Library Services - The Open University

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Library Services - The Open University
Walton Hall
Milton Keynes
MK7 6AA
www.open.ac.uk/cobe
Integrating information literacy
into the curriculum
‘The Open University is incorporated by Royal Charter (number RC 000391), an exempt charity in
England and Wales and a charity registered in Scotland (number SC 038302)’
SUP017652
Open University Library Services
COBE
Practical pedagogy series
This booklet is part of the Practical Pedagogy series,
which aims to promote good practice and offer practical
advice in learning, teaching and curriculum development.
It has been produced by Open University Library Services
in collaboration with colleagues from the Centre for
Outcomes-Based Education (COBE): www.open.ac.uk/cobe
Revised June 2010.
For more information, please contact the Library helpdesk:
[email protected]
01908 659001
Integrating information literacy into the curriculum
Integrating information literacy into the curriculum
Contents
Introduction
2
What is information literacy and why is it important?
3
IL: a twenty-first-century skill
3
IL, learning and employability
3
How to integrate IL into the curriculum
5
Developing learning outcomes
5
Assessing IL
5
IL Levels Framework 6
Building in progression 8
Teaching IL
9
Guidelines for programme and module teams
10
Appendix
11
References
12
Introduction
This booklet has been written by Open University Library Services, in collaboration with colleagues
from the Centre for Outcomes-Based Education (COBE), for everyone involved in writing and
teaching Open University (OU) courses. Its purpose is to show how information literacy (IL) can be
successfully built into programmes of study and what support is available from Library Services to
help you to achieve this. It is aimed at programme committees and module teams, and will also be
of interest to Staff Tutors and Associate Lecturers (ALs) involved in developing and teaching the
skills content of OU modules. This booklet contains:
•
practical guidance to support the integration of IL
•
helpful tips for module teams and programme committees.
IL is a key component in the development of the student
as an independent learner. For module teams and
programme committees this means that if students
are guided from the outset in developing IL skills they
will be better able to find, evaluate and use material to
support their learning, and this material will not have to
be wholly generated by the team. While this is necessarily
a developmental process that unfolds over a student’s
learning journey, the aim is that a successful learner at
the OU will also have become highly skilled at navigating
the information landscape.
Lord Puttnam, Chancellor of the OU, has endorsed the
importance of information literacy:
I do think anyone with an OU degree should be
brilliantly familiar with information gathering
on the Web. The idea you will graduate from
the OU without being a world-class researcher
yourself, should be nonsense. We should be
challenging students to find their own links, and
their own information. I’m not sure we’re doing
this enough. (Cook, 2009, p. 2)
The ability of students to work confidently with IT
tools, learn from a wide range of sources and apply
critical thinking skills in different contexts are essential
attributes for twenty-first-century graduates and
employees. Integrating IL is about creating a curriculum
which enables students to develop the skills to learn
independently and to carry on learning, throughout their
employment and life.
What is information literacy and why is it important?
IL: a twenty-first-century skill
Being able to access and manage information
competently is a vital twenty-first-century survival
skill. The current information landscape is constantly
changing, with internet searches now commonplace, the
move to user-generated content such as blogs and wikis,
and the widespread use of social networking tools such
as Facebook, YouTube and Flickr. Many people today
– our current and future students – are confident in
using technology, and in generating their own content.
However, this also raises skills issues:
While they are frequent users of electronic
tools, Net Geners [the Net generation]
typically lack information literacy skills, and
their critical thinking skills are often weak
… They may be digital natives, but they do
not necessarily understand how their use of
technology affects their literacy or habits
of learning. For educators, providing the
technological bells and whistles needed to
engage Net Geners may not be as effective
or as critical as improving their information
literacy and critical thinking skills.
(Barnes et al., 2007)
A range of models and terminology have been developed
worldwide by both academics and librarians, and by
national and international organisations, to articulate
the suite of skills implicit within the term ‘information
literacy’. Fundamentally, IL is the ability to recognise
when information is needed, then locate and evaluate
the appropriate information and use it effectively and
responsibly. The definition widely supported by the
library community in the UK, produced by the Chartered
Institute of Library and Information Professionals
(CILIP) is that:
Information literacy is knowing when and why
you need information, where to find it, and
how to evaluate, use and communicate it in an
ethical manner. (CILIP, 2004)
IL also has a close relationship with other literacies, for
example media literacy (Ofcom, 2007), digital literacy
(Hague et al., 2010) and ICT literacy. Information now
comes in many different forms and its quality varies
enormously; people need to develop the cognitive,
transferable skills to be able to work efficiently and
effectively with what they find online. Martin Bean,
OU Vice-Chancellor, talks about the importance of
‘sense-making’ of information and believes it is vital
that students acquire the ability to determine what
information can be trusted:
We’ve got to give people the skills to be able to
make their mind up themselves. (Bean, 2010)
The evaluation and ethical use of information – to
manage it honestly, fairly, legally and appropriately – is
crucial within both academic learning (for example, to
avoid plagiarism) and the wider community.
IL, learning and employability
Integrating IL into the curriculum is about building skills
for independent and lifelong learning in a systematic way
throughout a student’s OU career. OU graduates should
be able to ‘use information literacy … to find, evaluate,
process, present and communicate information’ (COBE,
2005) in any life or work situation. The OU’s Learning and
Teaching Strategy highlights the need for students to be
supported so that they become competent and confident
learners in the digital environment (OU, 2009).
Here is what one student says about how developing
their IL skills at first level has helped them with
future study:
I have since gone on to do a Masters Degree
with the OU, and I keep referring to this course,
its fundamentals and strategies, to enable me
to find quickly and accurately relevant works
and papers I need for background and research.
(TU120 student, 2007)
IL is a career-enhancing skill and, in some professions, a
requirement. Many of the professional standards, such
as those in nursing and social work, stipulate that their
practitioners must demonstrate the effective use of
information. Indeed, 80 per cent of students studying
K315 Critical social work practice who responded to
a 2009 survey agreed that they were able to use the IL
skills learned on their degree in their practice setting.
I think the empirical research pushed me to
cross boundaries I had imposed on myself. By
this I mean I did not research information as
a matter of course prior to taking the K315
[third level practice learning module]. … I now
research more information on the internet. This
in turn has increased my knowledge on subjects
and has given me confidence as I now feel that
when asked by service users on advice etc. I
feel I have now identified gaps in my knowledge
and now feel able to pass this information on.
From a national perspective, information skills are
recognised as a key element in the economy. Digital
Britain: Final Report (2009) states that:
(K315 social work student, 2009)
It is therefore important to equip our students with the
skills they need in their community and their workplace,
and with the ability to articulate the skills they have
developed, by linking IL to learning outcomes in modules
and programmes. This approach has been adopted at
a national level in both Scotland and Wales, although
not so far in England. There is now an IL framework
for Scotland covering all stages of learning from early
years to postgraduate and beyond, extending to include
employability skills and attributes. Similar work is taking
place in Wales.
Even where IL is not a specific professional requirement,
companies can gain a competitive and economic
advantage if their employees are able to find and assess
information quickly. Recent research has indicated that
lack of information skills at work can have a high cost:
It is conservatively estimated that £3.7 billion
is spent by SMEs in the UK on time wasted
looking for information that they cannot find.
(De Saulles, 2007)
The ability of Digital Britain to contribute its
full potential to our future economic growth
is critically dependent on having enough
people with the right skills in the right place
at the right time to develop and apply the
new technologies. (BIS/DCMS, 2009, p. 21 of
Executive Summary)
How to integrate IL into the curriculum
Developing learning outcomes
Assessing IL
The OU Learning and Teaching Strategy (2009) is clear
that IL needs to be part of the overall learning design
for modules and programmes and that staff should be
supported to develop their knowledge of how to do this
effectively. It is advisable to think early on in the module
production process about how your module fits into the
programme as a whole, what skills your module should
develop and how the learning outcomes and assessment
will reflect these. Your Library representative will be
happy to discuss this with you.
At the same time as planning learning outcomes,
assessment of IL skills should also be considered. It is
best to look at assessment across the programme as a
whole, and link it to relevant outcomes at the different
levels to ensure student progression and development
are supported.
The guidelines on page 10 suggest how programme
committees and module teams can engage with IL.
External accreditation requirements such as the Quality
Assurance Agency (QAA) Subject Benchmark Statements
(QAA, 2007) also provide useful guidance on the skills
levels expected of graduates.
Once learning outcomes have been agreed, these can
be mapped to the appropriate IL skills as set out in the
Library Services’ IL Levels Framework (on pp. 6 and 7).
The IL Levels Framework expands on the broad-brush
statements for IL in the OU Undergraduate Levels
Framework by offering more detailed guidance on the
type of learning outcomes for IL skills to include at each
level. It aims to help develop and integrate IL activities
within course materials, to aid skills development and
progression through different levels of study, and to
provide module teams with more detailed guidance
on what to include in modules and programmes. The
Framework groups IL skills within four areas:
•
Understand the information landscape.
•
Plan and carry out a search.
•
Critically evaluate information.
•
Manage and communicate your results.
Assessment needs to be appropriate for the type and
level of skill. Moodle quizzes can work well for formative
and summative assessment of skills where objective
testing (right or wrong answers) is required. This kind of
self-assessment also reduces the burden on tutors to
provide formative feedback and encourages students
to become self-sufficient. However, assessment of
higher-order skills such as evaluation or reflection, where
outcomes are more open-ended, will require a different
approach. Using an e-portfolio can help students reflect
on their learning as well as recognising and articulating
their skills.
Self-assessment at the beginning of a module enables
students to identify any gaps in their IL skills. Info-Rate,
an online diagnostic questionnaire developed by Library
Services, is one tool that can be used. Feedback directs
students to relevant parts of Safari, the OU’s online
information skills tutorial.
By making explicit what the skills are and at what level
they are to be carried out, and by using clear language
to express this, students can be helped to articulate
the skills they have developed and to link them to their
workplace and wider community.
Within each of these areas, IL skills are described at OU
first, second and third level.
The IL Framework describes skills in generic terms.
It is designed to be flexible and adaptable within
the range of disciplinary contexts at the OU, rather
than prescriptive.
IL Levels Framework (June 2010)
Skill area
Level 1
Understand the information landscape.
•
Be able to identify a limited number of key sources of
information in the subject area or context.
•
Have experienced using a limited number of formats of
information (for example, books, journals, websites),
as appropriate to the course.
•
Be able to articulate the key characteristics of
different information types (e.g. print/electronic,
primary/secondary, freely available/subscriber only/
invisible Web) as relevant to the subject or context.
•
Be able to identify the ‘knowledge gap’ and what
information is needed to fill it.
•
Be able to determine appropriate keywords, including
synonyms.
•
Know how to adapt a search (e.g. broadening or
narrowing by adding or removing keywords, or using
different ones).
•
Be able to plan and carry out a search in a database on
a pre-defined topic using pre-defined resources.
•
Be able to find an article or book from a reference.
•
Be familiar with and begin to apply appropriate quality
criteria to evaluate pre-defined information.
•
Be able to use appropriate quality criteria in a broad
sense to carry out initial filtering of material from
searches.
•
Know what is meant by plagiarism.
•
Know what a reference is, the information required to
create a reference, and that references can be created
in different styles.
•
Be aware of the need to accurately record search
results.
•
Be able to select appropriate references to produce
a reference list and in-text citations as required for
course assignments.
Plan and carry out a search.
Critically evaluate information.
Manage and communicate your results.
Level 2
Level 3
•
Be able to identify a range of key sources of
information in the subject area.
•
•
Have experienced using a range of formats of
information (e.g. bibliographic records, full text,
abstracts).
Be able to select and use a wide range of sources
appropriate to the discipline, from the Library and
beyond.
•
Use knowledge of resources and their characteristics
to independently select appropriate resources for
the task.
•
Be aware of sources of current information for
keeping up to date and able to select and use those
most appropriate to needs.
•
Be able to identify and frame problems or research
questions and to select appropriate information to
address these.
•
Be able to use search techniques and common search
functions with confidence.
•
Be able to search familiar and unfamiliar sources
independently and confidently, refining the search as
needed (e.g. broadening and narrowing).
•
Apply appropriate quality criteria to critically
evaluate information from any source to determine
authority, bias, etc., which sometimes may be subtle
to detect.
•
Be able to use appropriate quality criteria to filter
results, and also to focus on the most relevant
information within documents.
•
Be able to use knowledge of key resources and their
characteristics to independently select appropriate
resources for the task as relevant to the subject
or context.
•
Be familiar with the general principles of effective
searching.
•
Be able to recognise common search features across
different databases and the Web.
•
Be able to use a range of database functionality (e.g. truncation, phrase searching, date limits,
combining search terms) within a single database.
•
Be able to independently carry out a simple subject
search within a single database.
•
Be able to use judgement to appropriately adapt a
search, including the decision to use a new database.
•
Be able to interpret database results (e.g. bibliographic or full text), and use results
functionality (e.g. sorting, saving, exporting).
•
Be able to use appropriate quality criteria to evaluate
a range of resources (e.g. books, articles, websites)
effectively.
•
Be able to use appropriate quality criteria to filter
results.
•
Be able to produce an accurate list of references for
common sources using the appropriate style.
•
Be able to accurately and appropriately refer to the
thoughts and ideas of others in your work.
•
Be able to record search results accurately.
•
•
Be aware of different systems available for managing
references (e.g. social bookmarking tools, card index,
diary, Refworks).
Be aware of the range of tools and techniques for
managing and exporting references (e.g. card index,
Refworks) and able to select and use as appropriate.
Building in progression
This table shows how two IL skills are developed through the Social Work Degree at each level.
IL skill
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Plan and carry
out a search
for information
using the most
appropriate
sources.
In Module 6, Activity 10:
In Study Unit 6, Activity 6
and Unit 8, Activity 5:
In Unit 1:
Introduction to searching
important social work
database, Social Care Online.
Students follow a sample
search with extensive use
of screen shots to guide
students.
By the end of the activity,
students should be able to:
•
Organise
information so
that it can be
retrieved and
presented.
break down search topic
into broad areas or
concepts
•
identify keywords
•
begin to understand
how keywords can be
combined with use of AND
•
perform a sample search
of Social Care Online.
By the end of the two
activities, students should be
able to:
•
put together a search
strategy for a given
information search
•
search ASSIA
•
use a thesaurus in a
database.
Students identify their
own topic. More advanced
functionality of databases
is investigated using Web
of Science as an example.
Topics covered include:
specifying fields to search
within, more advanced
wildcard options, refining
searches, citation searching.
By the end of the activity,
students should be able to:
•
identify a need for
information and convert
this need into a search
strategy
•
use the full functionality
of a specified database
•
search for citations.
In Module 3, Activity 7:
In Unit 11, Activity 3:
In Unit 12:
Introduction to the systems
available for organising
information. Extensive use of
screen shots is used to guide
students.
Students are introduced to
more of the functionality of
RefWorks. No use of screen
shots.
Students are encouraged to
reflect on the different tools
and electronic resources
they have used through the
programme, to identify those
that will still be available to
them in their practice and to
transfer information from
tools that will no longer be
available, e.g. RefWorks, to
other freely available tools.
By the end of a series of
activities, students should be
able to:
•
Students’ searching skills are
developed using a different
database. Boolean operators,
truncation, wildcards,
search strings and the use
of a thesaurus are covered.
Minimal use of screen shots.
understand the
importance of organising
information
•
identify some of the
systems available
•
understand how and why
to cite references
•
produce a bibliography
•
import references
manually into Refworks.
By the end of the activity,
students should be able to:
•
directly import
references from a
database into RefWorks
•
organise references
within RefWorks.
By the end of the activities,
students should be able to:
•
identify which tools
and resources they will
have access to in their
professional career
•
save their RefWorks
references to another
tool
•
keep themselves up to
date.
Teaching IL
In order to support module teams and ALs in teaching
IL skills to students, Library Services have developed
a Library Information Literacy (LIL) VLE site housing
a collection of learning objects to deliver the skills.
Activities are grouped under the four skills headings used
in the IL Levels Framework and provide best-practice
generic examples that faculties can either use directly
or reversion to suit their own context. Students can
be directed to appropriate activities on LIL from their
course website. Contact Library Services for more details
and guidance on reversioning.
The Library Information Literacy VLE site is
supplemented by the online IL Toolkit, aimed at ALs and
linked from the TutorHome page. The IL Toolkit contains
material both to help ALs develop their own skills and to
use with students in tutorials. Library Services also offer
tutorials via Elluminate covering a range of topics which
can help students and ALs to become more confident
in finding, evaluating and managing the information
they need.
Third-party licensed resources, such as those available
via Library Services or Open Educational Resources
(OER), offer an ideal way of building IL into modules
and programmes. As well as enhancing the learning
experience for students and building their skills, using
existing online resources can help to keep production
and presentation costs down.
In response to changing models of course production
and the increasing importance being placed on
developing students as independent learners, Library
Services have developed a website to support
programme and module teams:
http://intranet6.open.ac.uk/library/module-support
Details can be viewed of the different types of thirdparty content available for use, together with casestudies of how these have been, or might be, used.
A section on IL provides links to all the tools outlined
above, together with examples of IL assessment
and links to relevant benchmarking and professional
competency statements.
Guidelines for programme and module teams
These guidelines are aimed at modules in production, but also apply to those in presentation, where review processes
have identified a need to incorporate more independent learning. Your Library representative will be happy to advise.
Action
Comments
Use QAA benchmarks and occupational standards of
professional bodies to determine where IL skills fit into
your programme of study.
IL skills might not be explicitly referred to – Library staff
can work with you to identify the relevant competencies
relating to IL. Contact your Library representative early
in the process.
Identify key modules in the programme in which skills
could be developed.
Consider what skills you want to build into each level,
taking into account any external validation criteria.
Use the Library Services’ IL Levels Framework to map IL
skills to your learning outcomes.
Library staff can help you to identify which skills to
include where and how they can be developed.
Consider how IL is going to be assessed at each level
and how this contributes to the demonstration of
learning outcomes for the programme as a whole.
Will you want to assess the process (for example, how
students have selected resources), or the end product
(for example, an assignment based on independent
research of online sources), or both?
What will formative and summative assessment
look like?
Make use of diagnostic tests at each level for students
to assess their existing skills level.
This will allow students to judge whether they can
miss out activities for skills they already have, or need
to take remedial action to bring their skills up to the
required level.
Be explicit about how IL will be developed and assessed
so that it is clear to both ALs and students.
This includes linking IL skills to employability
outcomes and using language that enables students to
articulate and transfer the skills they have acquired to
the workplace.
Explain in marketing information, programme websites
and programme guides how the qualification learning
outcomes support IL skills and what the benefits are
to students.
Use the IL Levels Framework as a starting-point for
identifying IL-related employability skills.
Aim to use the full potential of the VLE to help students
develop IL skills.
Online activities from the Library Services’ resource bank
can be linked from module and programme websites.
Online assessments (for example, ICMAs in Moodle)
can be used to provide feedback to students on
skills development.
Forums and wikis can encourage collaborative knowledge
construction for IL, and enable peer assessment.
Ensure that ALs and students are aware of the IL help
and support available to them from Library Services.
10
This includes online activities and tutorials, Elluminate
synchronous and recorded training sessions, and the
Library Helpdesk (available 7 days a week).
Appendix
The following is taken from the Undergraduate Levels Framework (June 2005), available from the Centre for OutcomesBased Education or the website www.open.ac.uk/cobe
Indicator
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Knowledge and
understanding
Show that you know and
understand principles, concepts
and terms central to your
subject.
Demonstrate knowledge and
critical understanding of
the principles, concepts and
techniques used in your subject.
Demonstrate systematic
knowledge and critical
understanding of your subject,
some of it in specialist areas,
and informed by current thinking
and developments.
Use your knowledge and
understanding to describe,
analyse and interpret defined
aspects of your subject.
Apply your knowledge and
understanding accurately to
a range of issues, questions
and problems relevant to your
subject.
Select and use accurately
established techniques of
analysis and enquiry outside the
context in which they were first
studied, and be aware of their
limitations.
Knowing about and
understanding your subject.
Cognitive skills
Description, application,
analysis and synthesis of
knowledge.
Apply established techniques to
critically evaluate and interpret
your subject in a range of
contexts.
Synthesise, critically evaluate
and challenge information,
arguments and assumptions
from different sources,
including publications informed
by current issues or research
developments as appropriate.
Recognise the potential
uncertainty, ambiguity and
limits of knowledge in your
subject.
Key skills
Addressing issues and
problems
Know about and begin to
address issues and problems
central to your subject.
Compare critically and use
different approaches to issues
and problems within your
subject.
Identify and ask questions
appropriately to explore
relevant issues or problems
within your subject.
Develop your skills in
communicating information
accurately and appropriately
to your subject, purpose and
audience.
Communicate information,
arguments and ideas effectively,
using the styles and language
appropriate to your subject,
purpose and audience.
Communicate complex
information, arguments
and ideas effectively and
appropriately to your subject,
purpose and audience.
Develop your skills in finding,
selecting and using information
or data in defined contexts.
Find, critically evaluate and use
information or data accurately
in a range of contexts.
Find, critically evaluate and use
information or data accurately
in complex contexts.
Develop your use of ICT tools
and your numerical skills as
appropriate to support your
studies.
Use ICT tools and numerical
skills, as appropriate, to help
you learn effectively.
Select and use ICT tools to
improve your learning and
extend your numerical skills, as
appropriate.
Become aware of ways in which
you learn, and begin to develop
as an independent learner.
Plan, monitor and review your
progress as an independent
learner.
As an independent learner,
plan, monitor and evaluate your
own learning and seek ways to
improve your performance.
Develop, as appropriate,
practical and professional skills
and awareness of relevant
ethical issues.
Engage, as appropriate, with
practical and professional skills
and demonstrate an awareness
of relevant ethical issues.
Engage, as appropriate, with
practical and professional skills
and relevant ethical issues.
Plan your study pathway to link
your learning with your personal
and/or career goals.
Recognise and record your skills
and knowledge to support your
personal and/or career goals.
Recognise, record and
communicate your skills and
knowledge to achieve your
personal and/or career goals.
Awareness of context and
environment.
Communication
Communicating clearly,
effectively and appropriately
with others (including
interpersonal skills,
collaborative and group
working).
Information literacy
Finding, critically evaluating
and using information.
ICT and numerical skills
Using appropriate ICT and
numerical skills.
Learning how to learn
Managing and improving your
own learning.
PRACTICAL AND
PROFESSIONAL SKILLS
Developing practical skills
and professional awareness.
PERSONAL AND CAREER
DEVELOPMENT
Using personal and career
planning and development
resources.
11
References
Barnes, K., Marateo, R. and Ferris, S. (2007) ‘Teaching and
learning with the Net generation’, Innovate, vol. 3, no. 4
[online] Nova Southeastern University, United States: The
Fischler School of Education and Human Services, http://www.innovateonline.info/pdf/vol3_issue4/Teaching_
and_Learning_with_the_Net_Generation.pdf (Accessed 20
May 2010).
Bean, M. (2010), Naomi Sargant Memorial Lecture,
part 12, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x0tV0Zolb2w
(Accessed 17 May 2010).
BIS/DCMS (2009) Digital Britain: Final Report, http://www.culture.gov.uk/images/publications/
digitalbritain-finalreport-jun09.pdf (Accessed 17
May 2010).
CILIP (2004) Information Literacy: Definition [online],
http://www.cilip.org.uk/get-involved/advocacy/learning/
information-literacy/pages/definition.aspx (Accessed 13
May 2010).
COBE (2005) Undergraduate Levels Framework, Centre
for Outcomes-Based Education, The Open University.
Cook, Y. (2009) ‘What are we going to look like at 50?:
interview with Lord Puttnam’, Society Matters, no. 12,
pp. 1–2.
12
De Saulles, M. (2007) ‘Information literacy amongst UK
SME: an information policy gap’, Aslib Proceedings, vol. 59,
no. 1, pp. 68–79, also available online at http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/ViewContent
Servlet?Filename=Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/
Articles/2760590104.html (Accessed 13 May 2010).
Hague, C. and Payton, S. (2010) Digital Literacy Across the
Curriculum, Futurelab [online], http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/publicationsreports-articles/handbooks/Handbook1706 (Accessed 20
May 2010).
Ofcom (2007) Media literacy, Office of Communications
[online], http://www.ofcom.org.uk/advice/media_literacy/
(Accessed 17 May 2010).
OU (2009) Learning and Teaching Strategy (internal).
QAA (2007) Subject Benchmark Statements [online],
Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education, http://www.qaa.ac.uk/academicinfrastructure/
benchmark/default.asp (Accessed 17 May 2010).
Practical pedagogy series
This booklet is part of the Practical Pedagogy series,
which aims to promote good practice and offer practical
advice in learning, teaching and curriculum development.
It has been produced by Open University Library Services
in collaboration with colleagues from the Centre for
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