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presentation
DIgSILENT Home Office
Updates on International
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DIgSILENT Ibérica
Techwindgrid ’09
20/21 April 2009, Madrid
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
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21.04.2009
21.04.2009
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21.04.2009
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DIgSILENT PowerFactory
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D-3: Current, Magnitude in A
D-4: Current, Magnitude in A
T-BL_UW3: Current, Magnitude/HV-Side in A
11.0
13.0
17.0
19.0
23.0
25.0
29.0
31.0
[-]
2.0E+3
1.0E+3
0.0E+0
-1.0E+3
-2.0E+3
-0.00
0.02
D-3: Current in A
D-4: Current in A
T-BL_UW3: Current/HV-Side in A
10000
%
[s]
0.04
0.06
Masterpac
MP M20H1/800A
0.08
[s]
0.10
Iberian product:
Testing system for wind farm and solar plants
DIgSILENT
#/
I =113974.200 pri.A
$ %&
I =1850.301 pri.A
I =1821.774 pri.A
#
Fuse 300 A
A055C300E
100
#/%%
#
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10.588 s
1
0.687 s
OC-Relay
Type I>/I>>
0.01
0.40 kV
100
20.00 kV
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
1000
10
Motor 1
SS-L2/SS-T
Cub_2\Motor Relay
21.04.2009
10000
100
100000
1000
SS-T/T-LV
Cub_2\I>I>>_Trafo
Cub_2\Fuse Cable
1000000
10000
[pri.A]
10000000
100000
5
Testing Centralized Voltage Controllers
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
6
Testing Centralized Voltage Controllers
PROJECT STAGE 1:
Strategies definition
Central Controller design
Verification with simulation
PROJECT STAGE 2:
The same wind farm is used to
test the controller implemented
in c++.
Interface PF-DLL
Q CONTROL MODE 1
Total
Q set
(i ) =
Total
Qset
number of available wind turbines
Q CONTROL MODE 2
Total
Total
i
Q set
(i + 1) = Q set
(i ) − Q set
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
7
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
8
2
Testing Centralized Voltage Controllers
Testing Centralized Voltage Controllers
Wind Farm Controller:
1.075
1.15
U_SET_MAX 1.05 p.u.
1.050
U_WT_MAX 1.10 p.u.
1.10
DIgSILENT
PROJECT STAGE 3:
The same wind farm is used to
test the controller implemented
in c++ on an OPC server.
Interface PF-OPC server.
1.05
1.025
1.00
0.95
1.000
U_WT_MIN 0.90 p.u.
0.90
0.975
0.85
13.88
U_SET_MIN 0.95 p.u.
0.950
0.925
13.88
64.08
114.3
164.5
214.7
[s]
2-Winding Transformer: Tensión, Magnitud/Lado HV in p.u.
2-Winding Transformer: Tensión, Magnitud/Lado LV in p.u.
264.9
3.00
64.08
114.3
164.5
WT1: Tensión, Magnitud in p.u.
WT2: Tensión, Magnitud in p.u.
WT3: Tensión, Magnitud in p.u.
WT4: Tensión, Magnitud in p.u.
WT5: Tensión, Magnitud in p.u.
WT6: Tensión, Magnitud in p.u.
WT7: Tensión, Magnitud in p.u.
214.7
[s]
264.9
64.08
114.3
RunCtrl: qoutPu
RunCtrl: qoutPu
RunCtrl: qoutPu
RunCtrl: qoutPu
RunCtrl: qoutPu
RunCtrl: qoutPu
RunCtrl: qoutPu
214.7
[s]
264.9
0.30
0.20
2.00
0.10
1.00
0.00
0.00
-0.10
-0.20
13.88
-1.00
-2.00
-3.00
13.88
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
9
64.08
114.3
164.5
214.7
2-Winding Transformer: Posición Actual del Tap
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
264.9
21.04.2009
10
Grid Codes:
Short worldwide overview
Updates on International Grid Codes
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
[s]
164.5
11
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
12
3
Spain
P.O.12.2: “INSTALACIONES CONECTADAS A LA RED DE
TRANSPORTE Y EQUIPO GENERADOR: REQUISITOS MINIMOS
DE DISEÑO, EQUIPAMIENTO, FUNCIONAMIENTO, PUESTA EN
SERVICIO Y SEGURIDAD”
Current version: April 2009
Status: Under discussion
SPAIN
Starting from: 01/01/2011 (or 2012)
Applicable to:
- Generation connected to HV network
- Generation connected to MV network if P>10MW
- Distributed generation sharing the same connection point if
Pgrouped>10MW
New features:
- Power quality limits
- Distinction between directly coupled Sync. Generators, WP and PV
- Power and Voltage regulation requirements at PCC level
- Requirements on negative sequence currents
- Islanding features
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
13
21.04.2009
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
Spain
P.O.12.2: “INSTALACIONES CONECTADAS A LA RED DE
TRANSPORTE Y EQUIPO GENERADOR: REQUISITOS
MINIMOS DE DISEÑO, EQUIPAMIENTO, FUNCIONAMIENTO,
PUESTA EN SERVICIO Y SEGURIDAD”
Specific requirements:
1) Synchronous Generators directly coupled to the grid.
General Power Quality Requirements:
Planning level
Emission limits
Flicker
According to
IEC61000-3-7
Pst 1.0
Plt 0.8
Pst 0.8
Plt 0.6
Harmonics
According to IEC
61000-3-6
THD: 3.00%
THD: 3.00%
I-/I+ 1% for short duration
unbalance (>10 min)
2% for very short duration
unbalance (<10min)
I-/I+
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
14
Spain
P.O.12.2: “INSTALACIONES CONECTADAS A LA RED DE
TRANSPORTE Y EQUIPO GENERADOR: REQUISITOS
MINIMOS DE DISEÑO, EQUIPAMIENTO, FUNCIONAMIENTO,
PUESTA EN SERVICIO Y SEGURIDAD”
Unbalance
21.04.2009
I-/I+
I-/I+
0.7% for short duration
unbalance (>10 min)
1% for very short duration
unbalance (<10min)
21.04.2009
15
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
16
4
Spain
Spain
P.O.12.2: “INSTALACIONES CONECTADAS A LA RED DE
TRANSPORTE Y EQUIPO GENERADOR: REQUISITOS
MINIMOS DE DISEÑO, EQUIPAMIENTO, FUNCIONAMIENTO,
PUESTA EN SERVICIO Y SEGURIDAD”
P.O.12.2: “INSTALACIONES CONECTADAS A LA RED DE
TRANSPORTE Y EQUIPO GENERADOR: REQUISITOS
MINIMOS DE DISEÑO, EQUIPAMIENTO, FUNCIONAMIENTO,
PUESTA EN SERVICIO Y SEGURIDAD”
Specific requirements:
1) Synchronous Generators directly coupled to the grid.
Specific requirements:
1) Synchronous Generators directly coupled to the grid.
Low Voltage Ride Through:
- Capability to stay connected in case of 3PH/1PH voltage dip 0% duration 1 second.
- Capability to stay connected in case of 2PH voltage dip 0.5% duration 1 second.
- Capability to stay connected in case of phase shift 30º
-Reactive power support
controlled by AVR
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
Overvoltage Ride Through:
-3PH/2PH/1PH
figure
-Occasionally, up to 125%
if voltage was 110%
-Reactive power support
controlled by AVR
17
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
Spain
18
Spain
P.O.12.2: “INSTALACIONES CONECTADAS A LA RED DE
TRANSPORTE Y EQUIPO GENERADOR: REQUISITOS
MINIMOS DE DISEÑO, EQUIPAMIENTO, FUNCIONAMIENTO,
PUESTA EN SERVICIO Y SEGURIDAD”
P.O.12.2: “INSTALACIONES CONECTADAS A LA RED DE
TRANSPORTE Y EQUIPO GENERADOR: REQUISITOS
MINIMOS DE DISEÑO, EQUIPAMIENTO, FUNCIONAMIENTO,
PUESTA EN SERVICIO Y SEGURIDAD”
Specific requirements:
1) Synchronous Generators directly coupled to the grid.
Specific requirements:
1) Synchronous Generators directly coupled to the grid.
Frequency disturbances:
- Capability to stay connected unless f < 48 Hz during 3 seconds or more
- Instantaneous disconnection if f < 47.5 Hz
- Capability to stay connected if f reaches 51.5 Hz
- Capability to stay connected during df/dt < ±2Hz/second.
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
21.04.2009
Frequency regulation:
- Primary regulation mandatory
- PSS mandatory when rated power P>50MW
19
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
20
5
Spain
Spain
P.O.12.2: “INSTALACIONES CONECTADAS A LA RED DE
TRANSPORTE Y EQUIPO GENERADOR: REQUISITOS
MINIMOS DE DISEÑO, EQUIPAMIENTO, FUNCIONAMIENTO,
PUESTA EN SERVICIO Y SEGURIDAD”
P.O.12.2: “INSTALACIONES CONECTADAS A LA RED DE
TRANSPORTE Y EQUIPO GENERADOR: REQUISITOS
MINIMOS DE DISEÑO, EQUIPAMIENTO, FUNCIONAMIENTO,
PUESTA EN SERVICIO Y SEGURIDAD”
Specific requirements:
1) Synchronous Generators directly coupled to the grid.
Specific requirements:
1) Synchronous Generators directly coupled to the grid.
Islanding:
- Coordination with MV islanding protections to avoid unneeded disconnection.
- New thermal units are requested to stay connected on islanding mode + auxiliary services.
- New hydro + pumping units are requested to provide:
- self-starting
- auto-energization
- islanding regulation capabilities.
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
Voltage regulation:
- A Voltage deadband setpoint
will be provided by the operator.
- Voltage error inside the deadband.
- Q regulation capability 0 Prated.
- Out of margins 1- V V 1+ V,
as allowed by Pproduced.
21
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
Spain
22
Spain
P.O.12.2: “INSTALACIONES CONECTADAS A LA RED DE
TRANSPORTE Y EQUIPO GENERADOR: REQUISITOS
MINIMOS DE DISEÑO, EQUIPAMIENTO, FUNCIONAMIENTO,
PUESTA EN SERVICIO Y SEGURIDAD”
P.O.12.2: “INSTALACIONES CONECTADAS A LA RED DE
TRANSPORTE Y EQUIPO GENERADOR: REQUISITOS
MINIMOS DE DISEÑO, EQUIPAMIENTO, FUNCIONAMIENTO,
PUESTA EN SERVICIO Y SEGURIDAD”
Specific requirements:
2) Wind, solar and other power plants without
Synchronous Generator directly coupled to the grid.
Specific requirements:
2) Wind, solar and other power plants without
Synchronous Generator directly coupled to the grid.
a
a
Low voltage ride through:
- 3PH faults
as in the figure
- 2PH faults
0.5 and 0.6 p.u. instead
Phase shift ride through:
-Capability to stay connected in case
of phase shift 30º
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
23
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
24
6
Spain
Spain
P.O.12.2: “INSTALACIONES CONECTADAS A LA RED DE
TRANSPORTE Y EQUIPO GENERADOR: REQUISITOS
MINIMOS DE DISEÑO, EQUIPAMIENTO, FUNCIONAMIENTO,
PUESTA EN SERVICIO Y SEGURIDAD”
P.O.12.2: “INSTALACIONES CONECTADAS A LA RED DE
TRANSPORTE Y EQUIPO GENERADOR: REQUISITOS
MINIMOS DE DISEÑO, EQUIPAMIENTO, FUNCIONAMIENTO,
PUESTA EN SERVICIO Y SEGURIDAD”
Specific requirements:
2) Wind, solar and other power plants without
Synchronous Generator directly coupled to the grid.
Specific requirements:
2) Wind, solar and other power plants without
Synchronous Generator directly coupled to the grid.
a
Overvoltage ride through:
- 3PH/2PH/1PH
as in the figure
- Occasionally, up to 125%
if voltage was 110%
- Power Electronic Converters
can be blocked if V>125%
providing Ir=0 p.u.
- Reactive power support
controlled by AVR
a
Voltage regulation during disturbances:
- Voltage support during distubances Imax = Irated
- Voltage regulation provided by an AVR during disturbances:
- To maintain Vsetpoint = Vprior to the disturbance
- In case of unbalance, positive seq voltage
- In operation when V is out of normal operation range.
- Reactive current absorption/injection
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
25
as in the next slide
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
Spain
21.04.2009
26
Spain
P.O.12.2: “INSTALACIONES CONECTADAS A LA RED DE
TRANSPORTE Y EQUIPO GENERADOR: REQUISITOS
MINIMOS DE DISEÑO, EQUIPAMIENTO, FUNCIONAMIENTO,
PUESTA EN SERVICIO Y SEGURIDAD”
P.O.12.2: “INSTALACIONES CONECTADAS A LA RED DE
TRANSPORTE Y EQUIPO GENERADOR: REQUISITOS
MINIMOS DE DISEÑO, EQUIPAMIENTO, FUNCIONAMIENTO,
PUESTA EN SERVICIO Y SEGURIDAD”
Specific requirements:
2) Wind, solar and other power plants without
Synchronous Generator directly coupled to the grid.
Specific requirements:
2) Wind, solar and other power plants without
Synchronous Generator directly coupled to the grid.
a
a
Power regulation during disturbances:
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
27
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
28
7
Spain
Spain
P.O.12.2: “INSTALACIONES CONECTADAS A LA RED DE
TRANSPORTE Y EQUIPO GENERADOR: REQUISITOS
MINIMOS DE DISEÑO, EQUIPAMIENTO, FUNCIONAMIENTO,
PUESTA EN SERVICIO Y SEGURIDAD”
P.O.12.2: “INSTALACIONES CONECTADAS A LA RED DE
TRANSPORTE Y EQUIPO GENERADOR: REQUISITOS
MINIMOS DE DISEÑO, EQUIPAMIENTO, FUNCIONAMIENTO,
PUESTA EN SERVICIO Y SEGURIDAD”
Specific requirements:
2) Wind, solar and other power plants without
Synchronous Generator directly coupled to the grid.
Specific requirements:
2) Wind, solar and other power plants without
Synchronous Generator directly coupled to the grid.
a
Requirements during the disturbances:
- Limits on P, Q consumption as in P.O.12.3, during the dip and after the dip
- NEGATIVE SEQUENCE CONTRIBUTION (not a requirement yet, to be discussed and fixed
according to the network requirements)
Frequency disturbances:
- Capability to stay connected unless f < 48 Hz during 3 seconds or more
- Instantaneous disconnection if f < 47.5 Hz
- Capability to stay connected if f reaches 51.5 Hz
- Capability to stay connected during df/dt < ±2Hz/second.
- Coordination with MV islanding protections to avoid unneeded disconnection.
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
a
Frequency regulation:
- Primary regulation mandatory
K =−
∆P / M base
∆f / f base
-Time response: 1-30 sec or
inertial response emulation if
agreed with the TSO.
-PSS damping, to be agreed
with the TSO
29
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
30
21.04.2009
32
Spain
P.O.12.2: “INSTALACIONES CONECTADAS A LA RED DE
TRANSPORTE Y EQUIPO GENERADOR: REQUISITOS
The WF
should guarantee
MINIMOS
DE DISEÑO,
EQUIPAMIENTO, FUNCIONAMIENTO,
PUESTA
ENreserve
SERVICIO
Y SEGURIDAD”
the
availability
related to wind speed
Specifictorequirements:
be able to increase
2) Wind, Produced
solar and
other power plants without
Power
Synchronous Generator directly coupled to the grid.
a
GERMANY
(exception if Pproduced<20%)
Frequency regulation:
- Primary regulation mandatory
K =−
∆P / M base
∆f / f base
-Time response: 1-30 sec or
inertial response emulation if
agreed with the TSO.
-PSS damping, to be agreed
with the TSO
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
31
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
8
Germany
Germany
Operator: Technische Richtlinie.
Erzeugungsanlagen am Mittelspannungsnetz (Richtlinie
Anschluss und Parallelbetrieb von Erzeugungsanlagen
Mittelspannungsnetz)
Operator: Technische Richtlinie.
Erzeugungsanlagen am Mittelspannungsnetz (Richtlinie
Anschluss und Parallelbetrieb von Erzeugungsanlagen
Mittelspannungsnetz)
für
am
für
am
By: BDEW, Bundesverband der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft e.V.
By: BDEW, Bundesverband der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft e.V.
Network: Distribution level
Network: Distribution level
Frequency regulation as in
2007 Transmission Grid Code
TYPE 2
TYPE 1
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
TYPE 2
33
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
34
21.04.2009
36
Germany
Operator: Technische Richtlinie.
Erzeugungsanlagen am Mittelspannungsnetz (Richtlinie
Anschluss und Parallelbetrieb von Erzeugungsanlagen
Mittelspannungsnetz)
für
am
By: BDEW, Bundesverband der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft e.V.
Network: Distribution level
DENMARK
Reclosing
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
35
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
9
Denmark
Denmark
Operator: EnergyNet.dk
Operator: EnergyNet.dk
Network: Distribution level (< 100kV)
Network: Distribution level (< 100kV)
Particularity: Double Disturbance
Particularity: Double Disturbance. Capacity to stand:
- Two 2PH/3PH Short Circuit within a 2 min interval
- Energy reserve enough to stand SIX 2PH/3PH Short Circuits
within 5 min interval
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
37
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
Denmark
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
38
Denmark
Operator: EnergyNet.dk
Operator: EnergyNet.dk
Network: Transmission level (> 100kV)
Network: Transmission level (> 100kV)
Particularity:
For Wind Farms:
- 3PH short circuit 100ms
- 1/2PH short circuit 100 ms, followed by a new one after 300-500ms
For Wind Turbine:
- Two 1/2/3PH Short Circuit within 2 min interval
- Energy reserve for SIX 1/2/3 PH short circuit with 5 min interval.
Particularity: SIMULATIONS
- Slow voltage recovery
21.04.2009
39
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
40
10
Denmark
Operator: EnergyNet.dk
Network: Transmission level (> 100kV)
Particularity: SIMULATIONS
- Unbalance and reclosure
CHINA
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
41
21.04.2009
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
China
21.04.2009
42
China
Grid Code: Technical Rule for Connecting Wind Farm into
Power Network
Grid Code: Technical Rule for Connecting Wind Farm into
Power Network
By: State Grid Corporation / China Electric Power Research Institute
By: State Grid Corporation / China Electric Power Research Institute
Network: Voltages above 100(66) kV
Network: Voltages above 100(66) kV
Primary control mandatory: setpoints will be sent by the operator.
Recommendations on the power ramp rate during:
- Cut in / Shut down
- Increasing wind speed (not mandatory during wind speed decrease)
- Maximum power rate can be discussed with the operator
The installed capacity of wind
farm (MW)
10min maximum ramp rate
(MW)
LVRT Requirements:
1min maximum ramp rate
(MW)
<30
20
6
30-150
installed capacity /1.5
installed capacity /5
>150
100
30
-Emergency control: capability of reducing power when f>50.5Hz, even disconnect.
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
43
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
44
11
China
China
Grid Code: Technical Rule for Connecting Wind Farm into
Power Network
Grid Code: Technical Rule for Connecting Wind Farm into
Power Network
By: State Grid Corporation / China Electric Power Research Institute
By: State Grid Corporation / China Electric Power Research Institute
Network: Voltages above 100(66) kV
Frequency limits:
Network: Voltages above 100(66) kV
Range of frequency
Requirements
Below 48Hz
According to the permissible lowest
operation frequency of the wind turbine.
48Hz 49.5Hz
Maintaining continues operation for 10
min at least when frequency is lower
than 49.5Hz
Operating continuously.
50.5Hz 51Hz
Above 51Hz
Limit the output power with the order of
the dispatching department.
21.04.2009
45
h-1
d
R 1
1 r 10
10
Maintaining continues operation for at
least 2 minutes whenever frequency is
above 50.5Hz, and no more shutting
wind turbine cutting-in.
R
49.5Hz 50.5Hz
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
Power Quality issues:
Voltage deviations: V<10%Vrated. In general
-3%Vrated<V<7%Vrated
Voltage variations: The number of voltage variations per unit time
100
3
2.5
r 100
1.5
r 1000
1
Flicker: It should meet the requirements stated in GB 12326-2000. Plt and Pst will be
allocated depending on the short circuit power of the network.
Harmonics: It should meet the requirements stated in GB / T 14549-1993. Harmonic
emission levels should be allocated depending on the short circuit harmonic power of
the network.
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
China
21.04.2009
46
Conclusions
Grid Code: Technical Rule for Connecting Wind Farm into
Power Network
By: State Grid Corporation / China Electric Power Research Institute
Network: Voltages above 100(66) kV
•More and more restrictive requirements are arising in many countries.
Simulations:
-Wind Farm developers will provide models (PowerFactory DIgSILENT) which include:
- parameters of wind turbines.
- wind farm layout
- wind turbine/wind farm control system
- Maintenance/Update of models should be
guaranteed by the Wind Farm Developer.
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
•Trend
Simulation procedures to test/verify at wind farm level
•Towards harmonization??
47
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
48
12
Conclusion
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.: Contacto
DIgSILENT Ibérica S.L.
C\ Honduras, 8 - Bajo 3
28016 Madrid – Spain
Phone: +34 911273723/24
Email:
[email protected]
[email protected]
Website: www.digsilent.com
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
49
DIgSILENT Ibérica, S.L.
21.04.2009
50
13

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