Skills Handbook

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Skills Handbook
Reference Section
REFERENCE SECTION
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Skills Handbook
Focus
Skills Handbook
Table of Contents
Introduction
The following Skills Handbook
offers opportunities to practice
individual critical thinking and
social studies skills. Students can
benefit in multiple ways from
completing the lessons. First,
being equipped with these skills
makes students’ reading more
meaningful and supports the content of the text. Second, the lessons give students practice in
using skills they will need to complete standardized tests successfully because many of these skills
are assessed on standardized
tests.
Critical Thinking Skills
Comparing and Contrasting . . . . . . R2
Drawing Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . R3
Making Generalizations . . . . . . . . . R4
Determining Cause and Effect . . . . . R5
Identifying the Main Idea . . . . . . . . R6
Predicting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R7
Analyzing Information . . . . . . . . . . R8
Making Inferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R9
Distinguishing Fact from Opinion . . R10
Formulating Questions . . . . . . . . . R11
Synthesizing Information. . . . . . . . R12
Detecting Bias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R13
Social Studies Skills
Analyzing Primary Sources . . . . . . R14
You may use these lessons at any
point in the text and in any order
that you wish. You can also use
these lessons as review for students who need extra practice
with these skills.
Interpreting Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . R15
Understanding Time Zones . . . . . . R16
Interpreting Population Pyramids . . R17
Reading a Cartogram . . . . . . . . . . R18
Comparing Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R19
Skills Handbook
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Critical Thinking Skills
Skills Handbook
Comparing and Contrasting
Teach
Why Learn This Skill?
C Critical Thinking
When you make comparisons, you determine similarities among
ideas, objects, or events. When you contrast, you are noting differences between ideas, objects, or events. Comparing and contrasting
are important skills because they help you choose among several
possible alternatives.
Comparing and Contrasting
Learning the Skill
Follow these steps to learn how to compare and contrast.
Then answer the questions below.
C
3. To contrast, look for
areas that are different.
These areas set the
items apart from each
other.
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Water Use in Selected Countries
Percent
After students have read the lesson and have answered the
Practicing the Skill questions, have
them study maps of the four
countries noted on the graph. The
maps should show not only the
countries but also their physical
relation to the countries that surround them. Pair up students and
have them compare and contrast
the physical geography of the four
countries. Possible comparisons
include which countries have seaports, which countries are landlocked, which countries are flat,
which are mountainous, and so
on. As students accumulate data
that reflects similarities and differences, have them create a chart or
graph that clearly shows their
findings. OL
Argentina
Agriculture
Burkina Faso
China
Industry
Domestic
Switzerland
Source: World Resources Institute.
2. To compare, determine
a common area or
areas in which comparisons can be drawn.
Look for similarities
within these areas.
1. Identify or decide what
two or more items will
be compared and/or
contrasted.
Practicing the Skill
1. What characteristics does the graph use to compare
and contrast the different countries?
2. How are Argentina, Burkina Faso, and China
similar?
3. How is Switzerland different from the other
countries?
4. Which country might you infer has the fewest
cities? Explain your answer.
With a partner, research four U.S. cities. Choose two
characteristics, such as population and average annual
rainfall, to compare and contrast. Use your information
to create a bar graph. Develop three questions based
on your graph. Exchange your work with another pair
of students and answer the questions based on their
graph.
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Practicing the Skill: Answers
1. The graph compares the water use for agriculture, industry, and domestic purposes in all four
countries.
2. Argentina, Burkina Faso, and China use most of
their water for agriculture.
R2
3. Switzerland is different because industry rather
than agriculture is responsible for more than
70 percent of the water use.
4. Burkina Faso most likely has the fewest cities
because none of its water goes to industry, and
industry stimulates most urban growth.
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Critical Thinking Skills
Skills Handbook
Why Learn This Skill?
A conclusion is a logical understanding that you reach based on
details or facts that you read or hear. When you draw conclusions,
you use stated information to figure out ideas that are unstated.
SKILLS HANDBOOK
Drawing Conclusions
D1
D2
Follow these steps to draw conclusions.
Then answer the questions below.
3. Apply related
information that
you may already
know.
1. Read carefully for
stated facts and ideas.
Darfur Facts
2.8 million people currently
live in camps or makeshift settlements in Darfur or in other
countries.
The International Criminal
Court issued an arrest warrant
for Sudanese president Omar
Al Bashir in 2009.
290,000 Sudanese have fled to
Chad because of continuing
violence.
300,000 people in Darfur have
been killed or died as a result
of the conflict.
D2 Differentiated
Instruction
More than 10 aid agencies
were expelled from Sudan in
March 2009.
Displaced women from Darfur
face the risk of attack if they
leave their camps.
Logical/Mathematical Ask
China and Russia are major
suppliers of arms to Sudan and
permanent members of the UN
Security Council.
The UN Security Council
agreed to extend an existing
arms embargo to the
Sudanese government in
March 2005.
students to research a threatened
animal species, then have them
explain the threat in terms of
numbers and percentages. For
example, what percentage of
wildlife species are currently
threatened with extinction?
Ask: How can numbers support
the conclusion that a species is
threatened? (Population counts
over a period of time can prove
whether a population is thriving or
threatened.) OL
2. Summarize the
information and list
important facts.
Source: Amnesty International, Fall 2009.
Practicing the Skill
1. Which facts from the chart support the conclusion
“the Sudanese government is trying to drive out the
people of Darfur”?
2. What conclusion might you draw about why the
UN Security Council waited so many years before
extending an existing arms embargo to Sudan?
Find an article describing a current conflict in Africa.
Use the steps on this page to draw conclusions about
the causes of the conflict. Summarize your conclusions
in a paragraph.
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D 1 Differentiated
Instruction
Interpersonal Tell students
that people draw conclusions all
the time. Ask students to write
down three facts (real or hypothetical) about themselves — such
as “I’ve always had pets”; “I enjoy
science”; “I want to work with
animals”— and read them aloud
to the class. See if classmates can
draw the correct conclusions from
the facts provided. OL ELL
Learning the Skill
4. Use your knowledge
and insight to develop
some logical
conclusions.
Teach
Practicing the Skill: Answers
1. Three facts in this chart support that conclusion:
“2.8 million people currently live in camps or
makeshift settlements in Darfur or in other
countries”; “Displaced women from Darfur face
the risk of attack if they leave their camps”;
and “300,000 people in Darfur have been killed
or died.”
R3
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2. Answers will vary. A possible answer is that the
governments of China, Russia, and France hesitated to embargo arms to Sudan because their
economies benefited from the sale of arms to
Sudan.
R3
Critical Thinking Skills
Skills Handbook
Teach
C Critical Thinking
Making Generalizations
Have students visit the NASA web
site http://earthobservatory.nasa.
gov/Library/Ozone/ to learn about
ozone. Then have them make
generalizations about how
humans are affected by depleted
ozone. Ask them to provide evidence from the article to support
their generalizations. OL
Making Generalizations
Why Learn This Skill?
Generalizations are judgments that are usually true, based on the facts
at hand. If you say, “We have a great soccer team,” you are making a
W
C
generalization. If you also say that your team is undefeated, you are
providing evidence to support your generalization.
Learning the Skill
Follow these steps to learn how to make a valid generalization.
Then answer the questions below.
1. Identify the subject
matter.
‘‘
If wind power dilutes our diet of coal and other
fossil fuels, it will reduce air pollution, and even
cushion the devastating, and increasingly apparent, effects of global warming. ‘It’s critical to
have a sense of urgency about dealing with global
climate challenge in general, and about displacing coal in particular,’ says Ralph Cavanagh, an
expert on renewable energy at the Natural
Resources Defense Council (NRDC). ‘Wind is a
very important part of that equation.’
W Writing Support
Expository Writing Have students write their generalizations
about humans and ozone (with
support) into three paragraphs.
The paragraphs should explain
what the ozone layer is and/or
how a hole developed in the
ozone layer. OL
’’
—Michelle Nijhuis, “Selling the Wind,”
Audubon, September-October 2006
Practicing the Skill
1. Based on the above facts, what generalization can
you make about wind power?
2. What evidence supports your generalization?
2. Collect factual information and examples
relevant to the topic.
3. Identify similarities
among these facts.
4. Use these similarities to
form some general
ideas about the subject.
Visit a Web site about another alternative energy
source, such as solar power or gasified coal. Write a
generalization based on what you read. Provide details
from the Web site to support your generalization.
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Practicing the Skill: Answers
1. Answers will vary. A possible generalization:
“Wind power helps the environment.”
R4
2. Wind power cuts down on air pollution, and less
pollution could mean a slowdown in global
warming.
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Critical Thinking Skills
Skills Handbook
SKILLS HANDBOOK
Determining Cause and Effect
Why Learn This Skill?
Determining cause and effect involves considering why an event
occurred. A cause is the action or situation that produces an event.
What happens as a result of a cause is an effect.
Learning the Skill
Follow these steps to learn how to identify cause-and-effect relationships.
Then answer the questions below.
2. Decide whether one
event caused the other.
Look for “clue words”
such as because, led
to, due to, brought
about, produced, as a
result of, so that, since,
and therefore.
3. Look for logical relationships between
events, such as “She
overslept, and then
she missed her bus.”
1. Identify two or more
events or developments.
‘‘
In the past ten years, says Kevin Trenberth, head
of the Climatic Analysis Section of the National
Center for Atmospheric Research, global sea
level has risen by an inch and a quarter. Partly
due to melting glaciers, most of the rise is attributed to expansion as the oceans warm. Higher
To see document, please use
temperatures, in turn, pump more water vapor
version
of the‘The enviinto the print
air, fueling
more hurricanes.
ronment
in which
hurricanesEdition.
form is changing,’
WGC
Student
Trenberth says. ‘The evidence strongly suggests
more intense storms and risk of greater flooding
events.’
’’
—Paul Rauber, “Storm Swarm:
Are Hurricanes Our Fault?”,
Sierra, January/February 2005
4. Identify the outcomes
of events. Remember
that some effects have
more than one cause,
and some causes lead
to more than one
effect. Also, an effect
can become the cause
of yet another effect.
D
Teach
C Critical Thinking
Determining Cause and
Effect Remind students that
the statement in Step 4 under
Learning the Skill states “. . . an
effect can become the cause of
yet another effect.” This is a causeand-effect chain. Have students
consider such cause-and-effect
chains and choose one to research
and write about. Tell students that
the chain can affect the environment, human population, animal
population, or all of the above. Tell
them to describe this chain in as
much detail as they can. If possible, ask them to create graphics to
illustrate their cause-and-effect
chains. AL
C
D Differentiated
Instruction
Below Grade Level Ask: What
might be the effects of the floods
caused by hurricanes? (The effects
could be injury or death of people,
displacement of large numbers
of people, disease, and property
damage.) BL
Practicing the Skill
1. Based on the reading, why do you think glaciers are
melting?
2. What are two causes for the rise in global sea level?
3. What is the cause-and-effect chain that creates more
hurricanes?
4. According to the article, what are the effects of a
changing environment?
Use the library or the Internet to research tsunamis.
Then explain the causes and effects of a tsunami in a
chart like the following:
Causes
Tsunami
Effects
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Practicing the Skill: Answers
1. According to the paragraph, glaciers are melting
because of higher temperatures.
2. The sea level has risen because of melting glaciers and warming oceans.
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3. The cause-and-effect chain that creates more
hurricanes is: higher temperatures ➞ more
water vapor in the air ➞ more hurricanes.
4. The effects of a changing environment are more
intense storms and a risk of greater flooding.
R5
Critical Thinking Skills
Skills Handbook
Teach
R Reading Strategy
Identifying Tell students that
being able to identify the main
idea is a key reading skill whether
they are reading fact or fiction.
Have students think about a fictional story they have read or
about a movie they have seen.
Have students tell the rest of the
class the title of the book or
movie and give a two-minute
statement that tells what the main
idea of the movie or story was.
Ask: Was the main idea presented at the beginning of the
story or did it become apparent
at the end of the story? OL
Identifying the Main Idea
Why Learn This Skill?
Finding the main idea in a reading passage will help you see the “big
R picture” by organizing information and assessing the most important
concepts to remember.
Learning the Skill
Follow these steps to learn how to identify the main idea.
Then answer the questions below.
‘‘
When plants send chemical messages to other
organisms, they may be advertising for pollinators.
Wafting fragrances are come-hither chemical lures
used by plants so they can procreate. Along with
blossom colors and shapes, scents attract the bees,
wasps, flies, butterflies, beetles, moths, birds,
bats—even some mice and lizards—that make it
possible for 90 percent of flowering plants on
Earth to reproduce. Pollinators matter. For every
dollar a Quebec apple farmer invests in honeybees
to service an orchard, crop value goes up by $185.
North Dakota sunflower farmers get more and
better seeds from flowers that get a lot of buzz.
From fruits to nuts, a big chunk of human diet
depends on the connection between flowers and
pollen movers.
1. Determine the setting of the passage.
2. As you read the
material, ask: What
is the purpose of
this passage?
’’
3. Skim the material to
identify its general
subject. Look at headings and subheadings.
4. Identify any details
that support a larger
idea or issue.
5. Identify the central
issue. Ask: What part
of the selection conveys the main idea?
—Lynne Warren, “It Matters,”
National Geographic, February 2004
Practicing the Skill
1. Where did this article appear? When was it written?
2. What is the main idea of the passage?
3. What details support the main idea?
Find an article about wildlife and bring it to class. On a
slip of paper, write the main idea of the article and
explain why it is important. Display the article and the
slip of paper on a bulletin board.
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Practicing the Skill: Answers
1. The article originally appeared in National
Geographic. It was written in February 2004.
2. The main idea is that pollinators matter to the
diet of humans.
3. The following four details support the main idea:
“blossom colors, shapes, scents attract bees,
wasps, flies, butterflies, beetles, moths, birds,
bats—even some mice and lizards . . . make it
R6
possible for 90 percent of the flowering plants on
Earth to reproduce”; “for every dollar a Quebec
apple farmer invests in honeybees . . . crop value
goes up $185”; “farmers get more and better
seeds from plants that get a lot of buzz”; and “the
human diet depends on the connection between
flowers and pollen movers.”
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Critical Thinking Skills
Skills Handbook
SKILLS HANDBOOK
Predicting
Why Learn This Skill?
Predicting future events can be difficult and sometimes risky. The more
information you have, however, the more accurate your predictions will
be. Making good predictions will help you understand what you read.
Learning the Skill
Follow these steps to learn how to make a prediction.
Then answer the questions below.
1. Gather information
about the decision
or action.
2. Use your knowledge about history
and human behavior to identify what
consequences
could result.
‘‘
If India doesn’t take urgent action to reform education and build
modern infrastructure, the nation could fall far short of its potential
as an outsourcing haven.
The first inklings of a tightening talent supply are already visible in
rising staff turnover and skyrocketing wages. If offshore outsourcing
work grows as rapidly as expected . . . in five years India will have a
shortfall of 150,000 IT engineers and 350,000 business-process staff.
The problem . . . is that only about a quarter of India’s college graduates are “suitable” for employment by multinationals or their Indian
outsourcing partners. The chief handicaps are weak spoken-English
skills . . . and the uneven quality of college curricula and faculty.
The problems are fixable if the government and companies
embark on a crash program to improve education and public works.
If the skills of another 10% of Indian college graduates can be raised
to meet international standards, India’s workforce will meet the projected demand.
Teach
R Reading Strategy
Monitoring After students have
answered the Practicing the Skill
questions, point out that the passage used in Learning the Skill is
dated December 16, 2005. Have
students research this issue and
update their predictions. Are
their new predictions more hopeful for India’s future? AL
3. Analyze each
consequence
by asking:
How likely is
this to occur?
’’
R
—Pete Engardio, “India’s Looming IT Labor Shortage,”
BusinessWeek, December 16, 2005
Practicing the Skill
1. What trend does the passage describe?
2. Do you think the trend the writer describes is likely
to continue?
3. On what do you base this prediction?
4. What occurrences might have an effect on changing
the trend?
5. What are the possible benefits and drawbacks of the
solution proposed by economists who study the issue?
Find a newspaper or magazine article that describes
a political, economic, or social problem in South Asia.
Analyze the article, and describe how the people of
South Asia are trying to solve the problem. Predict
three consequences of the actions described. On
what do you base your prediction?
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Practicing the Skill: Answers
1. The trend in the passage is that educated Indians
are leaving India for the United States and Europe
because of better work conditions and pay.
2. Answers will vary.
3. India needs to invest in primary and secondary
education, but the government is deeply in
debt, and it cannot pay for that investment.
4. Answers will vary. Possible occurrences that
might have an effect include a downturn in the
economy of the United States and Europe; private
enterprise funding educational improvements in
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India; or the World Bank and others forgiving
India’s debt, which would allow India to reinvest
in education.
5. Answers will vary. Possible benefits of the solution touted by economists may be that India
gains a highly-skilled workforce to grow the
economy and lower unemployment. A possible
drawback may be that Indians will leave in
greater numbers as they become more
educated.
R7
Critical Thinking Skills
Skills Handbook
Analyzing Information
Teach
Why Learn This Skill?
S Skill Practice
The ability to analyze information is important in deciding what you
think about a subject. Analysis requires a critical study of what an
author or artist is trying to get across.
Analyzing Tell students that the
Learning the Skill and Applying the
Skill sections talk about endangered species, but another problem facing many regions is that
some species are out of control. An
example is the feral pig. Have students work in groups to research
feral pig populations in various
parts of the United States. As students identify a geographic area to
be researched, have them analyze
the information they find about
that area. Tell students to document their research and share it
with the class. As students present
their research, plot the information
on a U.S. map. Ask: Does your collective research show that this is
a growing problem? OL
Learning the Skill
Follow these steps to learn how to
analyze information.
Then answer the questions below.
1. Identify the topic that
is being discussed.
Persuasive Writing Have
students write a one-page persuasive argument as to why populations of feral pigs need to be
controlled. OL
Occupied wolf range
Occupied recovery area
Historical wolf range
Idaho: Proposal to
remove all reintroduced
and native wolves.
Potential recovery area
Potential area for study
Colorado: State has
placed bounty on
wolves, despite
endangered status.
New Hampshire: Law
prohibits introduction
of wolves into state.
2. Examine how the
information is organized. What are the
main points?
S
W
W Writing Support
Wolves in the United States
3. Summarize the information
in your own words, and
then make a statement of
your own based on your
understanding of the topic
and what you already know.
Alaska: Allows
aerial gunning
of wolves.
North Carolina: Continued
development has led to
habitat loss.
Source: Wolves of the United States,
Defenders of Wildlife, 2006.
Practicing the Skill
1. Based on the title, what does the information on the
map represent?
2. How is the information organized? What are the
main points?
3. Summarize the information from the map, and then
provide your analysis based on the information and
what you know about people’s attitudes toward
wolves.
Find a news story about an endangered or threatened
species. Analyze the story and use your analysis to take
some action to help the species.
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Practicing the Skill: Answers
1. The map represents threats to wolves in different states.
2. The information is organized state by state. The
main points are that 1) historically wolves
ranged throughout the United States and 2)
aerial gunning, state proposals and laws, and
habitat loss are hindering wolves from establishing or maintaining populations in even a
small part of their historic range.
3. Students’ summaries and analyses will vary. A
possible answer: The government and people of
several states in the historic range of wolves are
R8
resisting the introduction, growth, and even
existence of a wolf population within state
boundaries. Based on my observations, many
people consider wolves a danger to livestock,
pets, and humans. Based on the information in
the map, people in several states react to this
fear by killing, outlawing, and removing the
wolves. A key factor is loss of habitat: Without
sufficient habitat, wolves are forced to range
near farms and towns and the actual and perceived danger that they pose increases.
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Critical Thinking Skills
Skills Handbook
SKILLS HANDBOOK
Making Inferences
Why Learn This Skill?
To infer means to evaluate information and arrive at a conclusion.
When you make inferences, you “read between the lines,” or use clues
to figure something out that is not stated directly in the text.
Learning the Skill
Follow these steps to learn how to make inferences.
Then answer the questions below.
1. Read carefully for stated facts
and ideas.
2. Summarize the information
and list important facts.
3. Apply related information that
you may already know.
4. Use your knowledge and
insight to develop some logical
conclusions.
‘‘
In Bamako I live in a guest house called the Centre d’Acceuil,
run by Spanish nuns. The rooms are cheap—a bed, mosquito netting. The bad thing about the Centre d’Acceuil is
that although there are ten rooms for rent, there is only
one shower. Moreover, it is constantly occupied these days
by a young Norwegian, who came here not realizing how
hot it gets in Bamako. The African interior is always whitehot. It is a plateau relentlessly bombarded by the rays of
the sun, which appears to be suspended directly above the
earth here: make one careless gesture, it seems, try leaving
the shade, and you will go up in flames. . . . The Norwegian,
after several suffocating, sweltering days, decided to leave
everything and return home. But he had to wait for the
plane. And the only way he could survive until then, he
concluded, was by never coming out from under the
shower.
’’
C
Teach
C Critical Thinking
Making Inferences Bring the
front page of a daily newspaper to
class. Put it up on the board and
have students study it from their
seats. Most students will not be
able to read more than the headlines of the paper. Have students
write a page of inferences they
make based on what they can see.
Have students share their inferences with the class. Ask: What
does this exercise tell you about
inferences? (that much of what a
person infers is dependent upon
prior knowledge and facts at
hand) OL
—Ryszard Kapuściński, The Shadow of the Sun
Practicing the Skill
1. What facts are presented in the passage?
2. What can you infer from the presence of mosquito
netting?
3. What can you infer about the availability of air
transportation in Bamako?
Make inferences based on the description of Africa, and
write questions based on your inferences. Exchange
your description and questions with another student
and answer each other’s questions.
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Practicing the Skill: Answers
1. Answers will vary. Possible answers include: the
rooms are cheap at Centre d’Acceuil; there are
ten rooms for rent; there is one shower; and it is
white-hot in the African interior.
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2. Mosquito netting indicates insects and insectborne diseases are common in Bamako.
3. A plane arrives only once every few days in
Bamako.
R9
Critical Thinking Skills
Skills Handbook
Distinguishing Fact from Opinion
Teach
R Reading Strategy
Why Learn This Skill?
Distinguishing fact from opinion can help you make reasonable judg-
R ments about what others say and write. Facts can be proved by evi-
Activating Prior Knowledge
dence such as records, documents, or historical sources. Opinions are
based on people’s differing values and beliefs.
Have students review the various
critical thinking skills they have
encountered to determine which
skills rely more on facts and which
rely more on opinion. Ask: Which
skills use facts to form an opinion? (drawing conclusions, making
generalizations, predicting, making
inferences) AL
Learning the Skill
Follow these steps to learn how to identify facts and opinions.
Then answer the questions below.
D
D Differentiated
Instruction
Interpersonal Tell students
that debates are forums in which
facts and opinions are shaped into
organized arguments for or
against a specific question. Have
students work in two groups to
gather facts and form opinions
about an issue at your school or
from your community. Schedule
a debate between the two
sides. OL
1. Identify the facts. Ask:
Can these statements
be proved? Where
would I find information to verify them?
2. If a statement can be
proved by information
from a reliable source,
it is factual.
‘‘
After decades of economic progress, Puerto Rico is
struggling, and the mainland has both missed this
horrific economic slide and contributed to it through
benign neglect.
Poverty on the island is rampant. The per capita
income is just about half that of the poorest state in
the United States. Nearly one-third of the population was unemployed in 2000. And a good quarter
of all employment is in government jobs. . . .
The bleak picture is set out in a long-overdue,
exhaustive study . . . from the Center for the New
Economy, a nonpartisan Puerto Rican research
group, and the Brookings Institution.
Much of the blame can be put on Washington,
which has been tone deaf to the island’s needs and
has miscalculated where help was needed. . . .
3. Identify opinions by
looking for statements
of feelings or beliefs.
They may contain
words like should,
would, could, best,
greatest, all, every, or
always.
’
—New York Times,
“Puerto Rico, an Island in Distress,”
October 23, 2006
Practicing the Skill
1. What are two factual statements in the passage?
2. Which statements are opinions?
Find a news article and an editorial about the same issue.
Identify two facts and two opinions from these sources.
R10 Skills Handbook
R02-R19_EM_SKILLS_HB_874529.inddR10 R10
Practicing the Skill: Answers
1. Answers will vary. Possible answers include: the
per capita income is just about half that of the
poorest state in the United States; nearly onethird of the population was unemployed in
2000; roughly one-quarter of all employment is
in government jobs.
R10
2. Answers will vary. Possible answers include:
much of the blame can be put on Washington,
which has been tone deaf to the island’s needs;
the bleak picture is set out in a long-overdue,
exhaustive study.
1/13/10 1:50:04 PM
Critical Thinking Skills
Skills Handbook
SKILLS HANDBOOK
Formulating Questions
Why Learn This Skill?
Asking questions helps you to process information and understand
what you read.
Learning the Skill
Follow these steps to learn how to formulate questions.
Then answer the questions below.
1. Think about questions
you have. Often you
can find the answers in
the next paragraph or
section.
2. Ask who, what, when,
where, why, and how
about the main ideas,
people, places, and
events.
COMPARING STATES
WHAT IS THE PERCENTAGE OF . . . ?
People employed by the government in Mississippi
17.8%
Land area used for agriculture in Arizona
1.3%
People employed in manufacturing in Michigan
18.4%
People employed in the mining industry in Rhode Island
0.1%
People employed by the government in the District of
Columbia
36.0%
Land area used for agriculture in Nebraska
39.5%
People employed in manufacturing in Washington
11.8%
People employed in the mining industry in Wyoming
5.9%
Teach
S Skill Practice
Applying Ask: What do you do
when you can’t find an answer to
your question? (ask another question) Have students develop three
questions about the critical thinking skill of formulating questions.
Tell them to be sure that the questions are not the ones posed in
Learning the Skill. The questions
should be about asking questions,
not about the chart in the example. After students have formed
their questions, have them ask the
questions for the rest of the class
to try and answer. OL
S
Source: Encyclopedia Britannica Almanac 2009
3. Reread to find answers
to your questions.
Practicing the Skill
1. What is the topic of the chart?
2. Select parts of the chart that you would like to
understand better.
3. Formulate two questions about these parts.
4. Where might you find answers to your questions?
Formulate two more questions about the information
on this page. Then use search engines on the Internet
to find answers to your questions.
Skills Handbook
R02-R19_EM_SKILLS_HB_874529.inddR11 R11
Practicing the Skill: Answers
1. The chart is about comparing states.
2. Answers will vary. Answers may include people
employed by the government in Mississippi or
people employed in the mining industry in
Rhode Island.
R11
1/13/10 1:50:07 PM
3. Questions will vary. Questions may include:
What do they mine in Rhode Island? Are the
government jobs in Mississippi in local, state, or
federal government?
4. Possible answers include the Statistical Abstracts
of the United States, the library, and the
Internet.
R11
Critical Thinking Skills
Skills Handbook
Synthesizing Information
Teach
Why Learn This Skill?
Synthesizing information involves combining information from two
or more sources. Information gained from one source often sheds new
light upon other information.
R Reading Strategy
Making Connections Tell students that a common insecticide
used to control mosquitoes is
called Naled. Have students
research this insecticide, apply the
critical thinking skill of synthesizing information, and report their
conclusions. Ask: What are your
sources? What did your sources
add to your understanding of
the insecticide? What are your
conclusions based on your synthesis of information? (answers
will vary) OL
W Writing Support
Learning the Skill
Follow these steps to learn how to synthesize information.
Then answer the questions below.
‘‘
R
Source A
Each rose grower in Ecuador on average uses three poisons to kill worms, four to kill insects and six for fungi,
including several that are tightly restricted in the United
States because of their threat to human health.
Workers remain in greenhouses while these pesticides
are applied. Health ailments among the workers are
typical of those resulting from exposure to toxic chemicals, including minor symptoms such as headaches,
blurred vision and nausea as well as more severe problems such as still births,[and] birth defects . . .
’’
Personal Writing Have students
write a one-page statement that
expresses their personal conclusion
about the use of the insecticide
Naled based on the information
they read. Tell them to support
their conclusion with facts. OL
—Roger Di Silvestro,
“Making Sure a Rose Still Smells as Sweet,”
National Wildlife, February/March 2005
2. Determine what
information each
source adds to
the subject.
3. Identify points of agreement
and disagreement between
the sources. Ask: Can Source
A give me new information
or new ways of thinking
about Source B?
1. Analyze each source separately
to understand its meaning.
‘‘
Source B
In just five years, Ecuadorean roses, as big and red
as the human heart, have become the new status
flower in the United States, thanks to the volcanic
soil, perfect temperatures and abundant sunlight
that help generate $240 million a year and tens of
thousands of jobs in this once-impoverished region
north of Quito . . .
But roses come with thorns, too. As Ecuador’s colorful blooms radiate romance around the world, large
growers here have been accused of misusing a toxic
mixture of pesticides, fungicides and fumigants to
grow and export unblemished pest-free flowers.
W
’’
—Ginger Thompson,
“Behind Roses’ Beauty, Poor and Ill Workers,”
The New York Times, February 13, 2003
4. Find relationships between the
information in the sources.
Practicing the Skill
1. What is the main subject of each passage?
2. What does Source A say about the subject?
3. What information does Source B add?
4. Sum up what you have learned from both sources.
Find two sources of information on a topic dealing with
organic farming. What are the main ideas in each? How
does each add to your understanding of the topic?
R12 Skills Handbook
R02-R19_EM_SKILLS_HB_874529.inddR12 R12
Practicing the Skill: Answers
1. Source A discusses growing roses in Ecuador.
Source B is about the success of Ecuadorean roses
and the use of chemicals to make them grow.
2. Greenhouse workers apply chemicals to the flowers, and those chemicals make the workers sick.
R12
3. Ecuadorean roses have gained popularity around
the world with the help of dangerous chemicals.
4. Students’ summaries will vary. A possible summary might read: Most rose plantations in
Ecuador use toxic pesticides and fungicides that
poison the greenhouse workers.
1/13/10 1:50:08 PM
Critical Thinking Skills
Skills Handbook
SKILLS HANDBOOK
Detecting Bias
Why Learn This Skill?
Most people have a point of view, or bias. This bias influences the
way they interpret and write about events. Recognizing bias helps you
judge the accuracy of what you hear or read.
Learning the Skill
Follow these steps to learn how to detect bias.
Then answer the questions below.
2. Identify statements
of fact.
3. Determine the author’s
point of view.
‘‘
1. Examine the author’s
identity, especially his
or her views and
particular interests.
Sometime in October the U.S. will join China and
India in the very small club of countries with at
least 300 million residents. This really is a big
deal, like hitting 700 home runs in baseball. No
other country is expected to reach the 300 million
mark for at least 30 more years. . . .
But here are a couple of questions for you to
ponder as the U.S. gets closer to the big 300: Is
it coincidence that the three countries with the
largest populations also have the most dynamic
economies in the world? And is it coincidence
that the most innovative major industrialized
country, the U.S., also has the fastest growing
population and the most young people?
No coincidence at all, as it turns out.
’’
4. Identify any expression
of opinion or emotion.
Look for words that have
positive or negative overtones for clues about the
author’s feelings on the
topic.
Teach
C Critical Thinking
Detecting Bias Ask students to
find letters to the editor on the editorial page of the newspaper they
use in Applying the Skill. Have students continue their exercise from
Applying the Skill to these letters.
Have students write a sentence or
two summarizing the bias of the
writer. Ask: Do any of the letters
conflict with each other? Do any
of the letters conflict with the
opinions of the newspaper?
(answers will vary) AL
C
5. Determine how the
author’s point of view is
reflected in the work.
— BusinessWeek, September 5, 2006
Practicing the Skill
1. What statements of fact are presented in this passage?
2. What opinions are stated?
3. What is the purpose of this passage?
4. What evidence of bias do you find? Does the author
think it is a good thing or a bad thing that the
United States is hitting this population milestone?
Find an editorial in the newspaper that deals with a
topic of specific interest to you. Apply these steps for
recognizing bias to the editorial. Write a paragraph
summarizing your findings.
Skills Handbook
R02-R19_EM_SKILLS_HB_874529.inddR13 R13
Practicing the Skill: Answers
1. Answers may include “the U.S. will join China
and India in the small group of countries with at
least 300 million residents,” “no other country is
expected to reach the 300 million mark for at
least 30 more years.”
2. Answers may include “this is a really big deal,”
“the most dynamic economies in the world,” and
“the most innovative major industrialized country, the United States.”
R13
1/13/10 1:50:10 PM
3. The purpose is to show the relationship
between dynamic economies and population
growth.
4. Answers may include the use of the words like
dynamic and innovative, and the analogy to
baseball. The author thinks this milestone is a
good thing.
R13
Social Studies Skills
Skills Handbook
Analyzing Primary Sources
Teach
Why Learn This Skill?
C Critical Thinking
An eyewitness account of a place or an event is a primary source. The
advantage of a primary source is that it contains firsthand knowledge.
Primary sources may include diaries, letters, memoirs, interviews with
eyewitnesses, photographs, news articles, and legal documents. Often
they provide detailed accounts of events, but reflect only one perspective. For this reason, you must examine as many sources as possible D
before drawing any conclusions.
Analyzing Primary Sources
Have students use a newspaper or
other periodical to identify a current news story. After they have
identified this news item, have
them use an Internet search
engine and type in the item. Tell
students to choose five entries
from the first results page and
evaluate the entries for their usefulness as primary sources. As the
students evaluate their entries,
have them keep notes and report
their findings to the class. OL
Learning the Skill
Follow these steps to learn how to
analyze a primary source.
Then answer the questions below.
C
3. Read the document for its content and try to
answer the five “W” questions: Who is it
about? What is it about? When did it happen?
Where did it happen? Why did it happen?
D Differentiated
Instruction
‘‘
Down on a rise in the valley floor was a tent. . . .
It was surrounded by quadruped hives—earthenware cylinders raised on metal legs. . . . the beekeepers live a semi-nomadic life, traveling around
the valley in search of the best pasture for their
swarms. . . .
Over lunch in the tent, the beeherds explained
that the quality of their honey was the result of the
bees’ pasturing only on ilb trees . . . There was a
lot of cheating, bumping up yields with sugar-water
and mixing different grades, but my hosts would
have nothing to do with this. Their . . . grade was
the finest available—the finest honey in the
world. It smelt of butterscotch. . . .
4. Determine what kind of information may be missing from
the primary source.
Intrapersonal To help students
understand the factor of perspective when reading primary
sources, ask students to recall an
event in their lives. Ask: Would
you be able to give a full account
of that event to another person?
Would someone else give a different account of the event? BL
’’
1. Identify the author of the source. Note any
biases or opinions expressed by the author
or creator of the source.
—Tim Mackintosh-Smith,
Yemen: The Unknown Arabia, 2000
2. Identify when and where
the document was written.
Practicing the Skill
1. How can you tell the source contains firsthand
knowledge of honey from Yemen?
2. Why might you question that the beekeepers’ honey
is “the finest honey in the world”?
3. What information from the source did you find
valuable? What about Yemeni honey would you still
like to learn?
Choose another product from the Middle East, such as
dates from Iran or cotton from Egypt. Find a letter,
diary, or interview on the topic and evaluate its validity
and usefulness as a primary source.
R14 Skills Handbook
R02-R19_EM_SKILLS_HB_874529.inddR14 R14
Practicing the Skill: Answers
1. The writer describes eating honey bought from
the beekeepers themselves. This makes the
source firsthand.
2. All beekeepers think their honey is the best, and
they are naturally biased.
R14
3. Students’ answers will vary. Possible answers are
that the best grades of honey smell like butterscotch and taste strong; the source does not
explain how the bees convert food from ilb
trees into honey.
1/13/10 1:50:12 PM
Social Studies Skills
Skills Handbook
SKILLS HANDBOOK
Interpreting Graphs
Why Learn This Skill?
Graphs are visual representations of statistical data. Large amounts of
information can be condensed when presented in a graph. Studying
graphs allows readers to see relationships clearly. Bar graphs use bars
of different lengths to compare different quantities. Circle graphs show
the relationship of parts to a whole as percentages.
Learning the Skill
Follow these steps to learn how to interpret graphs.
Then answer the questions below.
Mexico
10–19:
19.7%
0–9:
19.6%
0
10
Female
20
30
40
50 60
Percent
70
80
20–29:
17.3%
90 100
80+: 1.3%
70–79: 2.7%
60–69: 4.8%
W
World
Reading a Graph Have students
research the ethnic makeup of their
community based on the most
recent census. Then, have them
show that makeup in the form of a
graph of their choosing. OL
Expository Writing After stu-
Age Composition of Mexican Population
Literacy Rate for Adults Over 15
S
S Skill Practice
W Writing Support
3. Study the information presented and the use of colors
and patterns.
1. Read the graph title to identify
the subject.
Teach
50–59: 7.6%
dents have developed their graph
that shows the ethnic makeup of
their community, have them write
a one-page expository paper that
explains and interprets the graph,
its results, and how the data was
collected. AL
40–49:
30–39: 11.7%
15.3%
Male
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Database.
Source: UNESCO Global Education Digest 2009.
4. Compare the lines, bars, or
segments, and look for relationships in order to draw
conclusions.
2. Study the labels to understand
the numerical information
presented.
Practicing the Skill
1. Bar graph How does literacy in Mexico compare to
literacy in the United States?
2. Circle graph What percentage of the Mexican people are under 20 years of age?
3. What general population trends in Mexico do these
two graphs show?
Poll your classmates about countries they would like
to visit. Use the data to design and draw a line, bar, or
circle graph.
Skills Handbook
R02-R19_EM_SKILLS_HB_874529.inddR15 R15
Practicing the Skill: Answers
1. Bar graph Mexicans have a higher rate of
literacy than the world average.
R15
1/13/10 1:50:14 PM
2. Circle graph About 39 percent of the population is under 20.
3. Mexico has a young, literate population.
R15
Social Studies Skills
Skills Handbook
Understanding Time Zones
Teach
Why Learn This Skill?
C Critical Thinking
In 1884 the world was divided into 24 time zones. These zones allow
for the coordination of business and travel throughout the world. The
imaginary lines that mark the zones curve to allow for geographic or
political needs. When traveling west across one of these imaginary
lines, the International Date Line, you add a day. You subtract a day
when traveling east.
Comparing and Contrasting
Learning the Skill
Follow these steps to learn how to understand time zones.
Then answer the questions below.
C
1. On the map, locate a
place for which you
already know the time
and day of the week.
2. Locate the place for
which you want to know
the time and the day of
the week.
3. Count the time zones
between the two places.
World Time Zones
180°
150°W
120°W
90°W
60°W
30°W
0°
60°E
90°E
120°E
150°E
Moscow
London
Chicago
Denver
Los Angeles
Honolulu
Mexico City
Rome
New York
City
Caracas
Beijing
Tokyo
Cairo
Dakar
Delhi
Bangkok
Lagos
Lima
Rio de
Janeiro
4. Calculate the time by
either adding or subtracting an hour for each
time zone, depending
on whether you are
moving east or west.
30°E
Anchorage
International Date Line
Have students research the time
zones of Canada. Explain that some
countries have time zones that are
somewhat different than the World
Time Zones indicated on the map in
Learning the Skill. Ask: How is the
Newfoundland Time Zone different from Canada’s Atlantic Time
Zone? (Newfoundland is 30 minutes
ahead of the Atlantic Time Zone.)
Have students research other country- or continent-specific time
zones. Ask: What is unusual
about China’s time? Even though
the country spans several time
zones, China chooses to operate
with only a single time zone. OL
Sydney
Perth
Cape
Town
Nonstandard times
11
12
1
PM MIDN. AM
2
AM
3
AM
4
AM
5
AM
6
AM
7
AM
8
AM
9
AM
10
AM
11
12
1
AM NOON PM
2
PM
3
PM
4
PM
5
PM
6
PM
7
PM
8
PM
9
PM
10
PM
5. If you have crossed the International
Date Line, identify the day.
Practicing the Skill
1. How many time zones does continental Africa have?
2. If it is 4 p.m. Saturday in Cape Town, South Africa,
what is the time and day in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil?
3. If it is 10 a.m. Tuesday in Sydney, Australia,
what is the time and day in Honolulu, Hawaii?
Find a more detailed map of Africa’s time zones in an
atlas or on the Internet. Make a list of cities, political divisions, and physical features for which the time zone lines
are adjusted. Next to the name of each location write a
reason why you think the adjustment was made.
R16 Skills Handbook
R02-R19_EM_SKILLS_HB_874529.inddR16 R16
1. Africa has four time zones.
2. noon on Saturday
3. 2:00 P.M. on Monday
R16
Practicing the Skill: Answers
1/13/10 1:50:19 PM
Social Studies Skills
Skills Handbook
SKILLS HANDBOOK
Interpreting Population Pyramids
Why Learn This Skill?
Population pyramids show the age and gender characteristics of a population. Government planners and others use them to help in decisions
about present needs and to plan for the future.
There are four population trends. An expanding trend has diminishing steps and a broad base, indicating a high proportion of children.
A stable trend evens out over several age groups. A stationary trend
has a narrow base and roughly equal steps in the middle with a tapering top. A declining trend has a narrow base and wide top, or high
proportion of elderly.
Follow these steps to learn how to interpret a population pyramid.
Then answer the questions below.
Spain’s Population by Age and Sex
Age
2. Compare the left and right bars.
3. Analyze the implications of the
data.
75–79
70–74
65–69 Male
60–64
55–59
50–54
45–49
40–44
35–39
30–34
25–29
20–24
15–19
10–14
5–9
0–4
10 8
6
Female
4
2
0
2
4
Percentage of Population
6
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base.
8
R Reading Strategy
Reading Graphs Tell students
that they can obtain population
information from the U.S. Census
Bureau Web site at www.census.
gov. Here they can search and
view population pyramids for 228
countries and areas of the world.
Students can locate population
summaries, specific information
for a given year, and animations
that illustrate demographic
changes over time. Have students
go to the Web site and study the
population pyramid for the United
States and another country of
their choice. Ask them to compare
the two graphs. Ask: Do you
notice any trends? Are there similarities or differences between
the two countries? OL
Learning the Skill
1. Identify the population trends
indicated based on the pyramid’s
shape.
Teach
10
R
Practicing the Skill
1. What does the shape of the pyramid indicate about
Spain’s population?
2. Why are most bars at the top of the pyramid longer
on the right than on the left?
3. Which age group makes up the largest segment of
Spain’s population?
Compare and contrast this population pyramid to the
U.S. population pyramid on page 154. Sum up your
conclusions in a few sentences.
Skills Handbook R17
R02-R19_EM_SKILLS_HB_874529.inddR17 R17
Practicing the Skill: Answers
1. Spain’s population is stationary.
2. Elderly Spanish women outnumber elderly
Spanish men.
1/13/10 1:50:23 PM
3. People between 30–34 years old make up the
largest part of Spain’s population.
R17
Social Studies Skills
Skills Handbook
Reading a Cartogram
Teach
Why Learn This Skill?
S Skill Practice
Maps that distort country size and shape in order to show certain types
of data are called cartograms. In a cartogram, country size reflects some
value other than land area, such as population or gross national product. The cartogram is a tool for making visual comparisons.
Reading a Map Have students
research and locate a cartogram
that illustrates the current population of the United States. After
they have located a map, have
them describe their findings. Ask:
What are some of the states that
are large in area, but small in
population? (Montana, Alaska,
Nebraska) Ask: What are some of
the states that are small in area
but have a large population?
(New Jersey, Massachusetts) OL
Learning the Skill
Follow these steps to learn how to read a cartogram.
Then answer the questions below.
POPULATION GROWTH RATE
1. Read the map title and key to identify the kind
of information presented in the cartogram.
(excluding effects of migration)
2.6 and over
2.1 to 2.5
1.6 to 2.0
S
LAOS
6,300,000
2. Look for relationships among the countries.
Determine which countries are largest and
smallest.
Based on the population cartogram of Southeast Asia, what
conclusions might you draw
about Thailand and Singapore?
(Students’ conclusions should be
that these countries have the least
population growth in the
region.) OL
1 to 1.5
0.5 to 0.9
Each square represents 500,000 people
C
MYANMAR
50,000,000
PHILIPPINES
VIETNAM
THAILAND 87,300,000
C Critical Thinking
Drawing Conclusions Ask:
Population of Southeast Asia
92,200,000
67,800,000
CAMBODIA
3. Compare the cartogram with a standard landarea map. Determine the degree of distortion
of particular countries.
14,800,000
BRUNEI
MALAYSIA 400,000
28,300,000
SINGAPORE 5,100,000
4. Study these relationships and comparisons.
Identify the most important information presented in the cartogram.
I N D O N E S I A
243,300,000
Source: Population Reference
Bureau, 2009.
EAST TIMOR (TIMOR-LESTE)
1,100,000
Practicing the Skill
1. What data determine the relative sizes of countries
on this cartogram?
2. What characteristics determine the color of the
squares on this cartogram?
3. Compare the cartogram with a standard land-area
map. How has the relative size of Singapore been
changed on the cartogram? How would you explain
this change?
Research the gross domestic product (GDP) of each
country in Southeast Asia. Then create a cartogram that
compares the GDP of these countries. Include a key
from the symbols you use.
R18 Skills Handbook
R02-R19_EM_SKILLS_HB_874529.inddR18 R18
Practicing the Skill: Answers
1. This cartogram represents a country’s
population.
2. The colors represent the growth rate of a country’s population.
R18
3. Singapore has been made larger; It has more
people for its size than other countries in the
region.
1/13/10 1:50:27 PM
Social Studies Skills
Skills Handbook
Ireland Data Profile
2000
Why Learn This Skill?
Economists compare data in order to identify
economic trends, draw conclusions about the
relationships of sets of economic information,
analyze the effectiveness of economic programs, or perform other types of analysis. It is
often easiest to compare data that is organized
in charts, tables, or graphs.
• Look at each set of data separately to understand what each one means on its own.
• Look for relationships among the sets of
data. Ask yourself: How are these sets of
information connected to each other?
• Note similarities and differences among the
sets of data.
• Draw conclusions about what the sets of
data, taken together, might mean.
2008
Population, total
3.8 million
4.2 million
4.5 million
Life expectancy at birth, total
(years)
76.4
79
79
Mortality rate, under 5
(per 1,000 live births)
NA
5
4 (2007)
Ratio of girls to boys in
primary and secondary
education (%)
102.8
103
103 (2007)
Environment
Learning the Skill
Follow these steps to compare and contrast
data:
2005
People
SKILLS HANDBOOK
Comparing Data
C
Surface area (sq. km)
68,883
68,883
68,883
Forest area (sq. km)
6,090.0
6,690.0
NA
Agricultural land (% of land
area)
64
61.4
NA
Energy use (kg of oil
equivalent per capita)
3,727
3,647
NA
GDP (current US$)
95.0 billion
196.4 billion
281.78 billion
GDP growth (annual %)
9.9
4.7
-2.3
Inflation, GDP deflator
(annual %)
4.8
3.1
4.0
Exports of goods and services 97.7
(% of GDP)
82
NA
Imports of goods and services 84.5
(% of GDP)
70
NA
Economy
States and markets
Practicing the Skill
Study the following table and then answer the
questions below.
1. What topics about Ireland are covered in the
chart?
2. What characteristics make up a picture of
the Irish economy?
3. By how many percentage points did inflation
change from 2000 to 2008?
4. What trend does this indicate?
5. Study the data about the Irish people. What
two trends can you identify?
Market capitalization of listed
companies (% of GDP)
86.2
58.1
17.5
Military expenditure
(% of GDP)
0.7
0.6
0.6
Mobile phone subscribers
(per 100 people)
65
103
113
Internet users (per 100
people)
17.8
36.9
63.5
Teach
C Critical Thinking
Comparing and Contrasting
Have students work in groups to
put together data profiles of their
school. Tell them their data profile
should give people who know
nothing about their school a good
understanding of the school. Have
each group determine what kind
of data they need to show, what
they need to do to gather the
information, and how the information needs to be presented.
After students have put together
their data profiles, have each
group present its profile to the
rest of the class. Then have the
students compare and contrast
the profiles. OL
Sources: World Development Indicators database, April 2009; World
Population Data Sheet 2009; CIA World Factbook 2009.
Use an almanac or the Internet to find climate data on
your state. Compare temperatures and precipitation
across the last several decades and identify the trends
the data indicates.
Skills Handbook
R02-R19_EM_SKILLS_HB_874529.inddR19 R19
Practicing the Skill: Answers
1. The data covers the people, environment, economy, and states and markets of Ireland.
2. You can get a picture of the Irish economy by
looking at the Gross National Income (GNI), GNI
per capita, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), GDP
growth, inflation, and exports of goods and
services.
R19
1/13/10 1:50:31 PM
3. Inflation went down by 0.8 percent.
4. Inflation is decreasing in Ireland.
5. Students’ answers will vary. Possible answers are
rising life expectancy and decreasing infant
mortality.
R19
Foldables
are three-dimensional, interactive, graphic organizers used to help organize and retain information. Every chapter in your text uses a Foldable to help you
identify and learn about the Big Ideas discussed in each section. The following pages
provide complete folding instructions for the 13 different Foldables used throughout
your Student Edition text.
Table of Contents
Bound Book . . . . . . . . . . R21
Shutter Fold . . . . . . . . . . R24
Folded Table or Chart . . . R21
Three-Pocket Book . . . . . R25
Four-Tab Book . . . . . . . . R22
Three-Tab Book . . . . . . . R25
Four-Door Book . . . . . . . R22
Top-Tab Book . . . . . . . . . R26
Half-Book . . . . . . . . . . . . R23
Trifold Book . . . . . . . . . . R27
Layered-Look Book . . . . R23
Vocabulary Book. . . . . . . R27
Sentence Strips . . . . . . . . R24
R20
Bound Book
1
2
4
FOLDABLES
1. Take two sheets of paper (8½" × 11") and separately fold them
like a hamburger. Place the papers on top of each other, leaving
one sixteenth of an inch between the mountain tops.
2. Mark both folds one inch from the outer edges.
3. On one of the folded sheets, cut from the top and bottom edge
to the marked spot on both sides.
4. On the second folded sheet, start at one of the marked spots and
cut the fold between the two marks.
5. Take the cut sheet from step 3 and fold it like a burrito through
the other sheet and then open the burrito. Fold the bound pages
in half to form an eight-page book.
3
5
Folded Table or Chart
1. Fold the number of vertical columns needed to make the table
or chart.
2. Fold the horizontal rows needed to make the table or chart.
3. Label the rows and columns.
Remember: Tables are organized along vertical and horizontal axes,
while charts are organized along one axis, either horizontal or
vertical.
Table
Chart
R21
Four-Tab Book
1. Fold a sheet of paper (8½" × 11") in half like a hot dog.
2. Fold this long rectangle in half like a hamburger.
3. Fold both ends back to touch the mountain top or fold it like
an accordion.
4. On the side with two valleys and one mountain top, make vertical
cuts through one thickness of paper, forming four tabs.
Use this book for data occurring in fours.
1
2
3
4
Four-Door Book
1. Make a shutter fold using 11" × 17" or 12" × 18" paper.
2. Fold the shutter fold in half like a hamburger. Crease well.
3. Open the project and cut along the two inside valley folds.
4. These cuts will form four doors on the inside of the project.
Use this fold for data occurring in fours. When folded in half like
a hamburger, a finished four-door book can be glued inside a large
(11" × 17") shutter fold as part of a larger project.
1
R22
2
3
4
Half-Book
Fold a sheet of paper (8½" × 11") in half.
1. This book can be folded vertically like a hot dog or . . .
2. . . . it can be folded horizontally like a hamburger.
Use this book for descriptive, expository, persuasive, or narrative
writing, as well as graphs, diagrams, or charts.
1
2
FOLDABLES
Layered-Look Book
1. Stack two sheets of paper (8½" × 11") so that the back sheet is
one inch higher than the front sheet.
2. Bring the bottom of both sheets upward and align the edges so
that all of the layers or tabs are the same distance apart.
3. When all tabs are an equal distance apart, fold the papers and
crease well.
4. Open the papers and glue them together along the valley, or inner
center fold, or staple them along the mountain.
1
2
3
4
R23
Sentence Strips
1. Take two sheets of paper (8½" × 11") and fold into hamburgers.
Cut along the fold lines making four half sheets. (Use as many half
sheets as necessary for additional pages to your book.)
2. Fold each sheet in half like a hot dog.
3. Place the folds side-by-side and staple them together on the
left side.
4. One inch from the stapled edge, cut the front page of each folded
section up to the mountain top. These cuts form flaps that can be
raised and lowered.
To make a half-cover, use a sheet of construction paper one inch
longer than the book. Glue the back of the last sheet to the
construction paper strip leaving one inch, on the left side, to fold
over and cover the original staples. Staple this half cover in place.
1
2
3
Shutter Fold
1. Begin as if you were going to make a hamburger but instead
of creasing the paper, pinch it to show the midpoint.
2. Fold the outer edges of the paper to meet at the pinch, or
mid-point, forming a shutter fold.
Use this book for data occurring in twos. Or, make this fold using
11" × 17" paper and smaller books — such as the half-book, journal,
and two-tab book — that can be glued inside to create a large project
full of student work.
1
R24
2
4
Three-Pocket Book
1. Fold a horizontal sheet of paper (11" × 17") into thirds.
2. Fold the bottom edge up two inches and crease well. Glue
the outer edges of the two-inch tab to create three pockets.
3. Label each pocket. Use to hold notes taken on index cards
or quarter sheets of paper.
1
2
3
FOLDABLES
Three-Tab Book
1. Fold a sheet of paper like a hot dog.
2. With the paper horizontal, and the fold of the hot dog up, fold the
right side toward the center, trying to cover one half of the paper.
Note: If you fold the right edge over first, the final graphic
organizer will open and close like a book.
3. Fold the left side over the right side to make a book with
three folds.
4. Open the folded book. Place your hands between the two thicknesses of paper and cut up the two valleys on one side only. This
will form three tabs.
Use this book for data occurring in threes, and for two-part
Venn diagrams.
Variation A:
Draw overlapping circles on the three tabs to make a Venn diagram.
Variation B:
Cut each of the three tabs in half to make a six-tab book.
1
2
3
4
R25
Top-Tab Book
1. Fold a sheet of paper (8½" × 11") in half like a hamburger.
Cut the center fold, forming two half sheets.
2. Fold one of the half sheets four times. Begin by folding in half like
a hamburger, fold again like a hamburger, and finally again like
a hamburger. This folding has formed your pattern of four rows
and four columns, or 16 small squares.
3. Fold two sheets of paper (8½" × 11") in half like a hamburger.
Cut the center folds, forming four half sheets.
4. Hold the pattern vertically and place on a half sheet of paper
under the pattern. Cut the bottom right hand square out of both
sheets. Set this first page aside.
5. Take a second half sheet of paper and place it under the pattern.
Cut the first and second right-hand squares out of both sheets.
Place the second page on top of the first page.
6. Take a third half sheet of paper and place it under the pattern.
Cut the first, second, and third right-hand squares out of both
sheets. Place this third page on top of the second page.
7. Place the fourth uncut half sheet of paper behind the three cutout
sheets, leaving four aligned tabs across the top of the book. Staple
several times on the left side. You can also place glue along the
left paper edges, and stack them together. The glued spine
is very strong.
8. Cut a final half sheet of paper with no tabs and staple along
the left side to form a cover.
1
5
R26
2
6
3
7
4
8
Trifold Book
1. Fold a sheet of paper (8½" × 11") into thirds.
2. Use this book as is, or cut into shapes. If the trifold is cut, leave
plenty of fold on both sides of the designed shape, so the book
will open and close in three sections.
Use this book to make charts with three columns or rows, large
Venn diagrams, and reports on data occurring in threes.
2
FOLDABLES
1
Vocabulary Book
1. Fold a sheet of paper in half like a hot dog.
2. On one side, cut every third line. This results in ten tabs on
wide-ruled notebook paper and twelve tabs on college-ruled
paper.
3. Label the tabs.
R27
Gazetteer
Abidjan • Banjul
A Gazetteer (GA•zuh•TIHR) is a geographic index or dictionary. It shows latitude and longitude for cities
and certain other places. This Gazetteer lists most of the world’s largest independent countries, their
capitals, and several important geographic features. The page numbers tell where each entry can be
found on a map in this book. As an aid to pronunciation, many entries are spelled phonetically.
A
Abidjan (AH•bee•JAHN) Capital and port city of Côte d’Ivoire,
Africa. 5°N 4°W (p. 500)
Abu Dhabi (AH•boo DAH•bee) Capital of the United Arab
Emirates, on the Persian Gulf. 24°N 54°E (p. 414)
Abuja (ah•BOO•jah) Capital of Nigeria. 8°N 9°E (p. 500)
Accra (AH•kruh) Capital and port city of Ghana. 6°N 0° longitude
(p. 500)
Aconcagua (AH•kohn•KAH•gwah) Highest peak of the Andes
and of the Western Hemisphere, in western Argentina near the
Chilean border. 32°S 76°W (p. 190)
Addis Ababa (AHD•dihs AH•bah•BAH) Capital of Ethiopia.
9°N 39°E (p. 500)
Adriatic (AY•dree•A•tihk) Sea Arm of the Mediterranean Sea
between the Balkan Peninsula and Italy. (p. 268)
Aegean (ee•JEE•uhn) Sea Arm of the Mediterranean Sea between
Greece and Turkey. (p. 268)
Afghanistan Country in Central Asia, west of Pakistan. (p. 414)
Ahaggar Mountains Highest plateau region in the central Sahara.
(p. 412)
Albania Country on the east coast of the Adriatic Sea, south of
Serbia and Montenegro. (p. 270)
Algeria Country in North Africa. (p. 414)
Algiers (al•JIHRZ) Capital of Algeria. 37°N 3°E (p. 414)
Alps Mountain system extending through central Europe. (p. 268)
Altay Shan Mountain system between western Mongolia and
China and between Kazakhstan and southern Russia. (p. 654)
Amazon River River flowing through Peru and Brazil in South
America and into the Atlantic Ocean. (p. 190)
Amman Capital of Jordan. 32°N 36°E (p. 414)
Amsterdam Capital of the Netherlands. 52°N 5°E (p. 270)
Amu Dar’ya River in Turkmenistan in central and western Asia.
(p. 412)
Amur River River in northeast Asia. (p. 348)
Andes Mountain system along western South America. (p. 190)
Andorra (an•DAWR•uh) Country in southern Europe, between
France and Spain. (p. 270)
Angola (ang•GOH•luh) Country in Africa, south of the Democratic
Republic of the Congo. (p. 500)
Ankara (AHN•kuh•ruh) Capital of Turkey. 40°N 33°E (p. 414)
Antananarivo (AHN•tah•NAH•nah•REE•voh) Capital of Madagascar.
19°S 48°E (p. 500)
Antigua Island in the West Indies, part of independent Antigua
and Barbuda. 18°N 61°W (p. 192)
Apennines (A•puh•NYNZ) Mountain range in central Italy. (p. 268)
R28
Appalachian Mountains Mountain system in eastern North
America. (p. 120)
Arabian Sea Part of the Indian Ocean between India and the
Arabian Peninsula. (p. 414)
Aral Sea Inland sea between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. (p. 412)
Argentina Country in South America, east of Chile. (p. 192)
Arkansas River River in south-central United States, emptying into
the Mississippi River. (p. 120)
Armenia (ahr•MEE•nee•uh) Southeastern European country
between the Black and Caspian Seas. (p. 414)
Ashkhabad (ASH•kuh•BAD) Capital of Turkmenistan. 40°N 58°E
(p. 414)
Asmara (az•MAHR•uh) Capital of Eritrea. 16°N 39°E (p. 500)
Astana Capital of Kazakhstan. 52°N 72°E (p. 414)
Asunción (ah•SOON•SYOHN) Capital of Paraguay. 25°S 58°W
(p. 192)
Athens Capital of Greece. 38°N 24°E (p. 270)
Atlas Mountains Mountain range on the northern edge of the
Sahara. (p. 412)
Australia Country and continent southeast of Asia. (p. 794)
Austria Country in central Europe, east of Switzerland. (p. 270)
Azerbaijan (A•zuhr•by•JAHN) European-Asian country on the
Caspian Sea. (p. 414)
B
Baghdad Capital of Iraq. 33°N 44°E (p. 73)
Bahamas Independent state comprising a chain of islands, cays,
and reefs southeast of Florida and north of Cuba. 24°N 76°W
(p. 192)
Bahrain (bah•RAYN) Independent state in the western Persian
Gulf. (p. 414)
Baku Capital of Azerbaijan. 40°N 50°E (p. 414)
Balkan Mountains Mountain range extending across central
Bulgaria to the Black Sea. (p. 268)
Balkan Peninsula Peninsula in southeastern Europe bordered on
the west by the Adriatic Sea. (p. 268)
Baltic Sea Arm of the Atlantic Ocean in northern Europe that
connects with the North Sea. (p. 268)
Bamako (BAH•mah•KOH) Capital of Mali. 13°N 8°W (p. 500)
Bangkok Capital of Thailand. 14°N 100°E (p. 62)
Bangladesh (BAHNG•gluh•DESH) Country in South Asia, bordered
by India and Myanmar. (p. 584)
Bangui (bahng•GEE) Capital of the Central African Republic.
4°N 19°E (p. 500)
Banjul Capital of Gambia. 13°N 17°W (p. 500)
Barbados • China (People’s Republic of)
Barbados Island country between the Atlantic Ocean and the
Brussels Capital of Belgium. 51°N 4°E (p. 270)
Bucharest (BOO•kuh•REHST) Capital of Romania. 44°N 26°E
(p. 270)
Budapest Capital of Hungary. 48°N 19°E (p. 270)
Buenos Aires (BWAY•nuhs AR•eez) Capital of Argentina.
34°S 58°W (p. 62)
Bujumbura (BOO•juhm•BUR•uh) Capital of Burundi. 3°S 29°E
(p. 500)
Bulgaria (BUHL•GAR•ee•uh) Country in southeastern Europe,
south of Romania. (p. 270)
Burkina Faso (bur•KEE•nuh FAH•soh) Country in western Africa,
south of Mali. (p. 500)
Burundi (bu•ROON•dee) Country in central Africa at the northern
end of Lake Tanganyika. (p. 500)
C
Cairo (KY•roh) Capital of Egypt. 31°N 32°E (p. 62)
Cambodia (kam•BOH•dee•uh) Country in Southeast Asia, south
of Thailand. (p. 726)
Cameroon (KA•muh•ROON) Country in west Africa, on the
northeast shore of the Gulf of Guinea. (p. 500)
Canada Country in northern North America. (p. 122)
Canberra Capital of Australia. 35°S 149°E (p. 794)
Cape Town Legislative capital of the Republic of South Africa.
34°S 18°E (p. 62)
Cape Verde Republic consisting of a group of volcanic islands in
the Atlantic Ocean. 15°N 26°W (p. 500)
Caracas (kah•RAH•kahs) Capital of Venezuela. 11°N 67°W (p. 62)
Caribbean (KAR•uh•BEE•uhn) Sea Part of the Atlantic Ocean,
bounded by the West Indies, South America, and Central
America. (p. 120)
Carpathian Mountains Mountain range in eastern Europe in
Slovakia and Romania. (p. 268)
Caspian (KAS•pee•uhn) Sea Salt lake between Europe and Asia.
(p. 348)
Caucasus Mountains Mountain range in southwestern Russia.
(p. 348)
Central African Republic Country in central Africa, south of Chad.
(p. 500)
Central Siberian Plateau Tableland area in Siberia. (p. 348)
Chad Country in north central Africa. (p. 500)
Chang Jiang (CHAHNG JYAHNG) River in north-central and
eastern China, also known as the Yangtze River. (p. 654)
Chao Phraya (chow PRY•uh) River in Thailand, flowing south into
the Gulf of Thailand. (p. 724)
Chile (CHIH•lee) Western South American country, along the
Pacific Ocean. (p. 192)
China (People’s Republic of China) Country in eastern and central
Asia. (p. 656)
GAZETTEER
Caribbean Sea. 14°N 59°W (p. 192)
Barbuda Island in the West Indies, part of independent Antigua
and Barbuda. 18°N 62°W (p. 192)
Barents Sea Part of the Arctic Ocean, north of Norway and Russia.
(p. 268)
Bay of Bengal Part of the Indian Ocean between eastern India and
Southeast Asia. (p. 348)
Beijing Capital of China. 40°N 116°E (p. 62)
Beirut (bay•ROOT) Capital of Lebanon. 34°N 36°E (p. 414)
Belarus (BEE•luh•ROOS) Eastern European country west of Russia.
(p. 270)
Belgium (BEHL•juhm) Country in northwestern Europe, south of
the Netherlands. (p. 270)
Belgrade Capital of Serbia. 45°N 21°E (p. 270)
Belize (buh•LEEZ) Country in Central America. (p. 192)
Belmopan (BEHL•moh•PAHN) Capital of Belize. 17°N 89°W (p. 192)
Benin (buh•NEEN) Country in western Africa. (p. 500)
Ben Nevis Peak in the highlands region of the Grampian
Mountains in Scotland. 54°N 5°W (p. 268)
Bering Sea Part of the north Pacific Ocean, extending between
the United States and Russia. (p. 120)
Berlin Capital of Germany. 53°N 13°E (p. 73)
Bern Capital of Switzerland. 47°N 7°E (p. 270)
Bhutan (boo•TAHN) Country in the eastern Himalaya, northeast
of India. 27°N 91°E (p. 584)
Bishkek Capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan. 43°N 75°E (p. 414)
Bissau (bih•SOW) Capital of Guinea-Bissau. 12°N 16°W (p. 500)
Black Sea Sea between Europe and Asia. (p. 268)
Bloemfontein (BLOOM•FAHN•TAYN) Judicial capital of the Republic
of South Africa. 29°S 26°E (p. 500)
Bogotá (BOH•goh•TAH) Capital of Colombia. 5°N 74°W (p. 192)
Bolivia Republic in west central South America. (p. 192)
Bosnia-Herzegovina (BAHZ•nee•uh HERT•suh•goh•VEE•nuh) Southeastern European country between Serbia and Croatia. (p. 270)
Bosporus Strait between European and Asian Turkey, connecting
the Sea of Marmara with the Black Sea. (p. 358)
Botswana (baht•SWAH•nuh) Country in Africa, north of the
Republic of South Africa. (p. 500)
Brahmaputra River River that begins in Tibet, flows through
northeast India and Bangladesh, and empties into the Bay
of Bengal. (p. 582)
Brasília (bruh•ZIHL•yuh) Capital of Brazil. 16°S 48°W (p. 192)
Bratislava (BRAH•tuh•SLAH•vuh) Capital and largest city of
Slovakia. 48°N 17°E (p. 270)
Brazil Largest country in South America, in east-central South
America. (p. 192)
Brazzaville (BRA•zuh•VIHL) Capital of Congo. 4°S 15°E (p. 500)
Brunei (bru•NY) Country on the northern coast of the island
of Borneo. (p. 726)
R29
Chisinau • France
Chisinau (KEE•shee•NOW) Capital and largest city of Moldova.
Djibouti (juh•BOO•tee) Country in East Africa, on the Gulf of
47°N 29°E (p. 270)
Colombia Republic in northern South America. (p. 192)
Colombo Capital of Sri Lanka. 7°N 80°E (p. 584)
Colorado Plateau Highlands region in the western United States.
(p. 120)
Colorado River River in the western United States that flows
through the Grand Canyon. (p. 120)
Columbia Plateau Flat plains area primarily in western
Washington State in the United States. (p. 120)
Comoros (KAH•muh•ROHZ) Islands Island country in the Indian
Ocean between the island of Madagascar and Africa. 13°S 43°E
(p. 500)
Conakry (KAH•nuh•kree) Capital of Guinea. 10°N 14°W (p. 500)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the African country on the
Equator, north of Zambia and Angola. (p. 500)
Congo, Republic of the Country in equatorial Africa. (p. 500)
Congo River River that runs through the Democratic Republic
of the Congo. (p. 498)
Copenhagen (KOH•puhn•HAY•guhn) Capital of Denmark.
56°N 12°E (p. 270)
Costa Rica (KAWS•tah REE•kuh) Central American country, south
of Nicaragua. (p. 192)
Côte d’Ivoire (KOHT dee•VWAHR) West African country, south
of Mali. (p. 500)
Croatia (kroh•AY•shuh) Southeastern European country on the
Adriatic Sea. (p. 270)
Cuba Island country southeast of Florida. 21°N 80°W (p. 192)
Cyprus Island country in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, south
of Turkey. 35°N 31°E (p. 270)
Czech (CHEHK) Republic Central European country south of
Germany and Poland. (p. 270)
Aden. (p. 500)
Dnieper (NEE•puhr) River River that begins in Russia, flows
through Belarus and Ukraine, and then drains into the Black
Sea. (p. 268)
Dniester (NEE•stuhr) River River in south-central Europe that
begins in Ukraine and flows southeast to the Black Sea. (p. 268)
Dodoma (doh•DOH•MAH) Political capital of Tanzania. 7°S 36°E
(p. 500)
Doha (DOH•hah) Capital of Qatar. 25°N 51°E (p. 414)
Dominica Island republic in the West Indies, lying in the center
of the Lesser Antilles. 15°N 61°W (p. 192)
Dominican Republic Republic occupying the eastern two-thirds of
Hispaniola Island in the West Indies. 19°N 70°W (p. 192)
Don River River in southwestern Russia. (p. 348)
Drakensberg (DRAH•kuhnz•BUHRG) Range Mountain range in
South Africa. (p. 498)
Dublin Capital of Ireland. 53°N 6°W (p. 270)
Dushanbe (doo•SHAM•buh) Capital and largest city of Tajikistan.
39°N 69°E (p. 414)
D
Dakar Capital of Senegal. 15°N 17°W (p. 62)
Damascus Capital of Syria. 34°N 36°E (p. 414)
Danube River River in Europe that begins in Germany and flows
into the Black Sea. (p. 268)
Dardanelles Strait between European and Asian Turkey,
connecting the Sea of Marmara with the Aegean Sea. (p. 358)
Dar es Salaam (DAHR EHS suh•LAHM) Commercial capital of
Tanzania. 7°S 39°E (p. 500)
Darling River River in southeast Australia. (p. 792)
Dead Sea A landlocked body of salt water located between Israel
and Jordan. (p. 449)
Deccan Plateau The peninsula of India south of the Narmada
River. (p. 582)
Denmark Country in northwestern Europe, between the Baltic
and North Seas. (p. 270)
Dhaka Capital of Bangladesh. 24°N 90°E (p. 584)
R30
E
East Timor (Timor-Leste) Island country in the Indonesian
archipelago, northwest of Australia. (p. 726)
Eastern Ghats Mountain range in India. (p. 582)
Ecuador (EH•kwuh•DAWR) Country in South America, south of
Colombia. (p. 192)
Egypt Country in northern Africa on the Mediterranean Sea. (p. 414)
Elbe River River in central Europe. (p. 268)
Elburz Mountains Mountain range in northern Iran parallel to the
shore of the Caspian Sea. (p. 412)
El Salvador (ehl SAL•vuh•DAWR) Country in Central America,
southwest of Honduras. (p. 192)
Equatorial Guinea (EE•kwuh•TOHR•ee•uhl GIH•nee) Country in
western Africa, south of Cameroon. (p. 500)
Eritrea (EHR•uh•TREE•uh) Country in northeast Africa, north of
Ethiopia. (p. 500)
Estonia (eh•STOH•nee•uh) Northern European country on the
Baltic Sea. (p. 270)
Ethiopia (EE•thee•OH•pee•uh) Country in eastern Africa, north of
Somalia and Kenya. (p. 500)
Euphrates (yu•FRAY•teez) River River in southwestern Asia that
flows through Syria and Iraq and joins the Tigris River. (p. 412)
F
Fiji (FEE•jee) Country comprising an island group in the southwest
Pacific Ocean. 19°S 175°E (p. 794)
Finland Country in northern Europe, east of Sweden. (p. 270)
France Country in western Europe. (p. 270)
Freetown • Irtysh River
Freetown Capital and port city of Sierra Leone, in western Africa.
Guinea-Bissau (GIH•nee bih•SOW) West African country on the
9°N 13°W (p. 500)
French Guiana Overseas department of France on the northeast
coast of South America. (p. 192)
Gulf of Aden Arm of the Indian Ocean between the Arabian
G
Gabon (ga•BOHN) Country in western Africa, on the Atlantic
Peninsula and Africa. (p. 412)
Gulf of Mexico Gulf on the southern coast of North America.
(p. 120)
Gulf of Thailand Inlet of the South China Sea. (p. 724)
Guyana Republic in northern South America. (p. 192)
H
Hainan (HY•NAHN) Island province of China in the South China
Sea. 19°N 109°E (p. 654)
Haiti (HAY•tee) Republic occupying the western third of
Hispaniola Island in the West Indies. 19°N 72.25°W (p. 192)
Hanoi Capital of Vietnam. 21°N 106°E (p. 726)
Harare (huh•RAH•ray) Capital of Zimbabwe. 18°S 23°E (p. 500)
Havana Capital of Cuba. 23°N 82°W (p. 192)
Helsinki Capital of Finland. 60°N 24°E (p. 270)
Himalaya (HIH•muh•LAY•uh) Mountain range in South Asia,
bordering the Indian subcontinent on the north. (p. 582)
Hindu Kush Mountain range in Central Asia. (p. 412)
Honduras (hahn•DUR•uhs) Central American republic. (p. 192)
Hong Kong Administrative district and port in southern China.
22°N 115°E (p. 62)
Huang He (HWAHNG HUH) Major river in central China, also
known as the Yellow River. (p. 654)
Hudson Bay Inland sea in east-central Canada. (p. 120)
Hungary Central European country, south of Slovakia. (p. 270)
GAZETTEER
Ocean. (p. 500)
Gaborone (GAH•boh•ROH•nay) Capital of Botswana, in southern
Africa. 24°S 26°E (p. 500)
Gambia Country in western Africa. (p. 500)
Ganges (GAN•JEEZ) River River in northern India and Bangladesh
that flows into the Bay of Bengal. (p. 582)
Gangetic (gan•JEH•tic) Plain A fertile plains region in northern
India traversed by the Ganges River. (p. 582)
Georgetown Capital of Guyana. 8°N 58°W (p. 192)
Georgia Asian/European country bordering the Black Sea, south
of Russia. (p. 414)
Germany (Federal Republic of Germany) Country in north central
Europe. (p. 270)
Ghana (GAH•nuh) Country in western Africa, on the Gulf of
Guinea. (p. 500)
Gobi Desert in Central Asia. (p. 654)
Godavari River River in central India. (p. 582)
Gran Chaco Region in south-central South America located in
Paraguay, Bolivia, and Argentina. (p. 190)
Great Britain Kingdom in western Europe comprising England,
Scotland, and Wales. (p. 268)
Great Dividing Range Chain of hills and mountains, on Australia’s
eastern coast. (p. 792)
Great Plains Rolling treeless area of central North America.
(p. 120)
Great Salt Lake Large saltwater lake in Utah in the United States
that has no outlet. (p. 120)
Great Slave Lake A lake in the south-central mainland of the
Northwest Territories in Canada. (p. 120)
Greece Country in southern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula.
(p. 270)
Greenland Island in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. 74°N 40°W
(p. 122)
Grenada Island in the self-governing West Indies. 17°N 61°W
(p. 192)
Guam Island in the western Pacific. It is an unincorporated United
States territory. 13°N 144°E (p. 794)
Guatemala (GWAH•tuh•MAH•luh) Country in Central America,
south of Mexico. (p. 192)
Guatemala Capital of Guatemala and the largest city in Central
America. 15°N 91°W (p. 192)
Guinea (GIH•nee) West African country on the Atlantic coast.
11°N 12°W (p. 500)
Atlantic coast. 12°N 20°W (p. 500)
I
Iberian (eye•BIHR•ee•uhn) Peninsula Peninsula in southwestern
Europe. (p. 268)
Iceland Island country between the north Atlantic and Arctic
Oceans. 65°N 20°W (p. 270)
India South Asian country south of China. (p. 584)
Indochina Southeast peninsula of Asia. (p. 743)
Indonesia (IHN•duh•NEE•zhuh) Group of islands that forms the
Southeast Asian country of the Republic of Indonesia. 5°S 119°E
(p. 726)
Indus River River in Asia that rises in Tibet and flows through
Pakistan to the Arabian Sea. (p. 582)
Iran (ih•RAHN) Southwest Asian country, formerly called Persia.
(p. 414)
Iraq (ih•RAHK) Southwest Asian country, south of Turkey. (p. 414)
Ireland Island west of England, occupied by the Republic of
Ireland and by Northern Ireland. 54°N 8°W (p. 270)
Irrawaddy River River in central Myanmar formed by the
confluence of the Mali and Nmai Rivers. (p. 724)
Irtysh River River in northeast Kazakhstan and the western part of
Russia, in Asia. (p. 348)
R31
Islamabad • Liberia
Islamabad (ihs•LAH•muh•BAHD) Capital of Pakistan. 34°N 73°E
Korean Peninsula Peninsula on which both North and South
(p. 584)
Israel (IHZ•ree•uhl) Country in Southwest Asia, south of Lebanon.
(p. 414)
Isthmus of Panama Narrow strip of land that forms the link in
Central America between North America and South America.
(p. 190)
Italy Southern European country, south of Switzerland and east of
France. (p. 270)
Korea are located. (p. 654)
Kosovo (KAW•saw•VOH) Country in southeastern Europe,
between Serbia and Montenegro (p. 275)
Krishna River River of the Deccan Plateau in south India. (p. 582)
Kuala Lumpur (KWAH•luh LUM•PUR) Capital of Malaysia.
3°N 102°E (p. 726)
Kunlun Shan Mountain ranges in western China on the north edge
of the Plateau of Tibet. (p. 654)
Kuwait (ku•WAYT) Country between Saudi Arabia and Iraq, on
the Persian Gulf. (p. 414)
Kyiv (Kiev) (KEE•EHF) Capital of Ukraine. 50°N 31°E (p. 270)
Kyrgyzstan (KIHR•gih•STAN) Small Central Asian country on
China’s western border. (p. 414)
J
Jakarta Capital of Indonesia. 6°S 107°E (p. 62)
Jamaica (juh•MAY•kuh) Island country in the West Indies. 18°N
78°W (p. 192)
Japan Country in East Asia, consisting of four main islands of
Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu, plus thousands of
small islands. 37°N 134°E (p. 656)
Jerusalem (juh•ROO•suh•luhm) Capital of Israel and a holy city
for Jews, Christians, and Muslims. 32°N 35°E (p. 414)
Jordan Country in Southwest Asia. (p. 414)
Jutland Peninsula extending north from Germany. (p. 268)
K
K2 (Godwin Austen) Himalayan mountain in Jammu and Kashmir.
35°N 76°E (p. 582)
Kabul Capital of Afghanistan. 35°N 69°E (p. 414)
Kalahari Desert Plateau and part desert located in the southern
part of Africa. (p. 498)
Kamchatka Peninsula Peninsula in northeast Russia, in Asia.
(p. 348)
Kampala (kahm•PAH•lah) Capital of Uganda. 0° latitude 32°E
(p. 500)
Kara Sea Arm of the Arctic Ocean north of Russia. (p. 348)
Kathmandu (KAT•MAN•DOO) Capital of Nepal. 28°N 85°E (p. 584)
Kazakhstan (KA•zak•STAN) Large Asian country south of Russia,
bordering the Caspian Sea. (p. 414)
Kenya (KEH•nyuh) Country in eastern Africa, south of Ethiopia.
(p. 500)
Khartoum Capital of Sudan. 16°N 33°E (p. 500)
Khyber Pass Mountain pass between Afghanistan and Pakistan.
34°N 71°E (p. 412)
Kiev See Kyiv (Kiev)
Kigali (kee•GAH•lee) Capital of Rwanda, in central Africa. 2°S
30°E (p. 500)
Kilimanjaro Highest mountain in Africa, located in Tanzania.
3°S 37°E (p. 498)
Kingston Capital of Jamaica. 18°N 77°W (p. 192)
Kinshasa (kihn•SHAH•suh) Capital of the Democratic Republic
of the Congo. 4°S 15°E (p. 62)
Kiribati (KIHR•uh•BAS) One of the two Federated States of
Micronesia. 5°S 170°W (p. 794)
R32
L
Labrador Sea Part of the Atlantic Ocean south of Baffin Bay off the
coast of Newfoundland. (p. 120)
Lagos Port city of Nigeria. 6°N 3°E (p. 73)
Lake Baikal Lake in southern Siberia, Russia. It is the largest
freshwater lake in Eurasia. (p. 348)
Lake Chad Reservoir located in Chad. (p. 498)
Lake Erie One of the Great Lakes of the United States and Canada.
(p. 120)
Lake Huron One of the Great Lakes of the United States and
Canada. (p. 120)
Lake Malawi Lake in southeast Africa. (p. 498)
Lake Michigan One of the Great Lakes of the United States and
Canada. (p. 120)
Lake Ontario The easternmost and smallest of the Great Lakes of
the United States and Canada. (p. 120)
Lake Superior One of the Great Lakes of the United States and
Canada. (p. 120)
Lake Tanganyika Lake in east-central Africa. (p. 498)
Lake Titicaca Lake on the border between Peru and Bolivia.
Highest navigable lake in the world. (p. 190)
Lake Victoria Freshwater lake in Tanzania and Uganda. (p. 498)
Lake Volta Reservoir located in Ghana. (p. 498)
Lake Winnipeg Lake in south-central Manitoba, Canada. (p. 120)
Laos (LOWS) Southeast Asian country, south of China and west
of Vietnam. (p. 726)
La Paz (lah PAHZ) Administrative capital of Bolivia, and the
highest capital in the world. 17°S 68°W (p. 192)
Latvia (LAT•vee•uh) Northeastern European country on the Baltic
Sea, west of Russia. (p. 270)
Lebanon (LEH•buh•nuhn) Country on the Mediterranean Sea,
south of Syria. (p. 414)
Lena River River in east-central Russia. (p. 348)
Lesotho (luh•SOH•toh) Country in southern Africa. (p. 500)
Liberia (ly•BIHR•ee•uh) West African country, south of Guinea.
7°N 10°W (p. 500)
Libreville • Mount Everest
Marshall Islands Independent group of atolls and reefs in the
(p. 500)
Libya (LIH•bee•uh) North African country on the Mediterranean
Sea, west of Egypt. (p. 414)
Liechtenstein (LIHK•tuhn•STYN) Small country in central Europe.
(p. 270)
Lilongwe (lih•LAWNG•gway) Capital of Malawi. 14°S 34°E
(p. 500)
Lima (LEE•muh) Capital of Peru. 12°S 77°W (p. 62)
Lisbon Capital of Portugal. 39°N 9°W (p. 270)
Lithuania (LIH•thuh•WAY•nee•uh) European country on the Baltic
Sea, west of Belarus. (p. 270)
Ljubljana (lee•OO•blee•AH•nuh) Capital of Slovenia. 46°N 14°E
(p. 270)
Llanos Vast plains in northern South America. (p. 190)
Loire River River in Europe that rises in southeastern France and
empties into the Bay of Biscay. (p. 268)
Lomé (loh•MAY) Capital and port city of Togo in Africa. 6°N 1°E
(p. 500)
London Capital of the United Kingdom, on the Thames River.
52°N 0° longitude (p. 62)
Luanda Capital of Angola. 9°S 13°E (p. 500)
Lusaka Capital of Zambia. 15°S 28°E (p. 500)
Luxembourg (LUHK•suhm•BUHRG) European country between
France, Germany, and Belgium. (p. 270)
western Pacific Ocean. 11°N 108°E (p. 794)
Maseru (MA•suh•ROO) Capital of Lesotho, in southern Africa.
29°S 27°E (p. 500)
Masqat Capital of Oman. 23°N 59°E (p. 414)
Mato Grosso Plateau Highlands area in southwest Brazil. (p. 190)
Mauritania (MAWR•uh•TAY•nee•uh) West African country, north
of Senegal. (p. 500)
Mauritius (maw•RIH•shuhs) Island country in the Indian Ocean
east of Madagascar. 21°S 58°E (p. 500)
Mbabane (EHM•bah•BAH•nay) Capital of Swaziland, in
southeastern Africa. 26°S 31°E (p. 500)
Mediterranean Sea Inland sea enclosed by Europe, Asia, and
Africa. (p. 270)
Mekong River River in Southeast Asia that flows south through
Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam. (p. 724)
Melekeok New capital of Palau. 7 °N 134°E (p. 794)
Meseta The plains of central Spain. (p. 268)
Mexico Country in North America, south of the United States. (p. 192)
Mexico City Capital and most populous city of Mexico. 19°N 99°W
(p. 192)
Minsk Capital of Belarus. 54°N 28°E (p. 270)
Mississippi River River in the central United States that rises in
Minnesota and flows southeast into the Gulf of Mexico. (p. 120)
Missouri River River in the central United States that joins the
Mississippi River. (p. 120)
Mogadishu (MAH•guh•DIH•shoo) Capital and major seaport of
Somalia, in eastern Africa. 2°N 45°E (p. 500)
Moldova (mahl•DOH•vuh) European country between Ukraine
and Romania. (p. 270)
Monaco (MAH•nuh•KOH) Independent principality in southern
Europe, on the Mediterranean. (p. 270)
Monaco (MAH•nuh•KOH) Capital of Monaco. 44°N 8°E (p. 276)
Mongolia (mahn•GOHL•yuh) Country in Asia between Russia and
China. (p. 656)
Monrovia (muhn•ROH•vee•uh) Capital and major seaport of
Liberia, in western Africa. 6°N 11°W (p. 500)
Mont Blanc The highest mountain of the Alps, in southeastern
France. 46°N 7°E (p. 268)
Montenegro (mahn•tuh•NEH•groh) European country between
the Adriatic Sea and Serbia. (p. 270)
Montevideo (MAHN•tuh•vuh•DAY•oh) Capital of Uruguay.
35°S 56°W (p. 192)
Morocco (muh•RAH•koh) Country in northwestern Africa on the
Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. (p. 414)
Moscow Capital of Russia. 56°N 38°E (p. 62)
Mount Ararat Mountain in eastern Turkey. 39°N 44°3 (p. 412)
Mount Elbrus Highest point in the Caucasus Mountains.
43°N 42°E (p. 348)
Mount Everest (EHV•ruhst) Highest mountain in the world, in the
Himalaya mountain ranges between Nepal and Tibet. 28°N 87°E
(p. 582)
M
Macau (muh•KOW) Administrative district and port in southern
China. (p. 656)
Macedonia (MA•suh•DOH•nee•uh) Republic in southeastern
Europe, north of Greece. Macedonia also refers to a geographic
region in the Balkan Peninsula. (p. 270)
Mackenzie River River in the western portion of the Northwest
Territories in Canada. (p. 120)
Madagascar (MA•duh•GAS•kuhr) Island in the Indian Ocean,
southeast of Africa. (p. 500)
Madrid Capital of Spain. 40°N 4°W (p. 62)
Malabo (mah•LAH•boh) Capital of Equatorial Guinea. 4°N 9°E
(p. 500)
Malawi (muh•LAH•wee) Southeastern African country, south of
Tanzania and east of Zambia. (p. 500)
Malaysia (muh•LAY•zhuh) Federation of states in Southeast Asia
on the Malay Peninsula and the island of Borneo. (p. 726)
Maldives (MAWL•DEEVZ) Island country in the Indian Ocean near
South Asia. 5°N 42°E (p. 584)
Mali Country in western Africa, south of Algeria. (p. 500)
Malta An independent state consisting of three islands in the
Mediterranean Sea. 36°N 15°E (p. 270)
Managua (mah•NAH•gwah) Capital of Nicaragua. 12°N 86°W
(p. 192)
Manila (muh•NIH•luh) Capital and port city of the Republic of the
Philippines. 15°N 121°E (p. 726)
GAZETTEER
Libreville (LEE•bruh•VIHL) Capital and port city of Gabon. 1°N 9°E
R33
Mount Fuji • Peru
Mount Fuji Peak in south-central Honshu, Japan. It is the highest
North Korea Asian country in the northernmost part of the
peak in Japan. 35°N 138°E (p. 654)
Mount Logan Peak in northwest Canada. 60°N 140°W (p. 120)
Mount McKinley Highest peak in North America, located in Denali
National Park in Alaska. 63°N 151°W (p. 120)
Mount Pinatubo Active volcanic mountain in the Philippines.
15°N 170°E (p. 724)
Mount Whitney Peak in the Sierra Nevada range in central
California. 36°N 118°W (p. 120)
Mozambique (MOH•zuhm•BEEK) Country in southeastern Africa,
south of Tanzania. (p. 500)
Murray River River in Australia. (p. 792)
Myanmar (MYAHN•MAHR) Country in Southeast Asia, south of
China, formerly called Burma. (p. 726)
Korean Peninsula. (p. 656)
North Sea Arm of the Atlantic Ocean extending between the
European continent on the south and east and Great Britain
on the west. (p. 268)
Norway Country on the Scandinavian Peninsula. (p. 270)
Nouakchott (nu•AHK•SHAHT) Capital of Mauritania. 18°N 16°W
(p. 500)
Nullarbor Plain Dry, treeless area that lies south of the Great
Victorian Desert in Australia. (p. 792)
N
Nairobi Capital of Kenya. 1°S 37°E (p. 500)
Namib Desert Arid region along the coast of Namibia in
southwestern Africa. (p. 498)
Namibia (nuh•MIH•bee•uh) Country in southwestern Africa, on
the Atlantic Ocean. (p. 500)
Narmada River River in central India that flows into the Gulf of
Khambat in the Arabian Sea. (p. 582)
Nassau (NA•SAW) Capital of the Bahamas. 25°N 77°W (p. 192)
Nauru (nah•OO•roo) One of the two Federated States of
Micronesia. 32°S 166°E (p. 794)
Nay Pyi Taw New capital of Myanmar. 20°N 96°E (p. 726)
N’Djamena (uhn•jah•MAY•nah) Capital of Chad. 12°N 15°E
(p. 500)
Nepal (nuh•PAWL) Mountain country between India and China.
(p. 584)
Netherlands Western European country on the North Sea. (p. 270)
New Delhi Capital of India. 29°N 77°E (p. 584)
New Zealand Major island country in the south Pacific, southeast
of Australia. 42°S 175°E (p. 794)
Niamey (nee•AH•may) Capital and commercial center of Niger,
in western Africa. 14°N 2°E (p. 500)
Nicaragua (NIH•kuh•RAH•gwuh) Republic in Central America.
(p. 192)
Nicosia (NIH•kuh•SEE•uh) Capital of Cyprus. 35°N 33°E (p. 270)
Niger (NY•juhr) Landlocked country in western Africa, north of
Nigeria. (p. 500)
Nigeria (ny•JIHR•ee•uh) Country in western Africa, south of Niger.
(p. 500)
Niger River River in western Africa. (p. 498)
Nile River Longest river in the world, flowing north and east
through eastern Africa. (p. 498)
Northern European Plain Plain that sweeps across western and
central Europe into Russia and includes most of European
Russia. (p. 268)
R34
O
Ob River A river in western Russia. (p. 348)
Ohio River Major river in the midwestern United States, emptying
into the Mississippi River. (p. 120)
Oman (oh•MAHN) Country on the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of
Oman. (p. 414)
Orinoco River River in Venezuela. (p. 190)
Oslo Capital of Norway. 60°N 11°E (p. 270)
Ottawa Capital of Canada. 45°N 76°W (p. 122)
Ouagadougou (WAH•gah•DOO•goo) Capital of Burkina Faso,
in western Africa. 12°N 2°W (p. 500)
P
Pakistan South Asian country on the Arabian Sea, northwest of
India. (p. 584)
Palau (puh•LOW) Island country in the western Pacific Ocean.
7°N 135°E (p. 794)
Pamirs Mountainous region of Central Asia. (p. 412)
Pampas Plains area of South America. (p. 190)
Panama (PA•nuh•MAH) Republic in south Central America, on the
Isthmus of Panama. (p. 192)
Panama Capital of Panama. 9°N 79°W (p. 192)
Papua New Guinea (PA•pyuh•wuh noo GIH•nee) Independent
island country in the south Pacific Ocean. 7°S 142°E (p. 794)
Paraguay (PAR•uh•GWY) Country in South America, north of
Argentina. (p. 192)
Paraguay River River in south central South America. (p. 190)
Paramaribo (PAR•uh•MAR•uh•BOH) Capital and port city of
Suriname. 6°N 55°W (p. 192)
Paraná River River in southeast central South America. (p. 190)
Paris Capital and river port of France. 49°N 2°E (p. 73)
Patagonia Plateau region of South America primarily in Argentina.
(p. 190)
Peace River River in western Alberta, Canada. (p. 120)
Persian Gulf Arm of the Arabian Sea between Iran and Saudi
Arabia. (p. 412)
Peru Country in South America, south of Ecuador and Colombia.
(p. 192)
Philippines • Seine
Philippines (FIH•luh•PEENZ) Country in the Pacific Ocean,
Q
Qatar (KAH•tuhr) Country on the southwestern shore of the
Persian Gulf. (p. 414)
Qin Ling Mountain range in northern China. (p. 654)
Quito (KEE•toh) Capital of Ecuador. 0° latitude 79°W (p. 192)
R
Rabat Capital of Morocco. 34°N 7°W (p. 414)
Red River River in the south-central United States, emptying into
the Mississippi River. (p. 120)
Red River River in Vietnam that empties into the South China Sea.
(p. 724)
Red Sea Inland sea between the Arabian Peninsula and northeast
Africa. (p. 412)
Reykjavík (RAY•kyuh•VIHK) Capital of Iceland. 64°N 22°W (p. 270)
Rhine River in western Europe that flows to the North Sea. (p. 268)
Rhône River in Switzerland and France. (p. 268)
Riga Capital of Latvia. 57°N 24°E (p. 270)
Río de la Plata Estuary of the Paraná and Uruguay Rivers between
Uruguay and Argentina. (p. 190)
Rio Grande River in the United States forming part of the
boundary between the United States and Mexico. (p. 120)
Riyadh (ree•YAHD) Capital of Saudi Arabia. 25°N 47°E (p. 414)
Rocky Mountains An extensive mountain system in western North
America. (p. 120)
Romania (ru•MAY•nee•uh) Country in eastern Europe, south of
Ukraine. (p. 270)
Rome Capital of Italy. 42°N 13°E (p. 73)
Rub’ al-Khali Desert region in the southern Arabian Peninsula,
also called the Empty Quarter. (p. 412)
Russia Largest country in the world, covering parts of Europe
and Asia. (p. 350)
Rwanda (roo•AHN•dah) Country in Africa, south of Uganda.
(p. 500)
S
Sahara Vast region of deserts and oases in North Africa. (p. 412)
St. Lawrence River River in southern Quebec and southeast
Ontario, Canada. (p. 120)
St. Lucia Independent island state in the Caribbean Sea.
13°N 60°W (p. 192)
St. Vincent Principal island of St. Vincent and the Grenadines,
south of St. Lucia. 13°N 61°W (p. 192)
Samoa Group of independent islands in the southwest Pacific
Ocean. 13°S 172°W (p. 794)
Sanaa (sa•NAH) Capital of Yemen. 15°N 44°E (p. 414)
San José Capital of Costa Rica. 10°N 84°W (p. 192)
San Marino (SAN muh•REE•noh) Small European country, located
on the Italian peninsula. (p. 270)
San Salvador (san SAL•vuh•DAWR) Capital of El Salvador.
14°N 89°W (p. 192)
Santiago Capital of Chile. 33°S 71°W (p. 62)
Santo Domingo (SAN•tuh duh•MIHNG•goh) Capital of the
Dominican Republic. 19°N 70°W (p. 192)
São Francisco River River in eastern Brazil flowing into the Atlantic
Ocean. (p. 190)
São Tomé and Príncipe (SOWN tuh•MAY and PRIHN•sih•pee) Small
island country in the Gulf of Guinea off the coast of central
Africa. 1°N 7°E (p. 500)
Sarajevo (SAR•uh•YAY•voh) Capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
43°N 18°E (p. 270)
Saskatchewan River River in south-central Canada that flows into
Lake Winnipeg. (p. 120)
Saudi Arabia (SOW•dee uh•RAY•bee•uh) Country on the Arabian
Peninsula. (p. 414)
Scandinavia A peninsula in northern Europe. (p. 268)
Sea of Japan (East Sea) Branch of the Pacific Ocean between Japan
and the Korean Peninsula. (p. 348)
Sea of Okhotsk An inlet of the Pacific Ocean on the eastern coast
of Russia. (p. 348)
Seine (SAYN) River French river that flows through Paris and into
the English Channel. (p. 268)
GAZETTEER
southeast of China. (p. 726)
Phnom Penh (NAHM PEHN) Capital of Cambodia. 12°N 106°E
(p. 726)
Podgorica (PAWD•GAWR•eet•sah) Capital of Montenegro.
42°N 19°E (p. 270)
Poland Country on the Baltic Sea in eastern Europe. 52°N 18°E
(p. 270)
Po River River in northern Italy that flows to the Adriatic Sea.
(p. 268)
Port-au-Prince (POHRT•oh•PRIHNTS) Capital of Haiti. 19°N 72°W
(p. 192)
Port Moresby (MOHRZ•bee) Capital of Papua New Guinea.
10°S 147°E (p. 794)
Porto-Novo (POHR•toh•NOH•voh) Capital and port city of Benin,
in western Africa. 7°N 3°E (p. 500)
Portugal (POHR•chih•guhl) Country on the Iberian Peninsula,
south and west of Spain. (p. 270)
Prague (PRAHG) Capital of the Czech Republic. 50°N 15°E
(p. 270)
Pretoria See Tshwane (Pretoria)
Puerto Rico Island in the West Indies. It is a self-governing
commonwealth in union with the United States. 18°N 66°W
(p. 192)
P’yŏngyang (PYAWNG•YAHNG) Capital of North Korea. 39°N
126°E (p. 656)
Pyrenees Mountain range extending along the border of France
and Spain. (p. 268)
R35
Senegal • Tonga
R36
Senegal (SEH•nih•GAWL) Country on the coast of western Africa,
Sucre (SOO•kray) Constitutional capital of Bolivia. 19°S 65°W
on the Atlantic Ocean. (p. 500)
Seoul (SOHL) Capital of South Korea. 38°N 127°E (p. 73)
Serbia (SUHR•bee•uh) European country between Macedonia
and Hungary. (p. 270)
Seychelles (say•SHEHLZ) Small island country in the Indian Ocean
near East Africa. 6°S 56°E (p. 500)
Siberia An area in the region of north-central Asia, primarily in
Russia. (p. 348)
Sierra Leone (see•EHR•uh lee•OHN) Country in western Africa,
south of Guinea. (p. 500)
Sierra Madre del Sur Mountain range along the coast of southern
Mexico. (p. 190)
Sierra Madre Occidental Mountain range running parallel to the
Pacific Ocean coast in Mexico. (p. 190)
Sierra Madre Oriental Mountain range running parallel to the
Gulf of Mexico coast in Mexico. (p. 190)
Sierra Nevada Mountain range in eastern California in the United
States. (p. 120)
Sinai Peninsula Peninsula in northeast Egypt between the Gulf
of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba. (p. 412)
Singapore Multi-island country in Southeast Asia near the tip
of the Malay Peninsula. 2°N 104°E (p. 726)
Skopje (SKAW•pyeh) Capital of the Republic of Macedonia.
42°N 21°E (p. 270)
Slovakia (sloh•VAH•kee•uh) Central European country south of
Poland. (p. 270)
Slovenia (sloh•VEE•nee•uh) Small central European country on
the Adriatic Sea, south of Austria. (p. 270)
Sofia Capital of Bulgaria. 43°N 23°E (p. 270)
Solomon Islands Independent island group in the west Pacific
Ocean. 8°S 159°E (p. 794)
Somalia (soh•MAH•lee•uh) Country in east Africa, on the Gulf
of Aden and the Indian Ocean. (p. 500)
South Africa Country at the southern tip of Africa. (p. 500)
South China Sea Part of the Pacific Ocean extending from Japan
to the tip of the Malay Peninsula. (p. 348)
South Korea Country in Asia on the Korean Peninsula between
the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan. (p. 656)
Spain Country on the Iberian Peninsula. (p. 270)
Sri Lanka (sree LAHNG•kuh) Island country in the Indian Ocean
south of India. 9°N 83°E (p. 584)
Stockholm Capital of Sweden. 59°N 18°E (p. 270)
Strait of Gibraltar Passage connecting Mediterranean Sea to the
Atlantic Ocean. (p. 268)
Strait of Hormuz Strait between the northern tip of Oman, the
southeastern Arabian Peninsula, and the southern coast of Iran.
(p. 412)
Strait of Malacca Ocean trade route running between Indonesia
and Malaysia, near Singapore. (p. 724)
(p. 192)
Sudan Northeast African country on the Red Sea. (p. 500)
Suriname Republic in South America. (p. 192)
Suva Capital of Fiji. 18°S 177°E (p. 794)
Swaziland (SWAH•zee•LAND) South African country west of
Mozambique. (p. 500)
Sweden Northern European country on the eastern side of the
Scandinavian Peninsula. (p. 270)
Switzerland (SWIHT•suhr•luhnd) European country in the Alps,
south of Germany. (p. 270)
Syr Dar’ya River in west-central Asia in Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan,
and Kazakhstan. (p. 412)
Syria (SIHR•ee•uh) Country in Asia on the eastern side of the
Mediterranean Sea. (p. 414)
T
Taipei (TY•PAY) Capital of Taiwan. 25°N 122°E (p. 656)
Taiwan (TY•WAHN) Island country off the southeast coast of
China, claimed by China. 24°N 122°E (p. 656)
Tajikistan (tah•JIH•kih•STAN) Central Asian country north of
Afghanistan. (p. 414)
Taklimakan Desert in western China. (p. 654)
Tallinn (TA•luhn) Capital and largest city of Estonia. 59°N 25°E
(p. 270)
Tanzania (TAN•zuh•NEE•uh) East African country on the coast of
the Indian Ocean. (p. 500)
Tashkent Capital of Uzbekistan. 41°N 69°E (p. 62)
Tasman Sea Part of the south Pacific Ocean between Australia
and New Zealand. (p. 792)
Taurus Mountains Mountain range in southern Turkey. (p. 412)
Tbilisi (tuh•BEE•luh•see) Capital of the Republic of Georgia.
42°N 45°E (p. 414)
Tegucigalpa (tuh•GOO•suh•GAL•puh) Capital of Honduras.
14°N 87°W (p. 192)
Tehran (TAY•RAN) Capital of Iran. 36°N 52°E (p. 73)
Thailand (TY•LAND) Southeast Asian country south of Myanmar.
(p. 726)
Thames (TEHMZ) River River in southern England that flows into
the North Sea. (p. 268)
Thar Desert Region of sandy desert in northwest India and
southeast Pakistan. (p. 582)
Thimphu (thihm•POO) Capital of Bhutan. 28°N 90°E (p. 584)
Tian Shan Mountain range in western China. (p. 654)
Tierra del Fuego Archipelago off southern South America. 54°N
68°W (p. 190)
Tiranë (tih•RAH•nuh) Capital of Albania. 42°N 20°E (p. 270)
Togo West African country between Benin and Ghana, on the Gulf
of Guinea. (p. 500)
Tokyo Capital of Japan. 36°N 140°E (p. 62)
Tonga South Pacific island country. 20°S 175°W (p. 794)
Trinidad and Tobago • Zimbabwe
Trinidad and Tobago (TRIH•nih•DAD tuh•BAY•goh) Independent
Vistula River River in southwestern Poland that flows north into
republic comprising the islands of Trinidad and Tobago, located
in the Atlantic Ocean off the northeast coast of Venezuela.
11°N 61°W (p. 192)
Tripoli Capital of Libya. 33°N 13°E (p. 414)
Tshwane (Pretoria) Administrative capital of the Republic of South
Africa. 26°S 28°E (p. 500)
Tunis Capital of Tunisia. 37°N 10°E (p. 414)
Tunisia (too•NEE•zhuh) North African country on the
Mediterranean Sea between Libya and Algeria. (p. 414)
Turkey Country in southeastern Europe and western Asia. (p. 414)
Turkmenistan (tuhrk•MEH•nuh•STAN) Central Asian country on
the Caspian Sea. (p. 414)
Tuvalu Independent island group in the western Pacific Ocean.
8°S 178°E (p. 794)
the Baltic Sea. (p. 268)
Volga River River in western Russia that flows south into the
Caspian Sea. (p. 348)
U
W
Warsaw Capital of Poland. 52°N 21°E (p. 270)
Washington, D.C. Capital of the United States, near the Atlantic
coast. 39°N 77°W (p. 62)
Wellington Capital of New Zealand. 41°S 175°E (p. 794)
Western Ghats Mountain range in southern India. (p. 582)
Western Sahara Territory in Northwest Africa. (p. 414)
West Siberian Plain Area of flat land that stretches from the Arctic
Ocean to the grasslands of Central Asia. (p. 348)
Windhoek (VIHNT•HUK) Capital of Namibia, in southwestern
Africa. 22°S 17°E (p. 500)
X
Uganda (oo•GAHN•duh) East African country south of Sudan.
V
Vanuatu (vahn•wah•TOO) Country made up of islands in the
Xi (SHEE) River River in southeast China, known in its upper
course as the Hongshui. (p. 654)
Y
Yablonovyy Range Mountain range in southern Russia. (p. 348)
Yamoussoukro (YAH•muh•SOO•kroh) Second capital of Côte
d’Ivoire, in western Africa. 7°N 6°W (p. 500)
Yangon (Rangoon) Former capital of Myanmar. 17°N 96°E
(p. 726) See also Nay Pyi Taw
Yaoundé (yown•DAY) Capital of Cameroon, in western Africa.
4°N 12°E (p. 500)
Yellow Sea Large inlet of the Pacific Ocean between northeast
China and the Korean Peninsula. (p. 654)
Yemen (YEH•muhn) Country on the Arabian Peninsula, south of
Saudi Arabia. (p. 414)
Yenisey River A river in western Russia that flows north into the
Kara Sea. (p. 348)
Yerevan (YEHR•uh•VAHN) Former capital and largest city of
Armenia. 40°N 44°E (p. 414)
Yucatán Peninsula Peninsula including parts of southeastern
Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala in Central America. (p. 190)
Yukon River River in the Yukon Territory, Canada. (p. 120)
Pacific Ocean, east of Australia. 17°S 170°W (p. 794)
Z
Vatican (VA•tih•kuhn) City Headquarters of the Roman Catholic
Church, located in the city of Rome, Italy. 42°N 13°E (p. 270)
Venezuela Republic in northern South America. (p. 192)
Verkhoyanski Mountains Mountain range in northeastern Russia,
just east of the Lena River. (p. 348)
Vienna Capital of Austria. 48°N 16°E (p. 270)
Vientiane (vyehn•TYAHN) Capital of Laos. 18°N 103°E (p. 726)
Vietnam Southeast Asian country, east of Laos and Cambodia. (p. 726)
Vindhya Range Mountain range in central India. (p. 582)
GAZETTEER
(p. 500)
Ukraine (yoo•KRAYN) Large eastern European country west of
Russia, on the Black Sea. (p. 270)
Ulaanbaatar (OO•LAHN•BAH•TAWR) Capital of Mongolia.
48°N 107°E (p. 656)
United Arab Emirates Country of seven states on the eastern side
of the Arabian Peninsula. (p. 414)
United Kingdom Country in western Europe made up of England,
Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. (p. 270)
United States Country in North America located between Canada
and Mexico. (p. 122)
Ural Mountains Mountain range in Russia that marks the
traditional boundary between European Russia and Asian
Russia. (p. 348)
Ural River River in eastern Europe and western Asia, originating
in the Ural Mountains. (p. 348)
Uruguay (UR•uh•GWY) South American country, south of Brazil
on the Atlantic Ocean. (p. 192)
Uzbekistan (uz•BEH•kih•STAN) Central Asian country south of
Kazakhstan. (p. 414)
Zagreb Capital and largest city of Croatia. 46°N 16°E (p. 270)
Zagros Mountains Mountain system in southern and southwestern
Iran. (p. 412)
Zambezi River River in south-central Africa. (p. 498)
Zambia (ZAM•bee•uh) Country in south-central Africa, east of
Angola. (p. 500)
Zimbabwe (zim•BAH•bwee) Country in south-central Africa,
southeast of Zambia. (p. 500)
R37
Glossary/Glosario
• Content vocabulary terms in this glossary are words that relate to geography content. They are
highlighted yellow in your text.
• Words below that have an asterisk (*) are academic vocabulary terms. They help you understand
your school subjects and are boldface in your text.
ENGLISH
ESPAÑOL
A
aborigine an area’s original inhabitants (p. 677)
aborigen habitante originario de una región (p. 677)
absolute location the exact position of a place on the Earth’s surface
ubicación absoluta la posición exacta de un lugar en la superficie de la
(p. 8)
accretion a slow process in which a sea plate slides under a continental
plate, creating debris that can cause continents to grow outward (p. 37)
acculturation cultural modification of an individual, group, or people by
adapting to or borrowing traits from another culture (p. 685)
Tierra (p. 8)
acrecentamiento un proceso lento en el cual una plataforma marina se
desliza por debajo de una plataforma continental, cuyos deshechos
pueden causar que los continentes crezcan hacia fuera (p. 37)
aculturación modificación cultural de un individuo, grupo o personas
mediante la adaptación o la apropiación de características de otra cultura
(p. 685)
*accumulate to gather or pile up, especially little by little (p. 132)
*acumular juntar, reunir (p. 132)
*achievement a result brought about by effort (p. 308)
*logro el resultado obtenido por un esfuerzo (p. 308)
acid deposition wet or dry airborne acids that fall to the earth (p. 332)
deposición ácida ácidos secos o húmedos transportados por el viento que
acid rain precipitation carrying large amounts of dissolved acids which
lluvia ácida precipitación formada por grandes cantidades de ácidos
caen a la tierra (p. 332)
damages buildings, forests, and crops, and kills wildlife (p. 174)
disueltos, la cual produce daños en edificios, bosques y cosechas y mata
la fauna (p. 174)
*acquire to get as one’s own; to come into possession or control of (p. 380) *adquirir ganar, conseguir a menudo por propio esfuerzo (p. 380)
*adapt to make fit for a specific use or situation (p. 210)
*adaptar acomodar, ajustar algo para una situación o uso especifico
(p. 210)
*adequate sufficient for a specific requirement (p. 528)
*adecuado suficiente para un requisito específico (p. 528)
*affect to produce an effect upon (p. 51)
*afectar producir alteración o efecto en algo (p. 51)
*aid means of assistance (p. 381)
*ayuda medios de asistencia (p. 381)
alluvial plain floodplain, such as the Gangetic Plain in South Asia, on which
llanura aluvial llanura en la que los ríos inundados han depositado tierra
flooding rivers have deposited rich soil (p. 592)
alluvial soil rich soil made up of sand and mud deposited by running
water (p. 426)
*alter to change partly but usually not completely (p. 22)
fértil, como en la Llanura Gangética en el Asia Meridional (p. 592)
tierra aluvial tierra rica compuesta de arena y lodo depositada por aguas
corrientes (p. 426)
*alterar cambiar algo parcialmente pero por lo general no completamente
(p. 22)
*alternate occurring or following by turns (p. 741)
*alternar que ocurre o continúa por turnos (p. 741)
*alternative offering or expressing a choice (p. 767)
*alternativa que ofrece o expresa una opción (p. 767)
altiplano Spanish for “high plain,” a region in Peru and Bolivia encircled by
altiplano en español “planicie alta”, una región en Perú y Bolivia rodeada
the Andes peaks (p. 204)
*amendment in U.S. history, an official change made to the Constitution
(p. 151)
animism belief that spirits inhabit natural objects and forces of nature
(p. 80)
Constitución (p. 151)
animismo creencia en la existencia de espíritus que animan las cosas y las
fuerzas de la naturaleza (p. 80)
*annual occurring once a year (p. 287)
*anual que ocurre una vez al año (p. 287)
apartheid policy of strict separation of the races adopted in South Africa in
apartheid política de estricta separación racial adoptada en Sudáfrica en
the 1940s (p. 547)
R38
por la Cordillera de los Andes (p. 204)
*enmienda en la historia de EE.UU, cambios oficiales hechos a la
1940 (p. 547)
apparent • biomass
ENGLISH
ESPAÑOL
*apparent clear to the understanding (p. 252)
*aparente que se muestra claro a la comprensión (p. 252)
*approach to come near or nearer (p. 31)
*aproximarse acercarse, llegar más cerca (p. 31)
aquaculture the cultivation of seafood (p. 135)
acuicultura o piscicultura la producción o cultivo de especies acuáticas
(p. 135)
aquifer underground water-bearing layers of porous rock, sand, or gravel
acuífero o aguas freáticas capas subterráneas de roca porosa, arena o
(p. 44)
grava que poseen agua en sus poros y fisuras (p. 44)
arable suitable for growing crops (p. 168)
arable tierra que se puede usar para cultivos (p. 168)
archipelago a group or chain of islands (p. 664)
archipiélago un conjunto o cadena de islas (p. 664)
*area a geographic region (p. 43)
*área una región geográfica (p. 43)
artesian well a bored well from which water flows up like a fountain
pozo artesiano pozo de gran profundidad, de donde el agua se eleva a la
(p. 803)
superficie como una fuente (p. 803)
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) a trade group whose members
Foro de Cooperación Económica de Asia — Pacífico (APEC) un grupo de
ensure that trade among the member countries is efficient and fair (p. 702)
comercio multilateral que asegura un intercambio eficiente y justo entre
sus miembros (p. 702)
*aspect the way in which something appears or may be regarded (p. 19)
*aspecto la manera en que algo se ve o se considera (p. 19)
*assembly a company of persons gathered for deliberation and legislation,
*asamblea reunión numerosa de personas para deliberar y legislar, rendir
worship, or entertainment (p. 102)
culto o entretenimiento (p. 102)
*assist to give support or aid (p. 24)
*asistir atender, prestar ayuda (p. 24)
*assistance the act of giving support or aid (p. 32)
*asistencia el acto de prestar ayuda o servir de ayuda (p. 32)
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) organization formed
Asociación de Naciones del Sudeste Asiático (ANSEA) organización
in 1967 to promote regional development and trade in Southeast Asia
(p. 770)
regional creada en 1967 para promover el desarrollo y el comercio
regional en el Sudeste Asiático (p. 770)
*asumir tomar para sí un asunto, aceptar (p. 453)
atheism the belief that there is no God (p. 373)
ateísmo la creencia de que no hay Dios (p. 373)
atmosphere a layer of gases that surrounds the Earth (p. 32)
atmósfera una capa de gases que rodea la Tierra (p. 32)
atoll ring-shaped island formed by coral building up along the rim of an
atolón isla en forma de aro formada por coral que se acumula al borde de
underwater volcano (p. 804)
un volcán submarino (p. 804)
*authority power to influence or command thought, opinion, or behavior
autoridad poder para ordenar o influenciar pensamiento, opinión o
(p. 101)
comportamiento (p. 101)
autocracy government in which one person rules with unlimited power and autocracia gobierno en el cual un solo individuo posee el poder y la
authority (p. 101)
autoridad para gobernar (p. 101)
*available present or ready for immediate use (p. 252)
*disponible fácil o posible de obtener, llegar a, o usar (p. 252)
avalanche large mass of ice, snow, or rock that slides down a mountainside
avalancha masa de hielo, nieve o roca que se desliza por la ladera de una
(p. 288)
ENGLISH/SPANISH GLOSSARY
*assume to take to or upon oneself (p. 453)
montaña (p. 288)
axis an imaginary line that runs through the center of the Earth between
eje una línea imaginaria que atraviesa por el centro de la Tierra entre el
the North and South Poles (p. 51)
Polo Norte y el Polo Sur (p. 51)
B
balkanization the division of a region into smaller regions that are often
hostile with each other (p. 314)
bedouin member of the nomadic desert peoples of North Africa and
Southwest Asia (p. 439)
balcanización la división de una región en regiones más pequeñas, que a
menudo son hostiles entre sí (p. 314)
beduino miembro de los pueblos nómadas del desierto de África
Septentrional y del sudoeste asiático (p. 439)
*benefit to be useful or profitable to (p. 109)
*beneficio ser útil o de provecho (p. 109)
bilingual speaking or using two languages (p. 153)
bilingüe que habla o usa dos idiomas (p. 153)
biomass plant and animal waste used especially as a source of fuel
biomasa desperdicio vegetal y animal que se utiliza como fuente de
(p. 630)
combustible (p. 630)
R39
biosphere • chinook
ENGLISH
ESPAÑOL
biosphere the part of the Earth where life exists (p. 32)
biosfera la parte de la Tierra donde existe la vida (p. 32)
birthrate the number of births per year for every 1,000 people (p. 71)
índice de natalidad el número de nacimientos por año por cada 1,000
black market illegal trade of scarce or illegal goods, usually sold at high
mercado negro lugar donde se realiza la venta clandestina e ilegal de
personas (p. 71)
prices (p. 391)
bienes o servicios por lo general a precios altos (p. 391)
blizzard a snowstorm with winds of more than 35 miles per hour,
ventisca una tormenta de nieve acompañada de fuertes vientos de más de
temperatures below freezing, and visibility of less than 1,320 feet for
3 hours or more (p. 142)
35 millas por hora, con temperatura bajo cero, y una visibilidad reducida
a menos de 1,320 pies durante 3 horas o más (p. 142)
Bolshevik a member of the communist party that seized power in Russia
bolcheviques miembro del partido comunista que tomó poder en Rusia
by the Revolution of November 1917 (p. 381)
durante la Revolución de noviembre 1917 (p. 381)
boomerang curved throwing stick used by Aborigines for hunting in
bumerang arma en forma de ángulo utilizada por los aborígenes de
Australia (p. 820)
Australia para cazar (p. 820)
brain drain the loss of highly educated and skilled workers to other
fuga de cerebros la emigración de profesionales y trabajadores altamente
countries (p. 228)
calificados hacia otros países (p. 228)
buffer state neutral territory between rival powers (p. 751)
estado neutral territorio neutral entre poderes rivales (p. 751)
C
campesino farmworker; generally, people who live and work in rural
areas (p. 243)
canopy top layer of a rain forest, where the tops of tall trees form a
continuous layer of leaves (p. 209)
campesino trabajador agrícola, generalmente persona que vive y trabaja
en áreas rurales (p. 243)
follaje o copa capa superior de la selva tropical, donde las puntas de los
árboles altos se juntan formando una capa continua de hojas (p. 209)
*capacity the ability to hold or contain (p. 481)
*capacidad la habilidad de sostener o contener (p. 481)
cardinal directions the four principal courses or routes of north, south,
puntos cardinales las cuatro direcciones principales derivadas del
east, and west (p. 10)
carrying capacity the population that an area will support without
undergoing deterioration (p. 565)
cartogram a map that presents statistical data by geographic distribution
(p. R18)
movimiento de rotación terrestre: Norte, Sur, Este y Oeste (p. 10)
capacidad máxima la población que un área puede soportar sin sufrir
deterioro (p. 565)
cartograma un mapa que representa datos estadísticos de acuerdo a su
distribución geográfica (p. R18)
cartographer one who makes maps (p. 5)
cartógrafo persona que hace mapas (p. 5)
cartography the science of mapmaking (p. 20)
cartografía la ciencia de hacer mapas (p. 20)
cash crop farm products grown to be sold or traded rather than used by
cosecha comercial cosecha agrícola cultivada para venderse o
the farm family (p. 243)
intercambiarse en lugar de usarse para la familia del agricultor (p. 243)
cataract a large waterfall (p. 512)
catarata un gran salto de agua (p. 512)
caudillo a Latin American political leader from the late 1800s to the present
caudillo un líder político latinoamericano que surge a finales de los años
day, often a military dictator (p. 219)
central business district the traditional business and commercial center of
a city or town, sometimes referred to as downtown (p. 167)
cereal any grain, such as barley, oats, or wheat, grown for food (p. 432)
1800 hasta el presente, con frecuencia un dictador militar (p. 219)
distrito central de negocios el centro tradicional de comercio y negocios
de una ciudad, a menudo conocido como el centro de la ciudad (p. 167)
cereal granos que se cultivan para alimento como la cebada, la avena o el
trigo (p. 432)
*challenge to make demands upon (p. 593)
*reto hacer demandas (p. 593)
*channel a long gutter, groove, or furrow (p. 751)
*canal un conducto largo, surco o carril (p. 751)
chaparral type of vegetation made up of dense forests of shrubs and short
chaparral tipo de vegetación compuesta de densos bosques de matorrales
trees, common in Mediterranean climates (p. 139)
*químico relativo a, usado en, o producido por la química (p. 326)
chernozem (cher•nuh•ZYAWM) rich, black topsoil found in the Northern
chernozem tipo de tierra o suelo negro y muy fértil que se encuentra en la
European Plain, especially in Russia and Ukraine (p. 357)
planicie del norte de Europa, especialmente en Rusia y Ucrania (p. 357)
chinampas floating farming islands made by the Aztec (p. 218)
chinampas islas flotantes para cultivos hechas por los aztecas (p. 218)
chinook seasonal warm wind that blows down the Rockies in late winter
chinuco viento cálido estacional que sopla por las Montañas Rocosas al
and early spring (p. 141)
R40
y arbustos, común en los climas mediterráneos (p. 139)
*chemical of, relating to, used in, or produced by chemistry (p. 326)
final del invierno y al principio de la primavera (p. 141)
Chipko • conflict
ENGLISH
Chipko India’s “tree-hugger” movement that protects forests through
reforestation and by supporting limited timber production (p. 638)
chlorofluorocarbon chemical substance, found mainly in liquid coolants,
that damages the Earth’s protective ozone layer (p. 709)
*circumstance a condition, fact, or event accompanying, conditioning, or
determining another (p. 313)
ESPAÑOL
chipco movimiento en la India en el cual la gente abraza árboles para
proteger los bosques, reforestándolos y limitando la tala (p. 638)
clorofluorocarbonos sustancias químicas que se hallan principalmente
en líquidos refrigerantes que dañan la capa de ozono la cual protege la
Tierra (p. 709)
*circunstancia una condición, hecho o evento que acompaña, condiciona,
o determina otro (p. 313)
*cite to quote by way of example, authority, or proof (p. 398)
*citar referir a manera de ejemplo, autoridad o prueba (p. 398)
city-state in ancient Greece, independent community consisting of a city
ciudad-estado en la antigua Grecia, comunidad independiente que
and the surrounding lands (p. 308)
consistía de una ciudad y las tierras circundantes (p. 308)
*civil of or relating to citizens (p. 547)
*civil de, o relativo a ciudadanos (p. 547)
clan tribal community or large group of people related to one another
clan comunidad tribal o grupo grande de personas con ascendencia común
(p. 528)
clear-cutting the removal of all trees in a stand of timber (p. 173)
(p. 528)
deforestación la pérdida o destrucción de los bosques para explotación
forestal (p. 173)
climate weather patterns typical for an area over a long period of time
(p. 51)
Cold War power struggle between the Soviet Union and the United States
after World War II (p. 297)
clima patrones del tiempo típicos de un área durante un largo período de
tiempo (p. 51)
Guerra Fría la lucha por el poder entre la Unión Soviética y Estados Unidos
después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial (p. 297)
*collapse to break down completely (p. 222)
*colapsar caerse, derrumbarse completamente (p. 222)
command economy system of resource management in which decisions
economía controlada sistema económico en el que las decisiones
about production and distribution of goods and services are made by a
central authority (p. 103)
commercial farming agriculture or aquaculture organized as a business
económicas acerca de la producción y la distribución están dirigidas y
controladas por una autoridad central (p. 103)
agricultura comercial agricultura organizada como un negocio (p. 557)
(p. 557)
mercancía bienes producidos para su venta (p. 168)
commune a collective farming community whose members share work and
comuna una comunidad agrícola colectiva cuyos miembros comparten el
products (p. 699)
communism society based on equality in which workers control industrial
production (p. 297)
*community people with common interests living in a particular area
(p. 72)
trabajo y los productos (p. 699)
comunismo sociedad basada en la igualdad en la que los trabajadores
controlarían la producción industrial (p. 297)
*comunidad gente vinculada por intereses comunes que vive en una región
determinada (p. 72)
compass rose a map tool that indicates direction (p. 10)
rosa de los vientos un instrumento del mapa que indica direcciones
*complex having many parts, details, ideas, or functions often related in a
*complejo que tiene muchas partes, detalles, ideas o funciones a menudo
(p. 10)
complicated way (p. 426)
*compound something formed by a union of elements or parts (p. 740)
ENGLISH/SPANISH GLOSSARY
commodity goods produced for sale (p. 168)
relacionadas de una manera complicada (p. 426)
*compuesto algo formado por la unión de varios elementos o partes
(p. 740)
*comprise to be included or made up of (p. 230)
*comprender constar de, consistir de (p. 230)
*computer a programmable electronic device that can store, retrieve, and
*computador sistema electrónico programable capaz de almacenar,
process data (p. 325)
recobrar y procesar información (p. 325)
*concentrate to gather into one body, mass, or force (p. 307)
*concentrar reunir en un solo cuerpo, masa o fuerza (p. 307)
*concept an abstract or generic idea generalized from particular instances
*concepto una noción o idea abstracta generalizada de instancias
(p. 755)
condensation the process of excess water vapor changing into liquid water
when warm air cools (p. 42)
particulares (p. 755)
condensación el proceso del cambio de vapor de agua en agua líquida
cuando el aire caliente se enfría (p. 42)
*conduct to direct or take part in operation or management of (p. 109)
*conducir dirigir o llevar a cabo una actividad u operación (p. 109)
*confirm to validate or remove doubt about (p. 613)
*confirmar revalidar o asegurar lo ya aprobado (p. 613)
*conflict competition, struggle, fight, battle, or war (p. 253)
*conflicto combate, lucha, pelea (p. 253)
R41
conic projection • cultural convergence
ENGLISH
conic projection a map of the Earth created by placing a cone over part of
an Earth model (p. 6)
coniferous referring to vegetation having cones and needle-shaped leaves,
including many evergreens, that keep their foliage throughout the winter
(p. 62)
conquistador Spanish term for “conqueror,” referring to soldiers who
conquered Native Americans in Latin America (p. 219)
conservation farming a land-management technique that helps protect
farmland (p. 559)
ESPAÑOL
proyección cónica proyección que se forma poniendo un cono sobre la
esfera (p. 6)
coníferas árboles que tienen conos y hojas en forma de aguja, incluyendo
muchos siempre verdes que mantienen su follaje durante el invierno
(p. 62)
conquistador término español para referirse a los soldados que
conquistaron a los indígenas de Latinoamérica (p. 219)
agricultura de conservación técnica de administración de la tierra que
ayuda a proteger la tierra agrícola (p. 559)
*consist to be composed or made up of (p. 61)
*consistir estar compuesto o formado por una cosa (p. 61)
*constant occurring over and over again (p. 35)
*constante que ocurre continuamente, una y otra vez (p. 35)
consumer goods products and services that directly satisfy human wants
bienes de consumo bienes que satisfacen directamente los deseos
(p. 391)
contact to establish communication, especially with someone or something
humanos (p. 391)
contacto establecer comunicación con algo o alguien distante (p. 301)
distant (p. 301)
continental drift the theory that the continents were once joined and then
slowly drifted apart (p. 35)
continental shelf the part of a continent that extends underwater (p. 33)
movimiento continental la teoría que propone que los continentes
estuvieron unidos y se fueron separando lentamente a sus posiciones
actuales (p. 35)
plataforma continental la parte de un continente que se extiende bajo el
agua (p. 33)
continentality the effect of extreme variations in temperature and very
little precipitation within the interior portions of a landmass (p. 362)
*contrast the difference or degree of difference between things having
similar or comparable natures (p. 51)
continentalidad el efecto de extremas variaciones en temperatura y muy
poca precipitación dentro de las regiones de tierra continental (p. 362)
*contraste diferencia o grado de diferencia entre cosas de similar o
comparable naturaleza (p. 51)
*contribute to give or supply (p. 396)
*contribuir dar o pagar (p. 396)
*conversion a change in nature, form, or units (p. 173)
*conversión transformación o cambio en naturaleza, forma o unidades
(p. 173)
*cooperative able and willing to work with others (p. 174)
*cooperativo deseoso de cooperar (p. 174)
cooperative a voluntary organization whose members work together and
cooperativa una organización voluntaria cuyos miembros trabajan juntos y
share expenses and profits (p. 699)
coral limestone deposits formed from the skeletons of tiny sea creatures
(p. 803)
coral depósitos de piedra caliza formados por los esqueletos pequeños de
animales marinos (p. 803)
cordillera parallel chains or ranges of mountains (p. 204)
cordillera cadenas de montañas paralelas (p. 204)
core the innermost layer of the Earth. Made up of a super-hot but solid
centro la capa más interna de la Tierra. Formada por un núcleo interior
inner core and a liquid outer core (p. 35)
Coriolis effect the resulting diagonal movement, either north or south, of
prevailing winds caused by the Earth’s rotation (p. 56)
sumamente caliente pero sólido y un núcleo exterior líquido (p. 35)
efecto coriolis un efecto de la rotación de la Tierra que causa que los
vientos soplen diagonalmente en vez de sus líneas normales norte/sur
o este/oeste (p. 56)
cottage industry a business that employs workers in their homes (p. 630)
industria casera un negocio que emplea trabajadores en sus casas (p. 630)
coup d’état a violent overthrow of the government (p. 547)
golpe de estado derrocamiento violento de un gobierno (p. 547)
*create to bring into existence (p. 56)
*crear producir algo de la nada, dar vida (p. 56)
*crucial important; significant (p. 133)
*crucial importante, significativo (p. 133)
crude oil unrefined petroleum (p. 476)
petróleo crudo petróleo no refinado (p. 476)
Crusades series of religious wars (A.D. 1100–1300) in which European
Cruzadas serie de guerras religiosas (1100–1300 D.C.) en las que los
Christians tried to retake Palestine from Muslim rule (p. 301)
R42
comparten los gastos y las ganancias (p. 699)
cristianos europeos trataron de recuperar Palestina del control musulmán
(p. 301)
crust the rocky shell forming the Earth’s surface (p. 35)
corteza la capa rocosa que forma la superficie de la Tierra (p. 35)
cultural convergence the mixing of cultures (p. 683)
convergencia cultural la mezcla de culturas (p. 683)
cultural diffusion • desertification
ENGLISH
ESPAÑOL
cultural diffusion the spread of new knowledge and skills from one culture
difusión cultural la difusión de conocimientos y costumbres de una cultura
to another (p. 78)
a otra (p. 78)
cultural divergence separation of people or societies, with regard to
divergencia cultural separación cultural debido a marcadas diferencias en
beliefs, values, and customs, because of distinctly different political
systems (p. 689)
los sistemas políticos (p. 689)
culture way of life of a group of people who share beliefs and similar
cultura modo de vida de un grupo de gente que comparte creencias y
customs (p. 76)
costumbres similares (p. 76)
culture hearth a center where cultures developed and from which ideas
hogar de la cultura un centro donde las culturas se desarrollan y desde el
and traditions spread outward (pp. 78, 452)
cual se difunden las ideas y tradiciones (pp. 78, 452)
culture region division of the Earth based on a variety of factors, including
región cultural división de la Tierra basada en una variedad de factores
government, social groups, economic systems, language, or religion
(p. 77)
que incluyen el gobierno, los grupos sociales, los sistemas económicos, el
lenguaje o la religión (p. 77)
cuneiform Sumerian writing system using wedge-shaped symbols pressed
cuneiforme sistema de escritura sumeria que usa símbolos en forma de
into clay tablets (p. 452)
cuñas hundidas en tabletas de arcilla (p. 452)
current cold or warm stream of seawater that flows in the oceans,
corriente corriente de agua de mar fría o cálida que fluye en los océanos,
generally in a circular pattern (p. 57)
por lo general en forma circular (p. 57)
*cycle an interval of time during which a sequence of a recurring
*ciclo intervalo de tiempo durante el cual una secuencia de eventos o
succession of events or phenomena is completed (p. 331)
fenómenos se repiten (p. 331)
cyclone storm with heavy rains and high winds that blow in a circular
ciclón tormenta con lluvias y vientos fuertes que sopla en círculo alrededor
pattern around an area of low atmospheric pressure (p. 599)
de un área de baja presión atmosférica (p. 599)
cylindrical projection a map of Earth created by projecting Earth’s image
proyección cilíndrica una proyección geográfica en la que usa un cilindro
onto a cylinder (p. 6)
tangente a la esfera terrestre, siendo el ecuador el paralelo de contacto
(p. 6)
czar ruler of Russia until the 1917 revolution (p. 379)
zar el emperador de Rusia hasta la revolución de 1917 (p. 379)
D
dalits los oprimidos; clase social más baja de la India (p. 640)
(p. 640)
death rate the number of deaths per year for every 1,000 people (p. 71)
tasa de mortalidad el número de muertes por año por cada 1000
deciduous falling off or shed seasonally or periodically; trees such as oak
deciduo describe árboles, usualmente de follaje ancho como los robles y
personas (p. 71)
and maple, which lose their leaves in autumn (p. 62)
arces que pierden las hojas en el otoño (p. 62)
*decline a change to a lower state or level (p. 168)
*declinar un cambio o descenso a un nivel o estado más bajo (p. 168)
*define to set forth the meaning of (p. 430)
*definir fijar o enmarcar el significado de algo (p. 430)
deforestation the loss or destruction of forests, mainly for logging or
deforestación la pérdida o destrucción de los bosques, debido
farming (p. 251)
delta alluvial deposit at a river’s mouth that looks like the Greek letter
delta (Δ) (p. 513)
ENGLISH/SPANISH GLOSSARY
Dalits the “oppressed”; in India, people assigned to the lowest social class
principalmente a la tala de árboles para explotación forestal o agricultura
(p. 251)
delta sección triangular de tierra que se forma en la boca de un río y que
se parece a la letra griega delta (p. 513)
democracy any system of government in which leaders rule with consent of democracia un sistema de gobierno en el cual los líderes gobiernan con el
the citizens (p. 102)
demographic transition the model that uses birthrates and death rates to
show changes in the population trends of a country or region (p. 71)
consentimiento de los ciudadanos (p. 102)
transición demográfica modelo que usa las tasas de natalidad y
mortalidad para mostrar cambios en las tendencias de la población de un
país o región (p. 71)
*deny to refuse to grant (p. 547)
*negar refutar, contradecir, no dar (p. 547)
*deregulate to remove restrictions and regulations (p. 630)
*desregularizar el acto o proceso de liberalizar restricciones y regulaciones
(p. 630)
desalination the removal of salt from seawater to make it usable for
drinking and farming (p. 43)
desertification process in which arable land is turned into desert (p. 512)
desalinización la eliminación de la sal del agua de mar para que se pueda
usar para beber y en la agricultura (p. 43)
desertificación proceso en el cual la tierra arable se vuelve desierto (p. 512)
R43
design • dzong
ENGLISH
ESPAÑOL
*design to create for a specific function or end (p. 677)
*diseñar crear para una función o fin específico (p. 677)
*despite in spite of (p. 699)
*a pesar de pese a (p. 699)
developed country country that has a great deal of technology and
país desarrollado país que tiene un gran avance en tecnología y
manufacturing (p. 108)
developing country country in the process of becoming industrialized
manufactura (p. 108)
país en vías de desarrollo país en el proceso de industrialización (p. 108)
(p. 108)
*devote to set apart for a special purpose (p. 837)
*dedicar asignar, destinar algo para un propósito especial (p. 837)
dharma in Hinduism, a person’s moral duty, based on class distinctions,
dharma en hinduismo, el deber moral que guía la vida de una persona, de
which guides his or her life (p. 608)
dialect local form of a language used in a particular place or by a certain
group (p. 225)
acuerdo a las diferencias de clase (p. 608)
dialecto variedad local de un lenguaje usado en un lugar en particular,
o por cierto grupo (p. 225)
dike large bank of earth and stone that holds back water (p. 282)
dique banco grande de tierra y piedras que detiene el agua (p. 282)
*diminish to make less or cause to appear less (p. 777)
*disminuir recortar, aminorar, hacer que parezca menos (p. 777)
*discrimination prejudiced or prejudicial outlook, action, or treatment
*discriminación prejuicio u opinión, acción o tratamiento generalmente
(p. 149)
negativo (p. 149)
*displace to remove from the usual or proper place (p. 527)
*desplazar mover a una persona o cosa del lugar en que está, trasladar
*display to put or spread out for view (p. 805)
*exhibir colocar a la vista, mostrar, presentar (p. 805)
*disposal a getting rid of or putting out of the way (p. 333)
*eliminación supresión o expulsión de algo, deshacerse (p. 333)
dissident a citizen who speaks out against government policies (p. 703)
disidente un ciudadano que habla en contra de las políticas del gobierno
(p. 527)
(p. 703)
*distinct discrete; separate (p. 139)
*distinto discreto, muy aparte, separado (p. 139)
*distribute to divide among several or many (p. 243)
*distribuir dividir, repartir entre varios o muchos (p. 243)
*diverse differing from one another (p. 222)
*diverso que difiere del uno al otro (p. 222)
divide a high point or ridge that determines the direction rivers flow
bifurcación un punto alto o cresta que determina la dirección en la que
(p. 132)
*document a written or printed paper giving information about or proof of
something (p. 683)
doldrums a frequently windless area near the Equator (p. 57)
fluyen los ríos (p. 132)
*documento un papel escrito o impreso que contiene información o
prueba de algo (p. 683)
zona de calmas ecuatoriales región con vientos suaves, llamados calmas
cerca del Ecuador (p. 57)
*domestic relating to, made in, or done in one’s own country (p. 170)
*doméstico relativo a, hecho en, o producido en un país en particular,
nacional (p. 170)
domesticate to adapt plants and animals from the wild to make them
useful to people (p. 440)
domesticar el tomar plantas y animales silvestres para adaptarlos y
hacerlos útiles para la gente (p. 440)
*dominant commanding, controlling, or prevailing over all others (p. 458)
*dominante que controla, sobresale, prevalece sobre otros (p. 458)
*dominate to have a commanding position in (p. 209)
*dominar tener una posición dominante sobre personas o cosas (p. 209)
dominion a partially self-governing country with close ties to another
dominio un país con gobierno propio parcial y con ligas cercanas a otro
country (p. 158)
doubling time the number of years it takes a population to double in size
(p. 71)
*dramatic remarkable, conspicuous, or striking in appearance or effect
país (p. 158)
tiempo de duplicación el número de años que le toma a una población
duplicar su tamaño (p. 71)
*dramático espectacular, que llama la atención (p. 664)
(p. 664)
dry farming farming method used in dry regions in which land is plowed
and planted deeply to hold water in the soil (p. 331)
dynasty a ruling house or continuing family of rulers, especially in China
(p. 678)
dzong a fortified monastery of Bhutan, South Asia (p. 620)
R44
agricultura seca método de agricultura usado en regiones secas donde
la tierra se ara y se siembra profundo para retener el agua en la tierra
(p. 331)
dinastía una casa gobernante o la continuación de una familia de
gobernantes, especialmente en China (p. 678)
dzong un monasterio fortificado de Bután, Asia Meridional (p. 620)
Eastern Hemisphere • establish
ENGLISH
ESPAÑOL
E
Eastern Hemisphere the part of Earth east of the Atlantic Ocean including
Europe, Asia, Australia, and Africa; longitudes 20°W and 160°E often
considered its boundaries (p. 9)
hemisferio oriental la parte de la Tierra al este del Océano Atlántico que
incluye Europa, Asia, Australia y África; las longitudes 20° W y 160° E son
a menudo consideradas sus límites (p. 9)
e-commerce selling and buying on the Internet (p. 561)
comercio electrónico comprar y vender en el Internet (p. 561)
*economic of, relating to, or based on the production, distribution, and
*económico relativo a, o basado en la producción, distribución, y consumo
consumption of goods and services (p. 475)
de bienes y servicios (p. 475)
economic sanction trade restriction (p. 703)
sanción económica restrición de comercio (p. 703)
ecosystem the complex community of interdependent living things in a
ecosistema compleja comunidad de seres vivos interdependientes en un
given environment (p. 19)
ecotourism the practice and business of recreational travel based on
concern for the environment (p. 568)
medio ambiente específico (p. 19)
ecoturismo turismo basado en la preocupación por el medio ambiente
(p. 568)
elevation the height above the level of the sea (p. 12)
elevación parte más alta de alguna cosa (p. 12)
El Niño a periodic reversal of the pattern of ocean currents and water
El Niño un cambio total periódico del patrón de las corrientes del océano y
temperatures in the mid-Pacific region (p. 58)
El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) a seasonal weather event that can
cause droughts in Australia and powerful cyclones in the South Pacific
(p. 845)
las temperaturas del agua en la región del Pacífico medio (p. 58)
El Niño-oscilación del sur un cambio en el clima de temporada que puede
causar sequías en Australia y poderosos ciclones en el Pacífico Sur
(p. 845)
embargo a ban on trade (p. 453)
embargo una prohibición en el comercio (p. 453)
*emerge to rise from an obscure or inferior position or condition (p. 531)
*emerger surgir o salir de una posición o condición oscura o inferior
(p. 531)
emir a prince or ruler in Islamic countries (p. 458)
emir príncipe o gobernante en los países islámicos (458)
*enable to make possible, practical, or easy (p. 364)
*permitir hacer algo posible, práctico o fácil (p. 364)
enclave a region or community (as within a country or city) made up of
enclave una región o comunidad (dentro de un país o ciudad) compuesta
endemic native plant or animal species (p. 741)
de gente de diferente raza o cultura (p. 464)
endémico especies de plantas o animales nativos de un área particular
(p. 741)
*energy usable power (p. 475)
*energía fuerza usable (p. 475)
Enlightenment a movement during the 1700s that emphasized the
Iluminación un movimiento a principios de los años 1700 que enfatizaba la
importance of reason and questioned traditions and values (p. 297)
importancia de la razón y cuestionaba las tradiciones y valores (p. 297)
*enormous gigantic; exceedingly large (p. 133)
*enorme gigante, excesivamente grande (p. 133)
*ensure to make sure, certain, or safe (p. 106)
*asegurar afirmar la certeza o seguridad de algo (p. 106)
*environmental of or relating to the environment or surroundings,
*medioambiental de, o relacionado al medioambiente o sus alrededores
circumstances, and conditions (p. 708)
environmentalist person actively concerned with the quality and
protection of the environment (p. 333)
Equator the parallel of 0 degrees latitude from which other latitudes are
calculated (p. 8)
ENGLISH/SPANISH GLOSSARY
people of a different race or cultural background (p. 464)
(p. 708)
ambientalista persona activamente preocupada por la calidad y la
protección del medio ambiente (p. 333)
ecuador o paralelo cero el paralelo de 0 grados de latitud desde donde se
calculan otras latituds (p. 8)
equinox one of two days (about March 21 and September 23) on which the equinoccio uno de dos días (alrededor del 21 marzo y del 23 de
sun is directly above the Equator, making day and night equal in length
(p. 51)
septiembre) en que el Sol está directamente encima del ecuador,
haciendo que el día y la noche sean de igual duración (p. 51)
*erode to diminish or destroy by degrees (p. 591)
*erosionar desgastar o destruir en grados (p. 591)
erosion wearing away of the Earth’s surface by wind, flowing water, or
erosión el desgaste de la superficie de la Tierra por el viento, el fluir del
glaciers (p. 39)
escarpment steep cliff or slope between a higher and lower land surface
(p. 204)
*establish to institute permanently by enactment or agreement (p. 821)
agua o los glaciares (p. 39)
escarpa risco empinado o pendiente entre una superficie de tierra alta y
otra más baja (p. 204)
*establecer instituir permanentemente bajo promulgación o acuerdo
(p. 821)
R45
estimate • fauna
ENGLISH
*estimate to judge approximately the value, significance, size, or nature of
(p. 358)
estuary an area where the tide meets a river current (p. 513)
ESPAÑOL
*estimar evaluar tentativamente o aproximadamente el valor o importancia
de (p. 358)
estuario área en donde la marea se encuentra con la corriente de un río
(p. 513)
*ethnic of or relating to races or large groups of people classed according
to common traits and customs (p. 371)
ethnic cleansing the expelling from a country or killing of rival ethnic
groups (p. 315)
ethnic group group of people who share common ancestry, language,
religion, customs, or a combination of such characteristics (pp. 77, 371)
European Union an organization whose goal is to unite Europe so that
goods, services, and workers can move freely among member countries
(p. 297)
eutrophication process by which a body of water becomes too rich in
dissolved nutrients, leading to plant growth that depletes oxygen (p. 175)
*étnico de o relacionado a las razas o grandes grupos de personas
clasificados según las características y las costumbres que comparten
(p. 371)
purificación de raza la expulsión de un país o matanza entre grupos
étnicos rivales (p. 315)
grupo étnico un grupo de personas que comparten una ascendencia
común, lengua, religión, costumbres o una combinación de estas
características (pp. 77, 371)
Unión Europea organización cuya meta es unificar a Europa para que los
bienes, servicios y trabajadores puedan moverse libremente entre todos
los países miembros (p. 297)
eutroficación el proceso por el cual un cuerpo de agua se enriquece con
nutrientes disueltos causando un abundante crecimiento de plantas que
agotan el oxígeno (p. 175)
evaporation process of converting into vapor (p. 42)
evaporación proceso de convertir un líquido en vapor o gas (p. 42)
*eventual at an unspecified later time (p. 157)
*eventual en algún momento posterior no específico (p. 157)
*evident clear to the sight or mind (p. 375)
*evidente claro a la vista o a la mente (p. 375)
*exceed to be greater than or superior to (p. 61)
*exceder ser más grande que o superior a (p. 61)
exclave distinct group of people who are isolated from the main or larger
exclave un grupo de gente con características propias que vive aislada de
part of a country (p. 465)
la parte central de un país (p. 465)
*expansion an increase in extent, number, volume, or scope (p. 150)
*expansión extender, mover a través (p. 150)
*expert one with the special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a
*experto persona con especial habilidad o conocimiento que representa
particular subject (p. 685)
export a commodity sent from one country to another for purposes of
trade (p. 243)
*exposure the fact or condition of being open to view, known, or
dominio en cierta materia (p. 685)
exportación mercancías que se venden o se envían de un país a otro con
fines comerciales (p. 243)
*exposición condición o hecho de estar expuesto (p. 431)
unprotected (p. 431)
extended family household made up of several generations of family
members (p. 220)
parentela conjunto de parientes de una persona compuesto de varias
generaciones (p. 220)
*external arising or acting from the outside (p. 217)
*externo que obra o se manifiesta al exterior (p. 217)
extinction disappearance or end of an animal or plant species (p. 567)
extinción la desaparición o fin de una especie de animal o planta (p. 567)
*facility something (as a hospital) that is built, installed, or established to
*instalación algo (como un hospital) construido, instalado o establecido
serve a particular purpose (p. 607)
con un propósito específico (p. 607)
*factor one that actively contributes to the production of a result (p. 57)
*factor elemento condicionante que activamente contribuye a lograr un
fall line a boundary in the eastern United States where the higher land of
línea de caída una frontera en el este de Estados Unidos donde la tierra
resultado (p. 57)
the Piedmont drops to the lower Atlantic coastal plain (p. 133)
farm cooperative organization in which farmers share in growing and
selling farm products (p. 326)
cooperativa agrícola organización en la que los agricultores comparten el
cultivo y la venta de los productos agrícolas (p. 326)
fault a crack or break in the Earth’s crust (p. 37)
falla una grieta o hendidura en la corteza terrestre (p. 37)
faulting a process of cracking that occurs when folded land cannot be bent
formación de fallas proceso de resquebrajamiento que ocurre cuando la
any further (p. 38)
fauna the animal life of a region (p. 737)
R46
más alta de Piamonte cae a la planicie más baja de la costa Atlántica
(p. 133)
tierra ondeada no puede plegarse más (p. 38)
fauna conjunto de animales de una región (p. 737)
feature • geographic information systems
ENGLISH
ESPAÑOL
*feature the structure, form, or appearance of someone or something
*rasgo característica, estructura, forma o apariencia de alguien, o algo
(p. 33)
(p. 33)
federal system form of government in which powers are divided between
sistema federal forma de gobierno que divide los poderes de gobierno
the national government and the state or provincial government (p. 101)
entre gobierno nacional y estatal o local (p. 101)
*fee a fixed charge (p. 561)
*tarifa precio o un cargo fijo (p. 561)
feudalism in medieval Europe and Japan, a system of government in which
feudalismo sistema de gobierno durante la época medieval en Europa
powerful lords gave land to nobles in return for pledges of loyalty
(p. 296)
y Japón, en el cual los poderosos señores feudales daban tierras a los
nobles a cambio de su lealtad (p. 296)
*financial relating to money (p. 156)
*financiero relativo al dinero (p. 156)
fishery areas (freshwater or salt water) in which fish or sea animals are
pesquería zonas (de agua fresca o salada) donde se pescan peces u otros
caught (p. 135)
animales marinos (p. 135)
fjord (fee•YORD) long, steep-sided glacial valley now filled by seawater
fiordo valle glacial con largos acantilados llenos de agua de mar (p. 282)
(p. 282)
flora the plant life of a region (p. 737)
flora el conjunto de las plantas de una región (p. 737)
flow-line map map that shows the movement of people, animals, goods,
mapa de líneas de flujo mapa temático que representa las direcciones de
ideas, and physical processes like hurricanes and glaciers (p. 14)
movimiento de gente, animales, bienes, ideas, y procesos físicos como
huracanes y glaciares (p. 14)
*focus to concentrate attention or effort (p. 43)
*enfoque que está enfocado, centrado o concentrado (p. 43)
foehn (FUHN) dry wind that blows from the leeward sides of mountains,
fohn viento seco y cálido que sopla del lado sotavento de las montañas,
sometimes melting snow and causing avalanches; term used mainly in
Europe (p. 288)
a veces derrite la nieve y provoca avalanchas; el término se usa
predominantemente en Europa (p. 288)
fold a bend in layers of rock, sometimes caused by plate movement (p. 37)
pliegue un doblez en las capas de roca, a veces causado por el movimiento
de las plataformas (p. 37)
formal region a region defined by a common characteristic, such as
región formal una región definida por características comunes, tales como
production of a product (p. 18)
la fabricación de un producto (p. 18)
fossil fuel a resource formed in the earth by plant and animal remains
combustible fósil un recurso orgánico del subsuelo formado por restos de
plantas y animales (p. 134)
*framework basic supporting part or structure (p. 811)
*marco una parte básica de apoyo o estructura (p. 811)
free port port city, such as Singapore, where goods can be unloaded,
zona libre ciudad portuaria, como Singapur, donde los bienes se
stored, and reshipped without the payment of import duties (p. 769)
desembarcan, se almacenan y se vuelven a embarcar sin pago de
impuestos portuarios (p. 769)
free trade the removal of trade barriers so that goods can flow freely
libre comercio la eliminación de barreras comerciales para que los bienes
between countries (p. 109)
puedan circular libremente entre países (p. 109)
free trade zone an area of a country in which trade restrictions do not
zona de libre comercio el área de un país en la que no se aplican barreras
apply (p. 244)
comerciales (p. 244)
functional region a central place and the surrounding territory linked to it
ENGLISH/SPANISH GLOSSARY
(p. 134)
región funcional un lugar central y el territorio que le rodea ligado a éste
(p. 18)
(p. 18)
*fund to supply money for (p. 298)
*financiar suplir, proveer los fondos para algo (p. 298)
G
*generate to bring into existence (p. 593)
*generar crear o producir (p. 593)
*generation a group of individuals born and living at the same time
*generación un grupo de individuos nacidos y que viven en la misma
(p. 826)
genetically modified food food sources, the genes of which have
been altered to cause increase in size and speed of growth or greater
resistance to pests (p. 326)
geographic information systems (GIS) computer tools for processing and
organizing details and satellite images with other pieces of information
(p. 21)
época (p. 826)
alimentos genéticamente modificados alimento cuyos genes han sido
alterados deliberadamente a fin de que crezcan más grandes, más rápido
y más resistentes a las pestes (p. 326)
sistemas de información geográfica (SIG) instrumentos computarizados
para procesar y organizar detalles e imágenes de satélite con otra
información (p. 21)
R47
geometric boundary • hemisphere
ENGLISH
ESPAÑOL
geometric boundary a fixed limit or extent that follows straight lines
barreras geométricas fronteras que siguen líneas rectas (p. 441)
(p. 441)
glaciation the process whereby glaciers form and spread (p. 281)
formación de glaciares el proceso por el cual se forman y se extienden los
glaciares (p. 281)
glacier large body of ice that moves across the surface of the earth (p. 39)
glaciar grandes cuerpos de hielo que se mueven a través de la superficie
de la Tierra (p. 39)
glasnost Russian term for a new “openness” in areas of politics, social
glasnost término ruso para una nueva “apertura”; parte de los planes de la
issues, and media; part of Mikhail Gorbachev’s reform plans (p. 382)
reforma de Mikhail Gorbachev (p. 382)
*global of, relating to, or involving the entire world (p. 684)
*global relativo a, o que involucra al mundo entero (p. 684)
global economy the merging of resource management systems in which
economía global la unión de economías; países interrelacionados e
countries are interconnected and dependent on one another for goods
and services (p. 170)
interdependientes para el intercambio de bienes y servicios (p. 170)
global warming gradual warming of the Earth and its atmosphere that may
calentamiento global calentamiento gradual de la Tierra y su atmósfera
be caused in part by pollution and an increase in the greenhouse effect
(p. 53)
posiblemente causado en parte por la contaminación y un aumento del
efecto de invernadero (p. 53)
globe a spherical representation of the Earth (p. 5)
globo una representación esférica de la Tierra (p. 5)
glyph picture writing carved in stone (p. 218)
glifo escritura a base de dibujos esculpida en piedra (p. 218)
*grant to permit as a right, privilege, or favor (p. 757)
*otorgar permitir como un derecho, privilegio o favor (p. 757)
grazier person who raises sheep or cattle (p. 837)
ganadero persona que cría ganado ovejuno o vacuno (p. 837)
great circle route an imaginary line that follows the curve of the Earth and
ruta del circulo máximo una línea imaginaria que sigue la curva de la
represents the shortest distance between two points (p. 5)
Tierra y representa la distancia más corta entre dos puntos (p. 5)
green revolution program begun in the 1960s to produce higher-yielding,
revolución verde programa que se inicia en los años 60 para producir
more productive strains of wheat, rice, and other food crops (p. 629)
cepas de mayor rendimiento de trigo, arroz y otras cosechas de alimento
(p. 629)
greenhouse effect the capacity of certain gases in the atmosphere to trap
efecto invernadero la capacidad de ciertos gases en la atmósfera de
heat, thereby warming the Earth (p. 52)
atrapar el calor y hacer que la Tierra se caliente (p. 52)
grid system pattern formed as the lines of latitude and longitude cross one
sistema de cuadrícula patrón formado a medida que las líneas de latitud
another (p. 8)
y longitud se intersectan (p. 8)
gross domestic product (GDP) the value of goods and services created
producto interno bruto (PIB) el valor de los bienes y los servicios
within a country in a year (p. 244)
producidos dentro de un país en un año (p. 244)
groundwater water within the Earth that supplies wells and springs (p. 44)
agua subterránea agua que yace debajo de la superficie de la Tierra, que
abastece pozos y manantiales (p. 44)
guest worker a foreign laborer working temporarily in an industrialized,
trabajador huésped trabajador extranjero que trabaja temporalmente en
usually European, country (p. 300)
un país industrializado por lo general en Europa (p. 300)
guru a teacher or spiritual guide (p. 609)
gurú maestro o guía espiritual (p. 609)
H
habitat area with conditions suitable for certain plants or animals to live
(p. 567)
haiku form of Japanese poetry originally consisting of 17 syllables and
three lines, often about nature (p. 685)
animales puedan vivir y reproducirse (p. 567)
haiku forma de poesía japonesa que consiste de 17 sílabas y tres líneas,
con frecuencia trata de la naturaleza (p. 685)
hajj in Islam, the yearly pilgrimage to Makkah (p. 458)
hajj en el Islam, el peregrinaje anual a la Meca (p. 458)
harmattan a dust-laden wind on the Atlantic coast of Africa in some
harmattan viento caliente y seco cargado de arena que sopla en la costa
seasons (p. 517)
Atlántica de África en ciertas temporadas (p. 517)
headwater the source of a stream or river (p. 132)
cabeceras las fuentes de aguas de río (p. 132)
heavy industry the manufacture of machinery and equipment needed for
industria pesada la manufactura de maquinaria y equipo necesario para
factories and mines (p. 325)
hemisphere half of a sphere or globe, as in the Earth’s Northern and
Southern Hemispheres (p. 8)
R48
hábitat el ambiente con condiciones adecuadas para que ciertas plantas o
fábricas y minas (p. 325)
hemisferio la mitad de una esfera o globo, como en los hemisferios norte y
sur de la Tierra (p. 8)
hierarchical • industrial capitalism
ENGLISH
ESPAÑOL
*hierarchical of, relating to, or arranged in order of rank (p. 229)
*jerárquico relativo a la jerarquía, arreglado en orden de rango (p. 229)
hieroglyphic belonging to an ancient Egyptian writing system in which
jeroglíficos sistema de escritura egipcia que usa dibujos y símbolos para
pictures and symbols represent words or sounds (p. 440)
representar palabras o sonidos (p. 440)
Holocaust the mass killings of 6 million Jews by Germany’s Nazi leaders
holocausto el asesinato masivo de 6 millones de judíos por los líderes Nazi
during World War II (p. 302)
de Alemania durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial (p. 302)
homogeneous of the same or similar kind or nature (p. 682)
homogéneo de la misma clase o naturaleza (p. 682)
horticulture the science and art of growing fruits, vegetables, and plants
horticultura ciencia y arte de cultivar frutas, vegetales y plantas (p. 825)
(p. 825)
human-environment interaction the study of the interrelationship
interacción humana-ambiental el estudio de las interrelaciones de la
between people and their physical environment (p. 19)
gente con sus ambientes físicos (p. 19)
human-made made by humans rather than by nature (p. 13)
hecho por el hombre hecho por los humanos, no por la naturaleza o
máquinas (p. 13)
hurricane a large, powerful windstorm that forms over warm ocean waters
huracán una gran tormenta de vientos fuertes que se forma sobre las
(p. 139)
zonas tropicales del océano (p. 139)
hydroelectric power electrical energy generated by falling water (p. 205)
energía hidroeléctrica energía eléctrica generada por la caída del agua
hydrosphere the watery areas of the earth, including oceans, lakes, rivers,
hidrosfera áreas de la Tierra formada por océanos, lagos, ríos y otros
(p. 205)
and other bodies of water (p. 32)
cuerpos de agua (p. 32)
hypothesis a scientific explanation for an event (p. 64)
hipótesis una explicación científica para un evento (p. 64)
I
Ibadhism a conservative form of Islam distinct from Sunni and Shia sects
(p. 458)
*identify to think of as united (as in spirit or principle) (p. 607)
ibadismo forma conservadora del Islam, diferente de las sectas sunitas y
chiítas (p. 458)
*identificar considerar como unidad (como en espíritu o principio)
(p. 607)
(p. 444)
*identidad igualdad de características genéricas esenciales en diferentes
instancias (p. 444)
ideogram a pictorial character or symbol that represents a specific meaning ideograma un carácter pictórico o un símbolo que representa un
or idea (p. 680)
*ideology ideas, characteristics of a person, group, or political party
(p. 690)
significado específico o una idea (p. 680)
*ideología ideas, características de una persona, grupo o partido político
(p. 690)
*illegal not according to or authorized by law (p. 391)
*ilegal no autorizado o contrario a la ley (p. 391)
immigrant a person who comes to a country to take up permanent
inmigrante persona que llega a un país para establecer allí su residencia
residence (p. 295)
immigration the movement of people into one country from another
permanente (p. 295)
ENGLISH/SPANISH GLOSSARY
*identity sameness of essential or generic character in different instance
inmigración el movimiento de gente de un país a otro (p. 149)
(p. 149)
imperialism the actions by which one nation is able to control other,
usually smaller or weaker, nations (p. 608)
imperialismo tendencia de una nación a dominar o controlar otras
naciones usualmente más pequeñas y débiles (p. 608)
*impose to establish or apply by authority (p. 465)
*imponer establecer o imponer mediante la autoridad (p. 465)
impressionist a painter who practices impressionism, the artistic style
impresionista un pintor que practica el Impresionismo, estilo desarrollado
developed in Europe in the late 1800s, in which dabs or strokes of color
are used to give the effect of reflecting light (p. 302)
*income a gain or recurrent benefit usually measured in money (p. 559)
en Europa a finales de los años 1800, mediante el cual toques o
pinceladas de color daban el efecto de la luz reflejada por objetos
(p. 302)
*ingreso una ganancia o beneficio percibido regularmente por lo general
en forma monetaria (p. 559)
indigenous native to a place (p. 217)
indígena nativo de un lugar (p. 217)
industrial capitalism an economic system in which business leaders use
capitalismo industrial un sistema económico en el cual los líderes de
profits to expand their companies (p. 297)
negocios usan sus utilidades para expandir sus compañías (p. 297)
R49
industrialization • labor
ENGLISH
ESPAÑOL
industrialization transition from an agricultural society to one based on
industrialización transición de una sociedad agrícola a una industrial
industry (p. 108)
(p. 108)
Industrial Revolution the rapid major change in the economy with the
Revolución Industrial el cambio fundamental y rápido que tuvo la
introduction of power-driven machinery (p. 297)
economía con la introducción de maquinaria que funciona con energía
(p. 297)
infrastructure the basic urban necessities like streets and utilities (p. 559)
infraestructura las necesidades básicas urbanas tales como calles y
servicios (p. 559)
*institute to establish in a position or office (p. 751)
*instituir establecerse en un cargo u ocupación (p. 751)
insular constituting an island, as in Java (p. 736)
insular constituye una isla, como en Java (p. 736)
intelligentsia intellectual elite (p. 374)
intelectualidad elite intelectual (p. 374)
*intensive marked by special effort (p. 296)
intensivo que exige un esfuerzo especial (p. 296)
*interaction the action or influence of people, groups, or things on one
*interacción la acción o influencia que se ejerce recíprocamente sobre
another (p. 670)
personas, grupos o cosas (p. 670)
interdependent relying on one another for goods, services, and ideas
interdependiente la dependencia recíproca para bienes, servicios e ideas
(p. 633)
(p. 633)
intermediate directions the courses or routes of northeast, northwest,
direcciones intermedias direcciones de noreste, noroeste, sureste,
southeast, and southwest (p. 10)
y suroeste (p. 10)
*internal existing or lying within (p. 217)
*interno que ocurre o existe en el interior (p. 217)
interrupted projection a map of the Earth in which the Earth’s surface
proyección interrumpida una proyección que corta la superficie de la
appears cut along arbitrary lines, each section projected separately (p. 7)
Tierra a través de líneas arbitrarias y proyecta cada sección por separado
(p. 7)
introduced species plants and animals placed in areas other than their
especies introducidas plantas y animales colocadas en áreas diferentes
native habitat (p. 843)
a su hábitat natural (p. 843)
Inuit a member of the Arctic native peoples of North America (p. 156)
inuit un miembro de los pueblos indígenas del Ártico de Norteamérica
(p. 156)
*involve to include or take part in as a participant (p. 838)
*involucrar tomar parte en un asunto como participante (p. 838)
*isolate to set or keep apart from others (p. 203)
*aislar mantener algo aparte y separado de otros (p. 203)
J
Japan Current a warm-water ocean current that adds moisture to the
Corriente de Japón corriente oceánica de agua templada que proporciona
winter monsoons (p. 670)
humedad a los monzones de invierno (p. 670)
jati in traditional Hindu society, a social group that defines a family’s
jati en la sociedad tradicional hindú, un grupo social que define una
occupation and social standing (p. 607)
ocupación tradicional de la familia y su posición social (p. 607)
jazz musical form that developed in the United States in the early 1900s,
jazz forma musical que se desarrolló en los Estados Unidos a principios de
blending African rhythms and European harmonies (p. 153)
los 1900, mezclando ritmos africanos con armonías europeas (p. 153)
*job a specific duty, role, or function (p. 687)
*trabajo una tarea específica, labor o función (p. 687)
jute plant fiber used to make string and cloth (p. 629)
yute fibra que se usa para hacer cordón y tela (p. 629)
K
karma in Hindu belief, the sum of good and bad actions in one’s present
karma en la creencia Hindú, la suma de las acciones buenas y malas en la
and past lives (p. 608)
vida presente y las vidas pasadas de una persona (p. 608)
key a map legend (p. 10)
leyenda simbología del mapa (p. 10)
kolkhoz in the Soviet Union, a small farm worked by farmers who shared
koljoz en la Unión Soviética, una granja pequeña trabajada por granjeros
in the farm’s production and profits (p. 392)
que comparten la producción y las utilidades (p. 392)
kum term for a desert in Central Asia (p. 425)
kum término regional para un desierto en Asia Central (p. 425)
L
*labor those who do work for wages (p. 458)
R50
*obrero persona que trabaja a cambio un salario o sueldo (p. 458)
lagoon • mantle
ENGLISH
ESPAÑOL
lagoon shallow pool of water at the center of an atoll (p. 804)
laguna estanque de poca profundidad en el centro de un atolón (p. 804)
lama Buddhist religious leader (p. 618)
lama líder religioso budista (p. 618)
landlocked enclosed or nearly enclosed by land (p. 477)
país sin costas marinas rodeado completamente por tierra (p. 477)
language family group of related languages that have all developed from
familia de lenguajes grupo de lenguajes relacionados que se desarrollaron
one earlier language (p. 76)
de un lenguaje anterior (p. 76)
latifundia in Latin America, large agricultural estates owned by families or
latifundios en Latinoamérica, extensas propiedades de cultivo que
corporations (p. 243)
pertenecen a familias o corporaciones (p. 243)
latitude distance north or south from the equator measured in degrees
latitud distancia norte y sur desde la línea ecuatorial medida en grados
(p. 8)
(p. 8)
*layer one thickness or fold over or under another (p. 663)
*estrato capa o grosor que se sobrepone a otras o se extiende por debajo
leach to wash nutrients out of the soil (p. 516)
lixiviar lavar o sacar los nutrientes de la tierra (p. 516)
leeward being in or facing the direction toward which the wind is blowing
sotavento la parte opuesta a la dirección que sopla el viento (p. 59)
de ellas (p. 663)
(p. 59)
*legal of or relating to law (p. 536)
*legal de o relativo a la ley (p. 536)
light industry manufacturing aimed at making consumer goods such as
industria ligera industria orientada a la producción de bienes de consumo
textiles or food processing rather than heavy machinery (p. 325)
como textiles o procesamiento de alimentos en vez de maquinaria
pesada (p. 325)
lingua franca a common language used among people with different
lengua franca un lenguaje común usado entre la gente con diferentes
native languages (p. 532)
lenguas nativas (p. 532)
*link to join or connect (p. 358)
*unir conectar o enlazar (p. 358)
literacy rate the percentage of people in a given place who can read and
índice de alfabetización el porcentaje de personas en un lugar dado que
write (p. 153)
puede leer y escribir (p. 153)
lithosphere surface land areas of the earth’s crust, including continents and litosfera áreas de superficie terrestre de la corteza de la Tierra, incluye los
ocean basins (p. 32)
continentes y las cuencas de los océanos (p. 32)
llano fértiles praderas o llanos en el interior del territorio de Colombia y
Venezuela (p. 204)
Venezuela (p. 204)
*locate to state and fix exactly the place, limits, or position (p. 281)
*localizar establecer y fijar exactamente el lugar, límite o posición (p. 281)
location a specific place on the Earth (p. 8)
ubicación un lugar específico en la Tierra (p. 8)
lode deposit of minerals (p. 768)
veta depósito de minerales (p. 768)
loess (LEHS) fine, yellowish-brown topsoil made up of particles of silt and
loes capa superficial del suelo, fina, amarillenta y marrón compuesta de
clay, usually carried by the wind (p. 281)
partículas de limo y arcilla, usualmente arrastrada por el viento (p. 281)
longitude distance measured by degrees or time east or west from the
longitud la distancia medida en grados o tiempo al este u oeste del
prime meridian (p. 8)
Meridiano de Greenwich (p. 8)
Loyalist a colonist who remained loyal to the British government during
ENGLISH/SPANISH GLOSSARY
llano (LAH•noh) fertile grassland in inland areas of Colombia and
lealista un colonizador que se mantuvo leal al gobierno británico durante
the American Revolution (p. 156)
la Revolución de las Colonias Norteamericanas (p. 156)
M
Maastricht Treaty a 1992 meeting of European governments in Maastricht,
the Netherlands, that formed the European Union (p. 328)
magma molten rock that is pushed up from the Earth’s mantle (p. 35)
Tratado de Maastricht una reunión en 1992 de los gobiernos europeos en
Maastricht, Holanda, en la que se formó la Unión Europea (p. 328)
magma roca fundida que emerge desde el manto de la Tierra hacia arriba
a través de conductos volcánicos (p. 35)
*maintain to keep in an existing state (p. 465)
*mantener conservar en un mismo estado (p. 465)
*major greater in dignity, rank, importance, or interest (p. 78)
*mayor trascendental en dignidad, rango, importancia o interés (p. 78)
malnutrition faulty or inadequate nutrition (p. 220)
malnutrición nutrición pobre o inadecuada (p. 220)
mantle thick middle layer of the Earth’s interior structure, consisting of
manto gruesa capa mediana de la estructura interior de la Tierra que
dense, hot rock (p. 35)
consiste de densa piedra caliente (p. 35)
R51
mantra • mixed economy
ENGLISH
mantra in Hinduism, a sacred word or phrase repeated in prayers and
chants (p. 620)
manuka small shrubs that grow in plateau regions of New Zealand (p. 812)
ESPAÑOL
mantra en hinduismo, una palabra o frase sagrada que se repite en los
rezos y cantos (p. 620)
manuka pequeños arbustos que crecen en las mesetas de Nueva Zelanda
(p. 812)
map a representation, usually on a flat surface, of the whole or a part of an
area (p. 5)
map projection a mathematical formula used to represent the curved
surface of the Earth on the flat surface of a map (p. 6)
maquiladora in Mexico, a manufacturing plant set up by a foreign firm
(p. 244)
mapa representación gráfica usualmente en una superficie plana del todo
o porción de un área (p. 6)
proyección geográfica una fórmula matemática usada para representar la
superficie curva de la Tierra sobre la superficie plana de un mapa (p. 6)
maquiladora en México, una planta manufacturera establecida por una
firma extranjera (p. 244)
maritime concerned with travel or shipping by sea (p. 750)
marítimo relacionado a los viajes o al transporte por mar (p. 750)
market economy an economic system based on free enterprise, in
economía de mercado un sistema económico basado en la libre empresa,
which businesses are privately owned, and production and prices are
determined by supply and demand (p. 103)
marsupial mammal whose offspring mature in a pouch on the mother’s
abdomen (p. 843)
en el que los negocios son de propiedad privada y la producción y los
precios se determinan por la oferta y la demanda (p. 103)
marsupial mamífero cuyas crías se desarrollan dentro de una bolsa en el
exterior del abdomen de la madre (p. 843)
martial law control and policing of civilians by military rules (p. 751)
ley marcial control y autoridad sobre los civiles mediante leyes militares
matriarchal family ruled by a woman such as a mother, grandmother, or
matriarcal una familia cuya autoridad reside en la mujer como madre,
(p. 751)
aunt (p. 226)
abuela o tía (p. 226)
*maximum the greatest quantity or value attainable or attained (p. 516)
*máximo la mayor cantidad o valor alcanzable u obtenido (p. 516)
*media a form or system of communication (p. 327)
*medios una forma o sistema de comunicación (p. 327)
*medical of, relating to, or concerned with physicians or the practice of
*médico relativo a los médicos o a la práctica de medicina (p. 442)
medicine (p. 442)
megacity a city with more than 10 million people (p. 217)
área metropolitana una ciudad con más de 10 millones de habitantes
megalopolis a “great city” that is made up of several large and small cities
gran área metropolitana una “gran ciudad” compuesta de varias ciudades
(p. 217)
such as the area between Boston and Washington, D.C. (p. 150)
grandes y pequeñas tal como el área de Boston y Washington, D.C.
(p. 150)
meltwater water formed by melting snow and ice (p. 332)
aguanieve agua formada al derretirse la nieve y el hielo (p. 332)
mercantilism the theory or practice of merchant and trading pursuits
mercantilismo la teoría o práctica de actividades mercantiles y de
(p. 608)
merchant marine a country’s fleet of ships that engage in commerce or
trade (p. 701)
intercambio (p. 608)
marina mercante la flota de barcos de un país que participa en el
intercambio comercial (p. 701)
mestizo refers to people of Native American and European descent (p. 217) mestizo se refiere a la gente de descendencia europea y amerindia del
continente americano (p. 217)
*method technique for doing something (p. 141)
*método técnica para realizar algo (p. 141)
metropolitan area region that includes a central city and its surrounding
área metropolitana región que incluye una ciudad central y sus suburbios
suburbs (p. 150)
Middle Ages the period of European history from about A.D. 500 to about
1500 (p. 296)
desde 500 D.C. hasta 1500 D.C. (p. 296)
*migrate to move from one country, place, or locality to another (p. 540)
*migrar desplazarse de un país, lugar o localidad hacia otro (p. 540)
migration the movement of people from place to place (p. 71)
migración el movimiento de gente de un lugar a otro (p. 71)
minifundia in Latin America, small farms that produce food chiefly for
minifundios en Latinoamérica, pequeñas granjas que producen alimento
family use (p. 243)
mistral strong northerly wind from the Alps that can bring cold air to
southern France (p. 288)
mixed economy a system of resource management in which the
government supports and regulates enterprise through decisions that
affect the marketplace (p. 103)
R52
circundantes (p. 150)
Edad Media el período de la historia europea que va aproximadamente
principalmente para el uso de la familia (p. 243)
mistral viento fuerte del norte que sopla desde los Alpes y que trae aire
frío al sur de Francia (p. 288)
economía mixta una economía en la cual el gobierno apoya y regula la
empresa tomando decisiones que afectan el mercado (p. 103)
mixed farming • Northern Hemisphere
ENGLISH
ESPAÑOL
mixed farming raising several kinds of crops and livestock on the same
agricultura mixta cultivo de varias clases de cosechas y ganado en la
farm (p. 326)
misma granja (p. 326)
mixed forest forest with both coniferous and deciduous trees (p. 62)
bosque mixto tierras forestales con árboles de coníferas y deciduos (p. 62)
monarchy a form of autocracy with a hereditary king or queen exercising
monarquía una forma de autocracia con un rey o reina hereditarios que
supreme power (p. 102)
ejercen el poder supremo (p. 102)
*monitor to watch, keep track of, or check usually for a special purpose
*controlar vigilar, estar al tanto de, revisar generalmente con un objetivo
(p. 171)
especial (p. 171)
monopoly total control of a type of industry by one person or one
monopolio control total de un tipo de industria por una persona o una
company (p. 169)
compañía (p. 169)
monotheism belief in one God (p. 445)
monoteísmo creencia en un solo Dios (p. 445)
monsoon in Asia, seasonal wind that brings warm, moist air from the
monzón en Asia, viento veraniego que trae aires cálidos y húmedos desde
oceans in summer and cold, dry air from inland in winter (p. 599)
los océanos, aire seco y frío desde las tierras interiores en el invierno
(p. 599)
moraine piles of rocky debris left by melting glaciers (p. 39)
morena la acumulación de deshechos rocosos que dejaron los glaciares al
fundirse (p. 39)
mosaic picture or design made with small pieces of colored stone, glass,
mosaico dibujo o diseño hecho con pequeños pedazos de piedra, vidrio,
shell, or tile (p. 220)
concha o azulejo de colores (p. 220)
mosque in Islam, a house of public worship (p. 445)
mezquita en Islam, una casa de oración pública (p. 445)
movement the act or process of changing place or position (p. 19)
movimiento el acto o proceso de cambiar de lugar o de posición (p. 19)
mujahideen Islamic guerrilla fighters (p. 465)
muyahidín guerrilleros islámicos (p. 465)
mural wall painting (p. 220)
mural pintura o decoración sobre una pared (p. 220)
N
nationalism belief in the right of each people to be an independent nation
(p. 441)
nacionalismo creencia en el derecho de cada persona a ser una nación
independiente (p. 441)
nationality un grupo étnico grande y distintivo dentro de un país (p. 371)
natural boundary a fixed limit or extent defined along physical geographic
frontera natural frontera que se forma a lo largo de fronteras físicas como
features such as mountains and rivers (p. 453)
natural increase the growth rate of a population; the difference between
birthrate and death rate (p. 71)
natural resource substance from the earth that is not made by people but
can be used by them (p. 106)
natural vegetation plant life that grows in a certain area if people have not
changed the natural environment (p. 61)
montañas (p. 453)
incremento natural la tasa de crecimiento de una población; la diferencia
entre la tasa de crecimiento y mortalidad (p. 71)
recurso natural sustancia natural de la tierra que no es hecha por la gente
pero sí valiosa y útil para ellos/ellas (p. 106)
vegetación natural vida vegetal que crece en ciertas zonas si la gente no
cambia su medio ambiente (p. 61)
*negative lacking in positive qualities (p. 72)
*negativo que carece de cualidades positivas (p. 72)
*network an interconnected or interrelated chain, group, or system
*red una cadena, grupo o sistema interconectado o interrelacionado
(p. 513)
*neutral not favoring either side in a quarrel, contest, or war (p. 308)
ENGLISH/SPANISH GLOSSARY
nationality large, distinct ethnic group within a country (p. 371)
(p. 513)
*neutral que no favorece a ningún lado en una disputa, concurso o guerra
(p. 308)
newly industrialized country a country that has begun transitioning from
primarily agricultural to primarily manufacturing and industry activity
(p. 108)
país recientemente industrializado un país que ha comenzado la
transición de una actividad principalmente agrícola a una actividad
principalmente manufacturera e industrial (p. 108)
nomad a member of a wandering pastoral people (p. 439)
nómada miembro de un pueblo pastor errante (p. 439)
*normal of the regular or usual kind (p. 288)
*normal de un tipo habitual, regular (p. 288)
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) trade agreement made
Tratado de Libre Comercio de Norteamérica (TLCNA) tratado comercial
in 1994 by Canada, the United States, and Mexico (p. 158)
Northern Hemisphere the half of the Earth that lies north of the Equator
(p. 9)
hecho en 1994 entre Canadá, Estados Unidos y México (p. 158)
hemisferio norte la mitad de la Tierra que yace al norte de la línea
ecuatorial (p. 9)
R53
nuclear • period
ENGLISH
ESPAÑOL
*nuclear of, relating to, or using the atomic nucleus, atomic energy, the
*nuclear de o relativo al uso del núcleo atómico, energía atómica, bomba
atom bomb, or atomic power (p. 707)
atómica y poder atómico (p. 707)
nuclear family family group made up of husband, wife, and children
núcleo familiar grupo familiar constituido de esposo, esposa e hijos
(p. 528)
(p. 528)
nuclear proliferation the spreading development of nuclear arms (p. 640)
proliferación nuclear el desarrollo expansivo de armas nucleares (p. 640)
nuclear waste the by-product of producing nuclear power (p. 396)
desperdicio nuclear el producto secundario de producir energía nuclear
(p. 396)
O
oasis small area in a desert where water and vegetation are found (p. 61)
oasis pequeña área en el desierto donde hay agua y vegetación (p. 61)
*obtain to gain or acquire usually by planning or effort (p. 21)
*obtener ganar o adquirir usualmente mediante la planeación o esfuerzo
*occupation one’s business or profession (p. 629)
*ocupación trabajo, profesión u oficio de una persona (p. 629)
*occupy to take up (p. 812)
*ocupar llenar un espacio o lugar (p. 812)
*occur to appear, happen, or come to mind (p. 17)
*ocurrir que sucede de repente o sin esperar (p. 17)
oligarchy system of government in which a small group holds power
oligarquía sistema de gobierno en el cual un grupo pequeño mantiene el
(p. 21)
(p. 102)
poder (p. 102)
*ongoing being actually in process (p. 446)
*en curso que está actualmente en proceso (p. 446)
oral tradition stories passed down from generation to generation by word
tradición oral historias pasadas de generación en generación por palabra
of mouth (p. 527)
de boca en boca (p. 527)
organic farming the use of natural substances rather than chemical
agricultura orgánica el uso de sustancias naturales en lugar de fertilizantes
fertilizers and pesticides to enrich the soil and grow crops (p. 326)
y pesticidas para enriquecer la tierra y cultivar las cosechas (p. 326)
outsourcing the practice of subcontracting manufacturing work to outside
recursos de afuera la práctica de subcontratar trabajo de manufactura
companies, especially foreign or nonunion companies (p. 170)
fuera de la compañía y en especial en compañías extranjeras o no
sindicalizadas (p. 170)
*overall including everything; viewed as a whole (p. 246)
*global que incluye todo, visto como un todo (p. 246)
overfishing harvesting fish to the extent that certain species are depleted
exceso de pesca pescar excesivamente en cierta zona (p. 173)
and the fishing area made less valuable (p. 173)
*overseas beyond or across the sea (p. 613)
*extranjero en el exterior, a través del océano (p. 613)
ozone layer atmospheric layer with protective gases that prevents solar
capa de ozono capa atmosférica con gases protectores que evitan que los
rays from reaching the Earth’s surface (p. 845)
rayos solares alcancen la superficie de la Tierra (p. 845)
P
pampas grassy, treeless plains of southern South America (p. 204)
pampas llanos con pasto, sin árboles en América del Sur (p. 204)
*parallel arranged in the same direction (p. 204)
*paralelo arreglado en la misma dirección (p. 204)
Parliament in Canada, national legislature made up of the Senate and the
parlamento en Canadá, la legislatura nacional conformada por el Senado
House of Commons (p. 158)
*participate to have a part or share in something (p. 451)
*participar tomar parte (p. 451)
pastoralism the raising of livestock (p. 430)
pastoreo criar y pastorear ganado (p. 430)
patois dialects that blend elements of indigenous, European, African, and
patois dialectos que mezclan elementos de los lenguajes indígenas,
Asian languages (p. 225)
patriarchal relating to a social group headed by a male family member
(p. 528)
perceptual region a region defined by popular feelings and images rather
than by objective data (p. 18)
perestroika (PEHR•uh•STROY•kuh) in Russian, “restructuring”; part of
Gorbachev’s plan for reforming Soviet economy and government (p. 382)
*period a chronological division (p. 598)
R54
y la Casa de los Comunes (p. 158)
europeos, africanos y asiáticos (p. 225)
patriarcal relativo a un grupo social dirigido por un miembro masculino de
la familia (p. 528)
región perceptual una región definida por sentimientos e imágenes
populares en vez de datos objetivos (p. 18)
perestroika en Rusia, “reestructuración”; parte del plan de Gorbachev para
reformar el gobierno soviético (p. 382)
*período una división cronológica (p. 598)
permafrost • prairie
ENGLISH
permafrost permanently frozen layer of soil beneath the surface of the
ground (p. 63)
*persistent continuing, existing, or acting for a long or longer than usual
time (p. 637)
pesticide chemical used to kill insects, rodents, and other pests (p. 397)
ESPAÑOL
permafrost capa de tierra por debajo de la superficie del suelo que está
permanentemente congelada (p. 63)
*persistente continuo, existente, o que actúa por un período más largo de
lo usual (p. 637)
pesticida sustancia química que se usa para matar insectos, roedores
y otras plagas (p. 397)
petrochemical chemical product derived from petroleum or natural gas
(p. 476)
*philosophy the philosophical teachings or principles of a person or group
(p. 678)
phosphate natural mineral containing chemical compounds often used in
fertilizers (p. 428)
petroquímico producto químico derivado del petróleo o del gas natural
(p. 476)
*filosofía las enseñanzas filosóficas o los principios de una persona
o grupo (p. 678)
fosfato mineral natural que contiene compuestos químicos a menudo
utilizados en fertilizantes (p. 428)
physical map map that shows the location of natural features such as
mapa físico un mapa que muestra la ubicación de características naturales
mountains and rivers; can also show cities and countries (p. 12)
tales como montañas y ríos. También puede mostrar ciudades y países
(p. 12)
pidgin simplified speech used among people who speak different
languages (p. 542)
lengua franca lenguaje simplificado usado entre quienes hablan diferentes
idiomas (p. 542)
pidgin English a dialect mixing English and a local language (p. 828)
inglés pidgin un dialecto que mezcla inglés con una lengua local (p. 828)
place a particular space with physical and human meaning (p. 18)
lugar un espacio particular con significado físico y humano (p. 18)
planar projection a map created by projecting an image of the Earth onto
proyección plana una proyección creada de la proyección de la Tierra
a plane (p. 6)
plate tectonics the term scientists use to describe the activities of
continental drift and magma flow, which create many of Earth’s physical
features (p. 35)
sobre un plano (p. 6)
placa tectónica el término científico que se usa para describir las
actividades del movimiento continental y del flujo del magma, las cuales
crean muchas de las características físicas de la Tierra (p. 35)
poaching illegal hunting of protected animals (p. 567)
cazar o pescar en veda la caza o pesca prohibida de animales protegidos
pogrom in czarist Russia, an attack on Jews carried out by government
pogrom en la Rusia zarista, un ataque contra los judíos llevado a cabo por
(p. 567)
farmland (p. 282)
*policy a course of action chosen in order to guide people in making
decisions (p. 380)
political map a map that shows the boundaries and locations of political
units such as countries, states, counties, cities, and towns (p. 13)
pollution the existence of impure, unclean, or poisonous substances in the
air, water, or land (p. 109)
las tropas o los oficiales del gobierno (p. 373)
pólder zona bajo el nivel del mar, cuya agua ha sido drenada para crear
nuevas tierras para cultivo (p. 282)
*política un plan de acción escogido para guiar a la gente en la toma de
decisiones (p. 380)
mapa político un mapa que muestra las fronteras y la ubicación de
unidades políticas tales como países, estados, condados, ciudades
y pueblos (p. 13)
polución la existencia de sustancias sucias, impuras o venenosas en el aire,
el agua o la tierra (p. 109)
polytheism belief in many gods (p. 80)
politeísmo creencia en más de un dios (p. 80)
population density the average number of people in a square mile or
densidad de población número promedio de personas en una milla
square kilometer (p. 72)
ENGLISH/SPANISH GLOSSARY
troops or officials (p. 373)
polder low-lying area from which seawater has been drained to create new
o kilómetro cuadrado (p. 72)
population distribution the pattern of population in a country, a continent, distribución demográfica el patrón de población en un país, un continente
or the world (p. 72)
o en el mundo (p. 72)
*portion one’s share of a whole (p. 362)
*porción parte o cantidad que corresponde a cada uno (p. 362)
*pose to put or set in place (p. 844)
*presentar representar, introducir algo (p. 844)
*positive marked by or indicating acceptance, approval, or affirmation
*positivo que indica aceptación, aprobativo o afirmación (p. 568)
(p. 568)
postindustrial an economy with less emphasis on heavy industry and
manufacturing and more emphasis on services and technology (p. 167)
posindustrial una economía con menos énfasis en la industria pesada y
de manufactura y más énfasis en servicios y tecnología (p. 167)
*potential something that can develop or become actual (p. 630)
*potencial algo que se puede desarrollar o existir (p. 630)
prairie an inland grassland area (p. 62)
pradera pastizal tierra adentro (p. 62)
R55
precipitation • recover
ENGLISH
ESPAÑOL
precipitation moisture that falls to the earth as rain, sleet, hail, or snow
precipitación humedad que cae a la tierra, como lluvia, nevisca, granizo
(p. 42)
o nieve (p. 42)
*predict to declare in advance (p. 218)
*predecir declarar por anticipado (p. 218)
*predominant greater in importance, strength, influence, or authority
*predominante superior o dominante en importancia, fuerza, influencia
(p. 736)
o autoridad (p. 736)
prevailing wind wind in a region that blows in a fairly constant directional
viento dominante viento en una región que sopla en un patrón de
pattern (p. 56)
dirección casi constante (p. 56)
*primary of first rank, importance, or value (p. 707)
*primario de primer rango, importancia o valor (p. 707)
primate city a city that dominates a country’s economy, culture, and
ciudad principal ciudad que domina la economía, cultura y el gobierno de
government and in which population is concentrated; usually the capital
(p. 217)
un país y donde se concentra la población; usualmente la capital (p. 217)
Prime Meridian the meridian of 0 degrees longitude from which other
primer meridiano o meridiano cero el meridiano de 0 grados de longitud
longitudes are calculated (p. 8)
desde donde se calculan otras longitudes (p. 8)
*principal most important, consequential, or influential (p. 439)
*principal lo más importante, consecuente, influyente (p. 439)
*priority superiority in rank, position, or privilege (p. 458)
*prioridad superioridad o liderazgo en rango, posición o privilegio (p. 458)
privatization a change to private ownership of state-owned companies and privatización la acción por la que una compañía e industria estatal pasan
industries (p. 391)
al sector privado (p. 391)
*process a natural continuing action or series of actions or changes (p. 281) *proceso una acción natural continua o una serie de acciones o cambios
(p. 281)
*project a specific plan or design (p. 482)
*proyecto un plan o diseño específico (p. 482)
*promote to help (something) grow or develop (p. 770)
*promover ayudar (a algo) a crecer o desarrollarse (p. 770)
prophet person believed to be a messenger from God (p. 445)
profeta persona de quien se cree que es un mensajero de Dios (p. 445)
province an administrative district or division of a country (p. 156)
provincia un territorio (p. 156)
puna a treeless, windswept tableland or basin in the higher Andes (p. 208)
puna una meseta, altiplano o cuenca expuesta al viento en lo alto de los
*purchase to obtain by paying money or its equivalent; to buy (p. 533)
*comprar adquirir por medio del pago de dinero (p. 533)
*pursue to follow in order to overtake, capture, or defeat (p. 567)
*perseguir dar seguimiento a fin de dominar, capturar o vencer (p. 567)
Andes (p. 208)
Q
qanat underground canal used in water systems of ancient Persians
qanat canales subterráneos que se usaban en los sistemas de acueductos
(p. 452)
en la antigua Persia (p. 452)
qualitative maps maps that use colors, symbols, lines, or dots to show
mapa cualitativo mapa en el que se utiliza colores, símbolos, líneas, o
information related to a specific idea (p. 14)
puntos para representar información relacionada a una idea específica
(p. 14)
Quebecois a French-speaking inhabitant of Quebec (p. 158)
Quebecois habitante de lengua francesa de Canadá (p. 158)
quipu (KEE•poo) knotted cords of various lengths and colors used by the
quipu cuerda con cordones anudados de varios largos y colores que
Inca to keep financial records (p. 229)
usaban los incas para llevar sus registros financieros (p. 229)
R
radioactive material material contaminated by residue from the
generation of nuclear energy (p. 396)
rain shadow effect result of a process by which dry areas develop on the
leeward sides of mountain ranges (p. 59)
la generación de energía nuclear (p. 396)
efecto sombra de lluvia la región seca en el lado de la cordillera opuesto
a la dirección que sopla el viento (p. 59)
raj Hindi word for “empire” (p. 608)
raj palabra hindi para “imperio” (p. 608)
*range a variation or variety between limits (p. 666)
*alcance una variación o variedad entre límites (p. 666)
realism artistic style portraying everyday life that developed in Europe
realismo estilo artístico que capta la vida cotidiana, este estilo se desarrolló
during the mid-1800s (p. 302)
*recover to get back; regain (p. 517)
R56
material radioactivo material contaminado por residuos que provienen de
en Europa a mediados de los años 1800 (p. 302)
*recobrar recuperar, rescatar (p. 517)
reforestation • Russification
ENGLISH
reforestation planting young trees or seeds on lands where trees have
been cut or destroyed (p. 252)
Reformation religious movement that began in Germany in the 1400s,
leading to the establishment of Protestant churches (p. 297)
ESPAÑOL
reforestación la siembra de árboles jóvenes o semillas en terrenos donde
los árboles han sido talados o destruidos (p. 252)
Reforma movimiento religioso que comenzó en Alemania en los años 1400
y que condujo al establecimiento de Iglesias Protestantes (p. 297)
refugee one who flees his or her home for safety (p. 295)
refugiado persona que huye de su hogar para estar a salvo (p. 295)
*regime a form of government (p. 483)
*régimen una forma de gobierno (p. 483)
region a broad geographical area distinguished by similar features (p. 18)
región una extensa área geográfica definida por características similares
*regulate to govern or direct according to rule (p. 52)
*regular gobernar o dirigir de acuerdo a regla o norma (p. 52)
reincarnation rebirth in new bodies or forms of life (p. 608)
reencarnación el renacimiento en un nuevo cuerpo o forma de vida
relative location location in relation to other places (p. 11)
ubicación relativa la posición de un lugar en relación a otros lugares
(p. 18)
(p. 608)
(p. 11)
*release to set free (p. 35)
*liberar soltar, dejar en libertad (p. 35)
*reliable fit to be trusted (p. 245)
*fiable digna/o de confianza (p. 245)
relief the elevations or inequalities of a land surface (p. 12)
relieve las elevaciones o formas sobresalidas de la superficie terrestre
*rely to be dependent (p. 620)
*confiar depender en, contar con (p. 620)
Renaissance in Europe, a 300-year period of renewed interest in classical
Renacimiento en Europa, un período de renovado interés por las
(p. 12)
learning and the arts, beginning in the 1300s (p. 308)
enseñanzas y artes clásicas que comenzó cerca del 1300 y duró 300 años
(p. 308)
indemnización compensación por un daño recibido (p. 302)
*require to claim or ask for by right or authority (p. 608)
*requerir reclamar o pedir por derecho o autoridad (p. 608)
*resident one who dwells in or occupies a place (p. 397)
*residente el que reside en un lugar (p. 397)
*resource a usable stock or supply (p. 737)
*recurso una reserva o suministro reutilizable (p. 737)
*restore to return (p. 843)
*restablecer devolver, restaurar (p. 843)
*restriction a regulation that confines, limits, or restrains (p. 680)
*restricción una regulación que limita o impide (p. 680)
*retain to keep in possession or use (p. 55)
*retener mantener en posesión o uso (p. 55)
retooling converting old factories for use in new industries (p. 167)
actualización la conversión de fábricas viejas para usarlas como industrias
nuevas (p. 167)
*reveal to make known (p. 617)
*revelar descubrir, dar a conocer, hacer visible (p. 617)
*revenue the income produced by a given source (p. 428)
*ingreso renta, utilidades producidas por una fuente (p. 428)
revolution in astronomy, the Earth’s yearly trip around the sun, taking
revolución en astronomía, el viaje de la Tierra alrededor del Sol que toma
365 ¼ days (p. 51)
ENGLISH/SPANISH GLOSSARY
reparation a payment for damages (p. 302)
365 ¼ días (p. 51)
rice paddy flooded field in which rice is grown (p. 767)
arrozal campos inundados en los que se cultiva el arroz (p. 767)
rift valley a crack in the Earth’s surface created by shifting (p. 511)
valle hundido una grieta en la superficie terrestre creada por los
movimientos de tierra (p. 511)
*rigid not flexible; stiff, unyielding (p. 699)
*rígido no flexible (p. 699)
*role a character assigned or taken (p. 364)
*parte función o cargo asignado a alguien o tomado por alguien (p. 364)
romanticism artistic style emphasizing individual emotions that
romanticismo estilo artístico que enfatizaba las emociones individuales.
developed in Europe in the late 1700s and early 1800s as a reaction to
industrialization (p. 298)
Se desarrolló en Europa en los últimos años de los 1700 y principios de
los 1800 como una reacción a la industrialización (p. 298)
*route an established or selected course of travel or action (p. 535)
*ruta un camino (p. 535)
Russification in nineteenth-century Russia, a government program that
rusificación en la Rusia del siglo XIX, programa de gobierno que requería
required everyone in the empire to speak Russian and to become a
Christian (p. 380)
que todo el mundo en el imperio hablara ruso y se convirtiera al
Cristianismo (p. 380)
R57
samurai • sirocco
ENGLISH
ESPAÑOL
S
samurai in medieval Japan, a class of professional soldiers who lived by
a strict code of personal honor and loyalty to a noble (p. 683)
sanitation disposal of waste products (p. 528)
samurai en el Japón medieval, una clase de soldados profesionales quienes
se regían por un código estricto de honor personal y lealtad a un noble
(p. 683)
sanidad la eliminación de productos de desperdicio (p. 528)
satellite a country controlled by another country, notably Eastern European satélite un país controlado por otro, como los países de Europa del este
countries controlled by the Soviet Union by the end of World War II
(p. 381)
controlados por la Unión Soviética a finales de la Segunda Guerra
Mundial (p. 381)
savanna a tropical grassland containing scattered trees (p. 517)
sabana un pastizal tropical que contiene árboles dispersos (p. 517)
scale the size of a picture, plan, or model of a thing compared to the size of
escala el tamaño de un dibujo, plano o modelo de algo comparado con el
the thing itself (p. 11)
scale bar shows the relationship between map measurements and actual
distance on Earth (p. 10)
tamaño real del objeto (p. 11)
barra de escala muestra la relación entre las medidas de un mapa y la
distancia actual en la Tierra (p. 10)
sect a subdivision within a religion that has its own distinctive beliefs and/or secta subdivisión dentro de una religión que tiene sus propias creencias
practices (p. 80)
*security the quality or state of being free from danger, fear, or anxiety;
y/o prácticas (p. 80)
*seguridad la calidad de estar seguro (p. 446)
safety (p. 446)
sedentary farming farming carried on at permanent settlements (p. 557)
agricultura sedentaria agricultura que tiene lugar en asentamientos
permanentes (p. 557)
*seek to go in search of (p. 536)
buscar ir en búsqueda de algo (p. 536)
separatism the breaking away of one part of a country to create a separate, separatismo doctrina política que propugna la separación de algún
independent country (p. 158)
territorio de un país para alcanzar su independencia o integrarse en otro
(p. 158)
serf laborer obliged to remain on the land where he or she works (p. 379)
siervo obrero de la propiedad de un noble obligado a permanecer en la
*series a number of things or events arranged in order and connected by
*serie conjunto de cosas o eventos organizados en orden y relacionados de
tierra donde trabajaba (p. 379)
being alike in some way (p. 357)
service center convenient business location for rural dwellers (p. 535)
acuerdo a ciertas similitudes (p. 357)
centro de servicio ubicación de negocios conveniente para los habitantes
del campo (p. 535)
service industry business that provides a service instead of making goods
(p. 244)
industria de servicios negocios que proveen servicios, en vez de bienes
(p. 244)
shantytown a makeshift community on the edge of a city (p. 252)
invasiones o asentamientos irregulares viviendas auto construidas en
shari’ah Islamic law derived from the Koran and the teachings of
sharia ley islámica derivada del Corán y de las enseñanzas de Mahoma
terrenos marginados en los bordes de las zonas urbanas (p. 252)
Muhammad (p. 458)
sheikhdom territory ruled by an Islamic religious leader (p. 458)
(p. 458)
dominio del jeque territorio gobernado por un líder religioso islámico
(p. 458)
*shift to change the place, position, or direction of (p. 425)
*mover cambiar de sitio, posición o dirección (p. 425)
shifting cultivation clearing forests to plant fields for a few years and then
rotación de cultivos deforestar para plantar cultivos por unos cuantos
abandoning them (p. 557)
shogun military ruler in medieval Japan (p. 683)
shogun un gobernante militar en Japón medieval (p. 683)
sickle large, curved knife with a handle, used to cut grass or tall grains
hoz cuchillo grande y curvo con un mango usado para cortar pasto
(p. 767)
*significant having meaning, especially a hidden or special meaning
(p. 668)
o granos altos (p. 767)
*significativo que tiene significado, sobretodo un significado especial
y oculto (p. 668)
*similar having characteristics in common (p. 76)
*similar que tiene características comunes (p. 76)
sirocco hot desert wind that can blow air and dust from North Africa to
siroco viento caliente del desierto que sopla aire y polvo desde el África
western Europe’s Mediterranean coast (p. 288)
R58
años y luego abandonarlos (p. 557)
Septentrional hasta la costa mediterránea de Europa (p. 288)
site • subsistence farming
ENGLISH
site refers to the specific location of a place, including its physical setting
(p. 18)
situation refers to the geographic position of a place in relation to other
places or features of a larger region (p. 18)
slash-and-burn farming traditional farming method in which all trees and
plants in an area are cut and burned to add nutrients to the soil (p. 251)
smog haze caused by the interaction of ultraviolet solar radiation with
chemical fumes from automobile exhausts and other pollution sources
(p. 64)
socialism political philosophy in which the government owns the means of
production (p. 380)
socialist realism realistic style of art and literature that glorified Soviet
ideals and goals (p. 375)
ESPAÑOL
sitio se refiere a la ubicación específica de un lugar, incluyendo su
ambiente físico (p. 18)
situación se refiere a la posición geográfica de un lugar en relación a otros
lugares o características de una región más grande (p. 18)
agricultura de corte y quema método tradicional de cultivo en el que
todos los árboles y plantas en el área se cortan y se queman para añadir
nutrientes al suelo (p. 251)
smog neblina irritante causada por la interacción de la radiación solar
ultravioleta con humos químicos del escape de los automóviles y otras
fuentes de contaminación (p. 64)
socialismo filosofía política en la que el gobierno es propietario de los
medios de producción (p. 380)
realismo socialista en la Unión Soviética, estilo realista de arte y literatura
que glorificaba los ideales y las metas soviéticas (p. 375)
solstice one of two days (about June 21 and December 22) on which the
solsticio uno de dos días (el 21 de junio y el 22 de diciembre) en que los
sun’s rays strike directly on the Tropic of Cancer or Tropic of Capricorn,
marking the beginning of summer or winter (p. 51)
ra yos del Sol dan directamente en el Trópico de Cáncer o el Trópico de
Capricornio, para marcar el principio del verano o el invierno (p. 51)
*source a point where something begins (p. 44)
*fuente el punto de origen o procedencia de algo (p. 44)
Southern Hemisphere the half of the Earth that lies south of the Equator
hemisferio sur la mitad de la Tierra que yace al sur de la línea ecuatorial
(p. 9)
(p. 9)
sovereignty self-rule (p. 372)
soberanía autogobierno (p. 372)
Soviet era the period between 1921 and 1991 when Russia was part of the
era soviética el período entre 1921 y 1991 cuando Rusia fue parte de la
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (p. 371)
sovkhoz in the Soviet Union, a large farm owned and run by the state
(p. 392)
Unión de Repúblicas Socialista Soviética (p. 371)
sovkhoz en la Unión Soviética, una enorme granja del estado y que el
estado mismo opera (p. 392)
*específico relativo a, o un ejemplo de un cierto tipo de cosa (p. 210)
sphere of influence area of a country in which a foreign power has
esfera de influencia zona de un país en la que una potencia extranjera
political or economic control (p. 751)
spreading a process by which new land is created when sea plates pull
apart and magma wells up between the plates (p. 37)
tiene control político o económico (p. 751)
extensión un proceso por el cual se crea nueva tierra cuando las
plataformas marinas se separan y el magma fluye hacia arriba entre las
plataformas (p. 37)
*stability the strength to stand or endure (p. 392)
*estabilidad la fuerza para soportar o perdurar (p. 392)
station Australian term for an outlying ranch or large farm (p. 837)
estación término australiano para un rancho o granja grande en áreas
remotas (p. 837)
steppe wide, grassy plains of Eurasia; also, similar semiarid climate regions
elsewhere (p. 364)
*strategic of, relating to, or showing strategy, a careful plan, or a method
estepa vastas llanuras de pastizales de Eurasia; similares regiones con
ENGLISH/SPANISH GLOSSARY
*specific relating to or being an example of a certain kind of thing (p. 210)
climas semiáridos en otros lugares del globo (p. 364)
*estratégico de, relativo a, o que demuestra estrategia (p. 477)
(p. 477)
Strine colloquial English spoken in Australia (p. 822)
strine inglés coloquial que se habla en Australia (p. 822)
*structure something constructed or arranged in a definite pattern of
*estructura algo construido o arreglado en un patrón definido de
organization (p. 821)
organización (p. 821)
stupa a dome-shaped structure that serves as a Buddhist shrine (p. 620)
stupa estructura en forma de cúpula que sirve de santuario budista (p. 620)
subcontinent large landmass that is part of a continent but still distinct
subcontinente gran área de tierra que forma parte de un continente, pero
from it, such as India (p. 591)
subduction a process by which mountains can form as sea plates dive
beneath continental plates (p. 37)
*subsidy a grant or gift, especially of money (p. 303)
distinto a éste, como la India (p. 591)
subducción proceso por el que la corteza oceánica se hunde bajo la
continental (p. 37)
*subsidio ayuda económica extraordinaria concedida por un organismo
oficial (p. 303)
subsistence farming producing just enough food for a family or a village to
survive (p. 557)
agricultura de subsistencia agricultura tradicional cuya meta es producir
lo suficiente para que una familia o una aldea se alimente y sobreviva
(p. 557)
R59
suburb • traditional
ENGLISH
ESPAÑOL
suburb outlying community around a city (p. 150)
suburbio comunidad ubicada en la periferia de la ciudad (p. 150)
*successor one that follows (p. 391)
*sucesor el que sucede a otro y ocupa su lugar (p. 391)
*sum an indefinite or specified amount of money (p. 640)
*suma una indefinida y específica cantidad de dinero (p. 640)
Sunbelt mild climate region in the southern United States (p. 149)
región cálida parte sur de Estados Unidos, denominada así debido a su
clima templado (p. 149)
supercell violent thunderstorm that can spawn tornadoes (p. 140)
supercélula violenta tormenta de rayos y truenos que puede producir
tornados (p. 140)
*survive to remain alive or in existence (p. 525)
*sobrevivir mantenerse vivo o en existencia (p. 525)
*sustain to give support or relief (p. 565)
*sustentar dar apoyo, alivio o socorro (p. 565)
sustainable development technological and economic growth that does
desarrollo sostenido crecimiento tecnológico y económico que no agota
not deplete the human and natural resources of a given area (p. 251)
los recursos humanos y naturales de un área (p. 251)
syncretism a blending of beliefs and practices from different religions into
sincretismo una mezcla de creencias y prácticas de diferentes religiones en
one faith (p. 219)
una fe (p. 219)
T
taiga Russian term for the vast subarctic forest, mostly evergreens, that
covers much of Russia and Siberia (p. 363)
taiga término ruso para un vasto bosque que cubre gran parte de Rusia
y Siberia (p. 363)
tariff a tax on imports or exports (p. 170)
tarifa un impuesto sobre bienes importados o exportados (p. 170)
*technique a method of accomplishing a desired aim (p. 612)
*técnica un método para cumplir una meta deseada (p. 612)
*technology the use of science in solving problems (p. 700)
*tecnología el uso de la ciencia en la resolución de problemas (p. 700)
temperature degree of hotness or coldness measured on a set scale, such
temperatura una medida de cuán caliente o cuán frío está algo,
as Fahrenheit or Celsius (p. 51)
generalmente medido en grados con una escala fija, como Fahrenheit
o Centígrados (p. 51)
*temporary not permanent (p. 827)
*temporal no permanente (p. 827)
*tension the act or action of stretching (p. 38)
*tensión el acto o acción de estirarse (p. 38)
thematic map map that emphasizes a single idea or a particular kind of
mapas temáticos mapas que enfatizan una sola idea o un tipo particular
information about an area (p. 14)
tierra caliente Spanish term for “hot land”; the lowest altitude zone of
Latin American highlands climates (p. 208)
tierra fría Spanish term for “cold land”; the highest altitude zone of Latin
American highlands climates (p. 208)
tierra helada Spanish term for “frozen land”; a zone of permanent snow
and ice on the peaks of the Andes (p. 208)
tierra templada Spanish term for “temperate land”; the middle altitude
zone of Latin American highlands climates (p. 208)
timberline elevation above which it is too cold for trees to grow (p. 141)
de información sobre un área (p. 14)
tierra caliente término en español para referirse a la zona más baja en los
climas de montaña de Latinoamérica (p. 208)
tierra fría término en español para referirse a la zona de mayor altitud en
los climas de montaña de Latinoamérica (p. 208)
tierra helada término en español para referirse a una zona de nieve
perpetua en la cima de los Andes (p. 208)
tierra templada término en español para referirse a la zona de altitud
media en los climas de montaña de Latinoamérica (p. 208)
límite de la vegetación selvática elevación por encima de la cual hace
demasiado frío para que crezcan los árboles (p. 141)
topography shape of the Earth’s physical features (p. 12)
topografía la forma de las características físicas de la Tierra (p. 12)
total fertility rate the average number of children a woman has in her
tasa total de fertilidad número promedio de hijos que tiene una mujer
lifetime (p. 612)
*trace to study, follow, or show the development and progress of in detail
(p. 313)
trade deficit spending more money on imports than earning from exports
(p. 170)
trade surplus earning more money from export sales than spending for
imports (p. 170)
*traditional based on custom (p. 18)
R60
durante su vida (p. 612)
*examinar estudiar, seguir o mostrar el desarrollo y el progreso en detalle
(p. 313)
déficit comercial mayor gasto de dinero en importaciones comparado con
la ganancia por exportaciones (p. 170)
superávit comercial mayor ganancia en venta de exportaciones que en el
gasto por importaciones (p. 170)
*tradicional que se basa en costumbres (p. 18)
traditional economy • visibility
ENGLISH
ESPAÑOL
traditional economy a system in which tradition and custom control all
economía tradicional sistema en que las costumbres determinan las
economic activity; exists in only a few parts of the world today (p. 103)
actividades económicas; existe en pocos lugares del mundo en la
actualidad (p. 103)
*transmission the act, process, or example of sending or conveying from
*transmisión el proceso, arte o ejemplo de transmitir (p. 223)
one person or place to another (p. 223)
*transport to transfer or convey from one place to another (p. 542)
*transportar transferir o transmitir de un lugar a otro (p. 542)
*trend a general movement (p. 71)
*tendencia un movimiento general (p. 71)
tributary smaller river or stream that feeds into a larger river (p. 132)
afluente o tributario pequeño río y arroyo que desemboca en otro río
más grande (p. 132)
*trigger to initiate, actuate, or set off as if by pulling a trigger (p. 599)
*provocar iniciar, encender o accionar como si se apretara el gatillo de la
pistola (p. 599)
trust territory region placed by United Nations under temporary political
territorio en fideicomiso región, que después de la Segunda Guerra
and economic control of another country after World War II (p. 827)
Mundial fue colocada temporalmente por las Naciones Unidas bajo el
control político y económico de otra nación (p. 827)
tsunami Japanese term used for a huge sea wave caused by an undersea
tsunami término japonés usado para una ola de mar enorme causada por
earthquake (p. 600)
un maremoto (p. 600)
tundra vast, treeless plains in cold northern climates, characterized by
tundra vastas llanuras sin árboles en climas fríos del norte, caracterizadas
permafrost and small, low plants, such as mosses and shrubs (p. 362)
por la capa del subsuelo congelada y pequeñas plantas como musgos
y arbustos (p. 362)
typhoon a violent tropical storm that forms in the Pacific Ocean, usually in
tifón un ciclón que se forma en el Océano Pacífico, usualmente al final del
late summer (p. 670)
verano (p. 670)
U
*undergone to have experienced, submitted to, or endured (p. 517)
*someterse atravesar o soportar cierta acción (p. 517)
Underground Railroad an informal network of safehouses in the United
ferrocarril subterráneo una red informal de refugios, en los Estados
States that helped thousands of enslaved people escape to freedom
(p. 152)
Unidos, que ayudó a miles de esclavos a escapar hacia la libertad (p. 152)
*unificar hacer de muchas cosas una unidad o un todo coherente (p. 314)
*unique being the only one; without a like or an equal (p. 101)
*único que no tiene nada o nadie parecido o igual (p. 101)
unitary system a government in which all key powers are given to the
sistema unitario gobierno en el cual todos los poderes clave son
national or central government (p. 101)
entregados al gobierno nacional o central (p. 101)
universal suffrage equal voting rights for all adult citizens of a nation
sufragio universal derechos de igualdad de votación para todos los
(p. 547)
adultos residentes de una nación (p. 547)
*unstable not firm or fixed (p. 777)
*inestable no firme o fijo (p. 777)
urban sprawl the spreading of urban developments on undeveloped land
expansión urbana el extensivo crecimiento de zonas urbanas en terrenos
near a city (p. 150)
ENGLISH/SPANISH GLOSSARY
*unify to make into a unit or a coherent whole (p. 314)
no urbanizados cerca de una ciudad (p. 150)
urbanization the movement of people from rural areas into cities (p. 150)
urbanización el movimiento de personas de las áreas rurales a las
ciudades (p. 150)
V
*variation a change in form, position, or condition (p. 669)
*variación un cambio en forma, posición o condición (p. 669)
*vary to exhibit or undergo change (p. 286)
*varía que muestra o se somete a cambio (p. 286)
*vehicle something used to transport persons or goods (p. 333)
*vehículo medio de locomoción que sirve para transportar personas
viceroy representative of the Spanish monarch appointed to enforce laws
virrey representante del monarca español asignado para hacer cumplir las
o bienes (p. 333)
in colonial Latin America (p. 219)
*virtual being in effect, but not in fact or name (p. 803)
leyes en las colonias americanas (p. 219)
*virtual que tiene virtud de producir un efecto, pero no real ni en nombre
(p. 803)
*visibility the degree of clearness of the atmosphere (p. 142)
*visibilidad el grado de claridad de la atmósfera (p. 142)
R61
volume • ziggurat
ENGLISH
ESPAÑOL
*volume a large amount (p. 205)
*volumen una gran capacidad (p. 205)
W
wadi in the desert, a streambed that is dry except during a heavy rain
wadi en el desierto, un cauce seco excepto durante las lluvias fuertes
(p. 427)
(p. 427)
wat in Southeast Asia, a temple (p. 753)
wat un templo en el Asia del sudeste (p. 753)
water cycle regular movement of water from ocean to air to ground and
ciclo de agua movimiento regular del agua desde el océano hasta el aire
back to the ocean (p. 42)
y el suelo y de vuelta al océano (p. 42)
wattle woven framework made from acacia saplings by early Australian
zarzo árboles de acacia; los primeros colonos de Australia entretejían los
settlers to build homes (p. 811)
zarzos jóvenes para construir sus casas (p. 811)
weather condition of the atmosphere in one place during a short period of
tiempo condición de la atmósfera en un lugar durante un corto período de
time (p. 51)
tiempo (p. 51)
weathering chemical or physical processes, such as freezing, that break
erosión procesos químicos o físicos, como congelación, que desbaratan las
down rocks (p. 39)
rocas (p. 39)
welfare state nation in which the government assumes major responsibility estado benefactor nación en la que el gobierno asume la responsabilidad
for people’s well-being in areas such as health and education (p. 298)
principal por el bienestar de la gente en cuanto a salud y educación (p.
298)
Western Hemisphere the half of the Earth comprising North and South
hemisferio occidental la mitad de la esfera terrestre que se encuentra al
America and surrounding waters; longitudes 20° W and 160° E often
considered its boundaries (p. 9)
oeste del meridiano de Greenwich y comprende América del Norte y del
Sur y los mares que lo rodean (p. 9)
*widespread widely diffused or prevalent (p. 61)
*extendido ampliamente difundido o frecuente (p. 61)
windward being in or facing the direction from which the wind is blowing
barlovento en la dirección que sopla el viento (p. 59)
(p. 59)
World Trade Organization (WTO) an international body that oversees
Organización Mundial del Comercio organismo internacional que
trade agreements and settles trade disputes among countries (p. 703)
supervisa acuerdos comerciales y resuelve disputas comerciales entre
países (p. 703)
Z
ziggurat large step-like temple of mud brick built in ancient Mesopotamia
(p. 454)
R62
ziggurat en la antigua Mesopotamia, gran templo escalonado hecho de
ladrillos de arcilla (p. 454)
Index
c = chart
d = diagram
g = graph
Abbas, Mahmoud • Argentina
m = map
p = photo
ptg = painting
A
Anasazi ruins, p 2–3
Anatolia, m 425, 426, 433
Andes, 202, p 202, 203, 204, p 204, 211; and economy,
244; indigenous population of, 228; rain shadow
effect in, 210; and Ring of Fire, m 203; water systems
in, 205
Andorra, 307
Angel Falls, Venezuela, p 200–201
Angkor Wat, 751
Angles, 296
Angola, 546–47
animals: in Africa south of the Sahara, p 508, p 515,
517, 567; in Antarctica, 807, p 807; domestication
of, 526; in East Asia, p 667; endangered, p 248,
567, 568, m 638, 638, p 738; endemic species, 741;
extinction of, 567; introduced species of, 843, 844;
island sanctuaries for, 843–44; in Latin America,
207, p 207; nomadic herding of, m 107, 525, m 700;
poaching, 638; and pollution, 333; in South Pacific,
843–44; wildlife conservation, 334, 562–63, p 562,
m 563, 638, 843–44. See also livestock
animism, 80
Annam Cordillera, 736
Annapolis Conference, 449
Annapurna Range, p 588–89
Antarctica, 806–9; animals in, 807, p 807; climate
of, 54, p 54, 806, m 806; as continent, 33; glaciers
covering, 40; and global warming, 845, 846; mining
in, 807; natural resources in, 807; ozone layer over,
845; physical geography of, 800; research in, 808, m
808, p 808; study of, 787; sunlight at, 52; tourism in,
809, g 809, p 809; vegetation in, 807, p 807
Antarctic Circle, 55
Antarctic Treaty, 808
apartheid, 547
Apennine Mountains, 282
Appalachian Mountains, 132, 134, 143
aquaculture, 135, 709
aquifer, 44, 481, m 481
Arab Americans, 470–71, c 470
Arab culture, 451, m 451, 525
Arabian Desert, 430
Arabian Gulf. See Persian (Arabian) Gulf
Arabian Peninsula, 426, 433, 455–59, p 455; arts in,
459, p 459; culture in, 458–59, p 459; education
in, 458; government of, 458; health care in, 459;
history of, 457–58, m 457; independence in,
458; language in, 458; leisure in, 459; population
patterns in, 456, g 456; religion in, 458, 459
Arabian Sea, 426
Arabic language, 447, 451, 456
Arab-Israeli conflict, 445–46, m 445, m 446, 453
arable land, 168
Arafat, Yasir, 446
Arakan Yoma Range, 736
Aral Sea, 426, 433, 483, m 483
Arches National Park, p 40
archipelagoes, 664, 671, 735
architecture, 153, p 153, 220, p 229, 232, p 240–41,
303, 459, p 718–19, 758
Arctic, 52, 103, p 103
Arctic Circle, 55, 283, 362
Arctic Ocean, 43, 132
Argentina, 229, 230; exports of, g 243; pampas of, 204,
209, 211; plateau of Patagonia in, 204; population
movement in, 74; transportation in, 245, m 245;
urban growth in, g 252
INDEX
Abbas, Mahmoud, p 449
Abdullah, Abdullah, p 461
Aborigines: in Australia, 97, p 97, 819–20, p 820, 821,
822, 823, 843; in China, 677; in Japan, 682
absolute location, 8, 17–18, m 17
accretion, 37, d 38
acculturation, 685
acid deposition, 332
acid rain, 109, 174, m 179, 332–33, m 332, 708, m
708
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 530, m 530
Adriatic Sea, 282
Aegean Sea, 283, 358, 426, 453
aerospace industry, 392
Afghanistan: arable land in, 475, c 475; culture of,
466; immigration to U.S. from, c 471; people of,
463, m 463; population of, 463, m 463; Soviet
involvement with, 461, 465; transportation in, 477;
U.S. involvement with, 152, 460–61, p 461; warlords
in, p 460
Africa: AIDS and HIV in, 533, 543, 546, m 546, 548;
as continent, 33; first elected female head of state
in, p 101; influence in Caribbean, 222; population
of, p 70, 71. See also Africa south of the Sahara;
Central Africa; East Africa; North Africa; southern
Africa; West Africa
African Americans: culture of, 153; enslavement of, 79,
152, 228; immigration to U.S., 552–53, p 552, m 553;
in U.S. population, 149
Africa south of the Sahara: agriculture in, 517, 525,
530, 533, 535, 540, 557–59, g 557, 566, 567; arts in,
527, p 527, 533, 538, p 538, 542; carrying capacity
in, 565, m 565; climate of, 515–18, m 516, c 517,
526; communications in, 560, p 560; conflict in, 532,
536; cultural geography of, 522–49, p 522–23, p 527,
p 531, p 536, p 538, p 543; culture in, 527–28,
532–33, 542–43, p 543, 548; deforestation in, 517,
525; drought in, 512, 530, 565; Eastern Highlands in,
512, 519; e-commerce in, 561; economic activity in,
p 492–93, 529, 530, p 554–55, 556–59, g 557, m
558, p 559; education in, 528, 533, 537–38, 543, 548;
environment in, 564–68, m 565, p 567, m 569; family
life in, 528; game reserves in, 568, m 569; Great Rift
Valley of, p 508–9, 511, d 511, 519, m 519; health
care in, 528, 533, 538, 543, 548; history of, 526–27,
m 526, 531–32, p 531, 536, p 536, 541–42, m 541,
546–47; importance of, 493; independence in, 527,
542; industrialization in, 559; landforms in, 511–12,
d 511, p 512; language in, 527, 532, 537, 540, 542,
548; minerals in, 559; mountains in, 512, 519, m 519;
natural resources in, 514, g 514, 519, 553; physical
geography of, 508–19, m 519; plains in, 515, 517;
plateaus in, 512; population patterns in, 525, g 525,
m 526, 535, g 535; religion in, 525, 527, 532–33,
534, 536, 537, 548; trade in, 529, 530, 536, 561;
transportation in, 560; varied ways of life in, 533;
vegetation in, 516–18; war in, 566; water systems
in, 512–13, m 513. See also specific regions
Afrikaans, 548
Agra, India, p 576–77
Agricultural Revolution, 78–79
agriculture: in Africa south of the Sahara, 517, 525,
530, 533, 535, 540, 557–59, g 557, 566, 567; in
American colonies, 150; in Australia, 803, 837–38,
m 838; cash crops in, 150, 557–59, 629; in Central
Africa, 540; in Central Asia, 426, 475; commercial
farming in, m 107, 557, m 700; conservation farming
in, 558–59; cooperatives in, 699; dairy farms in, 168;
and destruction of rain forests, 251, p 251, 252; in
developing countries, 108; dry farming in, 152, 331,
m 427; in East Asia, p 660–61, 665, 666, 677–78,
696, 699, g 699; in Europe, 281, 288, 325–26, g 325;
family farms in, 168; farming techniques used in,
326, 612; improvements in, 630; issues in, 326; in
Latin America, 204, 208, 209, 243, m 244; livestock
in, m 107, 168, 243, 244, 326, 430, 475, 557, 598,
837, m 838; mixed farming in, 326; in New Zealand,
805, 837–38, m 838; in North Africa, 426, m 427,
432, p 432, 440, 475; in Oceania, 805, 837–38, m
838; and population, 72; in Russia, 357, 359, 364,
392, 397; seafood farming in, 666; sedentary farming
in, 557; shifting cultivation in, 557, 775; size of farms
in, 168; slash-and-burn farming in, 251, p 251, 557,
637, 777; and soil erosion, 331, 559, 777, 844; in
South America, 229; in South Asia, 599, 607, 617,
619, 629–30, g 629, 637, 638; in Southeast Asia, 736,
737, p 742, 750–51, 767–68, 777, 778; in southern
Africa, 546; in South Pacific, 838; in Southwest Asia,
426, 475; subsistence farming in, m 107, 557, 629,
m 700, 767, 827; terracing in, 629; in United States
and Canada, 166, p 166, 168; use of fertilizers in, 72,
109, 844
AIDS, 533, 543, 546, m 546, 548
Ainu people, 682
air pollution, 109–10, 174, p 174, 252, 332–34, 397,
638, p 706, 708, m 708, 709, p 774, 776
Alaska: climate of, 142, c 142; global warming in, 176;
population density in, 149
Alaska Range, 131
Albania, 325
Alberta, 134, 156, 158
Alexander II of Russia, 380
Alexander III of Russia, 380
Algeria, 425, 440, 441, 476
Algiers, Algeria, 440
Allahabad, India, p 604–5
alluvial plain, 592
alluvial soil, 426
alphabet, 470
Alps, 50, p 50, 281, p 281, 283, 285, 286, 288, 289,
m 289
al-Qaeda, 152, 465
Altay Shan, 664
altiplano, 204, d 204
Amazon Basin, 205, p 207; environment in, 251, p
251; tropical rain forest in, 61, 209, m 209, 211, m
213, 244, 248–49, p 248, m 249, 251, p 251
Amazon River, 205, 209, 211, 245
amendments, 151
American Falls, 133
American Revolution, 151
Amnok River, 665
Amsterdam, Netherlands, 300
Amu Dar’ya, 463
Amur River, 358
R63
Arizona, Grand Canyon • Byzantium
Arizona, Grand Canyon in, 40, p 114–15, 131
Armenians, 463, m 463, 464, 465, 466
Arrente people, 819–20
artesian wells, 803
arts: Africa south of the Sahara, 527, p 527, 533, 538,
p 538, 542; in Arabian Peninsula, 459, p 459; in
Australia, 823; in Canada, 159; in Central Africa,
542; in Central America and Caribbean, 226;
in Central Asia, 466; in China, 679, 680; in East
Africa, 533; in East Asia, 690; in eastern Europe,
316; in eastern Mediterranean, 447; in Europe,
298, 302, 309, 316; Hispanic, 239, p 239; in India,
609–10; in Japan, 685; in Mexico, ptg 218, 220;
in New Zealand, 823, 833; in North Africa, 442; in
Northeast, 454; in northern Europe, 298; in North
Korea, 690; in Oceania, 828, 833; in Pakistan and
Bangladesh, 615; pre-Columbian, 226; in Russia,
374–75, p 375; in South America, 232; in South
Asia, 609–10, 615, 620; in Southeast Asia, 753, 758;
in southern Africa, 548; in southern Europe, 309; in
South Korea, 690; in United States, 153; in western
Europe, 302
Aryans, 451, 608
Ashanti, 538
Asia: as continent, 33; population growth in, 71. See
also Central Asia; East Asia; South Asia; Southeast
Asia; Southwest Asia
Asian Americans, 694–95, p 694–95
Asian Development Bank (ADB), 770–71
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC), 702, 839
Asir Mountains, 425
assembly lines, 152
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
(ASEAN), 109, g 770, 770–71, 839
asteroids, 31, d 31
Aswān, Egypt, p 406–7
Aswān High Dam, 22, 426, 482
Atacama Desert, d 204, 210, p 210, p 250
atheism, 80, 680
Athens, Greece, 307, 308
Atlantic Coastal Plain, 132, 133, m 133
Atlantic forest (Brazil), 252
Atlantic Ocean, 43, 132, 133, 135, 331
Atlas Mountains, 425, m 425, 432, 433
atmosphere, 32, d 32, 52–53, d 53, 55
atolls, 804, 845
Auckland, New Zealand, 820
Australia: Aborigines in, 97, p 97, 819–20, p 820,
821, 822, 823, 843; agriculture in, 803, 837–38,
p 838; arts in, 823; climate of, 60, p 60, 810,
811; communications in, 838; as continent, 33;
cultural geography of, 818–23, m 819, p 820, m
821, c 823; culture in, 822–23, c 823; economy
of, 787, 834–39, p 834–35, p 837, m 838, g 839;
education in, 822; environment in, 842–46, p 842,
p 843, c 844; government of, 821; health care in,
822; history of, 820–21, m 821; immigration to,
820; interdependence in, 837; language in, 822;
manufacturing in, 837; migration to, 816; mining
in, 803, 838; natural resources in, 803, m 838, 838,
843; “Outback” of, 800, 803; physical geography
of, 800, 803, m 803; pollution in, 844; population
patterns in, 819–20, m 819; religion in, 822–23;
service industries in, 838; sports in, 823; trade in,
839; transportation in, 838; and United States, 832,
833, p 833; unusual animals in, 843; urbanization
in, 820; vegetation in, 810, 811, m 811
Austria, 300
R64
autobahnen, 326
autocracy, 101–2
automobiles: and air pollution, 168, 174, p 174, 333; in
United States and Canada, 167, 168, m 169
avalanches, 288
axis, 51, d 51, d 52
Axum, 526, 531
Aymara culture, 229, 231
Azerbaijan, 464–65, 466, 475, c 475, 478
Azeri people, m 451, m 463
Aztec Empire, 217, 218
B
Bagan (Pagan), Myanmar, p 732–33
Baghdad, Iraq, 152, 452
Bahrain, 456, m 456, 457, 458, 475, 476
Baku, 478
balance of trade, 702
Balboa, Vasco Núñez de, 224
Balearic Islands, 283
Bali, 778
Balkanization, 315
Balkan Peninsula, 282, 314
Balkan wars, 315
Baltic Sea, 282, 358
Bamako, Mali, 525
bamboo, 668
Banda Aceh, Indonesia, 778
Bangalore. See Bengaluru (Bangalore)
Bangkok, Thailand, p 718–19, 750, 775, 776, 777
Bangladesh, 591, 611–15; agriculture in, 629, 630,
637; arts in, 615; climate of, 597, 599, p 600;
communications in, 632; culture in, 611, 614–15,
p 615; education in, 612; family life in, 615; fishing
in, 630; forests in, 638; government in, 613–14;
history of, 611, 613–14, m 613; industry in, 630;
microcredit in, 631; natural resources of, 630;
population patterns in, 612, d 612; religion in, 612,
613, 614, 615; transportation in, 631–32; water in,
637; weather in, 638
Bantu, 530, 540, 541, 546
Barbados, 224
Barroso, José Manuel, p 328
Basque people, 301
Batumi, 432, 478
bauxite, 206, m 476, 630, m 700, 803, m 838
Bay of Bengal, 592, 597, 638
bedouin, 439, 456
Beijing, China, 665, 677
Beirut, Lebanon, 444
Belarus, 314, 334, 381, 396
Belgium, 300, 302
Bengali people, 612
Bengaluru (Bangalore), 631
Berbers, 75, p 75, 439, 440, 456, 525
Bhote people, 617
Bhutan, 591; agriculture in, 629; arts in, 620;
communications in, 632; education in, 620; ethnic
groups in, 617, c 617; history of, 616, 618, m 618;
hydroelectric project in, 593; independence in,
618, m 618; industry in, 630; natural resources of,
630; population patterns in, 617, c 617; religion
in, 618, m 619, 620; tourism in, 631; trade in, 633;
transportation in, 632
Białowieza Forest, 334
Bikini Atoll, 845
Bilauktaung Range, 736
bilingualism, 153
Bill of Rights, 151
bin Laden, Osama, 152, 465
biodiversity: in Latin America, 207, p 251, 252
biofuel, 174, 176
Bioko, 540
biomass, 630, 637
biome, 61
biosphere, 32, d 32
Birmingham, England, m 297
birthrate, 71, g 71
Black Earth Belt, 359
black market, 391
Black Moors, 536
Black Sea, 281, 282, 283, 327, 334, 357, 358, 364,
426, 477
“black triangle” (Europe), 332
blizzards, 142
Bogotá, Colombia, 208
Bohemia, 314
Bolívar, Simón, 230
Bolivia, 228, m 230; Andes mountain ranges in, 204,
p 204; exports of, g 243; population density in, 73,
m 73
Bollywood film industry, 606, p 606, 610, p 610, p
624, 625
Bolsheviks, 381
Bombay, India. See Mumbai (Bombay), India
boomerang, 820
border conflicts: in Latin America, 253–54, m 253
Borneo, 735, 737, 738, 775
Borobudur shrine (Indonesia), 758
Bosnia-Herzogovina, 313
Bosporus, 358, 426
Boswash megalopolis, 150
Botswana, 547, 567
boundaries: geometric, 441; natural, 453
Brahmaputra River, 592, 601
brain drain, 228
Brasília, Brazil, 228
Brazil, p 184–85; agriculture in, 243, g 243, p
251; architecture of, p 240–41; capital of, 228;
computer technology in, 245; culture in, p 214–15;
destruction of rain forest in, m 213, 251, p 251, 252;
economy of, 242; national park in, 248–49, p 248,
m 249; natural resources of, 206, g 206, 230, 252;
population of, 228; religion in, p 231; temperatures
in, c 55; transportation in, 245, m 245; urban
growth in, g 252
Brazilian Highlands, 204, d 204
Britain. See England; Great Britain; United Kingdom
British Columbia, 134, 158
British Isles, 283
Brunei, 736, 737, 755, 757, 768, 771
Brussels, Belgium, 300, 326
Budapest, Hungary, 312, 313, 325
Buddhism, g 81, 82–83, p 82–83, 373, 608, 609, 614,
617, 618, 620, g 621, p 674–75, 677, 680, 685,
690, 758
Buenos Aires, Argentina, 74, 229, g 252
buffer state, 751
Bujumbura, Burundi, c 55
Bulgaria, 313
bullfighting, 220
Burma. See Myanmar
Burundi, 530
Buryatia, 373
Bushmen (San), 544, p 544
Byzantium, 308
Cabot, John • Clean Water Act
C
Charlemagne (Charles the Great), 301
Chechnya, 376–77, p 376–77, 393
chemical dangers, 484, m 484
chemical weathering, 39
Chennai (Madras), India, 632, 638
Chernobyl nuclear accident, 396, m 396
chernozem soil, 357, 359, 364
Chiang Kai-shek, 679
Chicago, m 17
Chile, 229, 230, 231, 232; copper in, 206; exports of,
g 243; transportation in, 245, m 245; urbanization
in, 253
Chimbu people, 825
China: agriculture in, p 660–61, 665, 666, 677, 699, g
699; arts in, 679, 680; climate in, 668, m 668; college
students in U.S., c 625; cultural geography of, 676–80,
p 676, g 677, m 678, p 679; as culture hearth, 78,
m 78; culture in, 680; dynasties in, 678–79, m 678;
earthquakes in, m 663, 664, 710; economy of, 104,
696; education in, 680; empires in, 678–79, m 678;
energy demands in, 704–5, p 704–5, g 707; families
in, 677, 680; fishing in, 666; flooding in, 709–10;
government of, 102, 679; Great Wall of, m 678,
679; gross domestic product (GDP) of, g 666; health
care in, 680; history of, 678–79, m 678, p 679, 684,
688; human impact on environment in, 708, m
708; human rights in, 703; industrial waste in, 708;
industry in, 696, m 700, 701; landforms in, 663–64,
m 663, m 664; language in, 680; mixed economy in,
699; mountains in, 664; natural resources in, 666;
philosophy in, 678–79; population patterns in, 677,
g 677; ports in, 701; resource management in, 707;
revolutionary, 679, 680; rivers in, 665, 678, 701, 710,
737, p 737, 743; trade in, 633, 696, 702–3, 777, g 839;
transportation in, 701; urban growth in, 677
chinampas, 218
China-Tibet Railway, 701
Chinatowns (in U.S.), 695
Chinese Americans, g 694, 695
chinook, 141
Chipko movement, 638
Chittagong, Bangladesh, 630, 632
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 709
Chota Nagpur Plateau, 591, d 591
Christchurch, New Zealand, 820
Christianity, 84–85, p 84–85; in Australia, 823; branches
of, 84; in Canada, 159; in Central Africa, 542; in
Central Asia, 466; in East Asia, 685, 690; in eastern
Europe, 315; in eastern Mediterranean, 445, m 445,
447; in Europe, 298, 301, 302, 303, 307; in India, 609;
in Japan, 685; in northern Europe, 298, 301, 302; in
Oceania, 828; origins of, 471; percentage of world
population, g 81; in Russia, p 342–43, 370, 373, g
373, 380, 386, p 386–87; in South Asia, 609, 614; in
Southeast Asia, 757, 758; in southern Africa, 548; in
southern Europe, 307, 308, 309; in West Africa, 532,
534, 536
chromite, 593
Chunnel (Channel Tunnel), 326
Church of the Resurrection (St. Petersburg,
Russia), p 342–43
cities. See urbanization
city-states, 308
Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, 244
civilizations, 78, m 113, 526–27, m 526, 678–79, m
678, 750
Civil War, 152
clan, 683, 820
Clean Water Act, 175
INDEX
Cabot, John, 157, m 157
cacao, 557
Cairo, Egypt, 440
Calcutta, India. See Kolkata (Calcutta), India
California: earthquakes in, 38
camanchaca, p 210
Cambodia: agriculture in, 767, 768; communications
in, 770; education in, 752; environment of, 776;
health care in, 752; highway system in, 769, 770;
history of, 751, m 751; industry in, 768; language in,
752; natural resources in, 737, p 738; trade in, 771
Cameroon, 540, 541, 558
campesinos, 243
Canada: acid rain levels in, m 179; agriculture in,
166, 168; airports in, 169; automobiles in, 168;
border with United States, 171, p 171; climate of,
138, 140–42, m 145; climate regions in, m 140;
college students in U.S., c 625; communications in,
169; constitution of, 158; cultural geography of,
155–60; culture in, 159–60, p 159, 161; diversity
in, 158; economy of, 132, 158, 166–71, d 170, p
171; education in, 159; environment in, 172–76;
ethnic groups in, 156; expansion of, m 157, 158;
exploration of, 157–58, m 157; family life in,
160; fishing in, 135; forests in, 135; geography
of, 155; global warming in, 176; government of,
158; health care in, 159; history of, 157–58, m
157, 161; industry in, 158, 161; interdependence
with United States, 170–71, p 171; islands in, 132;
landforms in, p 130–31, 131–32; language in, 158,
159; manufacturing in, 167; natural resources in,
134–35, g 135; physical geography of, 128–43;
population patterns in, 156, m 156, g 160, 161;
railroads in, 169; religion in, 159; roads in, 168;
trade in, 115, 156, 158, p 164–65, 170–71, d 170;
urbanization in, 156; vegetation in, 138, p 138,
m 141, 142; waterways in, 132–33; wood-based
products of, 168
Canadian Shield, 132, 133, 134, p 143
Canaima National Park (Venezuela), p 200– 201
canals, 33, 205, 224, p 224, 245, 283, 327, 358, 441,
477, 665, 701
Candomblé, 231
canopy, in rain forests, 209
Canterbury Plains, 805
canyons, 40
Cape Breton Island, 132
Cape Mountains, 512
Cape of Good Hope, 512
Cape Town, South Africa, p 512, 518, p 554–55
Cape York Peninsula, 803
capitalism, 103; industrial, 297
car(s). See automobiles
carbon dioxide, 53, d 53, 176, 333
carbon emissions, g 776
cardinal directions, 10
Caribbean, 203, 204, 221–26; African influence in,
222; arts in, 226; climate of, 209, 211; culture in,
225–26; education in, 225; government of, 224;
health care in, 226; history of, 223–24, m 223;
hurricanes in, 254; independence movement in,
224; language in, 225; migration in, 222; population
patterns in, 222; religion in, 225; service industries
in, 244; urbanization in, 222
Caribbean Sea, 205, 206
carnival, p 214–15
Carpathian Mountains, 281, 314
carrying capacity, 565, m 565
Cartier, Jacques, 157, m 157
cartographers, 5
cartography, 20
Casablanca, Morocco, 440
Cascade Range, 131
cash crops: in Africa south of the Sahara, 557–59; cotton,
152; in Latin America, 243; in South Asia, 629; in
United States and Canada, 150
Caspian Sea, 357, 358, 364, 373, 397, 426, 427, 478
caste system, 608, 610
Castro, Fidel, 224
Castro, Raul, 224
Catalans, 307
cataracts, 512, 513
Catherine the Great of Russia, 380
cattle ranches, 168, 204, 209, 243
Caucasians, 463; in Russia, 371, m 371, 373
Caucasus Mountains, 357, 425, 431
caudillo, 219
cave creation of, 39
Celts, 296, 301, 314
Central Africa, 539–43, p 539, p 540; agriculture in,
540; arts in, 542; culture in, 542–43, p 543; education
in, 543; European colonization of, 542; family life in,
543; health care in, 543; history of, 540, 541–42, m
541; independence in, 542; language in, 540, 542;
migration in, 540; population patterns in, 540; rain
forest in, 539; religion in, 542–43
Central African Republic, 540
Central America, 221–26; agriculture in, 243; arts
in, 226; culture in, 225–26; education in, 225;
government of, 224; health care in, 226; history of,
223–24, m 223; hurricanes in, 254; independence
movement in, 224; language in, 225; migration in,
222; Native Americans in, 222, 223, 225; population
patterns in, 222; religion in, 225; urbanization in,
222. See also Latin America
Central American Free Trade Agreement
(CAFTA). See DR-CAFTA
Central Asia, 462, p 462; agriculture in, 426, 475;
arable land in, c 475; arts in, 466; climate in, 430–
32, m 431; culture in, 466; earthquakes in, 425, m
425; economic activity in, 475–76, m 476, 478–79;
education in, 466; environment in, 480–84, m 481,
m 483; ethnic groups in, 463, m 463; government of,
465; health care in, 466; history of, 464–65, m 464;
independence in, 465; landforms in, 425–26; leisure
in, 466; natural resources in, 427–28, g 428, 433,
474, 475–76, m 476; nuclear and chemical dangers
in, 484, m 484; physical geography of, 422–33, m
425; population patterns in, m 439, 463–64, m 463;
religion in, 463, 465, 466; rivers of, 463; trade routes
in, 464, m 464; transportation and communications
in, 477–78. See also North Africa; Southwest Asia
central business district, 167
Central Highlands (Latin America), 203, 204
Central Lowlands (Australia), 803
Central Lowlands (U.S.), 131
Central Siberian Plateau, 357
Ceylon, 619. See also Sri Lanka
Chad, 525, 559, 560
Chalna, Bangladesh, 632
Champlain, Samuel de, m 157
Changbai Shan, 664
Chang Jiang (Yangtze River), 665, 671, 677, 701, 707,
709, 710
Chao Phraya River, 737
chaparral, 139
R65
clear-cutting • Deccan Plateau
clear-cutting, 173
climate: of Africa south of the Sahara, 515–18, m 516,
c 517, 526; of Antarctica, 54, p 54, 806, m 806; of
Australia, 810, 811; of Canada, 138, 140–42, m 145;
of Central Asia, 430–32; changes in, 64; coastal,
141; desert, 61, d 61, m 62, 139, m 140, m 209,
210, p 210, m 516, 518, m 668, 669; dry, m 209,
210; and Earth’s movements, 51–52, d 51, d 52; of
East Asia, 667–70, m 668; and elevation, 55, c 55,
141, 208, d 208; and greenhouse effect, 52–53, d
53, 333, 398; highland, m 62, 63, 288, 431, m 516,
518, 597, m 668, 669, m 740, 742; in high-latitude
regions, m 62, 63; humid continental, 62, m 62, m
145, 288, m 362, 363–64; humid subtropical, 62,
m 62, m 145, 209, m 209, m 516, 518, 597, m 740,
742; influences on, 286–88; interior, 140–41; and
landforms, 59, d 59; of Latin America, 207, 208–10,
d 208, m 209, p 210; and latitude, 54, 55, m 56, 57,
142, c 142; marine, m 140, 141, m 209; marine west
coast, 62, m 62, 287, m 516, 518; Mediterranean,
62, m 62, 139, m 140, m 209, 287–88; of Mexico,
203; in midlatitudes, 62, m 62, 431–32, m 516,
518, 597, 668, m 668, m 740, 742, p 742; of New
Zealand, 812; in North Africa, 430–32; of Oceania,
810, 812, 845–46; of Russia, 361–64, m 362; of
South Asia, 596; of Southeast Asia, 739–42, m 740,
p 742; southern, 139, p 139; in Southwest Asia,
430–32; steppe, 61, m 62, 288, m 362, 364, 430,
m 516, 517, 598, 669, m 668; temperature, 51, m
67; tropical dry, 61, m 62, m 140, m 145, m 516,
517, 597, 741; tropical savanna, 209, m 209, m 741,
742; tropical wet, 61, m 62, 139, m 140, 516–17, m
516, 597, m 668, 669, 740, m 740; of United States,
138–42, p 139, c 142, m 145; warm and dry, 139,
p 139, 141; warm and wet, 139, p 139; vs. weather,
51; and wind patterns, 56–58, m 56
climate regions, 61–64, m 62; in East Asia, 668–69;
in Europe, 285, 287–88, m 287; in Russia, 362–64,
m 362; of South Asia, 597–98; in Southeast Asia,
740–42, m 740, p 742; in United States and Canada,
m 140. See also specific climate regions
climate zones: vertical, 208, d 208
coal, 106, m 106, m 107, 134; in East Asia, 666, m
700, 708; in Europe, 281, 284, m 284; in New
Zealand, m 838; in North Africa, Central Asia, and
Southwest Asia, 476, m 476; in Russia, 359
coastal climates, 141
coastline, d 33
Coast Range, 131
Cold War, 297, m 314, 381, 387
Colombia, 228, 230, m 230, 232, 243; earthquakes in,
203; exports of, g 243; llanos of, 204, 209; natural
resources in, 206
Colorado, p 2–3, c 55
Colorado Plateau, 131
Colorado River, 131, 132
Columbian Exchange, 223, m 223
Columbia Plateau, 131, p 131
Columbus, Christopher, 223
comets, 31
command economy, 103–4, p 104, 391, 699
commercial farming, m 107, 557, m 700
commodity, 168
communications: in Africa south of the Sahara, 560,
p 560; in Australia, 838; in East Asia, 701; in Europe,
326; in Latin America, 245; mass, 393; in North
Africa, Central Asia, and Southwest Asia, 478; in
Oceania, 838; in Russia, 393; in South Asia, 632; in
Southeast Asia, 770; in South Pacific, 838; technology
R66
for, 169, 245; in United States and Canada, 169
communism, 103–4, p 104, 224, 225, 297, 311, 326,
328, 381, 386, 391, 461, 679, 680, 687
Comoros, 546
compass rose, 10
computer technology: in Europe, 325; in Latin America,
245; and mapmaking, 21; in South Asia, 631
condensation, 42, d 42
Confucianism, g 81, 86–87, p 86–87, 678–79, 680,
690, 758
Congo, 512, 519, 540, 541, 542, 543
Congo River, 513, 514
coniferous forests, 62, m 63, 141, 363, 364, m 431
conquistador, 219, 230
conservation: of energy, p 172; of forests and
woodlands, 135, 248–49, p 248, m 249, 334, 396,
775, 844; in mining industry, 134; of nonrenewable
resources, 106; of wildlife, 334, 562–63, p 562, m
563, 638, 843–44
conservation farming, 558
Constantinople, 308
Constitution, 151, 158
Constitution Act (Canada), 158
constitutional monarchies, 102
consumer goods, 391
continent(s), 33, 35
Continental Divide, 132
continental drift, 35, m 36
continental islands, 132
continentality, 362
continental shelf, 33, d 33, 132
continental slope, 33, d 33
cooperatives, 699
Copenhagen, Denmark, 296
copper: in Australia, m 838; in Chile, 206; in East Asia,
m 700; in North Africa, Central Asia, and Southwest
Asia, 476, m 476; in South Asia, 593; in Southeast
Asia, 737; in United States and Canada, 134
copra, 837, 839
coral bleaching, p 840, 841, m 841
Coral Sea, 840–41, p 840–41, m 841
cordilleras, 204, d 204, 735, 736
core, of Earth, 35, d 35
Coriolis effect, 56, 57
Corn Belt, 18, 168
Corsica, 280, p 280, 283
Cortés, Hernán, 219
Costa Rica, 222, 224, 246, 252
Côte d’Ivoire, 557–58, p 559, 567
cottage industries, 630
cotton, 152
coup d’état, 547
Crete, 283
Croatia, 313, 314
Crusades, 301
crust, of Earth, 35, d 35
Cuba: agriculture in, 243; culture in, p 221, 225; ethnic
groups in, p 221, 222; independence movement in,
224; religion in, 225
cultural contacts, 79
cultural convergence, 683
cultural diffusion, 78
cultural divergence, 689
cultural geography: of Africa south of the Sahara,
522–49, p 522–23, p 529, p 531, p 536, p 538, p
543, p 544; of Australia, 818–23, m 819, p 820, m
821, c 823; of Canada, 155–60; of China, 676–80,
p 676, g 677, m 678, p 679; of East Asia, 674–90, p
674–75, p 676, g 677, m 678, p 679, p 681, m 682,
p 686; of Europe, 292–316, p 292–93; of Japan,
681–85; of Latin America, 214–33; of North Africa,
438–42, p 438, m 439, p 440; of Oceania, 824–28,
p 824, p 825, p 827; of Russia, 368–83; of South
Asia, 604–21, p 604–5, m 608, p 610, d 612, m 613,
p 615, m 618, m 619; of Southeast Asia, 746–59, p
746–47; of United States, 146–54, m 161
culture: in Africa south of the Sahara, 527–28, p 527,
532–33, 542–43, p 543, 548; in Arabian Peninsula,
458–59, p 459; architecture, 153, p 153, 220, p 229,
232; in Australia, 822–23, c 823; in Bangladesh, 611,
614–15, p 615; Berber, 75, p 75; in Brazil, p 214–15;
in Canada, 159–60, p 159, 161; in Central Africa,
542–43, p 543; in Central America and Caribbean,
225–26; in Central Asia, 466; changes in, 78–79; in
China, 680; in Cuba, p 221, 225; in East Africa, 532–
33; in East Asia, p 648–49, 680, 684, 690; in eastern
Europe, 315–16; in eastern Mediterranean, 447;
elements of, 76–77, m 76; in Europe, 298, p 299, 299,
302–3, ptg 302, 315–16; and geography, 22; in India,
609–10, p 610; indigenous, 525; in Japan, 684–85; in
Latin America, 185, 225–26, 231–32; in Mexico, 216,
ptg 218, 219–20, p 219; in North Africa, 441–42; in
North and South Korea, p 648–49, 690; in Northeast,
453–54; in northern Europe, 298; in Pakistan, 611,
614–15, p 615; in Russia, 370, 373–75, g 373, p
374, 387, p 387; in Sahel, 527–28, p 527; in South
America, 231–32; in South Asia, 577, 609–10, p 610,
611, 614–15, p 615, 619–20; in Southeast Asia, 719,
752–53, 757–58, p 757; in southern Africa, 548; in
southern Europe, 309; in United States, 153–54, p
153; in western Europe, 299, 302–3, ptg 302
culture hearths, 78, m 78, 452, 678
culture regions, 77, m 77. See also specific regions
cuneiform, 452
currency, 263, 328, 391
currents, ocean, 57–58, m 57, d 58, 670
Cuzco, Peru, 229
cyclones, 599, p 600, 778, 845
Cyprus, 283
czar, 379, 380, 381
Czech Republic, 313, p 322–23, 325, 332
D
Dagestan, 382, 393
dairy farms, 168
Dakar, Senegal, 525
Dalai Lama, 680
Dalits, 640
dam(s), 22, 360, 426, 427, m 481, 482, 593, 637, 665,
p 665, 707, 709, 710, 777
Damascus, Syria, 445
dance: in Africa, 533, 538, 548; in Bangladesh, 615;
in Bhutan, 620; in India, 609; in Japan, 685; in
Southeast Asia, 758
Danube River, 282, 283, 314, 333, 334
Daoism, 678, 680, 758
Dardanelles, 358, 426
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 529, 533
Darfur, 527, 566
Darling River, 803
Dead Sea, 33, 44, 426, 483
death rate, 71, g 71
Death Valley, 131; climate of, 139, p 139
debt: in Africa south of the Sahara, 561; in Latin
America, 247
Deccan Plateau, 591, 601
deciduous forests • Elburz Mountains
E
Earth: atmosphere of, 32, d 32, 52–53, d 53, 55; axis of,
51, d 51, d 52; biosphere of, 32, d 32; circumference
of, 32; and climate, 51–52, d 51, d 52; core of, 35,
d 35; crust of, 35, d 35; diameter of, 32; forces of
change on, 36–40, m 37, d 38, d 39; heights and
depths of, 33; landforms on, 33, d 33; mantle of, 35,
d 35; physical geography of, 32–33, d 33, m 47, m
67; population of, 71; revolutions of, 51–52, d 52;
rotation of, 51, d 51, d 52; in solar system, 31, d 31;
structure of, 35–36, d 35; and the sun, 50–53, d 52,
d 53; tilt of, 51, d 51, 52, d 52; view from space, 30;
water on, 32, 41–44
earthquakes: in Central Asia, 425, m 425; in East Asia,
663, m 663, 664, 710; forces causing, 38; in Latin
America, 203, m 203; in North Africa, 425, m 425; in
South Asia, 600; in Southeast Asia, 735, m 735, 778;
in Southwest Asia, 425, m 425; studying, 34, p 34
East Africa, 529–33, p 529; agriculture in, 530, 533; arts
in, 533; conflict in, 532; culture in, 532–33; education
in, 532; health care in, 533; language in, 532; life
expectancy in, 533; population patterns in, 530, m
530; religion in, 532; trade in, 531; varied ways of
life in, 533
East Asia: agriculture in, p 660–61, 665, 666, 677,
696, 699, g 699; climate of, 667–70, m 668;
communications in, 701; cultural geography of,
674–90, p 674–75, p 676, g 677, m 678, p 681, m
682, p 686; culture in, p 648–49, 680, 685, 690;
earthquakes in, 663, m 663, 664, 710; economic
activity in, 679, 696, 699–701, g 699, m 700;
education in, 680, 684, 690; environment in, 706–
10, p 706, m 708; family life in, 677, 685; flooding
in, 709–10; gross domestic product (GDP) in, g 666;
health care in, 690; history of, 678–79, m 678, p
679, 683, m 684, 684, 688–89, m 688; immigration
to United States, 694–95, p 694–95; industry in,
696, 700–701, m 700, 706; landforms in, 663–64, m
663, m 664; language in, 680, 685, 690; mountains
in, 664, 671; natural resources in, 662, 666, m 700;
nuclear energy in, 707, 709; physical geography
of, 660–71, p 660–61, p 662, m 663, m 664, p 665;
resource management in, 707; trade in, 649, 679,
683, 696, 700, m 700, 702–3, g 702; transportation
in, m 682, 701; vegetation in, 668, 669, m 669;
water systems in, 665, p 665
East China Sea, 664
Easter Island, p 786–87
eastern Europe, 312–16, p 312, m 313, 328, g 329,
332; arts in, 316; culture in, 315–16; education in,
315–16; ethnic groups in, 313, m 313; family life in,
316; government in, 314; health care in, 316; history
of, 314, m 314; language in, 314; leisure in, 316;
migration in, 313; population patterns in, 313, m 313;
religion in, 316; sports in, 316; urban areas in, 313
Eastern Ghats, 590, 591, 593, 598
Eastern Hemisphere, 9
eastern Mediterranean, 443–47, p 443; arts in, 447;
conflict in, 446; culture in, 446–47; education in, 447;
family life in, 447; government of, 446; health care in,
447; history of, 445–46, m 446; independence in, 446;
language in, 447; population patterns in, 444, g 444;
religion in, 444, 445–47, m 445, m 446
East Indies, 735
East Sea. See Sea of Japan (East Sea)
East Timor (Timor-Leste), 736, 757, 771
Ebla, Syria, 445
e-commerce, 561
economic activity: in Africa south of the Sahara, p
492–93, 529, 530, p 554–55, 556–59, g 557, m 558,
p 559; in Canada, 167; in Central Asia, 475–76, m
476, 478–79; and climate, 141; as cultural element,
77; in Czech Republic, p 322–23; in East Asia, 679,
696, 699–700, g 699, m 700; in Europe, 325–26, g
325; and fall line, m 133; and geography, 22; and
land use, m 106, m 107; in Latin America, 243–44,
g 243, m 244, m 257; in Libya, 428; in North Africa,
475–76, m 476, 478–79; primary, 107; quaternary,
108; and resources, m 106; in Russia, 392, g 392;
secondary, 107; in South Asia, p 592, 628–33, g
629; in Southeast Asia, p 748, 751, p 766, 767–68,
p 768; in Southwest Asia, 475–76, m 476, 478–79;
specialized, 78; tertiary, 107; in United Arab
Emirates, 428, 478; in United States, 167, g 167;
and urbanization, 150
economic development, 107–8
economic growth, 150, 152
economic sanctions, 703
economic trends, g 108
economy: of Australia, 787, 834–39, p 834–35, p 837,
m 838, g 839; of Canada, 132, 158, 166–71, d 170,
p 171; of China, 696; command, 103–4, p 104, 391,
699; of Europe, 324–29, p 324, g 325, g 329; of
Germany, 310–11, g 310, g 311; global, m 107, 170;
of Japan, 684, 698, 699; of Latin America, 242–47,
p 242, m 244, g 246, p 247; market, 103, 167, 391;
mixed, 103, 699; of New Zealand, 834–39, p 834–
35, m 838, g 839; of Oceania, 834–39, p 834–35,
p 837, m 838, g 839; postindustrial, 167; of Russia,
390–94, g 391, g 392; of Southeast Asia, 766–71, p
766, g 767, p 768; traditional, 103, p 103; of United
States, 166–71, d 170, p 171; of Vietnam, 104, p
748, 766, 768; and world trade, 107–9, g 108
ecosystem, 19, 110
ecotourism, 568, 631
Ecuador, 228, m 230; border dispute with Peru, m 253,
254; exports of, g 243; natural resources of, 206, g
206; temperatures in, 55, c 55
Edmonton, 156
education: in Africa south of the Sahara, 528, 532–33,
537–38, 543, 548; in Arabian Peninsula, 458; in
Australia, 822; in Canada, 159; in Central Africa,
543; in Central America and Caribbean, 225; in
Central Asia, 466; in China, 680; in East Africa,
532–33; in East Asia, 680, 684, 690; in eastern
Europe, 315–16; in eastern Mediterranean, 447;
in Europe, 298, 303, 309, 315–16; in India, 608,
609, 634–35, p 634–35, m 635; in Japan, 684; in
Mexico, 219–20; in New Zealand, 822; in North
Africa, 442; in Northeast, 454; in northern Europe,
298; in Oceania, 828; in Pakistan and Bangladesh,
612, 614; in Russia, 374; in Sahel, 527–28; in South
America, 231; in South Asia, 609, 620; in Southeast
Asia, 752, 757; in southern Africa, 548; in southern
Europe, 309; in United States, 153; in West Africa,
537–38; in western Europe, 303
Egypt: agriculture in, 426, m 427, 440; arts in, 442;
Aswān High Dam in, 22, 426, 482; as culture hearth,
78, m 78; as gateway for migration to North Africa,
439; government of, p 102; history of, 440, 441;
immigration to U.S. from, c 470; Nile River in, p
406–7, 426, m 427, 433, 526; population in, 73, m
73, 440; transportation in, 477; water in, 426, m
427, 592
Elburz Mountains, 432, 483
INDEX
deciduous forests, 62, m 63, m 431, m 597, 668, m
741, 742
deforestation, 248, 251, p 251, 252, 331, m 359, 525,
638, 709, 777
Delhi, India, 607, 613
delta, 513
Delta Plan, 331
Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), 687
democracy, 102
Democratic Republic of the Congo, 512, 540, 542,
543. See also Congo
demographic transition, 71, g 71, 297
Denmark, 295–96, 297, 298
Depression, 141
deregulation, 630
desalination, 43, d 43, 481, m 481
desert: in Asia, 425, 429, 430, m 431, 664, m 664, 666, m
668, 669, 671; climate of, 61, d 61, m 62, 139, m 140,
m 209, 210, p 210, m 516, 518, m 597, m 668, 669; in
Latin America, p 250; in North Africa, 425, 429, 430,
m 431; in South Asia, m 597, 598; vegetation in, 61, d
61, m 63
desertification: in Africa south of the Sahara, 512,
525, 558, 565; in East Asia, m 708, 709
developed countries, 108
developing countries, 108, 244, 297
development, sustainable, 251, 637, 775
Dhaka, Bangladesh, 612
dharma, 608
dialect, 225
diamonds, 514, 519, 553
diatoms, 846
dictatorship, 101–2
dike, 282, d 282
direct democracy, 102
direct observation, 20, p 22
disaster preparedness, 254, p 254. See also natural
disasters
discrimination, 149
displaced people, 527
dissidents, 703
diversity: in Canada, 158; respect for, 153; in United
States, 153. See also biodiversity; ethnic groups
divide, 132
Djenné, Mali, 524
Djibouti, 531, 565
Dodoma, Tanzania, 533
Doctors Without Borders, 566
doldrums, m 56, 57, 812
domestication, of animals, 526. See also livestock
Dominican Republic, 73, 222, 225, 245, 246
dominion, 158, 821
doubling time, 71
Drakensberg Range, 512
Dravidians, 607
DR-CAFTA (Dominican Republic-Central American
Free Trade Agreement), 246, p 247
Dreamtime, 97, 819, 823
drought, 512, 530, 565, 637, 844
dry climates, 139, p 139, 141, m 209, 210
dry farming, 152, 331, m 427
dry tropical climates, 61, m 62, m 140, m 145, 597,
741
Dubai, p 472–73, 478
Dust Bowl, 141
Dutch East Indies, 757. See also Indonesia
dynasty, 678
dzong, 620
R67
electricity, production of • Free and Secure Trade (FAST) program
electricity, production of, 106, 805. See also
hydroelectric power
elephants, p 508, 567, p 567, 568
elevation, 12; and climate, 55, c 55, 141, 208, d 208;
in Latin America, d 204; and temperature, 55, c 55
Ellesmere Island, 132
El Niño, 58, d 58
El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), 845
El Salvador, 224, 246
embargo, 453, 479
Emerald Isle (Ireland), 283
emigrants, 74
emirs, 458
enclave, 465
endemic species, 741
energy: alternative sources of, 172, p 172, 175, p 175,
176; Chinese demands for, g 705, 704–5, p 704–5,
g 707; conservation of, p 172; geothermal, 805;
hydroelectric, 106, 205, 359, m 476, 483, 513, 514,
593, 665, p 665, 707, 710, 805, m 838; nuclear, 175,
p 175, 484, 707, 709; solar, 172, p 172, 175, 176,
514, 707; wind, 175
England: colonies of, 150–51; territorial rivalry with
France, 157–58, m 157; ties to Canada, 157–58. See
also United Kingdom
English Channel, 326
Enlightenment, 297
environment, 172–76; and acid rain, 109, 174, m
179, 332–33, m 332, 708, m 708; in Africa south
of the Sahara, 564–68, m 565, p 567, m 569; and
agriculture, 777; air pollution in, 109–10, 174, p
174, 252, 332, 333, 397, 638, p 706, 708, m 708,
709, p 774, 776; in Australia, 842–46, p 842, p
843, g 844; and Chernobyl nuclear accident, 396,
m 396; cleaning up, p 398; deforestation of, 248,
251, p 251, 252, 331, m 359, 517, 637, 709, 777;
in East Asia, 706–10, p 706, m 708; in Europe,
330–34, p 331, m 332, p 333; and fishing, 777;
future challenges involving, 176, p 176; and global
warming, 53, 110, 176, p 176, 333, 398, 845–46;
greenhouse effect on, 52–53, d 53, 176, 333, 398;
human impact on, 19, 174–75, p 174, 252–53,
332–33, m 332, 482–84, p 483, 567, p 567, 637–38,
m 638, 708, m 708, 776–77, g 776, 843–45; in Latin
America, 250–52, p 250, p 251; in North Africa,
Central Asia, and Southwest Asia, 480–84, m 481,
p 483, m 484; past, 22; and people, 109–10, p
110; reforestation of, 252, 638, 775; and resource
management, 173, p 173, 251–52, p 251, 331, 565,
m 565, 706, 707, g 707, 775, p 775; rural, 776; and
smog, 174, p 174; and society, 19, 22; in South Asia,
636–40, m 638; in Southeast Asia, 774–78, p 774,
p 775, g 776, p 777; urban, 776; and war, 482–83,
566; water pollution in, 109, 174, 175, 333, 397,
776, 777, 844. See also pollution
environmentalists, 333
Equator, 17, 52, d 52, 55, c 55
Equatorial Guinea, 540, 543
equinox, 51
ergs, 430
Eritrea, 532, 566
erosion, 39; glacial, 39–40; soil, 331, 558, 777, 844;
water, 40, p 40; wind, 39
escarpment, 204, 512, p 512, 519
Estonia, p 100, 313
estuary, 513
Ethiopia, 512, 530, m 530, 531, 557, 565, 566
ethnic cleansing, 314
ethnic groups, 77; in Canada, 156; in Central Africa,
R68
540; in Central America, 222; in Central Asia, 463,
m 463; in Cuba, p 221, 222; in eastern Europe,
313, m 313; homogeneous, 682; mestizos, 217; in
North Africa, 439–40; in Northeast, 451, m 451; in
Pakistan, 612; in Russia, 371–72, m 371; in Sahel,
525; in South Africa, 545, g 545; in South America,
228; in South Asia, 617, c 617; in Southeast Asia,
758; tensions in Balkans, 314; in U.S. population,
149; in West Africa, 535; in western Europe, g 300
Etruscans, 307
Euphrates River, 426, 427, 433, 481
Eurasia, 33, 37
Europe: acid rain in, 332–33, m 332; agriculture in,
281, 288, 325–26, g 325; arts in, 298, 302, 309,
316; climate of, 285; climate regions in, 285,
287–88, m 287; and Cold War, 297, m 314, 381,
387; communications in, 326; as continent, 33;
cultural geography of, 292–316, p 292–93; culture
in, 298, 299, 302–3, ptg 302, 315–16; economic
activities in, 325–26, g 325; economy of, 324–29,
p 324, g 325, g 329; education in, 298, 303, 309,
315–16; Enlightenment in, 297; environment in,
330–34, p 331, m 332, p 333; family life in, 303,
309, 316; flooding in, 331, p 331; forests in, 285,
331; government in, 297, 301–2, 314; health
care in, 298, 303, 309, 316; history of, 296–97, m
297, 301–2, m 301, 314, m 314; immigration to,
295–96, 300; industry in, 297, m 297, 325, g 325;
interdependence in, 327–28; islands in, 283, p 283,
289, m 289; landforms in, 281–82, p 281; language
in, 298, 303, 309, 316; leisure in, 298, 309, 316;
manufacturing in, 325; Middle Ages in, 296, 308;
migration in, 307; natural resources in, 284, m 284;
peninsulas in, 282, 289, m 289; physical geography
of, 278–89; population patterns in, 295–96, m 295,
299–303, 307, g 307, 313, m 313; Reformation in,
297, 302; religion in, 298, 301, m 301, 302, 303,
307, 308, 309, 315; Renaissance in, 302, 308; sports
in, 309, 316; transportation in, 100, p 100, 326, c
326; urban areas in, 300, 307; urbanization in, 300;
vegetation in, 285, 286, m 286, 287; water systems
in, d 282, 283, 289, m 289. See also eastern Europe;
northern Europe; Southern Europe
European Broadcasting Union, 327
European Union (EU), 109, 263, 297, 302, 315, p 324,
327–28, m 327, 332, 333, 334, 453
eutrophication, 175
evaporation, 42, d 42
Everglades, 139, p 139
exclave, 465
exports, 170, 243, g 243, 392, 394, 395, 431
extended family, 220
extinction, 567
F
factories. See manufacturing
fall line, 133, m 133
family: extended, 220; nuclear, 528; patriarchal, 528
family farms, 168
family life: in Africa south of the Sahara, 528; in
Canada, 160; in Central Africa, 542–43; in Central
America and Caribbean, 226; in China, 677, 680;
in East Asia, 677, 680, 685, 690; in eastern Europe,
316; in eastern Mediterranean, 447; in Europe, 303,
309, 316; in India, 610; in Japan, 685; in Mexico,
220; in Pakistan and Bangladesh, 615; in Russia,
375; in South America, 232; in southern Europe,
309; in South Korea, 690; in United States, 154; in
western Europe, 303
famine, 699
Fang people, 540
farm cooperatives, 326
farming. See agriculture
Farsi, 451, 453
fault(s), 37–38, d 39, 511
favelas, 229, 231
federal system of government, 101
Fertile Crescent, 452
fertility rate, 612
fertilizers, 72, 109, 397, 428, 476, 559, 844
Fès, Morocco, 431
feudalism, 296
fiesta, 220
Fiji, 825, 827, 828, 837
film industry, in India, 606, p 606, 610, p 610, p 624,
625
Finland, 282, 287, 295, 296
fishery, 135
fish farming, 767
fishing, 135, 143; in Africa south of the Sahara, 559; in
East Asia, 666, m 700, 709; and environment, 777;
in Latin America, m 244; in North Africa, Central
Asia, and Southwest Asia, 475, 483; and overfishing,
173, 333, 709; and pollution, 332, 333; in Russia,
360, p 360, 392, 397, 398; in South Asia, p 592, 593,
630; in Southeast Asia, 777
Five Pillars of Islam, 90, 91
fjord, p 278–79, 282
flooding: in East Asia, 709–10; in Europe, 331, p
331; in North Africa and Southwest Asia, 427; in
Oceania, 845–46; in South Asia, 637; in Southeast
Asia, 767, 777, 778
flora and fauna, 737, 738, 739, p 739
flow-line maps, 14
foehns, 288
fog, p 210
folds, 37
food: genetically modified, 326; surplus, 78
food processing, 167
food production, 72. See also agriculture
food web, 844
forests, 135, g 135; and air pollution, 109–10;
coniferous, 62, m 63, 141, 363, 364, m 431;
conservation of, 135, 248–49, p 248, m 249,
334, 396, 775, 844; deciduous, 62, m 63, m 431,
m 597, 668, m 669, m 741, 742; destruction of,
251, p 251, 252, m 359, 360; in East Asia, 708, m
708; in Europe, 285, 331; mixed, 62, 63, m 63, m
431, m 597, m 741; in New Zealand, 812, 844;
photosynthesis in, 109; replanting of, 252; in Russia,
m 359, 360, m 363, 365, m 365, 392, 396; in South
Asia, 593, m 597, 637, 638; in Southeast Asia, 740,
m 741, 767, 768, 777
formal region, 18
Formosa, 683. See also Taiwan
fossil fuels: benefits and drawbacks of, 175; in East Asia,
707; as nonrenewable resource, 106; in Southeast
Asia, 737, 743; in United States and Canada, 134, 143,
176. See also coal; petroleum
France: culture in, 299; ethnic groups in, 300, g 300;
industry in, 325; Louisiana Purchase from, m 151;
Louvre in, p 262–63; population density in, m 295,
300; settlements in America, 150, m 157; territorial
rivalry with England, 157–58, m 157; transportation
in, 326; urban areas in, 300
Franks, 301
Free and Secure Trade (FAST) program, 171
free enterprise • Hejaz Mountains
free enterprise, 103
free trade, 109
Free Trade Agreement (FTA), 158, 170
free trade zones, 244
French Guiana, 230, m 230
French Revolution, 302
freshwater, 42, p 44; groundwater, 44; in North Africa,
Central Asia, and Southwest Asia, 481, m 481, 482;
pollution of, 776, 777, 844. See also water
Frisians, 301
Fujiyama, 664
Fulani people, p 510, 525
Funan Empire, 750, m 751
functional region, 18
G
Greenland, 40, 132, 142
green revolution, 629–630
green zones, 775
Grenada, 243
grid system, 8
gross domestic product (GDP), 244, 476; in East
Asia, g 666; in Europe, g 325; Russian, g 392;
world, g 108
groundwater, 44
Guadalcanal, 827
Guam, 825
Guangzhou, China, 665, 677, 701
Guatemala, 222, 224, 243, 246
guest workers, 300
Guinea, 513, 540, 543, 559
Gulf Coastal Plain, 132
Gulf of Aden, 426
Gulf of Aqaba, 426, 477, m 477, 483
Gulf of Mexico, 43, 132, 133, m 133, 135, 206
Gulf of St. Lawrence, 133
Gulf of Suez, 426
Gulf of Thailand, 750, 777
gully, 40
Gunung Merapi, 736
Gupta Empire, 608, m 608
guru, 609
Gurung, 617
Guyana, 228
Gypsies, 313
gypsum, 593
H
haiku, 685
Hainan, 669
Haiti, p 222, 224, 225
hajj, 91, 458, 476
hamada, 430
Hamas, 446
Han Empire, 677, m 678, 679
Hangzhou, China, 665
Hanoi, Vietnam, p 748, 750, 766
Han River, 665
Harappa, 613
harmattan, 517
Hausa people, 525, m 527, 535
Hawaii, p 18, p 28–29, 38, 132, 139, 832, p 832–33
headwaters, 132
health care: in Africa south of the Sahara, 532–533,
538, 543, 548; in Arabian Peninsula, 459; in
Australia, 822; in Canada, 159; in Central Africa,
543; in Central America and Caribbean, 226;
in Central Asia, 466; in East Africa, 533; in East
Asia, 690; in eastern Europe, 316; in eastern
Mediterranean, 447; in Europe, 298, 303, 309,
316; in India, 609; in Japan, 685; in Mexico,
219–20; in New Zealand, 822; in North Africa,
442; in Northeast, 454; in northern Europe, 298; in
Oceania, 828; in Pakistan and Bangladesh, 614; in
Russia, 374; in Sahel, 528; in South America, 231;
in South Asia, 609, 614, 620; in Southeast Asia, 752,
758; in southern Africa, 548; in southern Europe,
309; in United States, 153; in West Africa, 538; in
western Europe, 303
“heartland,” 18
heavy industry, 325
Hebrew language, 447
Hejaz Mountains, 425
INDEX
Gabon, 540, 541, 542, 559
Gadsden Purchase, m 151
Gagarin, Yury, p 381
Gambia, 535
game reserves, 568, m 569
Gandhi, Mohandas K., 608, 631, 638
Ganges Delta, 592, 593, 630
Ganges River, 591, 592
Gangetic Plain, 591, g 591, 592, 599, 601, 607, 630
Gao, 536
gas giant planets, 31, d 31
gauchos, 204
Gaza Strip, 446, m 446, p 448, 449, m 449
Geiranger, Norway, p 278–79
gems, in Southeast Asia, 737–38, 743
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
(GATT), 109
genetically modified foods, 326
Genghis Khan, 464
genocide, 532
geographer: career as, 23–24, p 24; use of technology
by, 21
geographic information systems (GIS), 15, 21
geography: elements of, 17–19; historical, 19; human,
19; and its subjects, 22; and politics, 22. See also
cultural geography; physical geography
geography skills, using, 4
geometric boundaries, 441
Georgia, Republic of, 432, 463, 465, 466, c 475, 478
Georgian people, 463, m 463
geothermal energy, 805
Germany: division of, 302, p 310, m 311; economy of,
310–11, g 310, g 311; ethnic groups in, 300, g 300;
flooding in, p 331; gross domestic product (GDP) of,
g 325; immigration to United States from, 320–21,
g 321; industry in, 325; pollution in, 332; population
density in, m 295, 300; population growth in, 72;
reunification of, 310–11, g 310, g 311; transportation
in, 326; urban areas in, 300; in World Wars, 302
geysers, 38, 283
Ghana, p 492, 513, 526, m 526, 536, 537, 538, 553,
m 558, 568
Ghats. See Eastern Ghats; Western Ghats
Gibson Desert, 803
glacial erosion, 39–40
glacial lakes, 39, 44
glaciation, 281, 282
glacier(s), 39–40, p 48–49; in Canada, 133; in Iceland,
283; receding, 50, p 50, 176, p 176
glasnost, 382
global economy, m 107, 170
global warming, 53, 110, 176, p 176, 333, 398, 845–46
global winds, 56, m 56
globe, 5
glyphs, 218
Goa, India, p 1
Gobi, 664, m 664, 669, 671, 709
gold: in Africa south of the Sahara, 526, 536, 559; in
Australia, 837, m 838; in East Asia, 666, m 700; in
Latin America, 206; in North Africa, Central Asia, and
Southwest Asia, 428, m 476; in South Africa, 514, 519;
in Southeast Asia, 777; in United States and Canada,
134, 158
Gorbachev, Mikhail, p 381, 382, 391
government: in Africa south of the Sahara, 526–27,
531–32, 536, p 536, 541–42; of Arabian Peninsula,
458; of Australia, 821; branches of, 151; of Canada,
158; of Central America and Caribbean, 224; of Central
Asia, 465; of China, 102, 679; as cultural element, 77;
in eastern Europe, 314; in eastern Mediterranean, 446;
in Europe, 297, 308, 314–315; federal system of, 101;
of India, 608, m 608; of Japan, 683; levels of, 101; of
Mexico, 219; of New Zealand, 821; of North Africa,
441; of Northeast, 453; in northern Europe, 297; in
Oceania, 827; on pollution, 174; in South America,
229–31; in South Asia, 577, 608, m 608, 613–14, 619;
in Southeast Asia, 750–51, 756–57; in southern Africa,
546–47; in southern Europe, 308; types of, 101–2;
unitary system of, 101; of United States, 151; in West
Africa, 536, p 536
Gran Chaco, d 204
Grand Banks, 135
Grand Canal, 665, 701
Grand Canyon, 40, p 114–15, 131
Grand Palace (Bangkok, Thailand), p 718–19
grassland: in North Africa, Central Asia, and Southwest
Asia, m 431; in South America, 204; in South Asia,
597, m 597; in Southeast Asia, m 741; vegetation in,
m 63, m 741
graziers, 837
Great Artesian Basin, 803
Great Australian Bight, 803
Great Barrier Reef, 803, 840–41, p 840–41, m 841,
842, 844
Great Basin, 131, 149
Great Bear Lake, 133
Great Britain, 283. See also England; United Kingdom
great circle routes, 5
Great Depression, 141
Great Divide, 132
Great Dividing Range, 803
Great European Plain, 281
Great Hungarian Plain, 281
Great Indian Desert. See Thar Desert
Great Lakes, 133, 143; and Canadian urbanization,
156; manufacturing near, 167; minerals near, 133;
population density near, 149
Great Lakes–St. Lawrence Seaway System, 169
Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, 175
Great Leap Forward campaign (China), 699
Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park, 563, m 563
Great Moravia, 314
Great Plains, 131, 140, 152
Great Rift Valley, p 508–9, 511, d 511, 519, m 519
Great Salt Lake, 44
Great Sandy Desert, 803
Great Slave Lake, 132, 133
Great Victoria Desert, 803
Great Wall of China, m 678, 679
Greece, 283, 307, 308, 309, g 325
greenhouse effect, 52–53, d 53, 176, 333, 398
R69
hemispheres • iron
hemispheres, 8, 9, 51–52, d 52, 55–56
Hezbollah, 483
Hidalgo, Miguel, 219
hieroglyphics, 440
highland regions, m 140, 141, 203, 204, d 204, 208, m
209; climate of, m 62, 63, 288, 431, m 431, m 516,
518, 597, m 597, m 668, 669, m 740, 742; in East
Asia, 664; vegetation in, m 63
high-latitude regions, m 56, d 61, m 62, 63, 142, c 142
high-technology industry, 631
highway systems: in Canada, 168; in Europe, 326;
in South Asia, 632; in Southeast Asia, 769–70; in
United States, m 169
Himalaya Range, 37, p 588–89, 591, g 591, 592, 597,
601, 617, 628, 629, 631
Hinduism, g 81, m 81, 88–89, p 88–89, p 604–5, 608,
609, 613, 614, p 616, 619, 624, 625, p 624–625, 750
Hindu Kush, 591, g 591, 608
Hiroshima, Japan, 684
Hispanics, 238–39, p 238; language of, 153, c 239;
by origin, g 239; percentage of state population, m
238; in U.S. population, 149
Hispaniola, 223
historical geography, 19
history: of Africa south of the Sahara, 526–27, m
526, 531–32, p 531, 536, p 536, 541–42, m 541,
546–47; of Arabian Peninsula, 457–58, m 457;
of Australia, 820–21, m 821; of Bangladesh, 611,
613–14, m 613; of Canada, 157–58, m 157, 161;
of Caribbean, 223–24, m 223; of Central Africa,
541–42, m 541; of Central America, 223–24, m 223;
of Central Asia, 464–65, m 464; of China, 678–79,
m 678, p 679, 688; of East Asia, 678–79, m 678, p
679, 683, 684, m 684, 688–89, m 688; of eastern
Europe, 314–15, m 314; of eastern Mediterranean,
445–46, m 445, m 446; of Europe, 296–97, m 297,
301–2, m 301, 314–15, m 314; and geography, 22;
of India, 608, m 608; of Japan, 683–84, m 684, 688;
of Korea, 688–89, m 688; of Mexico, 216, p 216,
217, 218–19; of New Zealand, 819, 820, 821, m
821; of North Africa, 440–41, m 441; of Northeast,
452–53, m 453; of northern Europe, 296–97, m
297; of Oceania, 826–27, m 826; of Pakistan, 608,
611, 613–14, m 613; of Russia, 343, 379–82, m 379,
g 380–81; of South America, 229–31; of South Asia,
611, 613–14, m 613, 618–19, m 618; of Southeast
Asia, 750–51, m 751, 756–57, m 756; of southern
Africa, 546–47; of Soviet Union, 343, 372, 373,
378, g 380–81; of United States, 151–52, m 151, m
152; of West Africa, 536, p 536; of western Europe,
301–2, m 301
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 750
Hokkaido, Japan, 664, 667, 670, 682
Holi (Hindu festival), 89, p 89, p 604–5
Holocaust, 302
homogeneous ethnic group, 682
Honduras, 224, 243, 246
Hong Kong, p 676, p 696–97, 701
Honshu, Japan, 664
horse latitudes, m 56, 57
Horseshoe Falls, 133
horticulture, 825
hot springs, 38, 283
Huang He (Yellow River), 665, 671, 677, 701, 709
Hudson Bay, 132, 157
Hudson River, 132
human-environment interaction, 19, 174–75, p 174,
252–53, 332–33, 482–84, m 483, 567, 637
human geography, 19
R70
human impact on environment, 19, 174–75, p 174,
252–53, 332–33, m 332, 482–84, m 483, 567, p 567,
637–38, m 638, 708–9, m 708, 776–77, g 776, 843–45
human rights, 703
humid climates, 139, p 139, m 140, m 145
humid continental climate, 62, m 62, m 145, 288, m
362, 363–64
humid subtropical climate, 62, m 62, m 145, 209, m
209, m 516, 518, 597, m 740, 742
Hungary, 288, 312, 313, 315, p 324, 325
hunger, 565, 566, m 566
hurricane(s), 136–37, p 136–37, 139, 243, 254
Hussein, Saddam, 483
Hutu people, 532
Hyderabad, India, 631
hydroelectric power, 106, 205, 359, m 476, 483, 513,
514, 593, 665, p 665, 707, 710, 805, m 838
hydrosphere, 32, d 32, 42
hypothesis, 64
I
Ibadhism, 458
Iberian(s), 307
Iberian Peninsula, 282, 283, 288
ice cap regions, m 62, 63, m 63, m 140
Iceland, 283, 286, 287, 295
ideograms, 680
ideology, 690
immigration, 149; to Australia, 820; and building of
railroads, 152; to Canada, 156, 158; to Europe,
295–96, 300; to northern Europe, 295–96; and
population movement, 74; and social changes, 152;
to United States, 149, m 163, 320–21, p 320, g 321,
386–87, p 387, 470–71, c 470, 552–53, c 552, 624–
25, p 624–25, c 625, 719; to western Europe, 300
imperialism, 608
Imperial Palace (Japan), p 681
imports, 170, g 470
impressionists, 302
Inca culture, 229–30, p 229
independence: in Africa south of the Sahara, 527, 542;
in Arabian Peninsula, 458; in Central Africa, 542; in
Central Asia, 465; in Chechnya, 376–77, p 376–77;
in eastern Mediterranean, 446; in Mongolia, 679;
in North Africa, 441; in Oceania, 827; in South Asia,
577, 608, 618–19, m 618; in Southeast Asia, 751,
757; in southern Africa, 547
India, 591, 606–10; agriculture in, 607, 629–30,
637; air pollution in, 638; arts in, 609; caste
system in, 608; college students in U.S., c 625;
communications in, 632; conflict in, 640; conflict
with Pakistan, 613–14, 639–40; culture in, 609–10,
p 610; cyclones in, 599; education in, 609, 634–35,
p 634–35, m 635; empires in, 608, m 608; film
industry in, 606, p 606, 610, p 610, p 624, 625;
fishing in, 630; government of, 608, m 608; history
of, 608, m 608; immigration to U.S., 624–25, p 624–
25, c 625; independence of, 608; industry in, 630;
language in, 609; leisure in, 610; natural resources
in, 593, m 630, 630; petroleum in, 630; population
patterns in, 607, m 607; railroads in, 608; religion
in, p 604–5, 607, 608, 609; Taj Mahal in, p 576–77;
teen life in, 609; tourism in, 631; trade in, 633;
transportation in, 632, m 632; urban and rural life
in, 607; water travel in, 632
Indian Ocean, 43, 529, 594–95, p 594–95, c 595, 778
indigenous cultures, 525
indigenous people, 217
indigenous religions, 96–97, p 96–97
Indochina Peninsula, 735, 736, 743, 751
Indo-Gangetic Plain. See Gangetic Plain
Indonesia: agriculture in, 767; arts in, 758; climate
in, m 740, 741, 778; communications in, 770;
conservation in, 775; economic activity in, 109,
768; education in, 757; environment of, 776, g
776; forestry in, 767–768; history of, 756–757;
language in, 758; mining in, 768, 777; natural
resources in, 737, 738; physical geography of, 736;
population of, 755, m 755; ports in, 769, m 769;
religion in, 758; trade in, 771; tsunami in, 594–95,
p 594–95, c 595; urbanization in, 755; volcano
in, 778
Indus River, 591, 592, 598, 601
Indus River Valley, g 591, 592, 608, 613, m 613
industrial capitalism, 297
industrialization, 108; in Africa south of the Sahara,
559; environmental effects of, 776–77; newly
industrialized countries, 699; in Southeast Asia, 768
industrial pollution, 253
Industrial Revolution, 79, 297
industrial waste, 333, 708, 776
industry: in Canada, 158, 161, 166–68; in China, 696, m
700, 701; cottage, 630; in East Asia, 696, 700–701, m
700, 706; in Europe, 297, m 297, 325, g 325; heavy,
325, 631; high-technology, 631; in Latin America, 244,
m 244; light, 630; in North Africa, Central Asia, and
Southwest Asia, 475–76, m 476; in northern Europe,
297, m 297; in Russia, 392, 396–97; service, 244, 476,
631, 768, 838; in South Asia, 630–31; in Southeast
Asia, 768; and technology, 152; in United States,
151–52, 166–68. See also specific industries
information revolution, 79, 108
infrastructure, 440
Inland Sea (Japan), 709
inner core, of Earth, 35, d 35
INTELSATs, 327
interdependence: in Africa south of the Sahara, 561;
in Australia, 839; in Latin America, 246–47; in New
Zealand, 839; in North Africa, Central Asia, and
Southwest Asia, 478–79; in Oceania, 839; in South
Asia, 633; in Southeast Asia, 770–71; in South
Pacific, 839; of United States and Canada, 170–71,
d 170, p 171
interior climates, 140–41
intermediate directions, 10
International Date Line, 8, 9
International Monetary Fund, 247
International Space Station, 386, p 386
International Telecommunications Satellite
Organization, 327
Internet: in Russia, p 378, 393; in South Asia, 632; in
Southeast Asia, 770
interviewing, 20–21
introduced species, 843
Inuit, 156, 159, 176
Ionian Sea, 282
Ipanema beach (Rio de Janeiro), p 184–85
Iran, 451, m 451, 452, 453, 454; arable land in, c 475;
immigration to U.S. from, c 471; transportation in,
477; travel restrictions in, 476
Iraq, 451, m 451, 453; arable land in, c 475; conflict
in, 453; as culture hearth, 78, m 78; immigration to
U.S. from, 470, c 471; invasion of, 152; in Persian
Gulf War, 482–83; water in, 426, 427
Ireland, 283, 295, 296, 325
Irian Jaya. See Papua New Guinea
iron, m 107, 630, 768; in Australia, 837, m 838; in East
Irrawaddy River • language
Asia, 666, m 700; in Europe, 281, 284; in North
Africa, Central Asia, and Southwest Asia, m 476; in
South Asia, 593; in United States and Canada, 134
Irrawaddy River, 737
irrigation: in North Africa, Central Asia, and Southwest
Asia, 426, 432, 483; in South Asia, 593
irrigation channels, 751
Irtysh River, 358
Islam, 90–91, p 90–91; in Africa south of the Sahara, 525,
g 525, 532, 537; in Arabian Peninsula, 458, 459, p
459; in Central Asia, 466; in East Africa, 532; in eastern
Europe, 316; in eastern Mediterranean, 445–47, m
445; Five Pillars of, 90, 91; in India, 608, 609; in North
Africa, 441–42; in Northeast, 450, p 450, 453; origins
of, 471; in Pakistan and Bangladesh, 613, 614; as
percentage of world population, g 81; in Russia, 373, g
373; Shia and Sunni branches of, 447, 451, 453, 458;
in Southeast Asia, 756, 757, p 757, 758; in southern
Europe, 308, 309; spread of, m 457; in West Africa,
537. See also Muslims
Islamabad, Pakistan, 612
islands: in East Asia, 663, 664; in Europe, 283, p 283,
289, m 289; in Southeast Asia, 736, 743, 754–58,
p 754, m 755, m 756, p 757; of United States and
Canada, 132
island sanctuaries, 843
Israel: arable land in, c 475; conflict with Palestinians,
446, m 446, 448–49, p 448–49, m 449, 453, 483;
education in, 447; history of, 445–46, m 445, m
446; immigration to U.S. from, c 471; migration to,
444; population patterns in, 444, g 444; technology
in, 470; tourism in, 476
İstanbul, Turkey, 452, 477
Isthmus of Panama, 33, 205
Italian Peninsula, 282
Italy, 307, 308, m 308, 325
Ivan III (Ivan the Great) of Muscovy, 379
Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) of Russia, 379
Ivory Coast. See Côte d’Ivoire
ivory trade, 567, p 567
Iwo Jima, 827
J
K
Kabuki theater, 685
Kadyrov, Ramzan, 376, p 377
Kalahari Desert, 518, 519, m 519
Kalmykia, 373
Kamchatka, 397, p 397
Kamchatka Peninsula, 357
Kanem-Bornu, m 526
Kano, 536
Karachi, 612, 632
Karachinsky, Anatoly, 390, p 390
Karakoram Mountains, 591, 597
Kara-Kum, 430
karma, 608
Karnataka Plateau, 591
Karzai, Hamid, 461
Kashmir, 613, p 614, 639
Kathmandu, Nepal, 616
Kathmandu Valley, 617, 618
Katrina, Hurricane, 136, 137, p 137
Kazakh people, 463, m 463
Kazakhstan, 430, p 430, 463, m 463; arable land in,
c 475; nuclear dangers in, 484, m 484; trade with,
478; oil, g 478
Kente cloth, 538, 553
Kenya, 530; agriculture in, 533, 557; game reserves
in, 568; history of, 531; elevation and temperatures
in, c 55
key, 10
khadi, 631
Khmer Empire, 749, 750–51, m 751
Khmer Rouge, 751
Khyber Pass, 591, 608
Kiev See Kyiv (Kiev)
Kievan Rus, 379
Kilimanjaro, 511, 512, 533
Kim Jong Il, 689
Kinshasa, 540
Kirghiz people, m 463
Kiribati, 825
Klondike Gold Rush, 158
Ko-be, Japan, 38
Kolkata (Calcutta), India, 607, 632, 638
kolkhozes, 392
Korea: division of, 688–89, m 688; history and
government of, 688–89, m 688; market in, p 68–69,
population, g 687. See also Korean Peninsula;
North Korea; South Korea
Korean Americans, g 694
Korean Peninsula, 671, 682, 683, 687, 688; landforms
in, 663, 664; monsoons in, 670; natural resources
in, 666
Korean War, 687, 689, m 688
Korean Workers’ Party (KWP), 689
Koryo dynasty, 688
Kosovo, 275, 313
kraals, 546
Krakatau volcano, 736
Kremlin (Moskow), p 388–89, 379
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, p 754
kum, 425
Kumbi, Ghana, 536
Kunlun Shan, 664
Kurds, 451, m 451
Kurdistan, 451
Kuril Current, 670
Kush, 526. See also Sudan
Kuwait, 453, 456, g 456, 458; economy of, 474, 475;
in Persian Gulf War, 482
Kyiv (Kiev), 314
Kyoto, Japan, p 674–75
Kyo-to Protocol, 333
Kyoto Treaty, 709
Kyrgyzstan, 465, 477, 478, 484, m 484
Kyushu, Japan, 664
L
lagoons, 804
lakes: in Africa south of the Sahara, 512–13, m 513;
freshwater in, 44; glacial, 39, 44; human-made,
513; in Latin America, 205; in United States and
Canada, 133
Lake Baikal, 358, 365, m 365, 397, 398
Lake Chad, 512
Lake Malawi, 511, 512
Lake Maracaibo, 205
Lake Nasser, 426, 482
Lake Ontario, 133
Lake Tanganyika, 511, 512
Lake Titicaca, 205
Lake Victoria, 512
Lake Volta, 513, 519
lama, 618
land: arable, 168; creation of, 37
landfall, 137
landforms, 33, d 33; in Africa south of the Sahara,
511–12, d 511, p 512; in Central Asia, 425–26; and
climate, 59, d 59; in East Asia, 663–64, m 663, m
664; in Europe, 281–83, p 281; in Latin America,
203–4, m 203, d 204; in North Africa, 425–26; in
Russia, 357, p 357; in South Asia, 591, d 591; in
Southeast Asia, 735–36, m 735, p 736; in Southwest
Asia, 425–26; in United States and Canada, p 130,
d 131, 131–32
landlocked countries, 477
land pollution, 109, p 110, 332, m 332
land use, m 107
language: in Africa south of the Sahara, 528, 532,
537, 540, 542, 548; in Arabian Peninsula, 458; in
Australia, 822–23; in Canada, 158, 159; in Central
Africa, 540, 542; in Central America and Caribbean,
225; in Central Asia, 466; in China, 680; as cultural
element, 76, m 76; in East Africa, 532; in East Asia,
680, 685, 690; in eastern Europe, 316; in eastern
Mediterranean, 447; in Europe, 298, 303, 309, 316;
in India, 609; in Japan, 685; in Mexico, 219; in New
Zealand, 822–23; in North Africa, 442; in Northeast,
453; in northern Europe, 298; in Oceania, 828; in
Pakistan and Bangladesh, 614; pidgin English, 828;
in Russia, 373, 380; in Sahel, 528; in South America,
231, m 237; in South Asia, 609, 614, 617, 619–20; in
INDEX
Jakarta, Indonesia, 755, 769, 776
Jamaica, 206, 224, 244
James Bay, 132
Japan: agriculture in, 666, g 666, 699; climate in, 667,
668, m 668; college students in U.S., c 625; cultural
change in, p 79; cultural geography of, 681–85;
culture in, 684–85; earthquakes in, 38, m 663,
664, 710; economy of, 684, 698, 699; education
in, 684; energy demands in, g 707; environment
in, 709; family life in, 685; government of, 683;
health care in, 685; history of, 683, m 684, 688;
industry in, 700, m 700; landforms in, 662, p 662,
663–64; language in, 685; leisure in, 685; nuclear
accident in, 707; physical geography of, 662, p 662;
population patterns in, 682, m 682; religion in, p
674–75, 685; rivers in, 665; and Southeast Asian
islands, 757; technology in, 700; trade in, 633,
683–84, ptg 683, 702, g 839; transportation in, 682,
m 682; urbanization in, 682; volcanoes in, 664, 710;
in World War II, 684, m 684
Japan Current, 670
Japanese Americans, g 694
jati, 607, 608
Java, 736, p 736, 755
jazz, 153
Jerusalem, p 90, p 93, 445, m 445, 449, m 449, 471
Jews: in eastern Mediterranean, 444, g 444, 445–47;
in Holocaust, 302; in Israel, 444, g 444. See also
Judaism
Johannesburg, South Africa, 545
Jordan, 444, g 444, 446, c 471
Jordan River, 481
Judaism, 92–93, p 92–93; in eastern Mediterranean, 445,
m 445, 447; origins of, 471; Orthodox, 92; percentage
of world population, g 81; in Russia, 373, g 373. See
also Jews
Jupiter, 31, d 31
jute, 629
Jutland Peninsula, 282
R71
language families • meltwater
Southeast Asia, 752, 758; in southern Africa, 548; in
southern Europe, 309; in United States, 153; in West
Africa, 537; in western Europe, 303
language families, 76, 752
Laos: agriculture in, 767; climate of, m 740, 742;
communications in, 770; education in, 752;
environment of, 776–77; language in, 752;
migration from, 750; mining in, 768; natural
resources in, 737; shifting cultivation in, 775; trade
in, 771
Laozi (Lao-Tzu), 678
latifundia, 243
Latin America: agriculture in, 204, 208, 209, 243, m
244; border conflicts in, 253–54, m 253; climate of,
207, 208–10, d 208, m 209, p 210; communications
in, 245; cultural geography of, 214–33; culture in,
185, 225–26, 231–32; disaster preparedness in,
254, p 254; economic activity in, 243–44, g 243, m
244; economy of, 242–47, p 242, m 244, g 246, p
247, m 257; elevation in, 208, d 208; environment
in, 250–54, p 250, p 251; exports of, 243, g 243;
foreign debt in, 247; free trade zones in, 244;
industry in, 244, m 244; landforms in, 203–4, m
203, d 204; land in, 202–6; lowlands and plains
in, 204; natural resources in, 206, g 206, 211, 230,
m 244, m 253; physical geography of, 200–211;
population patterns in, 71, 74, 228–29; railroads in,
245, m 245; resource management in, 251–52, p
251; roads in, 229, 245, m 245; subregions of, 203;
trade in, 244, 246–47, g 246, p 247; transportation
in, 245, m 245; tropical rain forests in, 207, 209,
211, m 213, 251, p 251, 252; urbanization in, 217,
222, 229, 252–53, g 252; vegetation in, 209–10;
vertical climate zones in, 208, d 208; water systems
in, 205, m 205. See also Central America; South
America; specific countries
Latinos. See Hispanics
latitude, 8, 17, 54, 55, m 56, 142, c 142
Latvia, 313
lava, 38
laws, environmental, 174, 175, 776
leach, 516
lead, m 476, m 700, m 838
Lebanon: creation of alphabet in, 470; immigration to
U.S. from, c 471; independence of, 446; population
patterns in, 444, g 444; tourism in, 476; war in, 483
leeward side, 59, d 59
legislation, environmental, 175, 776
leisure: in Arabian Peninsula, 459; in Central
Asia, 466; in eastern Europe, 316; in eastern
Mediterranean, 447; in Europe, 298, 303, 309, 316;
in northern Europe, 298; in North Korea, 690; in
Oceania, 827–28; in Southeast Asia, 753, 758; in
southern Africa, 548; in southern Europe, 309; in
South Korea, 690; in western Europe, 303
Lena River, 358
Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich, p 380, 381
Lesotho, 512, 545
Liberia, 565, 568
Libya, 441, 482
life expectancy, 533
Lima, Peru, g 252
Line of Control (Kashmir), 639
lingua franca, 532
Lisbon, Portugal, 307
Lisbon Treaty, 328
literacy rate, 153, 316, 447, 454, 458, 465, 466, 528,
548, 609, 680, 757
literature: African, 527; Canadian, 159; in eastern
R72
Europe, 316; Indian, 609; Japanese, 685; Mexican,
220; in Northeast, 454; Pakistani, 615; Russian, 375;
South American, 232; in South Asia, 609, 615, 620; in
southern Africa, 548; Syrian, 447
lithosphere, 32, d 32
Lithuania, 313
livestock, m 107, 168, 243, 244, 326, 430, p 430, 475,
557, m 558, 598, 837, p 837
Livingstone, David, 531
llaneros, 204
llanos, 204, 209
location, 8; absolute, 8, 17–18, m 17; relative, 17–18,
m 17
lodes, 768
loess, 281
logging. See timber
lomas formations, 210
Lombardy, 282
London, England, 296, 326
longitude, 8, 17
Los Angeles, 38, 139, 153
Louisiana Purchase, m 151
Louvre (Paris), p 262–63
lowlands: in East Asia, 664; in Latin America, 204; in
United States, 131
low latitudes, 55, m 56
Loyalist, 156
Luanda, 541
Luba, 541
lumber. See timber
Luxembourg, 302
Luzon, 740
M
Maastricht Treaty, 328
macaque, p 667
Macau, China, 665, 701
Macedonia, 313
Machu Picchu, p 229
Mackenzie river, 132
Macumba, 231
Madagascar, 546, 557, 567
Madrid, Spain, 307
magma, 35, 37, 38
Mahayana Buddhism, 82
Main-Danube Canal, 283, 326
Makkah (Mecca), 91, p 91, 442, 445, 458, 459, 471
Malabar coast, 629
Malacca, 756
Malawi, 541, 545
Malay Peninsula, 735, 736, 743, 756
Malaysia, 108; agriculture in, 767; city in, p 754;
economic activity in, 108, 109; education in, 757;
environment of, 776, g 776; forests in, 767–68,
775, 777; government of, 757; health care in, 758;
industry in, 768; mining in, 768; natural resources
in, 737, 738; physical geography of, 735, 736;
population of, 755; roads in, 769; trade in, 771;
vegetation in, 740, m 741
Maldives, education in, 620; ethnic groups in, 617,
c 617; government in, 619; health care in, 620;
history of, 616, 618–19, m 618; independence in,
619, m 618; language in, 620; physical geography
of, 591; population patterns in, 617, c 617; religion
in, 618, m 619, 620
Mali, 524, 525
Mali Empire, 526, m 526, 528, 536
malnutrition, 220
Malta, 283
Manaus, Brazil, c 55
Manchuria, 664, 684
Mandela, Nelson, 547, p 547
Mandé people, 525
manganese, m 476, 593, m 838
Mangbetu, 542
Manhattan Island, 132
Manila, Philippines, 736, 769, 771, 776
Manitoba, 156, 158
mantle, 35, d 35
mantras, 620
manufacturing: in Africa south of the Sahara, 559; in
Australia, 837; in East Asia, m 700; in Europe, 325;
growth of, 151–52; in New Zealand, 837; in Oceania,
837; in Russia, 392; in South Asia, m 630, 631; in
Southeast Asia, 768; in South Pacific, 837; in United
States and Canada, 167
Manufacturing Belt, 167
manuka, 812
Maori people, 819, 820, p 820, 821, 823
Mao Zedong, 679, p 679, 680
mapmaking, 21
mapping, 20
map projection: conic, 6; cylindrical, 6; interrupted,
7; planar, 6
Mapuche culture, 229
maquiladoras, 244
Mariana Islands, 825
Mariana Trench, 33
marine west coast climate, 62, m 62, m 140, 141, m
209, 287, m287, m 516, 518
maritime empires, 750
Maritime Provinces, 156
market economy, 103, 167, 391
Márquez, Gabriel García, 232
Mars, 31, d 31
Marshall Islands, 804, 827, 844
marsupials, 843
martial law, 751
Marx, Karl, 381
Masai people, 533
Massif Central, 281
Mato Grosso Plateau, 204
matriarchal family structure, 226
Matushka Volga. See Volga River
Mauritania, 536
Mauritius, 547
Mauryan Empire, 608, m 608, 615
Maya, 217, 218, 219, 222
Mayon Volcano, 778
Mbuti, 540
Mecca. See Makkah (Mecca)
Mediterranean climate, 62, m 62, 139, m 140, m 209,
287–88, m 287, 431, p 432, m 516, 518, 811
Mediterranean region: agriculture in, p 432, 475;
exports in, 431; pollution in, 333; population
in, 307; tourism in, 431, 476. See also eastern
Mediterranean
Mediterranean scrub, m 63, m 141, m 286, m 431
Mediterranean Sea, 43, 281, 282, 358, 426, 477
Medvedev, Dmitry, p377, 382
megacities, 217
megalopolis, 150, 607
Meiji Restoration, 683
Mekong River, 734, p 734, 737, p 737, 743, 777
Melanesia, 804, 825
Melbourne, Australia, 820
meltwater, 332
mercantilism • Nepal
modernization, 706
Mogadishu, 529
Mogul Empire, 608, 615
Mohenjo Daro, 613
Monaco Glacier (Norway), p 48–49
monarchy, 102
Mongol(s), 379, m 379, 464
Mongolia: agriculture in, 699; climate of, 669; communism
in, 679; gross domestic product (GDP) of, g 666;
history of, 677, 688; independence in, 679; landforms
in, 663, 664; population of, 677; transportation in, 701
monopoly, 169
monotheism, 80, 92, 445
Mons, 749
monsoons, 598–99, p 599, 601, 638, 670, 741
Mont Blanc, 281
Montenegro, 313
Montreal, 133, 156, m 157
Montserrat, 254
Moors, 308
moraine, 39
Morales, Evo, 231, p 233
Moravia, 314
Morocco, 425, 440, 441; economic activity in, 431, p
432, 475, 476; immigration to U.S. from, c 470
mosaic, 220
Moscow, Russia, 363–64, 372, 373; history of, 379;
Kremlin in, p 388–89, 379; Red Square in, p 370
Moskva River, p 388–89, 397
mosque, 446, 459
Mount Agung, 778
mountain(s): in Africa south of the Sahara, 512, 519, m
519; in Australia, 803; and climate, 59, d 59; in East
Asia, 664, 671; in Europe, 281, p 281; formation of, 37;
in Latin America, 203–4, m 203, d 204; leeward side
of, 59, d 59; in North Africa, 425; in Russia, 357, 365, m
365; in South Asia, p 588–89, 590, p 590, 591, d 591;
in Southeast Asia, 736, p 736, 743; in Southwest Asia,
425; in United States and Canada, p 130–31, 131–32;
windward side of, 59, d 59
mountain glacier, 40
Mount Ararat, 425
Mount Cook, 805
Mount Elbrus, 357
Mount Etna, 283
Mount Everest, 33, 43, 591, p 596, 664
Mount Fuji, 662, p 662, 664
Mount Isarog, 740
Mount Kenya, 512
Mount Kilauea, p 28–29
Mount McKinley, 131
Mount Pinatubo, 736, 772–73, p 772–73, m 773, 778
Mount Ruapehu, 805
movement, 19
Mozambique, 545, 546, 548, p 562, 563, m 563
Mubarak, Hosni, p 102
mujahideen, 465
multinationals, 108–9
Mumbai (Bombay), India, 606, p 606, 607, 632, 638
mural, 220
Murray-Darling River Basin, 844
Murray River, 803
Muscovy, 379
Musharraf, Pervez, 614
music: African, 527, 533, 538, p 538, 548, 553; in
Central America and Caribbean, 226; in East Asia, p
648–49; jazz, 153; in Pakistan and Bangladesh, 615;
in South America, 232; in United States, 153
Muslims: in Africa south of the Sahara, 525, p 525; in
Arabian Peninsula, 458, 459; in Central Asia, 464,
465, 466; in East Africa, 532; in eastern Europe,
316; in eastern Mediterranean, 445–46, m 445, m
446, 449; empires of, m 453; in India, 608; in North
Africa, Central Asia, and Southwest Asia, 476, 490–
491, m 490; in Northeast, 450, p 450, 451, 453; in
Pakistan and Bangladesh, 612, 613, 614, 615; Shiite,
447, 451, 453, 458; in South Asia, 612, 613, 614,
615; in Southeast Asia, 756; in southern Europe,
308, 309; Sunni, 447, 451, 453, 458. See also Islam
Myanmar: agriculture in, 767; climate of, m 740, 742;
forests in, 777; health care in, 752; history of, 751;
language in, 752; natural resources in, 737, 738;
physical geography of, p 732–33, 737; population of,
749, m 749; temple in, p 746–47; trade in, 771
N
NAFTA. See North American Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA)
Nagasaki, Japan, 684
Nairobi, Kenya, c 55, 530, p 549
Namib Desert, 518, 519, m 519
Namibia, 544, 545, 567
Napoleon I, 364
Narmada River, 637
Nashua River, 175
nationalism, 376–77, p 376–77, 441
Native Americans: Anasazi ruins of, p 2–3; in Canada,
156, 157, 158, 159; in Central America, 222, 223,
225; and climate, 150; and European diseases,
223, 230; land claims of, 152; loss of lands, 152; in
Mexico, 217, 218, 219, 220; religion of, 98, p 98; in
South America, 228, 229–30, 232 p 233; in United
States, 148, 149, 150
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), 382
natural boundary, 453
natural disasters: in Indonesia, 594–95, p 594– 95,
c 595; in South Asia, p 600, 599–600; in Southeast
Asia, 772–73, p 772–73, m 773, 777–78. See also
Earthquakes; Flooding; Volcanoes
natural gas: in Australia, m 838; in Central Asia, 427–28,
g 428, 475, 476, m 476; in Europe, 284, m 284; in Latin
America, 206, 211; in North Africa, 427–28, g 428, 474,
475, 476, m 476; in Siberia, 359; in South Asia, 593;
in Southeast Asia, 768; in Southwest Asia, 427–28, g
428, 475, 476, m 476; in United States and Canada,
134, 156
natural increase of population, 71
natural resources, 106; in Africa south of the Sahara,
514, g 514, 519, 553; in Antarctica, 807; in Australia,
803, 837, 838, m 838, 843; in Central Asia, 427–28, g
428, 433, 474, 475–76, m 476; in East Asia, 662, 666,
m 700; in Europe, 284, m 284; in Latin America, 206,
g 206, 211, 230, m 244, m 253; in New Zealand, 805,
837, 838, m 838; in North Africa, 427–28, g 428, 474,
475–76, m 476, 553; in Oceania, 804, 843; renewable
vs. nonrenewable, 106; in Russia, 359–60, m 359,
p 360, p 395, 397; in South Asia, 577, 593, 630,
636–38; in Southeast Asia, 719, 732, 737–38, 743; in
Southwest Asia, 427–28, g 428, 474, 475–76, m 476;
in United States and Canada, 134–35, g 135. See also
resource management; specific natural resources
natural vegetation, 61, m 63. See also vegetation
Nauru, 825, 838
Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar, m 726, m 731, m 735
Nepal, 591; agriculture in, 629; arts in, 620; climate
of, 596, p 596; communications in, 632; conflict in,
640; education in, 620; ethnic groups in, 617,
INDEX
mercantilism, 608
Mercator projection, 7
Mercury, 31, d 31
Meroë, 526, m 526
Mesa Verde, Colorado, p 2–3
Meseta (Spain), 281, 288, 331
Mesopotamia, m 113, 426, 445, 447, 452, m 453,
454, 592
mestizo, 217
meteorites, 32
meteoroids, 31–32
methane, 398
metropolitan areas, 72, 150
Mexican Cession, m 151
Mexican Plateau, 203, p 211
Mexico, 216–20; climate of, 208, 209, 210; computer
technology in, 245; as culture hearth, 78, m 78; culture
in, 216, ptg 218, 219, p 219; economic activity in, 108;
economy of, 243, g 243; education in, 219; family
life in, 220; government of, 219; health care in, 220;
history of, 216, p 216, 217, 218–19; independence
movement in, 219; industry in, 244, m 244; language
in, 219; migration in, 217; Native Americans in, 217,
218, 219, 220; natural resources of, 206, g 206;
population patterns in, 217, g 217; recreation in,
220; religion in, 219; sports in, 220; trade with United
States, 170, 246, g 246; transportation in, 245, m 245;
urbanization in, 217; war with United States, m 151
Mexico City, 74, 208, 217
mica, 593
microcredit, 631
Micronesia, 804, 825, 827
Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 283
Middle Ages, 297, 308
Middle America, 203, 205, 208, d 208
Middle Kingdom (China), 677
midlatitudes, 55, m 56, 62, m 62, 431–32, m 431, m
516, 518, 597, 668, m 668, m 740, 742, p 742
migration, 71, 73; in Caribbean, 222; in Central Africa,
540; in Central America, 222; in eastern Europe, 313;
in Europe, 300, 307; to Israel, 444; in Mexico, 217; to
North Africa, 440, m 441; in northern Europe, 296;
to Oceania, 826; in South America, 228; in Southeast
Asia, 719, 750, 755, m 755; in southern Europe, 307;
in western Europe, 300
Milan, Italy, 307
minerals: in Africa south of the Sahara, 514, 559; in
Australia, 803; in East Asia, 662; in Europe, 281; in
Latin America, 206, 230; near Great Lakes, 133; in
North Africa, 428; in Oceania, 804; in Russia, 359; in
South Asia, 593; in Southeast Asia, 737–38, 743, 768;
in United States and Canada, 134
Ming dynasty, 679
minifundia, 243
mining, p 134; in Africa south of the Sahara, 559;
in Antarctica, 807; in Australia, 803, 837, m 838;
conservation in, 134; in Latin America, m 244; in
New Zealand, 837; in North Africa, Central Asia,
and Southwest Asia, 476, m 476; in Oceania, 804; in
Russia, 392; in South Asia, 630; in Southeast Asia, 768,
777; in South Pacific, 838
Mississippi River, 131, 132, 133, p 143, m 151, 168,
169
mistral, 288
mixed economy, 103, 699
mixed farming, 326
mixed forests, 62, 63, m 63, m 431, m 597, m 741
Moai ceremonial statues (Easter Island), p 786–87
Moche culture, 229
R73
Neptune • parks, national
c 617; government in, 619; health care in, 620;
history of, 616, 618–19, m 618; independence
in, 618–19, m 618; industry in, 630; language in,
620; mountains in, p 588–89; natural resources in,
593; population patterns in, 617, c 617; religion in,
616, 618, 619, m 619, 620, p 620; tourism in, 628;
trade in, 633
Neptune, 31, d 31
Neruda, Pablo, 232
Netanyahu, Benjamin, p 449
Netherlands: ethnic groups in, 300, g 300; flooding in,
331; transportation in, 327; water in, 281–82, 283
neutrality, 308
New Brunswick, 158
New Caledonia, 804
New Delhi, India, 638
Newfoundland, 132, 142, 158
New France, 157, m 157
New Guinea, 768, 804, 825, 826, 828, 837, 844
newly industrialized countries, 108, 699
New Orleans, 17, 136
newspapers, 632, 770
New York City, 153
New Zealand: agriculture in, 805, 837–38, m 838; arts
in, 823, 833; cultural geography of, 818; culture in,
822–23; economy of, 834–39, p 834–35, m 838, g
839; education in, 822; government of, 821; health
care in, 822; history of, 819, 820, 821; immigration
to, 820; interdependence in, 839; language in, 822;
manufacturing in, 837; mining in, 837; natural
resources in, 805, 837, 838, m 838; nuclear ban in,
845; physical geography of, 805, 812; population
patterns in, m 819, 820; religion in, 823; service
industries in, 838; teen life in, 822; trade in, 839, g
839; transportation in, 838; and United States, 832;
unusual animals in, 843–44; urbanization in, 820
Niagara Falls, New York, p 128–29, 133
Niamey, Niger, 525
Nicaragua, 224, 246
Nicholas II of Russia, 381
nickel, 134, m 700, 737, m 838
Niemeyer, Oscar, 232
Niger, 510, p 510, 525, 535, 538
Nigeria, 557, 558, 559, 560, 568; British colonization
of, 536; population patterns in, 535; teen life in, 537
Niger River, 513, 519, p 519
Nile Delta, 426, m 427, 440, 481
Nile River, p 406–7, 426, m 427, 433, 440, m 453, 525
Nile Valley, m 113, 440, m 453, 526
nomad(s), 439, 456
nomadic herding, m 107, 525, m 700
nonrenewable resources, 106
Normans, 296
North Africa: agriculture in, 426, m 427, 432, p 432,
440, 475; arable land in, c 475; arts in, 442; climate
in, 430–32, m 431; cultural geography of, 438–42, p
438, m 439, p 440; culture of, 441–42; earthquakes
in, 425, m 425; economic activity in, 475–76, m
476, 478–79; education in, 442; environment in,
480–84, m 481, p 483; ethnic groups in, 439–40;
government of, 441; health care in, 442; history
of, 440–41; independence in, 441; invasions of,
440–41, m 441; landforms in, 425–26; language in,
442; migration to, 440, m 441; nationalism in, 441;
natural resources in, 427–28, g 428, 474, 475–76,
m 476, 553; physical geography of, 422–33, p
422–23, m 425; population patterns in, 439–40,
m 439; religion in, 441–42; transportation and
communications in, 477–78
R74
North America: climate of, m 145; as continent, 33;
expansion of, 37. See also Canada; Mexico; United
States
North American Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA), 109, 158, 170–71, 175, 246
North Anatolian Fault, m 425
North Atlantic Current, 286, 287
North China Plain, 664, 665, 671, 678
Northeast (African Region), 450–54, p 450; arts in,
454; culture in, 453–54; education in, 454; ethnic
diversity in, 451, m 451; government of, 453; health
care in, 454; history of, 452–53, m 453; language in,
453; petroleum in, 453; religion in, 450, p 450, 453;
trade in, 452
northern Europe, 294–98, p 294; arts in, 298; changes
in, 297; culture in, 298; education in, 298; government
of, 296–97; health care in, 298; history of, 296–97, m
297; immigration to, 295–96; industries in, 297, m 297;
leisure in, 298; migration in, 296; population patterns
in, 295–96, m 295; urban areas in, 296
Northern European Plain, 281, 357, p 357, 358, 365,
m 365
Northern Hemisphere, 9; climate of, 55; seasons in,
51–52, d 52; wind patterns in, 56, m 56
Northern Mountains, 664
North Island (New Zealand), 805
North Korea, 686, p 686; agriculture in, 666, 699; arts
in, 690; climate in, 668, m 668; command economy
in, 699; culture in, 690; division from South Korea,
688–89, m 688; education in, 690; environment
in, 709; family life in, 690; government of, 688–89;
gross domestic product (GDP) of, g 666; health
care in, 690; industry in, 700, m 700; landforms in,
664; language in, 690; natural resources in, 666;
population patterns in, 687, g 687; religion in, 690;
rivers in, 665
North Pole: sunlight at, 52, d 52
North Sea, 281, 282, 284, 327, 331
North Vietnam, 751
Norway, m 27, 282, 295–96, 297; climate in, 286, 287;
fjord in, p 278–79; glacier in, p 48–49; gross domestic
product (GDP) of, g 325
Norwegian Current, 287
Nova Scotia, 156, 158
nuclear accidents, 396, m 396, 707
nuclear energy, 106, 175, p 175, 484, m 484, 707, 709
nuclear family, 528
nuclear proliferation, 640
nuclear wastes, 396
nuclear weapons, 613, 639–40, m 639, 701, 844–45
Nullarbor Plain, 803
Nunavut, 158
O
oasis, 61
Obama, Barack, p 449
Ob’ River, 358
observation, direct, 20, p 22
ocean(s): salt water in, 43; temperature of, 845–46.
See also names of specific oceans
ocean currents, 57–58, m 57, d 58, 670
Oceania, 787; agriculture in, 805, 837–38, m 838;
climate of, 810, 812, 845–46; communications
in, 838; cultural geography of, 824–28, p 824, p
825, p 827; culture in, 827–28, p 827; education
in, 828; flooding in, 845–46; government of, 826;
and Hawaii, 832, p 832–33; health care in, 828;
history of, 826–27, m 826; independence in, 827;
interdependence in, 839; islands in, 804, p 804;
language in, 828; leisure in, 827–28; manufacturing
in, 837; migration to, 816, 826; natural resources in,
804, 843; physical geography of, 800, 802, 804, p
804; pollution in, 844; population patterns in, 825,
p 825; religion in, 828; service industries in, 838;
sports in, 827–28; trade in, 839; transportation in,
838; vegetation in, 812
Ohio River valley, 168
oil. See petroleum
oil pipelines. See pipelines
oil spills, 398
Old Faithful, 38
oligarchy, 102
Oman, 432, 456, g 456, 458
Ontario, 158; water pollution in, 175
opals, 803
OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting
Countries), 453, 478–79, 559, 737, 768
oral tradition, 527
Orinoco River, 206
Orkney Islands (Scotland), p 283
Ottawa, 133
Ottawa River, 156
Ottoman Empire, 451, 453, m 453, 457, 463
outer core, of Earth, 35, d 35
outsourcing, 170–71
overfishing, 173, 333, 709
overseas trade, 613
ozone layer, 845
P
Pacific Ocean, 820; and economy, 135; Mariana
Trench in, 33; Ring of Fire in, 38, 203, m 203, 663,
671, 736, 778, 804; size of, 43; volcanic activity
in, 132
Pacific Ranges, 131, 139, 141
Pacific Ring of Fire. See Ring of Fire
Pacific winds, 140
Pagan (Bagan), Myanmar, p 723, p 732–33
painting, 159, 375. See also arts
Pakistan, 591, 611–15; agriculture in, 629, 630; arts
in, 615; climate of, 598, g 598; communications
in, 632; conflict with India, 613, 639–40; as culture
hearth, 78, m 78; culture in, 611, 614–15, p 615;
education in, 614; ethnic groups in, 612; family life
in, 615; fishing in, 630; government of, 613–14;
history of, 608, 611, 613–14, m 613; industry in,
631; petroleum in, m 630; population patterns in,
612, d 612; religion in, 612, 613, 614; trade in, 632,
633; transportation in, 631; water in, 637
Palau, 827
Palawa people, 819
Palestinian Hamas-Fatah coalition, 449
Palestinian territories, 444; history of, 445–46, m 446;
and Israel, 446, m 446, 448–49, p 448–49, m 449
Pamir Range, 664
pampas, 204, 211
Panama, Isthmus of, 33
Panama Canal, 205, 224, p 224, 245
Pan-American Highway, 245, m 245
Pangaea, 35, m 36
Papua New Guinea, 768, 825, 826, 828, 837, 844
Paraguay, g 243
Paraná-Paraguay Rivers, 205, 211, 245
Paris, France, p 262–63, 299, 300, 326
Park Chung-Hee, 689
parks, national: in Africa, 563, m 563; in South
Parliament, Canadian • Qatar
picture writing, 440, 452
pidgin, 542
Piedmont, 132, 133, m 133
pipelines, 398, 477–78, m 477, m 481, 482
Pizarro, Francisco, 230
place, 18
plains: alluvial, 592; along Atlantic Coast, 132, 133,
m 133; in Europe, 281, 289, p 289; in India, 591,
g 591, 592, 599, 601, 607, 630; in Russia, 357, p
357, 358
planets, 31, d 31
plate(s), 35, 37, m 37, m 47, 203, m 203, 735, m 735
plateau(s): in Africa south of the Sahara, 512; in
Australia, 803; in East Asia, 664, 665, 669, 671; in
Latin America, 203, 204; in Russia, 357; in United
States, 131, p 131
Plateau of Tibet (Plateau of Xizang), 664, 665, 669,
671, m 678
plate tectonics, 35–37, m 36, m 37, m 47, 735, m 735
Pluto, 31, d 31
poaching, 567, p 567, 638
poetry: in eastern Europe, 316; epic (India), 609; haiku,
685; in Northeast, 454; Pakistani, 615; Syrian, 447
Poland, 313, 325, 328, 332, 333, 334
polar easterlies, 57
polder, 282, d 282
Poles (North and South), 52, d 52, 806
political map, 13, m 13
politics, and geography, 22
pollution, 109, 332–34; acid rain, 109, 174, m 179,
332–33, m 332, 708, m 708; of air, 109–10, 174, p
174, 252, 332, 333, 397, 638, p 706, 708, m 708,
709, p 774, 777; and automobiles, 168, p 174, 333;
industrial, 253; of land, 109, p 110, 333, m 332;
reversing effects of, 175; smog, 174, p 174; of soil,
397; of water, 109, 174, 175, 333, 397, 776, 777,
844. See also environment
Polynesia, 804, 825, 845
polytheism, 80
Pontic Mountains, 425
population: aging of, 154, 160; of Brazil, 228; marriedcouple families in, 154, 160; movement of, 73–74;
overpopulation, p 70; rural, 74; of world, 71
population density, 72–73; in Arabian Peninsula,
456; in Australia, m 819, 820; in Canada, 156, m
156; in Central Africa, 540; in Central America and
Caribbean, 222; in Central Asia, m 439, 463; of
China, 677; in East Africa, 530, m 530; in eastern
Europe, 313; in eastern Mediterranean, 444; in
Europe, m 295, 296, 300; in India, 607, m 607;
in Japan, 682; in Mexico, m 111; in North Africa,
m 439, 440; in North and South Korea, 687; in
Northeast, 452; in northern Europe, m 295, 296; in
Oceania, 825; in Pakistan and Bangladesh, 612; in
Russia, 372, m 372; in Sahel, 525; in South America,
228, m 228; in South Asia, 617; in Southeast Asia,
m 749, 750, 755; in southern Africa, 545–46, g 545;
in southern Europe, 307; in Southwest Asia, m 439;
in United States, 149, m 149; in West Africa, 535; in
western Europe, m 295, 300; world, m 73
population distribution 72–74, m 73, g 74; in Arabian
Peninsula, 456; in Australia, 820; in Canada, 156,
m 156; in Central Africa, 540; in Central Asia, 463;
in China, 677; in East Africa, 530, m 530; in eastern
Europe, 313; in eastern Mediterranean, 444, g
444; in Europe, 296, 300; in India, 607, m 607; in
Japan, 682; in New Zealand, 820; in North Africa,
440; in North and South Korea, 687; in Northeast,
452; in northern Europe, 296; in Oceania, 825;
in Russia, 372; in Sahel, 525; in South Asia, 612,
617; in Southeast Asia, m 749, 750, 755, m 755; in
southern Africa, 545–46, g 545; in southern Europe,
307; in United States, 149; in West Africa, 535; in
western Europe, 300
population growth, 71–72, g 71; in China, 677; in
India, 607; negative, 72; in North and South Korea,
687, g 687; in Southeast Asia, g 750; zero, 71
population patterns: in Africa south of the Sahara,
525, g 525, 535, g 535; in Arabian Peninsula, 456,
g 456; in Australia, 819–20, m 819; in Bangladesh,
612, d 612; in Canada, 156, m 156, d 160, 161; in
Caribbean, 222; in Central Africa, 540; in Central
America, 222; in Central Asia, m 439, 463–64, m 463;
in China, 677, g 677; and demographic transition,
297; in East Africa, 530, m 530; in eastern Europe,
313, m 313; in eastern Mediterranean, 444, g 444; in
Europe, 295–96, m 295, 299–303, 307, g 307, 313,
m 313; in India, 607, g 607; in Japan, 682, m 682;
in Latin America, 71, 74, 228; in Mexico, 217, g 217;
in Nepal, 617, c 617; in New Zealand, m 819, 820;
in North Africa, 439–40, m 439; in North and South
Korea, 687, g 687; in Northeast, 451–52, m 451; in
northern Europe, 295–96, m 295; in Oceania, 825,
p 825; in Pakistan, 612, d 612; in Russia, 371–72, m
371, m 372; in Sahel, 525, g 525; in South America,
228–29, m 228; in South Asia, 612, d 612, 617, c
617; in Southeast Asia, 749–50, m 749, g 750, 755, m
755; in southern Africa, 545–46, g 545; in southern
Europe, 307; in Southwest Asia, m 439; in United
States, 149–50, c 149, m 150; in West Africa, 535, g
535; in western Europe, 300
Po River, 281, 282
port(s): in East Asia, p 696–97, 701; in Europe, 327;
free, 769; in Russia, p 358; in South Asia, 631, 632,
m 631; in Southeast Asia, 769, m 769
Port Qasim, 632
Portugal, 230, 307, g 307, 309
postindustrial economies, 167
potash, 134
poverty, 528, 565–66
Prague, Czech Republic, p 322–23, 325
prairie, 62, 140
Prairie Provinces, 156, 168
precipitation: in North Africa, Central Asia, and
Southwest Asia, 432; in steppes, 61, 364, 430; in
tropical climates, 61; in water cycle, 42, d 42, 58.
See also climate
prevailing winds, 56–57
primate city, 217
Prime Meridian, 8, 17
Prince Edward Island, 132, 156, 158
Principe. See São Tomé and Príncipe
privatization, 391
prophets, 445
Protestantism, 84, 298, 302
province, 156
Prussia, 302
Puerto Rico, 139, 224
puna climate zone, 208, d 208
Putin, Vladimir, 377, p 377, 382, 391, 393, 398
Pygmy ethnic group. See Mbuti
P’yŏngyang, North Korea, 687
Pyrenees, 281, 282
INDEX
America, p 200–201, 248–49, p 248, m 249; in
United States, 38, p 40, 130
Parliament, Canadian, 158
Pashtun, 463, m 463
pastoralism, 430
Patagonia, 204
patois, 225
patriarchal family, 528
pearls, 737
peat, 284
peninsulas: in East Asia, 664; in Europe, 282, 289, m
289; in Southeast Asia, 735–36
Pentagon, attack on, 152
People’s Republic of China. See China
perceptual region, 18
perestroika, 382
permafrost, 50, 63, 287, 359
Perry, Matthew C., ptg 683
Persian(s), m 451, 454. See also Iran
Persian Empire, 452
Persian (Arabian) Gulf, 426, 427, 452, 453, p 472–73,
475, 482–83
Peru, 228, 229, 230, m 230; Andes Mountains in, 204;
border dispute with Ecuador, m 253, 254; exports
of, g 243; transportation in, 245, m 245; urban
growth in, g 252
pesticides, 397
Peter I (Peter the Great) of Russia, 380
petrochemicals, 476
petroleum, 106, m 107; in Africa south of the Sahara,
514, g 514, 542, 559; in Australia, m 838; in Central
Asia, 407, 427–28, g 428, 474, 475–76, m 476, g 478,
479; drilling for, 105, p 105; in East Asia, 666, m
700; in Europe, 284, m 284; importance of, 407; in
Latin America, 206, g 206, 211; in North Africa, 407,
427–28, g 428, 474, 475–76, m 476, g 478, 479; in
Northeast, 453; in Russia, 359, 392, 393, 394, 395; in
South Asia, 593, 630; in Southeast Asia, 719, 768; in
Southwest Asia, 407, 427–28, g 428, 474, 475–76, m
476, g 478, 479; in United States and Canada, 134,
156; U.S. imports of, 471, g 470
Philippines: agriculture in, 767; climate in, 740,
778; economic activity in, 109; education in, 757;
environment of, 776; forestry in, 768; history
of, 757; independence of, 757; industry in, 768;
language in, 758; mining in, 768; natural resources
in, 737, 738; physical geography of, 736; ports in,
769, m 769; reforestation in, 775; religion in, 758;
trade in, 771; urbanization in, 755; volcanoes in,
772–73, p 772–73, m 773, 777–78
philosophy, 678
Phnom Penh, 750
Phoenicians, 452, 456, 470
phosphate, 428, 476
photosynthesis, 109
physical geography, 19, m 25; of Africa south of the
Sahara, 508–19, m 519; of Antarctica, 800; of Australia,
800, 803, p 803; of Canada, 128–43; of Central Asia,
422–33, m 425; of Earth, 33, d 33, m 47, m 67; of East
Asia, 660–71, p 660–61, p 662, m 663, m 664, p 665;
of Europe, 278–89; of Latin America, 200–211; of
North Africa, 422–33, p 422–23, m 425; of Oceania,
800, 802, 804, p 804; of Russia, 354–65, m 367; of
South Asia, 588–601, p 588–89, p 590, g 591, p 596,
m 597, p 599, p 600; of Southeast Asia, 732–43, p
732–33, p 734, m 735, p 736, p 737; of Southwest
Asia, 422–33, m 425; of United States, 128–43
physical map, 12, m 12
physical weathering, 39
Q
qanats, 452
Qatar, 456, g 456, 458
R75
Qawwali • Sea of Azov
Qawwali, 615
Qin Empire, m 678
Qing dynasty, 679
Qinling Shandi, 664
qualitative maps, 14
Quebec, 132, 133, 156; capture by British, 157; culture
in, 157–58, 159, p 159; industry in, 168
Quebec Act, 157–58
Quebecois, 158
quipu, 229
Quito, Ecuador, 55, c 55
Quran, 442, 458
R
radioactive materials, 396, 397, m 396
railroads: in Africa south of the Sahara, 560; building,
152; in East Asia, 701; in India, 608; in Latin
America, 245, m 245; in North Africa, Central Asia,
and Southwest Asia, 477; in Russia, 380, 393, m
393; in South Asia, 608, 632; in United States and
Canada, 169; in United States vs. Europe, 326, c 326
rain forests: in Africa south of the Sahara, 516, 517,
539, 567, 568; and agriculture, 251, p 251, 252;
conservation of, 248–49, p 248, m 249; destruction
of, 251, p 251, 252, 567; in South Asia, 638; in
Southeast Asia, 739, 741, m 741, 775, 777. See also
tropical rain forests
rain shadow effect, 59, d 59, d 131, 139, 598
raj, 608
Ramadan, 459
Rangoon (Yangon), Myanmar, 750
realism, 302
recreation: in Central America and Caribbean, 226;
in India, 610; in Mexico, 220; in South America,
232. See also leisure
Red Cross, 566
Red River, 737
Red Sea, 426, 477, 483, 531
Red Square (Moscow), p 370
reefs, 803, 840–41, p 840–41, g 841, 842, g 844, 844
reforestation, 252, 638, 775
Reformation, 297, 302
refugees, p 70, 74, 295
region, 18, 77, m 77
regs, 430
reincarnation, 88, 608
relative location, 11, 17–18, m 17
relief, 12
religion, 80–98, m 80; in Africa south of the Sahara,
525, 527, 532–33, 536, 537, 548; in Arabian
Peninsula, 458, 459; in Australia, 823; in Bangladesh,
614; in Canada, 159; in Central Africa, 542–43; in
Central America and Caribbean, 225; in Central
Asia, 465, 466; in conflict between Israel and
Palestinians, 446, m 446, 448–49, m 449, 453; in
conflict in Afghanistan, 460–61; in Cuba, 225; as
cultural element, 76; defined, 80; diffusion of, m
81; in East Africa, 532; in eastern Europe, 316; in
eastern Mediterranean, 444, 445–47, m 445, m 446;
in Europe, 298, 301, m 301, 302, 303, 307, 308, 309,
316; in India, 607, 608, 609; indigenous, 96–97, p
96–97; in Israel, 444, g 444; in Japan, 685; in Mexico,
219; monotheism, 80, 92, 445; in New Zealand,
822; in North Africa, 441–42; in Northeast, 450, p
450, 453; in northern Europe, 298; in Oceania, 828;
in Pakistan, 613, 614; polytheism, 80; in Russia, p
342–43, 370, 373, g 373, 375, 380, 386, p 386–87;
in Sahel, 528; in South America, 231, p 231; in South
R76
Asia, 607, 608, 609, 613, 614, p 616, 617, 618, m
619, 620, 640; in Southeast Asia, p 674–75, 680,
690, 723, p 723, 751, 753, 756, 757, 758; in southern
Africa, 548; in southern Europe, 307, 308, 309; in
United States, 153, 624, 625; in West Africa, 532, 536,
537; in western Europe, 301, m 301, 302, 303. See
also specific religions
Renaissance, 302, 308
renewable resources, 106
reparations, 302
representative democracy, 102
Republic of China. See Taiwan
Republic of the Congo, 540, 541, 542
research methods, 20–21, p 22
research stations, in Antarctica, 808, m 808, p 808
reservoirs, 637, 710
resource management, 106, m 107, 173, p 173, g 707;
in Africa south of the Sahara, 565, m 565; in Europe,
331; in Latin America, 251–52, p 251; in North Africa,
Central Asia, and Southwest Asia, 481–82, m 481;
in Southeast Asia, 775, p 775. See also natural
resources
retooling, 167
revolution, of Earth, 51–52, d 52
Reykjavík, Iceland, 275
Rhine River, 281, 283
rhinoceros, p 562, p 563
rice paddies, 767
rift valley, 511. See also Great Rift Valley
Ring of Fire, 38; East Asia in, 663, 671; Latin America
in, 203, m 203; Southeast Asia in, 736
Río Bravo del Norte, 205
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, p 184–85, p 214–15, 228, 229
Río de la Plata, 205
Rio Grande, 132, 175, 205
river(s): in Central Asia, 426–27; in East Asia, 665;
freshwater in, 44; in North Africa, 426–27, m 427;
in Russia, 358; in South Asia, 592; in Southeast Asia,
p 734, 737, p 737, 743; in Southwest Asia, 426–27,
665, 671; in United States and Canada, 132–33
Rivera, Diego, ptg 218, 220
roads: in Africa south of the Sahara, m 512, 560; in
Europe, 326, c 326; in Latin America, 229, 245, m
245; in North Africa, Central Asia, and Southwest
Asia, 477; Silk Road, 464, m 464; in United States and
Canada, 168, m 169. See also highway systems
Robinson projection, 7
Rocky Mountains, p 130, 131, 134, 139, 141, p 143
Roman Empire, 308, m 308, 464
Romans, 296–97, 301–2, 307
Romania, 283, 288, 314
Romanov czars, 379, 380
romanticism, 298
Rome, Italy, 307
Rotterdam, 283, 327
Rub’ al-Khali, 430
rubber, m 107, 738, 767
rubies, 737, 738
rural environments, 776
rural population, 74
Russia: agriculture in, 357, 359, 363–364, 392, 397; arts
in, 374–75; and Central Asia, 465; climate of, 361–64,
m 362; communications in, 393, m 393; conflict
with Chechnya, 376–77, p 376–77; cooperation
with United States, 386–87, p 386–87; cultural
geography of, 368–83; culture in, 373–75, g 373,
387, p 387; deforestation in, m 359, 360; economy
of, 103–4, p 104, 390–94, g 391, g 392; education
in, 374; ethnic groups in, 371–72, m 371; family life
in, 375; health care in, 374; high-latitude regions of,
362–63, m 362; history of, 343, 379–82, m 379, g
380–81; immigration to United States, 386–87, p 387;
international relations with, 394; invasions of, 364;
Kremlin in, 379; landforms in, 357, p 357; language
in, 373, 380; midlatitude regions of, 363–64;
mountains in, 357, 365, m 365; natural resources
in, 359–60, m 359, p 360, p 395, 397; physical
geography of, 354–65, m 365; plains in, 357, p 357;
plateaus in, 357; population patterns in, 371–72, m
371, m 372; ports in, p 358; religion in, p 342–43,
370, 373, g 373, 375, 380; rivers in, 358; teen life in,
374; trade in, 394; transportation in, 358, 393; tundra
in, 362–63, m 362; vegetation in, 363, m 363; water
systems in, 358, p 358, 393, 397
Russian Orthodox Church, 386, p 386–87, 466
Russian Revolution, 380–81
Russification, 380
“Rust Belt,” 167
Ruwenzori Mountains, 512
Rwanda, 530, 532, 566
S
Sahara, 61, p 413, 430, 433, 512
Sahel, 524–28, 565; culture in, 527–28; education
in, 528; health care in, 528; language in, 527;
population patterns in, 525, g 525; religion in, 528
Saigon, Vietnam, 784
St. Basil’s Cathedral (Moscow), p 388–89
St. Lawrence River, 133, 156
St. Lawrence Seaway System, 133, 169
St. Petersburg, Russia, p 342–43, 372, 373, 380
Sakhalin, 683
salt water, 42, 43, d 43, 44, 481, m 481
Samarqand, 464
Sami people, 296
Samoa, 825, 827, 833
samurai, 683
San Andreas Fault, 37
sandalwood, 593
San Francisco, 18, 38
sanitation, 528
San Martín, José de, 230
Santa Ana winds, 139
Santería, 225
Santiago, Chile, 253
São Paulo, Brazil, 229, 242, g 252
São Tomé and Príncipe, 540
sapphires, 737, 738
Sardinia, 283
Saskatchewan, 156, 158
satellite(s), for communications, 327, 770
satellite countries, 381
Satpura Range, 591, 601
Saturn, 31, d 31
Saudi Arabia: arable land in, c 475; economy of, 474;
government of, 102, 458; holy city in, 442; petroleum
in, 453; population of, 456, g 456; religion in, 471
savanna, 517, m 741, 742. See also tropical savanna
Saxons, 296
scale, 11
scale bar, 10
Scandinavia, 282, 283, 296, 297. See also Denmark;
Norway; Sweden
Scotland, p 283, 295
seafood farming, 666
seamounts, 37
Sea of Azov, 358
Sea of Japan (East Sea) • Southwest Asia
social classes, 77
socialism, 103, 104, p 104, 380–81
society, 19, 22
soil: alluvial, 426; erosion of, 331, 558, 777, 844;
pollution of, 397; salinity of, 844; topsoil, 777
soil building, 40
solar energy, 106, 172, p 172, 175, 176, 514, 707
solar system, 31–32, d 31
Solomon Islands, 825, 827, 828
solstice, 51, d 52
Somalia, 530, m 530, 532, 565, 566
Songhai, 526, m 526
South Africa: agriculture in, 557; apartheid in, 547;
climate of, 518; economic and industrial center of,
p 554–55; ethnic groups in, 545, g 545; gold in, 514,
519, 559; roads in, m 512
South America, 203, 227–32; Amazon River in, 205,
209, 211; arts in, 232; climate of, 209, m 209; as
continent, 33; culture in, 231–32; education in,
231; family life in, 232; government of, 229–31;
grasslands of, 204; health care in, 231; history of,
229–31; independence movements in, 230–31, m
230; languages in, 231, m 237; migration in, 228;
national park in, p 200–201, 248–49, p 248, m
249; Native Americans in, 229–30, 232; population
patterns in, 228–29, m 228; religion in, 231, p 231;
sports and recreation in, 232; tropical rain forest in,
61, 209, m 209, 211, m 213, 243, 741; urbanization
in, 229, 252–53, g 252; vertical climate zones in,
208, d 208. See also Latin America
South Asia, 626, p 626–27; agriculture in, 599, 607,
619, 629–30, g 629, 637, 638; arts in, 609–10, 615,
620; climate of, 596; climate regions of, 597–98;
communications in, 632; conflict in, 614, 639–40;
cultural geography of, 604–21, p 604–5, m 608, p
610, d 612, m 613, p 615, m 618, m 619; culture
in, 577, 609–10, p 610, 611, 614–15; earthquakes
in, 600; economic activity in, m 592, 628–33, g 629;
education in, 609, 614, 620; endangered wildlife in,
m 638, 638; environment in, 636–40, m 637; ethnic
groups in, 617, c 617; family life in, 615; fishing in,
p 592; flooding in, 637; forests in, 593, 637–638;
government in, 577, 608, m 608, 613–14, 619;
green revolution in, 629–630; health care in, 609,
614, 620; history of, 611, 613–14, m 613, 618–19,
m 618; immigration to United States, c 625;
independence in, 577, 608, 618–19, m 618; industry
in, 630; interdependence in, 633; landforms in, 591,
g 591; language in, 609, 614, 617, 619–20; mining
in, 630; mountains in, p 588–89, 590, 591, g 591;
natural resources in, 577, 593, 630, 636; physical
geography of, 588–601, p 588–89, p 590, g 591, p
596, m 597, p 599, p 600; population patterns in,
612, d 612, 617, c 617; religion in, p 604–5, 607,
608, 609, 612, 613, 614, p 616, 617, 618, m 619,
640; tourism in, 628, 631; trade in, 577, 619, 633;
transportation in, 632, m 632; vegetation in, 593, m
597, 597–598; war in, 613, p 614, 618–619; water in,
592; water systems in, 592, p 592
South Asia Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA), 633
South China Sea, 663, 666, 737
Southeast Asia: agriculture in, 736, 738, p 742, 750–51,
767–68, 777; arts in, 753, 758; climate of, 739–42,
m 740, p 742; climate regions in, 740–42, m 740,
p 742; communications in, 770; culture in, 719,
752–53, 757–58, p 757; earthquakes in, 736, m 735;
economic activity in, p 748, 751, p 766, 767–68,
p 768; economy of, 766–71, p 766, g 767, p 768;
education in, 752, 757; environment in, 775–78, p
775, g 776; fish farming in, 767–68; flooding in, 777–
778; flora and fauna in, 737, 738, 739, p 739; fossil
fuels in, 737, 743; government of, 750–51, 756– 57;
health care in, 752, 758; history of, 750–51, m 751,
756–57, m 756; independence in, 751, 757; industry
in, 768; interdependence in, 770– 71; islands in, 736,
743, 754–58, m 755, m 756, 758; landforms in, 735–
36, m 735, p 736; language in, 752–53, 758; leisure in,
753, 758; mainland, 748–53, p 748, m 749, m 751, p
753; migration in, 719, 750, 755, m 755; mining in,
768, 777; mountains in, 736, 743; natural resources
in, 719, 732, 737–38, 743; peninsulas in, 735–36;
physical geography of, 732–43, p 732–33, p 734, m
735, p 736; population patterns in, 749–50, m 749,
g 750, 755, m 755; religion in, p 674–75, 677, 680,
690, 719, 750, 751, 753, 756, 757, 758; trade in, 719,
755, 756, m 756, 770–71, g 770, 777; tranportation
in, 769–70, m 769; urbanization in, 741, 750, 755,
776; vegetation in, 737, 738, 739, 740, m 741, 742;
volcanoes in, 732, m 735, p 736, 736, 743, 772–73,
p 772–73, m 773, 776, 778; water systems in, p 734,
737, p 737
southern Africa, 544–48, p 544; agriculture in, 545;
arts in, 548; conflict in, 548; culture in, 548, p 548;
education in, 548; government in, 546–47; health
care in, 548; history of, 546–47; independence in,
547; language in, 548; leisure in, 548; population
patterns in, 545–46, g 545; religion in, 548
southern Europe, 306–9, p 306; arts in, 309; changes
in, 308; culture in, 309, p 309; education in; family
life in, 309; government of, 308; health care in,
309; language in, 309; leisure in, 309; migration in,
307; population patterns in, 307, g 307; religion in,
308, 309; Renaissance in, 308; sports in, 309; urban
areas in, 307
Southern Hemisphere, 9; climate of, 55; seasons in,
51–52, d 52; wind patterns in, 56, m 56
Southern Ocean, 43, m 796, m 806, 806
South Island (New Zealand), 805
South Korea, 686; agriculture in, 666, 699; arts in,
690; climate in, 668, m 668; college students in
U.S., c 625; culture in, p 648–49, 690; division from
North Korea, 688–89, m 688; economy of, 687,
699; education in, 690; environment in, 709; family
life in, 690; fishing in, 666; government of, 688–89;
gross domestic product (GDP) of, g 666; health care
in, 690; industry in, 700, m 700; landforms in, 664;
language in, 690; leisure in, 690; natural resources
in, 666; nuclear accidents in, 707; population
patterns in, 687, g 687; religion in, 690; rivers in,
665; teen life in, 689; trade in, 633, g 839
South Pacific: agriculture in, 837; animals in, 843–44;
climate in, 845; communications in, 838; culture in,
827–28, p 827; history and government in, 826–27,
m 826; interdependence in, 839; manufacturing
in, 837; mining in, 837; nuclear testing in, 844–45;
population patterns in, 825, p 825; religion in, 822–
23, 828; trade in, 839; and United States, 832–33,
p 832–33. See also Australia; New Zealand; Oceania
South Pole, 52, d 52, 806
South Vietnam, 751
Southwest Asia: agriculture in, 426, 475; arable land
in, c 475; climate in, 430–32, m 431; earthquakes
in, 425, m 425; economic activity in, 475–76, m
476, 478–79; environment in, 480–84, m 481, p
483; landforms in, 425–26; natural resources in,
427–28, g 428, 475–76, m 476; physical geography
of, m 412, 422–33; population patterns in, m 439;
transportation and communications in, 477–78
INDEX
Sea of Japan (East Sea), 664, 670, 701
Sea of Marmara, 358, 426
seaports. See port(s)
seasons, 51–52, d 52
sect, 80
secularism, 80
sedentary farming, 557
Semitic languages, 447, 456
Senegal, 525, 528, 535
Seoul, South Korea, p 648–49, 665, 687
separatism, 158
Serbia, 313, 314
Serengeti Plain, p 515, 517
serfs, 379, 380
service centers, 535
service industries, 244, 325, g 325, 476, 631, 838
Shang dynasty, 678
Shanghai, China, 677, 701, p 706
shantytowns, 252
Sharchops, 617
shari’ah, 458
Shatt al Arab, 427
sheet glacier, 40
sheikhdoms, 458
Sherpas, 596, 617, 628
shifting cultivation, 557, 775
Shikoku, Japan, 664
Shinano River, 665
Shintoism, 97, p 97, 685
shoe production, d 106
shogun, 683
Siam, 751
Siberia, p 356, 365, m 365; air pollution in, 397;
climate of, 362, m 362; and global warming, 398;
natural resources in, 359; plains in, 357, p 357;
railroad in, 380; struck by “mysterious fireball,” 32;
water systems in, 358, 365, m 365
Sicily, 283
Siddhartha Gautama, 608
Sierra Leone, 537
Sierra Madre, 203
Sierra Nevada, 131
Sikhism, g 81, 94–95, p 94–95, 609, 614
Silicon Valley, 167
Silk Road, 464, m 464, 478
Silla dynasty, 688
silver, 134, m 837
Sinai Peninsula, 33, 426
Singapore: agriculture in, 767; climate in, m 740, 741;
communications in, 770; economic activity in, 109;
education in, 757; environment of, 776, g 776;
government of, 757; history of, 756; industry in,
768; language in, 758; physical geography of, 736;
population of, 755; roads in, 770; trade in, 771, g
839; trade routes to, 756, m 756
Sinhalese, 617, 618, 619, 640
siroccos, 288
site, 18
situation, 18
slash-and-burn farming, 251, p 251, 557, 637, 777
Slav(s), 314, 371, m 371
slavery: in Central Africa, 541; in South America, 222,
224, 228, 230; in southern Africa, 546; in United
States, 79, 152; in West Africa, 536, 541–42
Slovakia, 313
Slovenia, 313, 314
Smart Border action plan, 171
smog, 64, 174, p 174
social change, in United States, 152
R77
sovereignty • trade
sovereignty, 372
Soviet Union: breakup of, 478; Chernobyl nuclear
accident in, 396, m 396; and China, 679; command
economy of, 391; environmental hazards in, 484, m
484; and Europe after World War II, 297; history of,
343, 372, 373, 378, g 380–81, 381–82; involvement
with Afghanistan, 461; transportation in, 477;
unemployment in, 391, g 391. See also Russia
sovkhozes, 392
Spain, 282; in Central America and Caribbean, 224;
exploration of Mexico by, 219; interior plateau
of, 281, 288; Meseta in, 281, 288, 331; people
of, 307; in South America, 230; sports in, 309;
transportation in, 326
Spanish Cession, m 151
Spanish language, 238, c 239
specialization, 78
species, introduced, 843
spheres of influence, 679, 751
sports: in Australia, 823; in Central America, 226; in
eastern Europe, 316; in Europe, 303, 309, 316; in
Japan, 685; in Mexico, 220; in New Zealand, 823;
in northern Europe, 298; in Oceania, 827–28; in
Russia, 375, 387, p 387; in South America, 232; in
Southeast Asia, 758; in southern Europe, 309; in
western Europe, 303
Spratly Islands, 737
spreading, 37, d 39
springs, 44
Sri Lanka: agriculture in, 619, 629; arts in, 620; climate
of, 597; education in, 620; ethnic groups in, 617, c
617; fishing in, 630; forests in, 638; government in,
619; health care in, 620; history of, 616, 618–19, m
618; independence in, 619, m 618; internal conflicts
in, 617, 619, 640; language in, 619–20; natural
resources of, 593, 630; physical geography of, 591;
religion in, 619–20, m 619; tourism in, 631, 640
Srivijaya Empire, m 751, 756
Stalin, Joseph, 381
standard of living, 154
stations (Australia), 837
statistics, analyzing, 21
steppe, 139, m 140, m 209, 210; agriculture in, 475;
climate in, 61, m 62, 288, m 362, 364, 430, m 516,
517, 598, m 668, 669
Stockholm, Sweden, 296
storm surge, 137
Strait of Gibraltar, 282, 333
Strait of Hormuz, 477
Strait of Malacca, 756
Strait of Tiran, 477
stream(s), 44, 427
streambeds, 427
Strine, 822, c 823
stupas, 620
subarctic, m 62, 63; in Canada, m 140, 142; in Russia,
m 362, 363
subcontinent, 591
subduction, 37, d 38
submarine, p 41
subsidies, 303
subsistence farming, m 107, 557, 629, m 700, 767,
827
suburbs, 150
subway systems, 168
Sudan, 527, 566; history of, 526; hunger in, 566;
population density in, 525; refugee from, p 70
Suez Canal, 33, 441, 477
suffrage, universal, 547
R78
sulfate, 428
Sumatra, 775
Sumerians, 452, 454
Sunbelt, 149, 167
Sundarbans region, 597, 638
Sunda Strait, 756
Sun Yat-Sen (Sun Yixian), 679
supercells, 140
Suriname, 230
sustainable development, 251, 637, 775
Swahili people, 529
swamps, 139
Swaziland, 545
Sweden, 282, 286, 287, 295–98
Switzerland, 300, g 300, 325
Sydney, Australia, 820
syncretism, 219
Syr Dar’ya, 463
Syria, 445, 446, 447; immigration to U.S. from, c 471;
population patterns in, 444, g 444; tourism in, 476
T
Taarab music, 533
Table Mountain (South Africa), p 554–55
Tahiti, p 804
taiga, 363, 364
Taiwan, 664, 677, 679, c 694; agriculture in, 666, 699;
climate in, 668, m 668; communications in, 701;
economy of, 699; environment in, 709; fishing
in, 666; gross domestic product (GDP) of, g 666;
industry in, m 700, 701
Tajikistan, 463, m 463, 466, 477, 478
Taj Mahal (Agra, India), p 576–77
Taklimakan Desert, 664, 666, 669
Taliban, 152, 461, 465
Tamils, 617, 619, 620, 640
Tang Empire, m 678, 679
Tanzania, 530, 533, 541, 557, 568
Tarbela Dam (India), 593
tariff, 109, 170
Tarim Basin, 664
Tasmania, 803, 819, 843
Tatarstan, 372, 382
Taurus Mountains, 425
technology: agricultural, 168; computer, 21, 245, 325;
in Europe, 325; high-technology industries, 631; in
Israel, 470; in Japan, 700; in Russia, p 378, 393; in
Silicon Valley, 167; in United States, 152, 167; uses
in research, 21–22
tectonic activity. See earthquakes
teen life: in Armenia, 465; in Cuba, 225; in Hungary, 315;
in India, 609; in New Zealand, 822; in Nigeria, 537; in
Russia, 374; in South Korea, 689; in Thailand, 752
Tehran, Iran, 452
Tel Aviv-Jaffa, Israel, 444
telephones: in Africa south of the Sahara, 560, p
560; in Europe, 327; in Latin America, 245; in
Russia, 393; in Southeast Asia, 770. See also
communications
television, 632, 770
Telluride, Colorado, c 55
temperature, 51, m 67, c 142; and elevation, 55, c
55; in Pakistan vs. Florida, g 598; in Southeast Asia,
740, 742
temperature scales, 51, m 67
temples, p 674–75, 690, p 732–33, p 746–47, 751, 753
Tenochtitlán, 218. See also Mexico City
terracing, 629
terrestrial planets, 31, d 31
terrorism, 108; in Israel, p 448; in United States, 152,
171, 461
Texas annexation, m 151
textile industry, 152, 630–31
TGVs (trains à grande vitesse), 326
Thailand: agriculture in, 767; architecture in, p
718–19; climate of, m 740, 742; communications in,
770; economic activity in, 109; environment of, 776,
g 776, 777; flooding in, 777; forests in, 767–68, 775,
777; health care in, 752; industry in, 768; mining
in, 768; natural resources in, 737–38; physical
geography of, 735–37; population of, 749–50, m
749; roads in, 769–70; teen life in, 752; trade in,
770–71; urban warming in, 775, 776
Thames River, 283
Thar Desert, 598, 607
thematic maps, 14
Theravada Buddhism, 82
Thirty Years’ War, 302
Three Gorges Dam (China), 665, p 665, 707, 710
Tiananmen Square demonstration (China), 703
Tianjin, China, 677, 701
Tian Shan, 664
Tibet, 677, 701
Tibetan lama, 618
tierra caliente, 208, d 208
tierra fría, 208, d 208
tierra helada, 208, d 208
tierra templada, 208, d 208
Tigris-Euphrates river valley, 426
Tigris River, 426, 427, 433, 481
Tijuana, Mexico, 244
timber, 135, g 135, 143, 251, p 395, 559, 593, 775,
777. See also forests
timberline, 141, 287
Timbuktu, Mali, 526, 536
Timor-Leste (East Timor), 736, 757, 771
tin, 666, m 700, 737, 738, 768
Tokaidö corridor, 682
Tokyo, Japan, 682
Tone River, 665
Tonga, 825
topography, 12
Torah, 92, p 92
tornado, p 23, 140
Toronto, 156, 159
totalitarian dictatorship, 102
tourism: in Africa south of the Sahara, 568; in
Antarctica, 809, g 809, p 809; ecotourism, 568, 631;
in India, p 1, 631; in Mediterranean region, 431,
476; in South Asia, 628, 631
Toussaint-Louverture, François, 224
toxic waste, p 110, 776, 844
trade: in Africa south of the Sahara, 529, 530, 536,
561; agreements between countries, 109, 158, 170–
71, 175, 246, p 247, 633; in Australia, 839; balance
of, 702; barriers to, 109; Canadian, 156, 158, p
164–65, 170–71, d 170; in China, 633, 696, 702–3,
777, g 839; and cultural change, 78–79; in East
Africa, 530; in East Asia, 649, 679, 683, 696, 700, m
700, 702–3, g 702; and economies, 107–9, g 108;
embargo on, 479; free, 109; in Germany, g 839;
in ivory, 567, p 567; in Japan, 633, 683, ptg 683,
702, g 839; Latin American, 244, m 244, 246–47, g
246, p 247; in New Zealand, 839, g 839; in North
Africa, Central Asia, and Southwest Asia, 478–79; in
Northeast, 453; in Oceania, 839; overseas, 613; in
Russia, 394; in Singapore, 771, g 839; in South
trade deficit • Vladivostok
c 475; culture of, 466; natural resources in, 428;
people of, 463, m 463; trade with, 478
Tutsi people, 532
Tuva, 373
Tuvalu, 825
typhoons, 670, 778, 812
U
Uganda, 512, 530, 532
Ukraine, 288, 313, 314, g 325, 381, 396
Underground Railroad, 152
unemployment, in Soviet Union, 391
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). See
Soviet Union
unitary system of government, 101
United Arab Emirates, 428, 456, g 456, 458, p
472–73, 478
United Kingdom: agriculture in, 326; ethnic groups
in, 295; government of, 102; India as part of, 608;
industry in, 325; population density in, m 295, 296;
religion in, 298; social welfare programs in, 298;
sports in, 298; trade in, 839, g 839. See also England
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization
(FAO), 565
United Provinces of Central America, 224
United States: acid rain levels in, m 179; agriculture
in, 166, p 166, 168; airports in, 169; automobiles in,
167, 168, m 169; border with Canada, 171, p 171;
changing workplace in, g 167; climate of, 138–42,
p 139, c 142, m 145; climate regions in, m 140;
communications in, 169; cooperation with Russia,
386–87, p 386; cultural geography of, 146–54,
m 163; culture in, 153–54, p 153; economy of,
166–71, d 170, p 171; environment in, 172–76,
p 173, p 174, 175, p 176; ethnic groups in, c 149;
fall line of, 133, m 133; family life in, 154; federal
system of government in, 101; fishing in, 135, 143;
forests in, 135; growth of, 151–52, m 151; history
and government of, 151–52, m 151; immigration to,
149, m 163, 320–21, p 320, g 321, 386–87, p 387,
470–71, c 471, 552–53, c 552, 624–25, p 624–25, c
625, 719; interdependence with Canada, 170–71,
p 171; international college students in, c 625;
involvement with Afghanistan, 152, 460–61, p 461;
landforms in, p 130–31, 131–32; manufacturing in,
167; natural resources in, 134–35, g 135; petroleum
imports of, 471, g 470; physical geography of, 128–
43; population from East Asia, 694–95, p 694–95;
population from South Asia, c 625; population
growth in, g 607; population patterns in, 149–50,
m 149, 154, g 154; railroads in, 169; respect for
diversity in, 153; roads in, 168, m 169; and South
Pacific, 832–33, p 832–33; standard of living in,
154; trade deficit of, 170; trade with Australia
and New Zealand, 839, g 839; trade with Canada,
115, 170–71, d 170; trade with East Asia, 649,
683, ptg 683; trade with Mexico, 170, 246, g 246;
transportation in, m 169, c 326; vegetation in, 138,
p 138, 139, m 141; waterways in, 132–33
United States-Canada Free Trade Agreement
(FTA), 158, 170
United States-Japan Economic Partnership for
Growth, 702
universal suffrage, 547
Upper Mekong Navigation Improvement
Project, 777
Ural Mountains, 357, 366, m 366, 373
uranium, m 476
Uranus, 31, d 31
Urartu, kingdom of, 464
urbanization: in Africa, 525, 535; in the Arabian
Peninsula, 456; in Australia, 820; in Bangladesh
and Pakistan, 612; in Canada, 156; in China, 677;
in eastern Europe, 313; environmental impact
of, 776; in Europe, 296, 300, 307; and increased
wealth from trade, 78; in India, 607; in Japan, 682;
in Latin America, 217, 222, 229, 252–53, g 252; and
megacities, 217; in Mexico, 217; in New Zealand,
820; in North Africa, 440; in North and South Korea,
687; in Northeast, 452; in northern Europe, 296; and
population distribution, 72, 73–74, g 74; in Sahel, 525;
in Southeast Asia, 741, 750, 755, 776; in southern
Europe, 307; and U.S. population clusters, 150; in
West Africa, 535, g 535; in western Europe, 300
urban sprawl, 150
urban warming, 775, 776
Uruguay, 204, 211, 229, g 243
Uruguay River, 205, 211
USSR. See Soviet Union
Uzbekistan, 463, m 463, 464, 466, 475, 478
V
valley, creation of, 40
Vancouver, British Columbia, 156, p 164–65
Vancouver Island, 132
Vandals, 440
Vanuatu, 844
Vatican City, 307
Vedas, 608
vegetation: in Africa south of the Sahara, 516–18; in
Antarctica, 807, p 807; in Australia, 810, 811, m
811; in Central Asia, m 431; and climate, 61, d 61;
in deserts, 61, d 61, m 63; in East Asia, 668, m 669;
in Europe, 285, 286, 287, m 286; in Latin America,
209–10; in midlatitude climates, 62, m 431; natural
vegetation regions, 61–63, m 63; in New Zealand,
812; in North Africa, m 431; in Oceania, 812; in
Russia, 363, m 363; in South Asia, 593, 597, m
597, 598; in Southeast Asia, 738, 739, 740–41, m
741, 742; in Southwest Asia, m 431; in tropical rain
forests, 61, m 63, 209, m 213; in United States and
Canada, 138, p 138, 139–41, m 141, 142
Venezuela: exports of, g 243; lake in, 205; llanos of, 204,
209; national park in, p 200–201; natural resources of,
206, g 206; oil fields of, 205
Venice, Italy, 307
Venus, 31, d 31
Verkhoyansk, Russia, 362
vertical climate zones, 208, d 208
viceroy, 219
Victoria Falls, 513
Victoria Harbor, p 696–97
Vietnam: agriculture in, 767; climate of, m 740, 742,
p 742; economy of, 104, p 748, 766, p 766, 767,
768; environment of, g 776; history of, 751, m 751;
language in, 752; migration from, 750; natural
resources in, 737; physical geography of, 735, 737,
p 737; population of, m 749, 750; trade in, 771
Vietnam War, 751, 761
Vikings, m 157, 296
Vindhya Range, 591, 601
Virgin Islands, 224
visibility, 142
Vladivostok, 380
INDEX
Asia, 577, 619, m 630, 632–33; in Southeast Asia,
719, 756, m 756, 758, 770–71, g 770, 777; in South
Korea, 633, g 839; in South Pacific, 839; and U.S.
population centers, 150; in West Africa, 536
trade deficit, 170, 702
trade routes: in Africa south of the Sahara, 535, m
541; in Central Asia, 464, m 464; Silk Road, 464, m
464; in Southeast Asia, m 756, 769
trade surplus, 170, 702
trade winds, 56–57, m 56
traditional economy, 103, p 103
traffic congestion, 168
Trans-African Highway, 560
trains à grande vitesse (TGVs), 326
Trans-Amazonian Highway, 245, m 245
Trans-Canada Highway, 168
transfrontier parks, 563, m 563
Trans-Mongolian Railway, 701
transportation: in Africa south of the Sahara, p 512,
513, 560; by air, 169, 393; in Australia, 838; by
automobile, 168, m 169, 333; in East Asia, m 682,
701; in eastern Europe, 100, p 100; in Europe, 100,
p 100, 326–27, c 326; in India, 608; in Japan, m 682;
in Latin America, 245, m 245; in New Zealand, 838;
in North Africa, Central Asia, and Southwest Asia,
477–78; in Oceania, 838; public, 393; in Russia, 358,
393; in South Asia, 608, 632, m 632; in Southeast
Asia, 769–70, m 769; in United States, m 169, c
326. See also highway systems; railroads; roads
Transport Corridor Europe-Caucasus-Asia
(TRACECA), 478
Trans-Sahara Highway, 560
Trans-Siberian Railroad, 380, 393
trenches, 33, 35, 37
tributaries, 44, 132, 133
Tripitaka, 82
Tripoli, Libya, 440, 444, 482
tropical dry climates, 61, m 62, m 140, m 145, m 516,
517, 741
tropical rain forests: canopy in, 209; destruction of, 251,
p 251, 252; in Latin America, 207, 209, 211, m 213,
251, p 251, 252; in South Asia, 638; in urban areas,
741; vegetation in, 61, m 63, 209, m 213. See also
rain forests
tropical savanna: climate in, 209, m 213, m 431, m 741,
741; vegetation in, m 63, 741, m 741
tropical wet climates, 61, m 62, 139, m 140, 516–17,
m 516, 597, m 668, 669, 740, m 740
Tropic of Cancer, 51, d 52, 55, 597
Tropic of Capricorn, 52, d 52, 55
tropics, climate and elevation in, 208
trucking, 169
trust territories, 827
tsunami, 594–95, p 594–95, c 595, 638, 663, 710, 778
Tumucumaque Mountains National Park, 248–49, p
248–49, m 249
tundra, m 62, 63, m 63, m 140, m 141, m 286, m 287,
362–63, m 362, m 363,
tungsten, 666
Tunis, Tunisia, 440
Tunisia, 440, 441
Turan Lowland, 425
Turkey, 451, m 451, 452, 453–54, 463; arable land
in, c 475; climate in, 430; earthquakes in, 425;
immigration to U.S. from, c 471; transportation in,
477; water in, 426–27
Turkic peoples, m 371, 372, 373, 463, m 463
Turkmenistan: agriculture in, 475; arable land in,
R79
volcanoes • Zulu culture
volcanoes: creation of islands by, 38, 132, 283; in
East Asia, 663, 664, 710; and environment, 776; in
Hawaii, p 18, p 28–29, 38; in Iceland, 283; in Latin
America, 203, m 203, 204, 243, 254; in Oceania,
804; in Southeast Asia, 732, 735, m 735, 736, 743,
772–73, p 772–73, m 773, 776, 777–78
Volga-Don Canal, 358
Volga River, 358, 360, 365, m 365, 397
Volta River, 513
voodoo, 225
W
wadis, 427
Wangara, 536
war: and environment, 482–83, 566; between Israel
and Palestinians, 446, m 446, 448–49, m 449,
483; in South Asia, 614, p 614, 619, 639– 40; in
Southeast Asia, 751. See also specific wars
Warsaw, Poland, 313
waste: human, 708; industrial, 333, 708, 776; nuclear,
396; toxic, p 110, 776, 844
water: in Africa south of the Sahara, 512, 514;
desalination of, 43, d 43, 481, m 481; on Earth,
33, 41–44; freshwater, 42, 44, 481, m 481, 482,
776, 844; groundwater, 44; human impact on,
637; meltwater, 332; in Netherlands, 282; in North
Africa, Central Asia, and Southwest Asia, 426–27,
m 427, 430, 481, m 481, m 483; in South Asia, 593,
637; in Oceania, g 797
water cycle, 42, d 42, 58
water erosion, 40, p 40
waterfalls, p 128–29, 133, p 200–201, 513
water systems: in Africa south of the Sahara, 512–13,
m 513; in East Asia, 665, p 665; in Europe, d 282,
283, 289, p 289; in Latin America, 205, m 205; in
North Africa, Central Asia, and Southwest Asia,
426–27, 477–78, 481, m 481; pollution of, 109, 175,
333, 397, 776, 844; in Russia, 358, p 358, 393, 396;
in Siberia, 358, 365, m 365; in South Asia, 592, p
592, 631–32; in Southeast Asia, p 734, 737, p 737;
in United States and Canada, 132–33. See also
lake(s); river(s)
water vapor, 58
wats, 753
wattle, 811
weapons, nuclear, 613, 639–40, m 639, 700–01, 844–45
R80
weather: blizzards, 142; vs. climate, 51; cyclones, 599,
p 600, 778, 845; in East Asia, 670; hurricanes, 136–37,
p 136–37, 139, 243, 254, p 254; monsoons, 598–99,
601, 638, 670, 741; seasonal patterns in, 598–600; in
South Asia, 638; tropical storms, 136; typhoons, 670,
778, 812; and water cycle, 58. See also climate
weathering, 39
weaving, 538, 553
Wei River, 678
welfare states, 298
well(s): artesian, 803; oil, 105, p 105; water, 44, 803
Wellington, New Zealand, 820
West Africa, 534–38, p 534; agriculture in, 535;
arts in, 538, p 538; conflict in, 536; education in,
537–38; ethnic groups in, 535; health care in, 538;
history and government of, 536, p 536; language
in, 537; population patterns in, 535, g 535; religion
in, 532, 536, 537; trade in, 536; urbanization in,
535, g 535
West Bank, 446, 448–49
westerlies, 57
western Europe, 299–303; arts in, 302; culture in,
299, 302–3, p 302; education in, 303; family life
in, 303; government of, 301–2; health care in, 303;
history of, 301–2, m 301; immigration to, 300;
population patterns in, 300, g 300; religion in, 301,
m 301, 302, 303; urban areas in, 300. See also
Europe
Western Ghats, 590, p 590, 591, 597, 598
Western Hemisphere, 9
Western Plateau (Australia), 803, 811
West Indies, 223
West River (Xi), 665, 671, See also Xi (West River)
West Siberian Plain, 357, p 357, 365, m 365
wet climates, 139, p 139
wetlands, p 139, 173
Wheat Belt, 168
wildebeest, p 515
wildlife conservation, 334, 562–63, p 562, m 563,
638. See also animals
wind energy, 175
wind erosion, 39
wind patterns, 56–58, m 56
windward side, 59, d 59
Winkel Tripel projection, 7
Wolof people, 525
wood. See timber
workplace, changing, g 167
World Bank, 247, 397
World Trade Center, September 11 attacks on, 152,
171, 461
World Trade Organization (WTO), 109, 703
World Wars, 297, 302, 315
writing systems: in North Africa, 440; in Northeast, 452
Wuhan, China, 701, 710
X
Xi (West River), 665, 671, 677, 701
Y
Yakutsk, Russia, 362
Yalu River, 665
Yamato dynasty, 683
Yangon (Rangoon), Myanmar, 750
Yangtze River. See Chang Jiang (Yangtze River)
Yellow River. See Huang He (Yellow River)
Yellow Sea, 664, 665
Yellowstone National Park, 130
Yeltsin, Boris, 382, 391, 392
Yemen, 456, 457
Yoruba, 535, 537
Yucatán Peninsula, 217, 219
Yugoslavia, 313, 315. See also Montenegro; Serbia
Yukon Territory, 142
Z
Zagros Mountains, 425, m 425, 453
Zambezi River, 513
Zambia, 541, 545, 546, 547
Zanzibar, 529
Zardari, Asif Ali, 614
zero population growth, 71
Zheng He, 679
Zhou dynasty, 678, m 678
ziggurats, 454
Zimbabwe, 541, 545, 546, 548, 558, 567
zinc, m 476, m 700, 738, m 838
Zionists, 446
Zulu culture, 546
Acknowledgments and Photo Credits
Acknowledgments RA45 From Geography for Life: National Geography Standards 1994
784 From “U.S., Vietnam Face Agent Orange Legacy” by Ian Timberlake, Agence France-Presse,
September 23, 2009; 785 From “Report Sees Agent Orange Link to More Illnesses,” by Janie Lorber,
from The New York Times, © July 25, 2009, The New York Times. All rights reserved. Used by permission
and protected by the Copyright Laws of the United States. The printing, copying, redistribution or
retransmission of the Material without express written permission is prohibited; 831 From “Australian
court rules that city of Perth belongs to aborigines” Agence France-Presse, September 21, 2006; 849
From “New Zealand’s Nuclear Free Status” by Peter R. Wills, University of Auckland. Peter Wills is an
associate of the National Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of Otago, Aotearoa, New
Zealand. Reprinted by permission of the author; 852 From Tui Tui Tuituia, Race Relations in 2008, by
the Human Rights Commission of New Zealand, March 2009; 853 From “Statement of the Special
Rapporteur on the situation of human rights and fundamental freedoms of indigenous people” by
James Anaya, August 27, 2009; R4 From “Selling the Wind” by Michelle Nijhuis. Audubon, September/
October 2006. Reprinted by permission of the author; R5 From Storm Swarm: Are Hurricanes Our
Fault?” by Paul Rauber. Reprinted with permission from the January/February 2005 issue of Sierra, the
magazine of the Sierra Club; R10 From “Puerto Rico, an Island in Distress” from The New York Times,
© October 23, 2006, The New York Times. All rights reserved. Used by permission and protected by the
Copyright Laws of the United States. The printing, copying, redistribution or retransmission of the
Material without express written permission is prohibited; R12 From “Making Sure a Rose Still Smells as
Sweet” by Roger Di Silvestro. National Wildlife, February/March 2005. Copyright © 2005 National
Wildlife Federation. Reprinted by permission of the National Wildlife Federation.
Photo Credits
Cover (cw from top)Galen Rowell/CORBIS, (1)Tom Stoddart Archive/Getty
Images, (2, 5)Penny Tweedie/CORBIS, (3)Paul Chesley/Getty Images, (4)Bethune Carmichael/Lonely
Planet Images, (6, 13)Peter Adams/Getty Images, (7)Frans Lemmens/Getty Images, (8)Sally Mayman/
Getty Images, (9)Nevada Wier/Getty Images, (10)Andrea Booher/Getty Images, (11)John Beatty/Getty
Images, (12)Howard Kingsnorth/Getty Images, (c)Visual Analysis Lab/Goddard Space Flight Center,
NASA; iv (t)Mark H. Milstein/NorthFoto/ZUMA Press, (b)SuperStock, Inc./SuperStock; v (t)Tim Davis/
Getty Images, (b)Martin Harvey/CORBIS; vi (t)Robert Estall/CORBIS, (b)Philip Gould/CORBIS; vii
(t)Bob Daemmrich/The Image Works, (bl)Galen Rowell/CORBIS, (br)Robert van der Hilst/CORBIS;
viii (t)Johner/Getty Images, (b)National Trust Photographic Library/Ian Shaw/The Image Works; ix
(t)José Fuste Raga/zefa/CORBIS, (b)Richard Nowitz/National Geographic Image Collection; x (t, tr)Steve
Vidler/SuperStock, (b)Jon Hicks/CORBIS; xi (t)Richard Lord/The Image Works, (b)Pixtal/SuperStock;
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Layma/Getty Images; xiv (t)Sukree Sukplang/Reuters/CORBIS, (b)Macduff Everton/CORBIS; xv (t)David
Kirkland/Photolibrary, (b)Mark Dadswell/Getty Images; xvii Larry Dale Gordon/Getty Images; RA42
Martin Harvey/Getty Images; RA43 (t) NOAA/Corbis, (b) The Photolibrary Wales/Alamy; RA44 (t to
b) ThinkStock/SuperStock, Janet Foster/Masterfile, Mark Tomalty/Masterfile, age fotostock/SuperStock,
Jurgen Freund/Nature Picture Library; 0-1 Deborah Harse/The Image Works; 2-3 Patsy Davidson/The
Image Works; 4 Courtesy Dr. Richard Boehm; 15 (l,c,r)David W. Boles; 16 Mark Christmas/National
Geographic Image Collection; 18 Paul Richards/Bettmann/CORBIS; 19 Michael Coyne/Lonely Planet
Images; 20 Paul Nicklen/NGS/Getty Images; 22 Charlotte Thege/PeterArnold, Inc.; 23 Jim Reed/
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Bean/CORBIS; 48-50 Hans Strand/CORBIS; 54 Tim Davis/Getty Images; 60 Vivien Jones/AP Images;
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CORBIS, 128-129 Richard Sisk/Panoramic Images/National Geographic Image Collection; 130 Philip
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
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Fuste Raga/zefa/CORBIS; 390 Richard Nowitz/National Geographic Image Collection; 393 Wolfgang
Kaehler/CORBIS; 395 Dean Conger/CORBIS; 397 Klaus Nigge/NGS/Getty Images; 399 (l)Vasily
Melnichenko/ITAR-TASS/Landov, (r)Zinin Vladimir/ITAR-TASS/Landov; 403 Savin Oleg/ITAR-TASS/
CORBIS; 405 TATYANA MAKEYEVA/AFP/Getty Images; 406-407, 408 Steve Vidler/SuperStock; 408
(cl)age fotostock/SuperStock; 408-409 George Steinmetz/CORBIS; 409 Langevin Jacques/CORBIS; 410
Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY; 410-411 Royalty-Free/CORBIS; 411 (t)Elizabeth Dalziel/AP Images,
(c)Jon Hicks/CORBIS, (b)Alfred Hennig/dpa/Landov; 412 AP Images; 413 (l)Royalty-Free/CORBIS,
(r)George Steinmetz/CORBIS; 415 Robert Mackinlay/Peter Arnold, Inc.; 422-423 Sandro Vannini/
CORBIS; 424 Gary Cook/Alamy Images; 427 Photri/Topham/The Image Works; 429 K.M. Westermann/
CORBIS; 430 Keren Su/CORBIS; 432 Doug Scott/age fotostock; 433 (tl)AP Images, (tr)Antoine Gyori/
AGP/CORBIS, (br)Charles & Josette Lenars/CORBIS; 436-437 Gary Cook/Alamy Images; 438 (bkgd)Celia
Mannings/Alamy Images, (br)John and Lisa Merrill/CORBIS; 440 Lutz Jaekel/Bilderberg/Peter Arnold;
443 Mahfouz Abu Turk (ISRAEL)/Reuters; 448 Menahem Kahanna/AFP/Getty Images; 448-449 AP
Images; 449 John Angelillo-Pool/Getty Images; 450 Joe Raedle/Getty Images; 452 Steve Vidler/
SuperStock; 454 Phil Weymouth/Lonely Planet Images; 455 (bkgd)Chris Mellor/Lonely Planet Images,
(br)Anthony Ham/Lonely Planet Images; 458 age fotostock/SuperStock; 459 Nabeel Turner/Getty
Images; 460 Natalie Behring-Chislom/Getty Images; 460-461 AP Images; 461 Massoud Hossaini/Shah
Marai/AFP/Getty Images; 462 Efrem Lukatsky/AP Images; 465 Seth Kushner/Getty Images; 467 (t)Jose
Fuste Raga/CORBIS, (bkgd)Robert Laberge/Getty Images, (br)Mohsen Shandiz/CORBIS;
470-471 Rebecca Cook/Reuters/CORBIS; 471 (tr)Douglas Johns/Photo Library, (c)Stephen Shugerman/
Getty Images, (b)Kayte M. Deioma/PhotoEdit; 472-473 Jose Fuste Raga/CORBIS; 474 (bkgd)Trip/Alamy
Images, (b)The Photolibrary Wales/Alamy Images; 480 Peter Turnley/CORBIS; 482 Akwa Betote/H20/
CORBIS; 483 NASA; 485 (l)Paul Stepan/Photo Researchers, Inc., (r)Chris Lisle/CORBIS; 488 Wathiq
Khuzaie/Getty Images; 489 (t)Kazuyoshi Nomachi/CORBIS, (b)Gerald Holubowicz/CORBIS; 491 (t)2006
Star Tribune. Reprinted with permission of Star Tribune, Minneapolis, MN; 492-493 Liba Taylor/CORBIS;
494 (c)Jon Hicks/CORBIS, (br)Royalty-Free/CORBIS; 494-495 Remi Benali/CORBIS; 495 Guillaume
Bonn/CORBIS; 496 George Steinmetz/CORBIS; 496-497 Reuters/CORBIS; 497 (t)Earl & Nazima Kowall/
CORBIS, (c)Penny Tweedie/CORBIS, (b)David Turnley/CORBIS; 508-509 Chris Johns/National
Geographic Image Collection; 510 (bkgd)Yann Arthus-Bertrand/CORBIS, (br)Remi Benali/CORBIS; 512
Herbert Spichtinger/zefa/CORBIS; 515 Pixtal/SuperStock; 519 (tl)Suzanne Porter/Impact Photos,
(bl)Carsten Peter/National Geographic Image Collection, (bc)Michael Nichols/NGS/Getty Images;
522-523 Albert Normandin/Masterfile; 524 Sarah Leen/National Geographic Image Collection; 525
R82
Jacques Langevin/CORBIS; 527 Peter Adams/The Image Bank/Getty Images; 529 Dennis Johnson/
Lonely Planet Images; 531 Michele Burgess/CORBIS; 532 Peter Turnley/CORBIS; 534 Ton Koene/Peter
Arnold, Inc.; 536 Mark Kauffman/Time Life Pictures/Getty Images; 537 Liba Taylor/CORBIS; 538
Lawrence Manning/CORBIS; 539 Martin Harvey/CORBIS; 540 Stefano Amantini/Atlantide Phototravel/
CORBIS; 543 Jean Pierre Kepseu/Panapress/Getty Images; 544 Lee Frost/NGS/Getty Images; 547
Jonathan Shapiro; 549 (bkgd)Robert Laberge/Getty Images, (l)Royalty-Free/CORBIS; 552 (l)Frank
Micelotta/Getty Images, (r)Bridgeman Art Library/SuperStock; 552-553 Peter Turnley/CORBIS; 554-555
Gallo Images/CORBIS; 556 David Alan Harvey/Magnum Photos; 559 Richard Lucas/The Image Works;
560 Denis Farrell/AP Images; 562 (l)David Reed/CORBIS, (r)Reuters/CORBIS; 562-563 Heinrich van den
Berg/Getty Images; 564 Richard Lord/The Image Works; 567 Frans Lanting/Minden Pictures; 569 Sean
Sprague/Peter Arnold, Inc.; 572 Eric L Wheater/Lonely Planet Images; 573 (t)Michael S. Lewis/CORBIS,
(b)James Marshall/CORBIS; 575 Amos Gumulira/AFP/Getty Images; 576-577 Patrick Horton/Lonely
Planet Images; 578 (cl)Anuruddha Lokuhapuarachchi/Reuters/CORBIS, (br)Keren Su/CORBIS; 578-579
David Sutherland/CORBIS; 579 Richard I’Anson/Lonely Planet Images; 580 Robert Harding/Getty
Images; 580-581 Sara-Jane Cleland/Lonely Planet Images; 581 (t)Keren Su/CORBIS, (c)Arshad Arbab/
epa/CORBIS, (bl)Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS, (br)epa/CORBIS; 583 Galen Rowell/CORBIS;
588-589 age fotostock/SuperStock; 590 Gavin Hellier/Robert Harding World Imagery/Getty Images;
592 Bojan Brecelj/CORBIS; 594 (bkgd)DigitalGlobe/Getty Images, (b)Jeremy Horner/CORBIS; 595 (t)
Andy Rain/epa/CORBIS, (b) Nayan Sthankiya/CORBIS; 596 Grant Dixon/Lonely Planet Images; 599
Steve McCurry/National Geographic Image Collection; 600 Shehzad Noorani/Peter Arnold, Inc.; 601
(tr)DPA/AA/The Image Works, (bl)Sanjib Mukherjee/Reuters/CORBIS, (br)David Samuel Robbins/
CORBIS; 604-605 Rajesh Kumar Singh/AP Images; 606 Noshir Desai/CORBIS; 609 Richard Lord/The
Image Works; 610 Nikreates/Alamy Images; 611 Shabbir Hussain Imam/AP Images; 614 Amit Gupta/
Reuters/CORBIS; 615 Rafiqur Rahman/Reuters/CORBIS; 616 Jayanta Shaw/Reuters; 621 (bkgd)Robert
Laberge/Getty Images, (l)John Henry Claude Wilson/Getty Images; 624 Francois Mor/AP Images;
624-625 Nick Ut/AP Images; 625 J.Garcia/photocuisine/CORBIS; 626-627 Peer Grimm/dpa/Landov;
628 Alison Wright/CORBIS; 631 Lindsay Hebberd/CORBIS; 634-635 Dinodia Photo Library; 635 Gautam
Singh/AP Images; 636 Amit Bhargava/CORBIS; 637 Shehzad Noorani/Peter Arnold, Inc.; 641
(l)Anuruddha Lokuhapuarachchi/Reuters, (r)Pallava Bagla/CORBIS; 644 645 David H. Wells/CORBIS;
645 (t)Greg Elms/Getty Images; 648-649 Martin Vincent Robinson/Lonely Planet Images; 650 (cl)Dean
Conger/CORBIS, (br)Gavin Hellier/Robert Harding World Imagery/CORBIS; 650-651 Dallas and John
Heaton/Free Agents Limited/CORBIS; 651 Jason Lee/Reuters/CORBIS; 652 (b) Chinese School, (17th
century)/Bridgeman Art Library; 652-653 Jose Fuste Raga/CORBIS; 653 (tl)Chien-Min Chung/Reuters,
(c)Hamid Sardar/CORBIS, (bl)AP Images, (br)Yao Dawei/AP Images; 659 Worldscapes/age fotostock;
660-661 Yann Layma/Getty Images; 662 Karen Kasmauski/National Geographic Image Collection; 665
Xinhua/CORBIS; 667 Wolfgang Kaehler/CORBIS; 671 (l)Pixtal/SuperStock, (r)Roger Ressmeyer/CORBIS,
(bc)George Steinmetz/CORBIS; 674-675 Christian Kober/Robert Harding Picture Library Ltd/
PhotoLibrary; 676 Randy Faris/CORBIS; 679 Todd Gipstein/National Geographic Image Collection; 681
(l)Greg Elms/Lonely Planet Images, (r)Robert Essel NYC/CORBIS; 683 Bettmann/CORBIS; 686 Setboun/
CORBIS; 689 Ted Kawalerski Photography, Inc./Getty Images; 691 (bkgd)Robert Laberge/Getty Images,
(c)Jason Lee-Pool/Getty Images; 694 Najlah Feanny/CORBIS; 694-695 Jerry Amster/SuperStock; 695
(l)Yoshikazu Tsuno/AFP/Getty Images, (r)Science Museum/SSPL/The Image Works; 696-697 Robert
Fried Photography; 698 (bkgd)Ken Straiton/CORBIS, (br)Royalty-Free/Getty Images; 704 (bkgd)Allen
Birnbach/Masterfile, (r)eStock Photo/DigitalVision; 705 Liu Liqun/CORBIS; 706 Liu Jin/AFP/Getty
Images; 711 (l)Andrew Holbrooke/CORBIS, (r)Colin Garratt; Milepost 92 1/2/CORBIS; 714 Frank Carter/
Lonely Planet Images; 715 (t)B.S.P.I./CORBIS, (b)Eri Morita/Getty Images; 718-719 Kevin R. Morris/
CORBIS; 720 (c)Nevada Wier/CORBIS, (b)WEDA/epa/CORBIS; 720-721 Michael S. Yamashita/CORBIS;
721 Karen Kasmauski/CORBIS; 722 John Banagan/Lonely Planet Images; 722-723 Jose Fuste Raga/
CORBIS; 723 (t)Keren Su/CORBIS, (c)Tibor Bognar/CORBIS, (bl)Bettmann/CORBIS, (br)Jewel Samad/
AFP/Getty Images; 730 Steve Raymer/CORBIS; 731 Andre Maslennikov/Peter Arnold Inc.; 732-733
Bernard Napthine/Lonely Planet Images; 734 Steve Raymer/CORBIS; 736 Mark Lewis/Getty Images;
737 Michael S. Yamashita/CORBIS; 738 Barbara Walton/epa/CORBIS; 739 Royalty-Free/CORBIS; 742
Kham/Reuters/CORBIS; 743 (t)John William Banagan/Getty Images, (b)Guus Geurts/Peter Arnold, Inc.,
(r)Ludovic Maisant/CORBIS; 746-747 age fotostock/SuperStock; 748 (b)Steve Raymer/CORBIS; 752 Lee
Snider/The Image Works; 753 Sukree Sukplang/Reuters/CORBIS; 754 Macduff Everton/CORBIS; 757
Steve Raymer/National Geographic Image Collection; 759 (bkgd)Robert Laberge/Getty Images,
(br)Brunei Information/epa/CORBIS; 762-763 Kathleen Voege/Getty Images; 763 (cr)Jackson Vereen/
Jupiterimages, (bl)Jeff Greenberg/Alamy Images, (br)Patrick Riviere/Getty Images; 764-765 Andre
Maslennikov/Peter Arnold Inc.; 766 Sean Sprague/Peter Arnold, Inc.; 768 Angelo Cavalli/Getty Images;
772 Les Stone/Sygma/CORBIS; 772-773 T. J. Casadevall/USGS; 773 Roger Ressmeyer/CORBIS; 774 Paul
A. Souders/CORBIS; 775 Jean-Leo Dugast/Peter Arnold, Inc.; 777 Rungroj Yongrit/epa/CORBIS; 779
(tr)Andre Maslennikov/Peter Arnold Inc., (l)David Longstreath/AP Images, (br)Mast Irham/epa/CORBIS;
782 Wally McNamee/CORBIS; 783 (t)Dick Swanson/Time Life Pictures/Getty Images, (b)Tim Page/
CORBIS; 784 Les Stone/Sygma/CORBIS; 786-787 Altrendo Images/Getty Images; 788 (cl)Todd A.
Gipstein/CORBIS, (br)George Steinmetz/CORBIS; 788-789 Barry Lewis/CORBIS; 789 (b)Paul A. Souders/
CORBIS; 790 (bl)Barry Lewis/CORBIS, (br)Hulton Archive/Getty Images; 790-791 Jose Fuste Raga/
CORBIS; 791 (t)Reuters/CORBIS, (c)Mark Dadswell/Getty Images, (b)Bettmann/CORBIS; 800-801 H.
Takeuchi/PanStock/Panoramic Images/National Geographic Image Collection; 802 Paul Nicklen/
National Geographic Image Collection; 804 (tr)B.S.P.I./CORBIS, (bl)Sylvain Grandadam/Robert Harding
World Imagery/Getty Images, (br)Gerry Ellis/Minden Pictures; 806 Royalty-Free/CORBIS; 807 (cl)Paul A.
Souders/CORBIS, (cr)DLILLC/CORBIS, (bl)Frank Todd/Arctic Photo, (br)Keren Su/CORBIS; 808 Galen
Rowell/CORBIS; 809 Peter Johnson/CORBIS; 810 Greg Wood/AFP/Getty Images; 813 (t)Jurgen Freund/
Aurora Photos, (b)Medford Taylor/National Geographic Image Collection; 816-817 Grant Faint/Getty
Images; 818 Theo Allofs/CORBIS; 820 Krzysztof Dydynski/Lonely Planet Images; 822 Tomas del Amo/
Photolibrary; 824 David Kirkland/Photolibrary; 825 Macduff Everton/CORBIS; 827 Owen Franken/
CORBIS; 829 (bkgd)Robert Laberge/Getty Images, (r)Simon Baker/AFP/Getty Images; 832 Nick Doan/
Icon SMI/CORBIS; 832-833 pbpgalleries/Alamy Images; 833 (t)Royalty-Free/CORBIS, (c)Lester Cohen/
WireImage, (b)Clive Brunskill/Allsport/Getty Images; 834-835 Richard Cummins/CORBIS; 836 Stefan
Schuetz/zefa/CORBIS; 837 Nigel Dickinson/Peter Arnold, Inc.; 840 Leonard Douglas Zell/Lonely Planet
Images; 840-841 age fotostock/SuperStock; 841 Torsten Blackwood/AFP/Getty Images; 842 Oliver
Strewe/Lonely Planet Images; 843 Theo Allofs/CORBIS; 846 Jeff Hunter/Getty Images; 847 (l)Colin
Monteath/Hedgehog House/Minden Pictures, (r)Matthew McKee; Eye Ubiquitous/CORBIS; 850 Peter
Drury/AFP/Getty Images; 851 Medford Taylor/NGS/Getty Images; 852 Lorraine Harris/Index Stock
Imagery, Inc.; R0-R1 Visual Analysis Lab/ Goddard Space Flight Center/NASA; R4 Lester Lefkowitz/
CORBIS; R6 Volkmar Brockhaus/zefa/CORBS; R10 Robert Frerck/Odyssey Productions.

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