“BREAST CANCER: TÓMATELO A PECHO” • Mexico Fact Sheet

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“BREAST CANCER: TÓMATELO A PECHO” • Mexico Fact Sheet
References
1.
2.
Ferlay J, Shin H, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin
DM. GLOBOCAN 2008, Cancer Incidence and
Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 10
(Internet). Lyon, France: International Agency for
Research on Cancer, 2010. Available at: (http://globocan.iarc.fr), 2010.
Knaul FM, López Carrillo L, Lazcano Ponce E, Gómez
Dantés H, Romieu I y Torres G., 2009. “Cáncer de
mama: un reto para la sociedad y los sistemas de
salud.” Salud Pública de México; Vol. 51 suppl. 2:
S135-137.
3.
American Cancer Society, 2008. “Breast Cancer Facts
& Figures 2007-2008”. Atlanta. American Cancer Society,
Inc. http://www.cancer.org
4.
F. Franco-Marina, R. Lozano, B. Villa, P. Solís, 2006.
“La mortalidad en México, 2000-2004. Muertes
evitables: magnitud, distribución y tendencias”.
Dirección General de Información en Salud, Secretaría de Salud. Mexico.
5.
6.
Knaul, Lozano, Gómez Dantés, Arreola-Ornelas y
Méndez, 2008. “El cáncer de mama en México:
cifras para la toma de decisiones”. Observatorio de
la Salud. Working paper. Competitiveness and
Health, Mexican Health Foundations.
Knaul F, Nigenda G, Lozano R, Langer A, Frenk J.
Breast cancer in Mexico: a pressing priority. Reprod
Health Matters 2008; 16: 113-23.
www.gtfccc.harvard.edu
7.
Secretaría de Salud. Defunciones, 1979-2008. Sistema
Nacional de Salud, Secretaría de Salud, México, DF,
2010. At: (http://sinais.salud.gob.mx/basesdedatos/index.html).
8.
Rodríguez Cuevas, S Macias C.G, et al., 2001. “Breast
carcinoma presents a decade earlier in Mexican
woman than in women in United States and European
countries”. Cancer 91(4): 863-8.
9.
Secretaría de Salud, 2002. “Programa de Acción:
Cáncer de Mama”. Mexico.
10. Knaul FM, Arreola-Ornelas H, Velázquez E, Dorantes J,
Méndez O y Ávila-Burgos L., 2009. “The health care
costs of breast cancer: the case of the Mexican Social
Security Institute, Salud Publica Mex 2009; 51 suppl. 2:
S286-S295
11. IARC, OMS Globocan 2002. (www.iarc.fr).
12. Boyle P, Levin B (2008) World Cancer Report 2008.
Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer
(IARC).
13. American Cancer Society, 2010. Cancer facts & figures,
2010. (http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@
nho/documents/document/acspc-024113.pdf).
14. Porter, P. 2008. “Westernizing Women Risk? Breast
Cancer in Lower Income Countries”. The New England Journal of Medicine. 358; 213-216.
www.hgei.harvard.edu
www.observatoriodelasalud.net
ompetitividad
y S a l u d
hacia un sistema de salud más eficaz y eficiente
Asociación Civil
www.funsalud.org.mx
www.tomateloapecho.org.mx
“BREAST CANCER: TÓMATELO A PECHO”
Mexico Fact Sheet
March 2011
Authors: Felicia M arie K naul, Héctor Arreola –Ornelas, R afael Lozano, Héctor Gómez Dantés
Health and Competitiveness Program and Health Observatory; Mexican Health Foundation
Breast cancer in women is a serious public
health issue in Mexico and the Latin America
and Caribbean (LAC) region as a whole. It
seriously threatens not only women’s health,
but the welfare of families, health systems,
and society.
It is also true that cervical cancer is more
common among poor women, and therefore,
these women face a double burden of disease,
experiencing a high risk of suffering and dying
from these two types of cancer due to the
lack of early detection and treatment.
Global evidence indicates that 55% of new
breast cancer cases are found in low a middle
income countries, where the mortality rate is
also higher, representing approximately 93.5%
of deaths due to this disease.1
Most breast cancer deaths can be prevented.
Global evidence indicates that breast cancer
can be cured if detected in time and treated
appropriately. In the United States, the five-year
relative survival rate is 98% when the disease
is diagnosed in the early stages (stages 0 and 1).3
A study by the Ministry of Health of Mexico
showed that up to two thirds of deaths from
breast cancer in women under 75 years of age
could be prevented.4 In Mexico, as in most
countries in Latin America, breast cancer outcomes are highly sensitive to improvements in
access to information and interventions related
to early detection and treatment.
Today, unlike 15 years ago, breast cancer is one
of the diseases with the highest incidence in
adult women in LAC. In Mexico, breast cancer
mortality has risen to become the leading cause
of death from malignant tumors among women.
Overall it is the second cause of death among
women aged 30 to 54. Since 2006, breast
cancer claims more lives each year than cervical
cancer.2 By contrast, in 1980 the risk of dying of
cervical cancer was double that of breast cancer.
Breast cancer used to be considered the cancer
of wealthier women, and cervical cancer was
seen as a condition of low-income women.
Today we know that breast cancer is a serious
problem for both groups.
Mortality from malignant tumors of breast and cervix
Mexico, 1995-2008
•In 2001; 3,971 cases (10.2 per 100,000
women age 15 or older) were reported
in Mexico; by 2008 the incidence had
increased to 10,186 cases (17.6 per
100,000).1,7
Rate per 100,000 women
Adjusted for age
16
12
•In 2008 there were 1.4 million cases of
breast cancer in the world, of which 55%
are registered in low or middle income
countries.1
8
CERVIX
BREAST
4
1995
1965
1975
1985
Incidence and Prevalence
1995
occurs in women from Europe and the
United States; 8 of the 1.4 new cases
recorded in 2008 47% occurred in women under the age of 55.1
•In 2008 we estimated about 114 thousand
new cases in Latin America and the
Caribbean. The countries of this region
jointly account for 8% of new breast
cancer cases in the world.1
•Breast cancer is estimated to occur in
Mexican women a decade before it
2005
2006: BC>CC. For the first time in more than 5 decades.
Early Detection and Treatment
Source: Lozano, Knaul, Gómez-Dantés, Arreola-Ornelas y Méndez, 2008, Tendencias en la mortalidad por cáncer de mama en México, 1979-2007.
Mexican Health Foundation, Working Paper. Health Observatory for LAC, based on data from the WHO and the Ministry of Health of Mexico.
•In 1998 public sector clinicians performed
6.6 million clinical breast exams in Mexico.
This figure increased to 10.8 million in 2000.9
who received preventive medicine services
including breast cancer detection during the
previous year increased from 12% to 22%.6
Mortality
•The Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS)
accounts for approximately 40% of diagnoses, followed by the Ministry of Health with
26% of the cases.9
•A Ministry of Health study revealed that in
Mexico up to two thirds of breast cancer
deaths in women under 75 could be prevented with early detection and the application
of existing medical treatments.4
•Since 2006, breast cancer is the second most
common cause of death in the 30-54 year
old female population in Mexico, and it is
the number one cause of mortality from
malignant tumors among all women.5,6,7
•In 2008, 4,818 Mexican women died from
breast cancer, which represents one death
every 2 hours.7
•The breast cancer mortality rate in Mexico
increased substantially between 1950 and
2008, from a rate of 2 per 100,000 women
to 9.7 per 100,000 women.7
•Mortality from cervical cancer has been
declining since 1990 in Mexico, in contrast
to the breast cancer mortality rate which
increased 2.5 times between 1992 and 2008.
As a result, the breast cancer mortality rate
has exceeded that of cervical cancer since
2005.6,7
•In 2008, Mexican women between 30 and
65 years of age had a greater risk of dying
from breast cancer than from cervical cancer, while in 1980 the risk of dying from
cervical cancer was twice that of breast
cancer.6,7
•Roughly 31,598 women die from breast
cancer each year in Latin America and the
Caribbean.1
•The increasing incidence is also reflected in
the number of hospital admissions for breast
cancer in public institutions. In the IMSS
there was an 80% increase in the number
of admissions due to breast cancer between
1986 and 2003 (a higher increase than for
diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease,
and cervical cancer).5
•In Mexico, according to the registries of the
Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS),
12.2% of cases were diagnosed in stage 1.10
In developed countries approximately 50%
of cases are diagnosed in stage 0 or 1.11
•In the U.S. the 5-year relative survival rate
for localized cases is 98% (early stages),
84% for regional disease, and only 23%
when metastatic.11
•According to the National Health Surveys
of Mexico from 2000 and 2006, the percentage of 40-69 year old Mexican women
•Due in large part to the lack of access to
early detection and treatment in LMICs, a
much larger proportion of women with
breast cancer die of the disease. In North
America the ratio of mortality to incidence
(an approximation to lethality) is close to
20%, compared to 32% in Latin America
and the Caribbean and 55% in Sub-Saharan
Africa. The probability of survival of a woman
living in one of the best outcome countries
–Canada– is almost 90%.1,11,12,13
•At a global level, 55% of new diagnoses
(767,000) are in women from LMICs.1,14
Mortality from malignant tumors of breast and cervix
Mexico, 1995-2008
•In 2001; 3,971 cases (10.2 per 100,000
women age 15 or older) were reported
in Mexico; by 2008 the incidence had
increased to 10,186 cases (17.6 per
100,000).1,7
Rate per 100,000 women
Adjusted for age
16
12
•In 2008 there were 1.4 million cases of
breast cancer in the world, of which 55%
are registered in low or middle income
countries.1
8
CERVIX
BREAST
4
1995
1965
1975
1985
Incidence and Prevalence
1995
occurs in women from Europe and the
United States; 8 of the 1.4 new cases
recorded in 2008 47% occurred in women under the age of 55.1
•In 2008 we estimated about 114 thousand
new cases in Latin America and the
Caribbean. The countries of this region
jointly account for 8% of new breast
cancer cases in the world.1
•Breast cancer is estimated to occur in
Mexican women a decade before it
2005
2006: BC>CC. For the first time in more than 5 decades.
Early Detection and Treatment
Source: Lozano, Knaul, Gómez-Dantés, Arreola-Ornelas y Méndez, 2008, Tendencias en la mortalidad por cáncer de mama en México, 1979-2007.
Mexican Health Foundation, Working Paper. Health Observatory for LAC, based on data from the WHO and the Ministry of Health of Mexico.
•In 1998 public sector clinicians performed
6.6 million clinical breast exams in Mexico.
This figure increased to 10.8 million in 2000.9
who received preventive medicine services
including breast cancer detection during the
previous year increased from 12% to 22%.6
Mortality
•The Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS)
accounts for approximately 40% of diagnoses, followed by the Ministry of Health with
26% of the cases.9
•A Ministry of Health study revealed that in
Mexico up to two thirds of breast cancer
deaths in women under 75 could be prevented with early detection and the application
of existing medical treatments.4
•Since 2006, breast cancer is the second most
common cause of death in the 30-54 year
old female population in Mexico, and it is
the number one cause of mortality from
malignant tumors among all women.5,6,7
•In 2008, 4,818 Mexican women died from
breast cancer, which represents one death
every 2 hours.7
•The breast cancer mortality rate in Mexico
increased substantially between 1950 and
2008, from a rate of 2 per 100,000 women
to 9.7 per 100,000 women.7
•Mortality from cervical cancer has been
declining since 1990 in Mexico, in contrast
to the breast cancer mortality rate which
increased 2.5 times between 1992 and 2008.
As a result, the breast cancer mortality rate
has exceeded that of cervical cancer since
2005.6,7
•In 2008, Mexican women between 30 and
65 years of age had a greater risk of dying
from breast cancer than from cervical cancer, while in 1980 the risk of dying from
cervical cancer was twice that of breast
cancer.6,7
•Roughly 31,598 women die from breast
cancer each year in Latin America and the
Caribbean.1
•The increasing incidence is also reflected in
the number of hospital admissions for breast
cancer in public institutions. In the IMSS
there was an 80% increase in the number
of admissions due to breast cancer between
1986 and 2003 (a higher increase than for
diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease,
and cervical cancer).5
•In Mexico, according to the registries of the
Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS),
12.2% of cases were diagnosed in stage 1.10
In developed countries approximately 50%
of cases are diagnosed in stage 0 or 1.11
•In the U.S. the 5-year relative survival rate
for localized cases is 98% (early stages),
84% for regional disease, and only 23%
when metastatic.11
•According to the National Health Surveys
of Mexico from 2000 and 2006, the percentage of 40-69 year old Mexican women
•Due in large part to the lack of access to
early detection and treatment in LMICs, a
much larger proportion of women with
breast cancer die of the disease. In North
America the ratio of mortality to incidence
(an approximation to lethality) is close to
20%, compared to 32% in Latin America
and the Caribbean and 55% in Sub-Saharan
Africa. The probability of survival of a woman
living in one of the best outcome countries
–Canada– is almost 90%.1,11,12,13
•At a global level, 55% of new diagnoses
(767,000) are in women from LMICs.1,14
References
1.
2.
Ferlay J, Shin H, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin
DM. GLOBOCAN 2008, Cancer Incidence and
Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 10
(Internet). Lyon, France: International Agency for
Research on Cancer, 2010. Available at: (http://globocan.iarc.fr), 2010.
Knaul FM, López Carrillo L, Lazcano Ponce E, Gómez
Dantés H, Romieu I y Torres G., 2009. “Cáncer de
mama: un reto para la sociedad y los sistemas de
salud.” Salud Pública de México; Vol. 51 suppl. 2:
S135-137.
3.
American Cancer Society, 2008. “Breast Cancer Facts
& Figures 2007-2008”. Atlanta. American Cancer Society,
Inc. http://www.cancer.org
4.
F. Franco-Marina, R. Lozano, B. Villa, P. Solís, 2006.
“La mortalidad en México, 2000-2004. Muertes
evitables: magnitud, distribución y tendencias”.
Dirección General de Información en Salud, Secretaría de Salud. Mexico.
5.
6.
Knaul, Lozano, Gómez Dantés, Arreola-Ornelas y
Méndez, 2008. “El cáncer de mama en México:
cifras para la toma de decisiones”. Observatorio de
la Salud. Working paper. Competitiveness and
Health, Mexican Health Foundations.
Knaul F, Nigenda G, Lozano R, Langer A, Frenk J.
Breast cancer in Mexico: a pressing priority. Reprod
Health Matters 2008; 16: 113-23.
www.gtfccc.harvard.edu
7.
Secretaría de Salud. Defunciones, 1979-2008. Sistema
Nacional de Salud, Secretaría de Salud, México, DF,
2010. At: (http://sinais.salud.gob.mx/basesdedatos/index.html).
8.
Rodríguez Cuevas, S Macias C.G, et al., 2001. “Breast
carcinoma presents a decade earlier in Mexican
woman than in women in United States and European
countries”. Cancer 91(4): 863-8.
9.
Secretaría de Salud, 2002. “Programa de Acción:
Cáncer de Mama”. Mexico.
10. Knaul FM, Arreola-Ornelas H, Velázquez E, Dorantes J,
Méndez O y Ávila-Burgos L., 2009. “The health care
costs of breast cancer: the case of the Mexican Social
Security Institute, Salud Publica Mex 2009; 51 suppl. 2:
S286-S295
11. IARC, OMS Globocan 2002. (www.iarc.fr).
12. Boyle P, Levin B (2008) World Cancer Report 2008.
Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer
(IARC).
13. American Cancer Society, 2010. Cancer facts & figures,
2010. (http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@
nho/documents/document/acspc-024113.pdf).
14. Porter, P. 2008. “Westernizing Women Risk? Breast
Cancer in Lower Income Countries”. The New England Journal of Medicine. 358; 213-216.
www.hgei.harvard.edu
www.observatoriodelasalud.net
ompetitividad
y S a l u d
hacia un sistema de salud más eficaz y eficiente
Asociación Civil
www.funsalud.org.mx
www.tomateloapecho.org.mx
“BREAST CANCER: TÓMATELO A PECHO”
Mexico Fact Sheet
March 2011
Authors: Felicia M arie K naul, Héctor Arreola –Ornelas, R afael Lozano, Héctor Gómez Dantés
Health and Competitiveness Program and Health Observatory; Mexican Health Foundation
Breast cancer in women is a serious public
health issue in Mexico and the Latin America
and Caribbean (LAC) region as a whole. It
seriously threatens not only women’s health,
but the welfare of families, health systems,
and society.
It is also true that cervical cancer is more
common among poor women, and therefore,
these women face a double burden of disease,
experiencing a high risk of suffering and dying
from these two types of cancer due to the
lack of early detection and treatment.
Global evidence indicates that 55% of new
breast cancer cases are found in low a middle
income countries, where the mortality rate is
also higher, representing approximately 93.5%
of deaths due to this disease.1
Most breast cancer deaths can be prevented.
Global evidence indicates that breast cancer
can be cured if detected in time and treated
appropriately. In the United States, the five-year
relative survival rate is 98% when the disease
is diagnosed in the early stages (stages 0 and 1).3
A study by the Ministry of Health of Mexico
showed that up to two thirds of deaths from
breast cancer in women under 75 years of age
could be prevented.4 In Mexico, as in most
countries in Latin America, breast cancer outcomes are highly sensitive to improvements in
access to information and interventions related
to early detection and treatment.
Today, unlike 15 years ago, breast cancer is one
of the diseases with the highest incidence in
adult women in LAC. In Mexico, breast cancer
mortality has risen to become the leading cause
of death from malignant tumors among women.
Overall it is the second cause of death among
women aged 30 to 54. Since 2006, breast
cancer claims more lives each year than cervical
cancer.2 By contrast, in 1980 the risk of dying of
cervical cancer was double that of breast cancer.
Breast cancer used to be considered the cancer
of wealthier women, and cervical cancer was
seen as a condition of low-income women.
Today we know that breast cancer is a serious
problem for both groups.

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