Five Keyboard Sonatas: R. 48, 50, 60, 106 and 114 by Antonio Soler

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Five Keyboard Sonatas: R. 48, 50, 60, 106 and 114 by Antonio Soler
Five Keyboard Sonatas: R. 48, 50, 60, 106 and 114 by Antonio Soler
Arranged for Two Guitars
by
Jonathan Crissman
A Research Paper Presented in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Doctor of Musical Arts
Approved March 2014 by the
Graduate Supervisory Committee:
Frank Koonce, Chair
Jonathan Swartz
Kay Norton
ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY
May 2014
ABSTRACT
Arrangements of music from other instruments have always played a key role in
expanding the guitar repertoire. This project investigates the life and work of eighteenthcentury composer Antonio Soler (1729-1783), specifically his sonatas for solo keyboard.
This study carries out a formal inquiry on Soler’s influences, including a background of
Soler’s life and training, his connection with Domenico Scarlatti (1685-1757), and an
overview of the eighteenth-century sonata in Spain. Timbres, articulations, tessitura, and
other aspects of Spanish folk music are discussed as related to Soler’s composition style.
Five sonatas are analyzed in connection to Spanish folk music, and part of this study’s
focus was arranging the sonatas for two guitars: R. 48, 50, 60, 106 and 114. An overview
of the current arrangements of Soler’s sonatas for guitar is included in Appendix A.
i TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
LIST OF TABLES.................................................................................................................. iv
LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................. v
CHAPTER
1
INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 1
2
CURRENT STATE OF RESEARCH ...................................................................... 4
3
FATHER ANTONIO SOLER .................................................................................. 7
The Guitar in Spain during Soler’s Time ............................................... 10
4
THE EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY SONATA ......................................................... 13
5
OVERVIEW OF SOLER'S SONATAS ................................................................. 16
Method of Sonata Selection.................................................................... 16
Overview of Sonatas............................................................................... 18
6
ARRANGING PROCESS ...................................................................................... 28
Tessitura and Choice of Key................................................................... 28
Timbre ..................................................................................................... 30
Additional Notes ..................................................................................... 31
Notes Displaced an Octave Higher or Lower......................................... 31
Texture .................................................................................................... 32
Rearranging Notes and Chord Tones ..................................................... 36
Written out Ornaments............................................................................ 38
7
CONCLUSION ....................................................................................................... 40
REFERENCES....... .............................................................................................................. 41
ii APPENDIX
Page
A
LISTING OF SOLER’S SONATAS ARRANGED FOR GUITAR .................... 44
B
LIST OF NOTE DIFFERENCES IN ARRANGEMENTS ................................. 49
iii LIST OF TABLES
Table
Page
1.
Key Signature Chart of Sonatas .......................................................................... 29
iv LIST OF FIGURES
Figure
Page
1.
Soler, Sonata 50, mm. 1-11, Guitar Version................................................ 19
2.
Soler, Sonata 50, mm. 19-23, Guitar Version.............................................. 20
3.
Soler, Sonata 48, mm. 1-24, Guitar Version................................................ 21
4.
Soler, Sonata 48, mm. 31-44, Guitar Version.............................................. 22
5.
Soler, Sonata 106, mm. 1-8, Guitar Version................................................ 22
6.
Soler, Sonata 106, mm. 21-29, Guitar Version............................................ 23
7.
Soler, Sonata 114, mm. 22-31, Guitar Version............................................ 24
8.
Soler, Sonata 114, mm. 48-58, Guitar Version............................................ 25
9.
Soler, Sonata 60a, mm. 1-17, Guitar Version.............................................. 26
10.
Soler, Sonata 60b, mm. 1-7, Guitar Version.............................................. 27
11.
Soler, Sonata 60b, mm. 21-31, Guitar Version.......................................... 27
12.
Soler, Sonata 48, mm. 1-24, Guitar Version.............................................. 32
13.
Soler, Sonata 106, m. 54, Guitar Version .................................................. 33
14.
Soler, Sonata 50, mm. 35-53, Keyboard Version ...................................... 34
15.
Soler, Sonata 50, mm. 34-49, Guitar Version............................................ 34
16.
Soler, Sonata 50, mm. 23-34, keyboard version ........................................ 35
17.
Soler, Sonata 50, mm. 29-41, Guitar Version............................................ 36
18.
Soler, Sonata 60a, mm. 74-85, Keyboard Version .................................... 37
19.
Soler, Sonata 60a, mm. 78-86, Guitar Version.......................................... 37
20.
Soler, Sonata 106, mm. 30-33 .................................................................... 38
21.
Soler, Sonata 50, mm 29-30 ....................................................................... 39
v CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Arrangements of music originally written for other instruments have always
played a key role in the repertoire of the guitar and its predecessors. In the Renaissance,
lutenists arranged masses and motets for solo lute and, in the Baroque, popular songs and
dance tunes were arranged for the five-course guitar. Guitarists of the nineteenth century
made arrangements of popular opera themes, such as in Giuliani’s Rossinianas and
Mertz’s Opera Revues. Similarly, guitar arrangements of the twentieth century began to
include non-guitar music, arranged for both one and two guitars.
The first guitar duo to become established on the international stage was the
Presti/Lagoya Duo, which was formed in 1950 in France.1 Ida Presti (1924-1967) and
Alexandre Lagoya (1929-1999), a husband and wife duo, arranged pieces from all epochs
for two guitars, including works by Scarlatti, Bach, Haydn, Falla, Debussy, and
Granados. Their formidable body of work set the standard of arranging for two guitars,
and many guitar duos throughout the rest of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have
continued the tradition that they started. Aside from a handful of concert pieces written
1
S. Patrick Flynn, “The Revival of the Classical Guitar Duet Medium through Ida Presti
and Alexandre Lagoya,” (DMA dissertation, University of Memphis, 2005), 29-31. The
three guitar duos from the twentieth century that preceded Presti and Lagoya were
Francisco Tárrega and Daniel Fortea; Miguel Llobet and Maria Luisa Anido; and Emilio
Pujol and his wife Mathilde Cuervas. None of these duos approached the international
success of Presti and Lagoya, perhaps because by the 1950s Segovia had already brought
the guitar to the concert stage.
1 in the nineteenth century, the bulk of the repertoire for the guitar duo is limited to pieces
commissioned since 1950 and arrangements of other non-guitar pieces for two guitars.2
This project continues the well-received tradition of arranging music for the
modern guitar duo by arranging five sonatas written by the Spanish composer Antonio
Soler (1729-1783), and in so doing explores his compositional style, era, and work. Soler
was most active during the third quarter of the eighteenth century, a period of great
transition in musical instrument design and performance.
I chose to concentrate on Soler for several reasons. In looking at the repertoire for
guitar duo, there is a noticeable gap in the availability of challenging and engaging music
that dates from 1750-1800, as evidenced by the scarcity of publications from this period.
This could be in part because the guitar during this time was undergoing major physical
changes, transforming from being an instrument of five courses (five pairs of strings) into
one of six courses, and then eventually having only six single strings. Meanwhile,
written notation for the guitar was also changing from tablature, a graphic representation
of the strings and frets, to a standard five-line staff in treble clef. This was a time of
transition for the solo keyboard as well, as the harpsichord was gradually superseded by
the fortepiano. With all of these factors, this period of time is crucial for setting the stage
for the Classical era, and should warrant more research from guitarists.
2
Fernando Sor, Mauro Giuliani, Napoléon Coste, Antoine de Lhoyer, and Johann Kaspar
Mertz wrote substantial works for two guitars from the nineteenth century. Other pieces
arranged for the guitar duo in the early twentieth century were by Miguel Llobet and
Emilio Pujol, both Spanish guitarists with international careers and contemporaries of
Andrés Segovia.
2 In 2008, Javier Suárez-Pajares organized many of the compositions of lateeighteenth-century guitarists in his book Antología de Guitarra, and here is his
description of some of the guitarist-composers and their works.
Antonio Abreu’s work, together with those by the other composers represented
here – Fernando Ferandiere, Isidro Laporta, Salvador Castro de Gistau, Federico
Moretti, Miguel Carnicer, Buenaventura Bassols, José María Ciebra, Luis López
Munoz, Leopoldo de Urcullu, Florencio Gómez Parreno, and Trinidad Huerta –
spans a chronological period difficult to define but serves to represent the milieu
of the two great maestros of the Spanish guitar of the first half of the nineteenth
century: Fernando Sor and Dionisio Aguado.3
Much of the biographical information and pieces of these guitarist-composers has been
lost, and as a result, modern guitarists often overlook this time period altogether.
This paper accompanies five of Soler’s sonatas arranged for two guitars, Rs. 48,
50, 60, 106, and 114. Since a renewal in scholarship about Soler’s life was undertaken in
the 1950s, the composer’s music has gained some interest in the modern guitar
community, and part of the current study outlines all known guitar arrangements either
published or recorded. This paper is divided into six sections and includes a summary of
the current state of research on Antonio Soler, an introduction to Soler’s life, the
evolution of sonata form in eighteenth-century Spain, an overview of the sonatas
selected, a description of the arranging process, and a conclusion. It is my hope that this
project will provide an important link in the guitar duo repertoire that was previously
missing, and begin the conversation about other pieces and composers whose music can
be added to the guitar duo repertoire.
3
Javier Suárez-Pajares, Antología de Guitarra (Madrid: Instituto Computense de
Ciencias Musicales, 2008), 2.
3 CHAPTER 2
CURRENT STATE OF RESEARCH
Only twenty-seven of Soler’s works were published during his lifetime; the rest
were kept in manuscript, which are now stored at several locations in Spain, including the
Benedictine monastery of Santa Maria de Montserrat, El Escorial, Biblioteca Central in
Barcelona, and several private collections.4 In his dissertation, Hayk Arsenyan wrote that
eighteenth-century publishing opportunities in Spain were limited for those without
patrons.5 Limited scholarship and publications by Soler before the twentieth century
were remedied in part due to the research of three men: Joaquín Nin, Samuel Rubio, and
Frederick Marvin.
The Cuban musicologist Joaquín Nin published fifteen of Soler’s sonatas in two
collections (1925 and 1928) of Spanish keyboard music. In keeping with editorial
standards of the time, these editions were heavily decorated with articulation and
dynamic markings to be realized on the modern piano, but were still important first
modern editions of Soler’s music.6
The priest, organist, and musicologist Samuel Rubio was ordained at El Escorial
in 1940, and later contributed to the research on Soler’s life and works. In addition to his
extensive research into the musical activities of El Escorial, Rubio led the research on
4
Hayk Arsenyan, “Performance Guide to Three Keyboard Sonatas of Antonio Soler,”
(DMA dissertation, University of Iowa, 2009), 1. Lord Fitzwilliam published 27 of
Soler’s sonatas along with two volumes of Scarlatti’s sonatas in 1772.
5
Arsenyan, “Performance Guide,” 13.
6
Enrique Igoa, 20 Sonatas, (Valencia: Piles, 2012): 61.
4 Soler by publishing seven volumes containing 120 of Soler’s sonatas for keyboard
between 1957 and 1972.7 To date, Rubio’s edition is the most comprehensive collection
of Soler’s sonatas; his efforts are evident in the “R” numbers now used to discuss Soler’s
sonatas.
Frederick Marvin, a concert pianist based in the United States, began to research
Soler’s music at the same time as Rubio. Marvin published 44 sonatas between 1957 and
1982, and another set of eighteen sonatas in 1993. His cataloging system, unrelated to
Rubio’s, is demarcated by “M” numbers.
In his critical study 20 Sonatas, Enrique Igoa points out many errors and
inconsistencies in Rubio’s and Marvin’s editions. Igoa describes a possible competition
between the two men to release the “first authentic, complete edition” of Soler’s sonatas,
which may have led to many of the mistakes made in both sets of editions.8 Some of
these mistakes include Rubio’s inclusion of works by Couperin and Scarlatti in his
edition, separating multiple movement sonatas into different sonata numbers, inclusion of
other works into the sonata numbering system, and an inconsistency in numbering that
ultimately led some of Soler’s sonatas to be excluded from the complete edition.9 Igoa’s
research shows the need for more exacting standards for scholarship on Soler’s life and
7
Samuel Rubio, Catálogo del Archivo de Música del Monasterio de San Lorenzo el Real
de El Escorial, (Cuenca: Instituto de Música Religiosa, 1976). Rubio wrote several books
documenting the musical life of El Escorial, including a complete catalogue of the
musical archive at El Escorial in two volumes.
8
Igoa, 20 Sonatas, 65.
9
Igoa, 20 Sonatas, 64-65. Several of the works included in the sonata numbering are the
Six Concertos for Two Organs, the Fandango, and other works for solo organ.
5 works, including a new edition of the sonatas with new numbers that reflect a more
systematic approach to the composer’s work.
Four academic research projects have focused specifically on Soler’s sonatas,
beginning with Dieckow’s 1971 dissertation on their form and style.10 A few years later,
Marestaing wrote an overview of Soler’s life accompanied by a complete analysis of one
work, Sonata 67.11 Vera’s dissertation in 2008 is similar in many ways to the present
study; he arranged, for two guitars, Sonata 84 and the Fandango attributed to Soler.12
The final dissertation, a performance guide to three of Soler’s sonatas, was written by
Arsenyan.
Inspired by Igoa’s comprehensive research of Soler’s sonatas, this project
expands the repertoire of the guitar by arranging new sonatas not previously arranged for
guitar, and in the process remains as faithful to Soler’s intentions as possible. Four of the
sonatas chosen for this study, Sonatas 48, 50, 106, and 114, are kept in manuscript form
at the library of the Montserrat monastery.13 While Rubio and Marvin distinguished
between Soler’s original writing and their own musical choices in their editions, this
study relied on the manuscript versions of the sonatas in order to remain as faithful to
Soler’s original intent as possible.
10
Almarie Dieckow, “A Stylistic Analysis of the Keyboard Sonatas of Antonio Soler,”
(PhD dissertation, Washington University, 1971).
11
Graciela Marestaing, “Antonio Soler: A Biographical Inquiry and Analysis of a
Keyboard Sonata,” (master’s thesis, California State University Fullerton, 1976).
12
Fernand Toribio Vera, “Selected Harpsichord Sonatas by Antonio Soler: Analysis and
Transcription for Classical Guitar Duo,” (DMA dissertation, University of North Texas,
2008).
13
The monastery library graciously copied these manuscripts for the present study.
6 CHAPTER 3
FATHER ANTONIO SOLER
Soler’s life has been documented through a number of dissertations and scholarly
articles over the past five decades.14 While Soler was once considered an obscure
composer in music history, he is now the best-regarded Spanish composer of the late
eighteenth century.15 An overview of Soler’s life provides a foundation for exploring his
sonatas, including influences on his compositional process.
Antonio Francisco Javier José Soler Ramos was born in 1729 in Olot, a small
Catalan town near the Pyrenees.16 Antonio was born into a musical family; his father,
Marcus Mateo Pedro Soler, was a musician in a military band.17 When he was six years
old, Antonio was enrolled at the Escolania of Santa Maria de Montserrat, a famous
Catalan music institution.18 Even after he graduated and moved away from the school,
14
Other scholars not mentioned in the previous chapter include Carroll, Espinosa,
Crouch, Shipley, Moore, and Ceballos. See References for bibliographic information.
15
Frederick Marvin, “Antonio Soler,” Grove Music Online, Oxford Music Online, Ed.
(Oxford: Oxford University Press).
16
Arsenyan, “Performance Guide,” 4.
17
Marestaing, “A Biographical Inquiry,” 6.
18
The Escolania at the Montserrat monastery is famous for educating many of the leading
composers over its centuries of existence, including the most famous guitarist one
generation removed from Soler, Fernando Sor. This school began in the thirteenth
century, and would have been both extremely competitive and life-shaping for young
Antonio.
7 Montserrat continued to influence Soler’s life, since he vacationed and visited there on a
regular basis.19
After his time at Montserrat, biographers have put Soler in two separate cities
before taking up a position at El Escorial. The first was as a maestro de capilla at the
Cathedral in Lleida, and the second was at the Seo de Urgel Cathedral, where Soler was
ordained as a sub-deacon. He held that position for a few months, until, in 1752, he
became an organist at the Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial, a short
distance from Madrid.20 Completed in 1583, El Escorial was a place where the church
and the monarchy came together in the same complex. According to Hollis, El Escorial
at that time was a four-hour journey by mule cart from Madrid.21 Every fall, the Spanish
court resided at El Escorial for three months, often to the chagrin of visiting aristocracy
who were accustomed to the art and culture of Madrid.22 Soler remained there for the
rest of his life, becoming the maestro de capilla of the monastery after the death of
Gabriel de Moratilla in 1757.23 As Rowland describes, this position would have required
19
George Hollis, “’El Diablo Vestido de Fraile’: Some Unpublished Correspondence of
Padre Soler,” in Music in Spain in the Eighteenth Century, ed. Malcolm Boyd and Juan
Carreras (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 204.
20
Frederick Marvin, “Antonio Soler.” Soler took his official vows on September 29,
1753.
21
Hollis, “El Diablo Vestido,” 193.
22
Hollis, “El Diablo Vestido,” 194. The English visitor Joseph Townsend wrote of his
visit to Escorial in 1786 as being “far from pleasant…destitute of shade, it has no local
charms at any season of the year.”
23
Gilbert Rowland, Padre Antonio Soler: Sonatas for Harpsichord, vol. 13, Gilbert
Rowland (harpsichord), Naxos, B000REGIVY, 2007, liner notes. It is not certain the
8 Soler to conduct the choir at El Escorial, compose for special events, and be occupied for
much of the day with other monastic, musical, and administrative activities other than
composing.24 Despite his busy schedule, Soler taught keyboard lessons and composed a
variety of large- and small-scale works, including 10 masses, 132 villancicos, over 150
sonatas for solo keyboard, 6 concertos for two organs, and many other mixed ensemble
pieces.25
Soler was not only a hard worker, but also a shrewd negotiator, becoming known
as “El Diablo vestido de fraile” (The Devil dressed as a priest).26 This shrewdness is
evident in his correspondence with the Duke of Medina Sedonia, in which Soler asks for
favors and plays a political game with the duke.27 This lobbying would have aided in the
exact date that Soler became maestro de capilla, but most scholars concur that it
happened after the death of his predecessor, Gabriel de Moratilla.
24
Rowland, Padre Antonio Soler.
25
Juan Cuesta and Beryl Kenyon de Pascual, “El Infante Don Gabriel (1752-1788): Gran
Aficionado a la Música,” Revista de Musicología 11, No. 3 (1988): 775. Soler was the
teacher of the Infante Gabriel, the second son of Carlos III. As Cuesta points out, this
was an unusual case for the royal family to hire Soler as Gabriel’s instructor, as Soler was
not a member of the Royal Chapel, one of the royal court musicians, or part of a royal
family. Cuesta compares Soler’s relationship with Gabriel to Scarlatti’s relationship with
his patro, María Bárbara.
Frederick Marvin, “Antonio Soler.” An anonymous writer noted of Soler after his death
that he would stay awake late every night composing and still wake up for the morning
mass and prayers at 4:00 every morning. Some question the veracity behind this
description of Soler that he seemingly did nothing wrong.
26
27
Hollis, “El Diablo Vestido,” 197.
Hollis, “El Diablo Vestido,” 197-206. The duke sponsored a young boy from
Catalonia to study with Soler at El Escorial, and Soler used this student as a leverage
point with the duke to gain gifts of a gold watch, tobacco, and money which he used
towards publishing his treatise.
9 publishing of his treatise, Llave de la Modulación (The Key to Modulation) in 1762. In it,
Soler wrote detailed instructions on how to modulate to a variety of keys, and, although it
was received with mixed reviews, this publication demonstrates Soler’s interest in
exploring principles of music theory.28
The Guitar in Spain during Soler’s Time
As a composer living in Spain during the eighteenth century, Soler would have
been familiar with guitar music. In her research, Ceballos discusses the eighteenth
century as a time when the French asserted their influence on the Spanish court, and
while some in Spain embraced this influence, the Spanish began to insert their national
identity into every form of cultural expression.29 The guitar at this time also was
undergoing a dramatic change in character, from the five-course baroque guitar used by
Gaspar Sanz and Santiago de Murcia to the six (single) string guitar of Fernando Sor and
Dionisio Aguado.30 While research has not yet uncovered guitarists of international fame
28
Hayk Arsenyan, “Performance Guide,” 20. In addition to his interest and treatise on
modulations, Soler was also interested in the mathematical concepts of intonation, and
even devised a keyboard instrument called the Afinador o Templante that divided every
half step into nine microtonal steps, bringing to mind the inventions of Harry Partch of
the twentieth century.
29
Sara Ceballos, “Keyboard Portraits: Performing Character in the Eighteenth Century,”
(PhD dissertation, UCLA, 2008), 101. This insertion of Spanish-isms into culture
included putting the Spanish twist on French dance, using terms such as minuetos
afandangos. Ceballos also writes that this was the beginning of the majismo culture of
later in the century.
30
For a detailed explanation of this transitional process, see Javier Suárez-Pajares’s
chapter, “The Rise of the Modern Guitar in Spain,” in Music in Spain during the
Eighteenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).
10 during this transitional period, there were a number of guitarists and publications based in
Madrid that indicate the guitar was a thriving element of the Spanish musical culture.
One guitarist with whom Soler spent a great deal of time was Don Gabriel
Borbón, one of the sons of King Charles III. Gabriel had an interest in a variety of
different areas, including music, and was a collector of all types of items, including
musical instruments.31 Since Gabriel was Soler’s student, the latter wrote some of his
sonatas and chamber music works to showcase the prince’s talent.32 Gabriel owned at
least one guitar by the luthier Lorenzo Alonso, and he bought several other guitars
throughout his life.33
Even though the eighteenth-century guitar in Spain was experiencing a physical
transition, research by Copeland shows that music for the guitar continued to be
published.34 Copeland compiled several of the instructional manuals published from
31
Sara Ceballos, “Keyboard Portraits,” 133-135. Ceballos compares Gabriel to an
ilustrado, and cites various items he obtained, including hot air balloons, camera
obscuras, paintings by Bruegel, and a variety of musical instruments.
32
Ceballos, “Keyboard Portraits,” 140. As with his other areas of interest, Gabriel
wanted to immerse himself in musical performance, and even built the Casita de Arriba, a
small palace near El Escorial that housed his musical instruments and served as a
performance space.
33
34
Cuesta, “El Infante Don Gabriel,” 788.
Jeffrey Copeland, “Ornamentation in Eighteenth-Century Guitar Music: An
Examination of Instruction Manuals from 1750-1800,” (DMA dissertation, Arizona State
University, 2012), 149-154. The publications in Spain of most importance to Soler’s life
would have been Pablo Minguet y Yrol’s Reglas, y advertencias generales para
acompañar sobre la parte con la guitarra, clavicordo, organo, arpa, cithara…published
in Madrid in 1752, and Andres de Sotos’ Arte para aprender con facilidad, y sin
Maestro, á templar y tañer rasgado La Guitarra, de cinco órdenes o cuerdas, y tambien
la de quatro o seis órdenes, llamada Guitarra Española, Bandurria y Vandola, y tambien
el Tiple published in Madrid in 1760.
11 1750-1800, six of which were published in Spain. Bordas describes the consumer market
for these publications as “middle-class amateurs…intended for those who wish to read
music and tablature for various instruments.”35 Both the number of instructional manuals
and guitar advertisements from a variety of luthiers in La Gaceta indicate the demand for
the guitar in Madrid.
Many of the known Spanish guitarists during Soler’s time played another primary
instrument; for example, the Madrid-based Isidro Laporta played organ as well as guitar.
Other guitarists who were active during late eighteenth-century Spain include Juan de
Arizpacochaga, Antonio Abreu, and Miguel García, who also was known as Father
Basilio. A Cistercian monk, Father Basilio is the most recognizable of these today, as he
is known to have been teacher to Queen Maria Luisa, Dionisio Aguado, Fernando
Ferandiere, and Federico Moretti.36 While there is not a record of the guitar being a part
of the musical life at El Escorial, Soler may have come in contact with these and other
guitarists on his trips to both Madrid and Barcelona throughout his life.
35
Cristina Bordas, “Musical Instruments: Tradition and Innovation,” in Music in Spain
during the Eighteenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 188.
36
Richard Savino, “The Enigmatic Miguel García, or, Padre Basilio Part II: Newly
Discovered Works and a Dilemma for the Modern Transcriber,” Soundboard 38, No. 4
(2012): 26. In a recent article in Soundboard, Richard Savino acknowledges all that has
been attributed to Father Basilio, and questions its authenticity, citing only two mentions
of Father Basilio in records of any kind. Savino suggests that Father Basilio’s fame may
have become sensationalized over time, and this is an area that requires further research
in the guitar community.
12 CHAPTER 4
THE EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY SONATA
The sonata form in the eighteenth century underwent radical changes. By
exploring the sonata form as it evolved, Soler’s life and music can be better placed within
the overall understanding of the form. Isabel Izard Granados describes Soler’s sonatas as
a “bridge between the forms of the Baroque suite and the formal structure that was to
become the mature classical sonata.”37 The sonata can be traced back to Italian
instrumental versions of chansons and other vocal works, and the term “sonata” was
interchangeable with other terms of instrumental works in the early Baroque.38 As noted
in Mansen’s article on the sonata, Michael Praetorius tried to distinguish between the
sonata and the canzona: “Sonatas are composed in a stately and magnificent manner like
motets, but the canzonas have many black notes and move along crisply, gaily, and
fast.”39
By the beginning of the eighteenth century, Corelli’s sonatas for one and two
violins with continuo had taken Europe by storm.40 The Italian composer Domenico
Scarlatti brought the Italian sonata to the Iberian Peninsula when he came to be the
personal tutor to María Bárbara in 1733. Significantly, he fused the sonata form laid out
37
Miyuki Yamaoka, Antonio Soler Sonates (Barcelona: La Má de Guido, 2000), liner
notes by Isabel Izard I Granados.
38
Sandra Mangsen, et al., “Sonata,” Grove Music Online, Oxford Music Online, (Oxford:
Oxford University Press, N.D.).
39
40
Sandra Mangsen, “Sonata.”
Denis Arnold, “Sonata,” in The Oxford Campanion to Music (Oxford: Oxford
University Press).
13 by Corelli with the popular folk music and rhythms of Spain. While much of Europe
used keyboard instruments as the primary ensemble instrument for continuo, Spanish
composers used the guitar and vihuela well into the eighteenth century.41 This usage
would influence Scarlatti in his compositional process, which in turn would influence
Soler.42
When discussing sonata form, many scholars throughout the nineteenth and
twentieth centuries did not include Scarlatti’s sonatas because of their bipartite form.
Instead, historians have focused on the tripartite form that would be found in sonatas of
the Classical and Romantic periods.43 Campbell and other scholars have now shown the
importance of Scarlatti’s form in linking the Baroque sonata with the Classical and
Romantic versions of the genre. Soler’s use of the sonata was clearly influenced by
Scarlatti, but Soler was even more experimental, modulating to more remote keys than
Scarlatti in developmental sections and incorporating a variety Spanish folk music.
Scholars believe that in addition to studying with Nebra, Soler also likely studied with
Scarlatti at some point in their overlapping years in Madrid, and there is no question that
the younger Soler had a great respect for Scarlatti and his work. In her dissertation,
Shipley cites two references that support Soler being a student of Scarlatti: the title page
41
Arsenyan, “Performance Guide,” 16. Arsenyan discusses the minimal use of the
keyboard in instrumental works on the Iberian Peninsula, in contrast to its central role
throughout the rest of Europe.
42
Linda Shipley, “An English Translation of Antonio Soler’s ‘Llave de la Modulacion,”
(PhD dissertation, Florida State University, 1978), v.
43
Alan Campbell, “The Binary Sonata Tradition in the Mid-Eighteenth Century: Bipartite
and Tripartite “First Halves” in the Venice XIII Collection of Keyboard Sonatas by
Domenico Scarlatti,” (PhD dissertation, McGill University, 2000), 3.
14 of a collection of Soler’s sonatas, which states that Soler was a “discepolo de Domenico
Scarlatti;” and the collection of sonatas of both composers published by Lord
Fitzwilliam, which included the following, written by Fitzwilliam: “The original of these
harpsichord lessons were given to me by Father Soler at the Escorial, 14th February,
1772; Father Soler had been instructed by Scarlatti.”44 While most of Soler’s sonatas are
a single movement, there are a few multi-movement sonatas as well, which shows
influence from other parts of the continent.
Scarlatti’s sonata form from the first half of the eighteenth century had the
following characteristics: binary form, modulation to the dominant or relative major key
by the end of the first half, and some element of development in the second half before
returning to the tonic by the end of the second half. Kirkpatrick describes the
development section of the one movement sonata of mid-eighteenth century as an
“excursion,” and Soler would use this section to modulate to a variety of keys before
returning to the tonic.45
Many of Soler’s sonatas are didactic in nature, including some of the pieces
arranged as part of this project, such as Sonatas 50, 114, and 106. Others are virtuosic
and may have been intended for performances at El Escorial or elsewhere. Sonata 60 in
this collection is a two-part sonata that features a wide variety of suspensions, key
changes, and other complexities, and would have been written for a skilled performer.
44
Shipley, “An English Translation,” v.
45
Ralph Kirkpatrick, Domenico Scarlatti: A Famous Harpsichordist’s Study of the Life,
Times, and Works of One of the Greatest Composers for His Instrument, (New York:
Princeton University Press, 1968): 251-279.
15 CHAPTER 5
OVERVIEW OF SOLER'S SONATAS
Soler wrote at least 150 sonatas for solo keyboard, making the choice of sonatas
for this project a difficult task.46 In their arrangements of Soler’s sonatas for two guitars,
Pujadas and Labrouve started at the beginning of Rubio’s catalogue to systematically
work their way through the sonatas. They published a book of ten in 1976, and chose
Sonatas 1-10. Their next publication showed that, because of the editor’s questionable
chronology, proceeding straight through the Rubio groupings might not be the most
effective way to continue.47 Even Gilbert Rowland’s recordings of Soler’s sonatas were
not in Rubio’s order, but rather were grouped thematically. In a similar way, the sonatas
that were chosen for the present study had only one common thread: their relation to the
guitar.
Method of Sonata Selection
While many of Soler’s sonatas have been arranged for one or two guitars, these
arrangements vary widely in timbre, tessitura, and playability on the guitar. With the
growth of school guitar programs around the world, more intermediate-level music for
two guitars is needed to provide a variety of material from which to choose to teach the
46
While there is evidence that Soler may have written more than 150 sonatas, many
manuscripts have been lost over time.
47
Estela Pujadas and Jorge Labrouve, Seis Sonatas para Guitarra (Madrid: Unión
Musical Española, 1977). In their next publication, Pujadas and Labrouve arranged six of
Soler’s sonatas: Rs. 104, 101, 113, 112, 115, and 118. As indicated earlier, the Rubio
system of categorization was arbitrary and not based on a systematic method.
16 nuances of different time periods. In preparation for choosing which sonatas should be
included in this current study, the first step was to determine which of Soler’s sonatas
have already been arranged for the guitar. A search was made by using the online
resources Worldcat, Proquest, and Ebsco. The results are listed below, as organized by
their Rubio number (Appendix A).
The Madrid-based publishing company Unión Musical Española (UME) was the
first to publish Soler arrangements for guitar, beginning with an edition by Venancio G.
Velasco in 1962.48 Over the next seventeen years, Velasco, along with José de Azpiazu
and Duo Pujadas-Labrouve, published arrangements of 24 sonatas, making UME the
most active publisher of Soler’s guitar arrangements. Other notable companies are
Tuscany Publications with five arrangements, Guitar Solo Publications with three, and
Productions d’Oz with three. Overall, there are 39 guitar duos and only 19 guitar solos.
The guitar trio arranged by Grahame Klippel and published by Embercourt in 1984 is the
only trio arrangement of Soler’s sonatas found by the present study. This research shows
that out of a total of 59 arrangements, only 34 individual sonatas by Soler have been
arranged for guitar. The next step was to decide which of the 115 others to choose for
this project.
The entire collection of sonatas needed to be analyzed in order to develop an
understanding of the character and breadth of Soler’s keyboard sonatas, which was done
by listening to the Soler collection as recorded Gilbert Rowland. Captured in a thirteen
48
Founded in the 1890s by Ernesto Dotesio Paynter, Unión Musical Española was a
dominant force throughout the century, publishing works by many Spanish national
composers such as Rodrigo, Albeniz, Turina, Falla, and Granados.
17 CD set on the Naxos label, Rowland recorded every sonata currently known to have been
written by Antonio Soler, including several that were not assigned Rubio numbers.49 The
goal was to develop an understanding of the character and breadth of Soler’s keyboard
sonatas. Details were noted about each sonata, including key characteristics and possible
influences, as one of my goals was to highlight sonatas arguably influenced by the guitar.
As discussed earlier, Soler would have come in contact with the guitar in eighteenthcentury Spain; through his childhood in Catalonia, his time at the monastery at
Montserrat, and his life at El Escorial near Madrid, the guitar would have been present
wherever Soler found himself. Pieces were chosen from Soler’s canon that feature
harmonies and rhythms of traditional Spanish folk dances, similar to those found in
sonatas by Domenico Scarlatti. Of these, the elements of influence from the guitar are
discussed below.
Overview of Sonatas
Sonata 50
Sonata 50 may have been intended as a didactic work for one of Soler’s young
keyboard students at El Escorial. Two notable guitaristic features of the work are the
triplets in mm. 3-4 and 7-8, figures that are commonly played as left-hand slurs on the
guitar, and the use of chords to end each half of the piece. The triplets, as shown in
Figure 1, bring to mind left-hand guitar technique in which the first note under a slur is
plucked with the right hand, and the following notes are articulated by the left hand
49
Antonio Soler, Sonatas for Harpsichord, Gilbert Rowland (Harpsichord).
18 alone. This technique was (and still is) part of performance practice for guitarists, and a
stylistic feature that Soler wanted to imitate.50
Figure 1. Soler, Sonata 50, mm. 1-11, Guitar Version.
Soler uses a technique in mm. 18-25 and 52-59 in which a constant note is
alternated with a scale to provide a pedal point (Figure 2). This type of writing is
common in both plucked and bowed stringed instruments, and Soler possibly drew on
these influences during these passages.51
50
Clive Brown, Classical and Romantic Performing Practice 1750-1900 (Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 2004), 168. Brown discusses slurs in performance practice of
the eighteenth century, noting that slurred notes “reproduced the effect of melismas on a
vowel sound [in vocal music].”
51
In guitar, this is known as tremolo, and in bowed strings, it is called bariolage. Either
may have influenced Soler.
19 Figure 2. Soler, Sonata 50, mm. 19-23, Guitar Version.
The chords at the end of each half of Sonata 50 both sound and feel like chords
strummed on the guitar in the rasgueado style. In 1674, Gaspar Sanz described two types
of guitar music in Spain: the punteado (plucked) style and the rasgueado (strummed)
style.52 The chords that close each half of Sonata 50 point to the rasgueado style
commonly used by guitarists.
Sonata 48
This is the only sonata in the present study that has previously been arranged for
guitar.53 Sonata 48 contains examples of possible influence from guitar and Spanish folk
music. The opening rhythmic motive in the upper voice brings to mind once again lefthand slurs on the guitar; however, this time they are descending slurs. The opening scale
in mm. 2-5 includes a raised seventh, creating a harmonic minor scale, a scale commonly
associated with Spanish folk music. In mm. 10-19, Soler employs a B Phrygian tonality,
52
Robert Strizich, The Complete Guitar Works of Gaspar Sanz: Transcribed and Edited
for Classical Guitar (Saint-Nicolas, Québec: Éditions Doberman-Yppan, 1999), 21.
53
Richard Long, Sonata in E minor, (Tampa: Tuscany Publications, 1983). Long
published an arrangement of R. 48 in 1983 for two guitars.
20 which again evokes the sound of Spanish folk music.54 He also uses tremolo, another
common practice in guitar technique in mm. 20-28 and 75-90 (Figure 3).
Figure 3. Soler, Sonata 48, mm. 1-24, Guitar Version.
Lastly, Soler syncopates the rhythm by accenting the second beat of the measure in mm.
32-36, 40-44, 94-98, and 102-106, giving the music a dance-like quality reminiscent of
the chacona or zarabanda, both of which are found in Spanish folk music (Figure 4).55
54
Israel J. Katz, “Flamenco: Cante Flamenco,” Grove Music Online, Oxford Music
Online, Ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
21 Figure 4. Soler, Sonata 48, mm. 31-44, Guitar Version.
Sonata 106
Sonata 106 starts with imitation that, while not influenced directly by guitar,
could be immediately realized in an arrangement for two guitars, as shown in Figure 5.
Figure 5. Soler, Sonata 106, mm. 1-8, Guitar Version.
55
Rita Vega de Triana, Antonio Triana and the Spanish Dance: A Personal Recollection
(Newark: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1993), 77.
22 Soler uses thematic material later in Sonata 106 that is idiomatic to the guitar,
such as the run of 6ths in mm. 20-27 and 65-72 (Figure 6). This sonata is similar in style
and texture to the two-part inventions by J. S. Bach, and possibly was composed as a
didactic work for one of Soler’s young students at El Escorial.
Figure 6. Soler, Sonata 106, mm. 21-29, Guitar Version.
Sonata 114
Sonata 114 does not feature many guitaristic qualities, but rather highlights the
galant style that is difficult to find in the guitar repertoire.56 Soler creates variety in the
melodic line by writing diverse rhythms, supported by a consistent chordal texture for left
hand. This melody/chordal-accompaniment approach to composition is consistent with
56
Peter Lynan, “Galant,” The Oxford Companion to Music, Oxford Music Online
(Oxford: Oxford University Press). According to Lynan, galant is “a term used to
describe the elegant style popular in the eighteenth century, not only in music but also in
literature and the visual arts.” In music, this type of elegance was created by
emphasizing the melody over a simple accompaniment.
23 the evolution of the Sonata form in the Classical period, as music became more
homophonic and simplified in nature.57 Sonata 114 is distinctive because of diverse
rhythms in the melodic line that change between duple and triple groupings, and dotted
rhythms throughout the piece. One of the examples of this continuously-changing
writing is found in mm. 22-29, where Soler alternates between the triple and dotted duple
meter, as shown in Figure 7. Brown discusses this style of writing, and cites several
examples of composers contemporary with Soler intending for the rhythms to be
aligned.58 There are not places in Sonata 114 where Soler writes a triple meter over a
duple meter; instead, Soler seems to focus these changes on the melodic line, with a
simple chordal accompaniment.
Figure 7. Soler, Sonata 114, mm. 22-31, Guitar Version.
57
Rohan Stewart-MacDonald, “Keyboard Music from Couperin to Early Beethoven,” in
The Cambridge History of Eighteenth-Century Music (Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 2009), 472-475.
58
Brown, Classical and Romantic Performing Practice, 613.
24 The chordal accompaniment starting in m. 51 features chord shapes that are played with
ease on the keyboard and are not typically found in guitar music; the texture adds
considerably to the accompaniment. Therefore, all of the chords were transcribed
without alteration (Figure 8).
Figure 8. Soler, Sonata 114, mm. 48-58.
Sonata 60a and 60b
This sonata is the longest and most challenging of the present collection for two
guitars. This two-part sonata starts with a slower Cantabile that is full of suspensions and
dissonances, followed by a lively Allegro that includes elements of influence from folk
music. Although not originally included in Rubio’s collection of 120 sonatas, this single
sonata is divided between numbers 23 and 24 of Marvin’s collection and has become
incorporated within Rubio’s numbering system as R. 60a and 60b. The Cantabile begins
with a 9-8 suspension in m. 2 of the opening phrase, which is then imitated in the second
voice in mm. 5-6 (Figure 9). This chromatic opening sets the stage, as Rowland
describes, for “one of Soler’s most heartfelt and poignant examples [through]…the
25 prolific flow of lyrical melodies and the unmistakably Spanish idiom of its numerous
ideas.”59
Figure 9. Soler, Sonata 60a, mm. 1-17.
The Allegro was the main reason this sonata was chosen for the present study,
since there are influences from the guitar and from Spanish folk music throughout, the
most obvious of which is another form of tremolo. Soler builds the texture of the entire
piece over repeated bass notes, similar to the effect created when playing open strings
and moveable chord forms on the guitar (Figure 10).
59
Rowland, Padre Antonio Soler: Sonatas for Harpsichord, liner notes.
26 Figure 10. Soler, Sonata 60b, mm. 1-9, Guitar Version.
The other theme comprises running scales in each hand, moving in contrary motion to the
limits of the instrument. This procedure results in a theme that is effective both visually
and aurally (Figure 11).
Figure 11. Soler, Sonata 60b, mm. 21-31.
27 CHAPTER 6
ARRANGING PROCESS
Arranging music for plucked instruments such as the lute and vihuela can be
traced back to intabulations of masses, motets, and popular songs and dances during the
Renaissance. Continuing that tradition, guitarists of the nineteenth, twentieth, and
twenty-first centuries have looked to keyboard music for additional music to be played on
the guitar. Guitarists over the years have arranged some of the greatest keyboard works
for the modern guitar, including pieces by Schubert, Chopin, Granados, Albeniz, and
many others.60 The effectiveness of the arrangement depends on the arranger’s skill in
choosing the most suitable tessitura, key, timbre, and voicing to make the music
idiomatic to the new instrument, without changing the spirit of the original.
Tessitura and Choice of Key
The guitar has a wide range of timbral and expressive possibilities, but has a
limited range of less than four octaves. With harmonics, the range is extended but, for
the solo guitar, it becomes difficult to have complex harmonies while focusing on
specific natural and right-hand harmonics.61 When arranging keyboard music for the
guitar, one of the first considerations should be how the range of the original piece will
60
A survey of the variety of keyboard arrangements for guitar can be found in the Guitar
Solo Publications catalog: The GSP Reference Catalog (San Francisco: Guitar Solo
Publications, 2002).
61
The two types of harmonics played on the guitar are natural and right-hand harmonics.
Natural harmonics are played by touching the string at a nodal point on the string with the
left hand while simultaneously plucking with the right hand. Right-hand harmonics use
the same principle as natural harmonics, but are created by pressing down on a specific
fret on the fingerboard and finding the nodal points along the altered string length.
28 adapt to the guitar. As discussed earlier, the eighteenth-century keyboard that Soler used
when conceptualizing these sonatas had a range of at least five octaves with sixty-one
keys, and some of his later works even required sixty-three keys.62
Directly related to the issue of range is the choice of key for the arrangements.
Each arrangement in this collection is in a different key than its original, the choice of
key having been determined by best placement on the guitar fingerboard. It is important
to consider the choice of key as it relates to the use of open strings and the timbral quality
of the key on the guitar. Sound quality varies, depending on the left-hand finger position,
string choice, and right-hand articulation. Table 1 below illustrates the original keys of
each of the sonatas in this study together with the key in which the sonatas were arranged
for two guitars.
Sonata Rubio Number
Original Key
Key of Arrangement
48
C Dorian
E Minor
50
C Major
G Major
60
C Minor
E Minor
106
E Minor
A Minor
114
D Dorian
A Minor
Table 1. Key Signature Chart of Sonatas.
62
Marvin, “Antonio Soler.” According to Marvin, “It is not always clear for which
keyboard instrument Soler’s works were intended. He had at his disposal an organ,
harpsichord, and pianoforte, and wrote for all three instruments. Most sonatas, however,
demand a five-octave keyboard of 61 keys, and some later works required 63 keys – a
span greater than that available to Mozart on his fortepiano.”
29 Sonatas 48 and 114 have unusual key signatures: Sonata 48 was written in C
Dorian, but throughout the sonata, Soler lowered practically every A to A-flat.63 In a
similar way, Sonata 114 was to be in D Dorian, but Soler wrote in accidentals to lower
the B to B-flat throughout the piece. It is unclear why Soler indicated these pieces to be
in the dorian mode. Other sonatas in Soler’s collection are in dorian mode, and perhaps
Sonatas 48 and 114 were intended to be paired and performed with others in related keys.
The present arrangement changes the key signatures to E and A minor, but notes the
differences in the score.
Timbre
One difficult aspect of the arranging process is the timbral differences between a
keyboard instrument such as the harpsichord or fortepiano and the plucked strings of the
modern classical guitar. The guitar cannot replicate the narrow, acute sound produced by
most harpsichord plectra, and in fact, the guitar’s structure produces a richer, more
resonant sound. While there is a marked difference, it is this researcher’s belief that the
arrangements for two guitars highlight the complexity of Soler’s writing through the use
of multiple colors on the guitar that are otherwise difficult to produce on the harpsichord
or fortepiano. For example, Sonata 114 requires a delicate lightness, and this can be
explored to a great extent with the attack and right-hand articulation on the guitar.
63
The only B natural is in m. 78.
30 Additional Notes
As stated previously, one of the goals of this project was to make the pieces fit
well on the fingerboard for the performer, and the arrangements in the present study
make certain changes to make the pieces work well for two guitars. Appendix B lists all
of the changes from the original edition, and these can be organized into the following
categories: displacing notes an octave higher or lower, thinning the texture, filling out the
texture with implied harmonies, adding and taking away octave doublings, and modifying
written-out ornaments.
Notes Displaced an Octave Higher or Lower
As discussed previously, the guitar’s limited range restricts the ability to literally
transcribe most music for keyboard onto one or even two guitars. The guitar sounds one
octave lower than the pitches written on a treble clef. Displacing bass notes up an octave
often better reflects the sound quality of the original keyboard music. Of the 72
alterations made in the five sonatas of the present study, 38 are octave changes.
Octave displacement is most apparent in Sonata 48, where nearly the entire left
hand of the keyboard score has octaves outside the range of the guitar. While octaves on
Soler’s instrument would have been used to create contrast and intensity, a single bass
note on the guitar can create a similar type of intensity when played apoyando (“rest
stroke”) with the thumb.64 To stay as close to the manuscript as possible, octaves are
included whenever they make musical and technical sense. With the exception of mm. 7 64
Apoyando literally translated means “resting,” and this right-hand articulation is
created by following through with the finger to the next adjacent string.
31 9, 35-39, and 43-53, the entire left-hand part of the first half in Soler’s original are in
octaves. The guitar arrangement retains as many as possible; however, most are changed
to a single note (Figure 12).
Figure 12. Soler, Sonata 48, mm. 1-24, Guitar Version.
Texture
Soler’s affinity for music theory and modulations may be the reason he made
extensive use complex harmonies and rich textures; as a result, the texture of the original
sonatas at times needed to be thinned in order for it to be playable on the guitar. One
example of this texture thinning takes places in Sonata 106 m. 54, in which Soler writes a
32 chord cluster for each hand, with a total of nine notes. This would be a difficult texture to
re-create on two guitars, so the notes are dispersed between the two parts and the doubled
notes are removed (Figure 13).
Keyboard Version
Guitar Version
Figure 13. Soler, Sonata 106, m. 54.
In other instances, some of Soler’s sonatas are written with a simple texture for
the left hand, possibly to make the pieces more manageable for students. For the present
guitar arrangements, sometimes adding an octave or another chord tone to a single-note
bass line thickens the texture of the piece. An example is found in Sonata 50, mm. 35-49.
By trying to keep the arrangement at an intermediate level, the simple bass line seems to
be too easy at times for the guitar part. Instead, as shown in Figures 14 and 15, octaves
are added to fill out the bass part and create a richer texture.
33 Figure 14. Soler, Sonata 50, mm. 35-53, Keyboard Version.
Figure 15. Soler, Sonata 50, mm. 34-49, Guitar Version.
An important element of the present study is to identify influences of Spanish folk
music on Soler’s writing, and another example of this influence can be found in the
34 texture of his chords. A good example of this is the way Soler ends each half of Sonata
50, as shown in Figure 16.
Figure 16. Soler, Sonata 50, mm. 23-34, Keyboard Version.
Soler creates a percussive effect with the specific rhythm of the chords, a strumming
rhythm commonly used in guitar playing. This percussive effect can be better realized on
the guitar by adding in the missing chord tones to be able to strum full chords, as shown
in Figure 17.
35 Figure 17. Soler, Sonata 50, mm. 29-41, Guitar Version.
Rearranging Notes and Chord Tones
In three instances in the present arrangements, chords needed to be re-voiced to
the extent that they had little resemblance to the original voicing. In these instances, the
arpeggios were re-formed, in an attempt to keep some connection to the original. In the
Allegro of Sonata 60, mm. 79-85, this re-configuring was to accommodate having
arpeggios move in the same direction, albeit the opposite direction of the original score
(Figure 18 and 19).
36 Figure 18. Soler, Sonata 60a, mm. 74-85, Keyboard Version.
Figure 19. Soler, Sonata 60b, mm. 78-86, Guitar Version.
In other places where notes could not be re-voiced, substituting another chord
tone was an alternative solution. For example, in Sonata 106, the unisons that Soler
wrote in m. 30 and 33 are difficult as written for the left hand on the guitar. Substituting
the second A for an E in this section provides a much easier realization on the guitar,
while keeping the same A-minor tonality (Figure 20).
37 Keyboard Version
Guitar Version
Figure 20. Soler, Sonata 106, mm. 30-33.
Written out Ornaments
Soler often wrote out fast scalar passages to perhaps serve as a didactic tool to
teach embellishments to his students. The mid-eighteenth century was a heyday for
treatises on embellishment, and Soler would have wanted his students to properly
understand their applications. In many instances, the figures Soler included into his
sonatas are idiomatic solely to the keyboard, and do not translate well to the guitar. An
example of such a figure is in Sonata 50, mm. 29-30 and 65-66. This quick five-note
scale in the right hand of the keyboard would have been used to work on velocity. The
guitarist only has four fingers to use on the left hand, and so an alternative is to simplify
the passage to fit better on the guitar. This still preserves the didactic nature of the
original, but makes it applicable to left-hand guitar technique (Figure 21).
38 Keyboard Version
Guitar Version
Figure 21. Soler, Sonata 50, mm 29-30.
39 CHAPTER 7
CONCLUSION
The guitar is as relevant in today’s society as it ever has been. In the United
States, the growing number of programs in middle schools, high schools, community
colleges, and universities reinforce the need to expand the guitar’s repertoire, particularly
in the intermediate level. The goal of this study was to focus on one composer who has
been acknowledged as part of guitar history, but whose music has not yet found a place in
the modern guitar repertoire. Because the mid-eighteenth century was a time of transition
for the guitar, it is a period that is poorly represented in guitar repertoire; therefore, these
pieces help bridge the gap between the Baroque and Classical eras.
This paper discusses five of Soler’s sonatas in depth, but there are many other
sonatas that have yet to be arranged for the guitar. Over the course of the last year, a total
of twelve Soler sonatas were arranged for guitar for this project, including four for solo
guitar and eight for guitar duo. I chose the sonatas in this study for their elements of
Spanish folk music, and because most are newly arranged for the guitar. While this study
continues the work of the many guitarists over the past half-century who have arranged
Soler’s works, it also demonstrates the large amount of work influenced by, but not yet
played on the guitar itself. It is my hope this project will inspire further research on
Antonio Soler and his contemporaries who have been largely neglected by guitarists and
guitar historians.
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43 APPENDIX A
LISTING OF SOLER’S SONATAS ARRANGED FOR GUITAR
44 Arranger
Rubio
Number
Year
Arranged
Duo
PujadasLabrouve
1
Venancio G.
Velasco
Arrange
ment for
Guitar
No.
Publisher
Published as
a set
Recorde
d
1976
Union Musical
Española
Yes - 1-10
No
2
2
1962
Union Musical
Española
No
No
1
Duo
PujadasLabrouve
2
1976
Union Musical
Española
Yes - 1-10
No
2
Venancio G.
Velasco
3
1962
Union Musical
Española
No
No
1
Duo
PujadasLabrouve
3
1976
Union Musical
Española
Yes - 1-10
No
2
Duo
PujadasLabrouve
4
1976
Union Musical
Española
Yes - 1-10
No
2
Duo
PujadasLabrouve
5
1976
Union Musical
Española
Yes - 1-10
No
2
Duo
PujadasLabrouve
6
1976
Union Musical
Española
Yes - 1-10
No
2
Duo
PujadasLabrouve
7
1976
Union Musical
Española
Yes - 1-10
No
2
Grahame
Klippel
7
1984
Embercourt
No
No
3
Duo
PujadasLabrouve
8
1976
Union Musical
Española
Yes - 1-10
No
2
Duo
PujadasLabrouve
9
1976
Union Musical
Española
Yes - 1-10
No
2
45 Duo
PujadasLabrouve
10
1976
Union Musical
Española
Yes - 1-10
No
2
Venancio G.
Velasco
13
1962
Union Musical
Española
No
No
1
Venancio G.
Velasco
14
1962
Union Musical
Española
No
No
1
Venancio G.
Velasco
15
1962
Union Musical
Española
No
No
1
Gordon
Crosskey
33
1980
Boosey &
Hawkes
No
No
2
No
No
2
Tory
Kannari
37
1997
Editorial de
Musica
española
contemporane
a
Richard
Long
48
1983
Tuscany
No
No
2
Marcos
Vinicius
49
1997
Corda Music
No
No
2
Paul-André
Gagnon
49
1994
Productions
d'Oz
Yes 118/49/90
No
2
Nicholas
Hooper
61
1987
Oxford Music
Associates
No
No
1
Eliot Fisk
67
1991
Guitar Solo
Publications
Yes – M.
29/67/92
Yes
1
José de
Azpiazu
69
1964
Union Musical
Española
No
No
1
José de
Azpiazu
71
1964
Union Musical
Española
No
No
1
No
No
1
No
No
1
Rafael
Andia
84
1974
Editions
Musicales
Transatlantiqu
es
José de
Azpiazu
84
1963
Union Musical
Española
46 Marc
Franceries
84
2008
Choudens
Yes 84/90/118
No
2
Richard
Long
84
1984
Tuscany
No
No
2
John Mills
84
1984
Waterloo
No
No
2
Fernand
Toribio Vera
85
2008
Dissertation
Yes - 85/146
Yes
2
No
No
1
Rafael
Andia
87
1973
Editions
Musicales
Transatlantiqu
es
Marc
Franceries
90
2008
Choudens
Yes 84/90/118
No
2
Paul-André
Gagnon
90
1994
Productions
d'Oz
Yes 118/49/90
No
2
Eliot Fisk
92
1991
Guitar Solo
Publications
Yes – M.
29/67/92
Yes
1
Richard
Long
92
1983
Tuscany
Yes - 92/94
No
2
Richard
Long
94
1983
Tuscany
Yes
No
2
1979
Union Musical
Española
Yes 104/101/113/
112/115/118
No
2
1979
Union Musical
Española
Yes 104/101/113/
112/115/118
No
2
1979
Union Musical
Española
Yes 104/101/113/
112/115/118
No
2
1979
Union Musical
Española
Yes 104/101/113/
112/115/118
No
2
1979
Union Musical
Española
Yes 104/101/113/
112/115/118
No
2
Duo
PujadasLabrouve
Duo
PujadasLabrouve
Duo
PujadasLabrouve
Duo
PujadasLabrouve
Duo
PujadasLabrouve
101
104
112
113
115
47 Raymond
Burley
118
1995
Schott
No
No
1
Marc
Franceries
118
2008
Choudens
Yes 84/90/118
No
2
Paul-André
Gagnon
118
1994
Productions
d'Oz
Yes 118/49/90
No
2
Richard
Long
118
1983
Tuscany
No
No
2
Yes 104/101/113/
112/115/118
No
2
Duo
PujadasLabrouve
118
1979
Union Musical
Española
Timothy
Walker
146
1990
?
No
No
2
Julian
Byzantine
146
2009
Bèrben
No
No
2
Fernand
Toribio Vera
146
2008
Dissertation
Yes - 85/146
Yes
2
Joachim
Bohnert
146
1981
Rossberg
No
No
2
Alexander
Bellow
?
1965
F. Colombo
No
No
1
Theodore
Norman
?
1969
G. Schirmer
No
No
1
No
No
1
Joseph
Mayes
?
2001
Guitar
Chamber
Music Press
Eliot Fisk
M. 29
1991
Guitar Solo
Publications
Yes –
M.29/67/92
Yes
1
Lorenzo
Palomo
?
2011
Boileau
Yes - ?
No
2
Lorenzo
Palomo
?
2011
Boileau
Yes - ?
No
2
Lorenzo
Palomo
?
2011
Boileau
Yes - ?
No
2
48 APPENDIX B
LIST OF NOTE DIFFERENCES IN ARRANGEMENTS
49 Sonata Rubio
No.
Type of Change
Measure No. or
Range w/part
48
displaced octave
1-53, part 2
48
displaced octave
47-53, part 1
48
displaced octave
57-58, part 1
48
add octave
74-75, part 1
48
add octave
77-78, part 1
48
displaced octave
97-98, part 1
50
displaced octave
20-22, part 1
50
thinned out texture
28-29, part 2
50
changed ornament
29-30, part 1
50
filled out chord
31, part 2
50
filled out chord
32-34, part 1
50
changed rhythm to match part 1
33, part 2
50
add octave
35-51, part 2
50
displaced octave
54-56, part 1
50
displaced octave
58-59, part 1
50
add octave
60-66, part 2
50
changed ornament
65-66, part 1
50
changed rhythm to match part 1
69, part 2
106
displaced octave
10-12, part 2
106
displaced octave
14-15, part 2
106
displaced octave
17-29, part 2
106
filled out chord
30, part 2
50 106
filled out chord
33, part 2
106
displaced octave
36-38, part 1 and 2
106
thinned out texture
39, part 1
106
displaced octave
43, part 1
106
thinned out texture
46, part 2
106
thinned out texture
52-54, part 1
106
displaced octave
55-56, part 1 and 2
106
displaced octave
59-60, part 1
106
displaced octave
65-74, part 1
106
switched note in order to keep original
contour
73, part 1
106
filled out chord
75, part 1
106
filled out chord
78, part 1
114
changed key signature
1, part 1 and 2
114
thinned out texture
55-56, part 2
114
added tie to be consistent with
previous articulation
86-88, part 2
60a
displaced octave
2-4, part 2
60a
displaced octave
16, part 2
60a
thinned out texture
17, part 2
60a
displaced octave
18-21, part 2
60a
thinned out texture
43, part 2
60a
thinned out texture, displaced octave
52-67, part 2
60a
thinned out texture, displaced octave
75-98, part 2
51 60a
displaced octave
100-106, part 1
60a
displaced octave
115-123, part 1
60a
thinned out texture
138, part 1
60a
thinned out texture, displaced octave
146-158, part 1
60a
switched note in order to keep original
contour
160, part 1
60a
thinned out texture, displaced octave
169-193, part 1
60a
displaced octave
183-185, part 2
60b
displaced octave
23, part 1
60b
displaced octave
26, part 1
60b
displaced octave
37-40, part 2
60b
displaced octave
43-46, part 2
60b
displaced octave
51-54, part 2
60b
displaced octave
56-63, part 1
60b
thinned out texture
65-66, part 1
60b
displaced octave
68-75, part 2
60b
thinned out texture
77-78, part 2
60b
re-arranged note order of arpeggios
79-85, part 2
60b
thinned out texture
88-93, part 1 and 2
60b
displaced octave
93-95, part 1
60b
thinned out texture
98-102, part 1 and
2
60b
displaced octave
103-106, part 1
60b
displaced octave
109, part 1
60b
displaced octave
120-123, part 2
60b
displaced octave
126-129, part 2
52 60b
displaced octave
139-146, part 2
60b
displaced octave
151-158, part 1
displaced octave
163-166, part 1
and 2
60b
53
53 53 

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