central and South America
In Peru, tattooed Inca mummies dating to the 11th century have been found. Inca tattooing is characterized by
bold abstract patterns which resemble contemporary tribal tattoo designs.
In Mexico and Central America, 16th century Spanish accounts of Mayan tattooing reveal tattoos to be a sign of
courage. When Cortez and his conquistadors arrived on the coast of Mexico in 1519 they were horrified to
discover that the natives not only worshipped devils in the form of statues and idols, but had somehow managed
to imprint indelible images of these idols on their skin. The Spaniards, who had never heard of tattooing,
recognized it at once as the work of Satan. As far as we know, only one Spaniard was ever tattooed by the
Mayas. His name was Gonzalo Guerrero, and he is mentioned in several early histories of Mexico.
How many women truly love the way they look? How many of us think we would be more attractive to
other people, more popular, happier, even -
women are made to feel that their beautiful natural bodies are not good enough the way they are.
They are everywhere we look: in the magazines we read, the TV shows and films we watch, the
adverts in the ad breaks, in music videos and on the billboards that surround us as we walk down the
street. The impeccable figures of famous women are presented as part and parcel of their success
and stylishness. In magazines, women celebrities are praised for their perfect figures or torn to pieces
if they are deemed too heavy or too skinny versus the unwritten but all prevailing single standard of
beauty. Unsurprisingly when we too compare ourselves to this standard we fail to measure up,
resulting in not just body dissatisfaction, but depression, shame and guilt, which all contributes to the
enormous pressure on women to conform to the body shape ideal.
Today one of the most extreme examples of a female body shape placed on a pedestal (or in this
case, a catwalk) as the height of chic is the controversial size zero, the equivalent of a UK size 4. The
modelling industry has been divided on this new extreme of designer thinness but the dangers of such
a body shape portrayed as ideal were definitely brought home after two models died as a result of their
struggle to achieve this almost unattainable body shape. With the average size in the UK being dress
size 16 it certainly seems obscene to present size 4 as a desirable size.
On the plus side
The tide does seem to be starting to turn on the notion that only one size and shape is beautiful. Wellknown fashion designers are starting to look more closely at the potential of
and fashion and have begun booking plus-size models for their advertising campaigns and catwalks.
The plus-size modelling industry is growing in leaps and bounds, with many well known model
agencies creating divisions to specifically locate and develop potential plus-size models to serve
We are starting to see fabulous full-figured women invading the media. And what a breath of fresh air
Colleen rivalling the wags in all the style stakes, the luscious Nigella Lawson on our TV screens, the
divine Queen Latifah in bigEngland entrant. And this is without even mentioning the host of gorgeous plus-size models taking the
industry by storm. The work being done by the likes of
also goes a long way to helping women realise that they are wonderful just as they are, whether
completely naked or supported by the right lingerie. We salute
for getting some gorgeous bodies of all shapes and sizes on our TV screens!
A vote for variety
Sometimes it may feel like women can never win, with magazines lambasting women for being too fat
too skinny! Some women are
naturally thin, some are naturally curvy, and as long as both are healthy then who is to say one is
not one fixed image, because every
woman is different and every size and shape can be beautiful.
models and movie stars with the flawless figures we see in advertising campaigns have not only got
the best personal trainers and sometimes plastic surgeons in the business, but the best make-up
artists, stylists and digital air-brushers too. No woman should be made to feel inferior because she
does not match up to this. Striving all your life for a shape that has been sold
the key to happiness, and beating yourself up about it will only stop you from getting the most out of
and look hot with wh
confidence-boosting underwear, anything is possible.
Friday, March 02, 2012
THE WORLD GEOGRAPHY
The World Geography is site about weird geographical facts, strange travel ideas, famous
buildings, unusual photos from around the world and much more...
Seven Cities You Should Visit Before They Sink
Tags: Earth Care
Many of us take for granted the notion that all of our beloved cities will be around for
centuries to come. However, cities around the world seem to be vying for the title
of "The Next Atlantis". Shaky foundations and encroaching seas are posing significant
threats to some of the world's largest and most beloved cities. When planning your next
vacation, keep in mind that some of the world's favorite destinations have a bit of a
ticking clock on them. Here are seven major cities that are preparing to take the
7. Bangkok, Thailand
capital is sinking - and sinking fast. However, unlike other cities on our list, a
Chao Phraya River - which
flows into the Bay of Bangkok about 30 miles south of the city center - this colossal
settlement is more likely to drown than sink. Experts now say that this mouthwatering
foodie destination - along with the dozens of beautiful temples found here - may be
under water inas little as seven years.
Bangkok's Floating Market photo source
According to Thai scientist Dr. Ajong Chumsai na Ayudhya, the fate of Bangkok can
best be explained by global warming. Asia News Network
humans were mainly to blame for such disasters because they were using up natural
resources, chopping down forests and kept emitting greenhouse gases with no regard for
will lead to
more severe tsunamis in the Gulf of Thailand that will have extremely negative effects
on the southern portion of the country. With less than a decade to spare, time might be
6. New York City, New York, USA
If you've never seen the Statue of Liberty or been dazzled by the lights of Times Square,
now's the time. Much like its Thai comrade,
doomed to suffer the effects of global warming. Sitting at the mouth of the Hudson
River where it flows into the Atlantic Ocean, this concrete jungle will soon be at a much
higher risk of damage from rising sea levels and imposing tropical storms. And unlike the
ones bobbing around in a barrel on Halloween, this Big Apple will not float.
Science Daily reports that the sea levels in the New York City area are expected to rise
about twice as quickly as sea levels around the world, meaning that Gotham will take
the plunge well before the rest of the United States. However, Science Daily says that
flooding is just one of the symptoms New York will suffer: "The submersion of low-lying
land, erosion of beaches, conversion of wetlands to open water and increase in the
salinity of estuaries all can affect ecosystems and damage existing coastal development."
Not only will the Empire City be transformed into a wading pool, but it will slowly be
washed out to sea.
5. Houston, Texas, USA
Houston, we really do have a problem - soon, NASA's Visitor's Center won't only be stuck
cosmopolitan is struggling to stay above ground. Built on a gold mine of natural
resources and the determination to flourish, Space City has become a major energy hub
and the taking-off point for U.S. space exploration. However,
city was built on a foundation of sand. Literally.
Drilling for Oil near Houston photo source
Houston sits on the loosely packed banks of four major bayous that empty into the Gulf
of Mexico. For years, residents of Houston relied on groundwater to fulfill their needs,
but the mass amounts of extraction needed to supply the ever-expanding city weakened
Oil extraction was also damaging to the foundation, as was
continuous sprawl, not to mention the 300 or so active fault lines that run beneath
Jersey Village to the northwest - are sinking by as much as two inches per year,
according to Science Daily. Experts note that while sinking has slowed significantly in
problem has yet to be found. If Houston is on your list of cities to see, you best prepare
soon for take-off.
4. Shanghai, China
Things aren't looking good for Shanghai, either. Located on China's coast, this sprawling
city was built on swamplands surrounding the mouth of the Yangze River. Originally a
small fishing village, Shanghai began to draw more and more residents in the mid19th century. Modest homes were replaced by breathtaking skyscrapers (not to mention
some of the best shopping venues in Asia), and Shanghai soon became the most densely
populated city in the world, housing over 20 million people by 2001. The city was
handling rapid expansion just fine until the early 20th century, when wells became a
major source of water and the underlying sediment deposit was disturbed. According to
PBS, Shanghai sank roughly eight feet between 1921 and 1965, which equals about
two inches per year. The city still continues to drop at a rate of about half an inch per
Nanjing Road, Shanghai photo source
According to experts, not much can be done to keep Shanghai above ground - the city is
simply too heavy for its foundation. However, in an effort to slow the sinking
process, all new high-rise buildings must be built with deep concrete piles to help support
their weight. If you have any interest in seeing the architecture for which Shanghai is
both famous and floundering, don't wait too long.
3. New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
When colonists chose New Orleans as the capital of French Louisiana, they did so
because of its inland locale. However, any land protection the city had has been washed
away, making America's favorite place to celebrate (approximately half of which sits at or
below sea level) even more prone to tropical storms.
New Orleans after hurricane Katrina photo source
It wasn't until after Hurricane Katrina that experts really took note of New Orleans'
downhill situation. In 2006, National Geographic reported that the city sank about
a quarter of an inch per year in the years leading up to Hurricane Katrina, while the
levees designed to protect the city from the Gulf sank at four or five times that rate,
exasperating the long-term effects of the storm. Experts say that not much can be done
to save the Big Easy. According to a report issued in 2009 by the National Academy of
Engineering and the National Research Council, "Levees and floodwalls surrounding New
alternative would be to elevate the first floor
of buildings to at least the 100-year flood level." Just goes to show that there's never
a time like the present to don your Mardi Gras mask and head south to Bourbon Street.
2. Venice, Italy
Venice, 2008 photo source
It's been several hundred years since the Venetians decided to construct the towering
St. Mark's Basilica and sprawling Piazza San Marco atop submerged wooden planks and
forgo roads in favor of canals. Back in the day, the city's geography made sense: Direct
access to the sea was necessary in order for Venitians to maintain control of commerce
on the Mediterranean Sea. But the dig for fresh water proved to have a negative impact
on this fish-shaped city: According to The Christian Science Monitor, Venice has sunk
almost a foot over the past 100 years. To make things worse, water levels in the
Mediterranean Sea are also rising. Although acqua alta (high water) has plagued this
ornate tourist hotspot for centuries, flooding frequency has increased dramatically in
recent years. Justin Demetri of LifeInItaly.com notes that Venice now experiences over
60 bouts of acqua alta each year.
Acqua alta, 2008 photo source
Preserving Venice has been a priority of the Italian Government for about 30 years.
Several billion euros have been dedicated to a flood defense system, the MOSE Project,
which is expected to be completed in 2011 or 2012. However, some experts claim that
the only way to save the city is to move it altogether. Either way, if you've always
dreamed of a gondola ride through the Bride of the Sea, you had better do so soon with
galoshes in tow.
1. Mexico City, Mexico
Resting on a fickle lake bed in the Valley of Mexico, Mexico City has been facing the
possibility of going under for centuries. However, according to geologists, there are parts
of this massive metropolis that are sinking by as much as eight inches per year.
Because of a lack of sufficient drainage, the city was heavily prone to flooding from
groundwater flowing down from the surrounding mountains, leading to the construction
of a vast underground drainage system. But over-extraction of groundwater from the
Texcoco lake bed during the 20th century has caused the city's clay foundation to
crumble, forcing the metropolis to sink deeper into the ground. And as the city sinks, so
does the drainage system, forcing waste water to reverse its course and head back into
the city. According to AZCentral.com, Mexico City's drainage capacity has decreased
by 30 percent since 1975.
Many of the buildings found in Mexico City's historic district -- including the
monumental Metropolitan Cathedral - have begun to sink into the soft clay on which
the city sits.
There are several projects underway to keep this sinking city afloat, including a
23-foot-wide ($1.1 billion) Eastern Drainage Tunnel that will deposit waste water about
40 miles north of the city. The tunnel should be completed by 2012. Work is also being
done to help save the architectural gems - like the popular Metropolitan Cathedral found in the Historic District, which are one of the city's major tourist draws. But despite
best efforts, engineers say that there is no way to keep Mexico City from sinking.
Philadelphia native Graves is an entrepreneur
and philanthropist who created this series to
showcase the people who have embraced the
ideology of paying it forward. People have given
to them and they have made the choice to give
to others. As a child, Graves endured nights on
park benches and days trying to navigate tough
schools. He promised himself that if he were to
become successful in his life that he would give
back to others in various ways. Holding true to
his promise, he and his wife, Gladys, began supporting their south Florida community
through Thanksgiving and Christmas giveaways. Soon, he was spreading his joy
throughout the country. Three years ago, he serviced more than 800 families in five
cities. Since that time, he has continued to give to people in cities from Philadelphia to
Los Angeles. Every Day Heroes allows him to spread his message of hope and giving
back to millions of people across the country.
The Camden native has returned to her community to work with youth. Despite a
childhood filled with abusive relationships and disease, she completed college and has a
details her work with a step team that she created for a local organization that helped
Smalls gives a candid assessment of her problems and the reason she wanted to give
back to her community. In addition to her step team, she has become a mentor to
several young women in the city of Camden.
The single mother of three struggles to make ends meet. Her story focuses on the true
of circumstances. Her experiences have enabled her to talk to other women about their
plight and give them encouragement to move on. The native of Puerto Rico, takes us on
a tour of the sparsely furnished home she shares with her two teenage sons and
daughter. In end, we see how her efforts to have better for those around her pay off.
The south Florida native is the true embodiment of taking the worse that life has to offer
and making the best of it. After enduring an unthinkable tragedy, Brown has reached out
to others who find themselves in similar situations. She is a woman in search of healing,
but finds that true healing comes through helping others. The set of twists and turns that
Brown has experienced would be enough to make anyone bitter, but she has used her
grief to help others recover.
We value the partnerships
products or a partner service, they will make sure you are up-to-date on the latest.
Below is a list of partners and links to their websites.
What is a Futurist?
A professional futurist is a person who studies the future in order to help people
understand, anticipate, prepare for and gain advantage from coming changes. It is not
the goal of a futurist to predict what will happen in the future. The futurist uses foresight
to describe what could happen in the future and, in some cases, what should happen in
Most people use some sort of foresight all the time - something as simple as listening to
the weather forecast to prepare for the next day. A professional futurist uses formal
methods to develop descriptions of possible futures. The output of a futures study may
include the driving forces, assumptions, evidence or indicators of the futures. A futurist
is more likely to say how or why a future could appear rather than to say what the future
One of the founding principles of the field of futures studies is the idea of personal and
organizational choice. Although the future is unknown, a person can identify possibilities,
select the most favorable outcomes and attempt to influence events to create a desired
By considering systems and human agency, futurists help identify choices that affect the
future, for ourselves and future generations.
What do futurists do?
Futurists work in large and small businesses, governments and non-profits, as teachers
or researchers in education, and as consultants or as permanent staff. Many futurists
focus on one topic such as a technology or an industry. Other futurists study broad
social changes or global problems. All futurists take a very wide view of the world in
both scope and time. Futurists tend to take a much broader perspective, consider longer
time horizons, and include many more factors in a study than analysts such as
economists, technology specialists, social critics or political commentators.
nalytical process falls into five general areas:
Framing - understanding the current state of affairs
Visioning - opening the range of possibilities
Describing - explaining or reporting on possible futures
Scanning - looking for indications of the future
Planning - creating/implementing a future direction
Where do you begin?
Generally a futurist is called
upon to help make a decision, solve a particular problem, adapt to a coming change, or
identify paths toward innovation.
The foundation of a good futures project is the solid understanding of the present
conditions and historical influences. A futurist describes a situation using a deliberate
and structured method. This process includes the surface conditions of, for example, an
industry, but the futurist also studies the goals and purposes behind the industry.
The framework of a futures study usually can include many different kinds of
Data-driven evidence like trend analysis and historical analysis
Descriptions of driving forces like a systems model
Mapping of influence networks, leaders or followers
Perspectives and visions of leaders and decision makers in the field
Current accepted expectations of the future of the field
Understanding the current conditions and the accepted assumptions about the field are
key to opening the future.
How does a futurist come up with new ideas about a future that does not exist
Discovering what could happen in the future can be one of the most exciting parts of a
futures study. Futurists use a wide range of techniques to imagine what could be
One way to find out about future possibilities is to ask people. Futurists use a number of
techniques to ask people about their ideas and dreams of the future. The methods range
from structured surveys of experts, to workshops, to informal interviews.
Another way to explore the future is to look deep within oneself. By directed
otherwise been overlooked.
Visioning is used to discover new opportunities, open and expand the range of
possibilities, survey a full range potential futures and explore the future, but it also leads
From the discoveries about the future, the final step is to select from all the possibilities
what is the most plausible and what is most desirable. The purpose of many visioning
exercises can be to get a detailed description of what the most appealing future would
look like. From the vision, we can begin to understand how to move toward that future.
Scanning is what futurist
There are two types of scanning. The first is to study the broad trends shaping our world.
Futurists use the acronym STEEP - for Society, Technology, Economic, Environmental,
Political - to categorize information. The combination of STEEP trends paint a picture of
the direction and the expectations of the future. Futurists use a very broad view of the
The second type of scanning looks for anomalies or unusual events that may provide an
indication of change or a solid piece of evidence for an emerging trend, called weak
Many futurists and
organizations use structured methods of sorting and categorizing data to help sort useful
information from noise.
Most get information from a wide variety of sources including newspapers, books,
periodicals, scientific and trade journals, forecasts, interviews with subject matter
experts, electronic media, arts and cultural trends, to name only a few. While most
futurists scan broadly for background information, it is most effective when used in
combination with a defined, focused framework.
Describing Possible Futures
Everyone likes a good story
For futurists, describing the future falls into two types of activities: forecasting and
writing scenarios. The two are very different and it is important to understand why.
Forecasting describes how events may unfold. Everyone is familiar with a weather
forecast. A futures forecast can take the form of a technology road map, a projection of a
trend or a warning of an impending event. Although many futurists prefer to stay away
from forecasting, we all do it to some extent. However, rather than predicting a single
future, futurists consider multiple possible futures. A generally accepted forecast is called
a probable or baseline future.
Another common description of the future for a futurist is a set of scenarios. A scenario
is a description of how a future would turn out if a certain set of events or conditions
happen. Scenarios are usually presented in a set of different possible futures where each
scenario is based on different conditions. Back to the weather analogy: with no forecast
I can still plan for multiple scenarios. For example, if it is sunny tomorrow, I will take a
walk in the park. The second scenario: if it rains tomorrow, I will read a book.
Scenarios are a way of describing a future so you can consider the consequences before
an event happens. It may never happen - probably will never happen - but foresight will
enable you to make better decisions.
Planning is the process of taking all the insights from visioning, scanning, scenarios and
forecasts plugging them
How you apply the knowledge you gain from your futures work depends on why you were
exploring in the first place. Some of the possibilities:
prepare for change
make better decisions today
be ready for whatever does happen
assess the long term implications of choices
imagine new opportunities and innovations
Perhaps the most important planning activity is to be able to plot a course to get from
the present to the future you desire. If you come to a preferred vision of the future you
get there. Once you have an idea of what needs to happen, you can begin to plan how
to make each step along the way take you in the right direction.
All of the methods, techniques, and processes of a professional futurist are intended to
improve our understanding of what needs to be done today. Many times a final product
of a futures project is not important. The key outcome is that during the process of
exploring the future, participants are deeply engaged and become aware of how to see
the future for themselves.
The objective is frequently not to come up with a single answer, but to change the way
that you think about what could happen and how to choose what should happen.