inglés técnico ii - Instituto Superior Tecnológico San Ignacio de

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inglés técnico ii - Instituto Superior Tecnológico San Ignacio de
Instituto de Educación Superior
“San Ignacio de Monterrico”
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REVIEW OF SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
El Presente Simple indica básicamente acciones o estados permanentes así como
rutinas y costumbres.




I work eight hours a day. (Yo trabajo ocho horas al día.)
Dr. Stephens works at a cancer center. (El Dr. Stephens trabaja en un centro de
cáncer.)
My mother doesn’t eat pork. (Mi madre no come cerdo.)
Do you live in Callao? (¿Vives en el Callao?)
STRUCTURE

AFFIRMATIVE FORM
Se forma en inglés con el infinitivo del verbo sin 'to' (forma básica) para todas las
personas, a excepción de la tercera persona singular (he, she, it) que añade una -s final.


ASSEMBLE
I assemble
You assemble
He assembles
She assembles
It assembles
ENSAMBLAR
Yo ensamblo
Tú ensamblas
Él ensambla
Ella ensambla
Ello ensambla
We assemble
You assemble
They assemble
Nosotros ensamblamos
Ustedes ensamblan
Ellos ensamblan
Cuando el verbo termina en -s, ss, -sh, -o, -ch, -x se añade a la
tercera persona singular la
terminación '-es'.
I wash / Yo lavo
He washes / Él lava
Cuando termina en 'y' precedida
de consonante cambia la 'y' por
'ies'.
I try / Yo intento
He tries / Él intenta
 INTERROGATIVE FORM
Auxiliar+ sujeto + verbo en la forma básica + complemento +?
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Para realizar preguntas en el Presente Simple de los verbos ordinarios utilizamos el
auxiliar DO para las personas: I/YOU/WE/THEY y DOES para HE/SHE/IT.
Ex. DO YOU STUDY COMPUTING? (¿Estudias Computación? / ¿Estudias tú
Computación?)

NEGATIVE FORM
Sujeto + auxiliar + not + verbo en la forma básica + complemento
El auxiliar DO y DOES se unen a la partícula negativa de la siguiente manera:
DO NOT = DON´T
DOES NOT = DOESN’T
Ex. HE DOES NOT HAVE A PRINTER. HE DOESN’T HAVE A PRINTER. (Él no tiene una
impresora.)
EXERCISE No. 1

Conjugate the verbs.
REMOVE
ELIMINAR
I remove
Yo elimino
BACK UP
I
You
You
He
He
She
She
We
We
You
You
They
They
STUDY
HAVE
TENER
I
I have
Yo tengo
You
You have
He
He has
She
She has
We
We have
You
You have
They
They have
Él tiene
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
Write sentences. Translate.
1. He / his homework (DO)
He does his homework.
Él hace su tarea.
2. We / to the computer room (GO)
3. She / a new web camera (HAVE)
4. The engineers / the new versions of the programs (RUN)
5. The programmer / the project file (DOWNLOAD)
6.
I / my graphics in color (PRINT)
7. The computer laboratory / twenty-four hours a day. (OPEN)
8. The students / the files in their PCs (SAVE)
9.
Charlie / e-mail messages to his friends in Canada (SEND)
10. My teacher / a laptop (USE)
EXERCISE No. 2

Change to interrogative and negative form. Translate.
1. YOU STUDY COMPUTING.

Do you study Computing?
You don’t study Computing.
Tú estudias Computación.
¿Estudias Computación?
Tú no estudias Computación.
2. THE ANTIVIRUS PROGRAMS DETECT THOSE VIRUSES.
3. PATRICK AND EDITH ASSEMBLE YOUR COMPUTER.
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4. THE GRAPHIC DESIGNER ATTACHES THE IMAGES.
5. THE PROGRAMMER WORKS IN THAT COMPANY.

Use short answers.
1. DO YOU STUDY AT SIDEM INSTITUTE?

Yes, I do.
2. DOES SIDEM INSTITUTE TEACH COMPUTING?
3. DO YOU HAVE A COMPUTER?
4. DO COMPUTERS USE A BINARY CODE (1/0)?
5. DOES “RAM” MEAN “READ -ONLY MEMORY”?
EXERCISE No. 3
REVIEW OF THE COMPUTER PARTS

Name the parts of the computer shown below.
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SIMPLE PAST TENSE
El tiempo Pasado Simple se utiliza para expresar acciones que comenzaron y
terminaron en el pasado.
A. SPELLING RULES FOR SIMPLE PAST TENSE OF REGULAR VERBS
En el tiempo pasado, los verbos regulares presentan la terminación –ED. Sin embargo,
para formar el pasado se deben considerar las siguientes reglas:
I.
Write the past tense (regular technical verbs).
VERB
1. ASSEMBLE
2. ATTACH
3. BOOT
4. BROWSE
5. CHAT
6. CONFIGURE
7. COMPRESS
8. DELETE
9. DISPLAY
10. DECODE
11. DECIPHER
SPANISH
PAST
ASSEMBLED
ensamblar
adjuntar
arrancar, autoarrancar,
iniciar
hojear, rastrear, ojear
charlar, conversar
(en línea)
configurar
comprimir
borrar
visualizar
decodificar, descifrar
descifrar, decodificar
SPANISH
ENSAMBLÓ
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12. DEBUG
13. DOWNLOAD
14. EXIT
15. FORMAT
16. INFECT
17. BOOKMARK
18. BACK UP
19. BACKSPACE
20. FAX
21. FILE
22. LOG IN
23. LOG OFF
24. PRINT
25. REMOVE
26. SAVE
27. SCAN
28. STORE
29. SURF
30. UPLOAD
31. UPDATE
depurar (localizar y
corregir errores en un
programa)
descargar
salir
formatear
infectar
marcar (una página)
hacer una copia de
seguridad / respaldo
retroceder
faxear
archivar
hacer conexión,
comenzar la sesión
terminar la conexión,
salir, cerrar la sesión
imprimir
eliminar
guardar
escanear, explorar
almacenar (datos)
navegar (en Internet)
cargar (subir, copiar)
actualizar, poner al día
B. IRREGULAR VERBS
Existen otros verbos que en general no forman el pasado por - ed o según la regla. Son
los llamados Verbos Irregulares.
Ejm:


go (gou)
run (rán)
went (uént)
ran (rén)
fué (de ir)
ejecutó (un programa)
VERBOS QUE
TERMINAN EN:
COMO SE FORMA:
e
Añadir
Consonante + y
Cambiar y por i, entonces añadir –ed
–d
Una sola vocal + una vocal Duplicar la consonante y añadir –ed
en sílaba tónica
(menos x, w ó y)
[Otros]
[Añadir –ed
EJEMPLOS:
acquire - acquired
classify - classified
transfer - transferred
check - checked
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II. Write the past tense (irregular technical verbs).
VERB
1. INPUT
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
RUN
SEND
SET UP
SHUT DOWN
UNDO
REDO
SPANISH
ingresar, introducir
(datos, información)
ejecutar
enviar
instalar
apagar (equipo)
deshacer
rehacer
PAST
INPUT
SPANISH
INGRESÓ
C. CONJUGATION
ASSEMBLE
ENSAMBLAR
I assembled
You assembled
He assembled
She assembled
It assembled
Yo ensamblé
Tú ensamblaste
Él ensambló
Ella ensambló
Ello ensambló
We assembled
You assembled
They assembled
Nosotros ensamblamos
Ustedes ensamblaron
Ellos ensamblaron
D. STRUCTURE
AFFIRMATIVE
(Subject + past Tense of verb + complement)
She shut down the computer correctly. Ella apagó la computadora correctamente.
INTERROGATIVE
(Did + subject + verb (basic form) + complement + ?)
Did William send a message?
¿Envió Guillermo un mensaje?
FORMA NEGATIVA
(Subject + did + not + verb (basic form) +complement)
Se utiliza el auxiliar DID (PASADO DE Do y Does) seguido de NOT
I didn’t set up the computer.
Yo no instalé la computadora.
La contracción de DID NOT es DIDN’T
E. PAST TENSE EXPRESSIONS
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TIME EXPRESSIONS
Example Sentences
Similar Expressions
YESTERDAY
(ayer)
I ran the program yesterday.
yesterday morning
yesterday evening
yesterday afternoon
Yesterday, I ran the program.
THE DAY BEFORE
YESTERDAY
(anteayer)
He downloaded the software the
day before yesterday.
The day before yesterday, he
downloaded the software.
LAST NIGHT
(anoche)
Avril surfed the Internet last
month.
Last month, Avril surfed the
Internet.
THIS MORNING
(esta mañana)
I printed this morning.
the week before last
(week)
the night before last
(night)
last time
last week
last month
last year
this afternoon
this evening
This morning, I printed.
ONE WEEK AGO
A WEEK AGO
(hace una semana)
We scanned the photo one week one hour ago (an hour
ago.
ago)
one day ago (a day ago)
One week ago, we scanned the one month ago (a month
ago)
photo.
one year ago (a year
ago)
IN 1990
(en 1990)
Mr. Wells finished university in
1990.
in 2002
in March
In 1990, Mr. Wells finished
university.
on March 17, 2007
on Sunday
WHEN + SUBJECT + PAST Paul chatted when he was a
TENSE VERB
student.
when I was born
(CUANDO + SUJETO +
VERBO EN PASADO)
when John finished high
school
When Paul was a student, he
chatted.
when I turned 18
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EXERCISES
I. Build affirmative sentences in Past Tense. Translate.
1. They _________________ those files the day before yesterday.
(download)
2. The engineer _______________ the file to the e-mail message this morning.
(attach)
3. They ______________ the programs last month.
(debug)
4. He _______________ his floppy disks an hour ago.
(format)
5. They _________________ a network to access the Internet in May.
(set up)
II. Change to the affirmative and interrogative form. Translate.
1. Mr. Collins ran the new version of the program.
2. We only chatted for two hours last night.
3. I deleted my e-mail folders by mistake.
4.
The users logged off the system.
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5.
Mr. Flores booted his computer one hour ago.
III. Translate to English.
1. El Sr. Smith configuró mi computadora personal el mes pasado.
2. Ellos rastrearon aquellos sitios Web.
3. Nosotros ingresamos los códigos en la computadora.
4. Roberto envió un mensaje de correo electrónico esta tarde.
5. Yo cerré la sesión a las 5pm.
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THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE
El tiempo Pasado Continuo se emplea para indicar que una acción estaba
desarrollándose en un momento determinado del pasado. No explica si la acción terminó
o no.
A. STRUCTURE
AFFIRMATIVE FORM
Se construye con el PASADO del indicativo del verbo “to be”, WAS/ WERE, y el “presente
participio” (ING = gerundio) del verbo principal.
Ex.
At 8:22, she was eating breakfast.
SUBJECT + WAS/WERE + verb ING + COMPLEMENT
I/he/she/it
You/we/ you/they
WAS
WERE
THEY WERE STUDYING ENGINEERING.
Ellos estaban estudiando ingeniería
NEGATIVE FORM
Se construye con el PASADO del indicativo del verbo “to be”, WAS/ WERE, la partícula
negativa NOTy el “presente participio” (ING = gerundio) del verbo principal.
SUBJECT + WAS/WERE + NOT+ verb ING + COMPLEMENT
THEY WERE NOT STUDYING ENGINEERING.
THEY WEREN’T STUDYING ENGINEERING.
Ellos no estaban estudiando ingeniería.
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Contractions
was not = wasn’t were not = weren’t
INTERROGATIVE FORM
Se construye anteponiendo el PASADO del indicativo del verbo “to be”, WAS/ WERE.
WAS/WERE + SUBJECT+ verb ING + COMPLEMENT?
WERE THEY STUDYING ENGINEERING?
Estaban ellos estudiando ingeniería?
B. SPELLING RULES FOR THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE (-ING)

En general, los verbos terminados en “e” eliminan la “e” y agregan ING:
close – closing.
Una excepción es see (con doble “e”) – seeing.

Los verbos terminados en “consonante + vocal +consonante” (sílaba tónica),
menos x, w, y, duplican la consonante antes de agregar ING: run – running.

Si los verbos acaban en “ie”, el “ie” se cambia a “y”:
lie – lying
die – dying

Si los verbos terminan en “c” se cambia a “ck”.
Picnic - picnicking
EXERCISE No. 1
SCAN – PROGRAM – SURF - OPEN - RETRIEVE - CHAT
 Complete the sentences using WAS /WERE and the correct verb from the
box. Translate.

The students ___were__ __programming__ in Visual Basic when the teacher
entered the computer room.
Los estudiantes estuvieron/estaban programando en Visual Basic cuando el
profesor entró a la sala de cómputo.

While we _________ _____________ the lost files, an error message appeared.
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
Daniel _________
shut down.

While I ________ _______________ on MSN Messenger, the antivirus program
_________ _____________ my computer.

Yesterday at this time, Jessica and I ____________ _______________ the web.
_______________ his e-mails when the Internet connection
EXERCISE No. 2
I. Change the sentences to the negative and interrogative form. Translate.
a. The programmers were retrieving the files via e-mail.
Los programadores estaban recuperando los archivos vía correo electrónico.
 Neg: The programmers weren’t retrieving the files via e-mail.
 Int: Were the programmers retrieving the files via e-mail?
b. Our antivirus program was removing the computer viruses.
c. My Norton antivirus program was scanning a Trojan file.
II. Translate to Spanish.
a. You were clicking and dragging a document.
_______________________________________________________
b. What were you assembling yesterday?
_______________________________________________________
c. Were they using the classic version of Hotmail?
_______________________________________________________
d. Our computer shut down while we were attaching the database to the e-mail
message.
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_______________________________________________________
THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

El tiempo Presente Perfecto Simple se utiliza para expresar acciones que
comenzaron en el pasado y continúan en el presente.
I have studied English for four years. He estudiado inglés durante cuatro años.
(continúo estudiando)

Se emplea también para describir acciones que sucedieron (o no) en un momento
desconocido del pasado.
En este caso usamos las palabras already, yet, ever ó never
I have never had a printer. Nunca he tenido una impresora.
Have you ever been to Rome? ¿Has estado alguna vez en Roma?

El "present perfect" es un tiempo que sirve además para describir acciones que
acaban de suceder en el pasado y que guardan alguna relación con el presente
(acciones recientes).
I have attached a file. Yo he adjuntado un archivo.
A. STRUCTURE
AFFIRMATIVE FORM
Subject + auxiliary (have / has) + past participle of main verb + complement.
She has formatted the hard disk- Ella ha formateado el disco duro.
She’s formatted the hard disk- Ella ha formateado el disco duro.
CONTRACCIONES
I have
=
I've
she has
=
she's
NEGATIVE FORM
Subject + auxiliary (have / has) + not + past participle of main verb + complement.
We have not printed the report – Nosotros no hemos impreso el informe.
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We haven’t printed the report
CONTRACCIONES
have not
=
haven't
has not
=
hasn't
INTERROGATIVE FORM
Auxiliary (have / has) + subject + past participle of main verb + complement ?
Has she saved the programs? - ¿Ha guardado ella los programas?
B. CONJUGATION
PRINT
AFFIRMATIVE
NEGATIVE
INTERROGATIVE
I have printed
I haven't printed
Have I printed?
You have printed
You haven't printed
Have you printed?
He has printed
He hasn't printed
Has he printed ?
She has printed
She hasn't printed
Has she printed?
It has printed
It hasn't printed
Has it printed?
We have printed
We haven't printed
Have we printed?
You have printed
You haven't printed
Have you printed?
They have printed
They haven't printed
Have they printed?
C. SPELLING RULES FOR PAST PARTICIPLE OF REGULAR VERBS
VERBOS TERMINADOS EN:
COMO SE FORMA:
EJEMPLOS:
e
Añadir
Consonante + y
Cambiar y por i, entonces añadir –ed
classify - classified
clasificado
Una sola vocal + una vocal en
sílaba tónica (menos x, w ó y)
Duplicar la consonante y añadir –ed
transfer - transferred
transferido
[Otros]
[Añadir –ed
check – checked
verificado
acquire – acquired
adquirido
–d
El pasado participio de los verbos irregulares debe ser memorizado.
SEND (enviar)
SENT (enviado)
RUN (ejecutar)
RUN (ejecutado)
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D. PAST PARTICIPLE OF TECHNICAL VERBS
COMPLETE:
reenvió, retransmitió
1. FORWARD
infected
2. INFECT
instaló
3. INSTALL
hizo conexión, comenzó la
sesión
4. LOG IN
logged off
5. LOG OFF
imprimido,
impreso
6. PRINT
7. PROGRAM
8. RECORD
programed,
programmed
programó
programed,
programmed
programado
recorded
grabó, registró
recorded
grabado,
registrado
eliminó
9. REMOVE
reiniciar, rearrancar
(una computadora o un
sistema operativo)
10. REBOOT
reparado
11. REPAIR
12. RETRIEVE
retrieved
recuperó
retrieved
actualizó, puso al día
13. UPDATE
cargado,sub
ido
14. UPLOAD
escaneó, examinó, exploró
15. SCAN
saved
16. SAVE
navegado
17. SURF
prendió, encendió
18. SWITCH ON
19. INPUT
20. OUTPUT
21. REDO
22. RUN
input/inputted
output/
outputted
redid
switched on
input/inputted
sacó, transfirió,
transmitió
(información desde una
computadora)
rehizo
ran
redone
run
set up
23. SET UP
sent
24. SEND
cerró, apagó
25. SHUT DOWN
26. UNDO
recuperado
undid
shut down
undone
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COMPLETE:
VERB
27. ASSEMBLE
PAST
SPANISH
PAST
PARTICIPLE
SPANISH
assembled
ensambló
assembled
ensamblado
backspaced
retrocedió
backspaced
retrocedido
28. ATTACH
29. BACK UP
30. BACKSPACE
31. BOOKMARK
32. BOOT
rebotado
33. BOUNCE
34. BROWSE
35. CHAT
borró, despejó
(libró la memoria de
datos o instrucciones)
36. CLEAR
37. CLICK
38. COMPILE
cleared
cliqueó, hizo un clic,
pulsó
cliqueado, hecho
un clic, pulsado
compiló
compilado
39. COMPRESS
calculado
40. COMPUTE
41. CONFIGURE
conectado
42. CONNECT
debugged
43. DEBUG
44. DECIPHER
45. DECODE
46. DELETE
marcó
(número telefónico para
establecer una
conexión)
47. DIAL UP
dialed up
digitalizó
48. DIGITALIZE
49. DISPLAY
50. DOWNLOAD
arrastró y soltó
51. DRAG & DROP
codificó, cifró
52. ENCRYPT
exited
53. EXIT
faxeó, envió por fax
54. FAX
archivado
55. FILE
56. FORMAT
formatted
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E. USE OF PREPOSITIONS“FOR” AND “SINCE”
For significa desde hace. Se usa for con un periodo de tiempo. Ex. a minute, an hour, two
days, three months, a year, etc.
Since significa desde. Se usa since con un punto en el tiempo. Ex. 10 o’clock, August,
2001, yesterday, etc.
EXERCISES
I. Complete with the auxiliary “HAVE” or “HAS” and the prepositions“for” and
“since”. Translate.
Ex. He_has_ bought this software. Él ha comprado este software.
1. The students …….....…….sent email messages ………….two hours.
2. Peter and Mary ……........ printed documents ……….2 pm.
3. The engineer ……....…… worked in that computer laboratory ………. five years.
4. I ..................... dialed up those web addresses ………. this morning.
5. The user ...................... retrieved data from the database ………... yesterday.
II. Write affirmative sentences. Translate.
1. The students/ on the PC (WORK)
The students have worked on the PC.
Los estudiantes han trabajado en la computadora personal.
2. We / the photographs for three hours (DIGITALIZE)
3. I / your homepage (BOOKMARK)
4. The programmer/ the subroutine (EXIT)
5. The engineer and the programmer / the database (DEBUG)
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III. Translate to Spanish.
1. Has the boy surfed the Web for an hour?
2. That user has rebooted his computer.
3. Has the software enabled the user to create illustrations and graphics?
4. The computing students haven’t downloaded the Antivirus program.
5. He has never clicked on the Hotmail icon.
6. The TIVO Digital Video Recorder (DVR) has recorded television programs onto
hard disk drives since 1998.
III. Translate to English.
1. Él no ha escaneado las imágenes.
2. El Señor Smith ha descargado el programa desde hace diez minutos.
3. La profesora de inglés ha reenviado un correo electrónico sobre el “Tiempo
Presente Perfecto”.
4. ¿Han infectado esos virus nuestras computadoras?
5. Yo he tenido este escáner desde el 2004.
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MODALS
(MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS)
Los verbos modales se anteponen a un verbo principal (infinitivo sin “to”). El verbo
principal aporta el significado verdadero, mientras que el auxiliar modal ayuda a expresar
de un modo subjetivo dicha acción: posibilidad, habilidad, permiso, recomendación,
obligación, etc.
1. CAN
HABILIDAD:
I can assemble a computer (Yo puedo ensamblar una computadora)
POSIBILIDAD (O IMPOSIBILIDAD):
Mr. Salazar can not buy a printer (El Sr. Salazar no puede comprar una impresora)
Sintaxis
Afirmativa: sujeto + can + verbo
Negativa: sujeto + can not / can't + verbo
Interrogativa: can + sujeto + verbo?
2. COULD
Es el pasado de “can”.
Could you speak English when you were a child? (¿Podías hablar Inglés cuando
eras niño?)
PETICIÓN O PREGUNTA EDUCADA:
Could you help me, please? (¿Podría ayudarme, por favor?)
Sintaxis
Afirmativa: sujeto + could + verbo
Negativa: sujeto + could not / couldn't + verbo
Interrogativa: could + sujeto + verbo?
3. MAY
POSIBILIDAD: según nuestra opinión.
Lo usamos con el presente o futuro.
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Betty may come. (Puede que Betty venga)
PERMISO:
You may go (Puedes ir)
PETICIÓN O PREGUNTA EDUCADA:
May I use your laptop, please? (¿Puedo usar su computadora portátil, por favor?)
Sintaxis
Afirmativa: sujeto + may + verbo
Negativa: sujeto + may + not + verbo
Interrogativa: may + sujeto + verbo?
4. MIGHT
Es el pasado de “may”.
PETICIÓN O PREGUNTA EDUCADA: más educadamente que con el “may”.
Might I use your laptop? (¿Podría usar su computadora portátil?)
POSIBILIDAD: Expresa menos probabilidad que “may”.
He might be at the company. (Él podría estar en la compañía)
Sintaxis
Afirmativa: sujeto + might + verbo
Negativa: sujeto + might not / mightn't
Interrogativa: might + sujeto + verbo?
5. MUST
NECESIDAD: I am tired. I must go home now. (Estoy cansado. Debo irme a casa ahora)
OBLIGACIÓN:
The program must be set up today. (El programa debe ser instalado hoy)
CERTEZA: Se utiliza cuando estamos seguros que algo que es cierto.
PROHIBICIÓN: La forma negativa equivale a una prohibición.
The students mustn’t cheat on exams. (Los alumnos no deben copiar en los exámenes)
Para hablar en PASADO O FUTURO debemos usar el modal HAVE TO.
The students didn’t have to download those images. (Los alumnos no tenían que / no
debían descargar esas imágenes)
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Sintaxis
Afirmativa: sujeto + must + verbo
Negativa: sujeto + must not / mustn’t + verbo
Interrogativa: must + sujeto + verbo?
6. SHOULD
NECESIDAD U OBLIGACIÓN: Para expresar una obligación o una necesidad
(recomendación) donde hay una opción:
You should correct your homework. (Ud. debería corregir su tarea)
EXPRESAR OPINIONES PERSONALES: en voz alta.
You should have a holiday. (Deberías tener vacaciones.)
Sintaxis
Afirmativa: sujeto + should + verbo
Negativa: sujeto + should not / shouldn't + verbo
Interrogativa: should + sujeto + verbo?
7. WOULD
PETICIÓN O PREGUNTA EDUCADA:
Would you lend me some money? (¿Me prestaría dinero?)
FRASES CONDICIONALES: “Would” se utiliza en general para las frases condicionales.
If those printers were cheaper, I would buy them. (Si esas impresoras fuesen más baratas,
las compraría)
Sintaxis
Afirmativa: sujeto + would + verbo : sujeto+ 'd + verbo
Negativa: sujeto + would not / wouldn't+ verbo
Interrogativa: would + sujeto + verbo?
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PRACTICE
TRANSLATE:
1. Could you switch on the computer, please?
2. Would you switch the computer on?
3. The programmer must correct any detectable logic problem.
4. Computers can run a prerecorded list of instructions (a program).
5. That file might have a virus.
6. You didn’t have to format these floppy disks.
7. Internet viruses can affect your computer.
8. Mr. Silva must buy a scanner. He needs one.
9. You should learn to assemble computers.
10. May I use your USB flash drive/pen drive?
11. Would you lend me a compact disk?
12. The programmer can check this program.
13. I could’t bookmark that web page.
14. May I use your earphones, please?
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15. You must update the antivirus program.
MICROSOFT ACCESS

Complete the chart. Use the dictionary.
1. ACCESS: Microsoft Access
2. AUTONUMBER: Auto______________________
3. BITMAP: _________________ de bits
4. BUTTON: B____________
5. COLUMN: C___________
6. COMMAND: C______________
7. DATA TYPES: Tipos de _____________________
8. DATA: D__________
9. DATABASE WINDOW: Ventana de _____________________
10. DATABASE: ______________ de datos
11. DATASHEET VIEW: Vista de _______________ de _________________
12. DEFAULT: Valor _______________________
13. DESIGN BUTTON: Botón de __________________
14. DESIGN VIEW: __________________de diseño
15. EMBEDDED OBJECT: _________________Embutido
16. FIELD: C_____________
17. FILE MANAGEMENT: Administración/Gestión de
_______________________
18. FILE: A____________
19. FILTER: F_________________
20. FOLDER: C________________
21. FONT: F_____________
22. FORM: F_____________________
23. FORMAT: F___________________
24. FRAME: M______________
25. GRAPH: diagrama, g______________
26. GRIDLINES: ________________ guia
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27. GROUP: G__________________
28. INDEX: Í______________
29. LABEL: E___________________
30. LAYOUT. Esquema. Diseño. Diseño global de un proyecto.
31. LINK: E___________
32. LIST: L____________
33. MACRO: M___________________
34. MENU BAR: Barra de ________________
35. MODULE: M__________
36. PAGE: P__________
37. POINTER: P____________
38. PRIMARY KEY: _____________ principal
39. PROPERTIES: P______________
40. QUERY: C________________
41. RECORD: R____________________
42. RELATIONAL DATABASE: Base de datos ________________
43. RELATIONAL DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: Sistema de
___________ de bases de datos relacional
44. REPORT: I_________
45. ROW: F__________
46. RULER: R_____________
47. RUN: E_________________
48. TABLE. T________________
49. TEXT: T_________________
50. TOOLBAR: Barra de H_________________
51. UNIT OF MESURE: U__________ de ___________________
52. WIDTH: A__________________
53. WIZARD: Asistente / I___________________

Translate.
DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DBMS)
The database management system is a collection of programs that enables you to store,
modify, and extract information from a database. There are many different types of
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DBMSs, ranging from small systems that run on personal computers to huge systems that
run on mainframes. The following are examples of database applications:
 computerized library systems
 automated teller machines
 flight reservation systems
 computerized parts inventory systems
From a technical standpoint, DBMSs can differ widely. The terms relational, network, flat,
and hierarchical all refer to the way a DBMS organizes information internally. The internal
organization can affect how quickly and flexibly you can extract information.
Requests for information from a database are made in the form of a query, which is a
stylized question. For example, the query
SELECT ALL WHERE NAME = "SMITH" AND AGE > 35
requests all records in which the NAME field is SMITH and the AGE field is greater than
35. The set of rules for constructing queries is known as a query language. Different
DBMSs support different query languages, although there is a semi-standardized query
language called SQL (structured query language). Sophisticated languages for managing
database systems are called fourth-generation languages, or 4GLs for short.
The information from a database can be presented in a variety of formats. Most DBMSs
include a report writer program that enables you to output data in the form of a report.
Many DBMSs also include a graphics component that enables you to output information in
the form of graphs and charts.
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THE PASSIVE VOICE
La voz activa es la forma como hablamos comúnmente, es decir, aquella donde alguien
(una persona) realiza (o no) una acción. Por ejemplo:
The student saved the file.
estudiante guardó el archivo.)
(El
Sin embargo, cuando en ocasiones se prefiere resaltar a las personas o cosas sobre las
que recae la acción, objeto de la oración, se utilizará la VOZ PASIVA.
Por lo tanto, la voz pasiva se refiere a aquellas oraciones o frases que emplean al
objeto como sujeto (en este caso, pasivo).
The e-mail message is sent by Susan.
(El mensaje de correo electrónico es enviado por Susana.)
A. Rules for Passive Voice
La voz pasiva se forma utilizando el verbo to be + el verbo principal en participio (past
participle).
Para transformar una oración activa a pasiva tenemos en cuenta los siguientes puntos:



El objeto de la oración activa pasa a ser el sujeto de la pasiva.
El verbo principal se sustituye por el auxiliar "to be", en su mismo tiempo, junto al
verbo principal en participio.
El sujeto de la oración principal pasa a ser complemento agente de la pasiva.
B. Cambios verbales en la transformación de Voz Activa a Voz Pasiva
write (presente/present) / wrote (pasado/past) / written (participio/participle)
VOZ ACTIVA
Liz writes a letter.
Liz escribe una carta.
VOZ PASIVA
A letter is written by Liz.
Una carta es escrita por Liz.
Liz is writing a letter
Liz está escribiendo una carta.
Liz was writing a letter.
Liz estaba escribiendo una carta.
A letter is being written by Liz
Una carta está siendo escrita por Liz.
A letter was being written by Liz.
Una carta estaba siendo escrita por Liz.
Liz wrote a letter.
Liz escribió una carta.
A letter was written by Liz.
Una carta fue escrita por Liz.
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C. Usage
(a) Usamos la voz pasiva cuando queremos dar importancia a "lo que pasó" más que a
quién hizo la acción. Her printer was stolen. (Su impresora fue robada)
(b) Para describir procesos científicos. The water is boiled at 100° C. (El agua es hervida
a 100 grados Celsius)
EXERCISES
I. Rewrite the sentences in Passive Voice. Translate.
1. Tony visited my homepage yesterday.
2. The servers transferred those programs to our own computers.
3. Fred Cohen used the term “virus” in 1984.
4. Patrick received the file from the Internet.
5. They download the document in Word Format.
II. Underline the sentences in Passive Voice. Translate.
THE ABACUS
In the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Rome, and China, pencil and paper were
luxuries and the numbering system was clumsy. Therefore, calculations were carried out
using counting stones and rods. In fact, the Latin word for pebble, “calculus”, is the origin
of the modern term “calculate”.
The most familiar form of the abacus was developed in China during the sixth century. The
counters of that abacus were divided into two sets, one set representing fives and the
other set representing ones. With the introduction of Arabic numerals, the popularity of the
abacus began to decline. However, the abacus still has limited use in schools, where it is
used to demonstrate numbering systems and the theory behind simple arithmetic
operations.
Vocabulary
 Abacus: ábaco
 Ancient : antiguo (a)
 Arithmetic: aritmética
 Calculation: cálculo
 Clumsy: torpe, poco acertado.
 Counter: ficha
 Luxury: lujo
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












Numbering system: sistema numérico
Numeral: cifra, número
Pebble: guijarro
Rod: vara
Set: conjunto; grupo
Theory: teoría
Therefore: por tanto, por eso
to calculate: calcular
to carry out: poner en práctica
to decline: disminuir, declinar
to demonstrate: demostrar
to develop: desarrollar
to divide: divider
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Usos
Ejemplos
Problemas / Notas
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Se utiliza el gerundio: (-ing)
1. Después de las
She left without saying good-
Los verbos más frecuentes que
preposiciones. (in, at, of, for,
bye.
solemos encontrar con el gerundio
before, without, by, after, about, We are thinking of studying
etc.)
son:
computer assembly.
I enjoy repairing computers.
2. Después de algunos verbos. Do you mind giving me your
floppy disk?
like, love, hate, enjoy, miss, feel like,
mind, finish, risk, practise, put off,
stop, suggest, can’t help, fancy,
admit, deny, give up, imagine, keep
(on), put off (postpone), spend time,
3. Como el sujeto de una frase.
Smoking is bad for you.
can’t stand, delay, regret, avoid,
Skiing is expensive
consider, involve, go on (=continue)
Se coloca 'to' + Infinitivo:
1. Para dar una respuesta a la
pregunta ‘Why’ (¿por qué?)
2. Después de los adjetivos
Why did you stop working? - To for spend
spend more time with my
for to spend
children.
Obsérvese los ejemplos con el
It’s not easy to find a good
negativo ‘not to’:
computer.
We hope not to fail the next exam.
She decided not to sell her scanner.
Los verbos más frecuentes que
solemos encontrar con 'to' + infinitivo
I forgot to turn off the printer.
3. Después de algunos verbos
She needs to buy an antivirus
program urgently.
son:
would like, want, need, decide, hope,
arrange, expect, plan, forget, seem,
appear, wish, promise, offer, claim,
refuse, learn, manage, afford, agree,
fail, tend, happen, mean, prepare,
pretend, threaten, attempt.
GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES
Los Infinitivos y los gerundios son formas sustantivas. Funcionan como sujetos cuando
van antes del verbo principal (Smoking is bad for you). Actúan como objetos de la oración
cuando van después del verbo principal (I enjoy repairing computers).
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TRANSLATION EXERCISE
I. VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS.
1. I adore reading these computing textbooks.
Yo adoro leer estos libros de computación.
2. They anticipated updating the software.
3. I detest having viruses in my computer.
4. We postponed running that software.
5. The debugger quit working.
6. I can’t recall assembling a computer.
7. Mr. Lewis suggested replacing the video card.
II. VERBS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVES.
1. Mr. Lee claimed to be the owner of that USB memory stick.
El Señor Lee afirmó ser el dueño de aquella memoria USB.
2. He agreed to open his e-mail message.
3. He will learn to back up the data files.
4. That application manages to compress the size of large files.
5. Christian pretends to decode the file.
III. VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS OR INFINITIVES.
A. SAME MEANING.
1. He began to learn Graphic Design when he was twenty.
He began learning Graphic Design when he was twenty.
Él comenzó a aprender ____________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
2. I continue to configure the video file.
I continue configuring the video file.
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3. Sophie preferred to bookmark her favorite web pages.
Sophie preferred bookmarking her favorite web pages.
4. I started to digitalize the images in real time.
I started digitalizing the images in real time.
B. DIFFERENT MEANING.
1. The programmer forgot to download the free software.
The programmer forgot downloading the free software
2. We stop to save the file.
We stop saving the file.
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PLURALS
SPELLING RULES: PLURAL OF NOUNS
Generalmente, el plural se forma al añadir la “s” a un sustantivo singular:
car
cars
Las palabras que terminan en -ch, x, s ó sonido similar a s, forman el plural al añadir la –
es:
box
boxes
La letra “y” después de consonante cambia a -ies:
baby
babies
Los sustantivos que terminan en -f ó -fe generalmente forman el plural con -ves:
thief
thieves
SIN EMBARGO: -f pasa a –fs en ciertos casos:
roof
roofs
Los sustantivos terminados en -o cambian a –oes, en ciertos casos:
potato
potatoes
PERO: como en la regla general, en otros casos, se les añade s:
photo
photos
stereo
stereos
IRREGULAR PLURAL NOUNS
Son aquellos que no siguen ninguna regla, deben ser aprendidos por separado. Ex.
Singular
man (hombre)
woman (mujer)
child (niño)
mouse (ratón)
Plural
men (hombres)
women (mujeres)
children (niños)
mice (ratones)
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EXERCISES

Write the plural noun. Translate.
1. Attachment
2. Accessory
3. Address
4. Animation
5. Menu bar
6. Box
7. Button
8. Cell
9. Database
10. Datum
11. Device
12. Directory
13. Domain
14. Field
15. File
16. Image
17. Inbox
18. Inch
19. Index
20. Interface
21. Inventory
22. Line
23. Key
24. Laboratory
25. Link
26. Mouse
27. Network
28. Page
29. Password
30. Property
31. Protocol
32. Prototype
33. Query
34. Record
35. Row
36. Theory
37. Tool
38. Toolbar
39. User
40. Virus
__Attachments______(anexos /archivos adjuntos)__
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
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SQL and Database Glossary

Complete the chart. Use the dictionary.
1. Access : Microsoft Access.
2. ACID (Atomicity – Consistency – Isolation – Durability)
3. ADO (Microsoft ActiveX Data Objects) = ADO
4. Atomicity:
5. Consistency:
6. Isolation:
7. Durability:
8. Column :
9. COM (Component Object Model):
10. COMMAND :
11. COMMIT = COMMIT
12. Cross-reference table :
13. Cursor (Current Set of Records):
14. Data:
15. Database:
16. DB2 :DB2
17. dBase : dBASE
18. DELETE :
19. DLL (Data definition language):
20. DML (Data manipulation language) :
21. Entity:
22. Field:
23. Flat File:
24. Foreign Key :
25. FoxPro : FoxPro
26. Index :
27. INSERT:
28. JOIN: Combinación
29. Keys or keywords:
30. Lock:
31. Normalization :
32. NULL : NULL
33. ODBC (Open Database Connectivity) :
34. OLE DB (Object Linking and Embedding Data Base):
35. Primary Key:
36. Query :
37. RDBMS (Relational Database Management System):
38. Record:
39. ROLLBACK : ROLLBACK
40. Row :
41. SELECT : Seleccionar
42. SQL (Structured Query Language):
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43. Stored Procedure :
44. System failure :
45. Table :
46. to edit:
47. Transaction:
48. Trigger : Desencadenador
49. UPDATE:
50. Entry-level (adj): básico, de nivel básico.

Read and explain in your own words the next definitions. Translate.
SQL and Database Glossary
Access
Microsoft Access is an entry-level database management software from Microsoft, which
allows you to organize, access, and share information easily. Access is very easy to use
for inexperienced users, but sophisticated enough for database and software developers.
ACID short for Atomicity – Consistency – Isolation – Durability and describes the four
properties of a transaction:




ATOMICITY: a transaction should be done or undone completely. In the event of
an error or failure, all data manipulations should be undone, and all data should go
back to its previous state.
CONSISTENCY: a transaction should transform a system from one consistent
state to another consistent state.
ISOLATION: each transaction should happen independently of other transactions
occurring at the same time.
DURABILITY: Completed transactions should remain stable/permanent, even
during system failure.
ADO
Short for Microsoft ActiveX Data Objects. ADO is asset of interfaces that enables your
client applications to access and manage data from a range of sources through an OLE
DB provider.
Column
Database tables are made of different columns (fields) corresponding to the attributes of
the object described by the table.
COMMIT
The COMMIT command in SQL marks the finalization of a database transaction.
Cursor
Short for Current Set of Records in some database languages. The cursor is a database
object pointing to a currently selected set of records.
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Data
Piece of information collected and formatted in a specific way. The term data is frequently
used to describe binary (machine-readable) information.
Database
A database is a collection of information organized into related tables of data and
definitions of data objects. The data within a database can be easily accessed and
manipulated through a computer program.
DB2
DB2 is a relational database management system developed by IBM. DB2 runs on a
variety of platforms including Sun Solaris, Linux and Windows.
dBase
dBase is a popular relational database management system produced by Ashton-Tate
corporation in the early 1980s. The dBase format for storing data has become industry
standard and is still in use today.
DELETE
The DELETE is a SQL command used to delete record(s) from a table in database.
Field
A field is an area that stores a single piece of information and corresponds to the attributes
of the object described by the table
Flat File
Flat file is a data file that has no structured relationships between its records.
Foreign Key
A foreign key is a key field (column) that identifies records in a table, by matching a
primary key in a different table. The foreign keys are used to cross-reference tables.
FoxPro
Visual FoxPro is a Microsoft development environment designed for database developers.
Index
An index is a database feature (a list of keys or keywords), allowing searching and locating
data quickly within a table.
INSERT
The INSERT is a SQL command used to add a new record to a table within a database.
JOIN
The JOIN is a SQL command used to retrieve data from two or more database tables with
existing relationship based upon a common attribute.
Lock
Locks enable different users to access different records/tables within the same database
without interfering with one another.
Normalization
Normalization is the process of organizing data to minimize redundancy. Normalization
involves separating a database into tables and defining relationships between the tables.
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NULL
The NULL SQL keyword is used to represent a missing value.
ODBC
Short for Open DataBase Connectivity. Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) is an open
standard application programming interface (API) for accessing a database. By using
ODBC statements in a program, you can access files in a number of different databases,
including Access, dBase, DB2, Excel, and Text.
OLE DB
Short for Object Linking and Embedding Data Base. OLE DB is a set of application
programming interfaces based on COM (Component Object Model). OLE DB interfaces
give applications for accessing data stored in various information sources like Relational
Database Management Systems (MS SQL Server, Oracle, MySQL), small personal
databases like MS Access, productivity tools like spreadsheets; plain text files, etc.
Primary Key
A column or set of columns that uniquely identify all the rows in a table.
Query
Queries are the main way to make a request for information from a database. Queries
consist of questions presented to the database in a predefined format, in most cases SQL
(Structured Query Language) format.
RDBMS
Short for Relational Database Management System. RDBMS is a system that organizes
data into related rows and columns. SQL Server is a relational database management
system (RDBMS).
Record
A record is a complete set of information. Records are composed of different fields
(columns) in a table and each record is represented with a separate row in this table.
ROLLBACK
The ROLLBACK is a SQL command which cancels/undoes the proposed changes in a
pending database transaction and marks the end of the transaction.
Row
In a database, a row (sometimes called a record) is the set of fields within a table that are
relevant to a specific entity. For example, in a table called customer contact information, a
row may contain fields such as: ID number, name, street address, city, telephone number,
etc.
SELECT
The SELECT is a SQL command, which is the primary means for retrieving data from a
RDBMS.
SQL
SQL is short for Structured Query Language and is an industry standard language used
for manipulation of data in a RDBMS.
Stored Procedure
a stored procedure is a set of Structured Query Language (SQL) statements with an
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assigned name that is stored in the database in compiled form so that it can be shared by
a number of programs.
Table
A Table in RDBMS refers to data arranged in rows and columns, which defines a database
entity.
Transaction
Transaction is a group of SQL database commands executed as a single atomic entity.
Trigger
Triggers are special type of stored procedures executed automatically in response to a
data manipulation language (DML) or data definition language (DDL) event.
UPDATE
The UPDATE is a SQL command used to edit/update existing records in a database table.
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“San Ignacio de Monterrico”
THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE WITH “WILL”
Este tiempo verbal se utiliza para expresar acciones que tendrán lugar en un futuro,
sin importar el momento. Se forma con la partícula will + el infinitivo del verbo de la
acción sin el “to” (forma básica).
John will study tomorrow.
John estudiará mañana.
A. STRUCTURE
Affirmative
I will go.
You will go.
He will go.
She will go.
It will go.
We will go.
You will go.
They will go.
Interrogative
Will I go?
Will you go?
Will he go?
Will she go?
Will it go?
Will we go?
Will you go?
Will they go?
Negative
I will not go.
You will not go.
He will not go.
She will not go.
It will not go.
We will not go.
You will not go.
They will not go.
I won’t go.
You won’t go.
He won’t go.
She won’t go.
It won’t go.
We won’t go.
You won’t go.
They won’t go.
Contractions
I will: I’ll
She will: She’ll
I will not: I won’t
She will not: She won’t
B. SIMPLE FUTURE EXPRESSIONS











tomorrow (mañana)
the day after tomorrow (pasado mañana),
in 2010 (en el 2010)
in a month (en un mes)
next Monday (el próximo lunes),
next week (la próxima semana),
next month (el próximo mes)
next year (el próximo año),
next summer (el próximo verano)
the next time (la próxima vez)
tonight (esta noche)
Formando Emprendedores De Calidad Para Un Mundo Empresarial
42
Instituto de Educación Superior
“San Ignacio de Monterrico”
EXERCISES
I. Change to the interrogative and negative form. Translate.
1. The database window will show a list of tables, forms and modules.
2. The engineers will input the codes in the computer.
3. We will turn on the laser printer tomorrow.
.
4. Mr. Rogers will design those graphics in a few minutes.
5. I will reply her e-mail message next week.
II. Translate to Spanish.
a. I won’t log off the chat room!!!
b. Miss Lewis will retrieve some files from the temporary Internet files.
c. Will Diana run this software on her computer next week?
III. Translate to Spanish.
a. Aquel técnico reparará la placa madre mañana.
b. El software de correo electrónico transferirá el mensaje a través del
Internet.
Formando Emprendedores De Calidad Para Un Mundo Empresarial
43
Instituto de Educación Superior
“San Ignacio de Monterrico”
c. Aquella base de datos no usará el lenguaje de consulta estructurado.
Formando Emprendedores De Calidad Para Un Mundo Empresarial
44

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