spanish midterm 2008

Comentarios

Transcripción

spanish midterm 2008
Final ‘09 grammar
Loeb 1
SPANISH 2 FINAL 2009!!
Refresher Chapter
Greetings and Introductions
Hola
Adiós
¿Cómo está usted?
¿Cómo estás?
¿Qué tal?
Estoy…
(No muy) Bien, ¿y tú / usted?
Regular
Terrible
Gracias
De nada
Bienvenido (a)
Te/le presento a…
Buenas tardes
Buenas noches
Buenos días
¿Cómo te llamas?
¿De dónde eres?
El gusto es mío
Encantado(a)
Me llamo…
Se llama…
Soy de…
Hello
Goodbye
How are you? (formal)
How are you? (informal)
How’s it going?
I am…
(Not very) Well & you (formal / informal)
So-so
Terrible/Awful
Thank you
You’re welcome
Welcome
Let me introduce you ((in)formal) to…
Good afternoon
Good evening
Good morning
What is your name?
Where are you from?
The pleasure is mine.
Delighted
My name is…
His/Her name is…
I am from…
The Verb “Gustar”
Me gusta
Te gusta
Le gusta
Gustar – To like
Nos gusta
Os gusta
Les gusta
Example/ I like to swim.
Me gusta nadar
When you want tot talk about thing people like, change gustar to make the singular or
plural form of those things.
Singular
o IOP + gusta + thing
Plural
o IOP + gustan + thing
Example/
We like the salad.
Nos gusta la ensalada.
We like the salads.
Nos gustan las ensaladas.
When you want to emphasize or identify the person you are talking about use:
A + name/prounoun/noun + gustar + infinitive
Example/
Final ‘09 grammar
Loeb 2
A Elena le gusta nadar.
Elena likes to swim.
A él le gusta escribir.
He likes to write.
Adjective agreement
Every time you make a sentence, it should agree in gender and number in which they
describe.
Example:
El chico guapo
The good looking boy
La chica guapa
The good looking girl
Los chicos guapos
The good looking boys
Las chicas guapas
The good looking girls
The verb “Tener”
The verb tener expresses what you have. You also use tener when you are talking
about how old a person is.
Forms of tener:
Yo tengo
Tú tienes
Él
Ella
tienes
Usted
Nosotros(as) tenemos
Vosotros(as) tenéis
Ellos
Ellas
tienen
ustedes
The verb “Ser” and “Estar”
The verb ser means to be. It is often seen with a subject pronoun. Forms of ser:
Yo soy - I am
Nosotros(as) somos – We are
Tú eres - You are
Vosotros(as) sois - You all (in spain) are
Él
Ella
es
Usted
He / She is : You are
Ellos
Ellas
son
Ustedes
They / You all are
Ser is used to:
Describe essential character
o Ella es alta
To express origin and nationality
o Ser + de + place
 Soy de Columbia
o Tú eres española
To express profession
o Mi hermano es medico
Final ‘09 grammar
Loeb 3
To express time and date
o Son las diez
o Es el tres de marzo
Estar also means to be.
Estoy
Estás
Está
Estamos
Estáis
Están
Estar is used to:
describe location or position
o El libro está en la mesa.
To express health, emotional or physical conditions
o José está triste
o Maria está enferma
o Estamos consadas.
To express change from a previous condition
o La sopa está caliente
In the present progressive
o Estoy estudiando español.
Interrogative (Question) words.
Adónde - To where
Cómo - How
Cuál(es) - Which ones / what
Cuándo - When
Dónde - Where
Por qué - Why
Qué - What
Quién(es) – Who
Telling Time
When someone asks you what time it is they might say:
¿Qué hora es?
Which means What time is is?
To answer use
Son las + hour + y + minuets
If it is a one o’clock time use
Es la una + y + minuets
When the minuet hand is on the right hand side of the clock (1-30 min) use the hour and
exact minuets.
Example:
It is 11:12
Son las once y doce.
If the minuet hand is on the left hand side of the clock (31-59 min) use the next hour
minus the minuets till that hour.
Son las + next hour + menos + minuets till that next hour
Example:
It is 2:45.
Son las tres menos quince
Final ‘09 grammar
Loeb 4
** another way of saying 15 for time is cuarto.
** another way for saying 30 for time is media.
To talk about when something will happen use:
¿A qué hora + verb + event. – At what time is _____?
Example:
¿A qué hora es la clase? – At what time is the class?
To answer
A las ocho de la mañana. – At 8:00am.
To say something occurs at a specific time use:
A + la(s) + time
Example/
Yo estudio a las tres y cuarto.
o I study at 3:15.
Elena sale a la una y media.
o Elena leaves at 1:30.
AM and PM
To differentiate between morning, afternoon and night use:
De la mañana
o In the morning
De la tarde
o In the afternoon
De la noche
o In the evening
The verb “ir”
The verb ir is used to express where some one is going. It means to go. Here are the
forms of ir:
Ir – To go
Voy
Vamos
Vas
Vais
Va
Van
Example of ir:
I go to the store.
Yo voy la tienda.
Remember:
a + el = al
o Vamos al cine.
 We go to the movie theater.
Ir+a+infinitive
o Expresses what’s going to happen.
 Voy a leer mi novela
 I’m going to read my novel
Ir is often followed by the preposition a to express motion towards a place.
o Tú vas a parque.
 You go to the park.
Present tense –ar –er and –ir verbs
To say what you are doing right now use the present tense.
Final ‘09 grammar
Loeb 5
To form, drop the –AR, -ER, -IR from the end of the verb and add the appropriate
endings.
-AR verb endings
Llego
Llegas
Llega
Llegar – to arrive
Llegamos
Llegáis
Llegan
– ER verb ending:
Como
Comes
Come
Comer – to eat
Comemos
Coméis
Comen
-IR verb endings:
Vivo
Vives
Vive
Vivir – to live
Vivimos
Vivís
Viven
Stem Changers in the Present Tense
E  IE stem-changers
Some verbs change from e to ie. Verbs in the present only stem change in the boot!!
Pensar – To think / to plan
Pienso
Pensamos
Piensas
Pensáis
Piensa
Piensan
More E  IE stem changers
Cerrar – to close
Entender – to understand
Empezar – to begin/start
Comenzar – to begin/start
Querer – to want
Preferir – to prefer
O UE Stem Changers
Some verbs stem change from o to ue. Verbs in the present only change in the boot!!
Costar – to cost
Cuesta
Costamos
Cuestas
Costáis
Cuesta
Cuestan
More O  UE Stem Changers
Costar – to cost
Dormer – to sleep
Final ‘09 grammar
Loeb 6
Encontrar – to find/to meet
Poder – to be able/can
Recorder – to remember
Volver – to return/ come back
E  I Stem Changers
Some verbs stem change from e to i. Verbs in the present only change in the boot!!
Pedir – to ask for/order
Pido
Pedimos
Pides
Pedís
Pide
Piden
More E  I Stem Changers
Competir – to compete
Repetir – to repeat
Servir – to serve
U  UE Stem Changers
Jugar is the only U  UE stem changer needed to know. It only changes in the boot!!
Jugar – To play
Juego
Jugamos
Juegas
Jugáis
Juega
Juegan
Irregular Yo Verbs in the Present
Some verbs are only irregular in the yo form.
Every other form of the verb follows the normal conjugation rules.
The “Go-go’s”
These verbs take the ending –go in the yo forms.
Traer – to bring
Traigo
Traemos
Traes
Traéis
Trae
Traen
o Caer – to fall caigo
o Hacer – to do/make hago
o Poner – to put/place pongo
o Salir – to leave/go out salgo
Not all verbs have irregular yo forms.
Others:
Dar – to give  doy
Saber - to know  sé
Ver – to see  veo
Conocer – to know conozco
Frequency Adverbs
Final ‘09 grammar
Rara vez – Rarely
Siempre – Always
Nunca - Never
Loeb 7
placed before the verb
Mucho – Often placed after the verb
Poco - A little
A veces – Sometimes
De vez en cuando - Once in a while can go before or after the verb
Todos los días -Every day
Unit 1 Chapter 1
Regular Preterite
The preterite tense is used when you want to talk about things that happened in the
past.
To form; remove the –ar, -ir, or –er from the infinitive and add the appropriate endings.
-Ar Verb Endings.
é
aste
ó
Examples
 I cleaned my room
Yo limpé mi cuarto
 You washed the plates.
Tú lavaste los platos
amos
asteis
aron
-Er and –Ir verbs take the same endings.
í
este
ió
Examples
 I drank the milk
Yo bebí la leche
 They received the letter
Ellas recibieron la carta.
imos
Isteis
Ieron
-Gar, -Car, -Zar Verbs in Preterite.
Verbs that end in –gar, -car, or –zar have irregular yo forms in the preterite. Every other
form (other than yo) follows the normal conjugation rules.
The spelling change is to preserve the original sound of the verb.
-Gar Verbs
The yo form changes from ggu.
Jugar – to play 
Jugué
Jugamos
Jugaste Jugasteis
Jugó
Jugaron
Final ‘09 grammar
Loeb 8
More –gar verbs
 Llegar – to arrive
Llegué
 Pagar – to pay
Pagué
-Car Verbs
Yo form changes from cqu.
Sacar – to take
Sacamos
Sacasteis
Sacaron
Saqué
Sacaste
Sacó
More –car verbs
 Buscar – to look for/search
Busqué
 Practicar – to practice
Practiqué
 Tocar – to touch/play an instrument
Toqué
-Zar Verbs
Yo form changes zc
Almorcé
Almorzaste
Almorzó
Almorzar – to eat lunch
Almorzamos
Almorzasteis
Almorzaron
More –zar verbs
 Empezar – to begin/start
Empecé
 Comenzar – to begin/start
Comencé
The Big 5
The big 5 refers to five verbs in the preterite that are completely irregular. These five are
ir , ser, hacer, dar, and ver.
Ir – to go
Fui
Fuimos
Fuiste Fuisteis
Fue
Fueron
Ser – To be
Fui
Fuimos
Fuiste Fuisteis
Fue
Fueron
Ver – to see
Vi
Vimos
Viste Visteis
Vio
Vieron
Unit 1 Chapter 2
Irregular Preterite Endings and stems
Hacer – to do/make
Hice
Hicimos
Hiciste Hicisteis
Hizo
Hicieron
Dar – To give
Di
Dimos
Diste Visteis
Dio
Dieron
Final ‘09 grammar
Loeb 9
Irregular Preterite verbs have a new set of endings especially for them. These verbs
change their spelling and do not have accents.
The endings
e
iste
o
imos
isteis
ieron
The verbs and their stems
Andar (to walk)  anduvEstar (to be)  estuvPoder (to be able/can)  pudPoner (to put/place)  pusQuerer (to want)  quisSaber (to know)  supTener (to have)  tuvVenir (to come)  vinEx/
Pude
Pudiste
Pudo
Poder – to be able/can
Pudimos
Pudisteis
Pudieron
* J – Stems
These irregular verbs take the irregular preterite endings but they drop the “I” in the ellos
form.
J-stem verbs
Decir (to say/tell) dijTraer (to bring/carry)  trajConducir (to drive)  condujProducir (to produce)  produjTraducir (to translate)  traduj-
Example/
Decir (to say/tell)
Dije
Dijimos
Dijiste Dijisteis
Dijo
dijeron
Unit 1 Chapter 3
Saber vs Conocer
Both verbs mean “to know” but are used in different situations.
Saber
In Present
 To know fact or information
o No sé la respuesta.  I don’t know the answer.
o Sé donde vive Maria.  I know where Maria lives.
o Raúl sabe el número de telefóno de Juan.  Raul knows Juan phone
number.
 How to do something (followed by infinitive)
o Marta sabe hablar español.  Marta knows how to speak Spanish.
o Yo sé jugar balencesto.  I know how to play basketball.
In Preterite
Final ‘09 grammar

Loeb 10
To learn or find out,
o Yo supe el secreto ayer.  I learned the secret yesterday.
Present
Preterite
Sé
Sabemos
Sabes Sabéis
Sabe Saben
Supe
Supimos
Supiste Supisteis
Supo
Supieron
Conocer
In Present
 To know a person, place, or thing (as a whole)
o Conozco a tu madre  I know your mom.
o Conocemos España muy bien  We know Spain very well.
o Ellas conocen las matemáticas.  They know math.
In Preterite
 To meet someone for the 1st time
o
Julio conoció a su novia en Costa Rica.  Julio met his girlfriend in Cost
Rica.
Present
Preterite
Conozco Conocemos
Conocí
Conocimos
Conoces Conocéis
Conociste Conocisteis
Conoce
Conocen
Conoció
conocieron
Demonstrative Adjectives
There are three types of DA’s in Spanish
 Points out someone/something near the speaker (this/these)
 Points out someone/something far away from the speaker (that/those:near)
 Points out something at a greater distance from the speaker (that/those: over
there - far away)
They must agree in gender and number with the nouns they describe.
**Exception to normal rules**
 DA’s are places before the nouns they describe.
This/These : Near Speaker
Masculine Feminine
Sing. Este
Esta
Plural Estos
Estas
That/Those : Far away
Masculine Feminine
Sing
Ese
Esa
Plural Esos
Esas
That/Those : At a great distance
Masculine Feminine
Sing.
Aquel
Aquella
Plural Aquellos Aquellas
Rhyme
 This has a t, and that just an e and aquel is so far away it’s the one you can’t
see.
Stem Changers in Preterite
Final ‘09 grammar
Loeb 11
rd
Stem changers in the Preterite in change spelling in the 3 person singular and plural.
Present tense stem changers change in the boot where preterite verbs stem change in
the flip-flip.
**Stem changing –IR verbs in the present stem change in the preterite.
EI
Pedí
Pediste
Pidió
Pedir – to ask for / order
Pedimos
Pedisteis
Pideron
Competir – to compete
Diveritr – to have fun
Mentir – to lie
Preferir – to prefer
Servir – to serve
OU
Dormí
Dormiste
Durmió
Dormir – to sleep
Dormimos
Dormisteis
Durmieron
Morir – to die
Some verbs in the preterite change from I  Y. these verbs also have accents on the i’s
in the tú, nosotros, and vosotros forms. This is because Spanish doesn’t like to have
multiple vowels next to eachother.
IY
Leí
Leíste
Leyó
Leer – to read
Leímos
Leísteis
leyeron
Creí
Creíste
Creyó
Creer – to believe
Creímos
Creísteis
Creyeron
Oí
Oíste
Oyó
Caer – to fall
Unit 2 Chapter 1
Possessive Adjectives
Oír – To hear
Oímos
Oísteis
Oyeron
Final ‘09 grammar
Loeb 12
PA’s show the personal relationship of processions . Like all adjectives they must agree
in gender and number to the nouns they describe.
Short Form
Mi(s) – my
Tu(s) – your (informal)
Ex/


Nuestro(a) (as,os) – our
Vuestro(a) (os,as) – your (Spain)
Su(s) – his, her, its, their (formal)
My book  mi libro
Our houses  nuestras casas
PA’s also have a long form. This form is more expressive and is placed after the noun
they describe.
Long form
Mío(a) (os,as) – of mine
Nuestro(a) (os,as) – of ours
Tuyo(a) (os,as) – of yours (informal)
Vuestro(a) (os,as) – of yours (Spain)
Suyo(a) (os,as) – of his, hers, yours, its theirs.
Ex/
 A book of mine  un libro mío
 Some houses of ours Unas casas nuestras
Reflexive Verbs and Pronouns
Reflexive verbs can be identified on vocab sheets when you see se attached to an
infinitive. Reflexive verbs describe what people are doing to themselves.
All reflexive verbs must be joined with a reflexive pronoun. They are used to indicate
that the subject of the sentence receives the action of the verb.
Reflexive pronouns
Me  myself
Nos  ourselves
Te  yourself
Os  yourselves (in Spain)
Se  himself, herself, yourself (formal)
Se  Themselves, Yourselves
Example:
Me ducho
Te duchas
Se ducha
Ducharse  to shower (oneself)
Nos duchamos
Os ducháis
Se Duchan
You can place these pronouns before the conjugated verb or after an infinitive.
Quiero levantarme temprano.
Me quiero levantar temprano
(I want to wake up early)
When you are using reflexive pronouns, there is no need for possessive adjectives (mi,
tu, su, etc). They include the concept of procession.
Reflexive verbs follow normal conjugations rules, watch out because some are stem
changers! (sonreírse – ei)
Imperfect Tense + Irregulars
Final ‘09 grammar
Loeb 13
Both the imperfect and preterite tenses are used to talk about past. It can get confusing
but think:
 The imperfect is used to describe the scenery of a play while the preterite is used
to express the events or actions that occur during the play.
Use the imperfect tense to talk about:
 Background events in a story
 Repeated action in the past
 How old someone was
 Weather in the past
 Time in the past
Endings
-AR
aba ábamos
abas abais
aba aban
-ER and -IR
ía íamos
ías íais
ía ían
Cantar – to sing
Salir – to leave
Salía Salíamos
Salías Salíais
Salía Salían
Cantaba Cantábamos
Cantabas Santabais
Cantaba Cantaban
The imperfect can have the English equivalent to use to or was/were + verb-ing
Ex
 Mi abuelo siempre decía chistes.
o My grandma use to always to joke.
OR
o My grandmas was always telling jokes.
There are only 3 irregulars in the preterite.; ir, ser, and ver.
Ir – to go
Iba Íbamos
Ibas Ibais
Iba iban
Ser – to be
Ver – to see
Era
Eramos
Eras Erais
Era Eran
Veía
Veíamos
Veías Veíais
Veía Veían
Haber
 Present – Hay (there is/are)
 Preterite – Hubo (there was/were)  used more often than imperfect.
 Imperfect – Había (there was/were)
Final ‘09 grammar
Loeb 14
Unit 2 Chapter 2
Present and Past Progressive






Estoy Estamos
Estás Estáis
Está Están
Present
o Used to say what someone is doing right now
o To form:
 Present tense of estar + gerund
Past
o Used to tell what someone was doing
Estaba Estábamos
o To Form:
Estabas Estabais
 Imperfect tense estar + gerund
Estaba Estaban
To form the Gerund
o –AR verbs
 drop –ar and add –ando
 ex/ hablar  hablando
o –ER and –IR verbs
 drop –er/-ir and add –iendo
 ex/ comer  comiendo
Irregular gerunds
o ER/IR verbs sometimes use –yendo instead of -iendo
 Caer  cayendo
 Creer  creyendo
 Leer  leyendo
 Oír  oyendo
 Traer  trayendo
 Ir  yendo
o E  I spelling change
 Decir  diciendo
 Pedir  pidiendo
 Repetir  repeitiendo
 Servir  Sirviendo
 Venir  Viniendo
o O  U spelling change
 Dormir  durmiendo
 Porir  muriendo
 Poder  pudiendo
*** To make negative just add “no” before form of estar
*** Reflexive pronouns are placed before the estar
Preterite vs. Imperfect
 Preterite
o Used to describe completed events
 Él maestro abrió el libro
o To descrive a past action with a specific beginning or end point
 La chica empezó a estudiar
o Hint verbs
 Empezar – to start
 Comenzar – to start
 Terminar – to end
 Imperfect
o To talk about past actions WITHOUT saying when they started or ended
 Nosotros dormíamos
o To talk about time in the past
Final ‘09 grammar
Loeb 15
 Eran las once de la mañana
Describe weather
 Hacía sol
o Describe habitual or repeated actions
 Todos los sábados, yo iba a la casa de mi abuela.
o Describe simultaneous actions
 Cuando éramos chicos, mirábamos las tiras cómicas.
o To tell someones age in the past
 Tenía ocho años.
Both in same sentence
o Use the IMPERFECT to tell what was going on in the background and
sue the PRETERITE to express the specific even that occurred.
 Yo leía cuando me madre llegó.
o


Nos enamoramos cuando eramos jóvenes.


Useful hint words
oPreterite helping words
 Ayer – yesterday
 Anoche – last night
 Un día – one day
 Anteayer – the day before yesterday
 Un domingo – one Sunday
 El lunes pasado – last Monday
 El año pasado – last year
 Una vez – one time\
 De repente – suddenly
 En seguida – at once
oImperfect helping words
 Por lo general – in general
 Generalment – generally
 A menudo – often
 Siempre – always
 Todos los días/ cada día – everyday
 Muchas veces – many times
 Con frecuencia – with frequency
In general
oThe preterite is used to talk about completed events in the past
oThe imperfect is used to describe the past
Ordinal Numbers
 The ordinal numbers in Spanish only go up to 10. They must agree in gender
and number of which the noun they describe
 They are placed BEFORE the noun.
1st  primero (a)
2nd  Segundo (a)
3rd  tercero (a)
4th  cuarto (a)
5th  quinto (a)
6th  sexto(a)
Final ‘09 grammar
Loeb 16
7  séptimo (a)
8th  octavo (a)
9th  noveno (a)
10th  décimo (a)
th
 Note: primero and tercero become primer and tercer before masculine sing. nouns.
Unit 2 Chapter 3
See pronoun packet from Mrs. Cullen
Unit 3 Chapter 1
The verb “Deber”
 This verb means to should.
Debo Debemos
Debes Debéis
Debe Deben
Formal Commands + irregulars
 To form Ud. Commands
o -AR verbs
 take the yo form of the verb in present tense
 drop the “o”
 add an “e”
 ex/ sentar  yo siento  siente  Sit.
o -ER and –IR verbs
 take the yo form of the verb in present tense
 drop the “o”
 add an “a”
 ex/ Comer  Yo como  Coma  Eat
 To form Uds. Commands
o -AR verbs
 take the yo form (present tense)
 drop the “o”
 add an “en”
 ex/ Bailar  Bailo  Bailen  Dance
o –ER and -IR verbs
 Take the yo form (present tense)
 Drop the “o”
 Add “an”
 Tener  Tengo  Tengan  Have
 Irregulars
o Dar  Dé / Den
oEstar  Esté/ Estén
oIr  Vaya / Vayan
oSabar  Sepa / Sepan
oSer  Sea / Sean
 Don’t forget about –gar –car –zar verbs!! Same rules apply with commands
oG gu
oC  qu
oZ  c
 To make negative just add a “no” in front of the command.
Commands and Pronoun Placement
 Affirmative Commands
oPronoun must be attached to the end of the command.
oAccents are added to preserve sound
Final ‘09 grammar
Loeb 17


nd
Placed on the 2 to last syllable
 Levanta
Baila
Necesita
 To determine, count back 2 syllables, placed the accent of the
vowel in the 2nd to last syllable.
 If you find a diphthong (2 vowels in 1 syllable) place on stronger
vowel (A E O)
 If the diphthong contains 2 weak/ strong vowels, place on
the vowel you hear most.
oEx/ Co – ma (las)  Cómalas
2
1
Negative Commands
o Pronouns are placed before the command and after the “no”
o No accents are needed.
 Ex/ Don’t eat them (strawberries)  No las coma.
Unit 3 Chapter 2
Affirmative and negative tú commands + irregulars
 Affirmative
o Used with family, friends, and those younger
o Regular tú commands take the same form as the “él, ella, ud” form of the
present tense verb
 Ex/ Caminar  él camina  Camina
o Irregulars
 Hacer  Haz
 Ser  Sé
 Ir  Ve
 Decir  Di
 Poner  Pon
 Salir  Sal
 Tener  Ten
 Venir  Ven
 Negative
o To form
 Take the yo form in the present tense
 Change the O to ES for –ar verbs
 Change the O to AS for –er/-ir verbs
 Add no before command
 Ex/ Comer  Yo como  No Comas
o Irregulars
 Dar  No des
 Estar  No estés
 Ir  No vayas
 Saber  No sepas
 Ser  No sea
o Gar, Car, Zar rules only apply for negative Tú commands
Adverbs ending in –mente
 To form
o Add mente to the feminine form of an adjective
 Ex/ desafortunado  desunfortunada  desunfortunadamente
o If an adjective doesn’t have a feminine form, just add mente to the
singular form
 Ex/ inteligente  inteligentemente
Final ‘09 grammar


Loeb 18
Don’t forget accents
o They are placed where they would normally be on the adjective
 Ex/ fácil  fácilmente
Adverb vocab
o Felizmente – happily
o Inmediatament – immediately
o Normalmente – normally
o Rápidament – quickly
o Recientemente – recently
o Típicamente – typically
o Tranquilamente – calmly
o Frecuentemente – frequently
Unit 3 Chapter 3
The verb “Doler”
Doler (oue) = to hurt
 When you want to describe what hurts, use this verb.
 This verb always is used with IOP’s. The IOP expressed who is
hurting
 This verb Functions like gustar
Me Nos
Te Os
Le Les
Me duele(n) Nos duele(n)
Te duele(n) Os duele(n)
Le duele(n)
Les duele(n)

o Ex / Me duele la cabeza  My head hurts.
Duelen is for when more than one thing is hurting
o Ex / Me duelen los tobillos  My ankles hurt
*** Possessives are not needed with this verb, IOP’s express the idea of possession
Unit 5
The future tense + irregulars
 To form
o Add the following ending to the infinitive of any verb

é emos
ás éis
á án

 Ex/ Llegar  llegaráron = They will arrive
Irregulars
o Querer  Querro Saber  Sabro Caber  Cabro Poner  Pondro Tener  Tendro Salir  Saldro Venir  Vendro Decir  Diro Hacer  Har-
Final ‘09 grammar
o * Haber  Habrá
 hay – present
 hubo – preterite
 había – imperfect
Por vs. Para
 Use Por to express:
o a duration of time
 Trabajo pro ocho horas
o Movement through or along
 Camino por la cuidad
o Gratitude/thanks
 Gracias port u ayuda.
o Means of communication / transportation
 Te llamo por teléfono
 Viajamos por tren
o Exchange/subsitiution or value/cost
 Pagamos mucho por el coche
 Enseñe la clase por la señora Martinez
o To express cause or reason for an action but no purpose
 Te felicito port us buenas notas
 Me caí por la nieve (I fell down because of the snow)
o Idiomatic expressions
 Por dentro
 Por fuera
 Por ejemplo
 Por eso
 Por favor
 Por fin
 Por la general
 Por los menos
 Por supuesto
 Por primera vez
 Use Para to express:
o “in order to + verb (infinitive)
 Estudio para sacar buenas notas
o Movement towards a destination
 Tomaron el tren para Madrid
o Recipient of an action/object
 El regalo es para Francisco
o Future deadlines
 Tengo que terminar el proyecto para el lunes
o Purpose, intention, use
 La mochila es para los libros.
Loeb 19

Documentos relacionados