Lengua Adicional al Español III Lengua Adicional

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Lengua Adicional al Español III Lengua Adicional
EDUCACIÓN MEDIA SUPERIOR A DISTANCIA
Lengua Adicional
al Español III
CUADERNILLO DE PROCEDIMIENTOS PARA EL APRENDIZAJE
Con la colaboración de:
Juventino Alvarado Torres
Ma. Beatriz Escamilla Escobedo
Jesús Méndez Garza
Elizabeth M. Zavaleta García
LENGUA ADICIONAL AL
ESPAÑOL III
Cuadernillo de procedimientos para el aprendizaje
Con la colaboración de :
Juventino Alvarado Torres
Ma. Beatriz Escamilla Escobedo
Jesús Méndez Garza
Elizabeth M. Zavaleta García
EMSAD
EDUCACIÓN MEDIA SUPERIOR A DISTANCIA
LENGUA ADICIONAL AL ESPAÑOL III
Cuadernillo de Procedimientos para el aprendizaje
Con la colaboración de:
Juventino Alvarado Torres
Ma. Beatriz Escamilla Escobedo
Jesús Méndez Garza
Elizabeth M. Zavaleta García
Coordinación de Educación Media Superior a Distancia
Martha Elena Fuentes Torres
Departamento de Diseño de Material Didáctico y Capacitación:
Antonio Cadena Magaña
Revisión y asesoría académica a cargo de:
Saúl Ureña Fernández
Diseño Gráfico:
Mildred Ximena Uribe Castañón
Corrección de estilo:
Cristina Miranda Huerta
©Secretaría de Educación Pública. México, agosto de 2007.
Subsecretaría de Educación Media Superior
Dirección General del Bachillerato
Educación Media Superior a Distancia
ISBN: En trámite
Derechos Reservados
ÍNDICE
1
2
3
4
LET’S COMPARE!
7
“IF I FINISH HIGH
SCHOOL, I WILL...”
34
HAVE YOU EVER
BEEN IN AN
EMBARRASSING
SITUATION?
57
REQUESTS,
OBLIGATIONS,
PROHIBITIONS AND
SUGGESTIONS
88
ANSWERS
129
PRESENTACIÓN
Ahora que has abierto el Cuadernillo de Lengua Adicional al Español III (Inglés III), quizás
te sorprenda darte cuenta de que te faltan sólo dos semestres para concluir una de las asignaturas que integran el campo de Lenguaje y Comunicación, como parte del componente
de Formación Básica. Los conocimientos adquiridos en semestres anteriores te han permitido expresar, comprender e intercambiar pronombres, tiempos verbales, preposiciones,
adjetivos, sustantivos y vocabulario sencillo.
Hoy el idioma inglés ha dejado de ser un lujo, una barrera en cualquier rincón del mundo,
y no me sorprendería que ahora digas en tu interior, “sí, pero a mi de qué me sirve”, y si lo
pensaste, estás en un error porque es el idioma más hablado y por lo tanto, el principal que
se maneja en tecnología, libros, ciencia, música, periódicos y, por si fuera poco, la mayor
parte de la información por Internet está precisamente en esta lengua.
Este Cuadernillo, tiene como propósito seguir desarrollando tus habilidades y destrezas
comunicativas: producción oral, producción escrita, comprensión auditiva y comprensión
de lectura, mismas que nos permitirán mejorar la calidad de educación en el nivel medio
superior.
Lo que revisarás en este tercer semestre de Lengua Adicional al Español III (Inglés III), te
permitirá seguir practicando lo aprendido, no olvides que este idioma es acumulativo, lo
cual te facilitará mantener esa base sólida dentro de tu habilidad lingüística. Este semestre
agregará a tus bases del idioma inglés, nuevas estructuras gramaticales que te facilitarán
expresarte de forma oral o escrita sobre las características de personas, animales, lugares
y objetos, para poder determinar semejanzas y diferencias entre ellos, sean afirmativas,
negativas o interrogativas.
La segunda unidad tiene como finalidad el que expreses acciones que se desarrollarán en
un futuro, indicando la fecha y lugar en que se podrían ejecutar. En la tercera unidad aprenderás a redactar cualquier idea que se te ocurra, porque aprenderás a expresar el presente
perfecto, señalando acciones ocurridas en el pasado y que no han terminado, así como acciones ocurridas en el pasado en un tiempo indefinido y acciones que aún no se realizan.
Finalmente, revisarás los verbos modales con los cuales expresarás instrucciones, prohibiciones, obligaciones, sugerencias, consejos, probabilidad, y la forma correcta para extender
una invitación y aceptar o rechazar de manera amable todas aquellas que se te hagan.
El presente Cuadernillo está estructurado con un enfoque comunicativo y funcional, mismo que te permitirá mejorar y desarrollar habilidades lingüísticas en este idioma (speaking,
writing, reading and listening); dado que adopta un enfoque de enseñanza centrado en el
aprendizaje permite que más que un docente, tu asesor sea un facilitador del aprendizaje
que tu mismo construyes.
Por todo lo anterior, cada unidad está dividida en cuatro secciones, mismas que te llevarán
de la mano durante el semestre. Dichas secciones son:
¿Qué voy a aprender?
Esta sección te presenta una visión general que te permite conocer lo que revisarás en
todas las unidades y la forma en que lo debes hacer.
¿Cómo aprendo?
Es una sección medular, tanto en el cuadernillo como en tu aprendizaje, ya que aquí
encontrarás una serie de actividades que deberás desarrollar para consolidar los objetivos de cada uno de los temas revisados.
¿Qué he aprendido?
Esta sección es la más divertida porque deberás resolver todos los ejercicios para que
te autoevalúes y determines tu nivel de conocimientos adquiridos.
Quiero saber más
La última sección se enfoca en despertar tu curiosidad para seguir investigando y profundizar en lo que has aprendido en cada unidad.
Parte fundamental del mundo social al que perteneces es la interacción, por ello no
dejes de considerar que, en caso de dudas o dificultades en alguna sección o unidad,
puedes consultar a tu asesor.
Lengua Adicional al Español III es consecuente de LAE II y antecedente de LAE IV,
se vincula con todas las asignaturas ya que promueve la mejora de las habilidades y
destrezas comunicativas, para desarrollar tus conocimientos adquiridos en las demás
asignaturas.
Ubicación de la asignatura
Lengua Adicional al Español III está ubicada en el componente de Formación Básica del tercer semestre, a través de ésta adquirirás conocimientos sobre cómo hacer comparaciones entre un objeto y otro
de acuerdo a sus características, a expresar una acción que se realizará en el futuro, señalar acciones que
ocurren en el pasado y no han terminado y emplear correctamente los verbos modales.
Objetivo de la asignatura
El estudiante practicará las cuatro habilidades de la lengua inglesa (producción oral, escrita, comprensión auditiva y lectora), en la realización de funciones interactivas y transactivas, empleando los tres
grados de comparación, el tiempo futuro, el presente perfecto y los verbos modales, mostrando en todo
momento actitud de interés, respeto, responsabilidad, tolerancia y autonomía.
¿
¿
¿Qué voy a aprender?
¿
LET´S COMPARE!
Objetivo de la unidad:
Aprenderás a intercambiar información con
respecto a diferencias y similitudes de personas,
animales, cosas y lugares, mediante el uso de
comparativos y superlativos. Para ello, practicarás diferentes habilidades comunicativas, como
son leer, escribir y escuchar, mostrando en todo
momento actitudes de interés, cooperación y
responsabilidad.
1
UNIDAD
Bienvenido a este nuevo curso de Lengua Adicional al Español III. Como recordarás,
en los cursos anteriores adquiriste una serie de conocimientos básicos del Inglés, y
ciertamente estos conocimientos te ayudarán mucho en este curso.
Debes estar muy atento a todo lo que vayas aprendiendo en este curso y recordar
siempre que: ¡para hablar inglés, debes practicarlo! Te invitamos a que, no sólo en esta
unidad, sino en todas las del curso, realices los ejercicios y estés siempre entusiasta
y atento, trata de poner todo tu esfuerzo y cuenta con una actitud positiva, tanto en
tus prácticas individuales como las que realices con tus compañeros. De esta manera
podrás darte cuenta qué fácil y sencillo es aprender inglés.
En esta unidad podrás aprender las estructuras gramaticales con las que puedes hacer
comparación de personas, animales, cosas o lugares. No sólo aprenderás a comparar
similitudes y diferencias, sino que podrás expresar cuál es el mejor, el más alto, el más
barato, de cualquier número de personas o cosas que quieras comparar.
Esto te será de mucha utilidad para poder dar tu punto de vista cuando te pidan tu
opinión acerca de cuáles son los mejores tenis, cachuchas o computadoras; podrás
expresar cuál de ellas es la mejor, la más veloz, la más barata, las que son del mismo
color, etc. De igual manera podrás comparar países, los rasgos de tus amigos, lugares
para visitar, y expresar quién es más viejo, grande, alto, etc.
Para aprender estos contenidos tendrás que realizar diferentes actividades, esperamos
que te parezcan interesantes, y al mismo tiempo podrás aprender más vocabulario.
Deseamos que disfrutes esta unidad y que le eches muchas ganas para poder lograr los
objetivos del curso. Recuerda que en el mundo en que vivimos, necesitamos de más
competencias que nos ayuden a sobresalir y ser mejores cada día. Ten muy presente
que todo esto lo puedes alcanzar con la ayuda de tu asesor, el cual está siempre a tu
disposición para cualquier duda.
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No nos queda más que decirte: ¡Ánimo, tú puedes! y desearte mucho éxito.
Fuentes de consulta
Básica:
• Dos Santos, Manuel. Super Goal 2 y 3. México, McGraw-Hill, 2001.
• Brewster, S. y otros. Skyline 2 y 3. Oxford, McMillan, 2001.
• Richards, Jack. Interchange 2. 3a ed., Cambridge Universitiy Press, 2005.
Revistas:
• Speak up
• People
• Times
• Newsweek
• National Geographic
Sitios Web:
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• http://a4esl.org/q/j/ck/fb-comparisons.html
• http://www.eslgames.com/teachingsongs/edutainment1/themostbeautifulgirl.htm
• http://www.funnylessons.com/
¿Cómo aprendo?
LET´S COMPARE!
1.1. CARACTERÍSTICAS DE
SEMEJANZAS EN PERSONAS,
ANIMALES, COSAS Y LUGARES
• Vocabulario de adjetivos calificativos en
personas, animales, cosas y lugares
• Uso del modelo AS … AS
1.2. DIFERENCIAS ENTRE PERSONAS,
ANIMALES, COSAS Y LUGARES
• Vocabulario de países, ciudades, lugares, animales y cosas
• Uso de los modelos MORE…THAN
MORE…ER THAN
1.3. GRADO SUPERLATIVO AL
DIFERENCIAR PERSONAS,
ANIMALES, COSAS Y LUGARES
y
• Vocabulario de prendas de vestir, colores, descripciones físicas y de personalidad
• Uso de los modelos THE MOST
THE … EST.
y
9
1.1. CARACTERÍSTICAS DE SEMEJANZAS EN
PERSONAS, ANIMALES, COSAS Y LUGARES
Objetivo temático: Aprenderás las herramientas necesarias para
describir de manera oral y escrita las similitudes de personas, animales, cosas y lugares, comparando diferentes rasgos característicos.
Es muy importante que en esta unidad aprendas las reglas para poder comparar
características de semejanza o de igualdad, para ello es necesario que conozcas
las reglas que te permitan hacerlo, empaparte de vocabulario y de adjetivos calificativos, para que puedas irlos utilizando al hacer tus comparaciones.
Observa el siguiente cuadro y analiza la manera en que vamos a estructurar las
oraciones comparativas de semejanza.
COMPARATIVOS DE IGUALDAD
AS … AS
AFIRMATIVO
AS + ADJETIVE + AS
(TAN + ADJETIVO + COMO)
This book is as interesting as that magazine.
Este libro es tan interesante como esa revista.
10
Buenos Aires is as expensive as Tokyo
Buenos Aires es tan cara como Tokio.
NEGATIVO
NOT AS + ADJETIVE + AS
(NO TAN + ADJETIVO + COMO )
This flat is not as big as that house.
Este departamento no es tan grande como esa casa.
Paris is not as expensive as Tokyo
París no es tan cara como Tokio.
Contesta las siguientes actividades para empezar a practicar estas reglas, te pedimos tu mejor disposición y que intentes, con ayuda de tu asesor o tus compañeros de clase, contestar correctamente.
Activities:
(actividades)
1. Match the image with the correct adjective.
(Relaciona la imagen con el adjetivo que le corresponda.)
a. warm
i. hungry
b. strong
j. heavy
c. slow
k. handsome
d. scary
l. full
e.rich
m. sick
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f.poor
n. fat
g. old
o. fast
h. noisy
p. far
q. famous
v. cold
r. difficult
w. busy
s. dangerous
x. bad
t. cute
y. angry
u. cool
12
2. These words are used to describe houses and apartments. Which are positive
(P)? Which are negative (N)? (Estas palabras son utilizadas para describir casas y departamentos.
¿Cuáles de éstas son positivas, agrega una P, y cuáles son negativas, agrega una N?)
dangerous
small
noisy
modern
dark
spacious
bright
dingy
private
quiet
expensive
comfortable
huge
safe
convenient
inconvenient
shabby
older
3. Read these opinions about houses and apartments, and in the last lines, write
sentences about the importance of the characteristics of your dream house.
(Lee estas opiniones acerca de casas y apartamentos, y en las líneas, escribe acerca de las características más
importantes de la casa de tus sueños.)
Apartments: are too small for pets.
aren’t big enough for families
don’t have as many rooms as houses
have just as much expenses as houses
don’t have enough parking spaces.
Houses: cost too much money
aren’t as safe as apartments
aren’t as convenient as apartments
don’t have as much privacy as apartments
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
4. Imagine that you are looking for a house or apartment to live. Read the two
announcements and look the pictures. Then write comparisons of the house
and apartment using as … as with the adjectives below. Then compare with a
partner. (Imagina que estás buscando una casa o departamento para vivir. Lee los siguientes anuncios y
observa las imágenes, después escribe oraciones comparativas usando as … as con los adjetivos de abajo.
Luego compara con tu compañero.)
OLDER HOUSE
MODERN APARTMENT
2 bedrooms, 2 bathroom, 2 car
garage; $600 per month, located in
downtown.
3 bedrooms, 1 bathroom, $ 600 per
month, 2 parking space, located
downtown.
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noisy
bedrooms
bathrooms
space
Example:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
big
expensive
convenient
parking space
The house is as noisy as the apartment.
The apartment doesn’t have as many bedrooms as the house
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
5. Complete the sentences below using the correct form as … as in the box.
(Completa las siguientes oraciones usando la forma correcta as … as en el cuadro.)
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As white as
snow
As smooth
as silk
As slow as
turtle
As old as
the hills
As free as a
bird
As nutty as a
clown
As light as
a feather
As cold as
ice
As blind
as bat
As black
as coal
Example: on the first day of his vacations, the boy felt as free as a bird
a. The night was ___________________________
b. Her hateful eyes were _______________________
c. Without my glasses, I am ________________________
d. The sheets on the bed looked ______________________
e. The bicycle looks heavy, but it feels ____________________
f. My computers is very fast at times, and at other times it is _______________
g. When I was a child, a man of seventy seemed to me to be _______________
h. After using our body lotion, your skin is guaranteed to feel _______________
i. The man acted so oddly that his neighbors considered him to be __________
6. In this activity you have to found a different images about two persons, two
places and two animals. Give them in the boxes, and in the lines you have to
compare them. Search them in magazines, newspapers, etc. (En esta actividad tienes
que encontrar diferentes imágenes acerca de dos personas, dos lugares y tos animales. Pégalas en los recuadros y en las líneas de abajo, has comparaciones de igualdad. Busca las imágenes en periódicos, revistas,
etc.)
PEOPLE
a. ______________________________________________________________
b. ______________________________________________________________
c. ______________________________________________________________
d.______________________________________________________________
PLACES
a. ______________________________________________________________
b. ______________________________________________________________
c. ______________________________________________________________
d.______________________________________________________________
ANIMALS
a. ______________________________________________________________
b. ______________________________________________________________
c. ______________________________________________________________
d.______________________________________________________________
15
1.2. DIFERENCIAS ENTRE PERSONAS,
ANIMALES, COSAS Y LUGARES
Objetivo temático: Aprenderás a comparar las características y las diferencias de personas, animales, cosas y lugares, utilizando adjetivos de
comparación.
Como viste en el tema anterior, es muy importante conocer las formas y maneras para poder comparar; ya aprendiste a describir lugares, personas o animales que tienen características iguales. En este tema vas a poder definir aquellas
características diferentes de personas, animales y/o cosas. Debes tener claro el
conocimiento del vocabulario de adjetivos que te ayudarán a ampliar tu vocabulario y a enriquecer las oraciones comparativas.
De igual manera, en esta parte de la unidad conocerás las reglas para hacer
comparaciones de las diferencias y las características que tienen cada una de las
personas, animales, cosas y lugares, para poderlas utilizar en tu vida cotidiana.
Resuelve los siguientes ejercicios de vocabulario.
Activities:
(actividades)
1. Using a dictionary, match the pictures with the correct meaning.
(Usando un diccionario, relaciona las imágenes con su significado correcto.)
16
1+1=2
easy
difficult
neat
messy
full
light
empty
rich
poor
heavy
dark
narrow
noisy
quiet
20/3*4 (3.4 + 4.4 + 1) = x + y
Ya que repasaste nuevo vocabulario, pon mucha atención en la siguiente regla para
la comparación de cosas y lugares con estos diferentes adjetivos aprendidos.
Seguro que te será muy fácil aprender lo siguiente, da un vistazo y si tienes dudas,
pregunta a tu asesor.
When we want to compare two things, places
or people we use the comparative form.
Adjective + ER + THAN
=
MAS + adjetivo + QUE
This book is cheaper than that magazine.
Este libro es más barato que esta revista.
MORE + adjective + THAN = MAS + adjetivo + QUE
Paris is more interesting than New York
París es más interesante que Nueva York
Adjectives of just one syllable form the comparative by adding “-er”:
• Bright … brighter
• Clear … clearer
• Fast … faster
If a one syllable adjective ends in “e”, simply add “r”:
• Nice … nicer
• Fine … finer
• Ripe … riper
For some adjectives, it is necessary to double the last letter before adding
“-er”. (For spelling: doubling letters, see next week’s grammar question).
• Big … bigger
• Slim … slimmer
• Flat … flatter
All adjectives of three or more syllables form the comparative with “more “.
• Beautiful …more beautiful
• Comfortable … more comfortable
• Typical … more typical
Adjectives of two syllables are more complicated. To see which is the usual
form you should see your dictionary. Most adjectives of two syllables form
the comparative with “more”:
• Famous …more famous
• Thankful … more thankful
• Boring …more boring
• Faithless … more faithless
17
However, some adjectives of two syllables form the comparative with “-er”:
Those that end in “y”, change the “y” to “i” and add “-er”:
• Happy … happier
• Funny … funnier
• Easy …easier
Those ending in a vowel-sound that is not stressed:
• Yellow …yellower
• Simple …simpler
• Tender …tenderer
In addition, there are some (common) irregular comparative adjectives:
• Good …better
• Bad …worse
• Far …farther or further
• Little (quantity) …less
• Much … more
• Old …older or elder
Después de revisar detenidamente las reglas de la gramática, te invitamos a realizar varios ejercicios para que practiques y aprendas a construir los enunciados.
2. Look at the planets, and then use the adjectives in the list to make sentences
comparing the planets, as the examples. (Observa los planetas, y usa los adjetivos de la lista
para hacer oraciones comparativas de los planetas como el ejemplo.)
PLUTO
18
NEPTUNE
URANUS
SATUR
JUPITER
MARS
EARTH
VENUS
MERCURY
Example:
Uranus is bigger than Neptuno
2, 300 Km
-230°C
49, 528 Km
-210°C
51,120 Km
-214°C
120,000 Km
150°C
143,000 Km
-120°C
6,780 Km
-60°C
12,756 Km
+22°C
12,100 Km
+480 °C
4,879 Km
+180°C
big
beautiful
small
close to the sun
hot
far from the sun
cold
safe
a.__________________________________________________________________
b.__________________________________________________________________
c. _________________________________________________________________
d.__________________________________________________________________
e.__________________________________________________________________
f.__________________________________________________________________
3. Fill in the blank with the comparative form of the adjective.
(Llena el espacio con la forma correcta del adjetivo comparativo.)
a. The Mississippi River is _______________________ The Ohio River. (long)
b. The United States is ________________________ Mexico. (big)
c. Mexico City is _______________________ Pachuca. (dangerous)
d. A tulip is ____________________________ a cactus. (pretty)
e. Tokyo is ______________________ New York. (far)
f. A pick-up truck is _________________________ a Volkswagen. (large)
g. A rainy day is ________________________ a sunny day. (sad)
h. Mexican food is __________________________ French food. (good)
i. Vacations are ____________________________ work days. (exciting)
j. An airplanes is ________________________________ a bus to travel. (comfortable)
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4. Write sentences comparing the cars and the buildings, like the example.
(Escribe oraciones comparando los carros y los edificios, como el ejemplo.)
Mr. Smith´s car
Mr. Johnson´s car
a. old
Mr. Johnson´s car is older than Mr. Smith´s car.
b. new
Mr. Smith´s car is newer than Mr. Johnson´s car.
c. fast
_______________________________________
d. big
_______________________________________
e. slow
_______________________________________
f. modern
_______________________________________
g. clean
_______________________________________
h. dirty
_______________________________________
i. low
_______________________________________
j. expensive
_______________________________________
5. Work with a partner. Ask and answer, and make sentences, as in the examples.
(Trabaja con un compañero. Pregunten y respondan. Hagan oraciones como el ejemplo.)
EExpensive
i
C
Convenient
i t
SSafe
f
C
Confortable
f t bl
Car
plane
a. Traveling by plane is more expensive than traveling by car.
b. _______________________________________________
c. _______________________________________________
d. _______________________________________________
e. _______________________________________________
f. _______________________________________________
6. Find the hidden adjectives, then write them on the lines.
(Encuentra los adjetivos ocultos y escríbelos en la línea de abajo.)
20
q
l
n
j
d
v
q
l
a
d
b
t
u a i e t e a g d bd
a b r d k s n a d ña
a e l c no e e l on
ug i z rvghu ig
cuc t ebu s y ge
qa s udans xer
e a e e a r i a d ho
u x u r i o u s b tu
expens i vezs
ecbdhacedbl
o r i n g f gb j cñ
i g v e d e a x n hu
____________________________
____________________________
______________________________
____________________________
____________________________
____________________________
______________________________
____________________________
____________________________
7. Read the conversation and answer the next questions.
(Lee la conversación y responde las siguientes preguntas.)
Tony: What are we going to watch?
George: Let’s watch summo wrestling on T.V. Look at the size of those guys!
They’re bigger and heavier than most football players.
Tony: Con you imagine one of them falling on you?
George: There’s car reading on Channel 5.
It’s mucho more exciting than sumo.
Tony: No, let’s watch football. That’s the sport for me.
Mary: Football? It’s all muscle and no brains.
I prefer soccer.
Tony: That’s the slowest and the most boring sport there is.
It’s a game for girls.
Mary: You have to be really smart to play soccer.
That’s why l play it.
George: So what are we going to watch?
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What does George say about size of summo wrestlers?
_________________________________________________________
What does he say about car racing?
_________________________________________________________
What does Tony say about soccer?
_________________________________________________________
Why does Mary play soccer?
_________________________________________________________
What do you think they are going watch on T.V?
_________________________________________________________
1.3. GRADO SUPERLATIVO AL DIFERENCIAR
PERSONAS, ANIMALES, COSAS Y LUGARES
Objetivo temático: en esta parte de la unidad conocerás las
herramientas necesarias para comparar de manera oral y escrita las características de más de dos personas, animales, cosas y lugares, usando la forma superlativa e incrementando tu
vocabulario.
Activities:
(actividades)
1. What do you see? Type the name of the object.
(¿Que es lo que ves? Escribe el nombre de cada objeto.)
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2. Next to answer the last activity you can play with your group to the lottery.
Do you remember how can you play?, you have to remove one copies of the
images cut it and select one student to be a distribute the letters. The letter of
players is their books. Let’s play. Remember speak only English. (Después de responder la actividad pasada, tú puedes jugar con tu grupo a la lotería. ¿Recuerdas cómo se juega?, tienen que sacar
una copia de las imágenes, cortarlas y seleccionar un estudiante que sea el que reparta las cartas. Las cartas
de cada jugador podrán ser sus libros. Vamos a jugar.)
3. Guess descriptions of this caricature of people and relates the following columns. (Adivina la descripción de estas caricaturas de gente y relaciona las siguientes columnas.)
1
2
3
4
7
5
8
6
9
10
13
11
12
(
) short
(
) a moustache
(
) thin
(
) sad
(
) long hair
(
) big
(
) a beard
(
) female
(
) hapy
(
) male
(
) tall
(
) young
(
) old
(
) short hair
14
Después de recordar algo de vocabulario, vamos a continuar con la comparación de varias personas. A lo largo de la unidad, has aprendido a identificar las
características de personas animales y cosas, así como a compararlas; en esta
ocasión aprenderás a identificar las características superiores de dos o más personas, utilizando la forma superlativa.
23
Pon mucha atención en el siguiente cuadro, donde se te explica la gramática
adecuada.
When we want to compare more than two things, places or people we
use the SUPERLATIVE FORM.
For adjectives of one and two syllables ending in consonant, we add
“est” to make the superlative form.
cheap
cheapest
tall
tallest
old
oldest
For adjectives of one syllables and two syllables ending in “e” we add
“st”to make the superlative form.
large
largest
cute
cutest
When an adjective ends in “y” and there is a consonant before
it,change the “y” to “i” and add “est”
happy happiest
busy busiest
When an adjective ends in a consonant and is preceded by a vowel,
double the final consonant.
big
biggest
fat
fattest
For adjectives and adverbs or more than two syllables we use “most”
to make the superlative form.
interesting
the most interesting
beautiful
the most beautiful
important
the most important
24
the following superlatives are irregular:
good
the best
bad
the worst
far
farthest
4. Change the adjectives to superlative form using the rules. (Cambia al superlativo los
siguientes adjetivos, según la regla).
Short
___________________ sweet _______________________
Large ____________________ long _________________________
Cold _____________________ ugly _________________________
Thirsty ___________________ hungry_______________________
Fat ______________________ beautiful _____________________
Serious ___________________ boring _______________________
Careful ___________________ disappointing _________________
5. In your family all the people have different abilities and characteristics, thin
in them and write a superlative sentence about next adjectives. (En tu familia todos
tienen diferentes habilidades y características, piensa en ellos y escribe oraciones superlativas con los siguientes adjetivos.)
(Happy) ____________________________________________________________
(Young) ____________________________________________________________
(Sad) _______________________________________________________________
(Tall) ______________________________________________________________
(Thin) ______________________________________________________________
(Strong) ____________________________________________________________
(Rich) ______________________________________________________________
(Cute) ______________________________________________________________
6. Write a paragraph in where you compare these prominent figures. Don’t
forget to use sentences in superlative form. (Escribe un párrafo donde compares a estos dos
personajes. No te olvides de utilizar oraciones en la forma superlativa.)
25
DONKEY
DONKIES
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
7. Read the next important text, and then answer the questions? Works in pairs.
(Lee el siguiente texto importante, y luego contesta las preguntas. Trabaja en parejas.)
325 feet (99meters). That’s the height of a twenty-six
story building. The diameter of a sequoia at the base
is wider than many City streets. One sequoia was so
wide that people built a dance floor in its base. A single sequoia can be heavier than 500 cars. In 1891, it
took tow men thirteen days to cut down one famous
sequoia.
Today the tallest living sequoia is the General Sherman. It’s 274.9 feet (84 meters) tall, it measures 35 feet
(486 cubic meters). That’s enough wood to build four
houses and make a lot of furniture, too.
A sequoia can take 500 years to grow to its full height. After that, in lives four hundreds
of years. The giant sequoia lives longer than other kinds of sequoias. Its average age is
between three to four thousand years. When the ancient Egyptians were building the
pyramids, the small seed of the General Sherman tree started to grow in the California
mountains. That means General Sherman is 2,600 to 3,500 years old. Think of all the
events that happened in the lifetime of this tree¡ The Roman Empire, the rise of Christendom, Islam, Buddhism, the Aztecs, Columbus, Napoleon … and the hundreds of
changes that happened in the last century. And you were born!
26
a. Which is the world’s tallest living tree?
b. How tall is it?
c. How wide are sequoias?
d. How heavy are they?
e. How long can the giant sequoia live?
f. How old is the General Sherman?
¿Qué he aprendido?
Has concluido el estudio de la unidad 1, esperamos que todo te haya quedado muy claro y si
no fuera así, recuerda que puedes regresar cuantas veces quieras a reafirmar conocimientos. De
cualquier manera, en esta sección vas a practicar todos tus conocimientos y poner a prueba tu destreza. Si existe alguna duda también puedes consultar a tu asesor. Las respuestas a estos ejercicios
están al final del cuadernillo, pero te proponemos el reto de que las utilices sólo para verificar tus
respuestas, así sentirás la satisfacción de haber respondido de manera excelente todas las actividades, además pondrás a prueba tus conocimientos.
¡Manos a la obra!
I. Write the sentences in the correct order.
a) MORE / THAN / BARBARA / KELLY / IS / INTELLIGENT /
____________________________________________________________
b) A / TALLER / HORSE / COW / IS / THAN / A /
____________________________________________________________
c) AS / CHIHUAHUA / HOT / SONORA / AS / IS /
____________________________________________________________
d) DOCTOR / BUSIER / A / IS / THAN/ TEACHER / A /
____________________________________________________________
e) BUILDING / CITY / THE / THAT / OLDEST/ IN / IS / THE /
____________________________________________________________
e) SELLS / THIS / HAMBURGER / IS / THE / BIGGEST / RESTAURANT / THE /
____________________________________________________________
f) THE / RESTAURANT / WHICH / YOUR / MOST / IS / NEIGHBORHOOD / IN / EXPENSIVE / ? /
____________________________________________________________
h) / ? / WHICH / NEAR / BEST / IS / THEATER / HOME / THE /
____________________________________________________________
i) AREA / BEAUTIFUL / IS / MOST / ? / THE / BUILDING / THE / IN / WHICH /
_____________________________________________________________
27
II. Underline the correct answer .
1. The winter is the __________________ station of the year.
a) more cold
b) coldest
c) the best cold
d) colder
2. My boyfriend is the ______________ guy that I know.
a) Luckiest
b) most lucky
c) the best lucky
d) luckier
3. Randy is the ____________ student in class.
a) intelligentier
b) better intelligent
c) most intelligent
d) intelligentest
4. I´m going to buy the ________________ car I can afford.
a) newest
b) newer
c) most new
d) better new
5. Franca is the _________________ city in Europe.
a) most romantic
b) romanticer
c) romantic than
d) romantiest
III. Write the correct form of the adjective on the line.
28
MY IDEAL VACATION PLACE
In my opinion, México is the________________place for vacation in the world. It has
good
the__________________ tourist resorts. Cancun is the________________ tourist resort
expensive
beautiful
in México, but it has the__________________ hotels and the clean beaches. I love it!
clean
Marian Escamilla
IV. Use the adjectives to complete the cross word puzzle in the comparative form.
3
1
4
2
1
5
6
2
3
4
5
6
VERTICAL
HORIZONTAL
1. Good
2. Huge
3. Dark
4. Fast
5. Tender
6. Far
1. Little
2. Convenient
3. Full
4. Ripe
5. Funny
6. Bad
V. Answer correctly in the lines with as … as
1. John is (tall) _______________________ Glen.
2. Janet is (beautiful) ___________________ Jeniffer.
3. You are (crazy) ______________________ my sister.
4. We can run (fast) _______________________ they can.
5. My mom is (not / strict) _____________________ your mom.
6. your mobile phone is (not / trendy ) __________________________ mine.
7. Matrix II was (not / interesting) ___________________ Matrix I.
8. This yoghurt (not / taste / good ) _____________________ the one I bought yesterday.
9. I can do (many / press-ups) ______________________ you.
10. I (not / earn / much / money ) ____________________________ you do.
29
VI. Complete the next table.
ADJECTIVE
COMPARATIVE
SUPERLATIVE
thin
tall
pretty
safe
difficult
good
bad
much / many
little
far
Thinner
Taller
___________________
___________________
More difficult
Better
___________________
___________________
Less
____________________
____________________
The thinnest
__________________
The prettiest
The safest
__________________
__________________
The worst
The most
__________________
The furthest /
the farthest
VII. Looks at the charts of life expectancy of humans and animals. Answer the questions
about them.
30
HUMANS (BY CONTRY)
AGE
ANIMALS
AGE
China
61
Cat
16
India
55
Dog
13
Japan
78
Elephant
200
Mexico
64
Monkey
15
Sierra Leone
26
Tiger
11
United States
75
Turtle
120
1. Which animal lives the longest time?
________ ______________________________________________________________
2. Which animal has the shortest life?
______ ________________________________________________________________
3. Where do humans live the longest life?
__________ ____________________________________________________________
4. Do people have a longer life expectancy in México or in China?
_______ _______________________________________________________________
5. Which has a shorter life expectancy – a tiger or monkey?
___________ ___________________________________________________________
6. Which countries have the shortest life expectancy?
______________________________________________________________________
31
Quiero saber más
Ya concluiste la unidad 1, quizá tengas más tiempo para aprender algunas cosas extra o tengas
la curiosidad y puedas dedicarle otro tiempo en tu casa para hacer más ejercicios o investigar
en algunas otras páginas información que llame tu atención.
WORDS, WORDS…
Hemos seleccionado tres términos que resultan muy frecuentes en inglés y que pueden tener
varios significados.
ACTUALLY. In English we can ask:
“The President is the leader of the
government, but who is actually
in charge?” Here the Word mean
“in reality”: who really makes the
decisions? However, when we say,
“The Queen is actually here¡” we
are surprised at the presence of
the Queen: it´s an exclamation.
Actually is also used when we disagree but do not want to offend.
It is often used to introduce a delicate statement or signal reticence
before speaking. If someone invites you to a fish restaurant, you
can reply: “Actually, I don’t like
fish very much.”
CASUAL. Casual is another word
that causes confusion. The principal English meaning of casual is informal. It often describes informal
clothes or behaviour. The 1990s
saw the rise of casual fashion with
sportswear and trainers becoming very popular. A person who
doesn’t seem to care about correct
behaviour has a casual or careless
attitude to live. Casual also means
superficial or not serious, so a casual inspection is not carried out
carefully and a casual friend is not
a close friend – he is just an acquaintance. It is also a synonym of
temporary in the sense of casual
workers, people who work seasonally, or for short periods.
32
SENSITIVE. Finally, a person is
sensitive when they understand
other people´s feelings. They feel
compassion for someone who is
in pain or difficulty. An extreme
example is a person with psychic
or occult powers.
It is possible to be to sensitive, then
a person is easily upset or irritated
by other people. We can also talk
about sensitive skin when it is easily irritated. Sensible, on the other
hand, means to act in a rational,
logical way. We use “good sense”
to make decisions. It is the contrary of stupid or thoughtless.
Albert Einstein asked why science gives us so little happiness. His
answer is that we don’t use it sensibly.
A continuación te mencionamos algunas páginas que te podrán abrir otras puertas
para aprender más inglés y puedas practicarlo.
• http://www2.ellinogermaniki.gr/ep/geh-mit/htm/PPT_ExampleAdjectives.
ppt#275,10,“Superlative form”?
• http://www.euroresidentes.com/Blogs/curso_ingles/2006/06/comparative-adjectives.
html
• http://www.andeanwinds.com/andeanwinds/articulos_terry_bates/comparative_adjecti
ves_esp.htm
• http://www.lingolex.com/espan.htm
• http://www.mansioningles.com
Te recomendamos una revista que puedes encontrar en cualquier puesto de periódicos, que
además de venir en inglés y tener un contenido interesante y de actualidad, contiene un CD en
el cual podrás escuchar todos los temas y practicar tu inglés. Esta revista se llama SPEAK UP,
te presentamos algunos de los temas que podrás encontrar ahí:
• PROFILE
• LENGUAGE
• STRANGE STORIES
• THIS MONTH
• FITNESS
• INTERVIEW
• WORLD REPORT
• CINEMA
• SCIENCE
• TRAVEL
• ENTRETAINMENT
• LITERATURE
• JOKES
¡Buena suerte en las siguientes unidades! Recuerda poner todo tu entusiasmo y trabajar con
muchas ganas en cada una de las actividades que se te proponen en las siguientes unidades,
ya que es la continuación de lo que viste en esta unidad, de este modo podrás completar el
conocimiento que pretendemos tengas al final de este curso.
¡ÁNIMO!
33
¿
¿
¿
¿Qué voy a aprender?
“IF I FINISH HIGH SCHOOL, I WILL…”
Objetivo de la unidad:
En esta unidad aprenderás a dar y recibir información
acerca de eventos que planeas llevar a cabo en un futuro cercano y de acciones que tu imaginas sucederán
en un futuro que desconoces; para ello te auxiliarás
de las cuatro habilidades comunicativas, de los auxiliares will y going to, así como del primer condicional
if, mostrando valores hacia tu grupo como la honestidad y la responsabilidad.
2
UNIDAD
Estimado alumno, bienvenido seas a esta unidad 2. Estamos seguros de que los ejercicios pasados, de comparativos y superlativos, realmente te agradaron debido a que son
interesantes y muy prácticos; pensamos que en esta unidad también te pasarás momentos muy amenos en el estudio del idioma inglés, pues continuamos con la misma línea:
hacer que el aprendizaje de esta lengua extranjera te sea lo más interesante posible.
Comenzaremos con el futuro will, este tiempo es muy sencillo ya que la gramática es
bastante simple; además es muy útil pues te ayudará a que puedas manifestar de manera oral y escrita todas las cosas que en el futuro te gustaría realizar.
34
En el tema dos compararemos el futuro to be going to que ya viste en el segundo semestre y el futuro will, esto con la finalidad de que puedas distinguir en qué momento
emplear cada uno de estos tiempos gramaticales.
En el segmento tres manejaremos la negación del futuro will que es won’t; éste te servirá para que puedas expresar lo que no quieres realizar en el futuro.
Por último, en esta unidad tenemos el tema del primer condicional, también conocido
como futuro probable, el cual te ayudará a que puedas unir dos oraciones y señalar
cosas que te agradaría hacer en el futuro pero que en el presente deben cumplir con
ciertos requisitos (condición IF).
Este viaje a través de la lengua más universal que existe, continua amigo(a). Aprende
cuanto te sea posible y mucho más, muy pronto verás resultados y tu vida puede cambiar con el aprendizaje del idioma inglés.
Para lograr un aprendizaje más significativo requerirás de ciertas herramientas básicas, que te serán de gran ayuda para fortalecer lo que el cuadernillo ya te explica.
Te sugerimos acudir a la siguiente bibliografía para que complementes y fortalezcas
tus conocimientos:
Fuentes de consulta
Básica:
• Brewster, S. y otros. Skyline 2 and 3. Oxford, MacMillan, 2001.
• Dos Santos, Manuel. Super Goal 2 y 3. Mexico, McGraw-Hill, 2001.
• Evans, V. y Neil O Sullivan. Click on 2 and 3. Newsbury, Express Publishing,
2001.
• Jenkins, R. y Staci Lyn Sabbagh. Stand Out 2 and 3. Boston, Thompson Heinle,
2002.
• Richards, Jack. Interchange 2. 3a ed., Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Sitios Web:
• http://www.learn-english-today.com/free-english-lessons/free_english_lessons-list.
html
• http://www.wordreference.com/es/
• http://www.englishjet.com/english_courses_files/tests.htm
• http://www.agendaweb.org/
• http://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/noununcount.htm
• http://edusat.ilce.edu.mx/canal_12.htm
• http://www.ego4u.com/
35
¿Cómo aprendo?
“IF I FINISH HIGH SCHOOL, I WILL…”
2.1. EVENTOS QUE TENDRÁN
LUGAR EN EL FUTURO
2.2. FECHA Y LUGAR EN LA QUE
SE PIENSA REALIZAR UNA
DETERMINADA ACTIVIDAD
2.3. ACCIONES QUE NO SE
PLANEAN REALIZAR O NO
SE CREE QUE SUCEDERÁN
2.4. CONDICIONES QUE
EXISTEN O DEBEN EXISTIR
PARA QUE UNA ACCIÓN
FUTURA SE LLEVE A CABO
36
• Uso del futuro WILL
• Contrastes entre
WILL y “TO BE GOING TO”
• Empleo de WON’T
• Uso del primer condicional IF
(futuro probable) para relacionar
el presente simple con el futuro
2.1. EVENTOS QUE TENDRÁN
LUGAR EN EL FUTURO
Objetivo temático: Describirás eventos que planeas realizar en el futuro, haciendo uso del auxiliar will.
FUTURE WILL
Will future expresses a spontaneous decision, an assumption with regard to
the future or an action in the future that cannot be influenced.
Positive
I will finish my carrer in 3 years.
Negative
I will not finish my carrer in 3 years. I won’t finish my carrer in 3 years.
Question Will I finish my carrer in 3 years?
I’ll finish my carrer in 3 years.
Will I finish my carrer in 3 years?
Activities:
1. Read the following example, then answer the sentences.
(Lee el siguiente ejemplo, después contesta las oraciones.)
Family/ to Paris/ next/ fly/ My/ will/ summer
POSITIVE: My family’ll fly to Paris next summer.
37
NEGATIVE: My family won’t fly to Paris next summer.
QUESTION: Will my family fly to Paris next summer?
a) visit/ They/ the/ will/ Eiffel tower/
POSITIVE
____________________________________________
NEGATIVE ____________________________________________
QUESTION ____________________________________________
b) My/ Arc of triumph/ will/ to the/ go/ uncle/
POSITIVE ___________________________________
NEGATIVE ___________________________________
QUESTION ___________________________________
c) Louvre mouseum/ will/ My sister/ be/ in the/
POSITIVE ___________________________________
NEGATIVE ___________________________________
QUESTION ___________________________________
d) will/ to Amsterdam/ sister/ travel/ in the TGV/ My/
38
POSITIVE ___________________________________
NEGATIVE ___________________________________
QUESTION __________________________________
e) pray/ My Grandma/ will/ Notre Dame/ in/
POSITIVE ___________________________________
NEGATIVE ___________________________________
QUESTION ___________________________________
2. Fill in the blanks with the verb in future.
(Llena los espacios en blanco con el verbo en futuro.)
a) I think, the trip (cost) ________ more than 2000 euros.
b) I (work) __________ at least 10 hours a day, to pay it.
c) My dad (sell) ________ his car.
d) My mother (save) _______ money all year long.
What is
e) My younger brother (not/go) ______, because of the school.
my future...
f) My girlfriend (join) _________ us in France.
g) She (get) ________ a loan.
h) My grandma (buy) _______ the flight tickets 6 months before the trip.
i) We (be)________ in Europe one month.
j) I (bring) _______ gifts for my friends.
3. Match correctly the images with the sentences & write your answer in the parenthesis. (Relaciona correctamente las imágenes con las oraciones y escribe tu respuesta en el parentesis.)
a)
(
) She’ll get married in two years.
(
) She’ll buy a house.
39
b)
( ) She’ll finish the universty.
c)
(
) She’ll visit New York.
(
) She’ll work as a teacher.
d)
e)
4. How do you imagine your future? Write five sentences
of what you would like to be doing in the following years.
(¿Cómo imaginas tu futuro? Escribe cinco oraciones de lo que te gustaría estar
haciendo en los siguientes años.)
2008:____________________________________________
2010:____________________________________________
2015:____________________________________________
2020:____________________________________________
2050:________________________________________
2.2. FECHA Y LUGAR EN LA QUE SE PIENSA
REALIZAR UNA DETERMINADA ACTIVIDAD
Objetivo temático: Expresarás acciones que piensas realizar en el futuro,
contrastando el auxiliar will y going to afirmativos, en forma escrita y oral.
Activities:
1. Write the meaning in Spanish of the following expressions.
(Escribe el significado en español de las siguientes expresiones.)
40
Time expressions
next monday ___________
next week
___________
next weekend ___________
next month
___________
next year
___________
next season ___________
next school year _________
next decade ______________
next century ______________
next summer ____________
2. Show me your culture, guess the name of the day!
(¡Muéstrame tu cultura, adivina el nombre del día!)
Days of the week
The name of this day honors the sun. ______________
In this day we honor the moon. _____________________
This day is dedicated to Saturn. _____________________
This day is for Freya, the Teutonic goddess of love and beauty. _____________
This day is dedicated to Thor, the Norse god of thunder. __________________
This one is for honoring Tiu, the Germanic god of war and the sky._________
This day honors Woden, the chief Anglo-Saxon / Teutonic god. ____________
3. Fill in the blanks with the missing months. (Escribe los meses que faltan.)
Months of the year
January
________
________
November
March
April
________
________
September
________
June
________
Will vs To be going to
To be going to
Will
•when the speaker will do something voluntarily • Expresses that something is a plan
-- Jane is going to study in the
--I’ll get you some coffee
Law School next year
• In promises
--I’ll see you tonight
• Both “will” and “be going to” can express the idea of a
general prediction about the future
4. Fill in the blanks with the correct future tense.
(Llena los espacios en blanco con el futuro correcto.)
a) Tere: I (buy) _________ a new car this weekend,
but I’m a little worried because I don’t really know
much about cars. I’m afraid the salesman (try)_____
__to take advantage of me when he sees how little I
know.
Chente: I used to work for a mechanic in high school
and I know a lot about cars. I (go)___________ with
you to make sure you are not cheated.
b) Sandini: Can you see my future in the crystal ball?
What (happen)__________ next year?
The witch: You (meet)__________ man from Philadelphia. You (marry)________ that mystery man.
Sandini: Forget the man! I want to know if I (get)_____
_____ a new job.
41
c) Barbarita: We (go)__________camping this weekend. Would you like to come along?
Gaytán: That sounds great, but I don’t have a sleeping
bag.
Barbarita: No problem. I (lend)_________ you one.
My family has tons of camping gear.
d) Cheli: Fred and I (visit)____________ Chicago
next summer. Have you ever been there?
Cazares: My family lives in Chicago! I (give)_______
you my parents’ phone number. When you get to
Chicago, just call them and they (give)________ you
a little tour of the town. They can show you some of
the sights that most tourists never see.
5. Fill in the blanks with future will or to be going to.
(Llena los espacios en blanco con el futuro will o to be going to.)
I………………..play for Real Madrid someday.
42
We ……………………… play vs. Real Madrid next Sunday.
My friends ……………. participate in the
New York marathon this summer .
We ……………….. participate in the Olympic
Games in the future.
2.3. ACCIONES QUE NO SE PLANEAN REALIZAR
O NO SE CREE QUE SUCEDERÁN
Objetivo temático: Expresarás acciones en tiempo futuro en forma
negativa, agregando el adverbio de negación not al auxiliar will.
Activities:
1. Answer the following, according with the images.
(Contesta lo siguiente de acuerdo con las imágenes.)
a) This kid won’t cheat in my exams anymore! ___________________
b) This girl won’t throw garbage in the street!
___________________
c) She is an executive woman; she won’t do the dishes tonight. _____________
d) Which family won’t pollute anymore?
__________________
e) He won’t play for the Chicago Bulls anymore. ___________________
Sue
Sophie
Méndez family
Kevin Michel Jordan
2. The following sentences are negatives; write them in the proper form.
(Las siguientes oraciones son negativas, escríbelas correctamente.)
won’t Ana Laura absent next week be
1.________________________________________________________________
come to tomorrow the class won’t Ma. Luisa
2.________________________________________________________________
won’t take Alejandra & later the exam Lucero
3.________________________________________________________________
the cinema won’t next weekend go to Samantha & Angelica
4.________________________________________________________________
Gorety fail semester the won’t
5.________________________________________________________________
43
3. Imagine that you are a politician, write 10 sentences, about
actions that you won’t do. (Imagina que eres un político, escribe 10
oraciones, sobre acciones que tú no harás.)
a) _____________________________________________
b) _____________________________________________
c) ____________________________________________________________
d) ____________________________________________________________
e) ____________________________________________________________
f) ____________________________________________________________
g) ____________________________________________________________
h) ____________________________________________________________
i) ____________________________________________________________
j) ____________________________________________________________
2.4. CONDICIONES QUE EXISTEN O DEBEN EXISTIR
PARA QUE UNA ACCIÓN FUTURA SE LLEVE A CABO
Objetivo temático: Expresarás situaciones probables y su posible resultado, en forma oral y escrita, empleando el condicional If (presentefuturo).
PROBABLE FUTURE
44
This represents actions that in the future will only happen if a certain condition is fulfilled by that time. We don’t know for sure
whether the condition actually will be fulfilled or not, but the conditions seems rather realistic – so we think it is likely to happen.
If +
+ present tense; Future will.
If I finish my homework, I ‘ll go the cinema
Future will; If +
+ present tense.
I’ll go to the cinema; If I finish my homework.
Activities:
1. Match correctly both columns. (Relaciona correctamente ambas columnas.)
( ) If I don’t eat fast food ……
( ) If I study in the Law School……
( ) If I pass my english test …….
a) I’ll buy a used car very soon
b) I’ll be programming quickly
c) I’ll be a very healthy person
( ) If I have a good behavior in home....
( ) If I get good grades ……
d) I’ll be the #1 student!
e) I’ll have more time for my books
( ) If I don’t watch TV,
( ) If I have computer skills
( ) If I find a part time job
f) I’ll work for an important firm
g) My mother will let me go to Cancún
h) I’ll study in Oxford
2. Read the following text. The words that you don’t understand, look for it in a dictionary.
(Lee el siguiente texto. Las palabras que no entiendas búscalas en el diccionario.)
Global warming is already affecting the world we know, endangering polar bears, shortening ski
seasons and creating more intense
storms.
Change 5 lights
Change a light, and you help
change the world. Replace the
conventional bulbs in your 5 most
frequently used light fixtures with
bulbs that have the ENERGY
STAR label and you will help the
environment while saving money
on energy bills.
Look for ENERGY STAR labeled
products
When buying new products, such
as appliances for your home, get
the features and performance you
want AND help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution. Look for ENERGY STARqualified products in more than
50 product categories, including
lighting, home electronics, heating and cooling equipment and
appliances.
Use water efficiently
Everyone can save water through
simple actions. Municipal water
systems require a lot of energy
to purify and distribute water to
households, and saving water,
especially hot water, can lower
greenhouse gas emissions. Do
not let the water run while
shaving or brushing teeth. Do
not use your toilet as a waste
basket for toiletry items - water
is wasted with each flush. And did
you know a leaky toilet can waste
200 gallons of water per day? Repair all toilet and faucet leaks right
away.
Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle
If there is a recycling program in
your community, recycle your
newspapers, beverage containers,
paper and other goods. Use products in containers that can be
recycled and items that can be
repaired or reused. In addition,
support recycling markets by buying products made from recycled
materials. Reducing, reusing, and
recycling in your home helps conserve energy and reduces pollution and greenhouse gases from
resource extraction, manufacturing, and disposal.
Use green power
Green power is environmentally
friendly electricity that is generated from renewable energy sources such as wind and the sun.
There are two ways to use green
45
re are a number of steps you can
take to create a greener home, including installing solar panels and
researching incentives for renewable energy in your state.
Spread the Word
power: you can buy green power
or you can modify your house to
generate your own green power.
Buying green power is easy, it
offers a number of environmental and economic benefits over
conventional electricity, including
lower greenhouse gas emissions,
and it helps increase clean energy
supply. If you are interested, the-
Tell family and friends that energy
efficiency is good for their homes
and good for the environment
because it lowers greenhouse gas
emissions and air pollution.
Tell 5 people and together we can
help our homes help us all.
....and start doing these things today.
References:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming
http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/wycd/
home.html
3. Read the following sentences, then find out the mistakes already written in
bold & correct them. (Lee las siguientes oraciones, después encuentra los errores ya escritos en negritas y corrige la oración.)
a) If we doesn’t recycle our newspapers, beverage containers, paper and other
goods; we aren’t help our home, THE PLANET.
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
46
b) Jonas will conserved energy and reduce pollution If he use green power.
__________________________________________________________________
c) If Cecile buy an Hybrid car, She will helps the enviroment.
__________________________________________________________________
d) If there is ENERGY STAR labeled products in my supermarket; I’ll buyed that
kind of products.
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
e) If we as human beings won’t protect the planet; we’ll are destroying our
home
__________________________________________________________________
f) If we tells our families that energy efficiency is good for the planet, we’ll
being more responsible people.
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
g) I’ll am a planet friend If I installing solar panels.
___________________________________________________________________
4. Read the following text. The words that you don’t understand, look for them
in a dictionary. (Lee el siguiente texto. Las palabras que no entiendas búscalas en el diccionario.)
Do you care about obesity?...
Obesity is a condition in which the natural energy reserve, stored in the
fatty tissue of humans and other mammals, is increased to a point where it is associated with certain health conditions or increased mortality.
Obesity is both an individual clinical condition and is increasingly
viewed as a serious public health problem. Excessive body weight has
been shown to predispose to various diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2, sleep apnea, and osteoarthritis.
Body fat measurement
An alternative way to determine obesity is to assess percent body fat. Doctors and scientists generally agree that men with more than 25% body fat and women with more than
30% body fat are obese.
Risk factors and comorbidities
The presence of risk factors and diseases associated with obesity are
also used to establish a clinical diagnosis. Coronary heart disease, type
2 diabetes, and sleep apnea are possible life-threatening risk factors
that would indicate clinical treatment of obesity. Smoking, hypertension, age and family history are other risk factors that may indicate
treatment. Diabetes and heart disease are risk factors used in epidemiological studies of obesity.
REFERENCES http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obesity#Body_fat_measurement
How is it treated?
• Enhancing the food label to display calorie count more prominently and to use me
aningful serving sizes
• Initiating a consumer education campaign focusing on the “Calories Count” message
• Encouraging restaurants to provide nutritional information to consumers
• Stepping up enforcement actions concerning accuracy of food labels
• Revising FDA guidance for developing drugs to treat obesity
• Working cooperatively with other government agencies, non-profits, industry, and aca
demia on obesity research.
Lifestyle modifications such as increasing physical activity and decreasing calorie intake
are recommended instead of “dieting.” Crash diets should definitely be avoided. The best
approach to changing your diet is to talk to your doctor to find out what is best for you.
REFERENCES http://www.drugdigest.org/DD/HC/Treatment/0,4047,550266,00.html
47
5. Write in the parenthesis a “T” if the answer is true or “F” if the answer is
false. (Escribe en el paréntesis una “T” si la respuesta es verdadera o una “F” si es falsa.)
a) If we care about obesity we will have more chances to protect
our health................................................................................................ ( )
b) If you eat more fruits you won’t risk your heart…..……...……………….. ( )
c) If I practice a sport, I’ll have less body fat…………………………………… ( )
d) If I eat vegetables, I won’t help my body …………………………………… ( )
e) If I use a crash diet, I’ll hurt myself …………………………...….……………( )
f) If I talk with my doctor, he’ll know what is best for me ….………………..( )
6. Answer the following questions. (Contesta las siguientes preguntas.)
• When will you start doing some physical activity?
………………………………………………………………………………………………
• Where will you go to practice it?
………………………………………………………………………………………………..
• Do you have fruits in your meals?
………………………………………………………………………………………………..
• Do you think that your eating habits are good?
………………………………………………………………………………………………..
• Do you know the percentage of your body fat?
………………………………………………………………………………………………...
If you don’t do it, I propose you to consider it!
48
¡If you want to be a healthier person, improve your eating habits & practice
sports!
¿Qué he aprendido?
Ya terminaste de construir tu aprendizaje, ahora te sugerimos que contestes esta sección sin ayuda
de tu asesor, sólo apóyate de tus conocimientos, así te darás cuenta qué tanto fue lo que aprendiste.
Read the following song:
Album: New Jersey
I’ll Be There For You
J. Bon Jovi, R. Sambora
I guess this time you’re really leaving
I heard your suitcase say goodbye
And as my broken heart lies bleeding
You say true love is suicide
You say you’ve cried a thousand rivers
And now you’re swimming for the shore
You left me drowning in my tears
And you won’t save me anymore
Now I’m praying to God you’ll give me one
more chance, girl
I’ll be there for you
These five words I swear to you
When you breathe I want to be the air for you
I’ll be there for you
I’d live and I’d die for you
Steal the sun from the sky for you
Words can’t say what love can do
I’ll be there for you
I know you know we’ve had some good times
Now they have their own hiding place
I can promise you tomorrow
But I can’t buy back yesterday
And Baby you know my hands are dirty
But I wanted to be your valentine
I’ll be the water when you get thirsty, baby
When you get drunk, I’ll be the wine
I’ll be there for you
These five words I swear to you
When you breathe I want to be the air for you
I’ll be there for you
I’d live and I’d die for you
Steal the sun from the sky for you
Words can’t say what love can do
I’ll be there for you
Solo
And I wasn’t there when you were happy
I wasn’t there when you were down
I didn’t mean to miss your birthday, baby
I wish I’d seen you blow those candles out
I’ll be there for you
These five words I swear to you
When you breathe I want to be the air for you
I’ll be there for you
I’d live and I’d die for you
Steal the sun from the sky for you
Words can’t say what a love can do
I’ll be there for you
49
I. What is the meaning of the following metaphors?
• You say you’ve cried a thousand rivers.
_________________________________________________________
• I heard your suitcase say goodbye.
_______________________________________________________
• When you breathe I want to be the air for you.
_________________________________________________________
• Now they have their own hiding place.
_________________________________________________________
• I’ll be the water when you get thirsty.
_________________________________________________________
II. Answer the following questions.
Is he in love?
_________________________________________________________
Does he miss his ex girlfriend?
_________________________________________________________
50
III. Match correctly both columns.
(
) 1.-When I’m older I …………….out late.
a) will buy
(
) 2.-When I’m older I……………..two children.
b) will go
(
) 3.-When I’m older I………………a car.
c) will take
(
) 4.-When I’m older I………………my girlfriend to the
cinema.
d) will watch
(
) 5.-When I’m older I………………in the University.
e) will have
(
) 6.-When I’m older I………………TV as long as a like.
f) will stay
IV. Choose the option that has the correct verb conjugation.
(
) 1. What will you do next year?
a ) I will finish the school b) I finished school c) I finish the school d) I finishing
(
) 2. Where will you go on your holidays?
a) He will go to Berlin b) I will go to Berlin c) She will go to Berlin d) They ‘ll go to Berlin
(
) 3. Will Steven buy a new house next year?
a) No, he didn’t b) No, he won’t c) No he will d) No he isn’t
(
) 4. Will you go to the party?
a) Yes, she will b) Yes, we will c) Yes, They will d) Yes they won’t
(
) 5. The students …… …….. the test on time because they are excellent kids.
a) will finish b) will finishing c) won’t finish d) won’t finished
V. Order the following sentences & choose the correct one.
(
) 1. / 1.My wife/ 2.next spring/ 3.going to/ 4.twins/ 5.have/ 6.is /
a) 1.6.3.4.5.2 b) 1.6.3.4.2.5 c) 1.6.3.5.4.2 d) 1.6.3.5.2.4 e)1.2.3.4.5.6
(
) 2. /1.going to/ 2.a car/ 3.My father/ 4.in November/ 5.is/ 6.buy/
a) 3.5.1.6.2.4 b) 3.5.1.6.4.2 c) 3.5.1.2.4.6 d) 3.5.1.4.6.2 e) 3.5.1.4.2.6
(
) 3. /1.is/ 2.drive/ 3.James/ 4.to Saltillo/ 5.this Monday/ 6.going to /
a) 3.1.6.2.5.4 b) 3.1.6.2.4.5 c) 3.1.6.5.4.2 d) 3.1.6.5.2.4 e) 3.1.5.2.6.4
(
) 4. /1.going to/ 2.in that restaurant/ 3.My friends/ 4.are/ 5.next weekend/ 6.eat /
a) 3.4.1.6.2.5 b) 3.4.1.5.6.2 c) 3.4.1.5.2.6 d) 2.4.1.6.2.5 e) 3.4.6.2.5.1
(
) 5. /1.study/ 2.for this exam/ 3.I / 4.tomorrow/ 5.am/ 6.going to/
a) 3.5.6.1.4.2 b )3.5.6.1.2.4 c) 3.5.1.6.4.2 d) 3.5.1.6.2.4 e) 3.2.1.6.5.4
VI. Conjugate correctly the following verbs.
(
) 1. ... your father going to work next month with you? Yes, he is.
a) Is
b) Do
c)Are
d)Am
e) Does
(
) 2. ... your cousins going to visit you next summer? No; ………
a) Are/ they are b) Are/ they aren’t c) Is/ He is d) Is/ He isn’t e) Am/ I am not
51
(
) 3. ... I going to buy a house this year? Yes;……..
a) Am/ I am b) Am/ I am not c) Are/ they are d) Is/ He is e)Is/ He isn’t
( ) 4. ... The students ………. going to get bad grades this semester.
a) am not b) aren’t
c) isn’t d) don’t e) doesn’t
VII. Choose the correct answer.
(
) 1. If you (send) ……. this letter now, she (receive)…………it tomorrow.
a) send/ won’t receive b) sends/ will receive c) send/ will receive d) send/receive
(
) 2. I (improve) ……..my english, If I (do) …..this test.
a) will improve/ do b) won’t improve/ did c) will improve/does d) won’t improve/does
(
) 3. Simon (go) …….to London next week , If he (get) …….a cheap flight.
a) will go/ get b) won’t go/ get c) will go/ gets d) won’t go/ gotten
(
) 4. Susan (not/ move) …..into a new house, If she (not/be)……. ready.
a) won’t move/ is b) won’t move/isn’t c) will move/is d) will move/ isn’t
(
) 5. If it (rain) ……...tomorrow, I (not/ have) to water the plants.
a) rains/ won’t have b) rain/won’t have c) rains/ will have
d) rain/ will have
52
VIII. Fill in the blanks with the verb in simple present or future will.
1. If I (not like) ____________ the car; I will buy another one.
2. If she (need) _________ money, I’ll lend her one hundred bucks.
3. If we (not hurry) _____________, we will arrive late.
4. If I eat a lot, I (not be) __________ healthy.
5. If I (work)_____________
hard today, I’ll rest all the weekend.
6. If you (not like)___________ this ice cream I’ll buy you a coke.
7. You (be)_____________ angry with me if you open that box.
8. If I see him I (give)______________ him a lift.
9. If you come early tomorrow; I (Let)________ you go at 13: 00
10. If she (obtain) _________ the scholarship, she’ll be an engineer soon.
IX. According with the images complete the following sentences:
1. If Edwin finishes the high School he
____________________________________
2. If Raymundo doesn’t finish the high school he
________________________________________
3. If Rosaura & Lolita finish high school they
_________________________________
4. If Miguel finishes high school his uncle
_________________________________
5. If Ingrid and Vianey finish the high school they
_________________________________________________________
53
6. If Rebeca, Idalia, Oziel and Oswaldo finish the high school
they _______________________
7. If Lupita & Carmen don’t finish high school they
_________________________________
Quiero saber más
Cada tema que aprendes en esta materia es práctico, esto significa que lo puedes usar en tu vida diaria; para
probártelo este es un artículo muy reciente tomado de un periódico alemán, léelo y date cuenta que estas
desarrollando tus destrezas y habilidades para entender el inglés.
VFB STUTTGART, CHAMPIONS OF THE
BUNDESLIGA
After fifteen years the VFB Stuttgart obtained another
league title.
A picture speaks a thousand words as the saying goes.
Following the final whistle at the Gottlieb-Daimler-Stadium, the pictures spoke volumes all of their own.
The picture gallery of the German Championship winners both on and off the pitch captures
the emotions of a whole city and a deserving ‘Meister’.
VfB coach Armin Veh: “I’m ecstatic!! We wanted to show our passion throughout the year,
and we’ve undoubtedly done that. We have concentrated hard during the season and have
had a lot of fun. Tonight my players can really celebrate. At the end of the season you apparently regenerate more quickly.”
VfB defender Ricardo Osorio: “It’s amazing for me to win the title in my very first year here in
Stuttgart. It’s the first title I’ve ever won. I dedicate this title to God, my family, my wife who
has always supported me, my parents and all the fans in Mexico.”
54
Worldwide interest
The final game of the Bundesliga season with VfB’s championship winning game was televised in over 100 countries worldwide. The world’s press were all sitting up to take notice of the
race to the championship title in Germany. As the German football federation announced,
the game between vfB and Energie Cottbus at the Gottlieb-Daimler-Stadium was shown a
live in over 100 countries worldwide. The two Mexican internationals, Pavel Pardo and Ricardo Osorio, were the centre of attention in USA and central America.
Answer the following questions:
1. What is the name of the VFB Stuttgart coach?
2. How many countries watched a live the game between Energie Cottbus -& VFB Stuttgart?
3. These players were the centre of attention in the USA and Central America
4. How many title has VFB Stuttgart won in the German Bundesliga?
5. How many titles has Ricardo Osorio won in his carrier?
¡Felicidades!, esperamos que esta unidad haya sido muy provechosa para ti, y sobre todo que
te sea significativa en tu vida.
Recuerda que para poder reforzar tu aprendizaje es muy importante la práctica cotidiana de
los temas que en la escuela trabajas; por ello te sugerimos que tu búsqueda por el dominio del
inglés no cese, sino que continúes cada día aprendiendo nuevas cosas y sobre todo que las
practiques, pues ese es el único camino para poder hablar el inglés.
Para que complementes tu aprendizaje del los temas ya vistos y aprendas nuevos, a continuación te enunciamos sugerencias bibliográficas, así como sitios web que estamos seguros te van
gustar.
Bibliografía:
•
•
•
•
•
Brewster, S. y otros. Skyline 2 and 3. Oxford, MacMillan, 2001.
Dos Santos, Manuel. Super Goal 2 y 3. Mexico, McGraw-Hill, 2001.
Evans, V. and Neil O Sullivan. Click on 2 and 3. Newsbury, Express Publishing, 2001.
Jenkins, R. And Staci Lyn Sabbagh. Stand Out 2 and 3. Boston, Thompson Heinle, 2002.
Richards, Jack. Interchange 2. 3a ed., Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Sitios web:
• http://www.learn-english-today.com/free-english-lessons/free_english_lessons_list.html
• http://www.nonstopenglish.com
• http://www.wordreference.com/es/
• http://www.englishjet.com/english_courses_files/tests.htm
• http://www.agendaweb.org/
• http://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/noununcount.htm
• http://www.ego4u.com/
Recuerda que también puedes hacer uso de la red Edusat, en ella encontrarás videos relacionados con el tema, simplemente navega en la página y descubre que es muy buena.
• http://edusat.ilce.edu.mx/canal_12.htm
Asimismo, si te interesa saber sobre el calentamiento global en inglés:
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming
• www.epa.gov/climatechange
• www.globalwarming.org
• http://www.stopglobalwarming.org/
• http://globalwarming.net/
55
También te recomendamos los siguientes recursos:
• Revistas en inglés: Newsweek, Times, National Geographic, Reader’s Digest, People, etc. de
las que se obtendrá tanto material visual como artículos para su análisis y trabajo en el aula.
• Videos didácticos: Series reconocidas tales como New Interchange (CUP), Look Ahead
(Long man), Skyline (Macmillan), Only in America, Central News, The Jerico Conspiracy
(OUP), que te permitan revisar de manera visual y auditiva los contenidos desarrolllados en
el aula.
• Videos auténticos: Programas grabados de canales de televisión norteamericanos y británi
cos como National Geographic, BBC, etc. que les permita un acercamiento a material autén
tico.
• Audiocassetes didácticos y auténticos: Con la misma finalidad de los apartados anteriores.
Ha sido un honor poder servirte; ¡el mejor de los éxitos para ti!
¡HASTA SIEMPRE!
56
¿
¿
¿Qué voy a aprender?
¿
HAVE YOU EVER BEEN IN AN
EMBARRASSING SITUATION?
Objetivo de la unidad:
En esta unidad podrás expresar las acciones que iniciaron en el pasado y continúan en el presente, así
como acciones que sucedieron en el pasado en un
momento indefinido. Practicarás tu inglés en estos
temas al ejercitar las cuatro habilidades comunicativas con el presente perfecto, contrastando su uso
con el pasado simple y mostrando siempre actitudes
de interés, cooperación y respeto.
3
UNIDAD
La mayoría de las veces cuando mencionamos nuestras experiencias, las compartimos utilizando el tiempo pasado simple porque sencillamente las realizamos en un
momento de nuestra vida en el pasado. Lo que vivimos o estamos viviendo esta en
el ahora; formuladas en presente simple o presente continuo como lo estudiaste en
primero y segundo semestres.
Sin embargo, no todas las acciones que hicimos se tienen que mencionar en pasado
simple. Existe un tiempo llamado presente perfecto, el cual nos permite expresar todas las experiencias que hemos vivido en algún período de nuestra vida sin necesidad
de detallar el tiempo justo, o las que iniciaron en el pasado y aún no han terminado.
Por lo que se menciona, esta unidad te proporcionará todas las
herramientas y conocimientos para manejar con éxito el presente
perfecto en todas sus variantes. Es un tiempo verbal compartido; se
ubica en medio del pasado simple y el presente simple; un inicio
sin fin o un inicio sin tomar en consideración el tiempo.
Éste es un tema emocionante que te atrapará y no podrás dejar de
practicar, ya que compartir nuestras experiencias nos hace prevalecer y vivenciar cada momento, trasladándonos a diferentes culturas
y costumbres.
La unidad está dividida únicamente en dos temas que son muy enriquecedores.
En el primer tema de esta unidad lograrás describir acciones que iniciaron en el pasado
y que aún no terminan, utilizando los auxiliares have o has y los verbos en pasado participio, así como las diferencias en el manejo de este tiempo verbal
entre Estados Unidos y México.
57
Example
I have worked at this school for many years.
She has eaten frogs’ legs.
They have rafted in “Los Pescados” river.
En el último tema tendrás la oportunidad de expresar acciones que sucedieron en el
pasado en un momento indefinido, haciendo uso del presente perfecto en sus tres
modos: afirmativo, negativo e interrogativo.
Example.
I have been in Acapulco twice.
She hasn’t dived.
Have they done their homework yet?
58
D
O
O
G
L
!!
!
K
UC
Fuentes de consulta
Básica:
• Brewster, S. y otros. Skyline 2 and 3. Oxford, MacMillan, 2001.
• Dos Santos, Manuel. Super Goal 2 y 3. México, McGraw-Hill, 2001.
• Evans, V. y Neil O Sullivan. Click On 2 and 3. Newsbury, Express Publishing,
2001.
• Evans y Co. Enterprise 2. Newbury, Express Publishing, 2001.
• Jenkins, R. y Staci Lyin Sabbagh. Stand Out 2 y 3. Boston, Thompson Heinle,
2002.
• Murphy Raymond. Essential Grammar in Use. 2a ed., Cambridge University
Press, 1997.
• Richards, Jack. Intechange 2. 3 a ed., Cambridgde Unicversity Press, 2005.
• Velasco Aponte y Co. Imagine in Search of Nature 3. México, 1994.
Web pages:
• http://www.lingolex.com/espan.htm
• http://www.learnenglish.org.uk/
• http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/spanish/learn_english/default.stm
• http://www.learnenglish.de/
• http://www.saberingles.com.ar/movies/index.html
• http://www.englishclub.com/
• http://www.britishcouncil.org/kids.htm
• http://www.rong-chang.com/kids.htm
• http://www.english-at-home.com/
• http://www.englishclub.com/learn-english.htm
59
¿Cómo aprendo?
HAVE YOU EVER BEEN IN AN EMBARRASSING SITUATION?
3.1. Acciones que iniciaron en el pasado
y que no han terminado
• Pasado participio
(regulares e irregulares)
• Presente perfecto
• Presente perfecto
3.2. Acciones que sucedieron en el
pasado en un tiempo indefinido
60
• Expresiones de tiempo y preposiciones que acompañan al presente perfecto (just, already, yet, since, for, once,
twice,how long …)
3.1. ACCIONES QUE INICIARON EN EL PASADO
Y QUE NO HAN TERMINADO
Objetivo temático: Obtendrás la información que te permitirá describir acciones que iniciaron en el pasado y que
aún no terminan, utilizando verbos en pasado participio y el
auxiliar have o has.
Activities
1. Read very carefully the dialogue and then comment with your teacher why
some expressions are underlined. (Lee cuidadosamente el diálogo y después comenta con tu
maestro porqué algunas expresiones están subrayadas.)
Hello Blossom.
How have you been?
Well, it is because my
school grades. They have
been very low so far.
Fine,thank you.
And you?
More or less, I’ve had
some problems with my
parents lately.
Have you studied?
Oh! I see; and what
have you thought
about it?
What is the problem?
Yes, I have, but I have spent
more time on watching TV
than on my homework.
I’ve decided to
do my best in
order to improve my grades.
Congratulations!!!
61
En este momento sabes cuál es el tema de la unidad: el presente perfecto. Has
discutido con tu maestro un poco sobre él gracias a la actividad previa. En esta
sección vas a adquirir toda la estructura necesaria para manejar este tiempo
verbal.
PRESENTE PERFECTO
Utilizamos el presente perfecto para hablar de algo que pasó y la acción
todavía continua, esto es, no ha terminado del todo.
Compare the following statements:
Jeff is at hospital.
He has been there since Tuesday.
They know each other very well.
They have known each other for a long time.
Is he waiting for somebody?
But How long has he waited?
Sigue con las actividades y descubre má s acerca del presente perfecto.
2. Label the pictures with their names by writing in the parentheses the right
letter. (Relaciona las imágenes con sus nombres, escribiendo en el paréntesis la letra correcta.)
62
j)
a)
b)
c)
• See the Perfume movie……….(
• Raft……………….....................(
• Travel……………….................(
• Visit Mexico city………….……(
• Study all night……………….....(
• Eat Maguey worms……….……(
• Skate………………...................(
• Dive………………....................(
• Ride a horse………………........(
• Paint………………....................(
e)
d)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
f)
g)
i)
h)
Have you ever done one of the actions in activity 2?
3. Ask to your classmates about the actions in activity 2. Use the expression
Have you ever …? (Pregúntale a tus compañeros sobre cada una de las acciones de la actividad 2.
Utiliza la expresión: Have you ever …?)
A:Have you ever eaten maguey worms?
B: Yes, I have
A:When did you eat them?
B: I ate them last week.
Now it’s your turn. (Ahora es tu turno.)
Como podrás haberte dado cuenta necesitas conocer cómo se forma el presente perfecto con la finalidad de compartir tus propias experiencias. Este tiempo
verbal es necesario para entablar una conversación en inglés.
Primero debes saber que el presente perfecto se conjuga con los auxiliares have
o has y el verbo principal cambia a pasado participio. A continuación tendrás
una breve explicación y algunos ejemplos de este tema.
CÓMO SE FORMA EL PASADO PARTICIPIO
En el caso de los verbos regulares, tenemos que agregar -ed, -d o -ied a la base
del verbo. Observa que es igual a las reglas de los verbos regulares en pasado
simple que ya estudiaste en el segundo semestre. Puedes ver lo anterior en el
siguiente cuadro:
Base form
Visit
Try
Pack
Close
Finish
Stop *
Relate
Play
Water
Live
Help
Smoke
Clean
-d, -ed or -ied
ed
ied
ed
d
ed
ped
d
ed
ed
d
ed
d
ed
Past participle
visited
tried
packed
closed
finished
talked
related
played
watered
lived
helped
smoked
cleaned
63
Sin embargo, es necesario memorizar los verbos irregulares, ya que no hay una
regla para cambiarlos a pasado participio. Los más comunes son:
Base Form
Past participle
Base Form Past participle
Base Form
Past participle
Be
Become
Break
Bring
Build
Buy
Cut
Do
Drink
Been
Became
Broken
Brought
Built
Bought
Cut
Done
drank
Drive
Eat
Fall
Feel
Give
Go
Have
Lose
Meet
Read
Say
See
Send
Sing
Swim
Think
Win
Write
Read
Said
Saw
Sent
Sung
Swum
Thought
Won
Written
Drove
Eaten
Fell
Felt
Given
Gone
Had
Lost
Met
4. Complete the crossword by writing the past participle of the following indicated verbs. (Complete el crucigrama al escribir el pasado participio de los siguientes verbos señalados.)
9
5
4
6
2
1
8
2
1
7
3
3
4
10
11
5
12
6
64
7
8
14
9
ACROSS
1. Become
2. Tell
3. Understand
4. Play
5. Have
6. Live
7. Need
8. Stop
9. Be
DOWN
1. Bring
8. Go
2. Explain
9. Sell
3. Eat
10. Write
4. Take
11. Drive
5. Do
12. Send
6. Sleep
13. Meet
7. Sit
14. See
A continuación, tenemos varios cuadros para identificar y aprender la conjugación correcta del Presente Perfecto en sus tres formas (afirmativo, pregunta y
negación) así como también con verbos regulares e irregulares.)
AFFIRMATIVE
Long form
I have lived
You have lived
He has lived
She has lived
It has lived
We have lived
You have lived
They have lived
INTERROGATIVE
Short form
I’ve lived
You’ve lived
He’s lived
She’s lived
It’s lived
We’ve lived
You’ve lived
They’ve lived
Have I lived?
Have you lived?
Has he lived?
Has she lived?
Has it lived?
Have we lived?
Have you lived?
Have they lived?
NEGATIVE
Long form
Short form
I have not lived
You have not lived
He has not lived
She has not lived
It has not lived
We have not lived
You have not lived
They have not lived
I haven’t lived
You haven’t lived
He hasn’t lived
She hasn’t lived
It hasn’t lived
We haven’t lived
You haven’t lived
They haven’t lived
IRREGULAR VERBS
AFFIRMATIVE
Long form
Short form
I have cut
You have cut
He has cut
She has cut
It has cut
We have cut
You have cut
They have cut
I’ve cut
You’ve cut
He’s cut
She’s cut
It’s cut
We’ve cut
You’ve cut
They’ve cut
INTERROGATIVE
Have I cut?
Have you cut?
Has he cut?
Has she cut?
Has it cut?
Have we cut?
Have you cut?
Have they cut?
NEGATIVE
Long form
Short form
I have not cut
You have not cut
He has not cut
She has not cut
It has not cut
We have not cut
You have not cut
They have not cut
I haven’t cut
You haven’t cut
He hasn’t cut
She hasn’t cut
It hasn’t cut
We haven’t cut
You haven’t cut
They haven’t cut
Acabas de estudiar la conjugación del presente perfecto –estructura gramatical– pero también es de gran utilidad entender la función de este tiempo verbal,
es decir, el cuándo y el cómo usarlo.
5. Underline, in the box of the next page and with the color that is in parentheses, the sentences that represent two forms of the conjugation of the sentences
from the table below.(Subraya en la caja de la siguiente página y con el color entre paréntesis, las
oraciones que representen las dos formas de la conjugación de las oraciones de la tabla de abajo.)
He has read that report. (blue)
The cat hasn’t eaten its food. (black)
Have you changed your mind? (green)
We haven’t been to Tepic. (red)
I have called the agency. (pink)
She has written many books. (orange)
65
yo
u
ha
ve
Have I called
H
Called you?
ch
an
ge
d
h
a
yo
ur
s
Has she writ en many books?
cy
agen
mi
nd
a
e
r
’t
n
the
The cat has eaten its food
e
Have I called th
e agency?
d
r
p
nge
d yo
r
ur m
ind
s
cha
o
en’t
t
hav
e
He hasn’t read that report
You
n’t
ve
I ha
d
calle
Have we been to Tepic?
El presente perfecto se utiliza cuando queremos mencionar
las acciones que comenzaron en el pasado y que continúan
hasta nuestro presente (they are still happening).
Puede ser utilizado para:
66
• To describe experiences
• To describe the duration of continuing states and actions
• To describe a past action with a result in the presente
No obstante, el uso del pasado simple se confunde mucho con
el presente perfecto. Estamos acostumbrados a usar con mayor frecuencia
el pasado simple en vez del presente perfecto.
Examina esta situación:
Check the image.
I have worked
I worked
Past
Present
Analyze the sentence below with your classmates and your assessor.
(Analiza la oración de abajo con tus compañeros de clase y tu asesor.)
Charles worked at a private school for 3 years and
he has worked at COBAEV for 8 years.
El pasado simple se enfoca a las actividades que terminamos, es decir, finiquitamos en un determinado tiempo en el pasado, ya no continuamos haciéndolas.
Por otro lado, el presente perfecto se usa para las acciones que comenzaron en
el pasado pero que seguimos haciendo, son acciones incompletas.
Si analizamos la oración mencionada, podemos decir que Carlos trabajó en una
escuela privada por 3 años, pero ya no trabaja ahí, ha estado trabajando por 8
años en el COBAEV y continúa trabajando ahí.
6. Read the sentences and correct them if they are wrong. Be careful they may
be in present perfect or past simple. (Lee las oraciones y corrígelas si están equivocadas. Ten
cuidado pueden estar en presente perfecto o pasado simple.)
a) He has visited my aunt last week.
b) I have spent all my money yesterday night.
67
c) Have you ever been to Cuernavaca?
d) She played soccer since 1992.
e) Did he listen to music in the afternoon?
Did you…? / Have you…?
7. In groups you are going to play the “Question game”. Each group needs a
handout of the game, a die, and four markers. First, put your markers on “Start”.
Then, one of you rolls the die and moves his o her marker the number of the
squares indicated on the die. After, this student uses the words in the square
to make a simple past or present perfect questions. Finally the second student
takes a turn. Ask for your assessor’s help to do this activity. Have fun and learn.
(En grupos vas a jugar “El juego de la pregunta”. Cada grupo necesita una fotocopia del juego, un dado y 4
señaladores. Primero pon tu señal en “Start”. Después, uno de ustedes tira el dado y mueve su señalador según
el número de los cuadros indicados en el dado. Luego, dicho estudiante usa las palabras en el cuadro para
realizar preguntas en pasado simple o presente perfecto. Finalmente, el segundo estudiante toma el turno.
Pide la ayuda de tu asesor para hacer la actividad. Diviértete y aprende.)
cook last
weekend
ever see a
ghost
34
35
sleep late work after ever cut
your own
school
last Sunday
hair
26
33
36
27
15
win a
call
speak to
go
get up
use a
someone at competence
an
shopping
early
computer
3:00 am.
audience yesterday
lately
Sunday
28
25
33
6
37
14
16
play any
write any
ever run
sports this
e-mails
in a race
month
yesterday
5
7
13
17
1
make your
ever appear
ever ride a
eat out
bed yesteron tv
motorcycle
START lately
see a
movie
day morning
68
24
12
ever enjoy
a play
4
2
ever be late
for a test
8
18
take a
vacation
last year
19
11
9
23
3
ever fall
do the
eat lunch
ever meet spend all the watch TV
asleep in dishes yesyet
a celebrity afternoon in last night
class terday night
a library
10
43
32
29
38
22
20
ever try
go to party ever imita- visit a foreign
Indian food
last Satur- te an artist country last
day
year
42
31
21
30
39
go to bed
do much
early last
exercise
night
this week
41
40
Basado en el libro de Interchange 1. Jack C. Richards y Co. 2005.
Otra de las confusiones que podría ocasionar este tiempo verbal
radica en el manejo correcto de BEEN y GONE. El primer verbo indica
el hecho de haber estado en un lugar, mientras que el segundo
va de camino a su destino o todavía esta ahí.
8. To practice about it, we are going to do the following activity. Write on the
line been or gone according to the sentences. (Para practicar esto, vamos a realizar la siguiente actividad. Escribe en la línea been o gone de acuerdo con las oraciones.)
a. Where is David? He is on vacations. He has ________________ to France.
b. Good morning, Sr. I’ve just ______________ to the restaurant. I brought you
some fruit and juice.
c. I can’t find Ted. Where has he ____________?
d. Carol isn’t here. She has _______________ to downtown.
e. Is he going to the theatre? No, I’ve already ____________ to the first play.
9. To sum this stage of the topic 3.1. you need to order the sentences below.
(Con el fin de cerrar la etapa del tema 3.1. necesitas ordenar las oraciones de abajo.)
a. at / I the / been / University / have
b. cleaned / your / room / have…/ you…?
c. PEMEX / but / hasn’t / ok/ the / in / he / opportunity / had
/ work / Jeff / to / is
d. homework / finished / Margaret / has / her
e. lived / for / Canada / years / Tom / hasn’t / in / ten
10. Complete the dialogues using the verbs in parentheses in present perfect.
(Completa los diálogos usando los verbos entre paréntesis en presente perfect.)
_____ ever ________ in
Quintano Roo? (be)
Yes, ______________
______________ there twice.(be)
69
What ____________
_________________ there? (do)
I ____________ Can Cun
and Tulum. (visit)
Have you ever _________
a book, Memin? (read)
Yes, Sure, _________________
a lot of books. (read)
70
Yes, I have. It’s very good.
___________________________
this Program? (see)
3.2. ACCIONES QUE SUCEDIERON EN EL
PASADO EN UN TIEMPO INDEFINIDO
Objetivo temático: Podrás expresar acciones que sucedieron en el pasado en un momento indefinido, haciendo uso del presente perfecto en su forma afirmativa, negativa e interrogativa.
En este tema estudiarás el presente perfecto para expresar las acciones que
sucedieron en el pasado en un momento indefinido, en sus tres formas: afirmativo, negativo e interrogativo. Además, este tiempo verbal utiliza expresiones
de tiempo, así como algunas preposiciones para describirse mejor (just, ever,
never, since, for, already, yet, how long).
Ya viste cómo se conjugan las tres formas –afirmativo, negativo e interrogativo–
del presente perfecto en el tema anterior. Aquí vamos a practicar estas formas
con la explicación y un ejercicio de cada adverbio de tiempo y preposición, que
nos ayudarán a desmenuzar el tema detalladamente para poder manejar bien el
presente perfecto en inglés.
Ever / Never
Comenzaremos con este par de adverbios de tiempo.
EVER significa “alguna vez” y NEVER, “nunca”.
We use ever in questions and statements.
Example: Have you ever visited Oaxaca?
Oaxaca is the best place I’ve ever visited.
We use never in statements.
Example: I’ve never visited Ciudad Mante.
This is, I haven’t visited Ciudad Mante.
Henri Matisse’s “Sleeping Woman”
71
Activities:
1. This activity will help you to understand it much better. Look at the cities from
México. Then, make sentences as in the examples. Use your own information.
(Esta actividad te ayudará a entenderlo mucho mejor. Observa las ciudades de México. Después realiza oraciones como en los ejemplos. Usa tu propia información.)
Puebla
Tijuana
Mérida
MONTERREY
Celaya
cities from méxico
Tapachula
Xalapa
Saltillo
Pachuca
• I have been in Puebla. It’s the best country I’ve ever visited.
• I have never gone to Tijuana.
• ________________________________________________________
• ________________________________________________________
• ________________________________________________________
• ________________________________________________________
• ________________________________________________________
• ________________________________________________________
• ________________________________________________________
• ________________________________________________________
72
Since / For
Para manifestar de alguna manera el tiempo, se emplea
la expresión en pregunta How long…? (hace cuánto
tiempo) y las preposiciones SINCE (desde)
y FOR (por) para responder a ello.
We use FOR to express duration..
Example:
How long have you been here?
I have been here for twenty years.
We use SINCE to state a starting point of the action.
Example:
How long have you been here?
I have been here since 1987.
“Belvedere” by M.C. Escher.
2. Fill in since or for according to the information given.
(Completa con since o for de acuerdo con la información dada.)
a. I have studied here ______________ eight years.
b. You haven’t admitted the agreement ______________ Wednesday.
c. Has he hung that coat ______________ three dayas? Oh, my God!
d. She has begun her classes ______________ 1992.
e. It hasn’t cried ______________ yesterday.
f. Have we seen each other ______________ last month? I don’t think so.
g. They have dried the seeds ______________six weeks.
h. You haven’t done the activities ______________a weekend.
i. I have identified people______________ December.
j. You have sung that song ______________ last night.
Already / Yet
ALREADY y YET se emplean con la misma finalidad de
ever y never. En este caso indica haber terminado una
actividad porque ALREADY se traduce como “ya”,
y la palabra YET puede ser “ya”, “aún” o “todavía”;
según su uso como lo veremos a continuación:
We use ALREADY in positive statements.
We use YET in questions and negative.
Example: A: Have you had breakfast yet?
B: No, I haven’t. I haven’t had it yet or
Yes, I have already had it.
73
* Watch the position of these two key words
“La Catrina” by José Guadalupe posadas.
3. To practice the topic about yet and already, look at the images and write the
correct conversation as in the example. (Para practicar yet y already, observa las imágenes y
escribe la conversación correcta como en el ejemplo.)
(they-finish-course)
A: Have they finished the course yet?
B: Yes, they have already finished their course.
(she-make-bed)
A: Has she made the bed yet?
B: No, she hasn’t made the bed yet
Now it’s your turn!
(he-give-an apple-to the teacher)
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
(she-play-soccer)
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
74
(he-sleep)
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
(he-eat-sausage)
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
Just
JUST es muy particular, ya que su traducción en
español al usarlo con presente perfecto, no se compara con su significado. Con este tiempo verbal se
entiende como “acabar de”, acabo de hacer esto.
We use JUST in statements to show that an action
finishes only a few minutes earlier.
Example:
A: Have you finished your homework?
B: Yes, I’ve just finished it
“Melancholy” by Albrecht Dürer
4. Continuing with the theme, in pairs ask and answer using the words yet and
just, as in the example. (Continuando con el tema, en parejas pregunta y responde usando las palabras, yet y just como en el ejemplo.)
a. call your aunt
b. meet Edward
c. go on a boat trip
d. book a table
d. clean the room
e. do the ironing
a. Have you called your aunt yet?
Yes, I’ve just called her.
b. _________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
c. _________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
d. _________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
e. _________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
f. __________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
Hemos practicado las palabras clave del presente perfecto y esto nos da un
panorama más claro sobre el tema. Vas a hacer dos actividades más acerca de
lo que has aprendido.
¡Haz tu mejor esfuerzo!
75
5. We hope you have noticed the master pieces of art in each chart with the adverbs and expressions of time in present perfect. Look at them again and answer
the questions by writing them or orally. Share the answers with your classmates
and teacher. (Esperamos que hayas notado las piezas maestras de arte en cada uno de los cuadros en
donde estaban los adverbios y expresiones de tiempo del presente perfecto. Obsérvalas otra vez y responde
las preguntas escribiéndolas u oralmente. Comparte las respuestas con tus compañeros y maestro.)
a. Have you seen them before? If your answer is yes, when did you see them?
b. Have you read the biographies of these great artists?
c. Have you had the opportunity to study them at school?
d. What have you done to enlarge your knowledge?
6. Find the sentences in the word find puzzle. Good luck!
(Encuentra las oraciones en la sopa de letras. ¡Buena suerte!)
SENTENCES
a. I have packed my suitcase
b. He has been a teacher
c. She has never built
76
l ! huk b t r e h c a e t
h l bhx r ? g y l v gha
t a pa s a s wd a ! e r s
s k v vd h a v emo b a t
dw j e h a h I t h a s b I
yby t y s ! h a v l ya l
h t chv oy h t c h voy
aeke s l u e h a s ? ae
?d s yc l y s a r u hae
uahso e s j e do t ! r
g? f t dha g v e e yue
h e wu t v a y g u n f l v
a t ddo ? l x e c l h aw
y r u l r ha v e amo l t
h ? k e e u a h ! t e v km
wv r d l v e v w k t h u k
e b s ? g mo f l c s a r v
I h a v e p a c k e dmy s
a. Have they studied?
b. Have you seen him?
c. It has bitten the pie
a
r
g
h
t
u
f
h
s
y
e
a
!
v
e
?
e
u
n
v
t
u
t
u
e
a
c
m
h
c
x
s
e
y
a
I
e e
s v
s a
h k
e n
ho
a h
s ?
n r
e h
v v
e y
r e
b j
u a
Iw
l v
t c
b
a
r
d
t
l
b
a
s
a
o
e
g
a
v
h
e
a
s a
g t
ye
y l
he
e s
h f
hs
f l
ev
ah
t ?
r v
l a
eh
a l
r t
s e
h e h
uh a
? aw
s y s
p I e
l u y
d s a
l s j
v d !
e a r
n a h
a a n
h e g
h j t
! a e
y u y
e c s
swh
7. Match the beginnings and ends with a line to complete the descriptions.
(Une los principios y los finales con una línea para completar las descripciones.)
A. A mother is
B. An earthquake is
C. A failure is
D. A teacher is
E. A lizard is
F. An student is
somebody who has had the objective of helping students.
somebody who has studied to complete the studies
someone who has taken care all the time her children
an animal that has lived in desert
a very strong movement of land that has destroyed cities
someone who has not succeeded in life.
8. Underline the correct word. (Subraya la palabra correcta.)
a. Yes, we have never / already visited London.
b. They have studied since / for forty years.
c. Have you lent the pencil she asked for yet? / already?
d. Have you seen Jeniffer?
Yes, I have ever / just met her.
e. You haven’t done your homework yet / already.
f. He has lived in Ottawa for / since 1998.
g. Have you ever / since ridden a horse?
Ahora puedes entender mejor el presente perfecto. En la siguiente sección realizarás mas actividades para tener éxito con este tema.
Para apoyar tus conocimientos analiza el mapa que a continuación se muestra;
observa, a modo de resumen, el tema aquí desarrollado para que tu aprendizaje
sea integral.
En la siguiente sección realizarás más actividades para practicar el presente
perfecto.
77
!
!
RULES
!
!
!
!
Connects actions that
started in the past to the
present
Action has just finished
(still closely connected
to now)
!
already
so far
for
yet
?
Question
Negative
I have already read
that report.
since (+point of time)
just
how long
FORMS
Action hapened before
now at an unspecified
time in the past
this week
KEY WORDS
78
I have written
many reports.
I have worked
here for 3 years.
ever
Statement
Action repeated it self
before now- exactly
when is not important
I have just finished
this report.
Action is
not over
PRESENT
PERFECT
Have you ever worked
for a bank?
Yes, I have worked
for a bank before.
Open
questions
I have worked.
You have worked.
We have worked.
Subject + Present of
They have worked.
have + 3rd form of verb
He have worked.
It have worked.
She have worked.
?
Have I worked?
Has he worked?
Present of helping
Have they worked?
verb:have+subject
Has it worked?
+3rd form of verb
Have we worked?
Has she worked?
Have you worked?
He has not (hasn´t) worked
We have not (haven´t) worked.
Subject + Present of
She has not (hasn´t) worked.
helping verb:have+not
It has not (hasn´t) worked.
+3rd form of verb
You have not (haven´t) worked.
They have not (haven´t) worked.
I have not (haven´t) worked.
PRESENT PERFECT
http://www.past-simple.com/Present-Perfect.htm
IMAGE
Past Simple
Present Simple
Future Simple
¿Qué he aprendido?
Hemos dividido esta sección en varias actividades que te ayudarán a consolidar el tema de presente perfecto; estamos seguros que saldrás muy bien en cada una de ellas. Mucha suerte, recuerda
que cuentas con el apoyo de tu asesor.
I. Complete the sentences with have or has.
1. Austin ____________ visited several cities in Mexico.
2. Bridgitte ____________ learnt many languages.
3. Dorothy and Edith ____________ protected endangered animals.
4. Christopher ____________ cleaned the river from trash.
5. You ____________ stopped the traffic many times.
II. Read the letter and match with a line the endangered animals with the states of Mexico.
Hello! My name’s Alice García and I’m from Mexico. Two years ago I traveled around the world on a sailing
ship
with a group of students from different countries. It was an ecology trip .
I visited
several countries. First I went to USA, then to Canada, Japan and Thailand. I met many wonderful people,
and I also learnt a lot about ecology. After the trip finished last year, I came back to Mexico. Now I’m more
interested in protecting animals .
I have a lot of to do in this aspect in Mexico .
My schoolmates and I have formed an ecological club and I have traveled
very much.
I have visited places where are endangered. I have learned many ways to protect endangered species.
I have gone to Michoacan three times. There I have helped save monarch butterflies from extinction. I have
gone to Chiapas five times. There I have protected macaws for the same reason. I have gone to Baja California twice. There I have saved some whales from the terrible hunters (whalers). I have gone to Veracruz four
times. There I have also cared turtles. And I have gone to Yucatan once. There I have helped save bats from
extinction.
Well, this has been a very stressful
year but I have tried to help in all what I can to protect these
beautiful animals we have in our country.
(Text based on Imagine in Search of Nature 3 textbook by Velasco Aponte y Co. printed in México in 1994.)
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b.
a.
d.
80
c.
e.
III. Fill in the gaps with been or gone.
1. I have ______________ in Guadalajara. I went there last winter.
2. Adolph isn’t in Italy. He has ________________ to England.
3. Have you ever _______________ in Belice?
4. My parents have _______________ to Montreal. They’ll be back next month.
5. I have never _____________ in Nebraska, but I want to go one day.
IV. Choose and underline the correct answer one.
1. We ___________________ the house.
• Have painted
• Have paint
• Has painting
• Has painted
2. Someone ___________________ my wallet.
• Have stole
• Has stolen
• Have stolen
• Has stole
3. They ___________________ in the river all the afternoon.
• Has swum
• Have swam
• Has swam
• Have swum
4.Our friend ___________________ a wonderful car.
• Have boughted
• Have buyed
• Have bought
• Has bought
5. Henry ___________________bycicle since he was a child.
• Have ridden
• Have rode
• Has rode
• Has ridden
6. Mary ___________________ a crocodile.
• Have seen
• Have saw
• Has seen
• Has saw
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V. Finish the chart by writing down the correct form of the present perfect.
Sell
I
You
He
She
It
We
You
They
AFFIRMATIVE
NEGATIVE
I haven’t sold
INTERROGATIVE
INTERRO. NEGA.
Haven’t yyou sold?
Has she sold?
She has sold
W
We haven’t sold
Have you sold?
They have sold
VI. Read the information and write an appropriate sentence.
1. Esther is making a cake. There wasn’t flour. (buy)
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
2. Before, Stanly got 4 in his grade. Now he has 9. (study)
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
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3. Agnes can’t see because the light went off. (not pay)
____________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
4. Gerald didn’t go out with Susan. (break up)
They ______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
5. Joan didn’t walk to work and she didn’t catch the bus either because I didn’t see her. (buy a car)
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
VII. Write correctly the verbs in present perfect.
Hector 1_________________________ (be) my friend for over 10 years. We
_________________________ (know) each other since we worked together.
2
Recently He 3_________________________ (move) to Veracruz and now we
see us just on weekends, because I studied the mastery there.
For the last five years, we 4_________________________ (work) on the same
project. He is more easygoing than me, but in the last few months he 5______
_______________ (seem) more concentrated and active to work He 6________
_________________ (do) the researches and I have more time for me now. He
_________________________ (decide) that we need to finish our work with
7
success. He is my best friend because he does not just think about himself but
he considers me too.
VIII. Underline the right answer to complete the sentences.
1. I have ________________ a new computer. (sought / flown / bought / caught)
2. He has already ________________ to Egypt. (had / stuck / found / flown)
3. Steven has never ________________ the Titanic film. (looked / seen / said / acted)
4. Lucy and Madeline haven’t ________________ yet to the party. (arrived / drawn / put / worked)
5. Have you ________________ his birthday? (named / understood / forgotten / invited)
IX. Read the sentences and questions, and circle the correct answer.
1. Mathilda has bought some shoes. Has she got the shoes now? Yes / Perhaps
2. My uncle came to stay with us. Is uncle with us now? Yes / Probably not
3. I made a cup of coffee. Is the coffee now? Yes / Probably not
4. Rosemary has made a cake. Is there a cake now? Yes / Probably not
5. Gregory has gone to Liverpool. Is he there now? Yes / Don’t know
X. What are people saying? Look at the pictures and complete the sentences with the verbs from
the box. Use the Present Perfect.
ask
lose
receive
stop
forget
quit
1. Walter __________ where he left the keys.
2. Spongebob _______________ his soccer match.
3. Betty Boop _______________ a bouquet of roses.
4. People from the library _______________.
5. The firefighter _____________________the fire.
6. The teacher _____________________the activities of the classroom.
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XI. For or since? Write them down in the gaps.
1. __________ five months
2. __________ March
3. __________ the beginning of the year
4. __________ about two years
5. __________ they were friends
6. __________ a long time
7. __________ 1987
8. __________a year
9. __________I came here
10. __________9 hours a day
11. __________last night
12. __________a week
13. __________three years
14. __________ 7 hours
XII. Write down the correct adverbs from the box according to the drawings.
Ever
1. Has he had a bath
Just
Already
Yet
for
___________?
2. She has ________________finished her homework.
3. They have ________________arrived.
4. Have you ________________killed an elephant?
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5. He hasn’t eaten a hamburger ________________.
6. He hasn’t repaired the television ________________.
7. I have ________________visited Paris.
8. She hasn’t washed the dishes ________________two days.
Quiero saber más
Terminaste la tercera unidad, donde pusiste en práctica tus conocimientos previos para aprender el nuevo tiempo verbal: Presente Perfecto. A lo largo de este bloque has adquirido más herramientas para comunicarte en inglés. Además estamos seguros de
que este estudio no ha sido en balde, al contrario, lo has hecho
con gran interés.
Esta sección te ayudará a reforzar más el tema y obtener bibliografía necesaria para que puedas estudiar por ti mismo.
Antes de llegar al objetivo de esta sección, hay información necesaria que es de mucha utilidad que recordemos:
•El Presente Perfecto se conjuga con los auxiliares have (I, you, we, they) y has (he, she, it)
respectivamente.
I haven’t attended any parties since I came here.
He has written my daughter a letter every other day for the last two weeks.
We have flown on an airplane many times
• El Presente Perfecto es una acción que ocurrió sin establecer el tiempo exacto. No podemos
usar las expresiones de tiempo que lo especifique tales como: yesterday, last month, three days
ago, at that moment, one day, and so on. Se necesitan expresiones como: ever, never, many
times, just, already, yet, how long, since, for, etc.
Have you ever eaten octopus?
They have never had a dog.
I have just taken a tour of the city.
He has already read that book.
It hasn’t eaten yet
Have you asked the question to the teacher yet?
How long have you studied English?
He has already read that book.
It hasn’t eaten yet.
Have you asked the question to the teacher yet?
How long have you studied English?
• Puedes utilizar el presente perfecto para describir tus experiencias
o las que nunca has tenido.
I have known him for ten years.
They have traveled around the World
She has visited the Khan Alkalili Bazar
• No es usado para describir un evento específico.
• Se emplea para hablar sobre cambios que han sucedido en un periodo de tiempo.
Mexicans have become more active in economy.
My students have changed a lot.
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•Para mencionar los logros de la humanidad o alguien en particular.
The man has walked on the moon.
•Para establecer actividades que no se esperaban o que aun se esperan que ocurran.
Tom has still not arrived.
Ted hasn’t had breakfast yet.
•Podemos utilizar el Presente Perfecto para mostrar las actividades que comenzaron en el
pasado y han prevalecido hasta ahora.
She has lived here since November.
•Existen dos formas más del Presente Perfecto que posteriormente abordarás el presente
perfecto continuo, el futuro perfecto y la voz pasiva del perfecto.
Como ya lo mencionamos, a continuación te presentamos bibliografía que puedes consultar posteriormente:
Básica:
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• Brewster, S. y otros. Skyline 2 and 3. Oxford, MacMillan, 2001.
• Dos Santos, Manuel. Super Goal 2 y 3. México, McGraw-Hill, 2001.
• Evans, Virginia, Dooley Jenny. Enterprise 1 Coursebook Elementary.
• Evans, V. y Neil O. Sullivan. Click On 2 and 3. Newsbury, Express Publishing, 2001
• Evans y Co. Enterprise 1. Newbury, Express Publishing, 2001.
• Evans y Co. Enterprise 2. Newbury, Express Publishing, 2001.
• Jenkins, R. y Staci Lyin Sabbagh. Stand Out 2 y 3. Boston, Thompson Heinle, 2002.
• Murphy Raymond. Essential Grammar in Use. 2a ed., Cambridge, University Press,
2000.
• Richards, Jack. Intechange 2. 3a ed., Cambridgde, University Press, 2005.
• Shchrampfer Azar, Betty. Understanding and Using English Grammar. 3a ed., USA, Pren
tice Hall Regents, 1999.
• Velasco Aponte y Co. Imagine in Search of Nature 3. México, 1994.
Web pages:
• http://www.lingolex.com/espan.htm
• http://www.learnenglish.org.uk/
• http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/spanish/learn_english/default.stm
• http://www.learnenglish.de/
• http://www.saberingles.com.ar/movies/index.html
• http://www.englishclub.com/
• http://www.britishcouncil.org/kids.htm
• http://www.rong-chang.com/kids.htm
• http://www.english-at-home.com/
• http://www.englishclub.com/learn-english.htm
¿
¿
¿Qué voy a aprender?
¿
REQUESTS, OBLIGATIONS,
PROHIBITIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
Objetivo de la unidad: En la presente unidad, aprenderás a expresar estructuras gramaticales más complejas:
hacer peticiones, indicar obligaciones, prohibiciones y
dar sugerencias, a través de las cuatro habilidades comunicativas de este idioma, en forma afirmativa, negativa e
interrogativa, empleando correctamente los verbos modales: must, have to, should, may, could y would; todo
ello en un ambiente de respeto y mostrando actitudes de
interés hacia los demás.
4
UNIDAD
Distinguido estudiante, bienvenido a la última unidad de Lengua Adicional al Español
III. Efectivamente llevas dos semestres estudiando el idioma más requerido en la actualidad, y hoy inicias la última unidad de uno más. Tal vez llegaste a considerar que
era una lengua difícil de aprender, sin embargo has logrado atesorar lo básico en cuanto a pronombres, preposiciones, tiempos verbales y vocabulario sencillo, mismos que
ahora te permiten emplear las cuatro habilidades (leer, escribir, hablar y escuchar),
para comunicarte con tus compañeros.
Durante las tres primeras unidades aprendiste a diferenciar tanto personas, animales,
objetos y lugares, utilizando los grados de comparación para considerar la relación
entre dos elementos. Hablando de tiempos verbales, dominaste dos tipos de tiempo
futuro: will y going to; también revisaste el presente perfecto, donde evaluaste lo que
has alcanzado hasta ahora y lo que no has intentando hasta este momento.
Ahora corresponde que aprendas los diferentes auxiliares que indican obligación, prohibición, necesidad, capacidad y deber, sin olvidar la forma de extender cortésmente
una invitación, ya sea formal o informal; y lo mejor de todo: cómo saber decir no a
algunas invitaciones sin ofender a quien las hace.
En un mundo tan globalizado, donde no existen barreras, nos encontramos inmersos y
pareciera que aquel que no se adapte a los cambios y necesidades del idioma, tiende a
perderse de las grandes oportunidades de aprender y leer sobre los constantes avances
en cualquier área del conocimiento, o de interactuar con una sociedad cada vez más
demandante en conocimientos y habilidades. Tú mismo, puedes comprobar lo anterior, sólo recuerda cuántas veces no entendiste las indicaciones del instructivo de tu
nueva computadora o cámara digital, o cuando quisiste tomar fotografías y entrar con
tu mascota en un museo…. y, ¿sabes algo?, no volverá a pasarte, porque precisamente
ese es el contenido de esta unidad.
Para alcanzar el objetivo de la unidad desarrollaremos diversas actividades, como
redacción y complemento de oraciones, aplicando los verbos modales que revisarás, lecturas de artículos y sus respectivas actividades de comprensión, trabajo de
investigación (tanto individual como en pareja), mismas que te permitirán reafirmar
tu dominio y conocimiento en las cuatro habilidades del idioma inglés: leer, hablar,
escuchar y escribir.
87
Sin más presentación, iniciemos este recorrido lleno de nuevos aprendizajes, para
alumnos cuya destreza mental exige ser alimentada por este Cuadernillo y la buena
disposición del asesor.
Los contenidos que revisaremos y que te permitirán emplear correctamente los verbos
modales en cualquier contexto, son los siguientes:
En el primer tema lograrás entender y redactar, de forma afirmativa, negativa e interrogativa, obligaciones y prohibiciones, mismas que te has encontrado en tu vida diaria
en los instructivos de aparatos electrodomésticos y reglamentos de cualquier índole.
Una vez que has desarrollado y adquirido la habilidad para entender las reglas que
debes seguir para estar vigente en tu contexto social, ahora es tu turno para formular
preguntas, dar consejos y sugerencias sobre los acontecimientos sociales, políticos,
económicos, etc. que cada día crecen en todo el mundo.
Considerando el impacto de este tipo de acontecimientos, expresarás e intercambiarás, información sobre eventos que posiblemente resulten como consecuencia de los
acontecimientos arriba mencionados.
Para concluir esta unidad, aprenderás a redactar invitaciones formales e informales y
a emplear vocabulario con el cual expreses aceptación o rechazo.
Para lograr los objetivos de esta unidad, es indispensable realizar todas las actividades
de aprendizaje que encontrarás en el presente Cuadernillo y, en caso de que tengas
dudas, te sugerimos consultes los siguientes textos y sitios web.
Fuentes de consulta
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Básica:
• Jenkins, R. y Staci L. Sabbagh. Stand Out 2 and 3. Boston, Thompson Heinle, 2002.
• Dos Santos, Manuel. Super Goal 2 y 3. México, McGraw-Hill, 2001.
• Evans, V. y Neill O’Sullivan. Click on 2 and 3. Newsbury, Express Publishing, 2001.
• Crews Peterson, Ingrid Anna. Inglés 3. México, Nueva Imagen, 2005.
Sitios Web:
• http://www.curso-ingles.com/gramatica-inglesa/modales.php
• http://www.englishpage.com/modals/modalintro.html
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modal_verb
• http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verbs-modals_can_1.htm
• http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verbs-modals_can_2.htm
• http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verbs-modals-have-to-must-not.htm
• http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verbs-modals-have-to-must-not-1.htm
• http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verbs-modals-have-to-must-not-2.htm
• http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verbs-modals-have-to-must-not-3.htm
¿Cómo aprendo?
Ya conoces el objetivo de unidad que pretendemos alcanzar, para
lograrlo es necesario que continúes reciclando tus conocimientos
de unidades y semestres anteriores; recuerda que el aprendizaje
es acumulativo, sólo tú eres el indicado para medir qué tanto has
aprovechado los Cuadernillos y el apoyo de tu asesor.
REQUESTS, OBLIGATIONS, PROHIBITIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
4.1. INSTRUCCIONES,
PROHIBICIONES Y
OBLIGACIONES
• Verbos modales must, have/has to
• Oraciones afirmativas, interrogativas y negativas
• Vocabulario referente a instructivos, en
productos o reglamentos
4.2. SUGERENCIAS
Y CONSEJOS
• Verbo modal should
• Oraciones afirmativas, interrogativas y negativas
• Vocabulario referente a problemas de salud, sus
posibles soluciones y/o remedios, clima y
accidentes
4.3. POSIBILIDADES Y
ESPECULACIONES
• Verbos modales may y could
• Oraciones afirmativas, interrogativas y negativas
• Vocabulario sobre enfermedades y remedios
4.4. INVITACIONES
• Verbo modal would
• Oraciones afirmativas, interrogativas y negativas
• Vocabulario de actividades de esparcimiento
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4.1. INSTRUCCIONES, PROHIBICIONES Y OBLIGACIONES
Objetivo temático: El estudio de este tema te permitirá expresar en distintos contextos, obligaciones y prohibiciones, empleando los verbos modales
must, have/has to, en forma afirmativa, negativa e interrogativa.
Sin más preámbulos, te invitamos a iniciar las actividades marcadas para que
logres los objetivos planteados y construyas tu aprendizaje a erca de este interesante mundo del idioma inglés.
Activities:
1. Read the text. Use your dictionary if necessary, some of the modals verbs that
you encounter are new or you have seen before. As you read, try to deduce from
the context the meaning of each one. (Lee el texto. Si es necesario usa tu diccionario, algunos
de los verbos modales que encontrarás son nuevos o los has visto antes. Al leer, trata de deducir del contexto
el significado de cada uno.)
DRIVERS CAUGHT RUNNING RED LIGHTS
A red traffic light means stop. Many people in one city often do
not stop at red lights. Police there pulled over 50 drivers one
afternoon for red light violations. They gave these drivers tickets.
These tickets can cost a person up to $338.
Lots of people slow down instead of coming to a complete stop
at red lights. Some people call this a California or Hollywood
stop. Those kinds of stops are against the law. The law states that
you must come to a complete stop at a stop sign or red light.
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Police hope that by giving drivers tickets it will help them remember to stop at red lights.
Cameras were also placed at 11 intersections to photograph red light violators. This will
help catch people who fail to stop at red lights. If they are caught not stopping at a red
light, a picture is taken and a ticket is mailed to their home. So, what happens if your
picture is taken while running a red light? of course, You have to pay the ticket.
(This was adapted from an original story provided by News10 KXTV Sacramento.)
Texto e imagen, recuperados el 09 de abril del 2007 en:
http://www.cdlponline.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=activity1&topicID=5&storyID=212
2. Pair work. Read again the text and determine the modal verb that refers to…
(Trabaja en pareja. Lee el texto otra vez y determina el verbo modal que se refiere a…)
a) Strong obligation (rules):
b) Necessity (necessary):
____________________________
____________________________
3. Write the rule correctly, use the words in the box and then compare with a
partner. (Escribe correctamente la regla, usa las palabras en el recuadro y después compara con otro compañero.)
verb
subject
modal
a)
You
must
be school by 8:00 a.m.
___________________ +____________________ + ___________________
b)
She
has to
get a tourist visa.
___________________ +___________________ + ___________________
4. Discussion:
Which of the two sentences expresses something that is strongly required, often
by law or rules?
Why?
Which of the two sentences expresses something that is necessary and obligatory?
Why?
GRAMMAR: MODAL VERBS EXPLANATION
Modals of Necessity and Prohibition
MODAL
EXAMPLES
USE
EXPLANATIONS
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AFFIRMATIVE
Must
Strong
obligation
Subject + modal + verb
You must have a passport.
You must stop at the red light.
Use must, to expresses strong
obligation. Generally this obligation comes from “inside” (is
necessary) the speaker.
NEGATIVE
Must not
or
Mustn’t
Prohibition
Use must not or mustn’t to show
something is prohibited and absolutely not permitted (often by
You must not bring fresh fruit into the USA.
law).
You mustn’t park on the sidewalk.
Subject + negative modal form + verb
Must is not used in questions about obligation.
Remember!!
Notice how questions with must are formed.
Example: Must we go?
Must she go too?
MODAL
EXAMPLES
USE
EXPLANATIONS
AFFIRMATIVE
Have to
or
Has to
Subject + modal + verb
Necessity
I have to have a passport.
Use have/has to, to expresses
strong obligation. The obligation
comes from “outside” (a law, a
rule at school or work, or someone in authority).
She has to get a tourist visa.
NEGATIVE
Don´t
have to
Permission
but no
necessity
Subject + negative modal form + verb
You don’t have to bring a surfboard.
Use do not / don’t have to,
to show something is permitted,
but not necessary. You can do
this if you want to, but you are
not required to.
She doesn’t have to bring an umbrella.
INTERROGATIVE
Have to?
mustn’t
Doubt about
permission
Notice how questions with have
/ has to are formed.
Do/Does +subject +modal +verb +?
Use do/does with have to.
Do you have to bring a surfboard?
Does she have to bring an umbrella?
Both have to and have got to show that something is necessary and obligatory. However,
many people use have got to when they want to emphasize that something is very important and very necessary.
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Examples:
1. He has to go on a diet.
2. He has got to follow a very strict diet because he has a serious heart condition.
(If he doesn’t follow the diet, he will die).
3. They have to pay their phone bill once a month.
Remember!! 4. They have got to pay their phone bill immediately. (If they don´t, the phone company
will disconnect the phone).
In very informal conversation among friends, some people use have got to to show they
think something is a really good thing to do.
Example:
1. Hey Tom, you have got to (gotta) see this movie. It´s really great. (Tom´s friend is not
saying that Tom is obliged to see the movie, he is just strongly advising Tom to see it).
Use have got to in London, use have/has to in United States.
Have to and has to are usually pronounced “hafta” and “hasta” in fast speech and informal conversation.
Have got to and has got to are usually pronounced “´ve gotta” and
“´s gotta” in fast speech and informal conversation.
Remember!!
Notice how questions with have got to are formed.
Use has/have with have got to. Don´t use do/does.
Examples:
1. Have you got to bring a surfboard?
2. Has she got to bring an umbrella?
Main ideas about grammar modal verbs are taken from Larsen Freeman, Diane. Grammar dimensions Book Two. 2a ed. United States
of America, Heinle & Heinle Publishers, 1997, pp. 154-186. And adapted to suit the text purposes.
5. Pair work. Write five new rules for your English class. Use the modal verb
must. (Trabaja en pareja. Escribe cinco reglas nuevas para tu clase de inglés. Usa el verbo modal must.)
Example: The student must speak only English
STRONG OBLIGATION
a) ___________________________________________________
b) ___________________________________________________
c) ___________________________________________________
d) ___________________________________________________
e) ___________________________________________________
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6. Pair work. Now, choose and change three rules in negative form mustn´t.
(Trabaja en pareja. Ahora, escoge y cambia tres reglas en forma negativa mustn´t.)
Example: The student mustn´t speak Spanish (Look the difference, what part of
the sentence has changed? (Observa la diferencia, qué parte de la oración ha cambiado?.)
PROHIBITION
a) __________________________________________________
b) __________________________________________________
c) __________________________________________________
7. Put the words in order to form sentences with modal verb must. Then compare your answers with a partner. (Coloca las palabras en orden para formar oraciones con el verbo
modal must. Después compara tus respuestas con otro compañero.)
a) on a lead / must / you / dogs / keep /
_____________________________________________________________
b) not / smoke / must / they /
_____________________________________________________________
c) into the pool / push / must / people / you / not /
_____________________________________________________________
d) mustn´t / the pictures / touch / you /
____________________________________________________________
e) your season / must / show / ticket at the entrance / you /
___________________________________________________________
f) in your sits / you / remain / during the flight / must /
___________________________________________________________
8. Try to guess: Who says these things? With the last information, ask to your
classmates and complete the activity, then compare the answers with your teacher. (Trata de adivinar: ¿quién dijo estas cosas? Con la información anterior, pregunta a tus compañeros y
completa la actividad, después compara las respuestas con tu maestro.)
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a) Airhostess says:
___________________________________________________________
b) Gate keeper says:
__________________________________________________________
c) Art gallery attendant says:
_________________________________________________________
d) Librarian says:
_________________________________________________________
e) Park keeper says:
________________________________________________________
f) Swimming pool attendant says:
________________________________________________________
9. Read the following description of a popular board game and underline the
modals verbs of necessity and obligation. (Lee la siguiente descripción de un popular juego de
pizarrón y subraya los verbos modales de necesidad y obligación.)
OBJECT: To become the richest player.
EQUIPMENT: One board, two dice, thirty two houses, and twelve hotels.
RULES:
1. From two to eight people can play.
2. Each player must receive $1500 from the bank.
3. The rest of the money has to remain in the bank.
4. The bank can´t go bankrupt. If there is no more money in
the bank, you can make money with ordinary paper.
5. The banker must keep his personal funds separate from
those of the bank.
6. Players can buy properties, buy they do not have to do so.
7. Other players must pay rent when they arrive on a person´s
property. Property can´t be resold.
8. A person can´t collect rent if he does not ask for it before
the next player begins his turn.
9. If a person buys a house, he can put it on any of his properties. The following house must go on an unoccupied property.
10. Houses and hotels can be sold back to the bank at ½ the
original price.
11. When a player passes “GO”, the bank must pay him $200.
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10. Read the text. (Lee el texto.)
SITUATION:
A special friend of yours in United States is planning a short
vacations in San Luis Potosi. As he is an American citizen, he
will have to deal with immigration and Customs when he enters to Mexico.
He doesn´t have to pack a lot of things because he is planning
to travel with just a backpack. Here are some of the things he is
thinking of taking with him.
Books about USA
A credit card
A tourist visa
A business suit
A map of Mexico
A gun
Traveler’s check
His wild pet
A ski equipment
A passport
A lap top computer
Hiking boots
A surfboard
Classic music, tapes and CDs
A return airline ticket
Photographs of his home
town
California guide books
A hat
9. Pair work. Use the boxes below to help him organize the things he wants to take to Mexico. Put them
in the boxes where you think they belong, after, write
sentences using your ideas, compare with a different
partner. (Trabaja en pareja. Usa los recuadros de abajo para ayudarlo a
organizar las cosas/objetos que quiere traer a México. Coloca estas cosas/
objetos donde tú consideres que pertenecen, después, escribe oraciones
usando tus ideas, compara con diferentes compañeros.)
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It´s necessary and obligatory. You
can´t enter to Mexico without this.
You must take this with you.
It´s prohibited by law. You must
not take this into Mexico.
It´s a good idea to bring this. You
should take this with you.
It´s O.K. to bring this, but it isn´t
really necessary. You don´t have to
take this.
A
C
And what is the meaning of
should?
B
D
4.2. SUGERENCIAS Y CONSEJOS
Objetivo temático: Con el estudio de este tema aprenderás a emplear correctamente el verbo modal should
en forma afirmativa, interrogativa y negativa en diferentes contextos, permitiéndote, intercambiar sugerencias y consejos con cualquier tipo de información.
Activities:
1. Read the text. Use your dictionary if necessary, the modal verb that you encounter is new or you have seen before. As you read, try to deduce from the
context what is the meaning. (Lee el texto. Si es necesario usa tu diccionario, el verbo modal que
encontrarás es nuevo o lo has visto ya antes. Al leer, trata de deducir del contexto cuál es el significado.)
Como en el tema anterior, te invitamos a realizar las siguients actividades para
que sigas preparándote y domines el idioma del inglés.
HEALTHY BABY
In order to have a healthy baby, it is best not to do certain things while pregnant. The most common reason that
babies have problems when they are born is because the
mother took drugs or drank alcohol while pregnant.
Any food she eats, any liquid she drinks, and any drug
she takes passes through the mother’s body and into the
unborn baby. There is nothing that stops the baby from
getting whatever the mother has in her body.
There is no safe amount of alcohol or drugs a pregnant woman can take. Doctors do
not know how any baby will react to the alcohol or drugs in the mother’s body. The best
advice it is to not use any alcohol or drugs while pregnant.
There is no safe time to take any drugs or alcohol during pregnancy. If a woman discovers
she is pregnant, she should stop smoking or using drugs and alcohol immediately. The
sooner the woman stops taking these, the better the baby has for being born healthy.
After the baby is born, it is important for the mother to not take drugs or alcohol if she is
breast feeding her child. Any drug or alcohol can be passed onto the baby through the
mother’s milk.
It is best if you eat healthy foods, get plenty of sleep, and see a doctor regularly if you
are pregnant.
Texto e imagen, recuperados el 09 de abril del 2007 en:
http://www.cdlponline.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=activity1&topicID=5&storyID=111
97
2. Write the use or meaning of this kind of modal verb.
(Escribe el uso o significado de este tipo de verbo modal.)
Should is a modal that expresses_____________________________________
(obligation / advice / permission)
3. Write the rule correctly, use the words in the box, and then compare with
a partner. (Escribe correctamente la regla, usa las palabras en el recuadro, y después compara con otro
compañero.)
verb
a)
She
___________________ +
b)
She
___________________ +
subject
should
modal
stop smoking or use drugs.
____________________ +
shouldn´t
___________________ +
_______________
smoke or use drugs.
_______________
4. Discussion:
Remember use in your answers the modal verb should/shouldn´t.
(Recuerda usar en tus respuestas el verbo modal should/shouldn´t.)
How much drugs and alcohol can a mother take before risking the health of her
unborn baby?
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If your best friend is pregnant and she uses drugs and drinks alcohol, what
would you tell her?
GRAMMAR: MODAL VERBS EXPLANATION
Modal of Advice or Opinion
MODAL
EXPLANATIONS
EXAMPLES
USE
AFFIRMATIVE
Advice
Subject + modal + verb
Should
or
She should stop smoking.
Moral obligation
Use should, to show
that you think
something is a good
advice or idea.
She should listen to me.
NEGATIVE
Advice
Should not
or
Shouldn’t
Subject + negative modal form + verb
or
She should not
smoke.
Moral obligation
She
shouldn’t
drink alcohol.
Use should
not/shouldn´t,
to show that you think
something is a bad
advice or idea.
INTERROGATIVE
Doubt about
Should?
advice
Modal + subject + verb
(+)Yes, subject + modal
or
(-) No, subject + negative modal
Use should to ask, if
your idea, opinion
or advice is right or
wrong to do.
Moral obligation
Should she stop smoking?
Yes, she should/No, she shouldn´t.
Should she drink alcohol?
Yes, she should/No, she shouldn´t.
Main ideas about grammar modal verbs are taken from Larsen Freeman, Diane. Grammar dimensions Book
Two. 2a ed., United States of America, Heinle Publishers, 1997, pp. 154-170.
And adapted to suit the text purposes.
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5. Write advices for future mothers, use the information that you have read and
discussed. (Escribe consejos para futuras mamás, usa la información que has leído y discutido.)
Alcohol
Doctor
_____________________
_____________________
______________
______________
______________
Drugs and smoke
__________________
__________________
Walk
Diet
_____________
_________________
_______________
_______________
_______________
Eat fruits and vegetables
___________________________________
___________________________________
6. Complete the following sentences with should or shouldn´t.
(Completa las siguientes oraciones con should or shouldn´t.)
a) You ___________ smoke when you are in a movie.
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b) When you are in San Luis Potosi, you ____________ visit the Cathedral.
c) In Mexico, people under the age of eighteen ____________ drive in
highway.
d) People ____________ ignore stoplights.
e) You _____________ talk by phone when you´re driving.
f) They _____________ ask in the math class.
g) You _____________talk to strange people.
h) She ______________ drink alcohol if she is pregnant.
i) Tom _____________ the raincoat today.
j) Mary _____________ take vacations, she is very tired.
k) I ______________ visit the doctor, I feel bad.
l) You _____________ do the homework every day.
7. Put the words in order to form sentences with modal verb should/shouldn´t.
Then compare your answers with a partner. (Coloca las palabras en orden para formar oraciones con el verbo modal should/shouldn´t. Después compara tus respuestas con otro compañero.)
a) be / shouldn´t / School uniforms / obligatory /
_____________________________________________________________
b) a map of Mexico / He / bring / should /
_____________________________________________________________
c) shouldn´t / in laboratory experiments / animals / be used /
_____________________________________________________________
d) Doctors / the identity / shouldn´t / of AIDS patients / reveal /
____________________________________________________________
e) at home / Parents / smoke / in front of children / shouldn´t /
___________________________________________________________
f) should / students / about the dangers of drugs / Teachers / teach /
___________________________________________________________
8. Rewrite the sentences. Use you and should or shouldn’t.
(Reescribe las oraciones. Usa you y should o shouldn’t.)
In Veracruz, it is strange not eat fish.
In Veracruz, you should eat fish.
In San Luis Potosi, it is important not to say bad words.
In San Luis Potosi, you shouldn´t say bad words.
a) In London, it is a good idea to be punctual.
_________________________________________________________________
b) In Mexico, it is rude not to wear your shoes in people’s home.
________________________________________________________________
c) In the United States, it is rude not to make eye contact.
_______________________________________________________________
d) In Asia, it is important not to make too much eye contact.
_______________________________________________________________
e) In Japan, it is rude to wear your shoes in people´s home.
______________________________________________________________
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f) In the Middle East, it is rude to show the bottoms of your shoes.
_____________________________________________________________
g) In the party, it is important not to drink alcohol.
____________________________________________________________
h) After the party. It is important not to drive fast.
___________________________________________________________
4.3. POSIBILIDADES Y ESPECULACIONES
Objetivo temático: Aprenderás a emplear los auxiliares may y could,
que te permitirán expresar información sobre eventos que posiblemente ocurran en el futuro, en forma afirmativa, negativa e interrogativa.
Activities:
1. Read the text. Use your dictionary if necessary, some of the modals verbs that
you encounter are new or you have seen before. As you read, try to deduce from
the context the meaning of each one. (Lee el texto. Si es necesario usa tu diccionario, algunos
de los verbos modales que encontrarás son nuevos o los has visto antes. Al leer, trata de deducir del contexto
el significado de cada uno.)
ABORTION PILL
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Women living in France can have an abortion with a pill. The pill is called RU486. It
makes having an abortion easy and without surgery. Women in America do not have
access to this pill.
A congress woman sent a letter. She thinks that women should be able to get the pill in
the United States. Another person thinks that American women should not have it.
Some people worry about the new pill. They think it might teach people that abortion is
no big deal. It will be harder to understand abortion if it is done with a pill.
Some doctors think that this pill is safe. A group of California doctors is working to get
the pill approved.
Another doctor said that abortion is legal in California. He said science can make it safer
for women. He wants to study the pill in California.
No one knows when the pill will be available to women in the United States. It is clear that many women want the choice. Now the
question is: Could be available the pill in the United States some
day?
Texto , recuperados el 09 de abril del 2007 en:
http://www.cdlponline.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=activity1&topicID=5&storyID=21
2. Write the use or meaning of this kind of modals verbs.
(Escribe el uso o significado de este tipo de verbos modales.)
Use _________________________ for something that express possibility,
probability or permission.
may / might
Use _________________________ for something that is possible but improbable.
may / might
Remember: could express very weak certainty; it shows something is possible,
but you are not certain if it is true or not, you are making a guess.
3. Write the rule correctly, use the words in the box and then compare with a
partner. (Escribe correctamente la regla, usa las palabras en el recuadro y después compara con otro compañero.)
verb
subject
a. The abortion pill
may
_______________ +___________ +
modal
be a medical advance.
___________________
b.The abortion pill
might
teach people that abortion is not good decision.
_______________ +___________ + ___________________
c. The abortion pill
could
_______________ +____________ +
be available in the United States.
___________________
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4. Discussion.
Remember use in your answers the modal verbs may/might/could.
(Recuerda usar en tus respuestas los verbos modales may/might/could.)
a. What is your opinion about the abortion pill?
b. Might woman Mexican use the abortion pill?
GRAMMAR: MODAL VERBS EXPLANATION
Modals of Possibility, Probability or Permission
MODAL
EXAMPLES
EXPLANATIONS
AFFIRMATIVE
The modals may and might
both relate to probability, but
in different degrees. Use may
for something that is probable and might for something
that is possible but improbable.
USE
May
Permission
Might
Possibility
Subject
France woman
+
may
modal
+ verb
get the abortion pill.
American woman might get the abortion pill.
Could
Probability
Mexican woman could get the abortion pill.
The modal could express
very weak certainty; it shows
something is possible, but
you are not certain if it is
true or not, you are making
a guess.
NEGATIVE
Subject + negative modal form + verb
Permission
May
Might
Could
France woman may not get the abortion pill.
May not and might not are
not usually contracted when
they express possibility or
probability.
Couldn´t shows that you
American woman might not get the abortion pill. strongly believe that something is impossible, it is usually contracted.
Mexican
woman
couldn´t
get
the
abortion
pill.
Probability
Possibility
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INTERROGATIVE
Might
Possibility
Modal + subject +
verb?
Might American woman get the abortion pill?
Could
Probability
May is not used in questions
about possibility or probability.
Could Mexican woman get the abortion pill?
Remember: Use may for offers and requests.
Example: May I help you? Yes, please.
May I borrow your phone? You may/ No, you may not.
Remember: use the modals might and could to say that there is a chance that something will happen in the future.
Main ideas about grammar modal verbs are taken from Larsen Freeman, Diane. Op.cit., pp. 154-170.
And adapted to suit the text purposes.
5. Complete the sentences. Use could, couldn´t, may, may not, might and
might not. Share your opinions with your classmates. (Completa las oraciones. Usa could,
couldn´t, may, may not, might y might not. Comparte opiniones con tus compañeros.)
a) In my opinion, the abortion pill _______________ be a good idea.
b) In my opinion, the abortion pill _______________ be approved in U.S.A.
c) In my opinion, the abortion pill _______________ teach people that the
abortion is not good decision.
d) In my opinion, the church _______________ accept the abortion pill.
e) In my opinion, the society _______________ accept the abortion pill.
f) In my opinion, the Human Rights Association ____________ accept the
abortion pill.
6. Write six things that she may/might do. Then, change these sentences to negative and interrogative form. (Escribe seis cosas que ella podría/quizas hacer. Después, cambia
las oraciones a su forma negativa e interrogativa.)
Ana may become the World Champion next year.
______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________
7. Put the words in order to form sentences with modals verbs may/might/could.
Then compare your answers with a partner. (Coloca las palabras en orden para formar oraciones con los verbos modales may/might/could. Después compara tus respuestas con otro compañero.)
a) a question / I / ? / May / ask you /
_________________________________________________________
b) lend me / ? / the scissors / you / Could /
_________________________________________________________
c) might not / our President / She / become /
_________________________________________________________
105
d) they / a surprise / give me / may /
_________________________________________________________
e) your back / might / hurt / you /
_________________________________________________________
e) rain / it / may /
_________________________________________________________
f) to San Luis Potosi / he / some day / move / might /
_________________________________________________________
g) ? / she / about math / know / Might /
_________________________________________________________
4.4. INVITACIONES
Objetivo temático: Al concluir este tema, expresarás con
el auxiliar would, la aceptación y rechazo de invitaciones
formales e informales, de forma oral y escrita.
Activities:
1. Read the text. (Lee el texto.)
106
SITUATION:
My best friends are going to take a honeymoon (vacation that a man and woman take
soon after they get married), but…you are going to take care of a friend´s house while
they are on honeymoon. Your friends have left you a note with instructions about what
to do while they are gone. Unfortunately, someone has spilled coffee on the note, and
now it is difficult to read.
OUR HONEYMOON!!! Could you…?
Would you take care of
my house while I´m away?
Could you lend me
use your new car?
Could you take care of my
pet while I´m away?
Could you lend me
some money?
1. Try to fill in the missing parts of the note so that the note makes sense. Complete the note using the parts from the list below. Example a) has been done for
you. (Trata de completar la nota con las partes que le faltan para que tenga sentido. Complétala usando las
partes de la lista de abajo. El ejemplo a) ha sido hecho para ti.)
We´re glad you will be here to watch the house while we´re gone!
My neighbors think that this neighborhood is not completely safe at night,
a ) So ( 5) Could you please make sure to lock the doors at night?
b) The cats eat twice a day,( )_________________________________________
c) We don´t want them to stay out at night so ( ) _________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
d) The plants need to be watered twice a week( ) _________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
e) We left some bills to mail on the kitchen table ( )
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
f) Our cousin from out of town said that he would call this week( )
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
g) The rent check is on the kitchen table. It´s due at the end of the week( )
___________________________________________________________________
h) We told the landlord about the broken light in the bathroom. If he calls,( )
___________________________________________________________________
107
i)Thanks for everything.( ) ____________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
Look at the choices for the missing parts of the note. Write the appropiate number in the spaces on the note. (Observa las opciones para las partes faltantes en la nota. Escibe el
número apropiado en el espacio sobre la nota.)
…could you ask him to fix it as soon as possible? 1
…remember to lock the windows and doors when it gets dark. Thanks. 2
. …so will you please give them water on Tuesday and Friday? 3
. …See you next week! 4
. …Could you please make sure to lock the doors at night? 5
. …Would you mind mailing them for me tomorrow morning? 6
…please make sure they come in around 8:00. 7
…Would you take a message and tell him we will back on the twenty-ninth? 8
…so could you feed them in the morning and the night? 9
…Please mail it before Friday. 10
Larsen Freeman, Diane. Op. cit., pp. 256-257. And adapted to suit the text purposes.
3. Discussion.
a) Which of these favors bothers you the most?
b) Which bothers you the least?
c) What are other favors that you dislike being asked?
GRAMMAR: MODAL VERBS EXPLANATION
Making Polite Requests
I left my notes at home.
a) Would you mind lending me your notes?
Most polite
b) Would you (please) lend me your notes?
c) Could you lend me your notes (please)?
d) Will you lend me your notes (please)?
e) Can you (please) lend me your notes?
f) Please lend me your notes
Least polite
108
MODAL
USE
Would…? Polite requests
EXAMPLES
EXPLANATIONS
INTERROGATIVE
Use Would/Could
to express polite
requests(more formal).
Modal +
Would/Could
subject +
you
verb?
lend me your notes?
Main ideas about grammar modal verbs are taken from LarsenFreeman, Diane. Op.cit., pp. 258.
And adapted to suit the text purposes.
4. For each situation, make a polite requests.
(Para cada situación, haz una petición cortésmente.)
Example:
You are watching a video tape in class. Your classmate in front of you is in the
way. You want him to move his chair.
You say:
Would you mind to move your chair?
Would you (please) move your chair?
Could you move your chair (please)?
a) Your teacher is giving a grammar presentation, but he is speaking very quietly.
You cannot hear him.
You say: ____________________________________________________________
b) There is a lot of noise outside your classroom. Your teacher wants the student
who is sitting near the door to close it.
So he says: _________________________________________________________
c) You want to know what time it is. You find someone who is wearing a watch
and you say: ________________________________________________________
Main ideas about grammar modal verbs are taken from Larsen Freeman, Diane. Op.cit., pp. 258-259.
109
GRAMMAR: MODAL VERBS EXPLANATION
Politely Refusing Requests
EXAMPLES
EXPLANATIONS
Would you lend me your notes?
If you have to refuse a request, it is polite
to say why you are refusing.
a) I´m sorry, but I need them to study for the test.
OR
b) I´m afraid that I didn´t take any notes.
Phrases such as I´m afraid that or I´m
sorry help to “soften” the No, and make
it more polite.
OR
c) I would like to, but I left mine at home too.
(full form)
I´d like to, but I left mine at home too.
(contracted form)
Main ideas about grammar modal verbs are taken from Larsen Freeman, Diane. Op. cit., pp. 259-260.
110
5. Make requests in the classroom and find someone who will grant your request “say yes” for the following things. If a classmate says no, write the reason
for refusing your request. (Haz peticiones en el salón de clases y encuentra alguien que te concedería
tu petición “diga sí” para las siguientes cosas. Si un compañero de clases dice no, escribe la razón por la cual
rechazó tu petición.)
REQUEST
Would you…
a) Lend me some Money?
b) Buy me a cup of coffee?
c) Help me to study for a test?
d) Teach me how to dance?
REASON FOR SAYING NO
GRAMMAR: MODAL VERBS EXPLANATION
Responding to Requests
EXAMPLES
EXPLANATIONS
Can you lend me your notes?
You can respond to requests with
short answers.
a) I´d be glad to.
b) Sure, why not?
c) Yeah, no problem.
d) Yeah, I guess so.
Could you lend me your notes?
a) Yes, I can.
b) NOT, Yes, I could.
Would you lend me your notes?
a) Yes, I will.
b) NOT, Yes, I would.
Examples:
b) and
c) are very informal.
Example:
d) shows that the speaker is uncertain.
Could and would are not used
in responses to requests.
Main ideas about grammar modal verbs are taken from Larsen Freeman, Diane. Op. cit., pp. 260-261.
6. Make polite requests for the following situations. Use can, could, will, would,
or would you mind in these requests. What is the response? How is the request
politely accepted or refused? (Haz cortésmente peticiones para las siguientes situaciones. Usa can,
could, will, would o would you mind. ¿Cuál es la respuesta? ¿Cómo es cortésmente la petición aceptada o
rechazada?)
a) You are at a restaurant, and the people at the next table are smoking. You
want them to stop, so you say: _________________________________________
What do they say? ___________________________________________________
b) You are visiting a famous tourist site, and a family wants you to take their
photograph together.
One of the family member says: _______________________________________
What do you do or say? ______________________________________________
111
GRAMMAR: MODAL VERBS EXPLANATION
Asking for Permission
a) Would you mind if I left early?
Most polite
b) Do you mind if I leave early?
c) May I leave early?
d) Could I leave early?
e) Can I leave early?
Least polite
Main ideas about grammar modal verbs are taken from Larsen Freeman, Diane. Op. cit., pp. 262-263.
7. Write the letter of the following questions in the appropriate box in the chart
below. The first one has been done for you. (Escribe la letra de las siguientes preguntas en el
cuadro apropiado que está abajo. El primero ha sido hecho para ti.)
Something the speaker wants to
do (request for permission).
Something the speaker wants
somebody else to do
(general request).
a)
112
a) Do you mind if I smoke?
b) Can you open the window?
c) May I ask you a question?
d) Could you speak more slowly?
e) Would you mind lending me your dictionary?
f) Can I leave early?
g) Would you tell me the answer?
h) May we swim in your pool?
i) Could you show us how to do it?
j) Could I borrow your knife?
k) Would you mind if I handed in my assignment a day late?
GRAMMAR: MODAL VERBS EXPLANATION
Responding to Requests for Permission
EXAMPLES
Would you mind if I left early?
a) No, not at all.
b) Sorry, but I need you to
stay until 5:00
May I leave early?
a) Yes, of course.
b) Sorry, but I´d rather have you stay until 5:00
Could I leave early?
a) Yes, you can.
b) NOT, Yes, you could.
EXPLANATIONS
Use short phrases to answer requests for permission. If you refuse
a request, it is polite to give the reason.
Could is not usually used in responses to requests for permission.
Main ideas about grammar modal verbs are taken from Larsen Freeman, Diane. Op.cit., pp. 264-265.
8. Pair work. For each of the following situations, make general requests or requests for permission, and then respond to these requests. Decide how polite
you need to be in each situation and whether can, could, will, would, may,
would you mind, or do you mind is the most appropriate to use. There is more
than one way to ask and answer each question. (Trabajo en pareja. Para cada una de las
siguientes situaciones realiza peticiones generales o peticiones para permiso y después respóndelas. Decide
que tan cortés necesitas ser en cada situación y si can, could, will, would, may, would you mind o do you
mind es el más apropiado de usar. Hay más de una forma para preguntar y contestar.)
a) You are at a friend´s house, and you want to use the phone.
b) Your teacher says something, but you do not understand, and you want her
to repeat it.
c) It is very cold in class, and the window is open.
d) You are at a close friend´s house, and you would like a cup of tea.
113
¿Qué he aprendido?
Has concluido la última unidad de Inglés 3, y en la presente sección, realizarás lo que todo alumno considera difícil: la evaluación de tus conocimientos.
Durante la unidad trabajaste con los verbos modales, mismos que has identificado y ahora aplicarás para dar (de forma oral o escrita) instrucciones y consejos, hacer peticiones o invitaciones,
indicar probabilidad y posibilidad en eventos e interpretar correctamente señales de obligación y
prohibición en cualquier espacio público.
Los diferentes ejercicios que resolverás tienen el propósito de que practiques y deduzcas el uso
correcto de los verbos modales, objetivo de la unidad. Esta evaluación te permitirá medir lo que
realmente has aprendido, no te preocupes si llegas a tener dudas, esto significa una oportunidad
más para seguir aprendiendo y consolidar tus conocimientos, no olvides que el aprendizaje del
idioma inglés es reciclable y acumulativo.
Recuerda que en caso de tener algún problema, puedes volver a revisar el tema o en su caso consultar la bibliografía recomendada, las direcciones web o a tu asesor.
I. Reading:
A. In groups, try to read the text and underline the sentences where modals verbs are used.
EXECUTIONS IN CALIFORNIA MAY BE STOPPED
Not long ago a criminal was killed. He was executed by the State of
California. Some people thought it was wrong. There were many
stories about it in newspapers and on TV. These stories made people
think California needs a new law.
114
The new law would stop executions until 2009. It would allow time
to finish a report in 2008. It might say that the law should change.
But if the law does not change, there could be executions in 2009.
In the last 30 years, courts said the death penalty was wrong more
than 100 times. People who want the new law are worried. They
are afraid that the state could kill the wrong people. They say California might have the same problems as other states. In other states, people were killed when they should not have been. They were
killed because of their race or because they had bad lawyers. Some people say California should stop all
executions. They should do this until they are sure they are right.
Other people do not agree. These people say that there is nothing wrong with what they are doing now.
They say California is more careful than anyone.
The State of California has killed 12 criminals since 1992. There are now 640 people waiting for execution
in California jails.
Original Title: Moratorium on Executions in California Proposed
The controversy and publicity generated by the execution of Stanley Tookie Williams is focusing attention
on a measure that would suspend California’s death penalty law for three years.
Assembly Bill 1121 would put executions in the state on hold until January
1, 2009. The bill’s authors say that would give lawmakers time to study a review of the state’s death penalty procedures being undertaken by The California
Commission on the Fair Administration of Justice. The commission is one year
into its study, which must be completed by December 31, 2007. Legislators and
criminal justice experts would have until 2008 to go over the report and make
recommendations, if necessary.
Unless lawmakers act on the recommendations or extend the suspension of the death penalty, the moratorium would end January 1, 2009.
With more than 100 death row convictions overturned since the 1970s because the accused were
found to be innocent, the authors of “California Moratorium on Executions Act” say they fear an innocent person may be wrongly executed under current state procedures. “We can’t gurantee that we don’t
have innocent people who have been put to death in California or will be,” said AB 1121’s co-author
Sally Lieber, D-Mountain View.
Lieber said she wouldn’t be surprised if a review of California’s procedures reveal a troubled system
similar to that in Illinois. In 2000, after 13 people on Illinois’ death row were exonerated, Illinois Gov.
George Ryan declared a moratorium on executions in his state. “There was evidence of racial bias and
that situations like inadequate council in capital cases was affecting the number of cases that should be
commuted,” Lieber said.
Those who favor keeping California’s capital punishment law in place argue death penalty cases are the
mostly thoroughly reviewed of any criminal cases. “The amount of review,
the Williams’ case is one of them, 24 years in that case, hundreds of separate appeals. There are no cases in the country or in the world that are as
closely looked at as a California death penalty case,” said David LaBahn of
the California District Attorneys Association.
115
Court challenges overturned California’s death penalty law in 1967. It was
reinstated in 1977. Since 1992, 12 inmates have been put to death. Two
others are scheduled to be executed in January and February.
According to the state Department of Corrections, there are more than 640
men and women on death row in California.
B. Pair Work: According with the text that you have read, match the sentences on the left with the
concepts on the right.
1. The commission is one year into its study, which must be
completed by December 31, 2007.
(
)
Strong advice.
2. With more than 100 death row convictions overturned since the 1970s because the accused were found to be innocent,
the authors of “California Moratorium on Executions Act” say
they fear an innocent person may be wrongly executed under
current state procedures.
(
)
Moral obligation.
(
)
Possibility, probability
or permission.
3. They should do this until they are sure they are right.
4. They are afraid that the state could kill the wrong people.
But if the law does not change, there could be executions in
2009.
(
) Possible but improbable.
(
) Strong obligation (rules).
(
) Uncertainty.
5. Some people say California should stop all executions.
6. They say California might have the same problems as other
states.
II. CROSSWORD PUZZLE.
Look and read the sentences. Then use the clues to complete the crossword puzzle.
116
3
6
5
1
2
4
Clues
ACROSS
2. I ______________ learn the use of modals
verbs in this unit.
4. You ___________ stop in red light.
6. I __________ become a good student this year.
DOWN
1. You _____________ study more modals verbs.
3. He ______________ be an astronaut.
5. It _______________ rain.
III. WRITING.
A. Write sentences, use have/has to, must and must not, to express the concept represented by
each sign. Imagine that you are going to visit the United States of America. Use the verbs have and
bring.
1. You ___________________________________________
2. You ___________________________________________
3. You ___________________________________________
4. You ___________________________________________
5. You ___________________________________________
6. You ___________________________________________
117
B. Write sentences, use should or should not, to express the concept represented by each sign.
Imagine that you are going to give advices to international travelers. Use the verbs check, bring
and arrive.
1. You ____________________________________________
2. You ____________________________________________
3. You ____________________________________________
4. You ____________________________________________
5. You ____________________________________________
118
C. Write sentences, imagine five things that you may, might and could do when you are an
adult.
1. You _____________________________________________
2. You ____________________________________________
3. You ____________________________________________
4. You _____________________________________________
5. You _____________________________________________
D. Write polite requests and answer politely refusing requests. Use Would or Could.
1. ____________________________________________ ?
_________________________________________________
2. ____________________________________________ ?
_________________________________________________
3. ____________________________________________ ?
_________________________________________________
4. ____________________________________________ ?
_________________________________________________
5. ____________________________________________ ?
_________________________________________________
6. ____________________________________________ ?
_________________________________________________
119
IV. GRAMMAR.
Underline the correct modal verb in each sentence.
1. If German wants to pass the exams, he ______________ to study everyday.
must / could / may
2. Of course, he ______________ study every weekend.
shouldn´t / should
3. Next course, he _____________ get a good grades.
may / mays
4. I _____________ go to the party because I was a problem with my girlfriend.
could / couldn´t
5. I ____________ clean my bedroom every day (says my mother).
have to / must
6. Take your raincoat. It ________ rain later.
has to / might
7. If you are tired. You ___________ go to bed.
should / could
8. You _________ go over 160 Km/hour.
mustn´t / shouldn´t
120
Quiero saber más
Esta sección se ha desarrollado con el objetivo de que continúes con el aprendizaje y
dominio de los verbos modales conjugados
no sólo en tiempo presente, sino también
para que los puedas emplear correctamente y no te limites a que solo conozcas su
gramática.
A lo largo de toda la unidad, revisaste que
para formar oraciones, se requiere conocer
su estructura gramatical misma que tiene
una forma (afirmativa, negativa e interrogativa), un significado y uso concreto de
acuerdo con el contexto.
Las actividades que encontrarás a continuación pretenden que desarrolles tus habilidades sobre comprensión e interpretación
de lectura, claro está, empleando los verbos
modales y sus diferentes conjugaciones.
Te has preguntado alguna vez, ¿qué significado tiene cada párrafo de la letra
de una canción en inglés?, ¿tiene el mismo sentido si la traduzco literalmente
o si trato de entender lo que me dice tal cual la escucho o leo en inglés?...
Si no tienes una respuesta a estas preguntas, estás en el momento y lugar
exacto para entender de qué estamos hablando, sólo necesitas continuar con
la siguiente página y llegar hasta el fin de tu Cuadernillo de LAE III.
121
First read the song and then listen it as you need, finally check the vocabulary and grammar notes in order
to understand the song’s meaning, and try to answer the activities. (Primero lee la canción y después escúchala cada
que lo requieras, finalmente revisa el vocabulario y las notas sobre gramática a fin de entender el significado de la canción y trata de
contestar las actividades.)
BABY ONE MORE TIME
Oh baby baby
Oh baby baby
Oh baby baby
how was I supposed to know
that somethin’ wasn’t right here
Oh baby baby
I shouldn’t have let you go--and now you’re right out of site yeah
Show me
how you want it to be
tell me baby
‘cause I need to know now
oh because
My loneliness
is killing me (and I)
I must confess
I still believe (still believe)
When I’m not with you lose my mind
give me a sign--hit me baby one more time.
122
Oh baby baby
a reason I breathe is you
boy you’ve got me blinded
Oh baby baby
there’s nothin’ that I wouldn’t do
that’s not the way I planned it
Show me
how you want it to be
tell me baby
‘cause I need to know now
oh because
My loneliness
is killing me (and I)
I must confess
I still believe (still believe)
When I’m not with you lose my mind
give me a sign--hit me baby one more time.
Oh baby baby
(a ooooooooo)
Oh baby baby
(a yeah yeah)
Oh baby baby
how was I supposed to know
Oh baby baby
I shouldn’t have let you go--I must confess
that my loneliness
is killing me nowDon’t you know I still believe
that you will be here
and give me a sign--hit me baby one more time.
My loneliness
is killing me (and I)
I must confess
I still believe (still believe)
When I’m not with you lose my mind
give me a sign--hit me baby one more time.
I must confess
(my loneliness)
that my loneliness
(is killing me)
is killing me now-(I must confess)
Don’t you know I still believe
(I still believe)
that you will be here
(when I’m not with you I lose my mind)
and give me a sign---
TRADUCCIÓN
Chiquito una vez más
Britney Spears
Oh chiquito, chiquito
Oh nene, nene
Oh chiquito, chiquito
cómo iba yo a saber
que algo no andaba bien aquí
Oh chiquito, chiquito
no debí haberte dejado ir
y ahora tu estás lejos de mi alcance si
Muéstrame
cómo querías que fuera
dime chiquito
porque necesito saber ahora
oh porque
La soledad
me está matando y yo
debo confesar
todavía creo (aún creo)
cuando no estoy contigo pierdo la cabeza
dame una señal
dame cartas en el juego nuevamente.
Oh chiquito, chiquito
una razón por la que respiro eres tu
chico me haz cegado
Oh chiquito, chiquito
no hay nada que no daría
yo no lo planee de esa manera.
Muéstrame
cómo querías que fuera
dime nene
porque ahora necesito saber
oh porque
La soledad
me está matando y yo
debo confesar
todavía creo (sigo creyendo)
que cuando no estoy contigo pierdo la cabeza
dame una señal
dame cartas en el juego nuevamente.
Oh chiquito, chiquito
(a ooooooooo)
Oh nene, nene
(así, si)
Oh chiquito, chiquito
cómo iba yo a saber
Oh chiquito, chiquito
no debí haberte dejado ir
Debo confesar
que la soledad
me está matando en este momento
no sabes que todavía creo
que estarás aquí
y me darás una señal
dame cartas en el juego nuevamente.
La soledad
me está matando y yo
debo confesar
aún creo (sigo creyendo)
cuando no estoy contigo pierdo la cabeza
dame una señal
dame cartas en el juego nuevamente.
Debo confesar
(la soledad)
que la soledad
(me está matando)
me está matando en este momento
debo confesar
no sabes que aún creo
(sigo creyendo)
que estarás aquí
(cuando no estoy contigo pierdo la cabeza)
dame una señal
dame cartas en el juego nuevamente.
123
VOCABULARY
Somethin’ = Something.
Out of site = Out of the place where you used to be.
Loneliness = Sadness at being alone, empteness of people.
Loss my mind = I can’t think clearly.
You’ve got me blinded = You’ve made me close my eyes to reality.
Nothin’ = Nothing.
That’s not the way I planned it = That is not how I wanted it to be.
Hit me baby one more time = When playing cards and you want to get the chance to see the cards you say hit me. So this expression is used to say that she wants to
continue the game, she wants one more chance.
GRAMMAR NOTES MODALS (NECESSITY)
MODAL
MEANING
Must
Necessity means that you cannot avoid doing something.
Have to
Example: You must buy a ticket = you cannot go without a ticket.
Have got to
124
Needn’t
Mustn’t
Ought to
Should
Use the negative forms of “have to/ have got to” when there is no necessity. It is also possible to use “needn’t ”when
there is no necessity.
Use these modals when something is the right to do. There
is little difference between “ought to” and “should” but
“ought to” is sometimes a little stronger than “should”.
Notice that adjectives and adverbs can often be used to paraphrase the logical uses but only rarely the
social uses, of modals:
Must
necessarily, very (certainly)
Will
fairly certain
Should
probable, probably, likely
May
perhaps, maybe, quite possible.
Could, might
Possible, possibly
High certainty
Low certainty
PAST PERFECT CONSTRUCTIONS WITH MODAL VERBS
MODAL VERB
MEANING
Must have + verb past participle
A logical deduction about something that has
happened.
Could have + verb past participle
A possibility that didn´t happen.
Should have + verb past participle
A criticism, regret, or accusation about
something that has happened.
May have + verb past participle
A possible explanation for something
that has happened.
NOTE: some modals verbs can be used in various ways to express different ideas.
1. Talking about problems and what to do to solve them:
Work in groups of four to complete this chart giving some advice. Identify if it is necessary to use the modals
in past or present and write on the space provided what she has to do or should do. (Trabaja en grupos de cuatro
para completar el cuadro dando algún consejo. Identifica si es necesario usar los verbos modales en pasado o presente y escribe sobre
el espacio previsto lo que ella tiene que hacer o debería hacer.)
Student 1:______________________
Student 2:______________________
Student 3:______________________
Student 4:______________________
125
Britney’s problem:
A piece of advice:
How was I supposed to know that somethin’
wasn’t right here
Student 1: (Use past tense of the modals) Answer may vary.
Example:
You should have talked to him more before brakingg up
I shouldn’t have let you go
Student 2: (Use past tense of the modals) Answer may vary.
Student 3: (Use past tense of the modals) Answer may vary.
My loneliness is killing me
When I’m not with you I lose my mind
Hit me baby one more time
Student 4: (Use present) Answer may vary.
A reason I breathe is you
Student 3: (Use present) Answer may vary
Student 2: (Use present) Answer may vary.
Boy you’ve got me blinded
Tell me baby ‘cause I need to know how
126
Student 4: (Use present) Answer may vary.
Example:
You shouldn’t depend on someone else to feel O.K.
Student 1: (Use present) Answer may vary.
Y ahora que terminaste de responder a tus actividades, ¿qué opinas? Es muy interesante conocer un poco
más, sobre todo cuando se emplea la música para apoyarte en las actividades de enseñanza y aprendizaje.
Consulta con tu asesor para que obtengas mayor información sobre el mundo de actividades que puede
encerrar una canción, te sugiero que consultes o trates de conseguir junto con tu asesor el siguiente manual, clave para el desarrollo de esta sección.
Manual Music
Something to sing and speak
Graciela Valdez.
Si no es posible lo anterior, al menos puedes enriquecer tus conocimientos del idioma inglés consultando la
siguiente dirección:
www.usembassy-mexico.gov
Una vez que ya ingresaste, busca Biblioteca Benjamin Franklin, das doble click y buscas enseñanza del
idioma inglés, es un sitio web muy completo que puede despejar cualquier duda que tengas.
1
I.
a) Kelly is more intelligent than Barbara
b) A horse is taller than a cow
c) Sonora is as tall as Chihuahua
d) A Doctor is busier than a teacher.
e) That is the oldest building in the city
f) This is the biggest hamburger the restaurant
sells
g) Which is the most expensive restaurant in
your neighborhood?
h) Which is the best theater near home?
i) Which is the most beautiful building in the
area?
ANSWERS
V.
1. John is as tall as Glen
2. Janet is as beautiful as Jennifer.
3. You are as crazy as my sister.
4. We can run as fast as they can.
5. My mom is not as strict as your mom.
6. Your mobile phone is not as trendy as mine.
7. Matrix II was not as interesting as Matrix I.
8. this yoghurt does not taste as good as the
one I bought yesterday.
9. I can do as many press-up as you
10. I do not earn as mucho money as you do.
VI.
II.
1. b)
2. a)
3. c)
4. a)
5. a)
COMPARATIVE
SUPERLATIVE
Prettier
Safer
Worse
More
Farther/ further
Tallest
The most difficult
Best
Least
III.
1. best
2. most beautiful
3. most expensive
4. biggest
5. cleanest
IV.
VII.
127
3
1
6
F
A
4 R
T
H
E
R
3
B
1 L
E
T
T
E
2 M O R
U L L
E R
I
P
E
R
5
2
S
S
C
O
N V
F
U
N
6
I
W
H
U
G
E
R
5
T
E
N
D
E
E R
E
O R
I
S
D
A
R
K
E N
R
E
4
F
A
S
T
E
R
1. The animal with longest live is the elephant.
2. The tiger is the shortest life animal.
3. The Japanese is the humans with longest
life.
4. The Mexican people have longer life than
Chinese people.
5. The Tiger have shorter life than the monkey.
6. Sierra Leone and Indian people have the
shortest life expectancy in the world.
ANSWERS
I. Free response.
II. Free response.
III.
1. f
2. e
3. a
4. c
5. b
6. d
IV.
1. a
2. b
3. b
4. b
5. a
V.
128
1. c
2. a
3. b
4. a
5. b
VI.
1. a
2. b
3. a
4. b
5. c
VII.
1. c
2. a
3. c
4. b
5. a
2
VIII.
1. don’t like
2. needs
3. don’t hurry
4. won’t be
5. work
6. don’t like
7. are
8. will give
9. will let
10. obtains
IX.
1. will work in a factory
2. will build houses
3. will study in the University
4. will buy him an Ipod
5. will buy a car
6. will travel around the world
7. will be married soon.
ANSWERS
3
I.
1. Austin has visited several cities in Mexico.
2. Bridgitte has learnt many languages.
3. Dorothy and Edith have protected endangered animals
4. Christopher has cleaned the river from trash.
5. You have stopped the traffic many times.
VI.
1. She has bought the flour
2. He has studied
3. She hasn’t paid the light
4. They have broken up
5. She has bought a car
VII.
Hector has been my friend for over 10 years. We
have known each other since we worked together.
Recently He has moved to Veracruz and now we see
us just on weekends, because I studied the mastery
there.
II.
a. Baja California
b. Veracruz
c. Michoacan
d. Yucatán
e. Chiapas
For the last five years, we have worked on the same
project. He is more easygoing than me, but in the
last few months he has seemed more concentrated
and active to work has done the researches and I
have more time for me now. He has decided that we
need to finish our work with success. He is my best
friend because he does not just think about himself
but he considers me too.
III.
1. been
2. gone
3. been
4. gone
5. been
VIII.
1. bought
2. flown
3. seen
4. arrived
5.forgotten
IV.
1. Have painted
2. Has stolen
3. Have swum
4. Have bought
5. Has ridden
6. Has seen
V.
SELL
I
You
He
She
It
We
You
They
AFFIRMATIVE
I have sold
You have sold
He has sold
She has sold
It has sold
We have sold
You have sold
They have sold
NEGATIVE
I haven’t sold
You haven’t sold
He hasn’t sold
She hasn’t sold
It hasn’t sold
We haven’t sold
you haven’t sold
They haven’t sold
INTERROGATIVE
Have I sold?
Have You sold?
Has he sold?
Has she sold?
Has it sold?
Have we sold?
Have you sold?
Have they sold?
INTERROG. NEG.
Haven’t I sold?
Haven’t you sold?
Hasn’t he sold?
Hasn’t she sold?
Hasn’t it sold?
Haven’t we sold?
Haven’t you sold?
Haven’t they sold?
129
IX.
1. Yes
2. probably not
3. probably not
4. Yes
5. Yes
X.
1. has forgotten
2. has lost
3. has received
4. have quitted
5. has stopped
6. has asked
XI.
130
1. For five months
2. Since March
3. Since the beginning of the year
4. For about two years
5. Since they were friends
6. For a long time
7. Since 1987
8. For a year
9. Since I came here
10. For 9 hours a day
11. Since last night
12. For a week
13. For three years
14. For 7 hours
XII.
1. yet
2. already
3. just
4.ever
5. yet.
6.yet
7. already
8. for
ANSWERS
4
I. READING
A.
The new law would stop executions until 2009. It
would allow time to finish a report in 2008. It might
say that the law should change.
... there could be executions in 2009.
They are afraid that the state could kill the wrong
people. They say California might have the same
problems as other states.
B. PAIR WORK
( 3 )
( 5 )
( 2 )
( 6 )
( 1 )
( 4 )
II. CROSSWORD PUZZLE
3
6
... they should not have been.
...measure that would suspend California’s death penalty law for three years.
Assembly Bill 1121 would put executions in the state
on hold until January 1, 2009. The bill’s authors say
that would give lawmakers time to study a review of
the state’s death penalty procedures...
...which must be completed by December 31, 2007.
Legislators and criminal justice experts would have
until 2008...
...the moratorium would end January 1, 2009.
...they fear an innocent person may be wrongly executed under current state procedures. “We can’t gurantee...
...she wouldn’t be surprised if a review of California’s
procedures reveal a troubled system similar to that in
Illinois.
...the number of cases that should be commuted...
A
Y
I
Some people say California should stop all executions. They should do this until they are sure they
are right.
Original Title: Moratorium on Executions in California Proposed
M
2
1
G
S
H
C
E T
O
H
A
V
O
4
M
U
L
5
U
S
T
L
D
D
III. WRITING
A.
1. must have a passport.
2. don´t have to bring books.
3. must have a tourist visa.
4. must not bring a gun.
5. must not bring fresh fruit into the United
States.
6. don´t have to bring your pets.
B.
1. should check your passport before
departure.
2. should check that you have your ticket
with you.
3. should bring local money.
4. should arrive at the airport at least two hours
before departure.
5. shouldn´t bring your pets.
131
C. Answer may vary.
1. could be an astronaut.
2. may be a doctor.
3. might be a fireman.
4. could be a dancer.
5. may be a baseball player.
D. Free response.
IV. GRAMMAR
1. must
2. should
3. may
4. couldn´t
5. must
6. might
7. should
8. mustn´t
132
LENGUA ADICIONAL AL ESPAÑOL III
Cuadernillo de Procedimientos para el Aprendizaje
Derechos Reservados
Número de registro en trámite
2007 Secretaría de Educación Pública/Dirección General del Bachillerato

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