Discovery of high-collimated jet from Sanduleak`s star in the Large

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Discovery of high-collimated jet from Sanduleak`s star in the Large
Discovery of a highly-collimated jet
from Sanduleak’s star
in the Large Magellanic Cloud
RODOLFO ANGELONI
FONDECYT Post-Doctoral Fellow
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
3-7 Oct 2011 San Juan, Argentina
Primera Reunión Anual Binacional
in collaboration with
Francesco Di Mille
Carnegie Observatories Magellan Fellow
Australian Astronomical Observatory
Joss Bland-Hawthorn
School of Physics, The University of Sydney
David J. Osip
Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories
3-7 Oct 2011 San Juan, Argentina
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In 1977 N. Sanduleak reported on the discovery of a suspected
variable emission-line object in the direction of LMC
It became known as Sanduleak’s star (or also as LMC Anonymous)
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Its real nature has remained a mystery for more than 30 years
The object has been catalogued among symbiotic stars1,2
but the absence of any late-type stellar signatures in the optical spectra
leaves this classification controversial3
1.
2.
3.
Allen, D. A. ApJL, 20, 131-134 (1980)
Belczynski, K. et al. A&A, 146, 407-435 (2000)
Kafatos, M. et al. ApJ, 275, 584-591 (1983)
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Interludio - Symbiotic stars
Symbiotic Stars
are interacting binaries composed of a hot star, a cool giant star,
and a tangled network of gas and dust nebulae.
Each of the three main emitting components
dominate the spectral energy distribution (SED) at specific wavelengths
“… this is both a blessing and a curse: a well-defined observational program may probe a
particular component of a symbiotic system, but knowledge of the complete SED is required to
make progress on understanding the system as a whole.”
S. Kenyon (1986)
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Interludio - Symbiotic stars
Classification criteria
(from Belczyński et al. 2000)
 Presence of the absorption features of a late-type giant;
in practice, these include (amongst others) TiO, H2O, CO, CN
and VO bands, as well as CaI, CaII, FeI and NaI absorption lines;
 Presence of strong emission lines of HI and HeI and either
emission lines of ions with an ionization potential of at least 35
eV (e.g. [OIII]), or an A- or F-type continuum with additional
shell absorption lines from HI, HeI, and singly-ionized metals;
 The presence of the λ6825 Å emission feature, even if no
features of the cool star (e.g. TiO bands) are found.
Munari & Zwitter 2002
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We have used the Las Campanas Observatory Magellan Telescopes
to obtain medium-resolution images and spectra of Sanduleak’s star
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Sanduleak’s star has unveiled a highly-collimated outflow
To our knowledge, it is
 the largest bipolar stellar jet ever discovered
 the first resolved stellar jet beyond the Milky Way
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* Michalitsianos, A. G. et al. ApJ, 341, 367-371 (1989)
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The jet
Magellan-Clay + MagIC
imaging
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Magellan-Clay Telescope + MagIC
Continuum-subtracted Hα+[NII] image
The jet
Magellan-Clay + MagIC
imaging
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FoV: 1.4’ x 1.4’
Pixel scale: 0.07arc/pix
Exp. time: 3x900 sec
900 sec off-band
Magellan-Clay Telescope + MagIC
Continuum-subtracted Hα+[NII] image
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FoV
1.4’ x 1.4’
Magellan-Clay Telescope + MagIC
Sanduleak’s star
FoV
11’’ x 11’’
HST+FOC
R Aqr
Paresce, F. & Hack, W. A&A, 287, 154-162 (1994)
from Leedjarv, L. BaltA, 13, 109-115 (2004)
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Adopted distance to LMC: 50.1 kpc
Overall jet extent: 58 arcsec (14 pc)
Length-to-width ratio:  23
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Magellan-Clay Telescope + MagIC
Logarithmic contour map of the Hα+[NII] image
The overall luminosity of the jet in Hα+[NII]
(without taking into account the central source)
is ~3.5∙1033 erg s-1
A & A’
C’ & C
Knot A
Size ~2 pc
Hα+[NII] luminosity: 5.6∙1032 erg s-1
Knot C
Size ~1.5 pc
Hα+[NII] luminosity: 1.7∙1032 erg s-1
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The overall luminosity of the jet in Hα+[NII]
(without taking into account the central source)
is ~3.5∙1033 erg s-1
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Nebula
Size ~ 3 pc
It displays a clumpy, turbulent nature
with Rayleigh-Taylor instability possibly at work
The jet
Magellan-Baade + IMACS
spectroscopy
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Slit width: 0.9 arcsec
Position angle: 71º
Spectral sampling: 1.3 Angstrom/pix
Exp. time: 1200 sec
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Magellan-Baade Telescope + IMACS
Long-slit optical spectrum
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In the knots
A
[NII]/Hα 6
[OIII]/Hα <0.2
[SII]/Hα <0.2
C
4
<0.2
<0.2
The extreme chemical composition is strikingly similar to what observed in the ejecta of eruptive high-mass stars,
SN1987A and η Carinae being the most famous examples.
see, e.g., Gull, T. R. ASP Conference Series 388, 167-168 (2008).
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Magellan-Baade Telescope + IMACS
Long-slit optical spectrum
Conclusions
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...some hypothesis
 The overall morphology of the jet, and the wave-like modulation in the
Hα radial velocity profile, make us think of a precessing emitting source.
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 The overall morphology of the jet, and the wave-like modulation in the
Hα radial velocity profile, make us think of a precessing emitting source.
 The symmetry in the point/velocity distribution of corresponding pair
of knots strongly suggests the idea of different ejection episodes.
Recurrent (perhaps nova-like) outbursts?
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 The overall morphology of the jet, and the wave-like modulation in the
Hα radial velocity profile, make us think of a precessing emitting source.
 The symmetry in the point/velocity distribution of corresponding pair
of knots strongly suggests the idea of different ejection episodes.
Recurrent (perhaps nova-like) outbursts?
 Assuming that the jet is flowing almost in the plane of the sky,
an order-of-magnitude estimate of its kinematical age is 104 years.
3-7 Oct 2011 San Juan, Argentina
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 The overall morphology of the jet, and the wave-like modulation in the
Hα radial velocity profile, make us think of a precessing emitting source.
 The symmetry in the point/velocity distribution of corresponding pair
of knots strongly suggests the idea of different ejection episodes.
Recurrent (perhaps nova-like) outbursts?
 Assuming that the jet is flowing almost in the plane of the sky,
an order-of-magnitude estimate of its kinematical age is 104 years.
 The extreme chemistry of the knots establishes a provocative link with
η Carinae and other eruptive stars.
Is Sanduleak’s star a potential SN candidate?
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“Extraordinary claims require
extraordinary evidence”
Carl Sagan
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Sanduleak’s star
Long-term optical light curve (Angeloni et al., in preparation)
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from Muerset & Nussbaumer
A&A 1994, 282, 586-604
Sanduleak’s star
IR colours (Di Mille & Angeloni, in preparation)
adapted from Miszalski et al. (2011 arXiv:1105.5732)
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Sanduleak’s star
IR colours (Di Mille & Angeloni, in preparation)
adapted from Miszalski et al. (2011 arXiv:1105.5732)
3-7 Oct 2011 San Juan, Argentina
Primera Reunión Anual Binacional
Sanduleak’s star
IR colours (Di Mille & Angeloni, in preparation)
adapted from Miszalski et al. (2011 arXiv:1105.5732)
3-7 Oct 2011 San Juan, Argentina
Primera Reunión Anual Binacional
Sanduleak’s star
IR colours (Di Mille & Angeloni, in preparation)
adapted from Miszalski et al. (2011 arXiv:1105.5732)
3-7 Oct 2011 San Juan, Argentina
Primera Reunión Anual Binacional

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