Hydrogen Use / Utilización del Hidrógeno

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Hydrogen Use / Utilización del Hidrógeno
InWent Workshop Buenos Aires 27+28 September 2007
Hydrogen Use / Utilización del Hidrógeno
Reinhold Wurster
Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik GmbH
Ottobrunn / Germany
[email protected]
www.lbst.de
Tabla de Contenido
Situación de la disponibilidad de los recursos energéticos
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
El papel del hidrógeno (H2)
Sistema de producción, transporte y distribución de H2
Analisis de eficiencia energética y de emisiones de efecto
climatico
Potenciales de producción de H2 por fuentes renovables
Costos de la producción y del uso vehícular del H2
Ejemplos de aplicación del H2 en el sector automotriz y
estacionario
2
www.lbst.de
Conversion efficiencies/ Eficiencias de conversión
Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik GmbH, 2007
Nuclear heat to electricity
Biomass to electricity
30%
33%
35%
40%
Coal to electricity
50%
Gas to electricity
16,000
98%
Renewable electricity
Combined heat and power
0%
40%
Final
Energy Supply
"Conv ersion
losses"
14,000
Heat 60%
25%
20%
Total Primary Energy Supply
18,000
"Conv ersion
losses"
12,000
60%
80%
100%
Efficiency
10,000
[Mtoe]
Oil to electricity
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
Conversion losses
Electricity
8,000
Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik GmbH, 2007
Coal to liquids
45%
Coal to hydrogen
50%
Gas to liquids
50%
Biomass to liquids
50%
4,000
2,000
WEO
70%
Biomass to hydrogen
70%
Electricity and water to hydrogen
70%
WEO
LBST
2010
WEO
LBST
2020
WEO
LBST
2030
Total Primary Energy Supply and Final Energy Supply - w orld summary
Ludw ig-Bölkow -Systemtechnik GmbH, 2007
90%
Oil to fuel
20%
40%
60%
Efficiency
3
LBST
2004
Gas to hydrogen
0%
6,000
Conversion losses
Fuel
80%
100%
www.lbst.de
World energy supply by 2030/ Suministro energético mundial en 2030
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
4
www.lbst.de
Global future energy trends
Pico en suministro de energías fosiles - petroleo
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
Production in [Mtoe per year]
16,000
14,000
12,000
10,000
8,000
OIL PEAK
2005~2010
6,000
4,000
2,000
1930
5
Legend
Oil
Oil
1950
1970
1990
2010
2030
2050
2070
2090
Scenario assumption: decline rate after peak of 2.7%/yr
Actual experience: decline rates of 10%/yr and beyond (e.g. Alaska, Mexico, Norway, Oman, UK)
www.lbst.de
Global future energy trends
Pico en suministro de energías fosiles – gas natural
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
Production in [Mtoe per year]
16,000
14,000
12,000
10,000
GAS PEAK
2015~2025
8,000
6,000
Gas
4,000
2,000
1930
6
Legend
Gas
Oil
Oil
1950
1970
1990
2010
2030
2050
2070
2090
www.lbst.de
Global future energy trends
Pico en suministro de energías fosiles - carbon
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
Production in [Mtoe per year]
16,000
14,000
12,000
10,000
COAL PEAK
2030~2040
Bituminous +
subbituminous
8,000
Lignite coal
6,000
Gas
4,000
2,000
1920
7
Legend
Coal lignite
Coal bit+subbit
Gas
Oil
Oil
1940
1960
1980
2000
2020
2040
2060
2080
For details on coal resource/reserve analysis, see EWG Report No. 1/ 2007 "Coal“:
http://www.lbst.de/publications/studies__e/2007EWG-coal__e.html
2100
www.lbst.de
Global future energy trends
Pico en suministro de energías fosiles - uranio
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
Production in [Mtoe per year]
16,000
14,000
12,000
10,000
NUCLEAR PEAK
2015~2020
Bituminous +
subbituminous
8,000
Lignite coal
Nuclear
6,000
Gas
4,000
2,000
1920
8
Legend
Nuclear
Coal lignite
Coal bit+subbit
Gas
Oil
Oil
1940
1960
1980
2000
2020
2040
2060
2080
For details on nuclear resource/reserve analysis, see EWG Report No. 1/2006 "Uranium“:
http://www.lbst.de/publications/studies__e/2006EWG-uranium__e.html
2100
www.lbst.de
Global future energy trends
Pico en suministro de energías fosiles – sumación
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
16,000
Production in [Mtoe per year]
WEO 2006 scenario
14,000
12,000
10,000
FOSSIL+NUCLEAR PEAK
2015~2020
Bituminous +
subbituminous
8,000
Lignite coal
Nuclear
6,000
Gas
4,000
2,000
1920
9
Legend
Nuclear
Coal lignite
Coal bit+subbit
Gas
Oil
Oil
1940
1960
1980
2000
2020
2040
2060
2080
2100
www.lbst.de
Global future energy trends
Perspectiva Global de Energía prparado por LBST
Total primary energy supply in [Mtoe]
2004
2030
20,000
15,000
10,000
Legend
Geothermal
Hydro
Wind
Biomass
Solar collectors
SOT
PV
Uranium
Coal
Gas
Oil
Geothermal
WEO 2006
Wind power
Biomass
Hydropower
Solar
collectors
Uranium
SOT
Coal
PV
Gas
5,000
Oil
1930
10
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
1950
1970
1990
2010
2030
2050
2070
2090
www.lbst.de
Global future energy trends
Tendencias generales – pico en combustible fosiles
Rising domestic energy consumption and declining energy production
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
Increasing energy prices (energy imports!)
Shift to fuels with lower energy density: oilÆ natural gas Æ hydrogen
Decrease of interregional energy trade
– shifting to distributed, regional energy structures necessary
Increase of use competition of carbon-based fuels (oil, gas, coal, biomass):
pharmacy, food production, materials
Demand of climate and environmentally friendly energy systems
Increasing share of renewable energy production
Increasing importance to produce fuels from electricity,
and not only electricity from fuels
11
www.lbst.de
Implicaciones para países en desarrollo
Situación de importación/ exportación de energía en 2030
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
China, South Asia and East Asia will become net energy importers:
China will become the world largest net energy importer;
South Asia and East Asia will not be able to increase their net energy import balance by
2030 in view of increasing energy demand Æ either becoming more self-sufficient or
threatened by energy crisis)
Latin America will reduce its energy exports and will be focused on the
intercontinental energy market (self-sufficient with fossil and renewable
energies)
Africa could become a major and important exporter of energy (mainly gas,
coal, uranium, renewables)
The Middle East and the Transition Economies will become the largest exporter
of fossil fuels (mainly oil, gas, coal, uranium)
[Remark: statements are dependent on the assumptions taken in defining the regional breakdown]
12
www.lbst.de
Implicaciones para países en desarrollo
Transición hacia el era post-carbonico
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
Reduction of energy import dependency
Sustainable energy structures are needed
Development of regional and alternative energy structures:
• build-up of renewable energies
• investment in local infrastructures, e.g. electricity grids, water management
• promotion of alternative fuels (domestic supply / export?)
• support of local production of RES technology (local demand / export?)
• promote energy saving technologies and energy efficiency
13
www.lbst.de
Transición de combustibles fosiles a electricidad renovable
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
14
www.lbst.de
Role of H2 and Fuel Cells/ Papel del hidrógeno y de pilas de combustible
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
To incorporate a maximum of renewable energies…
…we need the ability to produce fuel from electricity,
not only electricity from fuel!
15
www.lbst.de
Role of H2 and Fuel Cells/ Papel del hidrógeno y de pilas de combustible
Hydrogen in stationary applications:
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
 Efficiency of electricity→H2→electricity pathway is lower than with competing
stationary technologies, thus only suited for island systems or on top of anything else
Beside this, hydrogen…
 is well suited as transportation fuel (potential, yield, storage, efficiency)
 provides the broadest feedstock flexibility (from fossil to renewable)
 offers a cross-cut from electricity to transportation fuels / energy storage.
Hence, using hydrogen where it makes sense facilitates…
→ a 'greening' of the transport sector (sustainable fuel)
→ diversification of primary energy sources for transportation
→ increased security of supply for the transport sector
→ efficient load management for the stationary power sector through transportation
fuel production
16
→ take-up of more fluctuating renewables into the stationary electricity grid.
www.lbst.de
Role of hydrogen/ Papel del hidrógeno
Que necesidades lo puede cubrir ?
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
Combustibles
Alternativos ?
Transport sector:
Local production of hydrogen
(reduction of oil import dependency, long-term growth will not be
Infraestructura ?
feasible with fossil fuels nor with biomass-derived fuels respectively
through imports)
Stationary sector:
Supply of back-up power via fuel cells (hospitals, telecom,
data processing, manufacturing processes, refrigeration, etc.)
Remote /re-electrification for electrical islands
(compensation for infrastructure deficits)
17
Load levelling of fluctuating electricity productionwww.lbst.de
Hidrógeno: “Fuente al Consumidor”
Electricidad Renovable
Electrolisis y Liquificación
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
Reformador de Gas Natural
Reformador de Biomasa
Transporte
Aplicaciones Móviles
Almacenamiento der Hidogeno
Aplicaciones Estacionarias
Energía Doméstica
Hidrógeno Químico
18
Red eléctrica
Pila de Combusible www.lbst.de
para Co-Generación
Producción, compresión, almacenamiento y distribución del hidrógeno
Mahler
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
Linde
onsite
Air Liquide
centralised
Natural Gas Reformer
Hydro-Pac
Air Liquide
Biomass Gasification
DM2
Hydrogen Storage
Linde
Norsk Hydro
PDC
Hydrogenics
BP
19
centralised
Electrolyser
onsite
Hydrogen
Compression
Hydrogen
www.lbst.de
Dispenser
Sistema de Isla en Utsira (Noruega)
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
Energía eólica
Pila de
Combustible
y
Motor de
Combustión
Interna
20
Electrolisis y Almacenamiento
www.lbst.de
Suministro del hidrógeno como combustible renovable
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
LH2
Hydrogen
Delivery
Certified Green
Electricity
Container/ Storage at Refueling Station
Electrolyzer
H2T H2T
H2T
Container Transportation
Container
Filling
21
Hydro Power
Ocean Power
Geothermal Power
Source: LBST
Wind Power
Solar Power
Biomass
www.lbst.de
Recursos de energías primarias para la producción del hidrógeno como
combustible vehicular
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
Solar
Geothermal
Wind
Hydro
Maritime
Electricity
Hydrogen
Water
Conventional
[Coal, oil,
natural gas,
nuclear]
Electrolysis
Compressor
Liquid hydrogen
Import
Storage
(CGH2
p> 30 MPa)
Natural gas
with CCS
Coal
Single storage or cascade storage
at different pressure levels
Waste
Steam
Biomass
22
[Geological
Hydrogen]
Reformer
www.lbst.de
Fuentes del hidrógeno disponibles a corto plazo
A proof for
hydrogen‘s
feedstock
flexibility ...
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
Chemical Hydrogen
Pipeline Systems
H2
Chemical By-Product
Hydrogen
1 to 3 years
2 to 5 years
23
Refinery By-Product
Hydrogen
CGH2 Refuelling Station
Natural Gas Reforming
to Hydrogen
Biomass Gasification
to Hydrogen
Stranded NG as LNG or
Methanol Delivered
Centralized or Onsite
Reforming to Hydrogen
Water
Electrolysis
www.lbst.de
Estaciones de suministro de H2 en Alemania en 2005 hasta 2007
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
AGIP:
FrankfurtHöchst
[17NOV2006]
Total: Berlin-Spandau [18NOV2005]
Linde: Unterschleißheim
(cerca de Munich) [09OCT2006]
24
Total: Munich [26APR2007]
www.lbst.de
25
as
ol
in
Di e (
es re
el f er
(re en
fe ce)
re
CM nc e
CM G )
G NG
bi
og
a
FA s
M
E
BT
L
G
TL
C
E t DM T L
ha E
M
no N
et
ha E th l w G
n o a n he
l f ol a t
ar
m st ra
CG M ed w
H2 et h w o
a o
CG fa r no d
l
H2 m e N G
d
CG
NG w
o
H2
(o od
EU C n s
e l G H i t e)
ec 2
Ba
c
t ri
t te
c i o al
ry
CG ty m
EV
H2 i x
EU
w
e l L H i nd
ec
2
wi
t ri
nd
ci
ty
m
ix
G
[MJ/km]
Consumo de energía en perspectiva “Pozo a Rueda”
4,50
4,00
3,50
3,00
Internal combustion engine (ICE)
Fuel cell (FC)
2,00
1,50
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systemtechnik
Renewable
Nuclear
Fossil
2,50
Reference
Diesel Propulsion
1,00
0,50
0,00
www.lbst.de
26
as
ol
in
Di e (
es re
el f er
(re en
fe ce)
re
CM nc e
CM G )
G NG
bi
og
a
FA s
M
E
BT
L
G
TL
C
E t DM T L
ha E
M
no N
et
ha E th l w G
n o a n he
l f ol a t
ar
m st ra
CG M ed w
H2 et h w o
a o
CG fa r no d
l
H2 m e N G
d
CG
NG w
o
H2
(o od
EU C n s
e l G H i t e)
ec 2
Ba
c
t ri
t te
c i o al
ry
CG ty m
EV
H2 i x
EU
w
e l L H i nd
ec
2
wi
t ri
nd
ci
ty
m
ix
G
[g CO 2 equivalent/km]
Emisiones de gases inverandero en perspectiva “Pozo a Rueda”
350
Internal combustion engine (ICE)
250
200
Fuel cell (FC)
300
150
100
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
N2O
CH4
CO2
Reference
Diesel Propulsion
50
0
www.lbst.de
Potencial de producción de combustibles vehiculares de origen renovable
EU25 después de 2020
15000
Rail
PJ/a
Inland navigation
12500
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
The potentials of different alternatives are shown and
can not be added.
Civil aviation
10000
7500
Road transport
Plantation (short rotation forestry)
Plantation
(grasses: 10-25 t TS/ha/a)
5000
Residual wood, residual straw
5,75% share of biofuels
Via biogas
2500
0
max
Demand min
(Transport)
Biogas
2002 1)
(Methane)
1)
2)
27
min
max
Hydrogen
(CGH2)
min
max
Wasserstoff
(LH2)
min
max
BTL
min
max
Plant oil/
FAME 2)
min
max
Ethanol from
wheat 2)
min
max
Ethanol via
SSCF
Source: IEA-Statistics 2001-2002
Gross (without the energy efforts for the supply of the fuels e.g. the use of external energy for the ethanol plant)
Data compilation and graphics: LBST
www.lbst.de
Potenciales técnicos para hidrógeno obtenido por electricidad renovable
EU 25 después 20020
PV2)
[PJ/yr]
20000
Solarthermal power stations
18000
16000
Ocean power
Inland navigation
Rail
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
Geothermal
Civil aviation
2)
Wind onshore
Road transport
Wind offshore
14000
2)
2)
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
28
1)
2)
Fuel consumption
(Transport 2002) 1)
Source: IEA-Statistics 2001-2002
still exploitable within the EU
min
CGH2
max
min
Hydropower
Data compilation and graphics: LBST
2)
max
LH2
www.lbst.de
Rendimiento por ha y año para diferentes combustibles de transporte
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
Yield [GJfinal fuel/(ha yr)]
800
700
600
Assumptions H2:
• Area occupied with PV: 33%
• Solar irradiation: 900 kWh/(m2 yr)
• Efficiency PV modules: 15%
500
• Performance Ratio: 75%
• Efficiency CGH2 supply: 60%
400
• Efficiency LH2 supply: 54%
300
• 2.4 wind turbines/km2
• 2000 kW/wind turbine
• Equivalent full load period WT: 1800 h/yr
200
*)
*)
Bandwidth
100
er
dp
wi
n
2
LH
w
in
d
po
ow
w
er
PV
2
PV
CG
H2
LH
CG
H2
Bi
o
di
es
el
(R
Et
M
ha
E)
Et
no
h
an
ls
ho
ol
w
rt
he
ro
at
ta
tio
n
fo
re
st
ry
Bi
om
et
ha
CG
ne
H2
sh
or
tr
BT
ot
LH
L
at
io
2
n
sh
fo
or
re
tr
st
ot
ry
at
io
n
fo
re
st
ry
0
*) more than 99% of the land area can still
be used for other purposes e.g. agriculture
29
Source: LBST
www.lbst.de
Cantidad de coches (hibridizados) que se puede proveer por ha
Annual mileage passenger vehicle: 12,000 km
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
[Passenger vehicles/ha]
80
70
Diesel engine
60
Otto engine
50
Fuel cell
40
30
Reference vehicle: VW Golf
*)
20
10
*)
Bandwidth
er
dp
wi
n
2
LH
w
in
d
po
ow
w
er
PV
2
PV
CG
H2
LH
CG
H2
Bi
o
di
es
el
(R
Et
M
ha
E)
E
th
no
an
ls
ol
ho
w
rt
he
ro
at
ta
tio
n
fo
re
st
ry
Bi
om
et
ha
CG
ne
H2
sh
or
tr
BT
ot
LH
L
at
io
2
n
sh
fo
or
re
tr
st
ot
ry
at
io
n
fo
re
st
ry
0
*) more than 99% of the land area can still
be used for other purposes e.g. agriculture
30
Source: LBST
www.lbst.de
Costos combustible por contenido energético y emisiónes “Pozo a Tanque”
300
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
w tax
Gasoline/Diesel
100 US$/barrel (w tax)
w/o tax
CGH2 from NG
(onsite SMR):
380 - 440 g/kWh
~ 0,80 EUR/lGE)
CO2 equivalent [g/kWh]
100 US$/barrel (w/o tax)
EtOH (Wheat)
EtOH (sugar beet)
200
100
Rapeseed
oil
CGH2 (Residual wood)
RME
EtOH
(Residual wood)
MeOH
(Residual wood)
0
CMG (Biogas)
0
0,5
FT-Diesel (short rotation forestry)
CGH2 (Wind)
LH2 (Wind)
LH2 (Residual wood)
1
FT-Diesel (Residual wood)
1,5
2
LH2 (SOT)
2,5
Source: LBST
Fuel costs [EUR/lgasoline equivalent]
31
www.lbst.de
Costos combustible por contenido energético y emisiónes “Pozo a Rueda”
200
100 US$/barrel (w/o tax)
Gasoline/Diesel
CO2 equivalent [g/km]
150
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
w/o tax
EtOH (Wheat)
w tax
EtOH (sugar beet)
• CGH2, LH2: FC
• Methanol: FPFC
• Diesel, RME, Rapeseed
oil, FT diesel: Diesel ICE
• Gasoline, ethanol, CMG:
Otto ICE
CGH2 (NG)
100
Rapeseed oil
RME
CMG (Biogas)
50
FT-Diesel
(Residual wood)
CGH2 (Residual wood)
0
0
MeOH
(Residual wood)
0,02
EtOH (Residual wood)
FT-Diesel (short rotation forestry)
LH2 (Wind)
CGH2 (Wind)
0,04
0,06
LH2 (Residual wood)
¾ Reference vehicle VW Golf
¾ Non-hybrid
32
LH2 (SOT)
0,08
Source: LBST
Fuel costs [EUR/vehicle-km]
www.lbst.de
InWent Workshop Buenos Aires 27+28 September 2007
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
International
Development and Demonstration Activities in
Europe/Germany,
USA,
Japan and
China
33
www.lbst.de
Vehículos de hidrógeno producido en Alemania (2002-2006)
Audi, BMW, DaimlerChrysler, MAN, GM/Opel, VW
DC Hygenious F600
DC FC Citaro
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systemtechnik
Audi A2 FC Hybrid
GM/Opel HydroGen3
DC FC Sprinter
MAN H2 ICE Bus
GM Equinox
“HydroGen4”
34
HyMotion
VW Touran FC
www.lbst.de
BMW LH2 ICE
Desarrollos Europeos en autobuses de pila de combustible
(2000-2007)
PM FC Hybrid bus 2000
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systemtechnik
DaimlerChrysler Citaro
Ballard PEMFC bus – 2002
BVG articulated bus (LH2) – original planning 2006
35
ARGEMUC-MAN
Ballard PEM fuel cell
hybrid bus - 2004
Hybrid FC Europolis - 2007
www.lbst.de
Desarrollos N. Americanos en autobuses de pila de combustible
(2005-2006)
Winnipeg FC bus - 2007
36
Santa Clara VTA Gillig
Ballard PEMFC bus - 2005
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systemtechnik
AC Transit / UTC FC hybrid bus - 2006
Hydrogenics NRW FC bus - 2005
www.lbst.de
Desarrollos en autobuses de pila de combustible en Japón/ China/ Korea
(2001-2006)
Toyota / Hino Fuel Cell Bus - 2001
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
Tsinghua University & DICP FCB 100 kW - 2004
Shanghai Shenli, Shanghai Jiao Tong
University, Suzhou Chuangyuan Group,
Suzhou Golden Dragon Bus Co Ltd.
Hyundai FC bus - FIFA World Cup 2006
[certified for German roads by TÜV SÜD]
37
www.lbst.de
FC City Bus - 2006
Desarrollos en caretillas elevadoras de pilas de combustible (2003–2006)
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
Proton Motor FC/ Still ' FC forklifter' 2003
38
DOD forklift truck - 2006
Toronto ' FC forklifter' - 2004
Toyota forklift truck - 2005
www.lbst.de
Aplicaciones de pilas de combustible pequeñas
con tecnología alemana
NovArs
2000 +2002
Aprilia 2003
Wolf 2003
Kärcher
2002
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systemtechnik
Masterflex
2005
no
39
Hunter 2003
Sortimo
Proton Motor
FC 2003
www.lbst.de
Aplicaciones de pilas de combustible pequeñas
con tecnología alemana
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
Cargobike (Masterflex,
Gelsenkirchen, NRW, Alemania)
Bicicletas a PdC de alquilar
(Herten, NRW, Alemania)
40
www.lbst.de
Aplicaciones de pilas de combustible pequeñas
con tecnología alemana
Kap Arkona,
MV, Alemania
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systemtechnik
Müritz, MV,
Alemania
41
Barcos sin
emisiones de
ruido ni de
polución
www.lbst.de
Aplicaciones de pilas en ferrocarriles
.....
East Japan Railroad FC Commuter Train
(2006/2007
Adtranz FC Commuter Train Layout Study (2001)
42
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
European FC Train Project
initiated in Denmark (2006)
www.lbst.de
Desarrollos en sistemas estacionarias de pilas de combustible - PEM
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
CHP, Beta-Unit, 2006
Demonstration project
CHP in the Netherlands
GenCore
PremiomT
ElectraGen
43
www.lbst.de
Desarrollos en sistemas estacionarias de pilas de combustible – SOFC
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
Production plan
in NRW
New 2.5 MW for
Baden-Württemberg
under development (2012)
APU (Webasto)
CHP (Webasto-Vaillant)
44
www.lbst.de
Desarrollos en sistemas estacionarias de PdC cogeneradoras
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
45
Hexis (SOFC)
Vaillant (PEM)
www.lbst.de
Generadores pequeños de PdC (aprox. 1 kWel)
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
Ballard
(Hidrógeno,
componente de sistemas)
46
Smart Fuel Cells
(Metanol,
producto final de venta)
www.lbst.de
Aplicaciones de pilas de combustible pequeñas y protatiles
Marca Angstrom, Canada
Antorcha con PdC y hidruros metálicos
47
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
Cargador con conexión USP
www.lbst.de
Páginas web de LBST
Páginas web operadas por LBST
Information on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells:
www.HyWeb.de
Information on the availability of
fossil energy sources:
www.Energiekrise.de
All Hydrogen Refueling Stations Worldwide:
www.h2stations.org
All Hydrogen and FC Vehicles Worldwide:
www.h2mobility.org
48
www.HyLights.org
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
www.hfpeurope.org
www.HyApproval.org
www.HyWays.de
www.HyNet.info
www.EIHP.org
a
r
G
o
p
s
a
i
c
u
s
r
n
e
t
a
!
n
ció
www.lbst.de
InWent Workshop Buenos Aires 27+28 September 2007
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
Back up
49
www.lbst.de
Estudios “Pozo a Rueda” [2001/ 2002/ 2004]
ludwig bölkow
systemtechnik
http://www.transportation.anl.gov
http://www.lbst.de/gm-wtw
http://ies.jrc.cec.eu.int
GM WtW North America
GM WtW Europe
CONCAWE/EUCAR/JRC
Source: GM/Opel – OCT2005
50
www.lbst.de

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