assessment

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assessment
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™
ISSN 2307-8235 (online)
IUCN 2008: T60123A12308438
Myliobatis chilensis, Chilean Eagle Ray
Assessment by: Lamilla, J.
View on www.iucnredlist.org
Citation: Lamilla, J. 2006. Myliobatis chilensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2006:
e.T60123A12308438. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T60123A12308438.en
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THE IUCN RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES™
Taxonomy
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Animalia
Chordata
Chondrichthyes
Rajiformes
Myliobatidae
Taxon Name: Myliobatis chilensis Philippi, 1892
Common Name(s):
• English:
• Spanish:
Chilean Eagle Ray
Chucho, Cuero, Manta, Manta-raya, Peje-aguila
Taxonomic Notes:
Easily differentiated from the sympatric M. peruvianus by colour and rostral fin form.
Assessment Information
Red List Category & Criteria:
Data Deficient ver 3.1
Year Published:
2006
Date Assessed:
January 31, 2006
Justification:
A poorly known, large (to 200 cm disc width) eagle ray from the Eastern Pacific, recorded from Callao in
Peru to Valdivia in Chile. Has been reported from pelagic waters to a depth of 100 m. Virtually nothing
known of its biology, although it is suspected to have limiting life history parameters similar to other
myliobatid rays (including low fecundity). Myliobatids are generally highly susceptible to a variety of
fishing gear. There is no information on the catch of this species in targeted fisheries, although local
subsistence fisheries for the species probably exist in Peru and northern Chile. Furthermore, it is almost
certainly taken as bycatch in various fisheries (including artisanal, line and seine net fisheries)
throughout its range, although shrimp trawl fisheries operate outside the area of occurrence of this
species. In northern Chile carcasses frequently appear on beaches from discards. Research into
distribution, life history and direct and indirect catches is a priority. At present, there is insufficient
information to assess the species beyond Data Deficient, but the species may prove to be of
conservation concern with further information given its habitat, large size, probable restricted biological
characteristics and susceptibility to a variety of fishing gear.
Geographic Range
Range Description:
Restricted to the Southeast Pacific from Callao (Peru) to Valdivia (Chile).
Country Occurrence:
Native: Chile; Peru
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Myliobatis chilensis – published in 2006.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T60123A12308438.en
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Native: Pacific - southeast
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Myliobatis chilensis – published in 2006.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T60123A12308438.en
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Distribution Map
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Myliobatis chilensis – published in 2006.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T60123A12308438.en
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Population
Number and size of subpopulations unknown.
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Habitat and Ecology (see Appendix for additional information)
Inshore on the continental shelf. A benthic feeder, but also swims in midwater. Depth distribution not
clear (although reported to depths of 100 m) and essentially nothing known of its biology. Suspected
low fecundity as with other myliobatids, for example Aetobatus narinari and Aetomylaeus nichofii,
which bear litters of up to four offspring (Last and Stevens 1994, Compagno and Last 1999).
Life history parameters
Age at maturity (years): Unknown.
Size at maturity (total length cm): Unknown.
Longevity (years): Unknown.
Maximum size (disc width): 200 cm DW.
Size at birth (cm): Unknown.
Average reproductive age (years): Unknown.
Gestation time (months): Unknown.
Reproductive periodicity: Unknown.
Average annual fecundity or litter size: Unknown.
Annual rate of population increase: Unknown.
Natural mortality: Unknown.
Systems: Marine
Threats (see Appendix for additional information)
Myliobatids are generally highly susceptible to a variety of fishing gear. There is no information on the
catch of this species in targeted fisheries, although local subsistence fisheries for the species probably
exist in Peru and northern Chile. Furthermore, it is almost certainly taken as bycatch in various fisheries
(including artisanal, line and seine net fisheries) throughout its range, although shrimp trawl fisheries
operate outside the area of occurrence of this species. In northern Chile carcasses frequently appear on
beaches from discards.
Conservation Actions (see Appendix for additional information)
There are currently no management measures in place for this species. Research into its distribution and
life history is of high priority, as is an examination of catches in subsistence, artisanal and commercial
fisheries occurring in its range.
The development and implementation of management plans are required (national and/or regional e.g.,
under the FAO International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks: IPOASharks).
Credits
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Myliobatis chilensis – published in 2006.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T60123A12308438.en
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Assessor(s):
Lamilla, J.
Reviewer(s):
Kyne, P.M., Compagno, L.J.V. & Fowler, S.L. (Shark Red List Authority)
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Myliobatis chilensis – published in 2006.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T60123A12308438.en
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Bibliography
Arana, P., Melo, T., Noziglia, L., Sepúlveda, I., Silva, N., Yanny, G. and Yañez, E. 1975. Los recursos
demersales de la región de Valparaíso, Chile. Revista Comite Permanente Pacífico Sur 3:39–61.
Boré, D., Henriquez, N. and Espinoza, G. 1984. Chile: sus recursos pesqueros. Corporación de Fomento
de la producción. Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP), Santiago, Chile
Chirichigno, N. 1978. Nuevas adiciones a la ictiofauna marina del Perú. Informes Instituto del Mar. Perúcallao, 46: 109pp.
Compagno, L.J.V. and Last, P.R. 1999. Myliobatidae. Eagle rays. In: K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds)
FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. The Living Marine Resources of the Western
Central Pacific. Volume 3. Batoid Fishes, Chimaeras and Bony Fishes Part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae).
pp. 1511-1519. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
De Buen, F. 1959. Lampreas, tiburones, rayas y peces de la estación de Biología Marina de Montemar,
Chile. Revista Biologia Marina, Valparaíso 9(1-3): 1–200.
IUCN. 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 04 May
2006.
IUCN SSC Shark Specialist Group. Specialist Group website. Available at: http://www.iucnssg.org/.
Lamilla, J. and Sáez, S. 2003. Clave taxonómica para el reconocimiento de especies de rayas chilenas
(Chondrichthyes, Batoidei). Invest. Mar., Valparaíso 31(2):3-16.
Last, P.R. and Stevens, J.D. 2009. Sharks and Rays of Australia. Second Edition. CSIRO Publishing,
Collingwood.
Mann, G. 1954. La vida de los peces en aguas chilenas. Ministerio Agricultura, Instituto Investigaciones
Veterinarias, Universidad de Chile. Fac. Filosofia y Educación, Santiago, Chile.
Oliver, C. 1943. Catálogo de los peces marinos del litoral de Concepción y Arauco. Boletín de la Sociedad
de Biología de Concepción 17:75–126.
Pequeño, G. 1975. Nuevo registro de Myliobatis chilensis Philippi (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae).
Boletin Sociedad Biologia de Concepción 49:157–160.
Philippi, R.A. 1892. Las rayas, Callorhynchus I Orthagoriscus chilenos. Anales del Museo Nacional de
Chile. Zoología
Yañez, P. 1949. Consideraciones sobre nuestro peje-aguila. Revista Biologia Marina, Valparaíso 2:69–72
Citation
Lamilla, J. 2006. Myliobatis chilensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2006:
e.T60123A12308438. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T60123A12308438.en
Disclaimer
To make use of this information, please check the Terms of Use.
External Resources
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Myliobatis chilensis – published in 2006.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T60123A12308438.en
6
For Images and External Links to Additional Information, please see the Red List website.
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Myliobatis chilensis – published in 2006.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T60123A12308438.en
7
Appendix
Habitats
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
Habitat
Season
Suitability
Major
Importance?
10. Marine Oceanic -> 10.1. Marine Oceanic - Epipelagic (0-200m)
-
Suitable
-
Threats
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
Threat
Timing
Scope
Severity
Impact Score
5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting
aquatic resources -> 5.4.3. Unintentional effects:
(subsistence/small scale)
Ongoing
-
-
-
5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting
aquatic resources -> 5.4.4. Unintentional effects:
(large scale)
Ongoing
-
-
-
Conservation Actions Needed
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
Conservation Actions Needed
4. Education & awareness -> 4.1. Formal education
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
Research Needed
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
Research Needed
0. Root -> 100.1. OLD 1.1.1-Policy-base actions->Management plans->Development
1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Myliobatis chilensis – published in 2006.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T60123A12308438.en
8
The IUCN Red List Partnership
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ is produced and managed by the IUCN Global Species
Programme, the IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) and The IUCN Red List Partnership. The IUCN
Red List Partners are: BirdLife International; Botanic Gardens Conservation International; Conservation
International; Microsoft; NatureServe; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; Sapienza University of Rome; Texas
A&M University; Wildscreen; and Zoological Society of London.
THE IUCN RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES™

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