Imprimir -MUNIBE 57 (5-XXXX)+PEQUEÑO.QXD

Comentarios

Transcripción

Imprimir -MUNIBE 57 (5-XXXX)+PEQUEÑO.QXD
HOMENAJE A JESÚS ALTUNA
Trabajos sobre
Paleontología, Arqueozoología, Antropología
Arte, Arqueología y Patrimonio arqueológico
Tomo I
Paleontología y Arqueozoología
(Antropologia - Arkeologia) 57
2005/2006
SOCIEDAD DE CIENCIAS
ARANZADI
ZIENTZI ELKARTEA
MUNIBE (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57/1 Homenaje a Jesús Altuna 221-237
SAN SEBASTIAN
2005/2006
ISSN 1132-2217
Mollusk and tortoise size as proxies for stone age
population density in South Africa:
Implications for the evolution of human cultural capacity
Tamaño de los moluscos y tortugas como representantes para
la densidad de población de la edad de piedra en Sudáfrica:
implicaciones para la evolución de la capacidad cultural humana
KEY WORDS: Middle Stone Age, Later Stone Age, South Africa, population density, modern human origins.
PALABRAS CLAVE: Paleolítico Medio, Paleolítico Tardío, Sudáfrica, densidad de población, orígenes de los humanos modernos.
Teresa E. STEELE*
Richard G. KLEIN**
ABSTRACT
Research on the evolution of fully modern human cognitive capacities and cultural behaviors has flourished in recent years. Here, we
focus on distinguishing between the two best-described models. The first hypothesizes a rapid, abrupt development of fully modern human
behavior about 50,000 years ago (50 kya), at the transition from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) to the Later Stone Age (LSA) of Africa. The
second proposes a gradual accumulation of advanced behavioral traits within the MSA (250-50 kya), ultimately coalescing in the LSA. The
alternatives differ in the proposed relationship between population density and cultural change within the MSA, and this allows a test with the
archaeological record of South Africa. In the Abrupt and Late Model, human population density in the MSA should be generally lower than in
the LSA and there should be no trend towards higher population densities during the most recent MSA. In the Gradual Accumulation Model,
human population densities should increase during the MSA, in keeping with the gradual or piecemeal development of advanced behaviors
that presumably enhanced reproduction and survival. Past human population densities are impossible to calculate, but size changes in marine
mollusks and tortoises can be used to track changes in density through time. This is because mollusks and tortoises grow continuously; they
can be collected without special technology or risk; and human collectors tend to take the largest ones first, for reasons of visibility and food
value. More intensive collection will thus reduce average mollusk or tortoise size, and during the stone age, the intensity of collection
probably depended mainly on the number of collectors. A shift toward significantly smaller mollusks or tortoises thus implies larger, or at
least denser,J human populations. Mollusk and tortoise size observations summarized here suggest that MSA populations tended to be less
dense than LSA populations on the south and west coasts of South Africa, and the difference appears to owe more to culture than to environment,
because the MSA and LSA localities represent a range of environments, scattered widely in time and space. The difference tentatively
supports the Abrupt and Late Model. More conclusive support will require additional observations, particularly from early LSA sites,
antedating 13 kya.
RESUMEN
La investigación sobre las capacidades cognitivas y los comportamientos culturales totalmente humanos ha florecido en los últimos años.
En el presente documento nos centraremos en distinguir los dos modelos mejor descritos. El primero establece la hipótesis de que se produjo un abrupto desarrollo del comportamiento del humano totalmente moderno hace aproximadamente 50.0000 años, en la transición entre el
Paleolítico Medio (PM) al Paleolítico Tardío (PT) en África. El segundo propone una acumulación gradual de rasgos conductuales avanzados
dentro de la PM (250.000-50.000 años) que acaban fusionándose en la PT. Las alternativas varían en la relación propuesta entre la densidad
de población y el cambio cultural dentro de la PM, lo que permite realizar una prueba con el registro arqueológico de Sudáfrica. En el Modelo
Abrupto y Tardío, la densidad de población de la PM debería ser por lo general inferior a la de la PT y no debería existir ninguna tendencia hacia mayores densidades de población durante la PM. En el Modelo de Acumulación Gradual, la densidad de población humana debería crecer
durante la PM al ritmo del desarrollo gradual o poco sistemático de los comportamientos avanzados que se supone que mejoraron la reproducción y la supervivencia. Las densidades de las poblaciones humanas del pasado resultan imposibles de calcular, aunque los cambios en
* TERESA E. STEELE, Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6
D-04103 Leipzig Germany Phone: +49 (0) 341 35 50 364 E-mail: [email protected]
** RICHARD G. KLEIN, Program in Human Biology, Building 80, Inner Quad , Stanford University, Stanford,
CA 94305 USA, Phone: +1 650-725-9819 E-mail: [email protected]
222
TERESA E. STEELE & RICHARD G. KLEIN
los tamaños de los moluscos marinos y de las tortugas nos sirven para hacer un seguimiento de los cambios de densidad a lo largo del tiempo. Eso se debe a que los moluscos y las tortugas crecen de manera continua; pueden recogerse sin ninguna tecnología ni riesgo especiales;
y los recolectores humanos tienden a coger primero los de mayor tamaño por motivos de visibilidad y de valor alimenticio. Una recolección
más intensiva reducirá así el tamaño medio de los moluscos y de las tortugas y, durante la edad de piedra, la intensidad de la recolección probablemente dependió sobre todo del número de recolectores. Un cambio hacia moluscos o tortugas más pequeños significa así una población humana mayor o por lo menos más densa. Las observaciones sobre el tamaño de los moluscos y de las tortugas que se resumen aquí
sugieren que las poblaciones de la PM tendían a ser menos densas que las de la PT en las costas del sur y del oeste de Sudáfrica y que la diferencia parece deberse más a motivos culturales que al entorno porque las ubicaciones de la PM y de la PT representan una gama de entornos diseminados ampliamente en el tiempo y en el espacio. La diferencia parece apoyar de forma tentativa al Modelo Abrupto y Tardío.
Contar con apoyos más concluyentes requerirá más observaciones, en particular en los yacimientos de las primeras épocas de la PT anteriores al 13.000.
LABURPENA
Azken urteotan gorakada izugarria izan dute berariaz gizakiari dagozkion gaitasun kognitibo eta jokabide kulturalen gaineko ikerketek. Lan
honetan, orain arte modurik zehatzenean deskribatu diren bi ereduak aztertuko ditugu. Lehenengo ereduak ezarritako hipotesiaren arabera,
duela 50.000 urte inguru, Erdiko Harri Arotik (EHA) Harri Aro Berantiarrerako (HAB) igarobidean, Afrikan bat-bateko jauzia eman zuen gizakiaren
bilakaerak jokabide guztiz modernorantz. Bigarren hipotesiak ezartzen duenaren arabera, ordea, Erdiko Harri Aroaren barruan (250.000tik
50.000 urtera bitartean) mailaz maila metatuz joan ziren jokabide-ezaugarri aurreratuak, eta horiek guztiek bat egin zuten Harri Aro
Berantiarrean. Proposatzen diren bi aukeren arteko aldea EHAren barruko biztanleriaren dentsitatean eta kultur aldaketan oinarritzen da, eta
horrek aldi berean aukera ematen du Hego Afrikako erregistro arkeologikoan proba bat egiteko. Lehengo hipotesiko ereduan, Erdiko Harri
Aroan bat-bateko jauzia eman zela adierazten duenean, alegia, biztanleriaren dentsitatea, oro har, Harri Aro Berantiarrean baino txikiago behar
zukeen izan, eta EHAn zehar ez zegokeen dentsitate handiagorako inolako joerarik. Bigarren hipotesiaren arabera, hau da, mailaz mailako metaketaren eredua proposatzen duenaren arabera, ugalketa eta biziraupena ustez hobetu zuten jokabide aurreratuak garatu ziren heinean areagotu zen giza biztanleriaren dentsitatea. Iragan urruneko giza populazioen dentsitateak kalkulatzea ezinezkoa da. Hala ere, denboran zehar
dentsitate horiek egindako bilakaeraz ohartzeko modua badago itsas moluskuen eta dortoken tamainak aztertuz. Horretarako, kontuan hartuko
da moluskuak eta dortokak etengabe handitzen direla neurriz; eta horiek biltzeak ez duela eskatzen inolako teknologia berezirik eta ez duela
inolako arriskurik. Bestalde, biltzaileek tamaina handienekoak biltzeko joera dute, bai errazago ikusten direlako bai elikagai gehiago dutelako.
Bilketa intentsiboaren ondorioz, harrapatutako moluskuen eta dortoken bataz besteko tamaina murriztu egingo litzateke. Eta Harri Aroaz ari garelarik, bilketaren intentsitate-neurria biltzaile kopuruaren arabera ezarri ahal izango litzateke. Moluskuen eta dordoken tamaina txikirantz aldatzeak giza populazio altua edo biztanleriaren dentsitate handiagoa adieraziko luke. Honako lan honetan bildu diren molusku eta dortoken tamainuari buruzko azterketaren argitan ondorioztatzen denez, Hego Afrikako hegoalde eta mendebaldeko itsasertzean kokatutako biztanleriari dagokionez, HABn baino dentsitate txikiagoa zegoen EHAn. Horrenbestez, badirudi bi aroen arteko aldea arrazoi kulturaletan oinarritzen dela
gehiago inguruari dagozkionetan baino, Erdiko Harri Aro eta Harri Aro Berantiarreko kokalekuak denbora eta espazioan ondo barreiatuta daudelako eta gainera era askotako inguruetan. Badirudi, dentsitatearen desberdintasun horrek bat-bateko aldaketa berantiarreko ereduaren alde
egiten duela, baina arrazoi erabakigarriak lortzeko, beharrezkoa da gaia ikertzen jarraitzea, batez ere 13.000 urtetik goragoko antzinatasuna duten Harri Aro Berantiarreko aztarnategietan.
THE ORIGIN OF MODERN HUMAN BEHAVIOR
Research on the evolution of fully modern human cognitive capacities and cultural behaviors
has flourished in recent years. H ENSHILWOOD &
M AREAN (2003) summarize current alternative
models, all of which assume that fully modern
behavior evolved sometime during the Middle or
Late Pleistocene in Africa. The models
differ mainly on the timing of this evolution. Here
we focus on testing the two best-described
models. The first, or Abrupt and Late Model,
posits a rapid or abrupt evolution of human cultural
behavior about 50,000 years ago (50 kya), during
the transition from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) to
the Later Stone Age (LSA) of Africa. The second,
or Gradual Accumulation Model, proposes a
gradual accumulation of advanced behavioral traits
throughout the MSA, culminating in the LSA.
Proponents of the Abrupt and Late Model
argue that MSA Africans and Middle Paleolithic
Europeans were behaviorally similar and that they
shared derived behaviors such as sophisticated
stone flaking, active hunting, pigment collection,
and the control of fire. However, neither the
Africans nor the Europeans routinely produced art
Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57/1, 2005/2006 · Homenaje a Jesús Altuna
objects or ornaments, buried their dead with grave
goods, commonly worked antler, bone, or ivory, or
often transported raw materials over long distances.
In these respects and others, they differed from
many human populations after 50-40 kya, including
most historic hunter-gatherers, whose material
culture commonly reflected such behaviors.
According to the Abrupt and Late model, the MSA
ended abruptly when a small group of people
came to resemble historic hunter-gatherers in
their behavioral capabilities and then spread to
replace or swamp non-modern people elsewhere,
first in Africa and then in Eurasia. Klein has
suggested that the development of fully modern
(LSA and later) behavior followed on a genetic mutation that fostered the fully modern brain (KLEIN,
2000; KLEIN & EDGAR, 2002). In his view, it was the
modern brain, with its seemingly infinite capacity
for innovation, which promoted the modern
diaspora, first through Africa and then beyond.
Others who accept the Abrupt and Late Model
believe that the biological (neural) capacity for
modern human behavior existed long before 50
kya, but that rapid technological, sociocultural,
and/or demographic change were the factors that
made it manifest (BAR-YOSEF, 1998, 2000; WHITE,
S. C. Aranzadi. Z. E. Donostia/San Sebastián
MOLLUSK AND TORTOISE SIZE AS PROXIES FOR STONE AGE POPULATION DENSITY IN SOUTH AFRICA: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF HUMAN CULTURAL CAPACITY
1992). All proponents of the Abrupt and Late
Model believe that the advanced behaviors
associated with the LSA conferred fitness
advantages that promoted larger LSA population
sizes and their eventual dispersal from Africa.
The Gradual Accumulation Model postulates
that anatomical and cognitive modernity emerged
together at least 100 kya in Africa and perhaps at
the time when the MSA first emerged, 250-200
kya. Archaeological markers of modern cognition
and behavior then evolved in a gradual and
piecemeal way during the MSA, culminating in the
LSA about 50 kya. Armed with the full-blown LSA,
fully modern humans then expanded to other
regions of the world (DEACON & DEACON, 1999;
HENSHILWOOD et al., 2002; MCBREARTY & BROOKS,
2000). MCBREARTY & BROOKS (2000:532) suggest
that new technologies and risk-management
strategies linked to modern cognition and behavior
increased infant survivorship and decreased
overall mortality beginning at least 100 kya,
promoting population growth and geographic
expansion. Alternatively, environmental deterioration
could have concentrated populations in some
regions, increasing their density and leading to the
invention of new technologies and survival
strategies. MCBREARTY & BROOKS (2000) did not
specify whether population increase occurred only
in certain parts of Africa or more or less everywhere
the MSA existed. However, much of the archaeological evidence they cite for advanced MSA
behavior comes from South Africa, which must
then mean that MSA population density increased
in southern Africa, at least sporadically. The
Gradual Accumulation Model has gained support
recently from the discovery of advanced artifacts
in the MSA levels of Blombos Cave on the south
coast of South Africa (D’E RRICO et al. , 2005;
HENSHILWOOD et al., 2001a; HENSHILWOOD et al.,
2004; H ENSHILWOOD et al. , 2002). The artifacts
include bone points, engraved ochre fragments,
and purported shell beads, all of which are taken
to indicate a level of behavior of the kind that
becomes commonplace only after 50 kya with the
LSA.
One way to determine which model is more
likely to be correct is to develop predictions that
can be tested in the archaeological record. The
models differ conspicuously in their predictions for
changes in population density and its effect on
behavior. The Abrupt and Late Model predicts that
human population density should be relatively low
throughout the MSA and there should be no trend
toward higher density through MSA time. The
Gradual Accumulation Model predicts that
Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57/1, 2005/2006 · Homenaje a Jesús Altuna
223
populations should increase during the MSA ,
particularly associated with the appearance of
occasional bone artifacts, beads, and other
markers of advanced behavior. The Gradual
Accumulation model does not specify whether
higher human population densities should precede
advanced behaviors or vice versa, but archaeological
indicators of human population density could help
to decide this issue. The main obstacle to this may
be sufficient temporal resolution to determine
whether population density or behavior changed
first.
A larger problem is that a postulated difference
in population density between the MSA and the
LSA could never be absolute, because density
depends not just on technology but also on
environment. Thus, LSA populations in relatively
impoverished environments would be expected to
have low, MSA -like population densities
regardless of their advanced technology. One way
to confront this confounding effect of environment
is to compare MSA and LSA populations over a
wide range of ancient environments, to determine
if a general MSA/LSA contrast in population
density still emerges. This is the approach we have
chosen here. Ultimately, as more data accumulates,
we plan to use sediments, mammalian fauna, and
other paleoenvironmental indicators to control for
environmental effects more directly.
At the present time, only South Africa presents
an archaeological record that can be used to test
the population predictions of the alternative
models, and assemblages from the south (Indian
Ocean) and west (Atlantic Ocean) coasts are
particularly pertinent for their number and rich
faunal associations (Figure 1 and Table 1). The two
coasts have long differed environmentally, which
means that comparisons between them can be
used to determine the extent to which apparent
chronological variation in MSA behavior and
population density reflects a general trend or only
local idiosyncrasy. For this reason, it is important
to examine both coasts simultaneously.
MOLLUSKS AND TORTOISES AS PROXIES
FOR HUMAN POPULATION DENSITY
Estimating human population densities and
sizes from archaeological site densities is
notoriously difficult, because different settlement
patterns may generate different numbers of sites
and younger sites tend to be more numerous than
older ones for reasons of preservation alone.
However, it may still be meaningful that LSA sites
significantly outnumber MSA sites even though
S. C. Aranzadi. Z. E. Donostia/San Sebastián
224
TERESA E. STEELE & RICHARD G. KLEIN
the MSA spanned a much longer time. This is true
even when temporally equivalent MSA and LSA
segments are considered, leaving the impression
that MSA people were generally less numerous.
Size changes in marine mollusks and tortoises
offer another way to track human population
density (BUCHANAN et al., 1978; DE BOER et al.,
2000; KLEIN et al., 2004; KLEIN & CRUZ-URIBE, 1983,
1987, 2000; M A N N I N O & T H O M A S , 2002;
PARKINGTON, 2003; SPETH & TCHERNOV, 2002; STINER
et al., 2000; STINER et al., 1999). Mollusks and
tortoises can be captured without special
technology or risk, and they grow continuously.
People usually take the largest ones first, either
because these provide the highest food return,
because they are more visible, or sometimes because they taste better. It follows that more
intensive collection will tend to reduce average
individual tortoise or mollusk size.
Ethnographic and ecological research in the
Transkei on the southeast coast of South Africa
illustrates the potential of mollusk size to illuminate
the intensity of collection. Not surprisingly, the
research has shown that the number of human
collectors determined the annual number of
mollusks removed per kilometer of rocky shore
(HOCKEY et al., 1988). It has further shown that the
collectors preferred large mollusks, in part because
they believed that larger mollusks tasted better
(B IGALKE , 1973; L ASIAK , 1991, 1992). In some
species of limpets, larger individuals occur higher
on the rocky shore, making them more visible,
available longer, and therefore easier to collect
(B RANCH , 1975; H OCKEY & B OSMAN , 1986). The
research supports a hypothesized link between
increased human exploitation and reduced
mollusk size, because when collectors were given
access to previously protected coastal areas,
various mollusks they collected, including brown
mussels ( Perna perna ) and goat’s eye [ Patella
(Cymbula) oculus ] and granular [ Patella
(Scutellastra) granularis] limpets, were larger than
those from sites that had been long exploited;
brown mussel size even decreased during a single
study period (H OCKEY & B OSMAN , 1986; L ASIAK ,
1991, 1992). The role of human predation in
reducing granular limpet size became especially
clear when protected and exploited areas were
paired for similar geomorphology, topography, and
exposure to wave action, and exploited areas
produced much smaller limpets (H O C K E Y &
BOSMAN, 1986). However, some taxa, including
turban shells (Turbo sarmaticus), did not differ in
average size between the protected and
unprotected areas, suggesting that susceptibility
Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57/1, 2005/2006 · Homenaje a Jesús Altuna
Figure 1. Map showing the approximate locations of the MSA and
LSA sites cited in the text and Figures 2-4.
Sites with MSA occupations are shown in boldface.
S. C. Aranzadi. Z. E. Donostia/San Sebastián
MOLLUSK AND TORTOISE SIZE AS PROXIES FOR STONE AGE POPULATION DENSITY IN SOUTH AFRICA: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF HUMAN CULTURAL CAPACITY
Blombos Cave
Boegoeberg 2
Byneskranskop 1
Connies Limpet Bar
Die Kelders 1
Diepkloof Rock Shelter
Duiker Eiland
Dune Field Midden
Elands Bay Cave
Hail Stone Midden
Hawston
Hoedjiespunt 1 & 3
Klasies River Main
Nelson Bay Cave
Paternoster 1062
Pearly Beach
Sea Harvest
Steenboksfontein
Tortoise Cave
Ysterfontein 1
BBC
BNK1
DK1
DRS
EBC
HDP
KRM
NBC
SBF
TC
YFT1
225
et al. (2005); HENSHILWOOD et al. (2002);
HENSHILWOOD et al. (2001b)
KLEIN et al. (1999)
KLEIN & CRUZ-URIBE (1983); SCHWEITZER & WILSON (1982)
BUCHANAN (1988)
GRINE et al. (1991); KLEIN & CRUZ-URIBE (2000); MAREAN et al. (2000);
TANKARD & SCHWEITZER (1976)
PARKINGTON (1987)
ROBERSHAW (1979)
ORTON (2002); PARKINGTON et al. (1992)
KLEIN & CRUZ-URIBE (1987); PARKINGTON (1988)
BUCHANAN (1988)
AVERY (1976)
BERGER & PARKINGTON (1995); STYNDER et al. (2001)
DEACON (1995); SINGER & WYMER (1982)
DEACON (1984); INSKEEP (1987); KLEIN (1972)
YATES (1998)
AVERY (1976)
VOLMAN (1978)
JERARDINO & SWANEPOEL (1999); JERARDINO & YATES (1996)
JERARDINO (1993; 1995); ROBEY (1987)
HALKETT et al. (2003); KLEIN et al. (2004)
D’ERRICO
Table 1. List of MSA and LSA sites discussed in the text, the site abbreviations used in the figures, and some key references.
of mollusks to heavier exploitation is related to the
life history characteristics and habitat preferences
of each taxon (LASIAK, 1991, 1992). Limpet size is
particularly likely to reflect the intensity of human
collection, because unlike many other species,
especially mussels, limpets lack subtidal stocks
from which intertidal populations can be quickly
replenished. This special vulnerability makes
limpets especially useful as a proxy for human
collector intensity.
Tortoises resemble limpets in many respects,
including relatively long life spans, continuous
growth, late reproductive maturation and high
hatchling mortality, which means that they also
broadly resemble limpets in their age structure
and size distribution. STINER et al. (2000) note that
intense tortoise collection for the illegal pet trade
has diminished mean individual size in North
Africa and Spain. Collection for pets is especially
biased towards larger individuals, because they
are more visible and have greater market value.
S TINER et al . (2000) add that in some tortoise
species adult females are larger than males of the
same age, so that removing the largest individuals
from a population tends to reduce the reproductive
output of the population and its ability to recover
from exploitation. With this in mind, STINER et al.
(2000) simulated the effects of varying levels of
predation on tortoises using a range of fertility and
mortality parameters and concluded that tortoises
are highly sensitive to predation and can easily be
driven to local extinction.
Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57/1, 2005/2006 · Homenaje a Jesús Altuna
MOLLUSK SIZE DURING THE MSA AND LSA
OF SOUTH AFRICA
A wide variety of mollusks inhabit the intertidal
zones on the south and west coasts of South
Africa, but limpets and mussels dominate
archaeological shell deposits. The mix of species
on each coast is different, largely reflecting
differences in the offshore waters and in the
dominant current systems. The warm, tropical
Agulhas current flows from east to west along the
south coast, favoring intertidal species that prefer
or can tolerate warm water. On the far west of
the south coast, periodic upwelling produces
cooler temperatures, allowing warm and cold
water marine communities to co-exist (BRANCH et
al., 1981; BRANCH et al., 1994). Besides endemic
limpets and mussels mentioned above, the south
coast houses abalone or perlemoen ( Haliotis
midae ), turban shells ( Turbo spp.), and other
edible mollusks. For reasons of preservation
(durability), the opercula of turban shells are
particularly conspicuous in archaeological sites.
The cold Benguela current flows from south to
north along the west coast, and prevailing
westerly winds promote upwellings of cold,
nutrient rich waters (BRANCH et al., 1981;BRANCH et
al., 1994). The west coast intertidal fauna thus
tends to be comprised of species like black
mussels (Choromytilus meridionalis) and granite
limpets [Patella (Cymbula) granatina] that prefer
relatively cool temperatures. Other common
S. C. Aranzadi. Z. E. Donostia/San Sebastián
226
TERESA E. STEELE & RICHARD G. KLEIN
species include Argenville’s limpet [ Patella
(Scutellastra) argenvillei] and the granular limpet,
which also occur sporadically on the south coast.
Limpet size is commonly documented from
maximum shell length, while turban shell size is
estimated from the maximum diameter of the
operculum. Figures 2-5 use box plots to document
archaeological size variation for five species –
Cape turban shells, granite limpets, granular
limpets, and Argenville’s limpets – that are
commonly represented by easily measured
specimens in south or west coast sites. In each
figure, the vertical line near the center of each
boxplot marks the median for a sample; the
shaded rectangles designate the 95% confidence
limits around the median; the open rectangle
encloses the middle half of the data (between the
25 th and 75 th percentiles); the horizontal line
bisecting the plot marks the range of continuous
measurements; and open circles and starbursts
mark outliers. When the 95% confidence limits for
two sample medians do not overlap, their medians
differ at or below the 0.05 significance level.
The figures show that MSA turban shells,
granite limpets, granular limpets, and Argenville’s
limpets all tend to be significantly larger than their
LSA counterparts. The pattern is particularly clear
for the Cape turban shell and for the granite
limpet, which is the species for which we have
the greatest number of observations. Median
sizes of MSA black mussels tend to vary within
the range of LSA mussels (Figure not shown. See
HALKETT et al., 2003; PARKINGTON, 2003). This was
probably expectable, since unlike the turban shells
and especially the limpets, black mussels thrive in
both the intertidal and subtidal zones. Mollusks
that occur only in the subtidal zone are rare or
absent in stone age sites, suggesting that the
people did not collect below low tide, probably
because of treacherous currents that could wash
them out to sea. The undisturbed black mussels
that live subtidally would thus have provided an
unexploited reservoir for rapid replenishment of
even heavily exploited intertidal populations.
Relative to limpets, black mussels could also
recolonize an area more quickly because they
mature more rapidly. The bottom line is that only
short-term collection events, which are not visible
in most of our samples, might reveal a difference
between MSA and LSA impact on black mussels.
Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57/1, 2005/2006 · Homenaje a Jesús Altuna
TORTOISE SIZE DURING THE MSA AND LSA
OF SOUTH AFRICA
By far the most common tortoise species on
the west and south coasts of South Africa is the
angulate (or bowsprit) tortoise (Chersina angulata).
Males grow larger, with a maximum recorded
body weight of about 2.3 kg, maximum shell
length of about 280 mm, and maximum shell
breadth of about 160 mm (Rose 1962 as cited in
KLEIN & CRUZ-URIBE, 1983; VAN HEEZIK et al., 1994).
Densities range from 6-15 to 31-34 individuals per
hectare (A VERY et al ., 2004; V AN H EEZIK et al. ,
1994). Their activity pattern varies with temperature
and humidity, but they are generally available
throughout the year (R AMSAY et al. , 2002), and
they are a reliable, gatherable resource.
In archaeological sites, the most abundant part
for estimating tortoise body size is the distal
humerus. Figures 6 and 7 use the same boxplot
format as Figures 2-5 to summarize the mediolateral
diameter (“breadth”) of distal humeri in south and
west coast MSA and LSA tortoise samples,
respectively. LSA specimens sometimes approach
or equal MSA specimens in median size, but in
general MSA tortoises are larger.
DISCUSSION
The figures show that in general, MSA Cape
turban shells, granite limpets, granular limpets,
Argenville’s limpets, and angulate tortoises all
tend to be larger than their LSA counterparts.
Among the species for which we have
measurements, only black mussels fail to show a
similar difference, and this was probably
expectable, for reasons we explained above. We
suggest that generally larger MSA mollusk and
tortoise size reflects more limited MSA predation
pressure due to smaller MSA populations, but we
must also consider the possibility that
environmental difference was the controlling
factor (CABRAL & DA SILVA, 2003; JERARDINO, 1997;
M ANNINO & T HOMAS , 2002; S PETH & T CHERNOV ,
2002). Mollusk growth rates, for example, are
affected by temperature, population density,
water turbidity, geomorphology, topography, and
exposure to wave action (B RANCH & O DENDAAL ,
2003; JERARDINO, 1997; MANNINO & THOMAS, 2002).
MANNINO & THOMAS (2001) studied samples of the
topshell (Monodonta lineata) from Mesolithic sites
in southern England, and sought to control for
environmental effects by combining extensive
modern ecological surveys with counts of shell
growth increments. The increments provide a
S. C. Aranzadi. Z. E. Donostia/San Sebastián
MOLLUSK AND TORTOISE SIZE AS PROXIES FOR STONE AGE POPULATION DENSITY IN SOUTH AFRICA: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF HUMAN CULTURAL CAPACITY
direct indication of the age distribution within each
topshell sample, and the increment analysis
showed that a progressive reduction in mean shell
size was associated with a reduction in mean age.
The accompanying ecological studies suggested
that probable past environmental change should
have increased not decreased mean shell size and
age, and humans predation was thus the most
plausible explanation for a reduction in topshell
size through time. J ERARDINO (1997) estimated
sea-surface temperatures from oxygen-isotope
ratios in black mussel shells and then compared
estimated temperatures to black mussel size in
late Holocene deposits on the west coast of
South Africa. She found no correlation between
temperature and size. She did, however, find a
tendency for large mussels to occur in horizons
that showed little evidence of water turbidity. The
explanation may be that mussels in relatively calm
waters can devote more energy to growth and
less to finding food. However, not all the samples
in her stratigraphic sequence fit the pattern, and
the period of most rapid shell accumulation
coincided with the smallest mussel sizes and low
water turbidity. JERARDINO related the decrease in
mussel size to intensive collection by humans
during this period. Finally, DE BOER et al. (2000)
compared modern middens to ones that were
less than 200 years old to reduce the likelihood
that climate change and sea level fluctuations
seriously affected mollusk exploitation on Inhaca
Island, Mozambique. They found significant
reductions in mollusk size and species diversity in
the modern middens, and they attributed this to
increasing human exploitation resulting from
increasing human population size on the island.
S PETH & T CHERNOV (2002) investigated the
relationship between a decrease in size of
spur-thighed tortoises (Testudo graeca) near the
end of the Middle Paleolithic sequence at Kebara
Cave, Israel, and changes in paleoclimate, site
function, seasonality of site use, and the ranges of
species or sub-species. They argued that the
tortoises tended to be larger during warmer,
moister intervals, when Kebara was used
ephemerally, and during warm-season occupations.
They accepted that human predation probably
played a role in causing the decline in tortoise
size, but they concluded that ambient temperature
or other environmental factors had to be considered
before reaching a definitive conclusion.
The current study does not address
environmental controls on size directly, but the
samples were drawn from a range of geographic
settings and time periods that represent different
Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57/1, 2005/2006 · Homenaje a Jesús Altuna
227
temperature regimes, precipitation levels, sea
levels, floral and faunal communities, and coastal
configurations, as well as different seasons of
mollusk and tortoise collection and different
probable site functions. This makes it likely that
the tendency for both mollusks and tortoises to be
larger in the MSA reflects human predation
pressure more than climate or other environmental
variables. In support of this conclusion, Figures 3
and 4 contain data from modern samples (“10minute samples”) of limpets that were collected
from normally unexploited intertidal rocks near
some of the key west coast LSA and MSA sites.
Some of the LSA sites are subhistoric (less than
2000 years old), and they almost certainly formed
under environmental conditions that closely
resemble modern ones. In each case, however,
the LSA limpets tend to be significantly smaller
than those in the “10-minute samples”, implying
that it was LSA exploitation – not environment—
that produced the relatively small archaeological
limpets (B UCHANAN et al. , 1978; H ALKETT et al. ,
2003; LASIAK, 1992). In our on-going research, we
hope to employ oxygen-isotope analysis and other
methods that will provide more direct control over
key environmental factors.
This work builds on previous comparisons
between MSA and LSA mollusk and tortoise size
in South Africa (HENSHILWOOD et al., 2001b; KLEIN
et al. , 2004; K LEIN & C RUZ -U RIBE , 1983, 2000;
PARKINGTON, 2003; PARKINGTON et al., 2004). KLEIN
et al. (2004) and PARKINGTON (2003) both analyzed
mollusk size on the west coast, and we use many
of the same samples here. They found that MSA
samples not only tend to contain larger limpets,
but they differ from LSA assemblages in other
conspicuous respects, including a more limited
range of mollusk species and a significantly
smaller number of granular limpets relative to
granite and Argenville’s limpets. Granular limpets
tend to occur higher on the shore, but they are
smaller than the other two species, and they
would probably be more commonly overlooked if
limpet collection were less intensive. Combined
with other observations, such as the rarity or lack
of fish bones in MSA sites and the absence of
rock lobster (Jasus lalandii) chelipeds, the limpet
observations clearly suggest that MSA people
exploited coastal resources more selectively or
less intensively than their LSA successors.
The research we discuss was designed to
generate archaeological observations that can be
used to test alternative models for modern human
behavioral evolution. The models differ not only in
how they interpret occasional modern archaeological
S. C. Aranzadi. Z. E. Donostia/San Sebastián
228
TERESA E. STEELE & RICHARD G. KLEIN
markers in the MSA, but also in what they imply
about the relationship between behavioral change
and changes in population size or density. We
know that population size increased significantly
by the end of the MSA 50 kya, if only because
fully modern Africans then expanded to Eurasia.
Most researchers agree that the behavioral
changes indicated by advanced archaeological
markers would have enhanced human reproduction
and survival, which means that they should have
promoted larger human populations. Our mollusk
and tortoise data so far fail to reveal population
increase that might be predicted from the
appearance of modern behavioral markers within
the MSA . A possible explanation is that the
markers occur only sporadically, and it was only
when they became commonplace, in the LSA, that
populations grew significantly. This explanation,
however, begs the question of why the earliest
(MSA) manifestations of advanced behavior failed
to become more common more quickly, assuming
as we do that they conferred greater fitness.
We recognize that much more research is
necessary to clarify the relationship between
mollusk and tortoise size on the one hand and
MSA and LSA human population size on the other,
and in particular to control for the effects of
environment. We note also that our LSA
observations come entirely from sites younger
than 13 kya, and a full test of the any hypothesis
about the relationship between technological
change and population size will require data from
much earlier LSA sites, nearer to 50-40 kya in age,
and also from regions other than the south and
west coasts of South Africa.
Figure 2. Box plots summarizing the
maximum length of Cape turban shell
opercula from MSA and LSA sites on
the south coast of South Africa.
Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57/1, 2005/2006 · Homenaje a Jesús Altuna
S. C. Aranzadi. Z. E. Donostia/San Sebastián
MOLLUSK AND TORTOISE SIZE AS PROXIES FOR STONE AGE POPULATION DENSITY IN SOUTH AFRICA: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF HUMAN CULTURAL CAPACITY
229
Figure 3. Box plots summarizing the maximum length of granite limpets from MSA and LSA sites on the west coast
of South Africa.
Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57/1, 2005/2006 · Homenaje a Jesús Altuna
S. C. Aranzadi. Z. E. Donostia/San Sebastián
230
TERESA E. STEELE & RICHARD G. KLEIN
Figure 4. Box plots summarizing the maximum length of granular limpets from MSA and LSA sites on the west coast
of South Africa.
Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57/1, 2005/2006 · Homenaje a Jesús Altuna
S. C. Aranzadi. Z. E. Donostia/San Sebastián
MOLLUSK AND TORTOISE SIZE AS PROXIES FOR STONE AGE POPULATION DENSITY IN SOUTH AFRICA: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF HUMAN CULTURAL CAPACITY
231
Figure 5. Box plots summarizing the maximum length of Argenville’s limpets from MSA and LSA sites
on the west coast of South Africa.
Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57/1, 2005/2006 · Homenaje a Jesús Altuna
S. C. Aranzadi. Z. E. Donostia/San Sebastián
232
TERESA E. STEELE & RICHARD G. KLEIN
Figure 6. Box plots summarizing the mediolateral diameter (“breadth”) of angulate tortoise distal humeri from MSA and LSA sites on the
south coast of South Africa. The site list is different from the one for south coast turban shells in Figure 2, because not all sites with turban
shells have provided abundant tortoises and vice versa.
Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57/1, 2005/2006 · Homenaje a Jesús Altuna
S. C. Aranzadi. Z. E. Donostia/San Sebastián
MOLLUSK AND TORTOISE SIZE AS PROXIES FOR STONE AGE POPULATION DENSITY IN SOUTH AFRICA: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF HUMAN CULTURAL CAPACITY
233
Figure 7. Box plots summarizing the mediolateral diameter (“breadth”) of angulate tortoise distal humeri from MSA and LSA sites on the
west coast of South Africa. The site list is different from the ones for limpets in Figures 3-5, because not all sites with limpets have provided
abundant tortoises and vice versa.
Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57/1, 2005/2006 · Homenaje a Jesús Altuna
S. C. Aranzadi. Z. E. Donostia/San Sebastián
234
TERESA E. STEELE & RICHARD G. KLEIN
CONCLUSIONS
Specialists agree that humans became fully
modern in their behavior during the transition from
the MSA to the LSA about 50 kya, but they
disagree on whether the behavioral shift occurred
gradually within the MSA or abruptly at its end.
The contrasting perspectives, which we refer to
as the Gradual Accumulation Model and the
Abrupt and Late Model, differ in their expectations
for human population size change within the MSA.
The Gradual Accumulation model suggests that
populations should have been growing, at least in
the later part of the MSA after 100 kya, and the
Abrupt and Late Model suggests they would have
fluctuated around a relatively low average, with a
sharp increase at the MSA -to- LSA transition.
Mollusks and tortoises in MSA sites offer a means
to test the alternatives, because average mollusk
and tortoise size is a function of the intensity of
human collection, which generally reflects the
number of human collectors. Our data show that
in general, MSA mollusks and tortoises are larger
than their LSA counterparts, which suggests that
MSA people lived at lower population densities.
There is the complication that the number of
human collectors reflects both culture (mainly
foraging technology) and environment, and we
have not fully controlled for environmental
change. However, our MSA sites sample a wide
range of times and places, and this makes it
unlikely that the environment is a primary factor in
explaining the tendency for MSA mollusks and
limpets to be so large. Thus, our data suggest that
MSA populations were generally smaller than LSA
populations, and to the extent that the data were
drawn from a long interval during the later MSA
(after 100 kya), they support the Abrupt and Late
model more strongly than its Gradual
Accumulation alternative. Additional samples and
more thorough environmental controls will one
day allow a firmer conclusion.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The National Science Foundation (Washington,
D.C.) and L.S.B. LEAKEY Foundation (San Francisco)
provided financial support for our measurement
program. TIM WEAVER provided helpful comments
on the manuscript.
REFERENCES
AVERY, G.
1976
A Systematic Investigation of Open Station Shell Middens
along the Southwestern Cape Coast. M. A., University of
Cape Town.
AVERY, G., KANDEL, A.W., KLEIN, R.G., CONARD, N.J. &
CRUZ-URIBE, K.
2004
Tortoises as food and taphonomic elements in palaeo
“landscapes”. In Petits Animaux Sociétés Humaines: du
Complément Alimentaire aux Ressources Utilitaires, edited by BRUGAL, J.-P. & DESSE, J., 147-161. Éditions APDCA, Antibes.
BIGALKE, E.H.
1973
BRANCH, G.M.
1975
1981
2000
On the nature of transitions: the Middle to Upper
Palaeolithic and the Neolithic Revolution. Cambridge
Archaeological Journal 8, 141-163.
The Middle and early Upper Paleolithic in Southwest Asia
and neighboring regions. In The Geography of
Neandertals and Modern Humans in Europe and the
Greater Mediterranean, edited by BAR-YOSEF, O. & PILBEAM, D., pp. 107-156. Peabody Museum of Archaeology
and Ethnology, Cambridge.
Notes on the ecology of Patella concolor and Cellana capensis, and the effects of human consumption on limpet
populations. Zoologica Africana 10, 75-85.
BRANCH, G.M., BRANCH, M.L. & BANNISTER, A.
BAR-YOSEF, O.
1998
The exploitation of shellfish by coastal tribesmen of the
Transkei. Annals of the Cape Province Museum (Natural
History) 9, 159-175.
The Living Shores of Southern Africa. C. Struik Publishers.
Cape Town.
BRANCH, G.M., GRIFFITHS, C., BRANCH, M. & BECKLEY, L.
1994
Two Oceans: A guide to the marine life of southern
Africa. David Philip. Cape Town.
BRANCH, G.M. & ODENDAAL, F.
2003
The effects of marine protected areas on the population
dynamics of a South African limpet, Cymbula oculus, relative to the influence of wave action. Biological Conservation 114, 255-269.
BERGER, L.R. & PARKINGTON, J.E.
1995
A new Pleistocene hominid-bearing locality at
Hoedjiespunt, South Africa. American Journal of Physical
Anthropology 98, 601-609.
Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57/1, 2005/2006 · Homenaje a Jesús Altuna
BUCHANAN, W.F.
1988
Shellfish in Prehistoric Diet: Elands Bay, S. W. Cape
Coast, South Africa. Cambridge Monographs in African
Archaeology 45, 455. British Archaeological Reports
International Series. Oxford.
S. C. Aranzadi. Z. E. Donostia/San Sebastián
MOLLUSK AND TORTOISE SIZE AS PROXIES FOR STONE AGE POPULATION DENSITY IN SOUTH AFRICA: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF HUMAN CULTURAL CAPACITY
BUCHANAN, W.F., HALL, S.L., HENDERSON, J., OLIVIER, A.,
PETTIGREW, J.M., PARKINGTON, J.E. & ROBERTSHAW, P.T.
1978
Coastal shell middens in the Paternoster area, SouthWestern Cape. South African Archaeological Bulletin 33,
89-93.
235
HENSHILWOOD, C.S., D’ERRICO, F., YATES, R., JACOBS, Z.,
TRIBOLO, C., DULLER, G.A.T., MERCIER, N., SEALY, J.,
VALLADAS, H., WATTS, I. & WINTLE, A.G.
2002
Emergence of modern human behavior: Middle Stone
Age engravings from South Africa. Science 295, 12781280.
CABRAL, J.P. & DA SILVA, A.C.F.
2003
Morphometric analysis of limpets from an Iron-Age shell
midden found in northwest Portugal. Journal of Archaeological Science 30, 817-829.
D’ERRICO, F., HENSHILWOOD, C.S., VANHAEREN, M. &
VAN NIEKERK, K.
2005
Nassarius kraussianus shell beads from Blombos Cave:
evidence for symbolic behaviour in the Middle Stone Age.
Journal of Human Evolution 48, 3-24.
HENSHILWOOD, C.S. & MAREAN, C.W.
2003
HENSHILWOOD, C.S., SEALY, J.C., YATES, R., CRUZ-URIBE, K.,
GOLDBERG, P., GRINE, F.E., KLEIN, R.G., POGGENPOEL, C.,
VAN NIEKERK, K. & WATTS, I.
2001b
DE BOER, W., PEREIRA, T. & GUISSAMULO, A.
2000
Comparing recent and abandoned shell middens to detect
the impact of human exploitation on the intertidal ecosystem. Aquatic Ecology 34, 287-297.
Two late Pleistocene-Holocene archaeological depositories from the southern Cape, South Africa. South African
Archaeological Bulletin 50, 121-131.
1986
Human Beginnings in South Africa. Altamira Press. Walnut Creek, California.
1988
Patterns and correlates of shellfish exploitation by coastal
people in Transkei: an enigma of protein production.
Journal of Applied Ecology 25, 353-363.
INSKEEP, R.R.
1987
DEACON, J.
1984
Man as an intertidal predator in Transkei: disturbance,
community convergence and management of a natural food resource. Oikos 46, 3-14.
HOCKEY, P.A.R., BOSMAN, A.L. & SIEGFRIED, W.R.
DEACON, H.J. & DEACON, J.
1999
Blombos Cave, Southern Cape, South Africa: preliminary
report on the 1992-1999 excavations of the Middle Stone
Age levels. Journal of Archaeological Science 28, 421448.
HOCKEY, P.A.R. & BOSMAN, A.L.
DEACON, H.J.
1995
The origin of modern behavior. Current Anthropology 44,
627-651.
Nelson Bay Cave, Cape Province, South Africa: the
Holocene levels. British Archaeological Reports
International Series 357, 1-485.
The Later Stone Age of Southernmost Africa. British Archaeological Reports International Series 213. Oxford.
JERARDINO, A.
GRINE, F.E., KLEIN, R.G. & VOLMAN, T.P.
1991
1993
Mid- to late-Holocene sea-level fluctuations: the archaeological evidence at Tortoise Cave, south-western Cape,
South Africa. South African Journal of Science 89, 481488.
1995
The problem with density values in archaeological analysis: a case study from Tortoise Cave, western Cape,
South Africa. South African Archaeological Bulletin 50, 2127.
1997
Changes in shellfish species composition and mean shell
size from a late-Holocene record of the west coast of
southern Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science 24,
1031-1044.
Dating, archaeology, and human fossils from the Middle
Stone Age levels of Die Kelders, South Africa. Journal of
Human Evolution 21, 363-395.
HALKETT, D., HART, T., YATES, R., VOLMAN, T.P.,
PARKINGTON, J.E., ORTON, J., KLEIN, R.G., CRUZ-URIBE, K. &
AVERY, G.
2003
First excavation of intact Middle Stone Age layers at
Ysterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa: implications for Middle Stone Age ecology. Journal of Archaeological Science 30, 955-971.
HENSHILWOOD, C.S., D’ERRICO, F., MAREAN, C.W., MILO, R.G.
& YATES, R.
2001a
JERARDINO, A. & SWANEPOEL, N.
1999
An early bone tool industry from the Middle Stone Age at
Blombos Cave, South Africa: implications for the origins
of modern human behavior, symbolism and language.
Journal of Human Evolution 41, 631-678.
Painted slabs from Steenbokfontein Cave: the oldest
known parietal art in southern Africa. Current Anthropology 40, 542-548.
JERARDINO, A. & YATES, R.
HENSHILWOOD, C.S., D’ERRICO, F., VANHAEREN, M.,
VAN NIEKERK, K.L. & JACOBS, Z.
2004
Middle Stone Age shell beads from South Africa. Science
304, 404.
Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57/1, 2005/2006 · Homenaje a Jesús Altuna
1996
Preliminary results from excavations at Steenbokfontein
Cave: implications for past and future research. South
African Archaeological Bulletin 51, 7-16.
S. C. Aranzadi. Z. E. Donostia/San Sebastián
236
TERESA E. STEELE & RICHARD G. KLEIN
KLEIN, R.G.
1972
2000
A preliminary report on the June through September 1970
excavations at Nelson Bay Cave (Cape Province, South
Africa). Palaeoecology of Africa 6, 177-208.
MAREAN, C.W., GOLDBERG, P., AVERY, G., GRINE, F.E. &
KLEIN, R.G.
2000
Archaeology and the evolution of human behavior.
Evolutionary Anthropology 9, 17-36.
Middle Stone Age stratigraphy and excavations at Die
Kelders Cave 1 (Western Cape Province, South Africa):
the 1992, 1993, and 1995 field seasons. Journal of Human Evolution 38, 7-42.
MCBREARTY, S. & BROOKS, A.S.
KLEIN, R.G., AVERY, G., CRUZ-URIBE, K., HALKETT, D.,
PARKINGTON, J.E., STEELE, T.E., VOLMAN, T.P. & YATES, R.
2004
The Ysterfontein 1 Middle Stone Age site, South Africa,
and early human exploitation of coastal resources.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 101,
5708-5715.
2000
ORTON, J.
2002
KLEIN, R.G. & CRUZ-URIBE, K.
1983
1987
2000
Stone Age population numbers and average tortoise size
at Byneskranskop Cave 1 and Die Kelders Cave 1, Southern Cape Province, South Africa. South African Archaeological Bulletin 38, 26-30.
Large mammal and tortoise bones from Eland’s Bay Cave
and nearby sites, Western Cape Province, South Africa. In
Papers in the Prehistory of the Western Cape, South
Africa, edited by PARKINGTON, J.E. & HALL, M., pp. 132163. vol. 332. British Archaeological Reports International
Series, Oxford.
Middle and Later Stone Age large mammal and tortoise
remains from Die Kelders Cave 1, Western Cape
Province, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 38,
169-195.
KLEIN, R.G., CRUZ-URIBE, K., HALKETT, D., HART, T. &
PARKINGTON, J.E.
1999
Paleoenvironmental and human behavioral implications of
the Boegoeberg 1 late Pleistocene hyena den, Northern
Cape Province, South Africa. Quaternary Research 52,
393-403.
KLEIN, R.G. & EDGAR, B.
2002
The Dawn of Human Culture. JOHN WILEY & SONS, Inc.
New York.
1992
The susceptibility and/or resilience of rocky littoral molluscs to stock depletion by the indigenous coastal people
of Transkei, southern Africa. Biological Conservation 56,
245-264.
Contemporary shellfish-gathering practices of indigenous
coastal people in Transkei: some implications for interpretation of the archaeological record. South African Journal
of Science 88, 19-28.
1987
Changing views of prehistoric settlement in the western
Cape. In Papers in the Prehistory of the Western Cape,
South Africa, edited by PARKINGTON, J.E. & HALL, M., pp. 423. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.
1988
The Pleistocene/Holocene transition in the Western Cape,
South Africa, observations from Verlorenvlei. In
Prehistoric Cultures and Environments in the Late
Quaternary of Africa, edited by BOWER, J. & LUBELL, D.,
pp. 197-206. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.
2003
Middens and moderns: shellfishing and the Middle Stone
Age of the Western Cape, South Africa. South African
Journal of Science 99, 243-247.
PARKINGTON, J.E., NILSSEN, P., VERMUELEN, C. &
HENSHILWOOD, C.
1992
2004
2002
Depletion of a resource? The impact of prehistoric human
foraging on intertidal mollusc communities and its significance for human settlement, mobility and dispersal.
World Archaeology 33, 452-474.
Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57/1, 2005/2006 · Homenaje a Jesús Altuna
Initial observations on the Middle Stone Age coastal settlement in the Western Cape, South Africa. In Settlement
Dynamics of the Middle Paleolithic and Middle Stone
Age , edited by C ONARD , N.J., pp. 5-21. Kerns Verlag,
Tübingen.
RAMSAY, S.L., HOFMEYR, M.D. & JOSHUA, Q.I.
2002
Activity patterns of the angulate tortoise (Chersina angulata) on Dassen Island, South Africa. Journal of Herpetology
36, 161-169.
ROBEY, T.S.
MANNINO, M.A. & THOMAS, K.D.
Intensive Mesolithic exploitation of coastal resources?
Evidence from a shell deposit on the Isle of Portland
(Southern England) for the impact of human foraging on
populations of intertidal rocky shore molluscs. Journal of
Archaeological Science 28, 1101-1114.
Making sense of space at Dunefield Midden campsite,
western Cape, South Africa. South African Journal of
Field Archaeology 1, 63-70.
PARKINGTON, J.E., POGGENPOEL, C., HALKETT, D. & HART, T.
1987
2001
Patterns in stone: the lithic assemblage from Dunefield
Midden, Western Cape, South Africa. South African
Archaeological Bulletin 57, 31-37.
PARKINGTON, J.E.
LASIAK, T.
1991
The revolution that wasn’t: a new interpretation of the origins of modern human behavior. Journal of Human Evolution 39, 453-563.
The stratigraphic and cultural sequence at Tortoise Cave,
Verlorenvlei. In Papers in the Prehistory of the Western
Cape, South Africa, edited by PARKINGTON, J.E. & HALL, M.,
pp. 294-325. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.
SCHWEITZER, F.R. & WILSON, M.L.
1982
Byneskranskop 1, a late Quaternary living site in the southern Cape Province, South Africa. Annals of the South
African Museum 88, 1-203.
S. C. Aranzadi. Z. E. Donostia/San Sebastián
MOLLUSK AND TORTOISE SIZE AS PROXIES FOR STONE AGE POPULATION DENSITY IN SOUTH AFRICA: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF HUMAN CULTURAL CAPACITY
SINGER, R. & WYMER, J.J.
1982
The Middle Stone Age at Klasies River Mouth in South
Africa. University of Chicago Press. Chicago.
TANKARD, A.J. & SCHWEITZER, F.R.
1976
SPETH, J.D. & TCHERNOV, E.
2002
Middle Paleolithic tortoise use at Kebara Cave (Israel).
Journal of Archaeological Science 29, 471-483.
STINER, M.C., MUNRO, N.D. & SUROVELL, T.A.
The tortoise and the hare: small-game use, the BroadSpectrum Revolution, and Paleolithic demography.
Current Anthropology 41, 39-73.
Textural analysis of cave sediments: Die Kelders, Cape
Province, South Africa. In Geoarchaeology , edited by
D A V I D S O N , D.A. & S C H A C K L E Y , M.L., pp. 289-316.
Duckworth, London.
VAN HEEZIK, Y.M., COOPER, J. & SEDDON, P.J.
1994
2000
237
Population characteristics and morphometrics of angulate
tortoises on Dassen Island, South Africa. Journal of
Herpetology 28, 447-453.
VOLMAN, T.P.
1978
Early archaeological evidence for shellfish collecting.
Science 201, 911-913.
STINER, M.C., MUNRO, N.D., SUROVELL, T.A., TCHERNOV, E. &
BAR-YOSEF, O.
1999
Paleolithic population growth pulses evidenced by small
animal exploitation. Science 283, 190-194.
STYNDER, D.D., MOGGI-CECCHI, J., BERGER, L.R. &
PARKINGTON, J.E.
2001
Human mandibular incisors from the late Middle
Pleistocene locality of Hoedjiespunt 1, South Africa.
Journal of Human Evolution 41, 369-383.
Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57/1, 2005/2006 · Homenaje a Jesús Altuna
WHITE, R.
1992
Beyond art: toward an understanding of the origins of material representation in Europe. Annual Review of
Anthropology 21, 537-564.
YATES, R.J.
1998
A Phase 2 archaeological investigation of site 1 on Farm
1062 (previously 967), Paternoster, Western Cape. South
African Museum.
S. C. Aranzadi. Z. E. Donostia/San Sebastián
MUNIBE
(Antropologia - Arkeologia)
Nº 57 VOLUMEN I
2005/2006
Redacción y Administración: SOCIEDAD DE CIENCIAS ARANZADI / ZIENTZI ELKARTEA
Alto de Zorroaga - 20014-San Sebastián
Teléfono 943 46 61 42 - Fax : 943 45 58 11 - e-mail: [email protected]
www.aranzadi-zientziak.org
ISSN 1132 - 2217
INDICE - SUMMARY
I. ALTUNA & X. ALTUNA
- Biografía de Jesús Altuna
- Jesus Altunaren biografia...............................................................................................................
17-30
C. MARIEZKURRENA
- Publicaciones de Jesús Altuna
- Jesus Altunaren argitalpenak .........................................................................................................
31-42
H. ASTIBIA, X. PEREDA SUBERBIOLA, X. MURELAGA, A. BADIOLA & A. BERRETEAGA
- Registro fósil precuaternario de tetrápodos en los Pirineos occidentales
- Prequaternary fossil record of tetrapods from the Western Pyrenees .........................................
43-54
´ , V. PUJALTE & F. CABALLERO
J.I. BACETA, G. BERNAOLA, X. ORUE-ETXEBARRIA, E. APELLANIZ
- Contribuciones del Pirineo Vasco al conocimiento de la crisis biológica del límite
Cretácico-Terciario
- Contributions of the Basque Pyrenees to the knowledge of the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary biotic crisis .....................................................................................................................
55-66
R. MUSIL
- Die Bärenpopulation von Bilzingsleben – eine neue mittelpleistozäne Art
- La población de osos de Bilzingsleben - una nueva especie del pleistoceno medio .....................
67-101
T DE. TORRES, J.E. ORTIZ, R. COBO, R. JULIÀ, A. CAMACHO, C. PUCH & J.F. LLAMAS
- Presence of two cave bear species in La Lucia cave (Lamasón, Cantabria, N Spain):
Ursus deningeri von Reichenau and Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller-Heinroth
- Presencia de dos especies de oso de las cavernas en la Cueva de la Lucia (Lamasón, Cantabria,
N de España): Ursus deningeri von Reichenau y Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller-Heinroth..............
103-122
P. CASTAÑOS
- Estudio paleontológico de un esqueleto de león (Panthera leo) de la Sima de Azoleta
(Gorbeia, Alava)
- Paleontological study of one lion (Panthera leo) from Azoleta Cave, Gorbeia Montains,
Alava, Basque Country...................................................................................................................
123-129
M. ARBIZU, D. ÁLVAREZ-LAO & G. E. ADAN
- Una guarida de Crocuta crocuta en Leguín (Echauri, Navarra)
- A Crocuta crocuta lair in Leguín (Echauri, Navarre) ........................................................................
131-138
J.-P. BRUGAL & J. YRAVEDRA SAINZ DE LOS TERREROS
- Essai sur la biodiversité des associations de grands mammifères à la fin du Pléistocène
dans le Sud-Ouest de l’Europe
- Large mammalian associations from South-western Europe at the end of
upper Pleistocene: first attempt ....................................................................................................
139-162
P. FOSSE & J. QUILES
- Tafonomía y arqueozoología comparadas de algunos yacimientos de los Pirineos franceses
y de Cantabria
- Compared Taphonomy and Archaeozoology of some French Pyrenean
and Cantabrian sites.......................................................................................................................
163-181
´ IZQUIERDO & A. MORALES MUÑIZ
E. ROSELLO
- Ictiofaunas musterienses de la Península Ibérica: ¿Evidencias de pesca Neanderthal?
- Mousterian Fish Faunas from the Iberian Peninsula: Evidence of Neandertal fishing? .................
183-195
M. PATOU-MATHIS
- Comportement de subsistance des Néandertaliens du niveau châtelperronien de
Saint-Césaire (Charente-Maritime)
- Comportamiento de subsistencia de los neandertales del nivel chatelperroniense
de Saint-Césaire (Charente Maritime) ............................................................................................
197-204
E. CRÉGUT-BONNOURE
- Nouvelles données paléogéographiques et chronologiques sur les Caprinae
(Mammalia, Bovidae) du Pléistocène moyen et supérieur d’Europe
- Nuevos datos paleográficos y cronológicos sobre los Caprinae
(Mammalia, Bovidae) del Pleistoceno medio y superior de Europa ...............................................
205-219
T. E. STEELE & R. G. KLEIN
- Mollusk and tortoise size as proxies for stone age population density in South Africa:
Implications for the evolution of human cultural capacity
- Tamaño de los moluscos y tortugas como representantes para la densidad de población
de la edad de piedra en Sudáfrica:
implicaciones para la evolución de la capacidad cultural humana ..................................................
221-237
Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57/1, 2005/2006 · Homenaje a Jesús Altuna
S. C. Aranzadi. Z. E. Donostia/San Sebastián
M. PÉREZ RIPOLL
- Caracterización de las fracturas antrópicas y sus tipologías en huesos de conejo
procedentes de los niveles gravetienses de la Cova de les Cendres (Alicante)
- Characterization of anthropic fractures and their typology in rabbit bones from
the gravetian levels in the Cendres Cave (Alicante).......................................................................
239-254
´ VALLEJO & M. CORTÉS SANCHEZ
´
J. A. RIQUELME CANTAL, M. D. SIMON
- La fauna de mamíferos del Solutrense en la Cueva de Nerja
- The mammals faune of the Solutrean from Cueva de Nerja..........................................................
255-263
U. STAESCHE
- A peculiar composition of animal remains under a Magdalenian rock shelter
south of Göttingen, Nortwest Germany
- Una peculiar composición de restos de animales bajo un abrigo bajo roca
del magdaleniense al sur de Göttingen, noroeste de Alemania.....................................................
265-277
J.-D. VIGNE
- L’humérus de chien magdalénien de Erralla (Gipuzkoa, Espagne)
et la domestication tardiglaciaire du loup en Europe
- The Magdalénian dog humerus of Erralla (Gipuzkoa, Spain) and
the Late Glacial wolf domestication in Europe...............................................................................
279-287
´
J. FURUNDARENA GARCIA
- Reconstrucción paleoambiental del Magdaleniense Inferior en la región francocantábrica
- Paleoatmospheric reconstruction of the Lower Magdalenian in the Franco-Cantabria region.......
289-295
M. ELORZA
- First palearctic fossil record of Polysticta stelleri (Pallas) 1769
- Primer registro fósil de Polysticta stelleri (Pallas) 1769 en el Paleártico ........................................
297-301
J. YRAVEDRA SAINZ DE LOS TERREROS
- Aprovechamiento cárnico de lince (Lynx pardina) durante el Pleistoceno Superior
en el interior de la Península Ibérica
- Meat use of lynx (Lynx pardina) inside the Iberian Peninsula during the Upper Pleistocene.........
303-311
J. NADAL, J. M. FULLOLA & X. ESTEVE
- Caballos y ciervos: Una aproximación a la evolución climática y económica del Paleolítico
superior en el Mediterráneo peninsular
- Horses and deers: an approach to climatic and economic evolution during
the Upper Palaeolithic on Mediterranean Iberia.............................................................................
313-324
´
´ , E. CERDEÑO
CHILLON
Mª S. DOMINGO, M. T. ALBERDI, B. SANCHEZ
- La fauna cuaternaria de la cornisa cantábrica en las colecciones del Museo Nacional
de Ciencias Naturales
- The quaternary fauna from the cantabrian range stored in The Museo Nacional
de Ciencias Naturales collections ..................................................................................................
325-350
H.-P. UERPMANN
- Betrachtungen zum Verhältnis zwischen Wildpferd (Equus ferus) und Hydruntinus
(Equus hydruntinus) im Jungpleistozän und Holozän auf der Iberischen Halbinsel
- Consideraciones sobre la relación entre el caballo salvaje (Equus ferus) y el
asno salvaje europeo (Equus hydruntinus) en el Pleistoceno superior y el
Holoceno de la Península Ibérica ...................................................................................................
351-358
Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57/1, 2005/2006 · Homenaje a Jesús Altuna
S. C. Aranzadi. Z. E. Donostia/San Sebastián
E. ÁLVAREZ FERNANDEZ
´
- La explotación de los moluscos marinos durante el Paleolítico superior y
el Mesolítico en la Región Cantábrica y en el Valle del Ebro:
pasado y presente de la investigación
- Marine mollusks exploitation during the Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic
in Cantabrian Spain and in the Ebro Valley: past and present research .........................................
359-368
A. EASTHAM
- Papageno down the ages: A study in fowling methods,
with particular reference to the Palaeolithic of Western Europe
- Papageno a través de las épocas: un estudio sobre los métodos
de la cría de aves que hace especial referencia al Paleolítico en la Europa Occidental .................
369-397
M. CUETO, A. B. MARIN & J. ESTÉVEZ
- Apuntes para un cambio de ritmo en la explicación del cambio al Postglaciar
- Some notes to change the rithm of the explanation of the end of Glaciar Period .........................
399-410
L. CHAIX
- Hétéroclite et éclectique: la faune épipaléolithique de l’Aven des Iboussières
(Drôme, France)
- Unusual and eclectic: the epipalaeolithic fauna from the Aven des Iboussières
(Drôme, France) .............................................................................................................................
411-420
N. BENECKE
- The Holocene distribution of European bison – the archaeozoological record
- Distribución Holocena del bisonte europeo – el registro arqueozoológico ....................................
421-428
A. TAGLIACOZZO
- Animal exploitation in the Early Neolithic in Central-Southern Italy
- Explotación de las faunas en el Neolítico antiguo en Italia centro-meridional ................................
429-439
L. JONSSON
- Bogas - Boops boops (LINNAEUS, 1758) – from the Biscay to the North Sea
in 2500 BC and 1980 AD
- Bogas - Boops boops (LINNAEUS, 1758) – desde Bizkaia al Mar del Norte en
2500 BC y 1980 AD .......................................................................................................................
441-444
C. BECKER
- Small numbers, large potential – new prehistoric finds of elephant and beaver
from the Khabur river/Syria.
- Números pequeños, un gran potencial – nuevos hallazgos prehistóricos de elefantes
y castores en el río Khabur/Siria.....................................................................................................
445-456
A. VON DEN DRIESCH & N. PÖLLATH
- Gedanken zu künstlichen Verformungen von Rinder -und Schafhörnern aus vor- und
frühgeschichtlicher Zeit
- Considerations on artificial deformations in horns of cattle and sheep in prehistoric
and early historic times ..................................................................................................................
457-462
P. MÉNIEL
- Porc et sanglier en Gaule septentrionale, entre archéozoologie et imaginaire collectif
- Pig and wildboar in nothern Gaul, between archaeozoology and collective imaginary ..................
463-468
´
M. GOMEZ
- De los primeros animales domesticados en Euskal Herria a las razas actuales
- From the first domesticated animals in the Basque Country to the current breeds ......................
469-476
Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57/1, 2005/2006 · Homenaje a Jesús Altuna
S. C. Aranzadi. Z. E. Donostia/San Sebastián
H.-H. MÜLLER & R.-J. PRILLOFF
- Eberhauer als Poliergeräte im Mittelalter
- Boar tusks used as polishing tools in medieval times ...................................................................
477-481
M. TEICHERT
- Vergleich zwischen gemessener und berechneter Widerristhöhe
bei einem Deutschen Schwarzbunten (Holstein) Milchrind
- A comparison between the measured and calculated withers height
of a German Black-pied (Holstein) Milk-cattle ................................................................................
483-486
´
VARELA
H. POSE NIETO & J. M. VAZQUEZ
- Nuevos datos y perspectivas sobre la domesticación del caballo:
los caballos criados en régimen de libertad en Galicia, Noroeste de España
- New dates and perspectives on the horses domestication:
the wild horses in Galicia, Northwest of Spain ..............................................................................
487-493
L. BARTOSIEWICZ
- Scavenger scattering at two contemporary open air sites in Hungary
- Dispersión de carroñeros en dos yacimientos contemporáneos al aire libre en Hungría ..............
495-503
J. M. REY & B. SANCHIZ
- Differential anuran bone preservation in a taphocenotic sample of Barn owl pellets
- Preservación diferencial de huesos de anuros en una muestra tafocenótica de egagrópilas
de lechuza común ..........................................................................................................................
505-509
´
C. FERNANDEZ
- La arqueozoología en el noroeste de la Península Ibérica: historia de las investigaciones
- The Archaeozoology in the Northwest of the Iberian Peninsula: review of the research ..............
511--523
´
M. MORENO GARCIA
- La contribución del Laboratorio de Arqueozoología del IPA para el desarrollo de la
Arqueozoología en Portugal
- The contribution of the IPA Archaeozoology Laboratory to develop archaeozoology
in Portugal ......................................................................................................................................
525-535
´
-ORELLANA
P. RAMIL-REGO, M.J. IRIARTE, C. MUÑOZ SOBRINO & L. GOMEZ
- Cambio climático y dinámica temporal del paisaje y de los hábitats en las ecorregiones del NW
de la Península Ibérica durante el Pleistoceno superior
- Climatic change and temporal dynamics of the landscape and the habitats in the ecoregions
from NW Iberia during the Upper Pleistocene...............................................................................
537-551
L. ZAPATA PEÑA
- Agricultura prehistórica en el País Vasco litoral
- Prehistoric Agriculture in the Coast of the Basque Country ..........................................................
553-561
Relación de autores que han participado en los tres volúmenes de este homenaje ............................
563-575
Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57/1, 2005/2006 · Homenaje a Jesús Altuna
S. C. Aranzadi. Z. E. Donostia/San Sebastián
MUNIBE
(Antropologia - Arkeologia)
Nº 57 VOLUMEN II
2005/2006
Redacción y Administración: SOCIEDAD DE CIENCIAS ARANZADI / ZIENTZI ELKARTEA
Alto de Zorroaga - 20014-San Sebastián
Teléfono 943 46 61 42 - Fax : 943 45 58 11 - e-mail: [email protected]
www.aranzadi-zientziak.org
ISSN 1132 - 2217
INDICE - SUMMARY
L. G. STRAUS
- The American-European dialogue in the study of the Upper Paleolithic:
some reflections on international collaboration in honor of Jesus Altuna
- El diálogo Americano-Europeo en el estudio del Paleolítico superior:
reflexiones sobre la colaboración internacional en honor de Jesús Altuna....................................
9-18
E. AGUIRRE
- La industria ósea primitiva de Torralba
- The primitive bone industry in Torralba ..........................................................................................
19-52
A. ARRIZABALAGA
- Las primeras ocupaciones humanas en el Pirineo Occidental y Montes Vascos.
Un estado de la cuestión en 2005
- First human settlements in the Western Pyrenees and Basque Mountains.
The state of the question in 2005 ..................................................................................................
53-70
J.-M. LE TENSORER
- Le Yabroudien et la transition du Paléolithique ancien au Paléolithique moyen en Syrie:
l’exemple d’El Kowm
- El Yabroudiense y la transición del Paleolítico inferior al Paleolítico medio en Syria:
el ejemplo de El Kown .....................................................................................................................
71-82
´
-MORENO
J. MARTINEZ
- Las industrias en hueso “poco elaboradas” de Lezetxiki y Axlor
- The expediency bone tools of Lexetxiki and Axlor.........................................................................
83-92
`
, Y. YOKOYAMA & A. ARRIZABALAGA
C. FALGUERES
- La Geocronología del yacimiento pleistocénico de Lezetxiki (Arrasate, País Vasco).
Crítica de las dataciones existentes y algunas nuevas aportaciones
- Cadre chronologique du gisement pléistocène de Lezetxiki (Arrasate, Pays Basque).
Bilan des datations effectuées.......................................................................................................
93-106
G. A. CLARK & J. RIEL-SALVATORE
- The Compositional Integrity of the Aurignacian
- La integridad composicional del Auriñaciense ...............................................................................
107-118
C. NORMAND
- Les occupations aurignaciennes de la grotte d’Isturitz
(Saint-Martin-d’Arberoue; Pyrénées-Atlantiques; France): synthèse des données actuelles
- The Aurignacian occupations of the Isturitz Cave
(Saint-Martin-d’Arberoue; Pyrénées-Atlantiques; France): synthesis of the actual datas ..............
119-129
P. FOUCHER
- Gargas et l’Atlantique: les relations transpyrénéennes au cours du Gravettien
- Gargas y el Atlántico: las relaciones transpirenaicas durante el Gravetiense.................................
131-147
´ ÁLVAREZ
M. DE LA RASILLA VIVES & D. SANTAMARIA
- Tecnicidad y territorio: Las puntas de base cóncava del Solutrense Cantábrico
- Technicity and territory: the concave base points of the Cantabrian Solutrean .............................
149-158
´
ECHEGARAY
L. G. FREEMAN & J. GONZALEZ
- Coping with chance: animal bones and the aleatory
- Afrontando la suerte: Huesos de animales y el azar .....................................................................
159-176
N. CAZALS & M. LANGLAIS
- La place d’Ekain (couche VII) au sein du Magdalénien basco-cantabrique:
nouvelles contributions sur l’organisation des productions lithiques.
- Ekain Cave (level VII) in the Magdalenian of Basque Country and Cantabria:
news contributions about lithic productions organization ..............................................................
177-191
G. MARSAN
- A propos du Magdalénien V du gisement de Duruthy à Sorde-l’Abbaye (Landes)
- A propósito del Magdaleniense V del yacimiento de Duruthy à Sorde-l’Abbaye (Landas) .............
193-206
´
V. VILLAVERDE & D. ROMAN
- Los arpones del Magdaleniense superior de la Cova de les Cendres
y su valoración en el contexto del Magdaleniense mediterráneo
- Upper Magdalenian harpoons in the Cendres Cave and their assessment
within the context of the Mediterranean Magdalenian..................................................................
207-225
´
´
URQUIJO & J. J. IBAÑEZ
ESTÉVEZ
J. GONZALEZ
- El uso del utillaje en piedra en el final del Paleolítico Superior Peninsular
- The use of stone tooling at the end of the Peninsular Superior Palaeolithic..................................
227-238
Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57/2, 2005/2006 · Homenaje a Jesús Altuna
S. C. Aranzadi. Z. E. Donostia/San Sebastián
J. L. ARRIBAS
- El Magdaleniense Superior-Final: espacio y tiempo en el territorio vasco
- The Upper-late Magdalenian: location and time in the Basque territory ........................................
239-247
E. BERGANZA
- El tránsito del Tardiglacial al Holoceno en el País Vasco
- Transition from Tardiglacial to Holocene in the Basque Country ...................................................
249-258
´ GAZOLAZ
´
& J. SESMA SESMA
J. GARCIA
- Dispositivos de combustión durante la Prehistoria reciente en Navarra
- Combustion devices during Recent Prehistory in Navarra .............................................................
259-273
´ & Á. ARMENDARIZ
´
R. ONTAÑON
- Cuevas y megalitos:
los contextos sepulcrales colectivos en la Prehistoria reciente cantábrica
- Caves and megaliths:
Funerary collective contexts of the Recent Prehistory in Cantabrian Spain...................................
275-286
M. Á. DE BLAS CORTINA & S. ROVIRA LLORENS
- Huellas de actividad prehistórica en un medio montañoso extremo:
en torno a una Palmela en la Garganta del Cares, Picos de Europa (Asturias)
- Tracks of prehistoric activity in a hard mountainous environment:
about one Palmela in the Garganta del Cares, Picos de Europa (Asturias) ....................................
287-299
G. DELIBES DE CASTRO & J. Mª DEL VAL RECIO
- Espiraliformes de plata de la cueva de la Vaquera (Segovia):
un probable conjunto votivo de los inicios de la Edad de Bronce
- Silver spiral-shaped rings found in the La Vaquera cave (Segovia):
a likely votive ensemble from the beginnings of the Bronze Age..................................................
301-313
A. LLANOS ORTIZ DE LANDALUZE
- Sobre la Dehesa de San Bartolomé (Berrosteguieta, Alava)
- Regarding St. Bartholomew’s Pasture (Berrosteguieta, Alava)......................................................
315-324
´
A. CASTIELLA RODRIGUEZ
- Interpretación en arqueología: piezas de collar de una necrópolis navarra
- Interpretation in archaeology: collar pieces from a necropolis in Navarra ......................................
325-332
L. VALDÉS
- El Santuario Protohistórico de Gastiburu (siglos IV al I a.C.)
y el calendario estacional (Arratzu, Bizkaia)
- The Preroman Sanctuary of Gastiburu (IV-I Century B.C.)
and the seasonal calendar (Arratzu, Biscay) ...................................................................................
333-343
M. ALMAGRO
- Etnogénesis del País Vasco: de los antiguos mitos a la investigación actual
- Analysis of Basque Protohistory: from Old Myths to Recent Data ................................................
345-364
L. A. ORTEGA, M.C. ZULUAGA, A. ALONSO & C. OLAETXEA
- El estudio arqueométrico de las producciones cerámicas
- Archaelogical inferences from pottery archaeometrical studies ....................................................
365-388
M. ESTEBAN DELGADO & Mª T. IZQUIERDO MARCULETA
- Acerca de la costa cantábrica, el bajo Urumea en época antigua y el Morogi pliniano
- About the Cantabrian coast, the lower Urumea river in ancient times
and plinian Morogi..........................................................................................................................
389-404
Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57/2, 2005/2006 · Homenaje a Jesús Altuna
S. C. Aranzadi. Z. E. Donostia/San Sebastián
A. AZKARATE GARAI-OLAUN
- Sobre los orígenes cronológicos de los cementerios cispirenaicos de época tardoantigua
- On the beginning of late antiquity cemeteries in the south of the Pyrenees ................................
405-417
´
ETXEBERRIA & A. MORAZA BAREA
A. IBAÑEZ
- Evolución cronotipológica de las inhumaciones medievales en el Cantábrico Oriental:
el caso de Santa María la Real de Zarautz (Gipuzkoa)
- Chronotypological evolution of medieval burials in the Eastern Cantabric Region:
The case of Santa Maria la Real in Zarautz (Gipuzkoa)...................................................................
419-434
´ RUANO & J. M. PÉREZ-CENTENO
X. ALBERDI LONBIDE, Á. ARAGON
- Quince años de investigaciones histórico-arqueológicas en torno a Getaria
- Fifteen years of historical-archaeological research around Getaria ................................................
435-451
Relación de autores que han participado en los tres volúmenes de este homenaje ...........................
453-465
Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57/2, 2005/2006 · Homenaje a Jesús Altuna
S. C. Aranzadi. Z. E. Donostia/San Sebastián
MUNIBE
(Antropologia - Arkeologia)
Nº 57 VOLUMEN III
2005/2006
Redacción y Administración: SOCIEDAD DE CIENCIAS ARANZADI / ZIENTZI ELKARTEA
Alto de Zorroaga - 20014-San Sebastián
Teléfono 943 46 61 42 - Fax : 943 45 58 11 - e-mail: [email protected]
www.aranzadi-zientziak.org
ISSN 1132 - 2217
INDICE - SUMMARY
J. CLOTTES, J. COURTIN, L. VANRELL
- Nouvelles recherches a la Grotte Cosquer (Marseille)
- Nuevas investigaciones en la Cueva de Cosquer (Marsella) ..........................................................
9-22
F. J. FORTEA PÉREZ
- Los grabados exteriores de Santo Adriano (Tuñón. Santo Adriano. Asturias)
- The external rock carvings of Santo Adriano (Tuñón. Santo Adriano. Asturias) .............................
23-52
D. BAFFIER, M. GIRARD, E. GUILLAMET, E. BERTIN, D. DELON & M. HARDY
- Les poissons de la Grande Grotte d’Arcy-sur-Cure (Yonne)
- Los peces de la Gran Cueva de Arcy-sur-Cure (Yonne) .................................................................
53-64
P. CITERNE & B. CHANET
- Les représentations de poissons plats [Teleostei: Pleuronectiformes]
dans l’art paléolithique européen
- Representation of flatfishes [Teleostei: Pleuronectiformes] in
European paleolithic art.................................................................................................................
65-77
G. SAUVET
- La latéralisation des figures animales dans les arts rupestres: un exemple de toposensitivité
- La lateralización de las figuras animales en el arte rupestre: un ejemplo de toposensitividad ......
79-93
C. SAN JUAN-FOUCHER
- Industrie osseuse décorée du Gravettien des Pyrénées
- Industria ósea decorada del Gravetiense en los Pirineos...............................................................
95-111
´ RODRIGUEZ
´
M.ª S. CORCHON
- Los contornos recortados de la cueva de Las Caldas (Asturias, España),
en el contexto del Magdaleniense medio cántabro-pirenaico
- Les contours découpés de la grotte de Las Caldas (Asturies, Espagne)
dans le contexte Magdalénien moyen cantabre-pyrénaique).........................................................
113-134
G. BOSINSKI & H. BOSINSKI
- Cuervo, rana y tortuga en Gönnersdorf.
Animales representados raras veces, que han sido dibujados perfectamente
- Raybe, Frosch und Schildkröte in Gönnersdorf.
Selten dargestellte, aber perfekt gezeichnete Tiere ......................................................................
135-141
, P. RASINES DEL RIO,
J. A. LASHERAS CORRUCHAGA, R. MONTES BARQUIN
´ , E. MUÑOZ FERNANDEZ
´
´ MONFORTE
´ & P. FATAS
C. DE LAS HERAS MARTIN
- El proyecto científico Los Tiempos de Altamira: primeros resultados
- The Times of Altamira project: first results ....................................................................................
143-159
´ -BEA
P. UTRILLA & M. MARTINEZ
- La captura del ciervo vivo en el arte prehistórico
- Deer alive catch in prehistoric Rock-Art .........................................................................................
161-178
´
´ & M. R. GONZALEZ
MORALES
O. MORO ABADIA
- “El Arte por el Arte”: Revisión de una teoría historiográfica
- “Art for Art’s sake” Review of a Historiographical Theory ............................................................
179-188
M. OTTE
- Mosaïques Paléolithiques
- Mosaicos Paleolíticos.....................................................................................................................
189-195
I. DAVIDSON
- The painting and the tree: Symbolism in the Upper Palaeolithic.
A tribute to a great Basque Scholar
- La pintura y el árbol: simbolismo en el Paleolítico Superior.
Un tributo a un gran investigador vasco.........................................................................................
197-205
´
J. M. APELLANIZ
- La metodología de la hipótesis de atribución de autor aplicada a las figuras grabadas
en los omoplatos de El Castillo (Cantabria. España)
- Methodology used to establish the hypothetical authorship of the figures
engraved on the scapulas of the El Castillo cave (Cantabria, Spain) ..............................................
207-216
Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57/3, 2005/2006 · Homenaje a Jesús Altuna
S. C. Aranzadi. Z. E. Donostia/San Sebastián
P. G. BAHN
- A Lot of Bull? Pablo Picasso and Ice Age cave art
- Pablo Picasso y el arte rupestre paleolítico ....................................................................................
217-223
M. DAUVOIS
- Homo musicus palaeolithicus et Palaeoacustica
- Homo musicus palaeolithicus y la Paleoacústica ...........................................................................
225-241
T. CHAPA BRUNET
- Iconografía y economía: un ejemplo aplicado a los orígenes de la escultura ibérica
en el área del Bajo Segura (Alicante)
- Iconography and economy: an example centered on the origins of Iberian sculpture
at the Lower course of the Segura river (Alicante) ........................................................................
243-256
´
´
IBAÑEZ
& C. LAMALFA DIAZ
C. FERNANDEZ
- Manifestaciones rupestres de época histórica en el entorno de la cabecera del Ebro
- Rock manifestations of historical time in the surroundings of the head of Ebro ...........................
257-267
R. RUIZ IDARRAGA
- El aporte de la etnografía al análisis del estilo en el arte prehistórico:
las ceramistas del Rif occidental (Marruecos)
- The contribution of ethnography to analysing style in prehistoric art:
ceramists from western Rif (Morocco) ..........................................................................................
269-278
´
´
´ -TORRES, E. CARBONELL, M. LOZANO, A. GOMEZ
DE CASTRO, M. MARTINON
& S. SARMIENTO
J.M. BERMUDEZ
- Origen y filogenia de los primeros homínidos de Europa
- Origin and phylogeny of the earliest European hominids ..............................................................
279-287
M. D. GARRALDA
- Los Neandertales en la Península Ibérica
- The Neandertals from the Iberian Peninsula ..................................................................................
289-314
´ , S. ALONSO & N. IZAGIRRE
C. DE LA RUA
- Tradición e Innovación de la Antropología Física en el País Vasco
- Tradition and Innovation of the Physical Anthropology in the Basque Country .............................
315-326
´
N. IZAGIRRE, S. ALONSO & C. DE LA RUA
- Descifrando los mensajes del pasado: análisis del ADN antiguo
- Unravelling messages from the past: analysis of aDNA ................................................................
327-335
´
S. ALONSO, N. IZAGIRRE, C. DE LA RUA
- El mono humanizado: la búsqueda genética de lo que nos hace humanos
- The human ape: the genetic search for what makes us human ....................................................
337-344
´
F. ETXEBERRIA, L. HERRASTI & A. BANDRES
- Muertes violentas determinadas a través de los estudios de paleopatología
- Violent deaths determined through Paleopathology studies .........................................................
345-357
P. ARIAS CABAL
- Determinaciones de isótopos estables en restos humanos
de la región Cantábrica. Aportación al estudio de la dieta de las poblaciones
del Mesolítico y el Neolítico
- Stable isotopes measurements in human remains of the Cantabrian region.
A contribution of Mesolithic and Neolithic populations..................................................................
359-374
M. DUVERT
- Documents pour servir à l’histoire des charpentiers basques (mahisturuak)
- Documents for basque carpenters history.....................................................................................
375-390
Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57/3, 2005/2006 · Homenaje a Jesús Altuna
S. C. Aranzadi. Z. E. Donostia/San Sebastián
A. ERKOREKA
- Mal de ojo: una creencia supersticiosa remota, compleja y aún viva
- The evil eye: a remote superstitious belief, which is complex and still present ............................
391-400
A. MANTEROLA & G. ARREGI
- El Atlas Etnográfico de Vasconia. Génesis y desarrollo de un proyecto de investigación
- Ethnographic Atlas of Vasconia. Origins and development of a research project .........................
401-413
J. GARMENDIA LARRAÑAGA
- Berastegiko oroigarritxo batzuk
- Pinceladas acerca de Berastegi .....................................................................................................
415-417
J. APALATEGI BEGIRISTAIN
- Jesus Altuna Etxabe (1932.VII.27 jaioa)
Paleoantropologoaren Biografiarako nire lehen urratsak................................................................
419-437
K. MARIEZKURRENA
- Cueva de Ekain (Deba, Gipuzkoa) Protección, Conservación, Difusión y Réplica
- Ekain cave (Deba, Gipuzkoa) Protection, Preservation, Diffusion and Replica ...............................
439-453
R. SANSON
- La mise en œuvre de la réplique d’Ekain et de sa scénographie
- Realización de la réplica de Ekain y de su escenografía ................................................................
455-464
K. MARIEZKURRENA & L. DEL BARRIO
- Protección y difusión del Patrimonio Megalítico de Gipuzkoa
- Protection and dissemination of the Megalithic Heritage of Gipuzkoa .........................................
465-471
´
A. BALDEON
- Patrimonio arqueológico y museos. El Museo de Arqueología de Álava
- Archaeological heritage and museums. The Álava Museum of Archaeology ................................
473-484
J. WESBUER
- Neue Möglichkeiten in der archäologischen Arbeit durch
den Einsatz digitaler Bildauswertung und photogrammetrischer Messtechniken
- Nuevas posibilidades en el trabajo arqueológico a través del uso
de la evaluación digital de imágenes y técnicas de medición fotogramétricas ..............................
485-490
Relación de autores que han participado en los tres volúmenes de este homenaje ...........................
491-503
Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57/3, 2005/2006 · Homenaje a Jesús Altuna
S. C. Aranzadi. Z. E. Donostia/San Sebastián

Documentos relacionados