Terracing and Rural Development

Comentarios

Transcripción

Terracing and Rural Development
Terracing and Rural Development
Andamarca, Ayacucho 2005
Dr: Ann Kendall
Director The Cusichaca Trust
Cusichaca 1978
The Huillca Raccay Tableland in 1978
Cusichaca: irrigated terraces
Proyecto Cusichaca-CT archaeological
Case
Study
1
investigations revealed the Quishuarpata canal had been
previously restored - by the Incas who modified its design.
45ha came under irrigation for the community of
Chamana.
Rehabilitation to
restore terraces to
their full potential
under irrigation
Here, in the
follow-up project
the farmers
achieved
continuous
cropping.
Tipo de Andén del
Primer Grupo
Son los construidos en
estratos múltiples;con riego,
sutil inclinación para la
distribución del agua, con la
base excavada y rellena de
piedras; cascajo, y encima de
éste un metro de tierra
agrícola.
Muros de dos caras, con
cimentaciones y inclinación
de 5 a 15 grados.
Ejemplo:
Cara expuesta
detrás del muro
frontal
En algunos casos se ha
verificado el uso de arcilla o de
tierra arcillosa colocada en la
base del andén Inca y la parte
baja del muro de
sostenimiento. Con riego esta
característica promovió una
actividad microbiológica,
pues aumenta la temperatura
del terreno y se incrementa el
reciclaje de nutrientes (como
ocurre también en los
camellones del lago Titicaca.
Inca Terracing at Choquebamba at 3400m alt.: Irrigation restored in 1995
by CT, Patacancha Project.
Case Study 2
Upper Pumamarca Canal, which fed 3 sectors of terracing totalling
160ha. Inca Period system restored CT (1991-95). Following production
figures achieved in 1994/95 on 43 ha of rehabilitated terraces of the first
system at Pumamarca worth US$ 39,000, it was calculated that the 160ha
could potentially pay for the cost of restoration within 4 years. If 50% of
the terraces achieved continuous cropping this restoration would be worth
US $216, 000 p.a..
1992-95
Pumamarca
canal in
Patacancha
Valley,
Ollantaytambo
Restoration of canal. Traditional technology with stones
permanent material for construction, clay to seal the canal
base and sand for good drainage.
Canal under restoration at Pumamarca, 1994.
CT’s Patacancha Project .
The fort of Pumamarca mid left.
Restoration of terracing at
Chuquebamba
Important visit 1997
Despedida Party
Apurimac and Ayacucho: Abandoned terracing built during the
Huari occupation c.AD600 in the Chicha-Soras Valley
A new challenge for CT’s
rehabilitation projects
Case 3: Ayapampa Restoration Project.
To re-introduce irrigation culture &
maintenance of terracing was a
challenge.
Post-rehabilitation
The
. Ayapampa (N) canal & aqueduct.
Community elders informed us that it was
rehabilitated 100 years earlier – by their
grandparents.
Pre-rehabilitation
Andeneria en Laymicocha, Larcay: obra de riego en restauración por CT
Laymicocha project in Larcay involves the
rehabilitation of 4 small stone-wall
reservoirs and 2 small stretches of canal.
A trench was excavated to find the clay
floor, unexpectedly, a outlet stone was
discovered along with the small stone which
plugged it.
This late pre-Hispanic system distributed
water to the terraces below.
Laymecocha, third reservoir in the
series restored 2005, showing
water cascading from 2 to 3.
Seminars on traditional technology are the cornerstone of our
agricultural extension programme and rehabilitation projects.
They have proved a useful forum for
discussing related issues of social
responsibility, animal husbandry,
effective use of natural resources,
productivity and markets.
Teaching and discussion within the community
during restoration of the Upper Pumamarca canal,
Patacancha Project – 1994.
Greenhouses are an extension
of the local concept of
protected micro-climates. At
high altitude they provide the
only option for a range of
vegetables & horticultural
produce.
Red peppers &
tomatoes have been
grown here at an
altitude of 4000m!
Pre-Inca and Inca terracing and irrigation canal rehabilitated,
Pumamarca 1994: Proyecto Patacancha - CT
Community Restoration in the rehabilitation of
terraces
•
•
•
•
One-day, competitive training events
for groups of farmers, men, women and
children representing villages and
institutions including schools and
Municipalities.
Relearning how to restore and maintain
their terracing.
At the end of the day every group wins
a prize of seeds, first prize often
includes agricultural implements.
Normally between 50 – 80 people
participate and 2 to 4 terraces are
restored.
Pata Raymi, Andamarca, 2005
Figure showing Cusichaca Trust’s terrace mission (Andén)
at the heart of its latest project.
Organización
Local
Restauración
•Riego
•Andén
Recursos
Naturales
Circuitos
Turísticos
La Cultura
Andina
Andén
Agricultura
Tradicional
Infraestructura
Agrícola
Agricultura
Orgánica
Comercialización
Manejo
Pecuario
Nutrición
The Potential of terraces.
Sustentainability in the face of climatic
change and rainfall patterns
The advantages of retention of humidity and
enhanced microbiologícal activity which
create microclimates
Their contribution to improving diet and
health through agro-ecological (organic)
cultivation
Their contribution to tourism through
enhancing the form and beauty of the
landscape
Expanding fair-trade and organic markets
favour naturally produced foods
In the view of socio-economists, improved
social organisation could underpin an
expansion of terrace agriculture if this was
complemented with integral programmes
of rural development, for instance
nutritional health and tourism.
Food production on terraces
Prueba de
Permeabilidad