Online Guide to


Online Guide to
Online Guide to
Around the World­—Paraguay
Submitted by Barbara B. Glave
and Drew Feder
October 2014
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Online Guide to Educational Systems Around the World
Instructions for Using the Online Guide to
Educational Systems Around the World
Susan Whipple, Editor
October 2014
These documents are updates to those in the 1999 publication A Guide to Educational Systems Around
the World (which was an update to The Handbook on the Placement of Foreign Graduate Students,
published in 1990 and colloquially known as the "Graduate Handbook.")
It is important to note that these documents do not replace either of the earlier publications, which
should be used for credentials issued prior to 1999, the period those publications cover.
Readers familiar with the original version of A Guide to Educational Systems Around the World will note
that these updates use the same format:
1. Each of these publications provides lists of credentials and other data that can be used both for
undergraduate and graduate admissions.
2. "Advice for admissions officers" is intentionally not provided. We have attempted to avoid all
types of subjective interpretation, relying instead on objective data. Users of these updates
should use the information provided in conjunction with other resources to determine their own
placement recommendations and possibility of transfer credit. For questions about credentials
visit the Admission and Credential Evaluation Network:
orks/. For information on how to subscribe to the network, please visit
Please note that these updates should be supplemented by additional written materials that describe
complete foreign educational systems, including data on specific institutions, and by professional training
in the theory and practice of credential evaluation. Many of these resources are available from NAFSA,
either as printed publications or on-line. The need for institution support for budgetary resources and
training for undergraduate and graduate admissions personnel remains important, regardless of the
increased availability of resources on the Web.
These publications were compiled by many authors using a standardized template and style. Although
minor variations among entries do occur, the basic guidelines are explained as follows:
Educational Ladder
Online Guide to Educational Systems Around the World
The year or half-year at which a credential is awarded is the point at which the corresponding credential
letter is placed. In the example above, credential A is awarded after the 9th year of education. Note that
the corresponding letter is placed directly below the number 9.
All normal possibilities of the total number of years of education that a credential might require are
indicated on the ladder. This occurs for credential B, in which the credential can be awarded after either
12 or 13 total years of education. An explanation is provided in the description of the credential whenever
a letter appears on the ladder more than once. There are a few cases when this multiple-listing style was
not used; in these cases, there are explanatory comments.
An arrow () is used after a credential letter in cases where no maximum length of study for a particular
program is specified, or where the study time is open-ended. For example, a doctor of philosophy degree
program may require a minimum of three years of enrollment. The corresponding credential letter with an
arrow will appear under the minimum number of total years of education required to earn the Ph.D.
Explanations About Documents
Credentials are divided into two categories: secondary and postsecondary. The decision to include the
credential under one or the other category is not a subjective one—a credential is determined to be either
secondary or postsecondary according to its designation by the country of origin, regardless of how
individual institutions might perceive the level (and recommend transfer credit).
Numerical endnotes, placed directly after the complete list of credentials, are used when a lengthy
explanation about a credential is necessary.
Foreign Terms and Words
Foreign terms are used whenever possible, and are translated literally, in most cases. Literal translations
are used to avoid subjectivity. We have attempted to be consistent with translations across languages,
though readers may notice some differences between countries because of preferences indicated by the
submitters. Credential evaluators and admissions personnel should always rely on official foreign
language documents, using translations only as guides.
Grading lnformation
Only the most common grading scales used in each country are listed. Evaluators understand that
variations in grading are common and that one should always consult the grading information that may be
provided on official transcripts. Rather than making grade equivalency statements, the submitter(s) of the
update provided information regarding grading practices within the countries.
Online Guide to Educational Systems Around the World
0 │1 → 6 │ 7 │ 8 │ 9 │10 │11 │ 12 │13 │14 │15 │16 │ 17 │18 │19 │ 20 │ 21 │22 │23 │24
F1 F1 F 2
P→ S→
Q→ T1→
Education in Paraguay is governed by Ley General de Educación (General Education Law)
Number 1264, of 1998.
Pre-K / Kindergarten / Primary / Lower-Secondary
Educación Inicial (Initial Education), the lowest level of education in Paraguay, belongs
to the primer nivel de la educación formal (first level of formal education) along with
educación escolar básica (basic school education). Educación Inicial comprises 2
cycles which are not compulsory: the first is offered in jardines maternales (daycare
centers), for ages 0-3; and the second is offered in jardines de infancia (literally,
kindergartens), for ages 3-4. This level is sometimes referred to as Educación
Parvularia (Nursery Education).
Educación Preescolar (Early Childhood Education), age 5, is considered part of
Educación Escolar Básica (Basic School Education). Preescolar is free in official public
Educación Escolar Básica (Basic School Education), ages 6 to 15, is compulsory,
requires 9 years comprised of 3 cycles, and is free in official public schools. The third
cycle culminates in the Título de Graduado en Educación Escolar Básica (Title of
Graduate of Basic School Education), which leads to admission to educación media
(secondary education).
Educación Media (Secondary Education), ages 16 to 18, normally requires 3 years beyond
Educación Escolar Básica (Basic School Education), and is diversified, comprising two streams:
Bachillerato (Secondary Baccalaureate) and Formación Profesional (Occupational Instruction
and Training). Both streams include common core coursework, subjects appropriate to the
individual track, and electives; both streams allow students to participate in the sistema dual
colegio-empresa (dual school-business system) which combines educational instruction and job
training. A transcript may be called a certificado analítico (analytical certificate) or certificado de
estudios (certificate of studies).
Bachillerato (Secondary Baccalaureate) has two general modalidades (tracks): Bachillerato
Científico (Scientific (Academic) Secondary Baccalaureate) and Bachillerato Técnico (Technical
Secondary Baccalaureate). The graduate is called a Bachiller (Secondary Baccalaureate
Graduate); the credential received is called a Título de Bachiller (Title of Secondary
Baccalaureate Graduate).
Online Guide to Educational Systems Around the World
Bachillerato Científico (Scientific (Academic) Secondary Baccalaureate) is offered in
three options: Bachillerato Científico con Énfasis en Ciencias Sociales (Scientific
Secondary Baccalaureate with Emphasis on Social Sciences), Bachillerato Científico
con Énfasis en Letras y Artes (Scientific Secondary Baccalaureate with Emphasis on
Arts and Humanities), and Bachillerato Científico con Énfasis en Ciencias Básicas
(Scientific Secondary Baccalaureate with Emphasis on Basic Sciences). Requires
Credential C for admission.
Bachillerato Técnico (Technical Secondary Baccalaureate) is offered in many options,
including Administración de Negocios (Business Administration), Agromecánica (Agro
Mechanics), Agropecuario (Land and Cattle), Asistencia Deportiva (Sports Attention),
Ciencias Ambientales (Environmental Sciences), Ciencias Geográficas (Geographic
Sciences), Confección Industrial (Industrial Clothing Production), Construcciones Civiles
(Civil Construction), Contabilidad (Bookkeeping), Diseño Gráfico y Publicidad
(Advertising and Graphic Design), Elaboración y Conservación de Alimentos (Food
Preservation and Preparation), Electricidad (Electricity), Electromecánica
(Electromechanics), Electrónica (Electronics), Electrotécnica (Electrical Technology),
Hotelería y Turismo (Hotel Operations and Tourism), Informática (Information Science),
Mecánica Automotriz (Automotive Mechanics), Mecánica General (General Mechanics),
Mercadotecnia (Marketing), Metal Mecánica (Metal Shop), Producción Artesanal (Arts
and Crafts Production), Química Industrial (Industrial Chemistry), and Salud (Health).
Requires Credential C for admission.
Formación Profesional (Occupational Instruction and Training) focuses on the production
of goods and services. Although Credential C is normally required for admission,
students who are at least 17 years old may be admitted to specific training programs by
means of testing under the aegis of the Ministry of Education and Culture.
Students who do not complete the three years of study receive a certificado (certificate)
indicating their nivel de capacitación (level of training).
Students who complete a carrera profesional media (secondary occupational program)
receive a certificado (certificate) designating the especialidad (specialty). Upon
successful completion of this stream, students admitted via testing may seek access to
higher education upon satisfactory proof of competency.
Educación Media para Personas Jóvenes y Adultas (Secondary Education for Youths
and Adults) provides formal secondary education, both public and private, for foreign
nationals and Paraguayan citizens who are at least 18 years old and have not completed
secondary education. This program, offered through the Dirección General de
Educación Permanente (General Directorate of Lifelong Education), follows the
curriculum approved via Ministerial Resolution N° 6054 of September 27, 2012.
Instruction may be by presencial (classroom), a distancia (distance), and semipresencial
(combination of classroom and distance).
Undergraduate Level
Paraguay has three main types of higher education institutions:
1. Universidades (universities) offer a variety of specific knowledge areas in compliance with
their mission for research, instruction, training, and community service.
Online Guide to Educational Systems Around the World
2. Institutos superiores (higher institutes) focus on specific fields in compliance with their
mission for research, training, and community service.
3. Instituciones de formación profesional del tercer nivel (third-level institutions of professional
instruction and training) are institutos técnicos (technical institutes) and include institutos de
formación docente y los institutos técnicos profesionales (teacher-training and professionaltechnical institutes). Aside from offering formación profesional (professional instruction and
training), such institutes offer techno-practical workforce reconversión permanente (lifelong retraining).
In regards to the duration of undergraduate programs, information published by Paraguayan
Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) is provided as semesters or years although a few programs’
length may be expressed as carga horaria (clock hours). Full undergraduate qualifications,
mostly 4 to 5 years, include the Título (Title/Professional Title) and Licenciatura (Licentiate).
The intermediate qualification of Técnico Superior (Higher Technician), usually 4 to 6
semesters, is analogous with an Associate of Applied Science in the United States, leads to
workforce employment, and may lead to further study based on the academic component. A
few HEIs offer the qualification of Tecnólogo (Technician), which requires 4 to 10 semesters.
Undergraduate admission requires Credentials D or E; qualifying students with Credentials F2
and G may also seek undergraduate admission.
Carreras intermedias (intermediate fields of study) run 4, 5, or 6 semesters and lead to
employment; some lead to further study based on the academic component. Examples
of Títulos (Titles) include: Asistente Administrativo (Administrative Assistant), Técnico en
Cooperativismo (Cooperative Technician), Asistente Contable (Accounting Assistant),
Programador de Computadoras (Computer Programmer), and Proyectista/Constructor
(Construction Designer), among many others. Examples of Títulos de Técnico Superior
(Titles of Higher Technician) include such fields as Ciencias Ambientales (Environmental
Sciences), Turismo (Tourism), Informática (Information Technology), Electromecánica
(Electromechanics), Diseño Gráfico (Graphic Design), and Diseño Industrial (Industrial
Design), among many others.
Carreras intermedias (intermediate fields of study) include Profesorado (Teacher
Preparation) which generally requires 3 years of academic coursework interspersed with
Pasantía Profesional (Practice Teaching). Profesorado may be followed with upperdivision coursework leading to a Licenciatura (licentiate); see below. By law, the Título
de Profesor (Title of Teacher) is required in order to teach in the third cycle of basic
education (i.e., grades 7-9) and in secondary education; exceptions may be granted to
higher education graduates who lack the corresponding Título de Profesor. Degrees
include: Profesor de Educación Parvularia (Teacher of Nursery Education), Profesor de
Educación Inicial (Teacher of Initial Education), Profesor de Educación Escolar Básica
Primero y Segundo Ciclos (Teacher of First and Second Cycles of Basic School
Education), and Profesor con Especialidades (Teacher with Specializations).
Seven-semester programs include the Título de Diseñador Industrial (Title of Industrial
Designer) and Ingeniero en Sistemas de Producción (Production Systems Engineer).
Eight-semester Licenciaturas (Licentiates) include (but are not limited to): arts,
humanities, and political and social sciences – Ciencias Políticas (Political Sciences),
Ciencias Sociales (Social Sciences), Danza (Dance), Diseño de Indumentaria Escénica
y Urbana (Design of Urban and Theatrical Clothing), Escribanía y Notariado (Clerkship
and Notary), Filosofía (Philosophy), Historia (History), Letras (Letters), and Sociología
Online Guide to Educational Systems Around the World
(Sociology); education – Educación de Ciencias Básicas y sus Tecnologías (Teaching
of Basic Sciences and their Technologies) and Educación Matemática (Mathematical
Education); engineering and technology – Análisis de Sistemas (Systems Analysis),
Biotecnología (Biotechnology), Ciencias Informáticas (Information Sciences), Diseño
Gráfico (Graphic Design), Diseño Industrial (Industrial Design), Química Industrial
(Industrial Chemistry), and Tecnología de Producción (Production Technology); health
sciences – Enfermería (Nursing), Nutrición (Nutrition), Obstetricia (Obstetrical Nurse
Practitioner), Radiología e Imagenología (Radiology and Imaging); hospitality – Gestión
de la Hospitalidad (Hospitality Management); and pure and applied sciences – Ciencias
Atmosféricas (Atmospheric Sciences), Ciencias con Mención en Biología (Sciences with
Biology Major), Ciencias con Mención Física (Sciences with Physics Major), Ciencias
con Mención Geología (Sciences with Geology Major), Ciencias con Mención
Matemática Estadística (Sciences with Statistical Mathematics Major), Ciencias con
Mención Matemática Pura (Sciences with Pure Mathematics Major), and Ciencias con
Mención Química (Sciences with Chemistry Major); among others. Eight-semester
Titulos (Professional Titles) include: Ingeniero Civil (Civil Engineer), Ingeniero
Electromecánico (Electromechanical Engineer), and Ingeniero Industrial (Industrial
Engineer), among others.
Nine-semester Licenciaturas (Licentiates) include: food and agriculture – Administración
Agropecuaria (Land and Cattle Management) and Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos
(Food Technology and Science); arts, humanities, and political and social sciences –
Ciencias de la Comunicación (Communication Sciences), Ciencias de la Educación
(Educational Sciences), Filosofía (Philosophy), Historia (History), Letras (Letters),
Matemática (Mathematics), and Psicología (Psychology); performing and fine arts –
Artes Visuales (Visual Arts), Danza (Dance), Música (Music), and Teatro (Theater);
engineering and technology – Ingeniero Agrónomo (Agronomist), Ingeniero Forestal
(Forestry Engineer), Ingeniero en Ecología Humana (Human Ecology Engineer),
Ingeniero Ambiental (Environmental Engineer), and Ingeniero Agroalimentario (AgroFood Engineer); and administrative sciences – Administración de Empresas (Business
Administration), Comercio Internacional (International Trade), Marketing (Marketing),
and Turismo (Tourism); among others.
Ten-semester Licenciaturas (Licentiates) include: Administración (Administration),
Ciencias Económicas (Economic Sciences), Contaduría Pública (Public Accounting),
Economía (Economics), Música (Music). Ten-semester Títulos (Titles) include:
Arquitecto (Architect) and Odontólogo (Dentist); the Títulos de Ingeniero (Title of
Engineer) include the following types of engineer: Agrónomo (Agronomist), de
Alimientos (Food), Ambiental (Environmental), Aeronáutico (Aeronautic), en Ciencias de
los Materiales (in Material Sciences), Civil (Civil), en Ecología Humana (in Human
Ecology), Electricista (Electrical), Electromecánico (Electromechanical), Electrónico
(Electronic), Forestal (Forestry), Geográfico y Ambiental (Geographic and
Environmental), Industrial (Industrial), Informática (Information/Computer), Mecánico
(Mechanical), Mecatrónico (Mecatronic), Químico (Chemical), and de Sistemas
(Systems), among others.
Eleven-semester Títulos (Titles) include: Arquitecto (Architect), Bioquímico (Biochemist),
and Químico Farmacéutico (Pharmaceutical Chemistry / Pharmacist), among others.
Twelve-semester Licenciaturas (Licentiates) include: Administración (Administration),
Contabilidad (Accounting), and Economía (Economics); twelve-semester Títulos (Titles)
Online Guide to Educational Systems Around the World
include Abogado (Lawyer), Doctor en Ciencias Veterinarias (Doctor of Veterinary
Sciences), and Médico Cirujano (Physician-Surgeon).
Graduate Level
Paraguayan graduate qualifications include the Actualización (Updating/Modernizing Program),
Capacitación (Training Program), Especialización (Specialization), Maestría (Master’s Degree)
and Doctorado (Doctorate). Especialización and Maestria can be laddered as sequential
phases of graduate study; at some institutions, Capacitación may count as initial coursework
toward a graduate qualification. The duration of graduate qualifications is often stated as carga
horaria (clock hours) rather than as semesters or years of study; thus, it is essential to note that
there appears to be no direct correlation between clock hours and academic terms of study. At
one institution, for example, master’s degrees stated as two-year programs require a carga
horaria ranging from 710 to 2550 clock hours. Where institutions publish durations as academic
terms (semesters or years), associated timetables may clarify if attendance is part-time (for
example, modalidad intensiva (intensive track two months per year) or two three-hour evenings
per week). Accordingly, analyses of Paraguayan graduate qualifications should require detailed
planes de estudio (study plans) which provide specific information for program length and
attendance: Meses (months of study), cursos / años (academic years), semestres (semesters),
carga horaria (clock hours), and módulos (modules). Understandably, all time frames given
below are approximate.
Admission to academic graduate programs requires Credentials J through O; in general,
admission to doctorado (doctoral) programs does not require prior completion of a maestría
(master’s degree).
Actualización (Updating or Modernizing) is treated as graduate level at some institutions.
Caution is advised that some actualizaciones may not be credit-bearing and/or may not
be graduate-level studies. Carga horaria requirements can be as low as 40 clock hours.
Capacitación (Training Program) is treated as graduate level at some institutions.
Caution is advised that some capacitaciones may not be credit-bearing and/or may not
be graduate-level studies. Programs generally require at least one semester; carga
horaria requirements can be as low as 100 clock hours.
Especialización (Specialization) may be a stand-alone program or initial part of a
maestría (master’s degree) and generally requires a minimum carga horaria of 360 clock
hours; especializaciones in medical/health sciences may run 1 to 4 years. The graduate
receives a Título de Especialista (Title of Specialist).
Maestría / Magister (Master’s Degree) generally requires 2 years although exceptions
exist, particularly as programs may be part-time; the minimum carga horaria of 700 clock
hours can go hundreds of hours higher. The graduate receives a Título de Magister/
Máster (Title of Master).
Doctorado (Doctorate) generally requires 2 to 4 years although exceptions exist,
particularly as programs may be part-time; the minimum carga horaria of 1200 clock
hours can go hundreds of hours higher. The graduate receives a Título de Doctor (Title
of Doctor).
Online Guide to Educational Systems Around the World
Prior to Law N° 4995 of Higher Education, dated August 2, 2013, admission to doctoral
study could be directly from a full undergraduate degree without requiring a maestría.
Law N° 4995 of Higher Education, dated August 2, 2013, states that doctoral programs
should be developed based on entrance with a master’s degree.
 By law, distance education at all levels is available to those who, due to work, age,
geographic location, or disability cannot attend an institution of formal education. The
government is required to foster and support privately-based distance education by
regulating curricula and assessment as well as providing official program and credential
 In order to confer títulos oficiales (official degrees), private institutions must be
recognized by competent Paraguayan educational authorities.
 The Consejo Nacional de Educación y Cultura (National Council for Education and
Culture) is the organization entrusted with proposing cultural policies and reforming the
national educational system.
 Military and police education is governed by specific laws for the Police and Armed
Forces in concordance with the Ley General de Educación (General Law of Education),
including the equivalency and official recognition of academic and professional degrees
and titles. Post-secondary military education includes licenciaturas (licentiates),
especializaciones (specializations), and maestrías (masters). The Universidad
Metropolitana de Asunción (Metropolitan University of Asunción), a recognized private
institution, offers the Doctorado en Desarrollo y Defensa Nacional (Doctorate in
Development and National Defense).
Academic Year
The Ley General de Educación (General Law of Education) establishes that the academic year
for educación escolar básica (basic school education), educación media (secondary education)
and educación profesional (professional education) requires a minimum of 200 teaching days
(excluding examination days), with each teaching day having no fewer than four hours. The
academic year runs March to December.
Languages of Instruction
In compliance with the Constitución de la República del Paraguay (Constitution of the Republic
of Paraguay) of June, 1992, Spanish and Guaraní are recognized as the two official languages.
In compliance with the Ley General de Educación (General Law of Education), instruction is
carried out in the student’s official mother tongue (Spanish or Guaraní) from his/her entry into
education or from the first grade. The other official language is taught as a second language
from the student’s entry into school education.
As of 2010, 93.9% of the adult population in Paraguay (defined as ages 15 and above) are
considered literate. The literacy rate for young males (defined as ages 15-24) stands at 98.5%,
and 98.7% for young females (defined as ages 15-24). These data are directly derived from the
most up-to-date statistics available through the World Bank’s “World Development Indicators”
(WDI) database, which may be accessed/downloaded at this link:
Online Guide to Educational Systems Around the World
Basic and Secondary
The most common secondary grading scale is based on 0 to 5, with 2 as the minimum
acceptable passing grade. There is an older grading scale for basic and secondary education
based on 0 to 10, with 4 as the minimum acceptable passing grade.
Older Grading Scale
Muy Bueno
No Aprobado/Aplazado
Very good
Insufficient (only in cases of cheating)
Suggested U.S. Equivalents
A or 4.00
A or 4.00
B or 3.00
C or 2.00
Very good
Insufficient (only in cases of cheating)
Suggested U.S. Equivalents
A or 4.00
A or 4.00
B or 3.00
C or 2.00
Newer Grading Scale
Muy Bueno
No Aprobado/Aplazado
The most common secondary grading scale is based on 1 to 5, with 2 as the minimum
acceptable passing grade.
Suggested U.S. Equivalents
A or 4.00
A or 4.00
B or 3.00
C or 2.00
Ministerio de Educación y Cultura (Ministry of Education and Culture)
5 de Agosto entre Gral. Diaz y E.V. Haedo
Edificio Ramón Indalecio Cardozo
Asunción, Paraguay
Teléfono: +595-21-45-0014 / +595-21-45-0015
Agencia Nacional de Evaluación y Acreditación de la Educación Superior (National
Agency for Evaluation and Accreditation of Higher Education was created by Ley N° 2072/03
(Law Number 2072/03) and backed by the Paraguayan National Congress on 2-13-03.
ANEAES is the organization for quality assurance of institutions of higher education. Based on
Article 22, academic quality at both institutions and programs of study (undergraduate and
graduate) may receive certification.
Yegros N° 930 con Manuel Domínguez
Online Guide to Educational Systems Around the World
Asunción, Paraguay
Phone / fax: +595-21-49-4940
[email protected]
[email protected]
Public Universities Legally Authorized to Function as of 2013:
Universidad Nacional de Asunción, San Lorenzo, f. 1889,
Universidad Nacional del Este, Ciudad del Este, f. 1993,
Universidad Nacional de Pilar, Pilar, f. 1994,
Universidad Nacional de Itapúa, Encarnación, f. 1996,
Universidad Nacional de Caaguazú, Coronel Oviedo, f. 2007,
Universidad Nacional de Concepción, Concepción, f. 2007,
Universidad Nacional de Villarrica, Villarrica, f. 2007,
Universidad Nacional de Canindeyú, Salto del Guairá, f. 2010,
Private Universities Legally Authorized to Function as of 2013:
Universidad Católica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción, Asunción, f. 1960,
Universidad Columbia del Paraguay, Asunción, f. 1991,
Universidad del Norte, Asunción, f. 1991,
Universidad Autónoma de Asunción, Asunción, f. 1991,
Universidad Privada del Este, Presidente Franco, f. 1992,
Universidad Autónoma del Paraguay, Asunción, f. 1992,
Universidad Comunera, Asunción, f. 1992,
Universidad Americana, Asunción, f. 1994,
Universidad Evangélica del Paraguay, Asunción, f. 1994,
Universidad del Pacífico, Asunción, f. 1994,,
Universidad Tecnológica Intercontinental, Asunción, f. 1996,
Universidad Técnica de Comercialización y Desarrollo, Fernando de la Mora, f. 1996,
Universidad Politécnica y Artística del Paraguay, Asunción, f. 1996,
Universidad del Cono Sur de las Américas, Asunción, f. 1996,
Universidad Autónoma de Luque, Luque, f. 1999,
Universidad Iberoamericana, Asunción, f. 2001,
Universidad Metropolitana de Asunción, Asunción, f. 2003,
Universidad de la Integración de las Américas, Asunción, f. 2003,
Universidad Internacional Tres Fronteras, Ciudad del Este, f. 2003,
Universidad La Paz, Ciudad del Este, f. 2006,
Universidad Central del Paraguay, Asunción, f. 2006,
Universidad Autónoma San Sebastián, San Lorenzo, f. 2007,
Universidad Privada del Guairá, Villarrica, f. 2007,
Universidad del Nordeste del Paraguay, Asunción, f. 2007, (no hyperlink available)
Universidad de Desarrollo Sustentable, Asunción, f. 2007,
Universidad San Carlos, Asunción, f. 2007,
Universidad San Lorenzo, San Lorenzo, f. 2007,
Universidad Autónoma de Encarnación, Encarnación, f. 2007,
Universidad Autónoma del Sur, Asunción, f. 2007,
Universidad Hispano Guaraní, Asunción, f. 2008,
Universidad María Auxiliadora, Asunción, f. 2008,
Universidad Superior Hernando Arias de Saavedra, Luque, f. 2008,
Universidad Española, Asunción, f. 2008,
Online Guide to Educational Systems Around the World
Universidad Leonardo Da Vinci, Luque, f. 2008,
Universidad Nihon Gakko, Fernando de la Mora, f. 2008,
Universidad María Serrana, Asunción, f. 2008,
Universidad Centro Médico Bautista, Asunción, f. 2009,
Universidad Santa Clara de Asís, Caaguazú, f. 2009,
Universidad Sudamericana, Luque, f. 2009,
Universidad del Chaco, Villa Hayes, f. 2009,
Universidad Gran Asunción, Capiatá, f. 2009,
Universidad Adventista del Paraguay, Asunción, f. 2009,
Universidad Interamericana, Asunción, f. 2010,
Universidad del Sol, Asunción, f. 2011,
Universidad Paraguayo Alemana, Asunción, f. 2013,
The New Country Index Volume 2: Making Sense of International Credentials, International
Education Research Foundation, Culver City, CA: Ten Speed Press, 2010.
Datos sobre la Educación Superior en el Paraguay (Data on Higher Education in Paraguay,
second edition, MEC (Ministry of Education and Culture), Asunción, April 2012; lists institutional
names, campuses, contact information, and programs of study for MEC-recognized public and
private universidades (universities), institutos superiores (higher institutes), institutos de
formación docente (teacher-training institutes), institutos técnicos superiores (higher technical
institutes), etc. (in spanish):
Informe del Progreso Educativo (Report on Educational Progress) – Paraguay, 2013,
Partnership for Educational Revitalization in the Americas (PREEL), Washington, D.C., (in
Legislación de la educación superior en el Paraguay (Higher-Education Legislation in
Paraguay): summaries of higher education legislation in Paraguay; undated but at least 2000 (in
Ley General de Educación Número 1264 (General Education Law Number 1264), dated May
26, 1998, is the legal basis for school education (in Spanish):
Ley N° 4995 de Educacion Superior (Law Number 4995 of Higher Education), effective 8-22013, is the legal basis for higher education (in Spanish):
Paraguay – Education System, IAU (International Association of Universities) World Higher
Education Database, 2004-2005 (in English):
Online Guide to Educational Systems Around the World
Paraguay: World TVET Database. Detailed explanation of Technical-Vocational Education and
Training, UNESCO-UNEVOC, published 5-29-2013 (in English):
Sistemas Educativos Nacionales (National Educational Systems); Organización de Estados
Iberoamericanos (Organization of Ibero-American States) (in Spanish):
Universidad Nacional de Asunción (National University of Asunción) catalog links to
undergraduate degrees (in Spanish):
World Bank: Paraguay
World Data on Education, VII Ed. 2010/11, International Bureau of Education (IBE), UNESCO
(in Spanish):
Submitted by
Barbara B. Glave
Credential Consultants, Inc.
SDR Educational Consultants, Inc.
Houston, Texas
Drew Feder
Credential Consultants, Inc.
Houston, Texas
October 2014
Online Guide to Educational Systems Around the World

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