State of the art of VET in road transport: existing initiatives - M-ROAD

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State of the art of VET in road transport: existing initiatives - M-ROAD
Mobile learning for enhancing key competences of autonomous
workers and owners of SME from the Road Transport
State of the art of VET in road transport: existing initiatives to
enhance operators’ key competences
“State of the art of VET in road transport: existing
initiatives to enhance operators’ key
competences”
Developed by Tanja Bacher & Sabine Schwenk
With contributions from
TCM-UGT CyL (ES) – María Valdivieso
Inveslan S.L. (ES) – Amaia San Cristobal
Net-Mex Ltd. (HU) – Andrea Kövesd and Zsofia Schwikker
AFT-IFTM (FR) – Julie Murat & Moncef Semichi
ZAS SR (SK) – Andrej Buday
M-ROAD – Project reference: 527279-LLP-1-2012-1-ES-LEONARDO-LMP
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication/ event reflects the
views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the
information contained therein.
Contents
Introduction.............................................................................................................................. 4
1 Labour market situation ................................................................................................................... 6
1.1 Austria................ ........................................................................................................................... 7
1.2 France ............... ............................................................................................................................9
1.3 Hungary......... .............................................................................................................................. 10
1.4 Slovakia................. ...................................................................................................................... 12
1.5 Spain......................... ................................................................................................................... 13
1.6 Summary.................. ................................................................................................................... 14
2 Short overview on VET systems ............................................................................................ 16
2.1 Austria ......................................................................................................................................... 17
2.2 France .......................................................................................................................................... 18
2.3 Hungary ....................................................................................................................................... 20
2.4 Slovakia........................................................................................................................................ 22
2.5 Spain ............................................................................................................................................ 23
2.6 Summary ..................................................................................................................................... 25
3 Legal Regulations in the road transport sector ...................................................................... 26
3.1 European regulations .................................................................................................................. 26
3.2 Implementation of the directive in the investigated countries ................................................... 28
3.2.1 Austria .................................................................................................................................... 28
3.2.2 France .................................................................................................................................... 30
3.2.3 Hungary .................................................................................................................................. 31
3.2.4 Slovakia .................................................................................................................................. 33
3.2.5 Spain ...................................................................................................................................... 34
3.3 Summary ..................................................................................................................................... 36
4 Training Programmes in transport and logistics ......................................................................37
4.1 Austria ......................................................................................................................................... 38
4.1.1 IVET for freight transport drivers in Austria ........................................................................... 38
4.1.2 CVET for freight transport drivers in Austria ......................................................................... 39
4.1.3 IVET for bus drivers ................................................................................................................ 41
4.1.4 CVET for bus drivers ............................................................................................................... 42
4.1.5 E-learning programmes for professional drivers in Austria ................................................... 42
4.1.6 Training programmes for autonomous workers and owners of SMEs in Austria .................. 43
4.2 France .......................................................................................................................................... 44
4.2.1 IVET for freight transport drivers in France ........................................................................... 45
4.2.2 IVET for bus drivers in France ................................................................................................ 46
4.2.3 Training programmes for autonomous workers and owners of SMEs in France ................... 46
4.3 Hungary ....................................................................................................................................... 49
4.3.1 IVET for freight transport drivers in Hungary ........................................................................ 49
4.3.2 IVET for passenger transport drivers in Hungary ................................................................... 49
4.3.3 CVET for professional drivers Hungary .................................................................................. 49
4.4.2 Training programmes for autonomous workers and owners of SMEs................................... 49
4.4 Slovakia........................................................................................................................................ 50
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4.4.1 CVET for professional drivers in Slovakia ............................................................................... 50
4.4.2 Training programmes for autonomous workers and owners of SMEs ................................... 50
4.5 Spain ............................................................................................................................................ 51
4.5.1 IVET in freight transport in Spain ........................................................................................... 51
4.5.2 IVET for passenger transport drivers in Spain ........................................................................ 54
4.5.3 CVET in the transport sector in Spain .................................................................................... 54
4.5.4 Training programmes for autonomous workers and owners of SMEs ................................... 55
4.6 Summary ..................................................................................................................................... 57
5 Training Programmes focusing on entrepreneurial and digital skills ....................................... 58
5.1 Austria ......................................................................................................................................... 58
5.1.1 Digital Skills ............................................................................................................................ 58
5.1.2 Entrepreneurship Skills .......................................................................................................... 60
5.2 France .......................................................................................................................................... 61
5.2.1 Digital skills ............................................................................................................................ 61
5.2.2 Entrepreneurship skills .......................................................................................................... 65
5.3 Hungary ....................................................................................................................................... 66
5.3.1 Entrepreneurship and digital skills......................................................................................... 66
5.4 Slovakia........................................................................................................................................ 67
5.4.1 Entrepreneurship skills .......................................................................................................... 67
5.4.2 Digital Skills ............................................................................................................................ 67
5.5 Spain ............................................................................................................................................ 68
5.5.1 Entrepreneurship skills .......................................................................................................... 68
5.6 Summary ..................................................................................................................................... 70
6 Level of key competences of the target group ....................................................................... 71
7 Conclusions ...........................................................................................................................74
8 List of interview partners /focus group participants ...............................................................76
8.1 Austria ......................................................................................................................................... 76
8.3 Hungary ....................................................................................................................................... 77
8.4 Slovakia........................................................................................................................................ 77
8.5 Spain ............................................................................................................................................ 77
9 Bibliography ......................................................................................................................... 79
9.1 Austria ......................................................................................................................................... 79
9.2 France .......................................................................................................................................... 81
9.3 Hungary ....................................................................................................................................... 81
9.4 Slovakia........................................................................................................................................ 83
9.5 Spain ............................................................................................................................................ 83
Annex I – National legal regulations......................................................................................... 87
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Introduction
Deliverable 6 of the m-road project explores the current status of VET in the road transport
sector in Austria, Hungary, France, Slovakia and Spain. The deliverable examines existing VET
initiatives in the transport sector in general and the measures currently available to enhance
the key competences (digital and entrepreneurship competences in particular) of those that
operate in the sector (focusing on self-employed workers and owner of SMEs with less than 10
employees). The report provides an overview on respective national labour market situations
with regard to the transport sector. Initial and continuous vocational education and training
(VET) offers in the road transport sector, specifically those available in the freight and
passenger transport subsectors, and for digital and entrepreneurship skills within this field,
are outlined for each investigated country. Furthermore, relevant legal regulations on the
European and national levels are presented.
The basis of this deliverable report is country case studies developed by the project partners.
The respective partners are responsible for all the country information presented in this
report. They were asked to describe the condition of both the road transport sector and VET
in that sector within their countries through the use of a template which was prepared by 3s
research laboratory and adjusted by the project partnership. The country reports provide an
in-depth overview on current training initiatives in freight and passenger transport in general,
and in entrepreneurship and digital education within that field in particular, in the
investigated countries. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to
investigate the current status of the sector. The quantitative dimension included desk
research on VET initiatives in the road transport sector and began with a search for data on
the specific situation of the road transport sector in the investigated countries. The qualitative
dimension involved the conducting of interviews and consultation of focus groups comprised
of representatives of the target group (autonomous workers, key employers in small
enterprises, professionals in the field of training for the road transport sector, and experts for
vocational education and training). Each partner was required to approach at least 5 members
of the target group either via interviews or by means of a focus group with at least 5
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participants. All project partners were able to meet this provision with the exception of the
Slovakian partner who did not report undertaking any interviews or focus groups.
This report synthesises the country findings and refers to the current situation of the sector in
each project country. A short introduction is provided at the beginning of each chapter,
followed by a presentation of the research findings for each country. Finally, the primary
differences and similarities between the countries are discussed in a short summary after each
section.
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1 Labour market situation
The transport and storage service sector (including postal and courier activities) accounted for
approximately EUR 533 billion Gross Value Added (GVA) at basic prices within the EU 271 in
2009. This amounted to approximately 5.1 % of total EU 27 GVA in 2009 (when subtracting
postal and courier services the figure becomes 4.6% of the total GVA) (EC 2012, p. 19).
In the year 2010 total goods transport activities in the EU-27 was estimated to be 3,831 billion
tonnes per km (tkm)2. This figure includes intra-EU air and sea transport, but no transport
activities between the EU and the rest of the world. Road transport accounted for 45.8 % of
this total, rail for 10.2 %, inland waterways for 3.8 %, and oil pipelines for 3.1 %. Intra-EU
maritime transport was the second most significant form of transit at 36.9 % while intra-EU air
transport accounted for only 0.1 % of the total. In the same year total passenger transport
activities in the EU-27 by any motorised means of transport was estimated to be 6,424 billion
passengers per km (pkm)3 or an average of 12,869 km per person. This also includes intra-EU
air and sea transport, but no transport activities between the EU and the rest of the world.
Passenger cars accounted for 73.7 % of total activities, powered two-wheelers for 1.9 %, buses
and coaches for 7.9 %, railways for 6.3 %, and tram and metro services for 1.4 %. Intra-EU air
and intra-EU maritime transport contributed 8.2 % and 0.6 % respectively (ibid.).
The road freight and passenger transport sectors provide jobs for more than 5 million EUcitizens (EC 2012, p. 1-24). In the year 2009, approximately 2,952 million people were
employed in the road freight transport sector and approximately 2,110 million people were
employed in the passenger transport sector in the EU-27. In the same year, in the EU-27
approximately 600,000 enterprises were registered in the freight transport sector compared
to 331,722 enterprises in the passenger transport sector (ibid., p. 24-25). In 2009, annual
turnover for the road freight transport sector in EU-27 was estimated to be 269,535 million
EUR, compared to 98,483 million EUR for the passenger transport sector. These numbers
indicate the importance of the transport sector (freight and passenger transport subsectors) in
the European Union. As the status and importance of the road transport sector differs in the
1
At the time of writing, Croatia has yet to become a European Member State.
Tonnes per kilometre
3
Passengers per kilometre
2
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investigated countries, the following section provides short overviews on the transport sector
in each country, describing the employment situation, the overall economic relevance of the
sector, and the number and size of transport companies.
1.1 Austria4
Employment
At the end of 2011 the Austrian traffic and transport sector employed approximately 192,500
people. The highest number of employees5 worked in the goods transport subsector (approx.
67,900 people), followed by the railways subsector (roughly 40,400 people), and the freight
forwarders6 subsector (approx. 21,800 people). In December 2010 the number of individuals
employed within the freight transport subsector was 67,197 while the number employed
within bus, aviation and shipping enterprises was 22,041. A comparison between 2010 and
2011 on the number of workers shows a growth in employment in both the freight and
passenger transport subsectors. At the end of 2012 there were 3,573 heavy goods vehicle
workplaces7 within the road freight transport sector. The total number of passenger transport
workplaces was 1,172. There was no change in the freight traffic subsector comparing data
from 2011 and 2012, but in the same period employment figures decreased for bus
enterprises and driving schools. In 2011 approximately 2,800 apprentices were trained in
enterprises categorised as belonging to the traffic and transport sector (comprising 2.2% of
the total trade/industrial sector in Austria). Approximately 71% of the VET students were male
and 29% female. The apprenticeship profession in which the highest number of apprentices
was trained was the forwarding trade (Speditionskaufmann/frau). Approximately 800
apprentices undertook training for this position in 2011, an increase of 9% in comparison to
2010. The number of apprentices in professional driving (freight and passenger transport) on
contrary is very low (typically 9 to 10 apprentices per year). The unemployment figures within
4
The information for Austria in this report is derived from the Austrian country report which was developed by
Sabine Schwenk (3s research laboratory).
5
Excluding the Public Sector and minor employed persons.
6
Speditionen
7
With minimum load capacity of 2 tonnes and trailer trucks (Sattelfahrzeuge).
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transport related professions were estimated to be approximately 13,399 persons in 2011, a
decrease of 2.2% in comparison to figures for 2010 (WKO 2011a, p.22 & 26).
Contribution of the sector to overall GDP
In 2009 the traffic and transport sector (except driving schools) contributed approximately
EUR 38.6 billion to overall GDP, a decrease of 12.3% in comparison to the previous year.
Looking
at
economic
productivity
in
terms
of
employees,
forwarding
traders
(Speditionskaufleute) generated the most income per individual (EUR 398,000). The freight
transport sector (Güterbeförderungsbranche) generated turnover of EUR 111,000 (per
employee) compared to the EUR 96,000 turnover per employee in bus transport
(Autobusunternehmungen) (WKO 2011a, p. 32).
Number and Size of Transport Companies
In 2011 Austrian road freight transport vehicles conducted 21.1 million journeys, while the
volume of goods carried increased by 4.1% to 344.7 billion tonnes between 2009 and 2010.8.
In terms of domestic traffic the volume of transported goods increased by 4.4% to 313.1
billion tons while cross-border traffic decreased by 12.9% to 1.8 billion tons.9 In December
2010, the number of enterprises operating in freight transport was 8,535, of which 4,511 had
no employees and 2,935 had fewer than 10 employees. The number of enterprises operating
in the passenger transport sector was 5,231 in December 2010. Of these, 2,792 companies did
not have any employees, and 2,195 employed less than 10 people (WKO 2011b, p. 8).
8
2009: 336.6 billion tonnes (-8.9%), 2010: 331.0 billion tonnes (-1.7%).
Cf. http://www.statistik.at/web_de/statistiken/verkehr/strasse/gueterverkehr/index.html [accessed
28.03.2013].
9
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1.2 France10
Employment
The number of employees in the transport and logistics sector has been increasing in recent
years in France. In 2010 employment in the sector increased by 1.2% (to a total of 640,264
employees) while in 2011 it increased by 1.4%. At this time the employment rates were not
yet influenced by the global economic and financial crisis. In 2011 approximately 334,097
employees were registered in the freight transport subsector in France in comparison to
89,579 registered employees in passenger transport subsector (ACOSS / Pôle emploi (champ
UNEDIC). Moreover, the job growth rate was quite high in the overall logistics service sector
(+3.7% growth for the year), with growth of 2.4% in the freight road transport subsector and
2.7% in the passenger road transport subsector. A total of 8,960 new jobs were created in the
sector overall in 2011, of which 1,980 were registered in the passenger transport subsector
and the remainder developed in freight transport. Furthermore, there was a 10% increase in
recruitment in 2011 and the number of job losses decreased by 27%. The share of part-time
jobs in the transport and logistics sector has been increasing since 2009 (9.1%), but this rate
remains lower than those found in other sectors such as the construction industry (ACOSS
according to DADS). In 2011, the number of female employees decreased by 0.6%, whereas
the number of male employees increased by 1.9%. This can be attributed to a decrease in the
number of female workers in the transport auxiliary sector (-15%), in the logistics services
sector (-5%), and in hiring of vehicles with driver sector (-3%). However, the percentage of
women employed in the freight road transport subsector increased more than that of male
employees in the year 2011 (growth of 5% and +4% respectively). In 2011, approximately
120,400 women worked in transport and logistics companies (18.5% of the total employee
base), with nearly 38% employed in the passenger road transport subsector. Approximately
10% of drivers were women (over 1,500 female employees in 2011), of which approximately
two thirds worked for road freight transport companies. The share of employees younger than
35 years (25 % of the total) has been decreasing in 10 years. In 2011 more than one in four
10
The information for France in this report is derived from the French country report which was developed by
Julie Murat and Moncef Semichi (AFT-IFTM).
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employees was older than 50 years old – the average age of employees in the sector was 42.5
in 2011.
Contribution of the sector to overall GDP
The transport sector represented 5% of the total added value of the French economy in 2010
(latest figures available), corresponding to €87.7 billion. With regard to turnover, the net
amount generated by transport companies increased in freight road transport (2009: €39,116
million; 2010: €41,206 million) and decreased in passenger transport (2009: €15,445 million;
2010: €15,291 million) between 2009 and 2010.
Number and Size of Transport Companies
According to the SIRENE data provided by the French National Institute of Statistics, the
percentage of companies with no employees (self-employed) in 2011 comprised 44% of all
enterprises in the sector, an increase of 0.4% on the previous year. ACOSS statistics estimate
that the number of companies with at least one employee increased by 0.9% in 2011 in the
branch. The most significant increase was found in logistics service provider firms (+3.7%).
There was also an increase in passenger road transport (+0.8%) and freight road transport
firms (+0.1%) in 2011. In 2010, in the freight transport subsector 13,510 (64.2%) of 21,019
(total) companies had less than ten employees, while in the passenger transport subsector
1,409 of 3,078 (total) companies had less than ten employees.
1.3 Hungary11
Employment
Approximately one quarter of overall employment in the transport sector is registered in the
road freight and pipe transport subsectors. In 2008 there were approximately 30,000
companies registered in the transport sector in Hungary of which approximately 10,000 were
11
The information for Hungary in this report is derived from the Hungarian country report which was developed
by Andrea Kövesd and Zsofia Schwikker (Net-Mex Ltd.).
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operated on a self-employed basis (KHS). The European Statistical Pocketbook on Transport
estimates that in Hungary around 64,000 people worked in the freight transport subsector
and 49,000 people in the passenger transport subsector in 2011 (EC 2012, p. 24). With regard
to public transport, inter-urban public transport increased by 1% in the year 2010 reaching
25.2 billion of passenger kilometres in Hungary. This included an increase in bus
transportation of 5%.
Contribution of the sector to overall GDP
In the road transport sector, the road freight transport subsector represents 75% considering
the quantity of goods transported and 67% in freight ton-kilometres, and is developing the
most dynamically in the overall transport sector. As a sector contributing to and facilitating
the movement of people and goods in the economy, its importance is far greater than the 4%5% contribution it makes to GDP indicates. In the assessment period prior to the spread of the
financial crisis in 2008, the road freight sector in Hungary was growing approximately 20% per
year. The Hungarian transport sector increased the proportion of GDP it generated from 4.3%
in 2005 to 5.4 % in 2008. In Hungary, practically all modes of transportation with the exception
of road transport were close to stagnation in the previous decade. From a volume of 20,598
million tonnes per km (tkm) in 2004, the volume of the road transport has increased to 35,743
million tkm by 2008, a growth of 73.5%. Concurrently, the rail, inland waterway, and pipe
subsectors have grown by 13%, 18%, and 4% respectively in the past 5 years. In the passenger
transport subsector the revenue generated in inter-urban bus transportation was HUF12 87.4
billion in 2008. In 2009 this amount decreased by HUF 6 billion. In 2010 this number increased
again to HUF 87.6 billion, exceeding the amount generated in 2008.
Number and Size of Transport Companies
Employment data for the transport sector indicates that it is dominated by micro and small
enterprises. The average size of enterprises is smaller in the road freight transport subsector
than in other subsectors. The number of enterprises in the road goods transport sector is
decreasing in Hungary although demand is more or less consistent meaning that fewer
12
1 EUR is approximately 294 HUF:
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transport companies are required to undertake same workload previously undertaken by a
greater number of enterprises.
The majority of enterprises in both the freight and passenger transport subsectors operate on
a self-employment basis. In 2008 the number of enterprises in the subsector was
approximately 30,000 with around 28,000 of those companies employing fewer than 10
people (KHS). As the small number of enterprises that employs significant number of staff
indicates, there is plenty of room for concentration.
1.4 Slovakia13
Employment
Employment in the freight transport subsector has increased in Slovakia in recent years: in
2007 10,601 people worked in freight transport compared to 16,619 in the year 2011. This is
an increase of 56.8%. In contrast, the number of people employed in passenger transport
decreased from 8,985 in 2007 to 7,680 in 2011. This is a decrease of 14.5%. Demand in the
labour market for drivers is expected to decrease further as a result of the ongoing financial
crisis. Furthermore, there is an emerging trend of owners of small enterprises (those that
operate small number of vehicles) selling all of their vehicles except one and working on an
individual basis. Employment levels of drivers working for large companies in the building
industry, national or international transport, or the agriculture/food industry have so far not
been visibly impacted by the financial crisis. However, many of the larger companies are
dependent on a consistent supply of orders, or operate on a seasonal basis only.
Contribution of the sector to overall GDP
In 2010 the transport sector contributed 19.7% to the overall GDP of Slovakia, of which road
transport contributed 5.5%.
Number and Size of Transport Companies
13
The information for Slovakia in this report is derived from the Slovakian country report which was developed
by Andrey Buday (ZAS SR).
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The number of road transport enterprises that employed up to 20 individuals increased
between 2007 and 2011 by approximately 56.2%. There were a total of 9,355 enterprises in
existence in 2011. Most transport companies in Slovakia are small. There is no reliable data
available with regard to self-employed drivers working in Slovakia, other than that it is known
that there are drivers working on a self-employed basis in Slovakia.
1.5 Spain14
Employment
The employment rate in transport sector has increased in the last five years in Spain. In 2007
approximately 900,000 people were employed in the transport sector. By 2012, employment
in the transport sector had decreased to 740,000 jobs, a loss of approximately 18%. The
number of people employed in the transport of both passengers and goods is approximately
574,000 persons in 2009 (EC 2012, p. 24). Professional activities in transportation have
suffered a decrease in the total number of people employed in the field since 2008, as has the
transport sector in general. The transport sector in Spain is male dominated. While figures
show that female employment has increased, it is still very low comprising less than 10% of
total employment. Male employment represents 91% of the total (INE).
Contribution of the sector to overall GDP
At European level, Spain is one of the most important countries in road freight transport - only
Germany, France, the United Kingdom and Italy have a bigger share of the European freight
transport market than Spain. This is relevant because the road freight transport has a direct
impact on the economy of the country. According to data from INE during recent years the
transport sector has contributed increasingly to overall GDP and prosperity in Spain. According
to EU statistics, the transport sector in Spain represents an important element of the country’s
GDP. Although the sector is not performing as well today as it did a few years ago, it continues
to form important part of the Spanish economy, performing better than the European average
14
The information for Spain in this report is derived from the Spanish country report which was developed by
María Valdivieso (TCM-UGT CyL) and Amaia San Cristobal (Inveslan).
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(Eurostat). Road transport represents 68% of the total goods transport subsector, transporting
three times the goods that are transported by air or sea. While air and rail transport have
experienced different developments (an examination of air transportation of goods shows
unbalanced development in this area, and transportation by railway has decreased in recent
years) goods transport by air and road increased considerably from 2004 to 2008 (Eurostat).
Therefore, road transport in Spain is the most common mode of transportation, with more
than 2,100,000 journeys in 2008.
Number and Size of Transport Companies
Companies operating in the freight road transport subsector represented 65% of total road
transport companies’.15. In 2007, 120,304 companies were registered in the freight road
transport subsector: 68,707 were self-employed businesses; 32,540 employed 1 or 2
individuals, and 15,015 companies employed fewer than ten people. Therefore, more than the
half of the companies (approximately 57%) operated on a self-employed basis, 27% with
fewer than two employees, and 12.5% with fewer than 10 employees. In total, 97% of
transport companies in Spain had fewer than 9 employees in 2007 (INE 2012). 64,385
companies were registered in the passenger transport subsector 2007, with 66% of all
companies operating on a self-employed basis, 27.5% with fewer than two employees, and
3.9% with fewer than 9 employees (ibid.).
Approximately 82% of the companies held the legal status of personal companies (which
means that the owner is a natural and not a legal person). It should be noted that that it is
typical for transport companies in Spain to subcontract drivers (self-employed or autonomous
workers) for driving and external consultancy services, or company administration.
1.6 Summary
15
Source. INE. In Spain there were more than 197,000 companies operating in the road transport sector in 2007.
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A comparison between the current statuses of the transport sectors in the respective
countries raises a number of points. In terms of employment Spain and France possess the
highest employment rates: in France 423,676 people (representing 0.7% of the overall
population) were working in the freight and passenger transport sector in 2012 compared to
516,000 (1.3% of the overall population) in Spain. Austria and Hungary had roughly equivalent
numbers of freight transport employees (Austria 67,900 – 0.8% of overall population; Hungary
64,000) but there was a considerable difference in the number of people employed in
passenger transport (Austria 22,041 – 0.27% of the overall population); Hungary 49,000 –
0.5% of the overall population). Of the sample countries, Slovakia possessed the lowest
number of individuals employed both in the freight and passenger transport subsectors
(16,619 – 0.3% of the overall population and 7,680 – 0.14% of the overall population)
respectively.
Furthermore, the comparison shows that the transport sector (freight and passenger
transport) is important in all of the investigated countries, contributing to national GDP and
employing a significant number of people. However, the contribution made by the sector to
national GDP varies depending on the size of the country (contributing more to GDP in larger
countries and a less in smaller countries). The research suggests that, in all the countries
investigated, the transport sector has yet to be impacted as strongly by the economic crisis as
other sectors, although in some countries there has been a decrease in the number of active
vehicles as well as employment (e.g. Spain, Slovakia).
With regard to the number of companies, considerable differences can be identified between
the larger countries (Spain and France) and smaller countries (Austria, Hungary, and Slovakia).
What is remarkable is that in all investigated countries the majority of companies operating in
the sector are small and medium sized, regardless of the size of the country. Spain in
particular has a very high number of small companies which employ fewer than 10 employees.
In Spain these represent about 97% of all companies, while in Austria they comprise 95% of all
companies (although this is less unusual because in general the majority of Austrian
companies are very small in comparison to Spanish companies). The proportion of small
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companies is also relatively high in Hungary and Slovakia, and in France 64.2% of the
companies in the freight transport subsector had fewer than 10 employees.
2 Short overview on VET systems
For some years now the European Commission has highlighted the importance of VET and
enhancing the comparability of VET systems. Since the year 2000 several policy documents
have been developed by the European Union to foster vocational education and training. With
the Lisbon Strategy (2000)16 vocational education and training became a crucial and integral
part of the overall European strategy to become ‘the most competitive and dynamic
knowledge-based economy in the world’. Due to the very different VET systems that exist in
the European member states, in the subsequent years several policy recommendations were
issued to establish a European dimension on vocational education and training.
In the Copenhagen declaration (2002)17 the European Commission established the European
dimension of vocational education and training including the mutual recognition of
qualifications and competences. The Maastricht Communiqué (2004)18 built upon the
Copenhagen declaration and established action plans at national level to increase investment
in VET and increase the flexibility of VET systems in order to better react to labour market
needs. In 2006, these goals were confirmed in the Helsinki Communiqué19 when the European
Commission decided to draw more attention to initial qualification in order to reduce youth
unemployment rates within the EU. The Bruges communiqué (2010)20 identified the need to
connect national VET systems to the wider world of work in order to remain up-to-date and
competitive. The communiqué called for the establishment of communication strategies for
different stakeholder groups, and focused on the implementation and added value of
transparency instruments such as EQF and ECVET (Bacher/Lengauer 2012, p. 24-25).
The diversity of European VET provision is apparent when reflecting on the VET systems of the
countries participating in the m-road project. In the following subsections the primary
16
http://www.etuc.org/a/652 (13.09.2012).
http://ec.europa.eu/education/pdf/doc125_en.pdf (13.09.2012).
18
http://ec.europa.eu/education/news/ip/docs/maastricht_com_en.pdf (13.09.2012).
19
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/EN/Files/helsinkicom_en.pdf (13.09.2012).
20
http://ec.europa.eu/education/lifelong-learning-policy/doc/vocational/bruges_en.pdf (13.09.2012).
17
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characteristics of VET systems in the investigated countries are presented. A comparison
between them is not feasible due to the very different operational practices and
characteristics of the systems.
2.1 Austria
Austria has one of the highest proportions of upper secondary students in vocational
education and training among countries of the OECD. Around 80% of each student cohort
enters a VET pathway after the completion of compulsory education. Some 40% undertake an
apprenticeship, 15% attend school-based VET (Berufsbildende mittlere Schule, BMS), and
another 27% enrol in a VET college (Berufsbildende höhere Schule, BHS) where within five
years they can acquire two kinds of qualification, a VET diploma and a higher education
entrance certificate (Matura) (OECD Learning for Jobs, Austria, p. 10). At tertiary level, VET can
be found in Universities of Applied Sciences (Fachhochschulen), post-secondary VET colleges
(Akademien), and post-secondary VET courses (Kollegs). In Austria, overall participation in
secondary education is high but the tertiary graduation rate is only average compared to other
OECD countries. The largest element of Austrian VET is the dual apprenticeship system.
Typically an apprenticeship lasts between two and four years, with the majority having a
duration of three years. In Austria apprentices spend approximately 75% of their time in a
training enterprise and the remaining 25% in a part-time VET school (depending on the
profession). Apprentices are required to sign a contract and they earn a salary that increases
every year (reaching roughly 80% of a starting wage in respective profession in the final year).
Salaries are negotiated between employers and unions via collective bargaining agreements
and vary according to the profession (OECD Learning for Jobs, Austria, p. 10). In March 2012
the website of the Federal Ministry of Economy, Family and Youth (BMWFJ) listed 245
apprenticeship trades (Gewerbe). Training regulations (Ausbildungsvorschriften) define the
individual professional profile (Berufsbild), the competences to be acquired, and the
examination procedures for the company-based training in each apprenticeship position.
Legally the Federal Ministry of Economy, Family and Youth is responsible for the training
regulations. However, the development or updating of training regulations is primarily
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organised by, and based on the initiative of, the Austrian social partner organisations that
work in councils (Beiräten) where they define the structure and content of each professional
profile. (ReferNET Länderbericht Österreich, p. 20f.)
In 1997 “Lehre plus Matura” was established which offers access to both vocational and
general tertiary education after the final apprenticeship exam.21 In 2011 approximately
128,000 adolescents were engaged in apprenticeship training either in the dual VET system or
in full-time VET schools (ReferNet Austria, p. 20).
The Austrian educational system is characterised by the early differentiation of VET paths
from lower secondary level onwards, and a broad VET provision at upper secondary level.
Austria has a qualification-oriented VET system which prepares participants for a wide range
of well-structured and legally defined professions. The great importance of VET within the
educational system (that underwent a process of educational expansion beginning in the
1970s) has led to the development of a more highly qualified labour force. The Universities of
Applied Sciences are part of Higher Education in Austria (ISCED level 5). The degrees they
confer, however, are widely perceived to be IVET since VET provision in applied universities is
characterised by a strong interrelation between the economic and the academic sector in
preparing individuals for specific professions (e.g. mechatronics, technical engineering, etc.).
Of all students in VET approximately 45% of young Austrians enter the dual vocational
education and training system as apprentices in order to learn one of the 245 trades, while
55% opt for school-based VET or VET colleges. Austria (alongside the Czech Republic) has the
fourth highest rate of combined school and work-based programmes in Europe (Cedefop
Country Study Austria, forthcoming).
2.2 France22
21
It consists of German, maths, one foreign language and one technical subject related to the VET profession.
The following description of the French educational system is taken from the report “Referencing of the
national framework of French certification in the light of the European framework of certification for lifelong
learning”, published in October 2010 by The Commission Nationale pour la Certification Professionnelle (CNCP).
22
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The educational system in France is organised in the following way. Primary education
corresponds to primary schools - which include nursery and primary schools and secondary
education. Secondary education consists of two cycles: students between the ages of 11 and
15 participate in initial secondary education at Colleges (secondary schools). Upon completion
of their final year at college, pupils who continue their studies move on to the second cycle,
further secondary education, where they have a choice of educational pathways. Students can
attend a general or technological educational establishment (usually a Lycée or sixth-form
college) to prepare for a general or technological Baccalaureate. Alternatively, they can opt
for a vocational course that enables them to obtain vocational diplomas, such as a vocational
baccalaureate or certificate of vocational ability (CAP), through attending technical college or
via the completion of an apprenticeship (for example, with an employer in an apprentice
training centre (CFA). Higher education is characterised by the coexistence of a plurality of
educational or training courses with a wide variety of purposes, administrative structures,
conditions of admission, and organisation of studies.
With regard to vocational training for lifelong learning, people have the ability to access
education and training within the framework of ongoing education throughout their lives.
Ongoing education enables anyone to participate in education or training, either in the form
of initial school or university education for pupils and students, or through ongoing vocational
training for all persons who have already begun to work. In France, VET is comprised of two
relatively autonomous structures: Initial vocational training addresses teenagers that attend
school on a full-time basis and apprentices, and ongoing vocational training that addresses
teenagers who have left or completed their initial education or training, and adults on the job
market. France is currently undertaking an extension of schooling at all ages, alongside
enhancing the importance of vocational education and training programmes and developing
sandwich courses, either within schools or the framework of an employment contract. In
recent years cooperation between schools and businesses has grown significantly and
increased in importance. The training sector in general has seen major expansion in recent
years, influenced primarily by the policy framework of European Union. Furthermore,
employees have access to training which is either provided at the initiative of the employer
within the framework of a training plan, or at the initiative of the employee within the
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framework of professional development leave. Self-employed individuals (farmers, craftsmen,
self-employed workers, tradesmen and shopkeepers, members of the professions) can also
undertake training. Their training is financed through the payment of obligatory participation
fees to a collecting organization approved by the French State.23
The vocational organisations and social partners assist in the process of developing vocational
diploma courses, participate in examination boards, and take on and train young people in
their firms. They also contribute to financing initial technological and vocational training
courses through payment of an apprenticeship tax. In France the state and the regions share
the responsibility for implementing vocational training.
2.3 Hungary
In Hungary VET falls under the supervision of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour
(Szociális és Munkaügyi Minisztérium, SZMM). SZMM is responsible for the regulation of VET
content but issues relevant decrees with the consent of the Ministry of Education and Culture
(Oktatási és Kulturális Minisztérium, OKM). Other ministries are also involved in the
development of the content of VET. The National Institute of Vocational and Adult Education
(Nemzeti Szakképzési és Felnőttképzési Intézet, NSZFI) assists the SZMM in development,
coordination, research, information, and consultation tasks related to VET and adult training.
Additional organisations with a significant role in VET administration include: the National
Interest Reconciliation Council (Országos Érdekegyeztető Tanács, OÉT), which serves as a
forum for interest reconciliation regarding strategic questions of VET (national level); the
Adult Training Accreditation Body (Felnőttképzési Akkreditáló Testület, FAT) that performs
tasks related to institution and programme accreditation and quality assurance in adult
training (national level); the seven regional development and training committees (regionális
fejlesztési és képzési bizottságok, RFKBs), which are operated by the Education Office and play
an increasingly important role in VET administration (preparation of regional VET strategies,
ensuring the link between school-based VET and labour market demands, etc.) at regional
level; and the regional integrated vocational training centres (térségi integrált szakképző
23
Centre INFFO, http://www.centre-inffo.fr
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központ, TISZK) which have been founded to get access to structural funds. The oversight
provided by these organisations has been encouraged by the central administration due to the
high number of VET providers in Hungary. In Hungary the provision of VET is governed by Act
LXXVI of 1993 on Vocational education and training. All state-recognised vocational
qualifications obtainable within or outside the school system are defined in the National
Qualification Register (OKJ) which provides a unified qualification system linking IVET and
CVET. Both IVET and CVET is available in three sub-sectors of education: public education,
higher education, and adult training.
There are two types of VET schools in Hungary: vocational schools and secondary vocational
schools. In addition, a new form of IVET was introduced in 1998: higher level vocational
education and training. This non-degree tertiary-level training is provided by both higher
education institutions and secondary vocational schools. In order to be admitted to such
training students must first have obtained the secondary school leaving certificate in
secondary vocational schools or grammar schools. Typically, these tertiary initiatives are 4term-long programmes providing VET to students older than the age of 18 enabling them to
obtain an ISCED 5B level OKJ qualification. Continuous VET or adult education within the
formal school education system is provided by public and higher education institutions at
primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Such education is offered to adults who failed to
obtain either a graduation certificate within the formal school system or an OKJ qualification,
or who desire to obtain a higher level qualification or more specialised qualification. Adult
training outside the formal school education system is provided by the 9 regional training
centres of the Public Employment Service, private training companies, non-profit
organisations, employers, public and higher education institutions, etc.
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2.4 Slovakia
According to the method adopted in the UOE24 data collection on education systems,
vocational programmes may be defined as: school-based programmes, if at least 75 % of the
programme curriculum is presented in a school environment; or combined school- and workbased programmes, if less than 75 % of the curriculum is presented in the school
environment.
In Slovakia, school based IVET comprises 60% of total upper secondary IVET while combined
programmes account for the remaining 40 %, according to Cedefop’s calculation based on the
Eurostat data on education systems (date of extraction 25.7.2010). Nevertheless, the
classification outlined above does not allow for judgment to be exercised on the real influence
of training on practical skills development, as the practical training and learning outcomes of
students depends more on the quality of pedagogy than on the environment. There is no
typical form of apprenticeship training in Slovakia (according to the definition given above).
However, ISCED 3C students from former secondary vocational schools (SOU, stredné odborné
učilište) are often considered to be and referred to as apprentices in Slovakia. Nevertheless,
legally these students are defined as regular secondary school students and as a rule have no
contract with employers. Since 2008 all students, including ISCED 3C students of SOU, have
become students of secondary specialised schools (SOŠ, stredná odborná škola), as SOU was
renamed tSOŠ according to Education Act No. 245/2008 Coll. Practical training of ISCED 3C
students remains typically predominantly school-based, regardless of the share of training
which takes place in each environment. Even if training is organised outside schools, in centres
of practical training or workplaces (affecting about one fifth of VET students in 2009), it is
assured by a contract between the school and the provider. Schools may also participate in
the initiative of another organisation that wishes to offer and cover practical training for a
student in order to obtain a future employee. In this case the student, if older than 15, signs a
contract according to which they are undertaking training at this organisation, which is obliged
to offer them an employment contract after the successful completion of study. This type of
student-employer relationship can be considered a form of apprenticeship. Nevertheless,
24
UNESCO-UIS / OECD / EUROSTAT - Data Collection on Education Statistics.
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even those students who receive theoretical education in school and practical training at the
workplace (craftsman or enterprise) are considered by legislation to be students of schoolbased VET. Furthermore, the percentage of those students that obtain a training contract is
currently very low: it only applies to approximately 1.5 % of students as businesses are rarely
interested in provision of this kind of apprenticeship.
2.5 Spain
At the beginning of the 1990s, in an improved economic environment, the Law for general
organisation of the educational system – LOGSE (Ley de Ordenación General del Sistema
Educativo) was enacted. This legislation consisted of far reaching reform which resisted
pressure to maintain vocational training as a secondary path within the educational system.
The LOGSE increased compulsory general study by two years, thereby delaying the entry of
young people into the labour market. Furthermore, it laid the foundation for a modern
structure of vocational training.
In Spain, vocational education and training covers all training initiatives that equip people for
the qualified performance of various professions. It includes the teaching and training
provided by initial vocational training, initiatives aimed at establishing and reestablishing
workers in employment, as well as those programmes that provide ongoing training within
companies which enables workers to acquire new skills and continually update their
professional competences. LOGSE was designed to meet the practical requirements of the
Spanish economy, and provide an efficient pathway that established people in the labour
market and facilitated individual professional processes. LOGSE structured the Spanish
vocational training system into three different subsystems: the compulsory vocational training
subsystem (under the authority of Education and Culture Ministry); the occupational training
subsystem (the responsibility of the Labour and Social Welfare Ministry); and the continuous
vocational training subsystem (managed by social actors – employees and employers).
Compulsory vocational training is intended to develop technical, managerial, and
communication skills. It covers intermediate and advanced training cycles (in the past under a
common denomination of vocational training) and primarily is targeted at young people, but is
also open to adults who wish to obtain academic qualifications. Occupational training is
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targeted at inactive workers in order to (re)establish them in the labour market. Therefore,
training is closely linked to the needs of the labour market. Continuing vocational training for
employment is the third of the three subsystems that comprise the vocational training system
in Spain. It encompasses permanent training and refresher courses for employed workers,
thereby contributing to their professional development and to the competitiveness of
companies. Since 1993 vocational training for employed workers has been regulated by
National Agreements on on-going training, signed by the most representative employer and
trade union organisations, and agreed between the latter and the Government. These
Agreements are characterised by the leading role played by social agents25 in the design and
implementation of on-going training. The national agreements have also allowed financial
resources for training to be contributed to companies and their workers and have helped to
consolidate a model based on social negotiation and on the development of sectoral and
territorial parity institutions. Lastly, the current model of vocational training for employment
was established in 2007 through Royal Decree 395/2007 of 23rd March. This law regulates the
various training initiatives that comprise the subsystem of vocational training for employment,
the rules that govern its function and finances, and the structure of its organisation and
institutional participation.
Another feature of the Spanish vocational education and training system is continuous
vocational training for employment management. The management structure is intended to
meet the objectives and functions of the subsystem, seeking to make it fully operational and
maintaining participation by the social partners. Thus, the following organisations participate
in the management of the training for employment system in Spain: the National Commission
on training for employment; the National Public Employment System (and Tripartite
Foundation for Employment) and the National Joint Commissions. In the framework of the
continuous vocational training system for employment, the following training activities are
developed: training in companies (demand-side training), supply-side training, and
complementary activities.
25
In Spain the term „Agentes Sociales” is used to refer to employees’ organisations (trade unions, workers
organisations) and employers’ organistions (primarily employers’ associations – not chambers of commerce and
similar bodies).
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2.6 Summary
As noted in the introduction to this chapter, making a comparison between the different
national (vocational) educational and training systems of European countries is very difficult
as the sole responsibility for education lies with the individual member states, each of which
has different traditions and cultures. With regard to Winterton 2007, countries can at least be
classified according to different parameters: whether the vocational education and training
system is market-led or state-led, whether the workplace or the school dominates. The stateregulated systems that have a school focus are characterised by a precise role allocated to the
social partners in policy-making, often with long-standing statutory rights. Social partners are
also formally involved in the implementation of VET actions. However, social partners have
less influence at the local level in these VET systems. This is the predominant VET system in
Europe and can be identified in the sample of the m-road project in France, Hungary, Slovakia
and Spain. State-regulated VET systems with a workplace focus are a characteristic feature of
the German dual system which has strongly influenced the system developed in Austria
(Winterton 2007).
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3 Legal Regulations in the road transport sector
In this section legal regulations in the road transport sector relevant to the m-road project are
presented. The most important regulations for the m-road project on the European level are
Directive 2003/59/EC which regulates the initial qualification and periodic training of drivers of
certain road vehicles for the carriage of goods or passengers, and Recommendation
2006/962/EC on key competences in lifelong learning. For all of the countries investigated in
this project, the most important national regulations in the road transport sector, and
accordingly within related VET, are presented in the form of a table in Annex I of this report.
3.1 European regulations
Directive 2003/59/EC on the initial qualification and periodic training of drivers of certain road
vehicles for the carriage of goods or passengers provides the European framework for a
common minimum standard of training for professional drivers. It requires new professional
drivers to attain initial vocational training and/or pass a related test, and attend 35 hours of
periodic training related to professional driving every five years. Following completion of the
initial qualification and periodic training a Certificate of Professional Competence (CPC) is
issued. The content and duration of training are defined by the EC directive and at the time of
writing the majority of EU countries have transposed this directive into national law in
accordance with EU requirements. Before the establishment of directive 2003/59/EC, only in
the Netherlands and France were additional training requirements necessary for professional
drivers aside from a driving licence (Ministry of Transport, Public Health and Water
management 2010). Although the aim of the directive is to implement comparable initial and
periodic training for professional drivers and thus, it attempts to homogenise vocational
education and training for professional drivers within the European member states, the
directive was created under the pretence of enhancing road safety and attracting people to
work as professional drivers.
The initial steps of the harmonisation of road transport in Europe were taken in 1976 when
Council directive 76/916/EEC on the minimum level of training for road transport drivers was
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established. In 1985 the European Union issued Council regulation No 3820/85 on the
harmonisation of certain social legislation relating to road transport, including regulation on
the minimum age of drivers in the European Union, maximum periods of driving time, as well
as requirements for break and resting periods. Furthermore, Directive 91/439/EEC and
successive related EU legal instruments related to driving licences developed the specification
of the European Driving Licence and regulation of driving licences of all categories within the
European Union. Directive 2003/59/EC amended Council regulation No 3820/85 and Council
directive 91/439/EEC, and repealed directive 76/916/EEC (European Parliament; Council of the
European Union, 2005). As mentioned above, the intention behind the development of
directive 2003/59/EC was to establish a minimum standard for driver training in Europe: ‘More
particularly, the obligation to hold an initial qualification and to undergo periodic training is
intended to improve road safety and the safety of the driver, including operations carried out
by the driver while the vehicle is stopped. Furthermore, the modern nature of the profession of
drivers should arouse young people's interest in the profession, contributing to the recruitment
of new drivers at a time of shortage’ (European Parliament; Council of the European Union,
2003 (5), p.2).
The European Parliament and Councils’ Recommendation 2006/962/EC on key competences
for lifelong learning defined eight key competences. Competences are defined as a
combination of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Key competences are those which all
individuals need for personal fulfilment and development, active citizenship, social inclusion,
and employment. The eight key competences are:
o Communication in the mother tongue;
o Communication in foreign languages;
o Mathematical competence and basic competences in science and technology;
o Digital competence;
o Learning to learn;
o Social and civic competences;
o Sense of initiative and entrepreneurship; and
o Cultural awareness and expression.
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All of these key competences are perceived to be equally important because each of them
contributes to achieving a successful life in a knowledge society. Many of the competences are
interrelated and overlap: aspects essential to one domain will support competence in
another. Competence in the fundamental basic skills of language, literacy, numeracy, and
information and communication technologies (ICT) is an essential foundation for learning, and
learning to learn supports all learning activities. There are a number of themes that are
applied throughout the Reference Framework: critical thinking, creativity, initiative, problem
solving, risk assessment, decision making, and constructive management of feelings play a role
in all eight key competences (Recommendation 2006/962/EC).
3.2 Implementation of the directive in the investigated
countries
As the directive and its national implementation regulates both training for drivers in freight
and passenger transport, in this section the implementation is described for both sectors
simultaneously, and only where there are major distinctions are these differences
highlighted.26
3.2.1 Austria
In Austria, the implementation of directive 2003/59/EC resulted in the introduction of a
second qualification for professional drivers besides the traditional apprenticeship training
“Professional Driving”. Austria transposed the EU Directive 2003/59/EC into national law in
2008 with federal law gazette BGBl. II Nr. 139/2008. Austria chose to adopt the “test-only
option” for the initial qualification of professional drivers (freight and passenger transport),
meaning that no training is necessary to acquire the initial qualification.27 Even though initial
training courses are offered by some VET providers in Austria and can be opted for on a
26
The directive applies to those drivers that drive lorries or buses that weigh more than 3.5 tonnes.
Multiple-choice questions differ from province to province, but all nine federal governments published their
respective multiple-choice questions online. Several training institutions such as the Austrian Institute for
Economic Promotion (WIFI) or the Austrian driving schools offer fee-based initial CPC classes on a voluntary basis.
27
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voluntary basis (it has to be mentioned that fees differs quite a lot depending on the chosen
training institute). With regard to initial qualification, a theoretical and a practical test must
be passed.28 The first part of this test is comprised of multiple-choice questions29 on the
following subjects:
o improvement of efficient driving
o optimising fuel consumption
o ensuring passenger and cargo safety
o social and labour laws
o regulations for cargo/passenger transport sector
o health, traffic and environmental safety
o economic environment of the passenger/transport sector
During the second part of the theoretical exam, candidates are required to discuss ‘real-life
driving scenarios’. The practical driving test in the frame of Directive 2003/59/EC can be taken
alongside the practical driving licence test (C/D licence), which extends the usual 45 minutes
practical driving test to 90 minutes. If the practical initial qualification test is taken only, it
takes 45 minutes (ProfDRV 2012a). The initial qualification exam can be taken four times per
year30 and is regulated by the regional government authorities of each province. Drivers must
be at least 18 to take the initial driving test qualification. In order to ensure that their skills
remain up to date, every five years professional drivers must participate in an obligatory 35
hours of periodic training. These courses do not include any examination in Austria. The
training focuses on the drivers’ knowledge and emphasises traffic safety and efficient fuel
consumption. The modules can be conducted either theoretically or practically.31 Only
28
The theoretical test takes 4.5 hours in total. The practical test takes 60 minutes if the C driving licence test is
combined with the initial CPC Code 95 test.
29
The 60 to 80 questions differ between the 9 Austrian provinces.
30
In the 9 provinces of Austria, the responsibility lies with each regional governor (Landeshauptmann/frau).
31
28 hours of the mandatory 35 hours of periodic training are assigned to the following topics: improvement of
efficient driving ( practical training, 7 hours); optimising fuel consumption (7 hours); ensuring cargo safety (5
hours); Ensuring cargo/passenger safety (5 hours); social and labour laws (4 hours); regulations for the freight
transport sector (1 hour); regulations for the passenger transport sector; (1 hour); health, traffic and
environmental safety, services, logistics (3 hours); economic environment of the transport (1hour) and passenger
(1 hours) sector. A recently published study estimates that approximately 75% of all professional drivers in freight
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accredited training providers are authorised to offer periodic training for professional drivers
that allows them to acquire the CPC (Certificate of Professional Competence) as defined in
Directive 2003/59/EC e.g. driving schools, special training providers or the “Austrian
Automobile, Motorbike and Touring Club” (ÖAMTC), etc.
Only those professional drivers who obtained their driving licence after September 2009 (lorry
drivers) or September 2008 (bus drivers) are required to take the initial qualification test32, but
all drivers must participate in the periodic training every five years (the first deadline for the
completion of the training is September 2014 for lorry drivers and September 2013 for bus
drivers) in order to acquire the CPC. After completion of the initial qualification (if necessary)
and the 35 hours of periodic training, the CPC is issued (ProDRV 2012c, p. 1ff).
None of the periodic CPC training modules for professional drivers in Austria relate to either
digital or entrepreneurship skills. Drivers with an apprenticeship certificate in professional
driving (freight or passenger transport) receive the initial qualification automatically after
successful completion of their final apprenticeship examination. Motor vehicle clubs such as
the Austrian automobile, motorbike and touring club (ÖAMTC), driving schools, and many
smaller private training providers offer initial (voluntary) and periodic training classes for CPC.
3.2.2 France
In France initial driver training was based on a compulsory training programme established for
professional drivers in 1995. With the incorporation of Directive 2003/59/EC into national law
France chose to maintain the process by which drivers could obtain the initial qualification:
compulsory initial training of a minimum of 280 hours, or accelerated initial training (formerly
called FIMO) of 140 hours, each followed by an exam. Before the implementation of Directive
2003/59/EC the training process consisted of lengthy initial training which involved driving
education, and resulted in the award of either a State diploma by the Ministry for National
Education, or vocational certificates issued by the Ministry for Labour and Employment. These
transport in Austria have not yet participated in periodic training compared to just 20% of all professional drivers
in passenger transport.
32
Freight or passenger transport drivers who possess the 3 year apprenticeship dual vocational training
certificate „Professional driver“ obtain the initial CPC automatically.
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qualifications continue to be awarded today. The lengthy training programme is designed for
young students in professional colleges preparing for a 1 or 2 year national education diploma
(CEP/BEP in driving), as well as adults preparing for a 3 or 6 month diploma awarded by the
Ministry for Employment (professional driving certificate). This includes training in order to
obtain a driving licence for heavy and very heavy vehicles (categories C and EC or D and ED).
Furthermore, the training programme contains a theory section (general and transportspecific subjects) and a practical driving section (at least 20 hours of individual driving on
roads, and potentially an additional 8 hours in a simulator). Participants are required to
undertake an examination on both sections of the programme. In general, the training allows
candidates to drive a +3.5 ton lorry from the age of 18, and a bus with more than 9 seats from
the age of 21. Compulsory periodic training of 35 hours every 5 years was introduced by
Directive 2003/59/EC. In France, the compulsory periodic training that existed before the
Directive consisted of 21 hours every 5 years. Since the implementation of the directive this
compulsory periodic training must be taken either over 5 consecutive days, or in two sessions
of 3 days plus 2 days within a period of 3 months. The training programme involves a theory
section and practical section as well as 2 hours of individual driving (of which half an hour may
be undertaken on a simulator). There is no examination for the periodic training training. The
deadline by which for drivers were required to undertake their first periodic training was 10
September 2012 (for drivers participating in the previous system, the deadline is the expiry
date of previous training). In France, the driver’s qualification card (CPC) is part of the register
of the qualifications.
3.2.3 Hungary
Hungary has chosen to adopt the test only option for initial qualification, although a training
course to prepare individuals for the test is available and may be required by employers. This
voluntary training course consists of 30 hours of theory lessons and 14 hours of practical
driving, but the number of hours of training may be higher if required by an employer. The
theory subject Sensible driving based on safety rules aims to familiarise drivers with the
technical and environmental requirements that apply to the use of lorries and trailers in road
transport. The aim of the subject Compliance with regulations is to teach drivers of transport
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vehicles the amount of rest legally mandated per week or day for traffic safety purposes.
Drivers also learn how to use a tachograph and receive information on the permits,
documents, etc. required for transport, and the stipulations of international transport treaties.
In the subject Health, road traffic and environmental safety, service, logistics, participants are
taught about the economic and labour market environment of the transport of goods and how
to avoid traffic accidents. Drivers should obtain knowledge on the fundamentals of
ergonomics, healthy nutrition, and the effects of exhaustion and stress. An additional subject
is taught to bus drivers: the module Consultation is designed to prepare the driver for
projecting a positive image of his employer to customers. In order to project a positive image,
they are required to behave appropriately towards passengers while maintaining a clean and
tidy bus that is kept in an appropriate technical condition. The implementation of Directive
2003/59/EC is regulated by Decree 24/2005 (IV. 21.) of the Ministry of Economy and Transport
in Hungary. The specifications with regard to periodic training are also laid down in this
Decree. The periodic training curriculum is composed of basic and professional elements and
comprises 35 hours which must be undertaken within one week and ends with test. The
training objective is to systemise and embed knowledge, develop the basic skills of drivers,
enhance professional knowledge related to the everyday work of motor vehicle drivers, and
raise awareness on the importance of road safety. Therefore, participants are expected to
improve their knowledge of handling vehicle safety equipment, on-board tools, and devices.
They are also expected to increase their understanding of the economic use of fuel, traffic
safety, and protection of the environment. Moreover, participants should learn about the
legal requirements related to their work with special regard to the social rules on driving and
rest periods, and how to react in unexpected or dangerous traffic situations. The periodic
training modules in Hungary are based on the specifications made in Annex I of Directive
2003/59/EC.33 Training for bus drivers follows the same approach, although an additional
module on “Consultation” is included as it is in the voluntary initial qualification training. After
33
The titles of the subjects are the following: Compliance with the new requirements of the developing market of
road transport for both independent entrepreneurs (who invoice their clients) and employees (who receive a fee
or a salary for their work); Improving the safety of road traffic and the driver himself/herself also during the
activities performed when the vehicle does not move; Economic fuel use; Defensive driving; Preventing
dangerous situations; and Considering other traffic participants
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fulfilling the requirements of initial qualification and the completion of the periodic training
and test, drivers receive the CPC.
3.2.4 Slovakia
In Slovakia Directive 2003/59/EC was implemented with Slovak Law no. 280/2006 on
compulsory initial qualification and periodic training of drivers. The law has been amended
slightly several times to adjust minor details. Slovakia has chosen to adopt the test and
training options for the initial qualification of drivers and the law is fully implemented
through certified driver training institutes (accreditation is necessary). Furthermore, the law
made provisions whereby drivers are required to participate in periodic training every 5 years.
Drivers must manage their own participation in periodic training to ensure that their
qualification – named „Certificate of Professional Competence“ (CPC) – remains valid. Drivers
are required to apply to driving school units / training institutes in sufficient time in order to
undertake the 35 mandated hours over the period of 5 years. The initial qualification applies
to the following groups:
o Drivers who obtained category C/D and C+E driving licenses before 10/09/2009 must
participate in the compulsory periodic training which consists of 35 hours every 5
years.
o Drivers who obtained category C/D and C+E driving licenses after 10/09/2009 and are
younger than 23 must undertake initial training. Two training options are available: a
standard programme of 280 hours, and an accelerated training option of 140 hours.
This means that the preparation course must be completed by almost all freight transport and
passenger transport drivers. All topics are based on the content defined in Annex I of
Directive2003/59/EC, but there is some flexibility in that the subjects of first aid, issues of
TIR34, CMR35 and topics specially requested by drivers and/or their employers can be
addressed. The minimum mandated curriculum includes:
o Knowledge on vehicle technology, its maintenance, and preventive care
34 Convention on International Transport of Goods Under Cover of TIR Carnets. TIR: Transports Internationaux
Routiers.
35 CMR (Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road).
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o General knowledge on transport and its administration
o Experience of the transport of goods (for truck drivers) and experience of transport of
passengers (for bus drivers)
3.2.5 Spain
In Spain Royal Decree 1032/200736 regulates the initial qualification and periodic training of
drivers of specific vehicles for road transport (freight and passenger transport), which adapted
the EC Directive 2003/59 into national legislation. According to the opinion of some users and
experts, the incorporation of the directive is a progressive step in modernising the transport
sector because:
o the new specifications enable “lorry drivers”/“bus drivers” to become “professional
drivers”;
o it promotes a professional training framework for the transport sector, providing
effective training resources and materials for professional drivers;
o it establishes a real lifelong training process;
o all stakeholders accepted the process (employees, employers, self-employed, public
bodies, etc...).
In short, the new training framework is a chance to provide the transport sector with an
efficient initial and continuous training system that addresses the current and future needs of
professional drivers. With regard to the training, the new instrument introduced the following
three innovative measures into the sector:
o The establishment of mandatory initial training for all professional drivers, regardless
of type of driving licence (C, C1, D1 or D).
o The new framework regulates the need for periodic training designed to update the
knowledge and competences of professional drivers.
o
Training that is focused on subjects and knowledge directly related to the driving
activity.
36
Real Decreto 1032/2007, que regula la cualifiación inicial y la formación periódica de los conductores de
determinados vehículo destinados al transporte por carretera. BOE nº 184 de 2 de agosto de 2007.
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The Royal Decree 1032/2007 regulates the following areas related to the implementation of
the directive:
o Initial training required to obtain the “Certificate of Professional Competence” (CP) in
Spain the Certificado de Aptitud Profesional (CAP).
o Periodic training intended to update and improve the knowledge of drivers, especially
in the subjects of road safety and efficient of fuel consumption.
o Training centres, requirements to offer training (accreditation of training providers)
o Standardisation of training activities; on the structure of training content and the
provision of theoretical training, as well as the practical content.
o Exams, characteristics, and regulations.
o Mandatory training modules for initial training.
With regard to initial training, the royal decree regulates an exception for those drivers who
obtained their driving licence before 2009. Thus, these drivers are exempt from the
mandatory initial training, but they must participate in mandatory periodic training of 35
hours every 5 years. This special exception covers drivers with a C1, C1+E, C, and C+E licence
or an equivalent licence issued before 11 September 2009, and drivers with a D1, D1+E, D, and
D+E or equivalent licence issued before 11 September 2008. The law established deadlines for
the development of training activities. As the regional governments have some responsibility
for transport, the implementation of the directive implies the participation of these bodies in
the development of this regulation. CAP courses can be organised only by centres authorised
by the official organ of the competent autonomous community. The course taught must
comply with the homologation requisites imposed by the same autonomous community.
Moreover, the Spanish legislation obliges the accredited training centres to provide a group of
trainers specialised in the following aspects of the CAP:
o Road training
o Rational driving
o Logistic and road transport
o Dangerous goods
o Fire prevention
o First aid
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It must be noted, however, that no specific training system for teachers has been created.
Within six months of the completion of their course, CAP candidates have to must pass an
exam organized and approved by the respective autonomous community. The exam is
comprised of 100 questions with four possible answers to each question. Candidates are
required to obtain a minimum of 50 marks to pass the exam. Once the candidate has passed,
he/she receives a certificate and a card of professional qualification (CPC). All costs related to
the courses and exams are entirely met by the trainee. The average cost is around €300-400.
Nevertheless, it is anticipated that once the driver formation is integrated within the general
Spanish training system, funding from the Fundación Tripartita will be made available.
Mandatory periodic training for drivers requires the completion of a training of a minimum of
35 hours every five years. These training programmes consist of the following:
o Module 1: Advanced training on rational driving based on security rules (8 hours)
o Module 2: Application of the regulation (5 hours)
o Module 3: Health, driving and environmental safety, logistic (22 hours)
Drivers with post September 2008 D1, D1+E, D or D+E driving licences or post September 2009
C1, C1+E or C+E licences must complete the first course of periodic training within 5 years
after completion of the first CAP. Drivers who have followed a periodic training course for one
of the licence categories are exempt from participating in a periodic training course of another
licence category. Periodic training cannot be undertaken online and is purely theoretical, but
does not exclude driving simulation. The regulation establishes that the training can be
provided by either private or public providers, which must be authorised to offer driver
training by the competent authority.
3.3 Summary
Directives are important instruments for standardising different policies within the European
Union. With directive 2003/59/EC an important step was taken towards the establishment of
a common minimum educational standard for drivers which could enhance the comparability
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and mutual recognition of training for professional drivers in Europe. However, the analysis
shows that the CPC is implemented into the national systems very differently. Thus, the
directive has led to many commonalities, but even more differences between the countries.
The major similarities concern those factors directly regulated by directive 2003/59/EC, such
as the content to be addressed in initial qualification and defined in Annex 1 of the directive,
or the duration of training. But beyond this regulated framework approaches to the
implementation of directive 2003/59/EC differ greatly. Major differences can be noted in
relation to the handling of periodic training, the requirements on training providers and
trainers, the assurance of the quality of training, and the implementation of assessment.
Although all implementation approaches comply with the provisions of the directive, different
specifications lead to major differences in implementation and, consequently, in the actual
results of training (Bacher, Nindl forthcoming, p. 12-13).
4 Training Programmes in transport and logistics
In all of the investigated countries, general training programmes were found in the transport
and logistics sector. Furthermore, specific training programmes for professional drivers in the
freight and passenger transport subsectors were also identified in every country. With the
implementation of directive 2003/59/EC, a period of obligatory training for professional
drivers working in freight and passenger transport was introduced for the first time in the
majority of m-road project countries (with exception of France and Austria - Austria already
had the apprenticeship training programme for professional drivers, although few drivers
receive their training through this scheme and the majority of drivers worked on the basis of
their driving licence before implementation of directive 2003/59/EC).
The most relevant training programmes in the transport and logistics sector (in both
passenger and freight transport) identified in the investigated countries are discussed in the
following subsections. Wherever possible special emphasis is given to those training
programmes imparting digital and entrepreneurships skills.
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4.1 Austria
4.1.1 IVET for freight transport drivers in Austria
Dual Vocational Education and Training – apprenticeship training for drivers
Since 1987, this three-year dual apprenticeship scheme has enabled adolescents to train to
become professional lorry or bus drivers. In the dual VET system apprentices receive
company-based training within an enterprise as well as school-based training in VET schools.
Requirements for apprentices in professional driving are: physical endurance; technical
understanding; good hand-eye coordination; insensitivity of the skin; spatial capacity;
mathematical and computer skills; organisational skills; interpersonal competences; logical
and analytical thinking; responsiveness; retention skills and mental endurance.
The Austrian training regulation for professional drivers (Ausbildungsordnung, ordinance 190,
BGBl. II, 2007) defines the professional profile of drivers in the freight transport subsector.
Primary aspects of the curriculum are:
o checks (vehicle, security, traffic)
o vehicle maintenance
o failure recognition / elimination of minor failures
o safe, economical, sustainable, considered steering of cargo transportation vehicles
o knowledge of standards (traffic regulations)
o provision of first aid
o dealing with unexpected events (accidents etc.)
o handling of cargo (storage, transport, safety, loading)
o route planning
o schedule planning
o professional communication (reports on damages, injuries etc.)
o international goods transport (rules, permits, fees)
o customer care
After completion of the three-year apprenticeship, apprentices (minimum age of 18) do the
class „C“ driving licence required for the transportation of freight, or the class „D“ licence
required for the transportation of passengers, as part of their final apprenticeship
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examination. Together with the driving licence and the final apprenticeship exam the
apprentice is automatically granted their CPC qualification (Certificate of Professional
Competence).
Owning a class C or D driving licence
Individuals that possess a driving licence for lorries or buses, have a minimum of three years
of accident-free driving experience, and are at least 21 years old, can undertake the final
professional driver apprenticeship exam without having participated in a three-year
apprenticeship training. A preparatory training programme is available to prepare drivers for
this final examination. The training programme covers the main aspects of the apprenticeship
scheme curriculum for professional drivers as presented above. The preparatory training
programme for the apprenticeship exam was the only VET programme for professional drivers
identified in Austria in which digital competences (EDP – Electronic Data Processing basics) are
included, although only very marginal. Owners of a C or D driving licence are also allowed to
just complete the initial qualification test (minimum age of 18) and the periodic training every
five years as prescribed by Directive 2003/59/EC and then enter the labour market. The
majority of drivers prefer this option.37
4.1.2 CVET for freight transport drivers in Austria38
Aside from the periodic training modules prescribed by directive 2003/59/EC there are several
other CVET training opportunities available to drivers in Austria. CVET can be offered either
internally by enterprises (in-house training) or externally by training providers. Austria has a
large number of training providers with the most important being the Institute for Economic
37
Furthermore, it is also possible to take the final apprenticeship exam for professional driving after having
completed an apprenticeship several other fields: construction technician, motor-vehicle electrician, motorvehicle technician, agricultural-engines technician, or forwarding merchant.
38
Some of the CVET training programmes presented for freight transport drivers are also targeted at bus drivers.
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Promotion (WIFI)39 which operates on behalf of employer organisations and is represented by
the Federal Chamber of Commerce (WKO)40, and the Vocational Training Institute (bfi)41 which
operates on behalf of the employee organisations and is represented by the Federal Chamber
of Labour (AK).42 Both training provider organisations run CVET institutions all over the
country. The Transport and Traffic Department of the WKO also operates a Traffic Academy
(Verkehrsakademie43), which is a platform offering CVET for the transport industry, including
CVET modules for professional drivers (e.g. ADR courses). Some examples of CVET courses for
professional drivers are presented below.44
Cargo Safety in road freight traffic (driver/cargo/vehicle safety)
This training programme addresses (amongst other topics) basic road traffic laws and physics
related to driving, securing of materials, technical requirements for vehicles, calculation of
occurring forces, payload calculation of a vehicle or combined vehicle, effective volume
calculation, load distribution, and cargo safety in eight training units. The course is offered at
several continuous training institutions in Austria.
Handling Dangerous Goods (ADR) for C drivers
This training course instructs drivers in the appropriate transport and handling of dangerous
goods via 40 training units. The course is offered by several CVET training institutes.
Digital Tachograph Training
The target group for this course is professional drivers in the freight and passenger transport
subsectors. The course is comprised of six training units addressing legal foundations, the
39
Wirtschaftsförderungsinstitut der Wirtschaftskammer Österreich.
Wirtschaftskammer Österreich
41
Berufsförderungsinstitut
42
Arbeiterkammer
43
www.verkehrsakademie.at.
44
Please note that many CVET classes address both lorry and bus drivers with a minimal quantity of distinct
modules for each type of driver.
40
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impact of the national implementation of Directive 2002/15/EC on working time, the digital
tachograph (construction, maps, pictograms, handling and terminology), public authority
controls, and includes a simulation of a working day on a training device, and instruction on
switching from analogue to digital tachographs.
4.1.3 IVET for bus drivers
Dual Vocational Education and Training
The dual apprenticeship training scheme to become a professional driver applies to both the
freight and passenger transport subsectors and has a duration of 3 years. Apprentices in
freight and passenger transport share the same basic training but are required at a certain
stage to decide whether they wish to train to become a lorry or bus driver. The apprenticeship
examination (theoretical and practical elements) for bus drivers follows the same guidelines as
those described above for lorry drivers.
The most important skills and competences addressed in the apprenticeship training for bus
drivers are:
o checks (vehicle, security, traffic),
o vehicle maintenance,
o failure recognition / elimination of minor failures
o safe, economical, sustainable, considered steering of vehicles for passenger
transportation
o knowledge of standards (traffic regulations, passenger transport regulations);
o provision of first aid
o dealing with unexpected events and passengers (accidents, problems etc.)
o transporting passengers (specific groups of passengers, comfort and safety issues)
o luggage (loading, storing, safety)
o route planning
o schedule planning
o professional communication (reports on damages, injuries etc.)
o international passenger transport (rules, permits, fees)
o customer and passenger care
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4.1.4 CVET for bus drivers
As mentioned above, some of the CVET programmes designed for freight transport drivers are
also targeted at bus drivers. The following examples of CVET programmes specifically address
drivers in the passenger transport sector.
The perfect passenger driver
Through eight training units bus drivers are trained to expand their knowledge of: the
psychological handling of passengers, intercultural competences, and notable tourist
highlights of an area. This course is offered in different training institutions in Austria.
4.1.5 E-learning programmes for professional drivers in Austria
It is possible to complete parts of the periodic CPC training via e-learning, but the EU directive
is somewhat vague on this issue as it provides no strict guidelines on how this should be put
into practice. Each Austrian province has the ability to choose whether to allow the use of elearning or not. Tyrol is the only province at the time of writing that developed regulation for
the acceptance of e-learning for drivers. The requirements for e-learning for drivers have been
issued by the Federal Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology. E-learning can only be
used as a teaching method if the identity of the professional driver to be trained can be
assessed, and if it is ensured that the driver undertakes the required number of hours for the
completion of the module. A combination of e-learning and blended (classroom) learning is
recommended by the Federal Ministry.
Currently, there is one driving school which is an accredited CVET provider in Austria45 that
offers parts of periodic training for professional lorry and bus drivers via e-learning. Three out
of five modules can be acquired via e-learning (“vehicle technology”, “human aspects”,
45
„Easy Drivers Experts”
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“working environment and documentation”). These 7 hour e-learning modules utilise
multimedia and interactive elements.46
One driving school47 was identified that produces educational videos on YouTube48 on driving
issues such as checking the engine, tires or lights. Fahrschulecheck is a search engine that
enables users to find driving schools all over Austria. Furthermore, it provides an e-learning
training system allowing users to practice theory questions for the driving licence test.49
4.1.6 Training programmes for autonomous workers and owners of SMEs in
Austria
As noted above, CVET programmes for professional drivers typically address ordinary drivers
as well as self-employed drivers. Entrepreneurship training programmes are usually not
specifically targeted at professional drivers. However, in order to become a self-employed
freight transport or passenger transport driver individuals must pass the Qualifying
Examination (Befähigungsnachweis), which covers the entrepreneurship skills and
competences necessary to operate a business. The training programme for the Qualifying
Examination for both freight and passenger drivers are described below.
Preparatory training for the Qualifying Examination (“Befähigungsnachweis”) for professional
drivers in the freight transport subsector50
The training programme for the Qualifying Examination is voluntary and addresses
entrepreneurial subjects (e.g. calculation, proposals, accounting, taxes, payroll accounting).
Training on subjects such as social security, labour, insurance and tax law as well as
46
Basic computer skills are required, other requirements for the e-learning modules are: Java Script, Adobe Flash
Player, latest version, 1024x768 pixel screen solution, Internet Explorer, Firefox or Google Chrome, Internet
access, speakers, headphones, a webcam and Adobe Reader.
47
“Deutsch Wagram” driving school.
48
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4x-dlc_ea8U&feature=player_embedded
49
http://www.fahrschulecheck.at/
50
Güterbeförderungsgewerbe – Vorbereitung auf die Befähigungsprüfung.
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commercial and financial company management is provided. Furthermore, market access
(trade regulations, transportation documents, authorities), technical standards/operation,
road traffic safety, and international freight traffic are also addressed in this preparatory
training. In total, the programme is comprised of 144 training units (50 minutes per unit).
Preparatory training for the Qualifying Examination (“Befähigungsnachweis”) for professional
drivers in the passenger transport subsector51
The training programme for the Qualifying Examination is voluntary and addresses
entrepreneurial subjects (e.g. calculation, accounting, bookkeeping, taxes, payroll accounting,
etc.). Furthermore, training on subjects such as social security, labour, insurance and tax law
as well as commercial and financial company management, laws on cheques and bills of
exchange, insolvency law, etc. is included. Market access (trade regulations, occasional traffic
act, bus service act, etc.), marketing, employee management, and resource management are
also addressed in this preparatory training. In total, the programme is comprised of 144
training units (50 minutes per unit).
4.2 France
In order to develop a better understanding of the following, it is useful to note that under the
French VET system there are three main avenues to achieve qualification in the Transport and
Logistics sectors:
o Professional Titles which are developed primarily by the Employment Ministry
o State diplomas which are developed by the Ministry of Education, or the Ministry of
Higher Education
o Certificates of Professional Qualifications (CQPs) which are developed by social
partners.
51
Gewerbemäßige Personenbeförderung mit Omnibussen.
http://www.wkw.at/docextern/autobusse/RechtlicheBestimmungenOrdner/Gewerbeaus%C3%BCbungsvorschrif
tenOrdner/Leitfaden%20der%20Berufszugangsregeln.pdf [19/06/2013].
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Transport and Logistics VET offers in France are quite diversified, enabling learners to acquire
specific qualifications at different levels, from Level 3 of the EQF up to Level 8 (the highest
level).
4.2.1 IVET for freight transport drivers in France
In the following section some examples of the initial training schemes available to freight
transport drivers in France are presented. More detailed information on all the training
programmes available in the transport and logistics sector in France can be found in the
French country report.
Certificate of professional driving of goods vehicles
This training programme comprises 385 hours (350 hours of training plus 35 hours of
validation) of training. It enables candidates to obtain their category C driver’s licence, the
FIMO, and the professional driver certificate. It also provides candidates with a proof of driver
training for the transportation of dangerous goods (ADR certificate).
Professional Aptitude Certificate for drivers of goods vehicles
This training scheme has a duration of 2 years and comprises 1,050 hours of training. With the
successful completion of Professional Aptitude Certificate (CAP) for drivers of goods vehicles,
candidates also receive proof of training in risk prevention associated with physical activity
(PRAP), a First Aid and Rescue Worker certificate (SST), proof of dangerous goods training, and
category B, C-EC driving licenses.
Higher Education programmes for drivers52
Some higher education training programmes (e.g. Master’s degree in transport and logistics)
are perceived as IVET in France. Naturally, they also address entrepreneurial skills which are
often acquired through case study-based training sessions, and are often assessed through
case study-based exams. The case study approach supports students in developing
52
These address both freight transport and passenger transport drivers.
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entrepreneurship skills. Within these qualifications students/trainees are taught different
general subjects such as management, accountability, regulation etc. and are also required to
participate in more specific sessions where they work in groups in order to formulate the most
relevant solution to a case study problem presented by the professor. The case study is
presented in such a way as to put the student/trainee into the shoes of a manager that must
make crucial decisions regarding the choice of services to be provided, financial decisions etc.
At the end of the sessions the groups are required to present both a written and oral
(supported by a PowerPoint presentation) version of the scenario they have developed in
front of the professor and their peers. At the end of the presentation the professor allocates a
mark that is taken into account in the final evaluation. This case study approach is also used as
a form of final examination in which the oral presentation is made in front of a panel of
examiners consisting of professors and professionals that evaluate the skills and response of
the student (when used as a form of examination generally this is an individual, rather than a
group process).
4.2.2 IVET for bus drivers in France53
Certificate of professional driving of intercity passenger vehicles
420 hours (385 hours plus 35 hours of validation) of training enables candidates to obtain the
equivalent of the category D licence and the FIMO, a driver qualification certificate, and the
First-Aid and Rescue Worker certificate (SST).
4.2.3 Training programmes for autonomous workers and owners of SMEs in
France
Freight transport Certificate of professional competence
If professional drivers in France wish to become autonomous workers (self-employed) or
owners of an SME, they are required to obtain a Freight Transport Certificate of professional
competence in order to conduct business legally in the regulated freight transport subsector.
53
The higher education programmes perceived as IVET and described in the section “IVET for freight transport
drivers in France” also address bus drivers and thus are not repeated here.
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This certificate is awarded upon passing an exam developed and organised by the State (on a
regional level). AFT offers a specific preparatory training programme for this exam. This
training programme has a duration of 175 hours (25 days) and addresses five major areas of
knowledge, skills and competences:
o Social, Fiscal, Commercial, and Civil law
o Commercial & financial management of a company
o Market access rules
o Technical standards and technical operating rules
o Road safety.
Assessment in the training programme is formative, whereby competences are measured
progressively enabling the learner to self-assess the acquired knowledge and competences at
the end of the training period. In module 2, “Commercial & financial management of a
company”, the following subjects are addressed: Market Study (needs analysis, demand side);
Commercial Policy (price strategy, product and distribution policy); Commercial Action Plan
(commercial visits, marketing); Sales Management (service provision, quality and after sales);
Commercial Action Plan (2) (definition and objectives, procedures, implementation); Resource
Management (feasibility and financing study, budget); Time Schedule; Period-end Accounting
Issues (profit and loss account, activity analysis); Taxation; The End Of Year Operations (profit
and loss statements, etc.); International Sales Terms; International Means of Payment;
Professional Telematics (transport and legal application) and Services Billing. These topics are
taught in a classroom (an e-learning option that covers the same content is also a possibility).
The subjects taught are theoretical only. In addition to these topics there are specific sessions
that prepare the trainees for the final exam which consists of two kinds of exercises. The
trainee has 2.5 hours in which to complete this final test.
Passenger Transport Certificate of professional competence
If professional drivers in France wish to become autonomous workers or owners of an SME,
these individuals are required to obtain a Passenger Transport Certificate of professional
competence in order to conduct business legally in the regulated passenger transport
subsector. This certificate is awarded upon passing an exam developed and organised by the
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State (on a regional level). AFT offers a specific preparatory training programme for this exam.
The training programme has a duration of 175 hours and addresses six major areas of
knowledge, skills and competences:
o Social, Fiscal, Commercial and Civil law
o Commercial & financial management of a company
o Market access rules
o Technical standards and technical operating rules
o International Passenger Transport rules
o Passenger safety
Assessment in the training programme is formative, whereby competences are measured
progressively enabling the learner to self-assess the acquired knowledge and competences at
the end of the training period.
AFT-IFTIM Managers for both freight and passenger transport
For both freight and passenger transport, AFT-IFTIM has created a specific training
programme labelled AFT-IFTIM Managers which offers specific, custom-made, training
programmes to SME owners and autonomous workers. These tailor-made training
programmes are available for different subject areas:
o Management
o Human Resources
o Legal
o Operations
o Quality, safety, environment
o Sustainable development
o International Multimodal transport
Moreover, these training programmes can also be tailored to the learner depending on
his/her responsibilities within the company. They can be tailored, for example, for the
Chairman/head of the company; Branch Director; Director/Head of human resources; Head of
Logistics; Warehouse Manager; Charterer, forwarding agent; Fleet Executive; Financial &
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Accounting Executive; Legal Executive; Sales Executive; Customs Executive; After-Sales
Executive or Team Supervisors.
4.3 Hungary
4.3.1 IVET for freight transport drivers in Hungary
A public IVET scheme is available to freight transport drivers in Hungary which consists of 600
hours of training of which 70% are theory and 30% practical. This system is administered by
the Ministry of Education. This qualification is part of the Hungarian VET system and therefore
also part of the Hungarian Qualifications Framework. However, this scheme is practically not
used by drivers as they preferred to just drive on the basis of their driving licence or after
implementation of Directive 2003/59/EC on the basis of the CPC (ProfDRV 2012b, p. 5).
4.3.2 IVET for passenger transport drivers in Hungary
The 600 hour IVET scheme described above is also available to passenger transport drivers.
This system is administered by the Ministry of Education. This qualification is part of the
Hungarian VET system and therefore also part of the Hungarian Qualifications Framework.
4.3.3 CVET for professional drivers Hungary
According to the Hungarian project partner the only form of CVET available in Hungary is the
periodic training implemented in the frame of Directive 2003/59/EC.
4.4.2 Training programmes for autonomous workers and owners of SMEs
Some training courses are available to owners of SMEs in the passenger transport subsector.
These provide training in the general knowledge required for individuals to operate as
management professionals in domestic and international bus passenger businesses and
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related organisations. The provision of legal, economic, and technical knowledge is included in
the training.54
4.4 Slovakia
Aside from the training programme that confers the initial qualification for freight transport and
passenger transport drivers, the Slovakian partner reported that there are no IVET programmes in
place for professional drivers in Slovakia.
4.4.1 CVET for professional drivers in Slovakia55
Some short term CVET courses are available in Slovakia. These courses are organised by the
Slovak Transport Association or by private enterprises in education. These training courses are
primarily used by employees of larger transport or bus companies. Some of the courses
include: Education in international transport for drivers, Responsibility of Road transporter on
the CMR convention (Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by
Road), Schooling on vocational competence in Road transport, Schooling on waste
management, Schooling on the ATP convention (Agreement on the international carriage of
perishable foodstuffs and on the special equipment to be used for such carriage), and
Schooling on TIR convention (which establishes an international customs transit system with
the maximum facility to move goods). All training programmes are carried out in the
classroom and are often only conducted in Bratislava. These courses are implemented only
when a sufficient number of participants is identified. Furthermore, periodic training in the
frame of directive 2003/59/EC is obligatory as described above.
4.4.2 Training programmes for autonomous workers and owners of SMEs
54
http://www.jogositvany-tanfolyam.hu/kepzesek/szaktanfolyami-es-gki-kepzesek/autobuszos-szemelyszallitokepzesek (last accessed 09.09.2013).
55
The CVET and training programmes for autonomous workers and owners of SMEs are addressed to both freight
and passenger transport drivers.
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According to the Slovakian partner, there are some training programmes that are specifically
targeted at autonomous workers and owners of SMEs in the freight and/or passenger
transport subsectors. The curricula of these courses are based on the content of the most
important regulations for professional drivers. For example, courses may address the details
of the TIR and CMR conventions. The courses use different teaching methods and equipment,
for example computers, projectors, booklets, etc. All participants are able to use mobile
devices.56
4.5 Spain
4.5.1 IVET in freight transport in Spain
The training itinerary considered essential for acquiring the necessary knowledge, skills and
abilities to become a professional and competitive transport lorry driver in Spain is the
following:
o Driving licence (C1, C1+E, C, C+E and ADR driving licences);
o Certificate of Professional Competence (see description in section 3.2, Spain);
o lorry driver professional qualification
Driving licence for category C and D57
The Spanish driving licence system follows the European structure. Therefore, the process of
obtaining a licence is designed to provide participants with the basic knowledge required to
drive a lorry of more than 3,500 tons, or to drive a bus. Training consists of two modules (“E”
specific regulation58; Driving and traffic – attitudes and behavior) comprising 60 hours in total.
56
Unfortunatley the Slovakian partner did not give more details on these training programmes.
The driving licence training is the same for truck and bus drivers and therefore they are described together.
58
An E licence allows an individual to drive any vehicle (truck or bus) with a trailer heavier than 750 tonnes. To
obtain the licence, drivers in Spain are required to undertake a training course. The course duration is 60 hours.
40 training hours focus on specific subjects in relation to driving any vehicle with a trailer heavier than 750 tons
(manoeuvres, trailer coupling and uncoupling, parking, etc ..), and the remaining 20 hours of training is focused
on driving attitudes and behavior. After completing the training course, the drivers are required to pass an exam
(test). If the driver successfully passes this exam she/he is then required to pass a practical test.
57
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o C/C1 and D/D1 Licences: The purpose of this training is to impart the theoretical and
practical knowledge, skills and competences needed to obtain C/C1 and D/D1 driving
licences and to enable participants to pass the test established by the Spanish General
Direction of Traffic Flow. In order to obtain these driving licences trainees must hold a
B driving licence and: be 18 years old in order to obtain C1/D1 licence; be 21 years old
in order to obtain a C/D licence, or; be 18 years old and hold the Certificate of
Professional Competence (CPC).
o C1+E/C+E and D1+E and D+E Licences: This course is designed to train C/C1 and D/D1
drivers in driving vehicles with a trailer heavier than 750 kg of MAM in order to enable
them to obtain C1+E/C+E and D1+E/D+E licences. Trainees must fulfil the following
requirements: hold a C1 and C licence respectively; be 18 years old in order to obtain
C1+E/D1+E licence; be 21 years old in order to obtain a C+E/D+E licence, or; be 18
years old and hold the Certificate of Professional Competence.
Professional qualification for lorry driving
This IVET programme was implemented after directive 2003/59/EC was implemented into
Spanish law in 2010. INCUAL, the Spanish Institute for the Development of Professional
Competences, introduced a specific professional qualification for lorry driving at level two of
the Spanish National Qualifications Framework. The training programme comprises 390 hours
and qualifies road freight transport and dangerous goods drivers (whether they are a selfemployed or employees in transport sector companies at national and international level) in
safe, responsible, and efficient driving of vehicles for road freight transport. Amongst other
things, drivers on this programme are taught about road freight transportation laws,
regulations on health and safety, road safety and environment, and monitoring and/or
implementing loading and unloading tasks according to defined processes. Subjects addressed
in this training include: preparation and implementation of first level maintenance of vehicles
for road transport; driving the vehicle and development of other activities related to the
transport service; planning transport services and the relationship with customers; and
monitoring/implementing tasks related to loading and unloading.
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ADR Certification for the carriage of dangerous goods by road
Achieving ADR Certification allows drivers to transport dangerous goods by road, respecting
pertinent legislation. This training programme aims to enable drivers to develop an
understanding of current legislation on the transportation of dangerous goods, and raise
awareness among drivers on the risks this type of transport represents in the event of an
accident. Trainees must fulfill the following requirements to participate in this programme:
hold a certificate from primary school, or a similar level of education, and/or hold a B driving
licence with at least 1 year of experience.
Technician on Road Transport Driving59
As a further step towards the professionalisation of road transportation, the Spanish
government developed and approved a new certification: “Technician on Road Transport
Driving”. This is an undergraduate professional (technical) degree, classified under the
professional category “Transport and vehicles maintenance”. In order to participate in the
training scheme individuals are required to have obtained the mandatory secondary education
certificate, or to possess certification as Technician or Auxiliary Technician. Training comprises
2,000 hours and is targeted at lorry drivers in international transport (TIR); dangerous goods
lorry drivers; trailer drivers, dumper truck drivers, drivers of special vehicles, drivers of
passenger vehicles, drivers of coaches and school buses, as well as taxi drivers. The
programme consists of the following modules:
o Rational and safe driving
o Legal, social and economic environment of transport
o Good transport services
o Passenger transport services
o Warehouse operations
o Basic maintenance
o First aid
o English
o Labour training and counselling
59
This training programme applies both to freight and passenger transport drivers.
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o Entrepreneurship
o Training in working centres
Although this training programme has been regulated in Spain, up to now no training
institution has included this undergraduate degree as a part of its educational offers.
4.5.2 IVET for passenger transport drivers in Spain60
Professional qualification for passenger vehicle driving
This IVET programme was created after directive 2003/59/EC was implemented into Spanish
law in 2010. INCUAL, the Spanish Institute for the Development of Professional Competences
introduced a specific professional qualification for passenger vehicle driving at level 2 of the
Spanish Qualification Framework. The training is targeted at bus drivers that work in urban
and inter-urban passenger transport (whether they are self-employed or employees in
transport sector companies on a national or international level) and consists of 390 modules.
The primary competence areas addressed in this qualification are: safe, responsible and
economic driving of vehicles for passenger transport, observing instructions received and
observing the law; regulations on health and safety, road safety and environment; and
monitoring and/or implementing the loading and unloading task according to defined
processes. Training modules consist of: the preparation and implementation of basic
maintenance of vehicles for passenger transport; driving the vehicle and developing other
activities related to the transport service; planning transport services and the relationship with
customers; and developing communication and information activities with the passengers.
4.5.3 CVET in the transport sector in Spain
The relationship between training, competitiveness, and productiveness is well established.
This connection is becoming increasingly relevant in the transport sector due the development
of professional profiles in the sector.
Additionally, the training of individuals in the use of new technologies is necessary to:
60
Please consider also the above mentioned IVET programmes which apply to both freight and passenger
transport drivers.
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o Improve and automate processes;
o Offer new services with a high added value; and
o Increase the security on the road.
CVET is available in Spain for both professionals as well as managers and directors. Available
CVET opportunities include Master’s and Postgraduate courses (e.g. Logistics, Intermodal
transport); Specialisation courses (e.g. in Transport for both freight and passenger transport);
and Management courses (e.g. in transport or logistics). The majority of this training is offered
in the area of logistic and transport management, but other topics such as health and safety or
human resources management are included in the basic training for drivers.
In addition to the mandatory periodic training, other training activities are organised in the
transport sector. The majority of these are related to the development of specific
competences and others address more transversal competences (health and safety at work
for example).
In general these courses comprise 35 to 40 hours of training in the following areas:
o Health and safety at work (general)
o Health and safety at work (specifically for the transport sector)
o Driving techniques and saving fuel
o Eco-driving
o Computer Science
o English
The majority of these schemes are organised and administered by social actors such as trade
unions or autonomous workers associations, and are financed in their entirety under the
general programme for training for employment in Spain.
4.5.4 Training programmes for autonomous workers and owners of SMEs
Due to the general importance of the transport sector in Spain, and the needs of the
autonomous workers and owners of SMEs in the sector, in recent years a number of specific
programmes have been developed to encourage the formation of certain managerial skills.
The principle is to enable autonomous workers to develop certain managerial competences
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which will help them to tackle new challenges and contribute to the modernisation of the
sector overall, particularly with regard to the business environment of these companies.
However, the educational background of the target group (see chapter 6 of this report: “Level
of key competences of the target group”) makes it difficult to provide specialised training as a
robust educational background is required for the courses to be useful. In order to overcome
these barriers different types of training activities have been developed to overcome this skills
deficit:
Managerial courses
A series of courses (between 40 and 230 hours in length) have been designed to help develop
certain managerial skills in transport sector, such as:
o Financial management
o Contract management
o Environmental management for transport companies
o Quality management in the transport sector
o Human resources management in the road transport sector
o Internationalisation and transport
o Managerial skills
o Negotiation techniques
The majority of these courses are informal training activities that have been specifically
designed to serve the needs of the sector and are promoted by the transport companies
association or associations of autonomous workers.
Master’s degree courses
These courses are promoted primarily by transport companies and associations in
collaboration with different Spanish universities. These Master’s degree courses are designed
to foster the development of managerial and directing skills in owners of transport companies
and autonomous workers. Possession of an undergraduate university degree is the general
entrance requirement for these courses. However, the fact that the majority of owners of
transport companies and autonomous (self-employed) workers do not have a higher
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education background has been taken into account, and admission is now also open to
individuals who have at least 5 years of professional experience in the transport sector.
4.6 Summary
The majority of the countries investigated possess some form of initial and continuous training
for professional drivers. The exceptions to this are Hungary and Slovakia. In these two
countries, only the initial qualification/training and periodic training mandated by the
implementation of
Directive 2003/59/EC into national legislation was identified by the
respective project partners. France appears to have the most elaborated training system in
the transport and logistics sector of the m-road countries. Spain and Austria also have a
number of initial and continuous training opportunities explicitly designed for professional
drivers. With regard to training programmes for autonomous workers and owners of SMEs, it
is clear that some do exist (e.g. Spain), but that these schemes are rarely tailored to the
explicit needs of professional drivers. In France and Austria self-employment is regulated and
if a driver wishes to become self-employed he/she has to pass a test, which can be voluntarily
accompanied by a training course. In contrast, no such training programme/test was reported
in Hungary, Slovakia and Spain. It is interesting to note, however, that only in some training
programmes are entrepreneurship skills taught (e.g. some training courses in France, Austria
and Spain). In those training programmes for drivers where entrepreneurship skills are
included, it is primarily “hard skills” (e.g. bookkeeping, calculation, tax adjustments, income
statements, etc.) that are imparted whereas the “soft skills” (e.g. creativity or innovation) tend
to be neglected. With regard to digital skills only two identified training programme explicitly
referred to digital skills, namely basic electronic data processing skills. This forms part of the
apprenticeship examination training for those drivers who did not initially complete the full
apprenticeship in professional driving in Austria.
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5 Training Programmes focusing on entrepreneurial and
digital skills
In the aforementioned European Parliament and European Council Recommendation
2006/962/EC,
eight
key
competences
were
identified.
Digital
competences
and
entrepreneurship competences are particularly relevant to the m-road project. Digital
competence involves the confident and critical use of information society technology (IST) and
basic skills in information and communication technology (ICT). The key competence sense of
initiative and entrepreneurship is defined as the ability to turn ideas into action. It involves
creativity, innovation and risk-taking, as well as the ability to plan and manage projects in
order to achieve defined objectives. Individuals with this key competence are aware of the
context of their work and are able to seize opportunities that arise. It is the foundation for the
acquisition of the more specific skills and knowledge needed by those establishing or
contributing to social or commercial activity. This should include an awareness of ethical
values and promotion of good governance.61 In the following section, those training
programmes which focus on entrepreneurial and/or digital skills identified in the project
countries are presented.
5.1 Austria
5.1.1 Digital Skills
In Austria today, Digital Competence is primarily imparted through compulsory schooling. For
this reason the Federal Ministry for Education, the Arts and Culture (bmukk) runs an online
educational platform62 for e-learning, e-government, and shared services. This umbrella
platform is the home of all of the IT initiatives and projects of the Department of Information
Technology in the Federal Ministry for Education, the Arts and Culture. The platform provides
61
62
http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/education_training_youth/lifelong_learning/c11090_en.htm
Cf. www.bildung.at
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school-specific recommendations and specifications with regard to the use of ICT with regard
to the following topics:
o IT infrastructure, educational technology, and shared services
o E-Government and administrative applications
o E-learning portals and content
The portal is the entry point for many educational services: it offers a content catalogue for elearning training courses, runs a platform for educational initiatives, and follows European and
international standards regarding, and provides recommendations on, e-learning.
The bmukk has also established the efit21 initiative for the integration and use of new
information and communication technologies in Austrian educational and training facilities.
Furthermore, the Ministry published its “Digital Agenda for Education, Arts and Culture”
containing the following objectives:
o Teaching and learning quality should be increased by engaging with ICT with the main
focus on participation and the use of ICT;
o Younger and adult students should learn the necessary digital skills required to achieve
personal, professional, social, and cultural success;
o ICT training in schools should teach relevant labour market and job-related e-skills.
As students in both primary (3rd or 4th grade) and secondary schools in Austria are taught to
use ICT (depending on school equipment), it can be assumed that young people with a
secondary school qualification (compulsory schooling) who wish to become professional
drivers have some experience in the use of ICT.63 Older drivers may still experience problems
in using computers, although cell phones and smart phones are very popular in Austria today.
It must be stressed once more that, according to interviewed experts, the number of
professional drivers who come from first or second generation migrant backgrounds is
estimated to be extremely high in Austria, and these individuals may possess a different level
of digital skills compared to those drivers who completed compulsory schooling in Austria.
63
As for the apprenticeship training in professional driving the entrance requirement is to have finished the
compulsory schooling of nine years apprentices are expected to have basic computer and Internet skills and
should be able to use these technologies in a critical manner
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Computer courses are available at Austrian CVET institutions for people who wish to improve
their digital competences (dealing for example with MS-Office or the Internet), but these do
not specifically address professional drivers. The ECDL (European Computer Driving Licence) is
offered by educational providers all over the country. The bfi in Vienna, for instance, offers an
ECDL course that consists of 8 modules64 and 95 training units, for €1,300. Shorter
programmes are also available in which individual computer topics are taught.
5.1.2 Entrepreneurship Skills
As noted in sections 4.1.2 (freight transport drivers) and 4.1.4 (passenger transport),
professional drivers who wish to start a business in Austria are obliged to obtain permission to
do so by passing a relevant examination (Befähigungsnachweis). Aside from other
requirements, the test includes questions on entrepreneurship subjects (although these are
primarily based on hard entrepreneurship skills). Moreover, entrepreneurial know-how can be
acquired in some CVET institutions65 and in locations such as community colleges or private
training providers. However, no entrepreneurship training programmes targeted specifically at
professional drivers could be identified.
Some entrepreneurship modules offered by CVET training providers such as the WIFI66 for
different target groups are presented below. It should be noted that a good command of the
German language is required to participate in these programmes which can prove problematic
for the vast number of professional lorry drivers with migrant backgrounds. This also applies
to bus drivers, but typically bus driver possess a good understanding of German.
Entrepreneurship Training - Evening Classes/Weekend Classes
This training programme consists of 180 training units and costs €1,000. Subjects addressed in
the course include the following: accounting, entrepreneurial law, marketing, communication,
and organisation and employee management.
64
The following topics are taught: basics in Windows, Word, Excel, Access, PowerPoint, the Internet. IT Security
can be studied instead of Access.
65
WIFI and bfi.
66
Institute for Economic Promotion.
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Furthermore, there are a great variety of programmes offered on specific entrepreneurial
subjects (though not specifically targeted at professional drivers) by CVET providers all over
the country, such as:
o Leadership:
16
training
units
(Leadership
criteria,
recognising
personal
strengths/weaknesses, understanding employee skills and strengths, professional
conflict management);
o IVET Trainer Course: 40 training units (for entrepreneurs who wish to train
apprentices);
o
Leadership Workshop for SMEs: 8 training units, target group is SMEs with a maximum
of 3 employees. Content of the training consists of: Business Plan for SMEs, Business
Plan instruments, strategic and operative planning, financial controlling instruments
applied to your own real-life company situation;
o SME Academy: 45 training units, target group is entrepreneurs who have operated
their business without employees for up to 3 years (Business Plan, marketing,
cooperating and networking, Sales, Time- and self-management).
In Austria the field of “Personality Development” for entrepreneurs is extensive and includes
many different types of CVET programmes that are designed to improve individuals’ personal
communication skills (e.g. communication on the phone, negotiation, conflict management),
personal working techniques (e.g. presentation techniques, completing tasks, project
management, and writing texts), and self-management (e.g. presenting yourself
professionally, self-marketing, and work-life balance).
5.2 France
5.2.1 Digital skills
With regard to digital skills, the following series of training programmes are widely available to
trainees in general in France, beyond the Transport & logistics sectors:
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o The Internet Multimedia Passport focuses primarily on the acquisition of manipulatory
competences enabling trainees to responsibly access the internet and its features;
o The Internet Navigation Certificate focuses on text-related manipulatory competences,
excluding audio-visual related skills;
o The Information Technology and Internet School Certificate – low level (Le Brevet
Informatique et Internet Ecole, B2iE) focuses on manipulatory competences but is also
designed to enable learners to develop an ethical consciousness on the use of digital
technology in order to promote a more responsible use of digital skills. Target group is
high school students;
o The Information Technology and Internet School Certificate – mid level (Le Brevet
Informatique et Internet Collège, B2iC) covers the same issues as the lower level
Information Technology and Internet School Certificate mentioned above, but with a
stronger and deeper emphasis on ethical consciousness, critical reading, and socioemotionally related competences;
o Information Technology and Internet Certificate (C2i) – high level targeted at high
school students. This training programme is designed allow students to develop,
reinforce, validate, and acknowledge the competences deemed necessary to mastering
Information and Communication technology.
The level I Information Technology and Internet Certificate – C2i
This certification programme addresses the cross-cutting and independent skills related to the
academic disciplines studied by students, as well as their knowledge of information
technology. It is intended for current students or graduates of institutions of higher education,
and candidates that have obtained a Baccalauréat or equivalent qualification. This certificate
measures students’ mastery of practical skills useful for carrying out activities required for
success in current higher education curricula. These particularly include: research, creation,
information handling and management, data retrieval and processing, data collection, storage
and backup, face-to-face and remote presentation of work, remote communication and
collaborative working models. C2i students are introduced to the Moodle platform and
complete coursework adhering to the provisions laid out in the descriptive guide (adding files,
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retrieving assignments, respecting submission deadlines, etc.). Participants adhere to the
training schedule, follow directions given by instructors, and undertake independent learning
by reading the C2i guidelines, as well as by participating in learning activities and undertaking
assignments (Moodle assignments, projects, tests, supervised exercises, etc.)
This 15-week training programme is essentially a distance learning course. Classes take place
online, and instructors monitor students’ progress. Small groups communicate via email and
participate in live chat sessions. This programme takes place ‘in a particular context where ICT
serves as both a tool and the primary subject of study’ (Karsenti, Larose 2001). The
programme also includes five classroom sessions to allow students to interact with one
another, as well as with their instructors. These sessions take place in Virtual University of
Tunis (VUT) access centers. The certification exam consists of two components. The first is a
theory-based assessment in the form of a questionnaire containing 45 questions covering the
nine areas of expertise addressed in the national guidelines. This questionnaire is designed
through the use of a test bank and counts for a third of the total final grade. The second
component of the examination is a practical assessment covering the nine areas of specific
and instrumental expertise addressed in the national guidelines, and which correspond to the
French framework. This assessment accounts for the remaining two thirds of the total final
grade. Performance evaluation of each student is based on a competence and skill based
approach rather than measurement of the mastery of each field of expertise.
Students earn C2i certification when both components have been successfully completed.
Certificates are awarded by a single jury specific to the C2i programme and whose members,
which are appointed by the President of VUT, also include C2i-certified instructors.
Certification indicates evidence of a candidate’s competence in the nine areas of expertise
defined in the guidelines, which may be summarised as follows: proper use of a computer;
adequate mastery of office software; internet navigation and research skills; optimal use of
associated services; general knowledge of ICT law and ethics, and working effectively in a
collaborative setting.
The European Computer Driving Licence
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This training programme is primarily designed to enable students to improve their IT
manipulatory skills, and at the same time addresses legal (safety, patents, personal data etc.)
and societal aspects (Information Society, e-commerce, telework, Environment etc.) of ICT.
This is a European-wide standardised training programme that addresses basic skills (concepts
of information and communication technology (ICT); using the computer and managing files;
word processing; spreadsheets; using databases; presentation; (Web Browsing and
Communication), and more advanced skills (2D Computer Aided Design; Image Editing; Web
Editing; Health Information Systems Usage; IT Security; Project Planning).
The Adult Computer Science and Internet Certificate (B2iA)
This training programme addresses five major issues: IT environment, processes and
production, information and data Research, communication and civic attitude.
The European e-Competence Framework (e-CF)67
The European e-Competence Framework provides a common language for the description of
the competences of ICT professionals, and is designed to meet the needs of businesses and
other organisations. The e-CF version 2.0 provides clear definitions and sound orientation to
support decision-making in relation to the selection and recruitment of candidates, as well as
the training and assessment of ICT professionals. It enables the identification of skills and
competences that may be required to successfully perform duties and fulfill responsibilities
related to ICT in both the private and public sectors. The widespread adoption of the e-CF by
companies and organisations throughout Europe should increase the transparency, mobility
and efficiency of human resources. The e-CF is being used by a wide range of national and
European initiatives. European e-skills projects have used the framework to better define ecompetences and to further develop the provision of European ICT certificates. The e-CF also
underpins activities launched by the CEN Workshop Agreement68 on ICT Skills to establish and
promote the concept of European ICT professionalism, including the development of a set of
typical European ICT Professional Profiles created to complement the e-CF. The e-CF is
67
68
ftp://ftp.cen.eu/CEN/AboutUs/Publications/e-CF_leaflet.pdf.
This is a reference document of the European Committee for Standardisation.
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structured in four dimensions reflecting different levels of business and human resources (HR)
planning requirements, including job proficiency guidelines.
o Dimension 1 reflects five e-competence areas derived from ICT business processes
(plan, build, run, enable, and manage);
o Dimension 2 defines a set of e-competences for each area, with reference definitions
for 36 different competences in total;
o Dimension 3 outlines proficiency levels (e-1 to e-5) of each e-competence, which
correspond with levels 3 to 8 of the European Qualification Framework (EQF);
o Dimension 4 provides examples of knowledge and skills that are related to the specific
e-competences defined in dimension 2.
5.2.2 Entrepreneurship skills
With regard to entrepreneurial skills, please see the description of AFT IFTIM Managers’
(section 4.2.3) training offer. Perhaps one of the most important aspects of the way
entrepreneurial skills are taught and acquired in this programme is the strong emphasis
placed on behavioural skills and competences. Learners are trained so as to allow them to
develop an appropriate attitude for an entrepreneur. In the AFT-IFTIM manager training
course, digital skills are not taught. However, with regard to entrepreneurial skills, specific
training sessions (which can be chosen in an “à la carte” manner) are provided. These include,
for example:
Improve your negotiating skills
This training course has a duration of two days (7 hours per day) and is designed for eight
participants. On the first day organisational and technical aspects of negotiation are
addressed, and a negotiation is prepared by the trainee. In the second day the benefits of selfperception, and the perception of others, as well as key success factors are discussed
alongside negotiation role-play exercises. Trainees are assessed within the session. At the end
of the course participants receive a certificate of completion. Within the role playing exercise,
the trainees should practice techniques and methods of negotiation for commercial contracts.
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How to negotiate your prices and margins
This course also takes two days and has a maximum of 12 participants. The following subjects
are addressed: pre-requisites to price and tariff negotiation; how to integrate collective
bargaining into transport services, and sales processes. Furthermore, a role-play exercise is
undertaken which simulates interactions between a customer and a service provider.
Participants are evaluated throughout the session - at the end of the course they receive a
certificate of attendance.
Managing – key principles and actions
This training programme has a duration of two days and is designed for a maximum 12
participants. The course addresses the following subjects:
o How to define team management in transport and logistics (from strategic
management to operational management; management of specificities in transport);
o The professional function (defining one’s position as manager and that of one’s
employees);
o The positive consequences of a relevant definition of functions within the company
(how to implement delegation; how to better manage personal working time and
working time of employees, etc.);
o Motivating staff and colleagues and resolving or preventing conflict situations
(employee interviews, how to motivate colleagues etc.);
o Identifying and implementing relevant means for improving management (manager’s
tools, etc.).
Trainees are evaluated throughout the course. At the end of training participants receive a
certificate of completion.
5.3 Hungary
5.3.1 Entrepreneurship and digital skills
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In Hungary, a new vocational education regulation will come into force in September 2013.
Therefore, at the time of the drafting of this report the changes that will be implemented to
the education system and how this will impact the overall vocational education and training
sector in Hungary was unclear. Currently many different companies offer training
opportunities to those working in the transport and logistics sector. However, a large
proportion of the SMEs that operate this sector in Hungary are micro enterprises, meaning
that they possess 1 to 2 vehicles. These organisations can only afford to undertake the training
that is mandated by the European directive and incorporated into national law.
5.4 Slovakia
5.4.1 Entrepreneurship skills
Generally, training programmes are prepared by private schools or training institutions which
have a large range of different training offers also for acquiring entrepreneurial skills. People
are able to apply for training in different courses covering different subjects.
Entrepreneurial skills can also be obtained through standard education at selected schools.
Entrepreneurial skills programmes address issues of economy, communications skills and
enterprise idea preparation, cooperation with banks, contractors, and governmental and nongovernmental institutions. Furthermore, analysis of business contracts, and communication
within enterprises (with employees) forms a part of this training. In the case of private
(business
operated)
courses
the
majority
of
teachers
are
individuals
with
professional/practical experience of entrepreneurship. Courses offered through the standard
education system are staffed by teachers who have been trained to teach the aforementioned
subjects. The subjects tackled are similar in both the private and public sector courses –
economy, communication, accounting, business plan, enterprise simulation, etc.
5.4.2 Digital Skills
Training programmes for digital skills are available in Slovakia and are provided by both public
and private institutions. Individuals are able to apply for training in different courses that
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focus on different subjects. Digital skills training typically consists of teaching in the use of
Windows Office, Excel, and other software application. In the case of private courses (business
operated) the majority of teachers are individuals with professional/practical experience of
digital skills (with or without certification). Courses offered in the standard education system
are staffed by teachers who have received training in teaching digital skills.
5.5 Spain
5.5.1 Entrepreneurship skills
In Spain, the promotion of entrepreneurial competences is based on a series of measures
promoted primarily by local and regional public bodies. The courses created by these bodies
usually focus on the hard or technical skills necessary for entrepreneurs and to a lesser degree
on the entrepreneurial soft skills. Nevertheless, these programmes are designed to support
new entrepreneurs in starting a business. However, these programmes focus more on the
process of building a company (and the development of the technical knowledge to start a
business), rather the development of competences intended to promote the “entrepreneurial
spirit”. The training process responds to the specific requirements of the creation of a
company. Therefore, budding entrepreneurs receive training in:
o Developing a Business plan;
o Understanding basic regulations on the financial and legal framework;
o Understanding how to elaborate a budget;
o Designing the strategy for the company;
o Acquiring basic knowledge about marketing;
o Acquiring basic directive skills.
The most relevant processes for training on entrepreneurship are promoted by bodies that
work in economic development, and training itineraries are closely related to the
development of business ideas.
Entrepreneurship in the formal education system
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In order to improve the entrepreneurial skills (considering that entrepreneurship is one of the
key competences for lifelong learning) of people in Spain, the formal education system has
implemented a number of activities intended to promote entrepreneurial culture. In recent
years several different initiatives have been developed within secondary schools to promote
entrepreneurship. The majority of these are classified as IVET and secondary education
programmes. Moreover, some IVET undergraduate qualifications have included the subject of
“Entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial culture” within their curricula. The subject is
structured in 4 different modules as follows:
o Promoting an entrepreneurial mindset: To identify and encourage different
characteristics of being an entrepreneur;
o Business plan: Identifying the opportunities to create a business and developing a
business plan;
o Business start-up: How to start a business (permissions, legal requirements, financial
support, etc.);
o Basic management skills: Encouraging basic skills of business management and
administration (accountability, HR management, marketing, managerial issues etc..
Within universities the promotion of entrepreneurship has focused on two relevant activities:
o Training and education programmes to foster entrepreneurial culture: some courses
and post-graduate degrees focused on entrepreneurship that promote entrepreneurial
training through the use of practical resources (e.g. focus groups, simulators, case
studies, etc.);
o Programmes to support and promote business creation: specific financial and
administrative support activities to create student businesses.
The objective is to encourage entrepreneurial initiatives and to support business creation
through different activities, such as, for example, promoting the creation of entrepreneurship
teams, and supporting entrepreneurs by enabling them to access professional networks in the
initial stages of business development.
Non-formal and informal Entrepreneurship education
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In addition to the activities included in formal education, during recent years a number of
additional informal activities that promote the development of an entrepreneurial culture
have been established as part of public policies or initiatives to reduce the high
unemployment rates in Spain. The public employment services, and other public and private
non-profit institutions (local and regional institutions that work in local and regional
development, economic promotion, supporting employment; private bodies promoted by
professional associations or social actors; private organisations that promote social initiative,
etc.) have launched non-formal and informal training programmes to promote
entrepreneurship.
The majority of these interventions are designed to support new entrepreneurs when they are
first starting their businesses. These programmes promote the business management and
administrative technical skills required in the first two to three years of business development.
Therefore, the main objective of these initiatives is not to develop broad “entrepreneurial
spirit” in Spain, but to provide people with the skills and competences that they require in
order to start a business. Different tools are used in these programmes, for example: guides
for entrepreneurship, specific training programmes, and/or on-line assessment tools, etc.
5.6 Summary
With regard to digital skills the investigation shows that nowadays these are part of
compulsory schooling in the investigated countries. Hence, younger drivers in road transport
can be assumed to possess the necessary digital skills as described in the European Parliament
and Councils’ Recommendation 2006/962/EC on key competences for lifelong learning. In all
project countries continuous education and training offers are available to impart digital skills,
but these are not specifically tailored to the needs of autonomous workers or owners of SMEs.
Furthermore, entrepreneurship education is becoming more relevant in all of the investigated
countries, although Spain currently seems to have greatest number of initiatives in this area,
particularly non-formal and informal initiatives that are becoming increasingly prevalent.
However, the majority of the identified entrepreneurship training programmes in all countries
tend to focus more on the development of “hard skills” (e.g. accounting, win and loss
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accountancy, etc.) than “soft skills” (e.g. how to develop the entrepreneurial spirit more
broadly within the country).
6 Level of key competences of the target group
In this section we present an overview on the level of key competences of the target group
(self-employed drivers and owners of SMEs). The target group is quiet heterogeneous and in
some countries there is almost no data available with regard to the level of key competences
of people working in the sector. The information and results obtained through interviews was
used to gain an understanding of competence levels of drivers in those countries where no
data was available.
In Austria no data was available with regard to the level of key competences of drivers, but
some assumptions can be made on the basis of several indicators. Some general trends can be
derived from a recently conducted survey of 801 drivers: The highest proportion of drivers
was found in the age category of 40 to 59 (511 drivers), and the second largest group of
drivers was those in the age category 30 to 39 (175 respondents) (AK 2012, p. 9). Only 15
survey respondents were female, approximately 2% of total respondents. When reflecting on
the level of key competences of owners of SMEs, it must be noted that before an individual
can become self-employed in Austria they must pass a Qualifying Examination
(“Befähigungsnachweis”) that covers all the relevant issues relating to the operation of a
business. With regard to the level of key competences of drivers it can be assumed that those
who have completed a three year apprenticeship training in professional driving are quite
skilled. They possess training in digital skills which forms part of compulsory schooling, and
possess basic knowledge of entrepreneurial skills. Individuals who have completed
apprenticeship training that wish to start their own business are required to take the
aforementioned examination and hence, are after completion able to start their own
business. Drivers who simply work on the basis of their driving licence and the CPC may
possess a lower level of key competences as they may not have not completed compulsory
schooling. An expert from the Federal Chamber of Labour estimated that the educational level
of drivers in the freight and passenger transport subsectors is rather low, but that no
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statistical numbers are available. In his estimation approximately 80% of all lorry drivers have
a migrant background in Austria. These individuals often lack German language skills and
therefore have difficulty in passing the initial qualification test for the CPC. 69 These individuals
may have a quite a low level key competences. However, many young second generation
professional drivers with migrant backgrounds have much better language and digital skills
than their parents.
In France there is also a relatively a high proportion of low skilled workers that hold neither a
diploma, nor a junior secondary education certificate (BEPC). Since 1986 the proportion of
workers that hold the general certificate of secondary education (Baccalauréat) has been
lower in the road transport sector than in other parts of the economy (25% compared to 51%
respectively) (Bilan social annuel du transport routier de marchandises, 2011). However, the
average level of qualification/training is improving in France. Since 1990 the level of initial
training has been improving steadily. This is a consequence of the decrease in the number of
employees that hold no diploma or only hold the BEPC (the proportion in the transport sector
fell from 52% in 1990 to 36% in 2010). The proportion of employees who hold a secondary
education or higher education degree has increased (from 11% in 1990 to 25% in 2010).
However, this increase in the level of qualification applies to the economy as a whole. Another
trend observable in France is that young drivers are more qualified than their antecedents. In
2008 94% of drivers under the age of 30 held a diploma, while the figure for the total driver
population was 83% (EACT, enquête annuelle sur les conditions de travail des conducteurs de
poids lourds du TRF élargi). Aside from the various evolutions in initial training, the mandatory
vocational training system (developed in 1995) has contributed to the increase in the number
of professional or diploma holders in the transport sector.
In Hungary and Slovakia the target group also possess quite a low level of key competences.
Drivers are often individuals who were unable to find a job following completion of their
education and began working as a driver out of necessity - often on a seasonal basis.
69
These drivers are allowed to bring an interpreter for the CPC initial qualification but the interpreter must be
authorised and well known. The expert commented that many migrant drivers are able to successfully complete
the multiple choice test but, that the 5 oral questions are often problematic.
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It is difficult to analyse the key competence level of the target group in Spain due to a lack of
information and sources about companies and self-employed drivers. In this case it was
necessary to rely on the feedback received in interviews. In Spain self-employed drivers are
the most relevant group in the sector. They represent more than 60% of the driver population.
With regard to age, these drivers are drawn from a wide age group (from 30 to 50 years),
especially in the freight transport sector. The majority of drivers have more than 10 years’
experience in driving. The majority of younger drivers possess a secondary or technical
certificate, and older drivers (those between 40 and 50 years old) mostly possess a primary
school certificate. Self-employed drivers indicated that they are very interested in attending
training activities, but commented that a number of elements hinder continuous training
(especially lack of time). With regard to the working environment the majority of selfemployed drivers work for large companies and therefore do not have customers in the
traditional sense. They also do not have a specific working environment, with the exception of
their vehicle. Moreover, they use to subcontract the administrative management of their
business (to a relative – wife, daughter/son- help to manage the business). Management
focuses on administrative and financial issues. Most self-employed drivers are members of an
association which supports them on legal issues and provides them with training activities.70
With regard to owners of SMEs (fewer than 10 employees), the age range is similar to those
individuals that work as self-employed drivers, with an average age of 55 years old. The
majority of SMEs are family businesses, staffed by two generations. The younger generation in
particular brings some managerial skills to the business. In fact, the (older) owner of the
business often continues to drive and establish contracts with “traditional customers”, while
younger members of the family handle business administration duties. In a changing economic
and social environment new skills are required in order to meet new challenges. In the face of
the economic and financial crisis many companies were forced to reduce their employment
structure to 1 or 2 persons working in business administration (not management), but with a
high degree of external support.
While most SMEs in Spain are “family businesses”, the new generation does have a different
approach to administering and managing the company. Their educational background is
70
For example TCM-UGT cyl.
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typically different than that of the owner, and in some cases younger workers possess some
business management skills. With regard to skills gaps there are some barriers and gaps
related to business management. Most company owners and self-employed drivers possess
sufficient technical competences in their area of work (they use to be a professional drivers
with wider experiences in transport sector) but do not have the key skills required for
entrepreneurship, particularly in terms of hard and soft skills. They lack the entrepreneurial
“technical” (skills to manage an enterprise) and “personal” (skills to be an entrepreneur) skills
required to manage an effective business (as autonomous workers or as the owner of a microcompany). These are competences relating to attitudes such as persistence, networking and
self-confidence (soft skills) on the one hand, and enabling skills such as basic start-up
knowledge, business planning, financial literacy and managerial skills (hard skills) on the other.
Alterations in the structure of the transport sector in general, and in market trends, mean that
changes are required to traditional business structures in the road transport sector. In order
to achieve this successfully, it is important to foster both hard and soft entrepreneurship skills,
promote new and modern business practices, and improve the entrepreneurial culture in the
transport sector.
7 Conclusions
With regard to the current status of VET in road transport, a number IVET and CVET
programmes for professional drivers (in both the freight and passenger transport subsectors)
were identified in the investigated countries. The majority of the IVET programmes were
created after the implementation of Directive 2003/59 into national law. Only France and
Austria had IVET programmes for drivers before the implementation of Directive 2003/59/EC.
France, for example, had established the Certificate of professional driving of goods vehicles,
the Professional Aptitude Certificate for drivers of goods vehicles in freight, and the Certificate
of professional driving of intercity passenger vehicles for passenger transport drivers. Austria
had its Apprenticeship training in professional driving for both freight and passenger transport.
In Spain a recently developed IVET training scheme for professional drivers is the Technician
on Road Transport Driving, although at the time of writing no students were registered for this
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programme. With regard to CVET a number of programmes have been established aside from
the mandatory periodic training prescribed by directive 2003/59/EC. These training
programmes, however, are not very systematised in the investigated countries and are
focused on the acquisition of additional skills (for example driving with dangerous goods or
loads, and passenger security). No existing initiative that is designed to enhance the key
competences (digital and entrepreneurship skills) of professional drivers and owners of SMEs
could be identified in any of the countries in the m-road sample. This is astonishing when one
considers the relative importance of the road transport sector to national GDP and
employment in the investigated countries. There is almost no data available on the level of
key competences of professional drivers in these countries, and therefore estimations can
only be made. The level of key competences was estimated to be quite low in all of the
investigated countries. Contributors did report that in France education levels are improving,
and that in Spain the younger generation possesses a higher level of key competences (digital
as well as entrepreneurial) than the older generation. Nevertheless, the information gathered
on the current status of VET with regard to enhancing the key competence levels of
autonomous workers and owners of SMEs suggests that there is little to no national training
provision for this area. Therefore, development of a learning tool designed to enhance digital
and entrepreneurial skills of the target group is important. Due to the low educational level of
the target group the mobile learning tool to be developed in m-road should be kept simple.
Furthermore, due to the very different VET systems in place, focusing on entrepreneurial soft
skills, rather than on hard skills, is recommended as the hard skills (for example calculation,
business law, taxes, etc.) vary considerably between the countries.
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8 List of interview partners /focus group participants
8.1 Austria
o Interview (2013-04-08) with Mag. Reinhard Fischer (Austrian Economic Chamber, WKO,
Federal Department for Transport and Traffic). E-mail: [email protected],
Phone: +43 (0)5 90 900-3236. Address: Wiedner Hauptstrasse 63, 1045 Vienna.
o Interview (2013-04-10) with Mag. Doris Schmid (Austrian Economic Chamber, WKO,
Freight Transport Association). E-mail: [email protected], Phone:
+43/(0)1/961 63 63- 59. Address: Wiedner Hauptstrasse 68, 1040 Vienna.
o Interview (2013-04-11): Mag. Markus Novak (Austrian Economic Chamber, WKO,
Product
Management,
Institute
for
Economic
Promotion
-WIFI.
E-mail:
[email protected], phone: 0043/590900-3601. Address: Wiedner Hauptstrasse
63, 1040 Vienna
o Interview (2013-04-12) with Richard Ruziczka, Chamber of Labour, Vienna (AK Wien),
Environment and Traffic Department. E-mail: [email protected] Address:
Prinz-Eugen-Strasse 20-22, 1040 Vienna.
o Interview (2013-04-15) with Mag.a Andrea Winkler, e-learning team Institute for
Economic Promotion (WIFI). E-mail: Phone: Address: Währinger Gürtel
o Interview (2013-04-15) with Ing. Robert Murauer, Vocational Teacher, VET school
Attnang, Upper Austria. Phone: +43/650/4365043
8.2 France
o Mrs Agnès HERNES VOLMAR, AFT-IFTIM responsible for e-learning engineering.
o Chantal Reland from the Ministry of Transport (Ministère de l’Ecologie, du
Développement Durable et de l’Energie)
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8.3 Hungary
o Pál Rubik, Manager of Uj-ATI car-school, 25.03.2013.
o Katalin Kopacsek, Education Manager of PATI car-school, 02.04.2013
o Máté Morik, Trainer in PATI car-school, 02.04.2013
o Csaba Rufus, Manager of RUFUS ZRT, 04.04.2013
o Csaba Hoffmann, Expert / Professor in BME, 04.04.2013
o Katalin Kulcsár, Manager of Budai Autósikola, 03.04.2013
o Tamás Hima, Expert / NKH, 12.04.2013
o Julianna Tasnádiné Pál, Szállitmányozó Kis és Középvállalkozók Érdekvédemi Szövetsége
(Association for Promotion of Interests of Hungarian Small and Medium Sized Freight
Forwarding Company), 05.04.2013
o János Kamarás, Independent Expert, 28.03.2013
o Tamás Regensburger, Independent Expert, 10.04.2013
8.4 Slovakia
The Slovakian project partner did not report any conducted interviews or focus groups.
8.5 Spain
Interviews:
o Marta Saiz, Training Expert at ASIMAG, 26.03.2013.
o Begoña Martinez Fernández, Entrepreneurship counsellor at CEDEMI – Center for
Business Development, 04.04.2013.
o Pilar Haro, Senior Consultant at Young Entrepreneurs Association, 04.04.2013.
o Borja Vivanco, Freelance Expert on Management Training, 09.04.2013.
o Balduino Fidalgo Franco, Autonomous worker (Goods Transport), 19.03.2013.
o Juan Carlos Martínez Cañón, Autonomous worker (Transport of dangerous goods),
19.03.2013.
o Luis Alberto Chamorro Blanco, Autonomous worker (Goods Transport), 19.03.2013.
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o Pedro Aller Fernández, Middle Management and Trainer at ADIF and TCM-UGT-CyL,
21.03.2013.
Participants of Focus Group, held 09.04.2013 in Bilbao:
o Marta Saiz, Training Expert (ASIMAG)
o Begoña Martinez Fernández, Entrepreneurship counsellor (CEDEMI)
o Borja Vivanco, Freelance Expert on Management Training
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Safe Truck. Report on the State of Art in Road Transport Stress Prevention.
Nemzeti Közlekedési Hatóság; Tanterv és Útmutató: Tehergépkocsi valamint járműszerelvény
vezetői alap- és továbbképzési képesítésre felkészítő szaktanfolyamok számára
Gulyas, A. (2005). Changes of Road Administration in Hungary. PIARC, Budapest.
Pucher, J. (2005). Urban Planning & Policy Development. Feasibility study. Bloustein
Rohacs, J./ Dadhazi, D./ Simongáti, G. (2005). Sustainable Transport. General Approach to
Comparison of the Transportation Means. Abstract CREATING project, Budapest.
Szirony, A. (2005).Transport performance Q1, Q2 2005 release. Hungarian Central Statistical
Office, Budapest.
Táncos, L./ Bokor. Z. (2000). The Hungarian Technology Foresight Programme
panel report. Budapest.
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Tímár, A. (2004). Hungarian transport infrastructure today and tomorrow. Article, JEL L 910,
Budapest.
Tímár, A. (2003a). Transport infrastucture. European Exercises. Imre Forgacs, Budapest.
Tímár, A. (2003b). Financing public road infrastructure. Article, MEH, Budapest.
Zsírai, I. (2004). Main Tasks of Logistic Service Centres Combined Transport Development
Strategy. Manual, MTA-VKI, Budapest.
Websites
http://www.eqavet.eu/gns/what-we-do/implementing-the-framework/hungary.aspx
9.4 Slovakia
ReferNET (2011).Slovak country report.
UOE (2010). Data collection on education systems. Volume 1, 2, 3.
EUROSTAT, OECD, UNESCO – Institute for statistics.
Websites
www.aveducation.sk
www.deloitte.com/assets/DcomSlovakRepublic/Local%20Assets/Documents/sk_en_Data_Coll
ection_Questionnaire.pdf
www.partnerstva.sk
www.zmps.sk
9.5 Spain
Almovodar, A. et al (2006). VI Encuesta Nacional de condiciones de trabajo. ENMT – MTAS,
Madrid.
Betancor, N./ Nombela, G. (2002). Spanish Road Transport Social Accounts. Are full costs covered
by taxes and Tolls?. Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas.
Page 83/92
prepared by Tanja Bacher & Sabine Schwenk, 3s
Consultrans (2006). Estudio socioeconómico. Ministerio de Fomento, Madrid.
Consultrans (2001). Necesidades formativas en el sector del transporte público por carretera. Fase
I. Ministerio de Fomento, Madrid.
ECTM (2004). Short-Term Trends. European Conference of Minister of Transport, Brussels.
European Commission (2009). EU Energy and Transport in Figures. Statistical Pocketbook
2007/2008. EUROSTAT, Brussels.
European Commission (2009). Road Freight Transport Vademecum. European Commission. DG
Energy and Transport, Brussels.
Fundación Tripartita para la formación y el empleo (2010a). Informe de actividades 2008. Madrid.
Fundación Tripartita para la formación y el empleo (2010b). Formación en las empresas 2008.
Madrid.
Fundación Tripartita para la formación y el empleo (2010c). Informe de actividades 2007. Madrid.
Fundación Tripartita para la formación y el empleo (2009). Formación en las empresas 2007.
Madrid.
Ministerio de Fomento (2010). Observatorio del Mercado de transporte de Mercancías por
Carretera. Madrid.
Ministerio de Fomento (2009a). Observatorio de la Actividad de transporte de Mercancías por
Carretera de los vehículos pesados. Madrid.
Ministerio de Fomento (2009b). Observatorio del Mercado de transporte de Mercancías por
Carretera. Madrid.
Ministerio de Fomento (2009c). Evolución de los Indicadores económicos y sociales del transporte
por carretera. Madrid.
Ministerio de Fomento (2008). Plan Estratégico de actuación para el Transporte de Mercancías por
carretera. Madrid.
Ministerio de Fomento (2006). Memoria Anual del Sector Nacional de Transporte por carretera.
Madrid.
Ministerio de Fomento (2001). Plan Estratégico para el sector de transporte de mercancías por
carretera. PETRA. Ministerio de Fomento. Dirección General de Transportes por Carretera,
Madrid.
MTAS (2007). Estrategia Española de Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo (2007-2012). MTAS, Madrid.
Rus, G. De, et al (2004). Economía del Transporte. Anthony Boxee, Madrid
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prepared by Tanja Bacher & Sabine Schwenk, 3s
Aragón, A./ Baixauli, J.S. (2010). El reto de emprender: factores clave. Cizur Menor (Navarra):
Thomson Reuters.
BEAZ. Manual de conceptos básicos de gestión económico financiera para personas
emprendedoras. Bilbao: BEAZ S.A.U.
Bermejo, M./ De La Vega, I. (2003). Crea tu propia empresa: estrategias para su puesta en
marcha y supervivencia. McGraw Hill/Interamericana de España.
Bruna Quintas, F. (2006). Emprendiendo un proyecto de empresa: planificación y gestión.
Vigo: Ideas propias Editorial.
Castells Oliván, M./ Vilaseca Requena, J. (directores) (2007). Entorno innovador, iniciativa
emprendedora y desarrollo local. Barcelona: Editorial Octaedro, S.L.
Coduras, A. (2006). La motivación para emprender en España. In: Ekonomiaz nº 62 2º
cuatrimestre 2006, pp 12-39. Vitoria-Gasteiz: Departamento de Hacienda y Administración
Pública del Gobierno Vasco.
Comisión Europea. Dirección General de Empresa e Industria. Unidad E.1: Espíritu empresarial
(2008). La Iniciativa emprendedora en la enseñanza superior, especialmente en estudios
no empresariales. Resumen del informe final de grupo de expertos.
Dirección General de Política de la Pequeña y Mediana Empresa (2006). Estudio sobre las
iniciativas emprendedoras en la universidad española. Madrid: Ministerio de Economía.
Online: www.ipyme.org/Publicaciones/EstudioIniciativasEmprendedoras.pdf
Dirección General de Política de la Pequeña y Mediana Empresa (2010). Creación y puesta en
marcha de una empresa. Madrid: Ministerio de Economía. Online:
http://www.ipyme.org/Publicaciones/CreacionEmpresas.pdf
Dirección General de Política de la Pequeña y Mediana Empresa (2010). El fomento de la
iniciativa emprendedora en el sistema educativo en España. Madrid: Ministerio de
Industria, Turismo y Comercio.
Fernández Serrano, JA. (2006). Emprende-T. Ideas para nuevos Emprendedores. Madrid:
Editorial Tebar.
GEM (2010). Una perspectiva global sobre la educación y formación emprendedora. GEM.
GEM (2012). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. Informe GEM España. GEM.
Harper, S.C. (2003). The McGraw Hill guide to starting your own business. Nueva York:
McGrawHill. Uno de los libros más vendidos sobre esta temática, que paso a paso
introduce al lector en cómo crear su propia empresa.
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prepared by Tanja Bacher & Sabine Schwenk, 3s
Iniciador (2011). Consejos de emprendedores a iniciadores. Bubok Publishing.
Marín, S. (director) (2007). Las competencias profesionales relacionadas con las TIC y el
espíritu emprendedor. Madrid: Ministerios de Educación y Ciencia.
OCDE (2009). Measuring Entrepreneurship: A Digest of Indicators. 2009 Edition. París: OECD
Publishing.
OCDE (2011). Entrepreneurship at a Glance 2011. París: OECD Publishing.
SPRI.
10
pasos
para
crear
una
empresa.
Bilbao:
SPRI.
http://www.spri.es/wNS/docs/publicaciones/10_pasos_crear_empresa.pdf
SPRI.
Manual
Básico
para
Emprender.
Bilbao:
SPRI.
http://www.spri.es/wNS/docs/publicaciones/emprendedor.pdf
Online.
Online:
The Gallup Organisation (2007). Entrepreneurship survey in the 25 Member States, United
States, Iceland and Norway. Directorate - General for Enterprise and Industry E/1:
Entrepreneurship.
Flash
Eurobarometer.
Online:
http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/flash/fl_192_en.pdf
Trias de Bes, F. (2007). El libro negro del emprendedor. No digas que nunca te lo advirtieron.
Barcelona: Empresa Activa.
UNCTAD (2004). Entrepreneurship and Economic Development: The Empretec Showcase.
Ginebra: UNCTAD. Online: http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/webiteteb20043_en.pdf
Valcarcel, J. (2005). Aprender a emprender: 1000 Claves de éxito para emprendedores,
empresarios y directivos. Madrid: Ediciones Nowtilus, S.L.
VV. AA. (2006). Emprendiendo un proyecto de empresa. Vigo: Ed. Ideaspropias. Online:
http://www.ideaspropiaseditorial.com/documentos_web/documentos/978-84-9839-0155.pdf.
VVAA (2009). Emprendimiento económico y social. Guía de recursos para jóvenes
emprendedores. Madrid: Instituto de la Juventud.
Page 86/92
prepared by Tanja Bacher & Sabine Schwenk, 3s
Annex I – National legal regulations
Year
Title
Subject
Austria
1962
1986
1969
2007 (last amendment)
2013 (last amendment)
2012 (last amendment)
2006 (last amendment)
2009 (last amendment)
School Organization Act Schulorganisationsgesetz, SChOG,
BGBl. No. 242/1962
School Instruction Act Schulunterrichtsgesetz, SchUG,
BGBl. Nl. 472/1986
Vocational Training Act –
Berufsausbildungsgesetz (BAG)
Framework Curriculum
(Rahmenlehrplan) for
professional drivers, BGBL. II no
234/2007
Führerscheingesetz, BGBl. I Nr.
120/1997
Gewerbeordnung, BGBl. Nr.
194/1994
Güterbeförderungsgesetz 1995,
BGBl. Nr. 593/1995as amended
in BGBl. I Nr. 153/2006
Berufszugangsverordnung –
Güterkraftverkehr - BGBl II
221/94 as amended in ordinance
280/2000
2013 (last amendment)
Kraftfahrliniengesetz, BGBl. I Nr.
203/1999, as amended 2013
2013 (last amendment)
Gelegenheitsverkehrsgesetz BGBl.Nr. 112/1996, as amended
2013
Page 87/92
School-based VET
In-company and school-based
training in the dual system
Company-based training in
the dual system
Vocational Training Regulation
for professional drivers (dual
system)
Driving Licence Act
Trade Regulation Act –
regulates self-employment in
the different trades
Federal Transport of Goods
Act - regulates the transport
of goods by road
Ordinance on the admittance
to profession - Road Transport
regulates admission to the
professional road freight
transport sector
Transport Service Act regulates the passenger
transport services sector
Occasional Traffic Act regulates all types of
professional passenger
transport aside from public
transport
prepared by Tanja Bacher & Sabine Schwenk, 3s
Year
Title
Subject
1955 (last amendement)
Convention collective nationale des
transports routiers et activités
auxiliaires du transport - 21st
December 1950 (n° 3085), amended
February 1st 1955
National branch agreement of 1st
February 2011
France
2011
2009
ANI (Inter-professional national
agreement) from 7th January 2009
2009
Law of 24th November 2009
French collective agreement
for road transport – also
includes the basis for
vocational training
Related to lifelong learning,
professionalisation, securing
the professional pathway,
and employment issues in
road transport and logistics
sector
Improving the following:
company competitiveness,
training or re-qualifying
workers or job seekers,
validating one’s work
experience, clarifying
governance and joint bodies’
missions
relating to vocational
guidance and lifelong
learning
Hungary71
2006 (last amendment)
A közúti közlekedésről szóló 1988. évi
I. törvény, a közúti közlekedési
szolgáltatásokról és a közúti
járművek üzemben tartásáról szóló
89/1988. (XII. 20.) MT rendelet, a
Nemzeti Közlekedési Hatóságról
(továbbiakban NKH) szóló 263/2006.
(XII. 20.)
71
No translation of these regulations was provided by the Hungarian project partner. For further information
please contact Net-Mex Ltd. (HU).
Page 88/92
prepared by Tanja Bacher & Sabine Schwenk, 3s
Year
Title
2005 (last amended)
Kormányrendelet 8. § (1)
bekezdésének c) pontjában, valamint
a közúti járművezetők és közúti
közlekedési szakemberek képzésének
és vizsgáztatásának részletes
szabályairól szóló 24/2005. (IV. 21.)
GKM rendelet 16. §-ában kapott
felhatalmazás, továbbá a többször
módosított, a közúti közlekedési
szolgáltatásokról és a közúti
járművek üzemben tartásáról szóló
89/1988. (XII. 20.) MT rendelet 1. sz.
mellékletének B részében
meghatározottak alapján
84/2009. (XII. 30.) KHEM rendelet a
közúti járművezetők és a közúti
közlekedési szakemberek képzésével,
továbbképzésével, utánképzésével és
vizsgáztatásával összefüggő díjakról
7/2011. (III. 8.) NFM rendelet a
mezőgazdasági vegyszerek és
üzemanyagok mezőgazdasági
vontatóval vagy lassú járművel
vontatott pótkocsival történő közúti
szállításáról
38/2009. ((VIII. 7.) KHEM rendelet a
Veszélyes Áruk Nemzetközi Közúti
Szállításáról szóló Európai
Megállapodás (ADR) és
Mellékletének belföldi alkalmazásáról
89/1988. (XII. 20.) MT rendelet a
közúti közlekedési szolgáltatásokról
és a közúti járművek üzemben
tartásáról
13/2010. (X. 5.) NFM rendelet a
meghatározott össztömeget,
tengelyterhelést és méretet
meghaladó járművek közlekedéséről
2009
2011
2009
1988
2010
Page 89/92
Subject
prepared by Tanja Bacher & Sabine Schwenk, 3s
Year
Title
2011
326/2011. (XII. 28.) Kormány rendelet
a közúti közlekedési igazgatási
feladatokról, a közúti közlekedési
okmányok kiadásáról és
visszavonásáról
5/1990. (IV. 12.) KÖHÉM rendelet a
közúti
járművek
műszaki
megvizsgálásáról
-6/1990. (IV. 12.) KÖHÉM rendelet a
közúti
járművek
forgalomba
helyezésének
és
forgalomban
tartásának műszaki feltételeiről
1/1975. (II. 5.) KPM-BM rendelet a
közúti közlekedés szabályairól
1999
évi
LXIX.
törvén
a
szabálysértésekről
10/2000. (II. 23.) BM rendelet a
helyszíni
bírságolás
részletes
szabályairól
2000. évi CXXVIII. törvény a közúti
közlekedési előéleti pontrendszerről
1978. évi IV. törvény a Büntető
Törvénykönyvről
2001. évi IX. törvény a nemzetközi
közúti fuvarozást végző járművek
személyzetének munkájáról szóló
Európai
Megállapodás
(AETR)
kihirdetéséről
2001.
évi
CI
törvény
a
felnőttképzésről
124/1994. (IX. 15.) Kormány rendelet
a járművezető gyakorlati szakoktatók
saját
jármű
üzemeltetésének
költségtérítéséről
1990
1990
1975
1999
2000
2000
1978
2001
2001
1994
Page 90/92
Subject
prepared by Tanja Bacher & Sabine Schwenk, 3s
Year
Title
1992
60/1992. (IV. 1.) Kormány rendelet a
közúti gépjárművek, az egyes
mezőgazdasági, erdészeti és halászati
erőgépek üzemanyag- és kenőanyagfogyasztásának
igazolás
nélkül
elszámolható mértékéről
30/1988. (IV. 21.) MT rendelet a
közúti közlekedésről szóló 1988. évi I.
törvény végrehajtásáról
13/1992. (IV. 26.) NM rendelet a
közúti
járművezetők
egészségi
alkalmasságának megállapításáról
- 41/2004. (IV. 7.) GKM rendelet a
közúti járművezetők
pályaalkalmassági vizsgálatáról
-31/1992. (XII. 19.) NM rendelet a
közúti járművezetők
elsősegélynyújtási ismeretei
megszerzésének igazolásáról
24/1986. (VI. 26.) MT rendelet a
szakfordításról és tolmácsolásról
Slovakia72
Law on Road Traffic – n.8/2009
Law on Land Roads – n.135/1961
Act concerning the conditions of
operation of vehicles in road traffic –
n.725/2004
Law on the organisation of the state
administration in the field of road
transport– n.534/2003, n.639/2004
Law on the National Highway
Company – n.639/2004
Police Act – n.171/1993
Law on the organisation of working
time in transport – n.462/2007
1998
1992
2004
1992
1986
2009
1961
2004
2004 (last amendment)
2004
1993
2007
2004
2002
Subject
Law on working time and rest in
transport – n.121/2004
Law on travel expenses – n.283/2002
The conditions of operation
of vehicles in road traffic
State administration in the
field of road transport
Organisation of working time
for workers in transport
sector
Work and resting periods in
road transport
72
There are some Slovak Regulations on which no information was provided by the Slovakian project partner.
Please contact ZAS SR Slovakia for further information on this.
Page 91/92
prepared by Tanja Bacher & Sabine Schwenk, 3s
Year
Title
Subject
1996
2007
Law on Road Transport – n.168/1996
Law on the use of recording
equipment – n.461/2007 and
supporting decrees
Recording equipment
Spain
1987
Law 13/1987, 30 of July, about the
Land (ground) Transportation
Planning
2013
Royal Decree 128/2013, 22 of
February, about the working time of
autonomous workers who develop
mobile activities in road transport
2012
Order FOM/2861/2012 (specific
regulation from Development
Ministry), 13 of December, that
regulates the required document for
administrative monitoring to develop
the Freight Road Transport activity
Law 15/2009, 11 of November, on
Land Goods Transportation
2009
2006
Royal Decree 551/2006, 5 of May,
which regulates the transport of
dangerous goods by road
2004
Order FOM/605/2004, 27 of
February, on professional training
addressed to security advisors in the
area of dangerous goods transport
Royal Decree 1032/2007, 20 of July,
which regulates the initial and
continuous training for drivers of
specific road transport vehicles
2007
Page 92/92
Regulation of the primary
questions related to Land
transportation, including
railway and road
transportation
Establishes the specific
working and resting times
for autonomous workers (in
both freight and passenger
transport)
Establishes the required
documents for
administrative control of
each order processed
through road transport
Establishes the basic
regulation for all types of
transport contract involved
in the transportation of
goods from origin to
destination
This regulation adapts
Spanish law to the European
Agreement on International
transportation of dangerous
goods - Spanish regulation
Regulates basic training for
dangerous goods
transportation
Establishes and standardises
mandatory initial and
continuous training for
drivers in the road transport
sector
prepared by Tanja Bacher & Sabine Schwenk, 3s

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