NASA - NSSDC - Master Catalog

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NASA - NSSDC - Master Catalog
Cronología de
Lanzamientos
Espaciales
Año 2003
Recopilación de datos Ing. Eladio Miranda Batlle.
Los textos, imágenes y tablas fueron obtenidos de la National Space Science.
Data Center. NASA
NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Query Results
Thursday, 14 October 2010
NSSDC Master
Catalog Search
Spacecraft
Experiments
Data Collections
Personnel
Spacecraft Query Results
Publications
There were 89 spacecraft returned.
Maps
Spacecraft Name
NSSDC ID
Launch Date
New/Updated Data
AAU Cubesat
2003-031G
2003-06-30
Lunar/Planetary Events
AMC 9
2003-024A
2003-06-06
Amos 2
2003-059A
2003-12-27
Asiasat 4
2003-014A
2003-04-12
B-Sat 2C
2003-028A
2003-06-11
Beagle 2
2003-022C
2003-06-02
Beidou 1C
2003-021A
2003-05-24
Bilsat 1
2003-042E
2003-09-27
BNSCSAT
2003-042D
2003-09-27
CANX 1
2003-031H
2003-06-30
CBERS
2003-049A
2003-10-21
CHIPS
2003-002B
2003-01-13
Columbus Orbital Facility
COLMBUS
2003-01-01
Coriolis
2003-001A
2003-01-06
Cosmos 2397
2003-015A
2003-04-24
Cosmos 2398
2003-023A
2003-06-04
Cosmos 2399
2003-035A
2003-08-12
Cosmos 2400
2003-037A
2003-08-19
Cosmos 2401
2003-037B
2003-08-19
Cosmos 2402
2003-056B
2003-12-10
Cosmos 2403
2003-056C
2003-12-10
Cosmos 2404
2003-056A
2003-12-10
Cubesat XI-IV
2003-031J
2003-06-30
Cute 1
2003-031E
2003-06-30
DMSP 5D-3/F16
2003-048A
2003-10-18
Double Star 1
2003-061A
2003-12-29
Dtusat
2003-031C
2003-06-30
Echostar 9
2003-034A
2003-08-08
Eurobird 3
2003-043A
2003-09-27
Express AM22
2003-060A
2003-12-28
FSW-3 1
2003-051C
2003-11-03
Galaxy 12
2003-013B
2003-04-09
GALEX
2003-017A
2003-04-28
Gruzomaket
2003-055A
2003-12-05
GSAT 2
2003-018A
2003-05-08
Hayabusa
2003-019A
2003-05-09
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftSearch.do;jsessionid=CE57B9F8DD447EAF72A7654CDF24F167[13/10/2010 23:08:43]
NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Query Results
Hellas-Sat
2003-020A
2003-05-13
Horizons 1
2003-044A
2003-10-01
ICESat
2003-002A
2003-01-13
IGS 1A
2003-009A
2003-03-28
IGS 1B
2003-009B
2003-03-28
Innovation 1
2003-049B
2003-10-21
Insat 3A
2003-013A
2003-04-09
INSAT 3E
2003-043E
2003-09-27
Intelsat 907
2003-007A
2003-02-15
IRS P6
2003-046A
2003-10-17
Kaistsat 4
2003-042G
2003-09-27
Larets
2003-042F
2003-09-27
Mars Express
2003-022A
2003-06-02
MILSTAR 6
2003-012A
2003-04-08
Mimosa
2003-031B
2003-06-30
Molniya 1-92
2003-011A
2003-04-02
Molniya 3-53
2003-029A
2003-06-19
Monitor-E/Breeze
2003-031A
2003-06-30
Most
2003-031D
2003-06-30
Mozhayets 4
2003-042A
2003-09-27
Navstar 51
2003-005A
2003-01-29
Navstar 52
2003-010A
2003-03-31
Navstar 53
2003-058A
2003-12-21
Nigeriasat 1
2003-042C
2003-09-27
Opportunity
2003-032A
2003-07-08
Optus 1C
2003-028B
2003-06-11
Orbview 3
2003-030A
2003-06-26
Progress M-47
2003-006A
2003-02-02
Progress M-48
2003-039A
2003-08-29
Progress M1-10
2003-025A
2003-06-08
Quakesat
2003-031F
2003-06-30
Rainbow 1
2003-033A
2003-07-17
Rubin 4
2003-042B
2003-09-27
Scisat 1
2003-036A
2003-08-13
SERVIS 1
2003-050A
2003-10-30
Shenzhou 5
2003-045A
2003-10-15
SMART 1
2003-043C
2003-09-27
SORCE
2003-004A
2003-01-25
SOYUZ TMA 3
2003-047A
2003-10-18
Soyuz TMA-2
2003-016A
2003-04-26
Spirit
2003-027A
2003-06-10
Spitzer Space Telescope
2003-038A
2003-08-25
STS 107
2003-003A
2003-01-16
Thuraya 2
2003-026A
2003-06-10
UFO 11
2003-057A
2003-12-18
USA 167
2003-008A
2003-03-11
USA 170
2003-040A
2003-08-29
USA 171
2003-041A
2003-09-09
USA 173
2003-054A
2003-12-02
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftSearch.do;jsessionid=CE57B9F8DD447EAF72A7654CDF24F167[13/10/2010 23:08:43]
NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Query Results
XSS 10
2003-005B
2003-01-29
Yamal 201
2003-053B
2003-11-24
Yamal 202
2003-053A
2003-11-24
Zhongxing 20
2003-052A
2003-11-14
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NASA Official: Dr. Ed Grayzeck
Curator: E. Bell, II
Version 4.0.14, 08 October 2010
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftSearch.do;jsessionid=CE57B9F8DD447EAF72A7654CDF24F167[13/10/2010 23:08:43]
NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details
Thursday, 14 October 2010
NSSDC Master
Catalog Search
Spacecraft
Experiments
Data Collections
Personnel
AAU Cubesat
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-031G
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
AAU CUBESAT is a Danish (Aalborg University) students-built
photo -imaging nanosatellite that was launched by a Rokot
rocket from Plesetsk at 14:15 UT on 30 June 2003.
27846
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0630
Launch Vehicle: Rokot
Launch Site: Plesetsk,
Russia
Funding Agency
Unknown (Denmark)
Discipline
Surveillance and Other
Military
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for AAU
Cubesat
Experiments on AAU
Cubesat
Data collections from AAU
Cubesat
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
Office.
+ Privacy Policy and Important Notices
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=2003-031G[13/10/2010 23:25:00]
NASA Official: Dr. Ed Grayzeck
Curator: E. Bell, II
Version 4.0.14, 08 October 2010
Cronología de
Lanzamientos
Espaciales
Año 2003
Recopilación de datos Ing. Eladio Miranda Batlle.
Los textos, imágenes y tablas fueron obtenidos de la National Space Science.
Data Center. NASA
NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details
Thursday, 14 October 2010
NSSDC Master
Catalog Search
Spacecraft
Experiments
Data Collections
Personnel
AMC 9
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-024A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
AMC 9 is an American geostationary communications
spacecraft that was launched by a Proton-K rocket from
Baikonur at 22:15 UT on 6 June 2003. the 4.1 tonne satellite
will provide direct-to-home digital TV, and data transfer in USA
and Canada, through its 24 C-, and 24 Ku-band transponders
after parking at 85 deg-W longitude.
27820
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0606
Launch
Vehicle: Proton-K
Launch Site: Tyuratam
(Baikonur Cosmodrome),
Kazakhstan
Funding Agency
Unknown (United States)
Discipline
Communications
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for AMC 9
Experiments on AMC 9
Data collections from AMC
9
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
Office.
+ Privacy Policy and Important Notices
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=2003-024A[13/10/2010 23:25:53]
NASA Official: Dr. Ed Grayzeck
Curator: E. Bell, II
Version 4.0.14, 08 October 2010
NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details
Thursday, 14 October 2010
NSSDC Master
Catalog Search
Spacecraft
Experiments
Data Collections
Personnel
Amos 2
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-059A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Amos 2 is an Israeli geostationary communcations satellite that
was launched by a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from Baikonur at 21:30
UT on 27 December 2003. The 1.4 tonne satellite carries 11
Ku-band transponders to provide direct-to-home television,
internet and data transmissions to the West Asia, Europe and
eastern United States after parking over 4.0 deg-W longitude.
28132
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-1227
Launch
Vehicle: Soyuz-Fregat
Launch Site: Tyuratam
(Baikonur Cosmodrome),
Kazakhstan
Funding Agency
Unknown (Israel)
Discipline
Communications
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Amos 2
Experiments on Amos 2
Data collections from Amos
2
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
Office.
+ Privacy Policy and Important Notices
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=2003-059A[13/10/2010 23:26:28]
NASA Official: Dr. Ed Grayzeck
Curator: E. Bell, II
Version 4.0.14, 08 October 2010
NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details
Thursday, 14 October 2010
NSSDC Master
Catalog Search
Spacecraft
Experiments
Data Collections
Personnel
Asiasat 4
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-014A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Asiasat 4 is an American geostationary communications
spacecraft that was launched by an Atlas 3B rocket from Cape
Canaveral at 01:47 UT on 12 April 2003. The 9.5 kW satellite
will provide direct-to-home voice and video and video
broadcast to about 40 countries from Middle East to New
Zealand through its 28 C-band, and 20 ku-band transponders
after parking over 122 deg-E longitude.
27718
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0412
Launch Vehicle: Atlas
3B
Launch Site: Cape
Canaveral, United States
Funding Agency
Unknown (United States)
Discipline
Communications
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Asiasat 4
Experiments on Asiasat 4
Data collections from
Asiasat 4
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
Office.
+ Privacy Policy and Important Notices
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=2003-014A[13/10/2010 23:27:03]
NASA Official: Dr. Ed Grayzeck
Curator: E. Bell, II
Version 4.0.14, 08 October 2010
NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details
Thursday, 14 October 2010
NSSDC Master
Catalog Search
Spacecraft
Experiments
Data Collections
Personnel
B-Sat 2C
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-028A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
B-Sat 2C is a Japanese geostationary communications
spacecraft that was launched by an Ariane 5 rocket from
Kourou at 22:38 UT on 11 June 2003. It will provide direct
digital broadcasts to homes in Japan and neighboring
countries through its Ku-band transponders.
27830
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0611
Launch Vehicle: Ariane
5
Launch Site: Kourou,
French Guiana
Funding Agency
Unknown (Japan)
Discipline
Communications
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for B-Sat 2C
Experiments on B-Sat 2C
Data collections from BSat 2C
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
Office.
+ Privacy Policy and Important Notices
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=2003-028A[13/10/2010 23:27:45]
NASA Official: Dr. Ed Grayzeck
Curator: E. Bell, II
Version 4.0.14, 08 October 2010
NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details
Thursday, 14 October 2010
NSSDC Master
Catalog Search
Spacecraft
Experiments
Data Collections
Personnel
Beagle 2
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-022C
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Beagle 2
Description
Facts in Brief
Beagle 2 was declared lost after no communications were
received following the scheduled landing on Mars. Attempts at
contact were made for over a month after the expected landing
at 2:54 UT December 25. A board of inquiry was appointed to
look into the reason for the failure and released its report on 24
August 2004. No concrete reason for the probe's failure was
determined. Factors that were considered as plausible causes
of the failure were unusually thin atmosphere over the landing
site, electronic glitches, a gas bag puncture, damage to a heat
shield, a broken communications antenna, and collision with an
unforeseen object.
Launch Date: 2003-0602
Launch Vehicle: Soyuz
Launch Site: Tyuratam
(Baikonur Cosmodrome),
Kazakhstan
Mass: 33.2 kg
The Beagle 2 is a Mars lander initially mounted on the top deck
of the Mars Express Orbiter. It was released from the Orbiter
on 19 December 2003 on a course to land on Mars at 2:54 UT
on 25 December. A point at 10.6 N, 270 W in Isidis Planitia, a
large flat region that overlies the boundary between the ancient
highlands and the northern plains of Mars, was chosen as the
landing site. No signals were received following the scheduled
landing and after over a month of attempts at contact the
mission was declared lost. A board of inquiry has been
appointed to look into the reason for the failure. The lander
was expected to operate for about 180 days and an extended
mission of up to one martian year (687 Earth days) was
considered possible. The Beagle 2 lander objectives were to
characterize the landing site geology, mineralogy,
geochemistry and oxidation state, the physical properties of
the atmosphere and surface layers, collect data on martian
meteorology and climatology, and search for signatures of life.
Spacecraft and Subsystems
Beagle 2 is equipped with a robot sampling arm and a small
"mole" (Planetary Undersurface Tool, or PLUTO) which can be
deployed by the arm and is capable of moving across the
surface at a rate of about 1 cm every 5 seconds using a
compressed spring mechanism. This mechanism can also
allow the mole to burrow into the ground and collect a
subsurface sample in a cavity in its tip. The mole is attached to
the lander by a power cable which can be used as a winch to
bring the sample back to the lander. The lander will be
equipped with instruments for gas chromatography and mass
spectroscopy (the Gas Analysis Package, or GAP), a
microscope, panoramic and wide-angle cameras, Mossbauer
and X-ray flourescence spectrometers and environmental
sensors.
The robot arm is equipped with a grinder and corer, a device to
collect a core sample from inside any rocks within reach of the
robot arm. The Mossbauer and X-ray spectrometers and the
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=2003-022C[13/10/2010 23:29:02]
Funding Agency
Unknown (United
Kingdom)
Discipline
Planetary Science
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Beagle 2
PDMP information for
Beagle 2
Experiments on Beagle 2
Data collections from
Beagle 2
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Dr. David R.
Williams.
NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details
microscope are also held in a package on the end of the arm
called the position adjustable workbench, or PAW. The stereo
camera system is also mounted on the arm. The lander has
the shape of a shallow bowl with a diameter of 0.65 m and a
depth of 0.25 m. The cover of the lander is hinged and folds
open to reveal the interior of the craft which holds a UHF
antenna, the 0.75 m long robot arm, and the scientific
equipment. The main body also contains the battery,
telecommunications, electronics, and central processor, and
the heaters. The lid itself further unfolds to expose four diskshaped solar arrays. The lander package has a mass of 69 kg
at launch but the actual lander is only 33.2 kg at touchdown.
Mission Profile
Beagle 2 was launched with the Mars Express orbiter and was
released on a ballistic trajectory towards Mars on 19
December 2003 at 8:31 UT. Beagle 2 coasted for five days
after release and entered the martian atmosphere at over
20,000 km/hr on the morning of 25 December. As no signals
were received after separation from Mars Express it is not
known what happened during the landing sequence After initial
deceleration in the martian atmosphere from simple friction,
parachutes were to be deployed and about 1 km above the
surface large gas bags would have inflated around the lander
to protect it when it hit the surface. Landing was expected to
occur at about 02:54 UT on 25 December (9:54 p.m. EST 24
December). After landing the bags would deflate and the top of
the lander would open. The top would unfold to expose the four
solar array disks. Within the body of the lander a UHF antenna
would have been deployed. A panoramic image of the landing
area would be taken using the stereo camera and a pop-up
mirror. A signal was scheduled to be sent after landing (and
possibly an image) to Mars Odyssey at about 5:30 UT and
another the next (local) morning to confirm that Beagle 2
survived the landing and the first night on Mars. No signal was
received at this time nor at any of the subsequent
opportunities. Nothing further is known about the lander. If the
landing had been successful instructions would be sent to
Beagle 2. The lander arm would be released and be used to
maneuver the scientific package located on the end of the arm
and to dig up samples to be deposited in the Gas Analysis
Package for study. The "mole" would be deployed by the arm,
crawling across the surface to a distance of about three meters
from the lander and capable of burrowing under rocks to
collect soil samples for analysis.
The Beagle 2 is a British-led effort as part of the European
Space Agency's Mars Express mission. It is named after the
HMS Beagle, the ship which carried Charles Darwin on the
voyage which led to his discovery of natural selection and
evolution. The exact cost of Beagle 2 is not known, but most
estimates give a range 40 to 50 million British pounds (roughly
$65 million to $80 million U.S.)
Personnel
Name
Role
Original Affiliation
E-mail
Dr. Colin T. Pillinger
Mission Scientist
Open University
[email protected]
Selected References
Wright, I. P., et al., Scientific objectives of the Beagle 2 lander, Acta Astronaut., 52, No. 2-6,
219-225, 2003.
Sims, M. R., et al., Beagle 2: A proposed exobiology lander for ESA's 2003 Mars Express
mission, Adv. Space Res., 23, No. 11, 1925-1928, 1999.
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=2003-022C[13/10/2010 23:29:02]
NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details
Beagle 2 after separating from Mars Express
All images courtesy Beagle 2 and ESA, all rights reserved.
Mars Express
Beagle 2 Declared Lost - ESA Press Release (11 February 2004)
Mars Express Releases Beagle 2 - ESA Press Release (19 December 2003)
Beagle 2 Set For Christmas Day Landing - ESA Press Release (23 December 2003)
Mars Home Page
Chronology of Mars Exploration
Beagle 2 Home Page - The Open University
Mars Express Home Page - ESA
+ Privacy Policy and Important Notices
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Curator: E. Bell, II
Version 4.0.14, 08 October 2010
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Thursday, 14 October 2010
NSSDC Master
Catalog Search
Spacecraft
Experiments
Data Collections
Personnel
Beidou 1C
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-021A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Beidou 1C was a Chinese (PRC) geostationary navigational
satellite that was launched by a Long March 3A rocket from
Xichang launching center in Sichuan province at 16:34 UT on
24 May 2003. It joined two others, Beidou 1A and Beidou 1B,
that were launched in 2000 and enabled a viable global
positioning constellation. Besides enabling positioning, it was
to be used in weather monitoring and telecommunications.
Beidou 3
27813
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0524
Launch Vehicle: Long
March 3A
Launch Site: Xichang,
Peoples Republic of China
Funding Agency
Unknown (Peoples
Republic of China)
Discipline
Navigation & Global
Positioning
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Beidou 1C
Experiments on Beidou 1C
Data collections from
Beidou 1C
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
Office.
+ Privacy Policy and Important Notices
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=2003-021A[13/10/2010 23:29:57]
NASA Official: Dr. Ed Grayzeck
Curator: E. Bell, II
Version 4.0.14, 08 October 2010
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Thursday, 14 October 2010
NSSDC Master
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Experiments
Data Collections
Personnel
Bilsat 1
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-042E
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Bilsat 1 is a Turkish DMC (multinational Diaster Monitoring
Constellation) satellite that was launched by a Kosmos 3M
rocket at 06:12 UT on 27 September 2003 from Plesetsk
Cosmodrome. The 130 kg satellite carries five imaging
cameras to monitor natural disasters at a resolution of 26 m in
color by four cameras (operating in red, green, blue, and
infrared colors) and another at 4-m resolution in black-andwhite. The DMC is run by an organization of seven countries
(UK, Algeria, China, Nigeria, Thailand, Turkey, and Vietnam)
with the satelllites built at Surrey, UK. BILSAT 1 will also help
in agriculture and urban planing.
27943
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0927
Launch
Vehicle: Kosmos-3M
Launch Site: Plesetsk,
Russia
Funding Agency
Unknown (Turkey)
Discipline
Other
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Bilsat 1
Experiments on Bilsat 1
Data collections from Bilsat
1
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
Office.
+ Privacy Policy and Important Notices
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=2003-042E[13/10/2010 23:30:38]
NASA Official: Dr. Ed Grayzeck
Curator: E. Bell, II
Version 4.0.14, 08 October 2010
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Thursday, 14 October 2010
NSSDC Master
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Spacecraft
Experiments
Data Collections
Personnel
BNSCSAT
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-042D
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
BNSCSAT (British National Science Center SATellite, also
known as UK-DMC) is a British DMC (multinational Disaster
Monitoring Constellation) satellite that was launched by a
Kosmos 3M rocket from Plesetsk at 06:12 UT on 27
September 2003. Besides disaster monitoring, it will help in
urban planning and agriculture surveys.
British National Science
Center Satellite
UK-DMC
27942
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0927
Launch
Vehicle: Kosmos-3M
Launch Site: Plesetsk,
Russia
Funding Agency
Unknown (Brazil)
Discipline
Other
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for BNSCSAT
Experiments on BNSCSAT
Data collections from
BNSCSAT
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
Office.
+ Privacy Policy and Important Notices
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=2003-042D[13/10/2010 23:30:59]
NASA Official: Dr. Ed Grayzeck
Curator: E. Bell, II
Version 4.0.14, 08 October 2010
NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details
Thursday, 14 October 2010
NSSDC Master
Catalog Search
Spacecraft
Experiments
Data Collections
Personnel
CANX 1
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-031H
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
CANX 1 is a Canadian (University of Toronto) students-built,
photo-imaging nanosatellite that was launched by a Rokot
rocket from Plesetsk at 14:15 UT on 30 June 2003.
27847
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0630
Launch Vehicle: Rokot
Launch Site: Plesetsk,
Russia
Funding Agency
Canadian Space Agency
(Canada)
Discipline
Surveillance and Other
Military
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for CANX 1
Experiments on CANX 1
Data collections from
CANX 1
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
Office.
+ Privacy Policy and Important Notices
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=2003-031H[13/10/2010 23:31:36]
NASA Official: Dr. Ed Grayzeck
Curator: E. Bell, II
Version 4.0.14, 08 October 2010
NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details
Thursday, 14 October 2010
NSSDC Master
Catalog Search
Spacecraft
Experiments
Data Collections
Personnel
CBERS
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-049A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
CBERS (China Brazil Earth Resources Satellite) is a SinoBrazilian remote sensing satellite that was launched by a Long
March 4B rocket from Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center is
Shanxi province on 21 October 2003. The 1.6 tonne satellite
will collect data relevant to environment, agriculture, urban
planning and water pollution, under Chinese control for 18
months, and later under Brazilian control during the remaining
lifetime (of six or more months).
China Brazil Earth
Resources Satellite
28057
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-1021
Launch Vehicle: Long
March 4B
Launch Site: Taiyuan,
Peoples Republic of China
Funding Agency
Unknown (Brazil)
Discipline
Earth Science
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for CBERS
Experiments on CBERS
Data collections from
CBERS
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
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Office.
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CHIPS
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-002B
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Description
CHIPS (Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer) is an
American (NASA) astrophysics spacecraft that was launched
by a Delta 2 rocket from Vandenberg AFB at 00:45 UT on 13
January 2003. The 60 kg, triaxially-stabilized spacecraft has a
spectrograph covering the 9-26 nm wavelength band at a
resolution of 0.1 nm, scanning the entire sky in chunks of 5
degree x 27 degree segments during each orbit. The targets
are the hot and diffuse nebulae at about a million degrees
temperature. The band covers several strong emission lines.
Alternate Names
UNEX/CHIPS
Explorer 82
Cosmic Hot Interstellar
Plasma Spectrometer
27643
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0113
Launch Vehicle: Delta
II
Launch
Site: Vandenberg AFB,
United States
Mass: 60.0 kg
Funding Agency
National Aeronautics and
Space Administration
(United States)
Discipline
Astronomy
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for CHIPS
Experiments on CHIPS
Data collections from
CHIPS
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
Office.
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CHIPS Project (U. California, Berkeley)
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Columbus Orbital Facility
Publications
NSSDC ID: COLMBUS
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Description
The ESA laboratory module known as the Columbus Orbital
Facility (COF) will be launched and attached to Node 2 of the
orbiting International Space Station sometime after the year
2002. The Columbus Polar Platform, Columbus Attached Lab,
and Columbus Free-Flying Platform were early proposed ESA
spacecraft to be coordinated with the proposed U.S. Space
Station. Just as the early U.S. Space Station plans went
through a series of re-scoping, downsizing, and
internationalizing steps before eventually receiving budget
approval as the U.S.-led International Space Station (ISS),
these proposed Columbus plans similarly evolved into the
current COF module.
The COF is a pressurized, habitable module whose structure is
derived from the Italian Mini-Pressurized Logistics Module
(MPLM). It is designed as a general purpose laboratory that
can support any foreseen user discipline, including materials
and fluid sciences, life sciences and technology development.
For more information, see the following ESA and NASA WWW
pages: http://www.estec.esa.int/spaceflight/index.htm
Alternate Names
ISS
COF
Space Station
MKS
International Space
Station
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0101
Launch
Vehicle: Shuttle
Launch Site: Cape
Canaveral, United States
Funding Agency
European Space Agency
(International)
(ISS) http://www.estec.esa.int/spaceflight/zarya.htm
(Columbus) http://www.estec.esa.nl/spaceflight/cof.htm
Disciplines
Earth Science
http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/
(ISS) http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/station/
(An ISS search page)
http://station.nasa.gov/station/assembly/index.html
(Zarya)
http://station.nasa.gov/station/assembly/elements/fgb/
Human Crew
Life Science
Microgravity
Additional
Information
(Unity)
http://station.nasa.gov/station/assembly/elements/node1/
Launch/Orbital
information for Columbus
Orbital Facility
PDMP information for
Columbus Orbital Facility
Telecommunications
information for Columbus
Orbital Facility
Experiments on Columbus
Orbital Facility
Data collections from
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Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
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Coriolis
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-001A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Description
Coriolis is an American (DOD) spacecraft that was launched by
a Titan 2 rocket from Vandenberg AFB at 14:19 UT on January
2003. The 395 kg, 1,174 W, 3.0 m diameter, 6.9 m high,
triaxially-stabilized spacecraft carried 82 kg of fuel and 340 kg
of instruments. The two instruments are WindSat to monitor
ocean surface winds, and SMEI to image Solar Mass Ejections
(SME). Data will be stored onboard and downlinked to
dedicated ground stations in x-band.
Alternate Names
27640
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0106
Launch Vehicle: Titan II
Launch
Site: Vandenberg AFB,
United States
Nominal
Power: 1174.0 W
Funding Agency
Department of Defense
(United States)
Disciplines
Earth Science
Solar Physics
Space Physics
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Coriolis
Experiments on Coriolis
Data collections from
Coriolis
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
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Personnel
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=2003-001A[13/10/2010 23:34:44]
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Role
Ms. Janet Johnson
Program Manager
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E-mail
NASA Official: Dr. Ed Grayzeck
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Cosmos 2397
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-015A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Cosmos 2397 is a Russian geostationary military satellite that
was launched by a Proton-K rocket from Baikonur at 04:23 UT
on 24 April 2003. It was inserted into geostationary orbit at
11:00 UT on the same day. The Moscow Kommersat uses the
name US-KMO for the series of four such spacecraft in
geostationary orbit, and US-KS for the older eight in highly
elliptical orbit, all of which are for early warning of missile
launches. It also reports that Cosmos 2397 will ensure total
global coverage of missile launches, filling out a gap over the
Pacific region.
27775
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0424
Launch
Vehicle: Proton-K
Launch Site: Tyuratam
(Baikonur Cosmodrome),
Kazakhstan
Funding Agency
Unknown (Russia)
Discipline
Surveillance and Other
Military
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Cosmos
2397
Experiments on Cosmos
2397
Data collections from
Cosmos 2397
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
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Cosmos 2398
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-023A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Cosmos 2398 is a Russian military satellite that was launched
by a Cosmos-3M rocket from Plesetsk at 19:23 UT on 4 June
2003.
27818
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0604
Launch
Vehicle: Cosmos
Launch Site: Plesetsk,
Russia
Funding Agency
Unknown (Russia)
Discipline
Surveillance and Other
Military
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Cosmos
2398
Experiments on Cosmos
2398
Data collections from
Cosmos 2398
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
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Cosmos 2399
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-035A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Cosmos 2399, also named NEMAN, is a Russian military
photo- reconnaissance satellite that was launched by a SoyuzU rocket from Baikonur at 14:20 UT on 12 August 2003.
Neman
27856
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0812
Launch
Vehicle: Soyuz-U
Launch Site: Tyuratam
(Baikonur Cosmodrome),
Kazakhstan
Discipline
Surveillance and Other
Military
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Cosmos
2399
Experiments on Cosmos
2399
Data collections from
Cosmos 2399
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
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Cosmos 2400
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-037A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Cosmos 2400 is a Russian military communications satellite
that was launched by a Cosmos 3M rocket from Plesetsk at
10:50 UT on 19 August 2003.
27868
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0819
Launch
Vehicle: Cosmos
Launch Site: Plesetsk,
Russia
Funding Agency
Unknown (Russia)
Disciplines
Communications
Surveillance and Other
Military
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Cosmos
2400
Experiments on Cosmos
2400
Data collections from
Cosmos 2400
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
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Cosmos 2401
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-037B
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Cosmos 2401is a Russian military communications satellite
that was launched by a Cosmos 3M rocket from Plesetsk at
10:50 UT on 19 August 2003.
27869
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0819
Launch
Vehicle: Cosmos
Launch Site: Plesetsk,
Russia
Funding Agency
Unknown (Russia)
Disciplines
Communications
Surveillance and Other
Military
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Cosmos
2401
Experiments on Cosmos
2401
Data collections from
Cosmos 2401
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
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Cosmos 2402
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-056B
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Cosmos 2403 is one of the latest additions to the Russian fleet
of Glonass navigational satellites. One of the good websites
for the Glonass fleet is
http://gge.unb.ca/Resources/GLONASSConstellationStatus.txt
Glonass 794
28113
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-1210
Launch Vehicle: null
Launch Site: null
Funding Agency
Unknown (Russia)
Discipline
Navigation & Global
Positioning
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Cosmos
2402
Experiments on Cosmos
2402
Data collections from
Cosmos 2402
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
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Cosmos 2403
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-056C
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Cosmos 2404 is one of the latest additions to the Russian fleet
of Glonass navigational satellites. One of the good websites
for the Glonass fleet is
http://gge.unb.ca/Resources/GLONASSConstellationStatus.txt
Glonass 795
28114
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-1210
Launch Vehicle: null
Launch Site: null
Funding Agency
Unknown (Russia)
Discipline
Navigation & Global
Positioning
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Cosmos
2403
Experiments on Cosmos
2403
Data collections from
Cosmos 2403
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
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Cosmos 2404
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-056A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Cosmos 2402 is one of the latest additions to the Russian fleet
of Glonass navigational satellites. One of the good websites
for the Glonass fleet is
http://gge.unb.ca/Resources/GLONASSConstellationStatus.txt
Glonass 701
28112
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-1210
Launch Vehicle: null
Launch Site: null
Funding Agency
Unknown (Russia)
Discipline
Navigation & Global
Positioning
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Cosmos
2404
Experiments on Cosmos
2404
Data collections from
Cosmos 2404
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
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Cubesat XI-IV
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-031J
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
CUBESAT XI-IV is a Japanese nanosatellite that was launched
by a Rokot rocket from Plesetsk at 14:15 UT on 30 June 2003.
With a mass of one kilogram, it carries an 80 mW beacon at
436.8475 MHz.
OSCAR 57
27848
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0630
Launch Vehicle: Rokot
Launch Site: Plesetsk,
Russia
Mass: 1.0 kg
Funding Agency
Unknown (Japan)
Disciplines
Communications
Technology Applications
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Cubesat
XI-IV
Experiments on Cubesat
XI-IV
Data collections from
Cubesat XI-IV
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
Office.
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Cute 1
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-031E
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
CUTE 1 is a Japanese (Tokyo Institute of Technology) one
kilogram nanosatellite that was launched by a Rokot rocket
from Plesetsk at 14:15 UT on 30 June 2003. It carries a 100
mW beacon at 436.8375 MHz.
CubeSat
OSCAR 55
27844
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0630
Launch Vehicle: Rokot
Launch Site: Plesetsk,
Russia
Mass: 1.0 kg
Funding Agency
Tokyo Institute of
Technology (Japan)
Disciplines
Communications
Technology Applications
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Cute 1
Experiments on Cute 1
Data collections from Cute
1
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
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Office.
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DMSP 5D-3/F16
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-048A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Description
DMSP F16 (USA 172) was launched by a Titan 2 rocket from
Vandenberg AFB at 16:17 UT on 18 October 2003. The
Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) is a
Department of Defense (DoD) program run by the Air Force
Space and Missle Systems Center (SMC). The program
designs, builds, launches, and maintains satellites monitoring
the meteorological, oceanographic, and solar-terrestrial
physics environments. Each DMSP satellite has a 101 minute,
sun-synchronous near-polar orbit at an altitude of 830km
above the surface of the earth. The visible and infrared
sensors (OLS) collect images across a 3000 km swath,
providing global coverage twice per day. The combination of
day/night and dawn/dusk satellites allows monitoring of global
information such as clouds every 6 hours. The microwave
imager (SSMI) and sounders (SSMT1, SSMT2) cover one half
the width of the visible and infrared swath. These instruments
cover polar regions at least twice and the equatorial region
once per day. The space environment sensors (SSJ, SSM,
SSIES) record along-track plasma densities, velocities,
composition and drifts (SS stands for Special Sensor).
DMSP F16 carries two new experiments: the limb scanning
ultraviolet imager/spectrometer SSULI built by the Naval
Research Laboratory and the nadir scanning ultaviolet
imager/spectrometer and photometer SSUSI built by the
Applied Physics Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University. It
also carried new versions of the Special Sensor for Ions,
Electrons and Scintillations (SSIES-13) and of the precipitating
ion and electron monitor (SSJ-5)
The data from the DMSP satellites are received and used at
operational centers continuously. The data are sent to the
National Geophysical Data Center's Solar Terrestrial Physics
Division (NGDC/STP) by the Air Force Weather Agency
(AFWA) for creation of an archive.
Alternate Names
DMSP-F16
USA 172
28054
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-1018
Launch Vehicle: Titan II
Launch
Site: Vandenberg AFB,
United States
Funding Agency
Unknown (United States)
Disciplines
Earth Science
Surveillance and Other
Military
Space Physics
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for DMSP 5D3/F16
Experiments on DMSP 5D3/F16
Data collections from
DMSP 5D-3/F16
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Dr. Dieter K.
Bilitza.
Other Sources of DMSP Data/Information
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Double Star 1
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-061A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Description
Double Star 1 (also known as Tan Ce 1, and TC 1) is a SinoEuropean (CSNA-ESA) satellite that was launched by a Long
March 2C/SM rocket from Xichang Satellite Launch Center in
the Sichuan province of China (PRC) at 19:06 UT on 29
December 2003. The 330 kg, 260 W satellite is cylindrical, with
a diameter of 2.1 m, a height of 1.4 m, and spins at a rate of
15 rpm. It carries eight instruments to probe Earth's
magnetosphere, five from ESA and three from CNSA. (The
ESA instruments are legacies from ESA's Cluster mission.)
The data from all instruments will be stored on-board and
dumped over three grounds stations: Shanghai and Beifing in
China, and Villafranca in Spain. There will be coordination
between the Cluster and Double Star missions. For more
information, see
http://www.esa.int/export/esaSC/120381_index_0_m.html
In the early morning on 14 October 2007, the satellite reentered the Earth's atmosphere and disintegrated during its
descent.
Alternate Names
Tan Ce 1
TC 1
28140
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-1229
Launch Vehicle: Long
March 2C/SM
Launch Site: Xichang,
Peoples Republic of China
Mass: 330.0 kg
Nominal
Power: 260.0 W
Funding Agencies
China National Space
Administration (Peoples
Republic of China)
European Space Agency
(International)
Discipline
Space Physics
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Double
Star 1
Experiments on Double
Star 1
Data collections from
Double Star 1
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
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Personnel
Name
Role
Original Affiliation
E-mail
Dr. Christophe
Philippe Escoubet
Project
Scientist
ESA-European Space Research
and Technology Centre
[email protected]
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Dtusat
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-031C
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
DTUSAT is a Danish (Danish Technological University)
nanosatellite that was launched by a Rokot rocket from
Plesetsk at 14:15 UT on 30 June 2003. It will image stars.
27842
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0630
Launch Vehicle: Rokot
Launch Site: Plesetsk,
Russia
Funding Agency
Unknown (Denmark)
Discipline
Astronomy
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Dtusat
Experiments on Dtusat
Data collections from
Dtusat
Questions or comments
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Echostar 9
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-034A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
ECHOSTAR 9, also known as TELSTAR 13, is an American
geostationary communications satellite that was launched by a
Zenit 3SL rocket from the floating Odyssey platform on the
equatorial Pacific at 154 deg-W longitude at 03:31 UT on 8
August 2003. The 4.7 tonne satellite carries 24 C-band, and a
few Ku- and Ka- band transponders to provide direct-to-home
and cable-fed high definition television programs to all regions
of North America after parking over 121 deg-W longitude.
Galaxy 23
G-23
Telstar 13
27854
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0808
Launch Vehicle: Zenit
3SL
Launch Site: Odyssey
(Sea Launch Platform), null
Funding Agency
International
Telecommunications
Satellite Corporation
(International)
Discipline
Communications
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Echostar 9
Experiments on Echostar 9
Data collections from
Echostar 9
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Eurobird 3
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-043A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
E-Bird is a European geostationary communications spacecraft
that was launched by an Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou at 23:14
UT on 27 September 2003. The 888 kg, 1.6 kW satellite
carries 20 Ku-band transponders to provide video and data
transmissions to Europe and Turkey through four antenna
beams, after parking over 33 deg-E longitude.
E-bird
27948
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0927
Launch Vehicle: Ariane
5
Launch Site: Kourou,
French Guiana
Funding Agency
European
Telecommunications
Satellite Consortium
(International)
Discipline
Communications
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Eurobird 3
Experiments on Eurobird 3
Data collections from
Eurobird 3
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Express AM22
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-060A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Description
Express AM-22 is a Russian geostationary communications
satellite that was launched by a Proton-K rocket from Baikonur
at 23:00 UT on 28 December 2003. The 2.6 tonne, 6 kW
satellite will provide television, internet and data transmissions
to Russia and bordering countries through its 24 Ku-band
transponders, after parking over 53 degrees E longitude.
Alternate Names
SESAT 2
28134
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-1228
Launch
Vehicle: Proton-K
Launch Site: Tyuratam
(Baikonur Cosmodrome),
Kazakhstan
Mass: 590.0 kg
Nominal
Power: 6000.0 W
Funding Agency
Russian Satellite
Communications
Company (Russia)
Discipline
Communications
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Express
AM22
Experiments on Express
AM22
Data collections from
Express AM22
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FSW-3 1
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-051C
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
FSW-3 1 is a Chinese (PRC) recoverable satellite that was
launched at 07:20 on 3 November 2003, by a Long March 2-D
rocket. During the few weeks of orbiting, it was to collect
"scientific and other" data through its imaging instruments. It
reentered on 25 November 2003, probably as soft-landing.
28078
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-1103
Launch Vehicle: Long
March 2D
Launch Site: Peoples
Republic of China
Funding Agency
Unknown (Peoples
Republic of China)
Disciplines
Earth Science
Microgravity
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for FSW-3 1
Experiments on FSW-3 1
Data collections from FSW31
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Galaxy 12
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-013B
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Galaxy 12 is an American (PanAmSat Corp.) geostationary
communications spacecraft that was launched by an Ariane 5
rocket from Kourou on 9 April 2003. The 1.8 tonne satellite
carries 24 -band transponders to provide voice, video and data
transmissions to North and South Americas, after parking over
72 deg-W longitude.
27715
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0409
Launch Vehicle: Ariane
5
Launch Site: Kourou,
French Guiana
Funding Agency
Unknown (United States)
Discipline
Communications
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Galaxy 12
Experiments on Galaxy 12
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Galaxy 12
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GALEX
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-017A
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Description
The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) is an orbiting space
ultraviolet telescope, which explores the origin and evolution of
galaxies, and the origins of stars and heavy elements over the
redshift range of z between 0 and 2. GALEX will conduct an
all-sky imaging survey, a deep imaging survey, and a survey of
200 galaxies nearest to the Milky Way Galaxy. As well,
GALEX will perform three spectroscopic surveys over the 135300 nanometer band. GALEX has a planned 29 month
mission, and is a part of the Small Explorers (SMEX) program.
The spacecraft will be three-axis stabilized, with power coming
from four fixed solar panels. The spacecraft bus is from Orbital
Sciences Corporation based on OrbView 4. The telescope is a
50-cm Modified Ritchey-Chretien with a rotating grism. GALEX
uses the first ever UV light dichroic beam-splitter flown in
space to direct photons to the Near UV (175-280 nanometers)
and Far UV (135-174 nanometers) microchannel plate
detectors. Each of the two detectors has a 65 millimeter
diameter. The target orbit is 670 km circular and inclined at
28.5 degrees to the equator.
Alternate Names
Galaxy Evolution Explorer
Small Explorer/GALEX
SMEX/GALEX
Explorer 83
27783
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0428
Launch
Vehicle: Pegasus XL
Launch Site: Cape
Canaveral, United States
Mass: 280.0 kg
Nominal
Power: 290.0 W
Funding Agency
NASA-Office of Space
Science (United States)
Discipline
Astronomy
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for GALEX
PDMP information for
GALEX
Telecommunications
information for GALEX
Experiments on GALEX
Data collections from
GALEX
Questions or comments
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Personnel
Name
Role
Original Affiliation
E-mail
Dr. Peter
Friedman
Project Scientist
California Institute of
Technology
[email protected]
Dr. Christopher
R. Martin
Mission Principal
Investigator
California Institute of
Technology
[email protected]
Dr. James L.
Fanson
Project Manager
NASA Jet Propulsion
Laboratory
[email protected]
US Active Archive for GALEX Information/Data
The GALEX Archive at MAST (STScI)
Other Sources of GALEX Information/Data
GALEX Home Page
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Gruzomaket
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-055A
Maps
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Alternate Names
Description
Gruzomaket is a Russian satellite that was launched by a
Strela rocket (a modified SS-19 ICBM) from Baikonur. No
further information could be ascertained except that the
Russian Interfax news agency calls the payload as a mock-up
(and the name can be so translated also).
28098
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-1205
Launch Vehicle: null
Launch Site: Tyuratam
(Baikonur Cosmodrome),
Kazakhstan
Funding Agency
Unknown (Russia)
Discipline
Other
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for
Gruzomaket
Experiments on
Gruzomaket
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Gruzomaket
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GSAT 2
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-018A
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Alternate Names
Description
GSAT 2 is an Indian (ISRO) geostationary communications
and space monitoring spacecraft that was launched by a 414
tonne GSLV-D2 rocket from Satish Dhawan Space Center in
Sriharikota on the southeastern coast of India at 11:28 UT on 8
May 2003. The main mission was to test for the second time
the rocket configuration, with the proven PSLV lower stages
and a cryogenic third stage that uses a Russian motor. The 1.9
tonne, 1.4 kW GSAT 2 carries four C-band and two Ku-band
transponders to provide voice and video transmissions to India
and neighboring countries. It was maneuvered into the
designated parking lot at 48 deg-E longitude on 19 May 2003.
For more details, see
27807
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0508
Launch Vehicle: GSLVD2
Launch Site: Sriharikota,
India
Funding Agency
http://www.isro.org/
Unknown (India)
Discipline
Communications
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for GSAT 2
Experiments on GSAT 2
Data collections from
GSAT 2
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about this spacecraft can
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Version 4.0.14, 08 October 2010
Muses-C / Hayabusa
DESCRIPCIÓN: Esta nave es un proyecto de la Agencia Espacial Japonesa y su principal
objetivo es el asteroide de nombre (por decir algo) 1998SF36 (nº 25143- Tipo Apollo) (Se le ha
rebautizado como 'Itokawa', nombre del creador de los primeros cohetes japoneses). Su
diámetro es de unos 500 metros. Fue descubierto el 26 de septiembre de 1.998 por el
programa LINEAR del M.I.T. La gran novedad de esta misión es que descenderá sobre la
superficie de la roca y tomará muestras para traerlas de nuevo a la Tierra, siendo la primera
sonda que lo haga.
Esta misión tiene gran importancia puesto que el conocimiento de la composición de los
asteroides nos puede ayudar a conocer el origen de nuestro Sistema Solar.
Fue lanzada por el cohete japonés M-V en mayo de 2.003 y llegará a su destino en el verano
de 2.005. Durante 5 meses orbitará el asteroide y tomará muestras de él para retornar a la
Tierra en el 2.007, aterrizando en paracaídas en Woomera, Australia. Otra novedad es que
usará un sistema de propulsión eléctrica de calentamiento por microondas de gas xenón.
En esta nave se encuentran inscritos los nombres de todos los que se apuntaron a través de
esta web. (Ver noticia 27.06.02)
FECHAS PRINCIPALES:
- Lanzamiento: 9 de mayo de 2.003
- Sobrevuelo de la Tierra: junio de 2.004
- Llegada y toma de muestras: verano de 2.005
- Retorno muestras a Tierra: verano de 2.007
ATERRIZAJE: La sonda cartografiará y estudiará durante varios meses el asteroide para
conocer su forma y composición. Una vez decidida una zona de aterrizaje, al llegar a una
altitud de 100m. soltará el llamado 'Target Market' que es un pequeño objeto con marcas para
poder calibrar las distancias de aproximamiento por los distintos medidores de distancia de la
sonda. Cuando falten unos centímetros, la sonda disminuirá su velocidad y el cono de
muestras quedará muy cerca de la superficie. En ese momento disparará un pequeño proyectil
que levantará el polvo de la superficie para ser recogido por el propio cono. Apenas un par de
segundos después la sonda se levantará y volverá a su órbita.
LA NAVE: Su peso es de unos 500kg. y se alimenta de energía solar. Posee un sistema de
navegación autónoma que le permite la toma de decisiones por ejemplo en el aterrizaje. Sus
dimensiones son de 1.5x1.5x1.2m. y la antena tiene un diámetro de 1.5m.
INSTRUMENTOS:
- Optical Navegacion Cámera (ONC): Cámara para la toma de fotografías.
- Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR): Medirá la distancia a los objetos.
- Laser Range Finder (LRF): Láser para medidas
- Espectrómetro Rayos X e infrarrojo: Análisis de la superficie del asteroide.
- Minerva: Pequeño robot autónomo que volará por la superficie del asteroide.
ORGANISMOS: Toda la sonda ha sido construida, diseñada y financiada por la Agencia
Espacial Japonesa ISAS.
La cámara ONC-T de Hayabusa posee una CCD que tiene una resolución de 1024 x 1000
píxeles. En el pasado acercamiento del día 12, esta cámara ha realizado la mejor imagen
disponible hasta la fecha de la superficie de un asteroide. Desde una distancia de 5 kilómetros
puede captar objetos con una resolución de hasta 50 centímetros. Mientras más desciende
Hayabusa, la resolución espacial aumenta hasta distinguir minúsculas estructuras en la
superficie de Itokawa.
En el descenso del día 12, la sonda Hayabusa logró bajar hasta unos 55 metros de la
superficie del asteroide. Si la sonda se acerca a menos de 60 a 75 metros, la cámara ONC-T
ya no consigue enfocarse correctamente por lo que esa es la mejor distancia posible para
realizar las imágenes. A esa distancia la resolución espacial es de unos 6 milímetros por píxel
lo que permite ver hasta los más pequeños guijarros del suelo.
Parte de la imagen de alta resolución y el entorno
Los trozos de rocas que conocemos como meteoritos, ahora ya pueden ser vistos en su estado
original y apreciar su naturaleza y estructura. En la imagen dada a conocer la resolución es de
2 centímetros por píxel y está realizada desde una altura de 160 metros. La imagen de la
derecha muestra el entorno de la zona ampliada y está tomada en el mismo momento con la
cámara de campo ancho ONC-W1. La segunda imagen muestra una comparación con la última
fotografía adquirida por la sonda NEAR en el asteroide Eros.
Comparación con la imagen de NEAR
NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details
did not collect a sample. This was the first ever controlled
landing on an asteroid and first ascent from any other solar
sytem body except the Moon.
A second touchdown and sampling run was made on 25
November, early telemetry indicates the spacecraft touched
down at 10 cm/sec and two sampling bullets were fired 0.2
seconds apart at 22:07 UT 24 November (7:07 a.m. JST 25
November) but examination of later telemetry indicates it is not
clear that the bullets were fired. On 9 December contact was
lost with the spacecraft, presumably because of torques
caused by a thruster leak which altered the pointing of the
antenna. Communications with the spacecraft were regained in
early March 2006. It appears that the chemical fuel has been
lost due to the leak, two of three reaction wheels are also
inoperable and 4 of the 11 lithium-ion battery cells are not
functioning. Ground controllers are using the solar batteries to
run the ion engine, which will be used in place of the chemical
thrusters to maintain attitude control. The ion engine ran until
November 2007, at which time it was turned off and the
spacecraft went into hibernation mode and continue on a
ballistic trajectory. There is still a large margin of xenon left to
run the thrusters for propulsion and attitude control. Earth
return is scheduled for 13 June 2010.
The samples, if any were collected, will have a total mass of
less than one gram. It is hoped that even if the projectiles did
not fire that a small number of particles may have been kicked
up into the collection area during the touchdown due to the
extremely low surface gravity. They are held inside a separate
re-entry capsule. The re-entry capsule will be detached from
the main spacecraft at a distance of about 300,000 to 400,000
km from the Earth, and the capsule will coast on a ballistic
trajectory, re-entering the Earth's atmosphere on 13 June
2010. The capsule will experience peak decellerations of about
25 G and heating rates approximately 30 times those
experienced by the Apollo spacecraft. It will land via parachute
near Woomera, Australia. (This scenario is a change from the
original plan to launch in July 2002 to the asteroid Nereus.)
Spacecraft and Subsystems
The Hayabusa spacecraft has a box-shaped main body 1.5 m
along each side and 1.05 m high. The launch mass is 530 kg,
including 50 kg of chemical propellant and 65 kg of xenon gas.
Two solar panel wings with a total array area of 12 square
meters protrude from the side and a 1.5 m diameter high-gain
parabolic antenna is mounted on top on a two-axis gimbal. A
cylindrical sampler horn, deployed shortly after launch,
protrudes from the bottom of the spacecraft. The Minerva
lander was also mounted on th spacecraft near the bottom
panel. Hayabusa is propelled during cruise phases by two
microwave ion thruster engines, which use a microwave
discharge to ionize xenon gas. The ionized plasma is
accelerated by high-voltage electrodes through four thruster
heads which protrude from one side of the spacecraft body to
provide a peak thrust of 20 mN using 1 kW power. A nitrogen
tetroxide/hydrazine propulsion system with a peak thrust of 22
N will be used for maneuvering. The spacecraft is powered by
gallium-arsenide solar cells and a 15 A-hr rechargeable nickelmetal hydride (Ni-MH) battery. Communications are via X- and
S-band low gain antennas and the high gain dish antenna (Xband) with a transmitted power of 20 W. The mission is also be
equipped with a camera, used for imaging, visible-polarimetry
studies, and optical navigation near the asteroid, a laser
ranging device (LIDAR), and near-IR and X-ray spectrometers.
The insulated and cushioned re-entry capsule, 40 cm in
diameter and 25 cm deep with a mass of about 20 kg, is
attached to the body of the spacecraft near the sample
collection horn. The capsule has a convex nose covered with a
3 cm thick ablative heat shield to protect the samples from the
high velocity (~13 km/s) re-entry. Cost of the Hayabusa
spacecraft is roughly 12 billion yen ($100 million U.S.)
Surface Sample Collection
The lander will be equipped with a universal sample collection
device which will gather roughly one gram of surface samples
taken from the landings at 3 different locations. The device
consists of a funnel-shaped collection horn, 40 cm in diameter
at the end, which is to be placed over the sampling area. A
pyrotechnic device fires a 10 gram metal projectile down the
barrel of the horn at 200 - 300 m/sec. The projectile strikes the
surface producing a small impact crater in the surface of the
asteroid and propelling ejecta fragments back up the horn,
where some of it is funnelled into a sample collection chamber.
Prior to each sampling run, the spacecraft will drop a small
target plate onto the surface from about 30 m altitude to use as
a landmark to ensure the relative horizontal velocity between
the spacecraft and asteroid surface is zero during the
sampling. After sampling the samples will be stored in the reentry capsule for return to Earth.
Minerva
The Minerva lander is a small (591 gram) cylinder about the
size of a coffee can, designed to be released from the
spacecraft on the first rehearsal touchdown run. It has the
ability to "hop" on the surface of the asteroid and has full
autonomy. It is equipped with an imaging system comprising
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=2003-019A[14/10/2010 0:00:54]
of the Hayabusa spacecraft at
the Muses Sea on Itokawa,
Science, 312, No. 5578,
1350-1353, June 2006.
Kawaguchi, J., et al., MUSESC, Its launch and early orbit
operations, Acta Astronaut.,
59, No. 8-11, 669-678, Dec.
2006.
Spacecraft image at top of page
by James Garry
Hayabusa Project Home
Page - ISAS, Japan
Hayabusa Project Science
Data Archive
Public Release of Hayabusa
Data Archives - 24 April 2007
More detail on the recovery
plan - 14 December 2005
Hayabusa Status Report - 12
December 2005
Hayabusa Status Report - 12
December 2005
Hayabusa's Practice Descent
(Rehearsal) - 04 November
2005 JAXA Report
MUSES-C Testing Status
Report - 06 August 2002
MUSES-C Rover Cancelled 03 November 2000 NASA
Press Release
Change in MUSES-C Target
and Launch Date - 07 August
2000 NASA Press Release
Image of asteroid Itokawa
taken by Hayabusa (Copyright
ISAS, JAXA)
Other NSSDC Resources
Asteroid Page
Asteroid Fact Sheet
May 1997 Press Release - NASA
Rover and involvement with the
mission.
JAXA Resources
Hayabusa Now - Current
Position of Hayabusa
Hayabusa Description - ISAS,
Japan
Hayabusa Project News - JAXA,
Japan
Hayabusa Home Page - ISAS,
Japan
ISAS Home Page
NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details
three miniature cameras and temperature measuring devices.
Data will be relayed to Hayabusa and then to Earth.
SSV Rover
The rover, or Small Science Vehicle (SSV), was to have been
a NASA contribution to the mission but was cancelled due to
budget contraints. The SSV would have been dropped onto the
surface of the asteroid by the Hayabusa spacecraft. The rover
goals were to make texture, composition and morphology
measurements of the surface layer at scales smaller than 1
cm, investigations of lateral heterogeneity at small scales,
investigation of vertical regolith structure by taking advantage
of disturbances of the surface layer by microrover operations,
and to measure constraints on the mechanical and thermal
properties of the surface layer. The rover would weigh about 1
kg and would be capable of rolling, climbing, or hopping
around on the surface of the asteroid. It would have run on
solar power and carry a multi-band imaging camera, a nearinfrared point spectrometer, and an alpha/X-ray spectrometer
(AXS).
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Hellas-Sat
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-020A
Maps
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Alternate Names
Description
Hellas-Sat is a joint Greece-Cyprus geostationary
communications spacecraft that was launched by an Atlas 5
rocket (fitted with a Russian RD-180 motor) from Cape
Canaveral at 22:10 UT on 13 May 2003. The 3.45 tonne
satellite carries 30 Ku-band transponders to provide direct-tohome voice and video transmissions to much of Europe, North
Africa and the Middle East, after parking over 39 deg-E
longitude.
27811
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0513
Launch Vehicle: Atlas
V
Launch Site: Cape
Canaveral, United States
Funding Agencies
Hellas-Sat Consortium
(Greece)
Hellas-Sat Consortium
(Cyprus)
Discipline
Communications
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Hellas-Sat
Experiments on Hellas-Sat
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Hellas-Sat
Questions or comments
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Horizons 1
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-044A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
HORIZONS 1 (GALAXY 13) is a joint American-Japanese (i.e,
PanAmSat- JSAT corporations) geostationary communications
spacecraft that was launched by a Zenit 3 rocket from the
floating platform Odessey in equatorial Pacific ocean on 1
October 2003. The 2.6 tonne (4.06, including the fuel), 9.9 kW
satellite carries 24 transponders each in the C- and Ku-bands
to provide digital video, internet, and data services to the
countries on either side of the Pacific ocean after parking over
127 deg-W longitude. The alternative designation of GALAXY
13 is adopted from the fact that the C-band component is a
legacy of the GALAXY series and its co-owner PanAmSat who
will control it, not the JSAT.
Galaxy 13
27954
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-1001
Launch Vehicle: Zenit 3
Launch Site: Odyssey
(Sea Launch Platform), null
Funding Agencies
PANAMSAT - JSAT
(United States)
PANAMSAT - JSAT
(Japan)
Discipline
Communications
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Horizons 1
Experiments on Horizons 1
Data collections from
Horizons 1
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about this spacecraft can
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ICESat
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-002A
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Description
ICESat is a part of NASA's Earth Observing System. Its
primary objectives are to determine the mass balance of the
polar ice sheets and their contributions to global sea level
change and to obtain essential data for prediction of future
changes in ice volume and sea-level. Secondary objectives
are to measure cloud heights and the vertical stucture of
clouds and aerosols in the atmosphere, to map the topography
of land surfaces, and to measure roughness, reflectivity,
vegetation heights, snow-cover, and sea-ice surface
characteristics.
To achieve these goals, ICESat will utilize its sole instrument,
the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System, or GLAS.
Alternate Names
Ice, Cloud, and Land
Elevation Satellite
27642
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0113
Launch Vehicle: Delta
II
Launch
Site: Vandenberg AFB,
United States
Nominal
Power: 350.0 W
Funding Agency
National Aeronautics and
Space Administration
(United States)
Discipline
Earth Science
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for ICESat
Telecommunications
information for ICESat
Experiments on ICESat
Data collections from
ICESat
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
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Other sources of ICESat information
ICESat project (NASA GSFC)
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IGS 1A
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-009A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
IGS 1A (Informaton Gathering Satellite 1A) and IGS 1B are two
Japanese reconnaissance satellites that were launched by a
H-2A rocket from Tanegashima Space Center at 01:27 UT on
28 March 2003. They may be tasked to watch for nuclear
explosions and missile launches in nearby countries, in
addition to global natural disasters and hurricanes. As such,
according to the Japanese Defence Ministry, the launch is not
in violation of the Japan-N. Korea declaration of September
2002. One of the two spacecraft uses optical cameras with a
resolution of one meter; the other uses synthetic aperture
radar to provide images at a resolution of a few meters. No
information is available as to which satellite carries which
instrument.
Information Gathering
Satellite 1A
27698
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0328
Launch Vehicle: H-2A
Launch
Site: Tanegashima, Japan
Funding Agency
Unknown (Japan)
Discipline
Surveillance and Other
Military
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for IGS 1A
Experiments on IGS 1A
Data collections from IGS
1A
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
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IGS 1B
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-009B
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
IGS 1B (Information Gathering Satellite 1B) and IGS 1A are
two Japanese reconnaissance satellites that were launched by
a H-2A rocket from Tanegashima Space Center at 01:27 UT
on 28 March 2003. They may be tasked to watch for nuclear
explosions and missile launches in nearby countries, in
addition to global natural disasters and hurricanes. As such,
according to the Japanese Defence Ministry, the launch is not
in violation of the Japan-N. Korea declaration of September
2002. One of the two spacecraft uses optical cameras with a
resolution of one meter; the other uses synthetic aperture
radar to provide images at a resolution of a few meters. No
information is available as to which satellite carries which
instrument.
Information Gathering
Satellite 1B
27699
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0328
Launch Vehicle: H-2A
Launch
Site: Tanegashima, Japan
Funding Agency
Unknown (Japan)
Discipline
Surveillance and Other
Military
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for IGS 1B
Experiments on IGS 1B
Data collections from IGS
1B
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
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Innovation 1
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-049B
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Innovation 1, also known as Chuangxin 1, is a Chinese (PRC)
prototype of an advanced telecommunication satellite with
potentials for environmental protection, oil and gas
transportation, flood prevention and earthquake monitoring.
The 100 kg satellite was launched by a Long March 4B rocket
from Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center in Shanxi province on 21
October 2003.
Chuangxin 1
29058
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-1021
Launch Vehicle: Long
March 4B
Launch Site: Taiyuan,
Peoples Republic of China
Funding Agency
Unknown (Peoples
Republic of China)
Discipline
Communications
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Innovation
1
Experiments on Innovation
1
Data collections from
Innovation 1
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
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Insat 3A
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-013A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Insat 3A is an Indian (ISRO) geostationary communications
and weather-monitoring satellite that was launched by an
Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou at 22:52 UT on 9 April 2003. The
3-tonne satellite carries 12 C-band, six Extended C-band, and
six Ku-band transponders to provide voice, video and data
transmission to West Asia, East Asia, and India, after parking
over 93.5 deg-E longitude. Insat 3A carries also the usual
Insat package of sensors in visual, infrared and water vapor
bands to monitor clouds and storms. The spatial resolution at
visual wavelengths is 2 km, and at infrared 1 km. The satellite
also carries a separate transponder for the international search
and rescue program.
27714
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0409
Launch Vehicle: Ariane
5
Launch Site: Kourou,
French Guiana
Funding Agency
Indian Space Research
Organization (India)
Disciplines
Communications
Earth Science
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Insat 3A
Experiments on Insat 3A
Data collections from Insat
3A
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
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INSAT 3E
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-043E
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
INSAT 3E is an Indian geostationary communications satellite
that was launched by an Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou at 23:14
UT on 27 September 2003. It joins the currently operational
fleet of four such INSATs (2E, 3A, 3B, and 3C). The 2.8 tonne,
triaxially stabilized satellite carries 24 C-band, and 12
extended C-band transponders to provide communications and
television services to the Indian subcontinent, after parking
over 55 deg-E longitude.
27951
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0927
Launch Vehicle: Ariane
5
Launch Site: Kourou,
French Guiana
Funding Agency
Unknown (India)
Discipline
Communications
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for INSAT 3E
Experiments on INSAT 3E
Data collections from
INSAT 3E
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
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Intelsat 907
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-007A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Intelsat 907 is a geostationary communications spacecraft of
the Intelsat corporation which had been a global,
multigovernment-owned consortium that was privatized in
2002. It was launched by an Ariane 44L rocket from Kourou at
07:00 UT on 15 February 2003. The 4.7 tonne spacecraft will
provide data-relay among installations in North America, South
America, Western Europe and Africa through its array of Cand K-band transponders after parking over 27.5 deg-W
longitude. It replaces the aging Intelsat 605. This was the last
and 116th launch of the Ariane-4 series which will be replaced
by the Ariane-5 series.
27683
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0215
Launch Vehicle: Ariane
44L
Launch Site: Kourou,
French Guiana
Funding Agency
International
Telecommunications
Satellite Corporation
(International)
Discipline
Communications
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Intelsat
907
Experiments on Intelsat
907
Data collections from
Intelsat 907
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
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IRS P6
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-046A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
IRS P6, also known as Resourcesat 1, is an Indian remote
sensing and photo-imaging spacecraft that was launched by a
PSLV-C5 rocket from Sriharikota in southeast India at 04:54
UT on 17 October 2003. The 1,360 kg satellite carries carries
high resolution imaging instruments to monitor agricultural,
land, and water resources.
Resourcesat 1
28050
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-1017
Launch Vehicle: PSLV
Launch Site: Sriharikota,
India
Funding Agency
Unknown (India)
Discipline
Earth Science
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for IRS P6
Experiments on IRS P6
Data collections from IRS
P6
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
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Kaistsat 4
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-042G
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Kaistsat 4 (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and
Technology SATellite 4) is a S-Korean astrophysical satellite
that was launched by a Kosmos 3M rocket from Plesetsk at
06:12 UT on 27 September 2003. The 120 kg satellite carries a
spcial UV imaging spectrograph to monitor gas clouds in the
Galaxy. It will complete a full sky mapping in about a year, by
scanning a one-degree strip every day. Additionally, it may
also aim the telescope downward to image auroral displays.
Korea Advanced Institute
of Science and
Technology Satellite 4
27945
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0927
Launch
Vehicle: Kosmos-3M
Launch Site: Plesetsk,
Russia
Funding Agency
Unknown (South Korea)
Discipline
Astronomy
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Kaistsat 4
Experiments on Kaistsat 4
Data collections from
Kaistsat 4
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
Office.
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Larets
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-042F
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Larets is a Russian satelite that was launched by a Kosmos
3M rocket from Plesetsk at 06:12 UT on 27 September 2003. It
will help "tuning ground radars". It carries reflectors for ground
based laser rangers.
27944
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0927
Launch
Vehicle: Kosmos-3M
Launch Site: Plesetsk,
Russia
Funding Agency
Unknown (Russia)
Discipline
Other
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Larets
Experiments on Larets
Data collections from
Larets
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
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Mars Express
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-022A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Mars Express
Description
Mars Express is a European Space Agency (ESA) mission to
Mars. It consists of an orbiter, the Mars Express Orbiter, and a
lander, Beagle 2. The scientific objectives of the Mars Express
Orbiter are to obtain global high-resolution photo-geology (10
m resolution), mineralogical mapping (100 m resolution) and
mapping of the atmospheric composition, study the subsurface
structure, the global atmospheric circulation, and the
interaction between the atmosphere and the subsurface, and
the atmosphere and the interplanetary medium. The Beagle 2
lander objectives are to characterize the landing site geology,
mineralogy, and geochemistry, the physical properties of the
atmosphere and surface layers, collect data on martian
meteorology and climatology, and search for possible
signatures of life.
Spacecraft and Subsystems
The Mars Express Orbiter is a cube-shaped spacecraft with
two solar panel wings extending from opposite sides. The
launch mass of 1123 kg includes a main bus with a 113 kg of
payload, the 60 kg lander, and 457 kg of propellant. The main
body is 1.5 m x 1.8 m x 1.4 m in size, with an aluminum
honeycomb strucure covered by an aluminum skin. The solar
panels measure about 12 m tip-to-tip. A 1.8 m diameter highgain antenna is mounted on one face, pointing in the same
direction as the solar panels. Two 20 m long wire dipole
antennas extend from opposite side faces perpendicular to the
solar panels as part of the radar sounder. A 4 m tubular
monopole low-gain antenna extends from the upper face. The
body is built around the main propulsion system, which
consists of a bi-propellant 400 N main engine. The two 267liter propellant tanks have a total capacity of 595 kg.
Approximately 370 kg are needed for the nominal mission.
Pressurized helium from a 35 liter tank is used to force fuel into
the engine. Trajectory corrections will be made using a set of
eight 10 N thrusters, one attached to each corner of the
spacecraft bus. Attitude control (3-axis stabilization) is
achieved using two 3-axis inertial measurement units, a set of
two star cameras and two Sun sensors, gyroscopes,
accelerometers, and four 12-Nms reaction wheels. Pointing
accuracy is .04 degrees with respect to the inertial reference
frame and 0.8 degrees with respect to the Mars orbital frame.
Thermal control is maintained through the use of radiators,
multi-layer insulation, and actively controlled heaters. The
spacecraft configuration is optimized for a Soyuz/Fregat, but is
fully compatible with a Delta II launch vehicle if necessary.
Spacecraft power is provided by the solar panels which contain
11.42 square meters of silicon cells. The originally planned
power was to be 660 W at 1.5 AU but a faulty connection has
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Alternate Names
Mars Express Orbiter
Beagle 2
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0602
Launch Vehicle: Soyuz
Launch Site: Tyuratam
(Baikonur Cosmodrome),
Kazakhstan
Mass: 666.0 kg
Nominal
Power: 460.0 W
Discipline
Planetary Science
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Mars
Express
PDMP information for
Mars Express
Experiments on Mars
Express
Data collections from Mars
Express
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Dr. David R.
Williams.
NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details
reduced the amount of power available by 30%, to about 460
W. This loss of power is not expected to significantly impact
the science return of the mission. Power is stored in three
lithium-ion batteries with a total capacity of 64.8 Ah for use
during eclipses. The power is fully regulated at 28 V, the peak
power requirement at Mars is 450 W. Telecommunications are
via the high-gain parabolic antenna and two omnidirectional
low-gain S-band antennas. These provide X-band (7.1 GHz)
and S-band (2.1 GHz) uplink and downlink. Two Mars lander
relay UHF antennas are mounted on the top face for
communication with the Beagle 2. The spacecraft is run by two
Control and Data management Units with a 10 gigabit solid
state mass memory for storage of data and housekeeping
information for transmission.
The science payload consists of seven experiments. The high
resolution stereoscopic camera (HRSC) is mounted inside the
spacecraft body, aimed through the top face of the spacecraft,
which is nadir pointing during Mars operations. A visible and
near-infrared spectrometer (OMEGA), infrared spectrometer
(PFS) and ultraviolet spectrometer (SPICAM) are also
mounted inside pointing out the top face. The neutral and
charged particle sensors (ASPERA) are mounted on the top
face. The subsurface radar and altimeter is mounted in the
body and is nadir pointing, and also incorporates the two 20 m
antennas. The radio science experiment (MaRS) uses the
communications subsystem. The total mass budgeted for the
science payload is 116 kg.
Beagle 2
The Beagle 2 is a lander initially mounted on the top deck of
the Mars Express Orbiter. It was released from Mars Express
on 19 December and reached Mars on 25 December. However
no signals have been received from the lander and the mission
has been declared lost. For more information on the Beagle 2
lander, see:
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/database/MasterCatalog?sc=2003022C
Mission profile
Launch took place on a Soyuz/Fregat from Baikonur
Cosmodrome on 2 June 2003 at 23:45 local time (17:45 UT,
1:45 p.m. EDT), with the Mars Express and Fregat booster put
into a 200 km Earth parking orbit. The Fregat was fired again
at 19:14 UT to put the spacecraft into a Mars transfer orbit, and
the Fregat and Mars Express separated at approximately
19:17 UT. The solar panels have been deployed and a
trajectory correction maneuver will be performed on 4 June to
aim Mars Express towards Mars and allow the Fregat booster
to coast into interplanetary space. Mars Express arrived at
Mars after a 400 million km journey and a course correction in
September, in December 2003. The Beagle 2 lander was
released on 19 December at 8:31 UTC (9:31 CET) on a
ballistic cruise towards the surface. On 20 December, Mars
Express fired a short thruster burst to put it into position to orbit
the planet. The Mars Express Orbiter fired its main engine for
37 minutes on 25 December at 2:47 UT (9:47 p.m. EST, 24
December) and went into a highly elliptical 250 km x 150,000
km initial capture orbit with an inclination of 25 degrees. The
orbit will be adjusted by four more main engine firings starting
on 30 December to the desired 258 km x 11,560 km near polar
(86.3 degree inclination) orbit with a period of 7.5 hours. Near
periapsis the top deck will be pointed down towards the
martian surface and near apoapsis the high gain antenna will
be pointed towards Earth for uplink and downlink. After 440
days the apoapsis will be lowered to 10,107 km and periapsis
will be raised to 298 km to give an orbital period of 6.7 hours.
Aerobraking can be used to modify the orbit if there are any
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problems with the main engine. Nominal mission duration is
planned to be 1 martian year (687 Earth days).
The Beagle 2 coasted for five days after release and entered
the martian atmosphere on the morning of 25 December.
Landing was expected to occur at about 02:54 UT on 25
December (9:54 p.m. EST 24 December). No signals have
been received and the lander was declared lost
The overall Mars Express budget excluding the lander is 150
million Euros (roughly $150 million U.S.)
Personnel
Name
Role
Original Affiliation
Mr. Augustin
Chicarro
Project
Scientist
ESA-European Space Research and
Technology Centre
Dr. Rudolf J.
Schmidt
Project
Manager
ESA-European Space Research and
Technology Centre
E-mail
[email protected]
Selected References
Bridges, J. C., et al., Selection of the landing site in Isidis Planitia of Mars probe Beagle 2,
J. Geophys. Res., 108, No. E1, Jan. 2003.
Schmidt, R., Mars Express - ESA's first mission to planet Mars, Space Technol., 20, No. 5-6,
219-224, 2001.
Wright, I. P., et al., Scientific objectives of the Beagle 2 lander, Acta Astronaut., 52, No. 2-6,
219-225, 2003.
Beagle 2 after separating from Mars Express
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Beagle 2 lander (image © Beagle 2 Project)
Mars Express Launches Successfully - ESA Press Release
Beagle 2 Information
Mars Home Page
Chronology of Mars Exploration
Mars Express Home Page - ESA
Beagle 2 Home Page - The Open University
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Version 4.0.14, 08 October 2010
Mars Express / Beagle 2
Esta misión es la primera de la Agencia Espacial Europea hacia Marte y será una de las cuatro
que lleguen a las inmediaciones del planeta entre finales de 2.003 y principios de 2.004,
sumándose a las dos que ya están en órbita. La sonda portará una pequeña nave de descenso
denominada Beagle-2. El lanzamiento fue llevado a cabo por un cohete ruso Soyuz/Fregat el 2
de junio de 2.003, para llegar a Marte seis meses después, a finales de año. El objetivo
principal de la misión es la búsqueda de agua en el subsuelo desde la órbita y de restos
pasado o presentes de vida desde la superficie. El orbitador posee siete instrumentos
científicos que buscarán la localización y el estado del agua en Marte y la sonda de descenso
se centrará en la búsqueda de elementos químicos y biológicos.
FECHAS PRINCIPALES:
Lanzamiento: 2 de junio de 2.003. 17:45 GMT
Llegada a Marte: 19 de diciembre 2.003
Suelta de la sonda de descenso y aterrizaje en Marte: 25 de diciembre de 2.003 - 02:54 GMT
Fin de la misión: diciembre 2.005
EL ORBITADOR MARS EXPRESS:
Esta misión nació tras el fracaso de Mars'96, una misión rusa a Marte no logró llegar ni siquiera
a la órbita de la Tierra y en ella iban muchos experimentos europeos que se perdieron. De este
modo, la Agencia Espacial Europea decidió revivir algunos de esos experimentos en una nueva
misión y añadir algunos más, con las mejoras técnicas del paso del tiempo. La nave
permanecerá en órbita durante un año marciano (687 días o dos años terrestres) pero puede
ser extensible a dos años más y aparte de sus propios objetivos como misión, llevará consigo
un pequeño módulo de descenso y servirá como repetidor para las futuras misiones europeas y
americanas a Marte.
Un mes antes de llegar a Marte, se activará la sonda Beagle-2 y sólo 5 días antes del
encuentro, la sonda será soltada para iniciar una caída libre hacia el Planeta Rojo. En esos
momentos Mars Express encenderá por primera vez su motor principal que le dará la dirección
necesaria para ponerse días después en órbita del planeta.
Una vez llegado a Marte adquirirá un órbita elíptica a una altitud entre 1.000 y 11.500 km. con
un periodo de 7,5 horas que le permitirá adquirir datos del módulo Beagle-2 y tomar datos con
sus equipos cuando se encuentre en la parte más cercana de la órbita y transmitirlos a la Tierra
cuando se encuentre en la parte más alejada de Marte. Las antenas de Guayana y Perth serán
las encargadas de mantener el contacto con la nave.
Las dimensiones totales de la nave son de 1,5x1,8x1,4 metros y su peso total con el Beagle-2 y
el combustible incluido no llegan a los 1.100 kg. La electricidad la proveen dos paneles solares
con una superficie de 11 m2. Durante el recorrido se harán ajustes a la órbita con unas
pequeñas toberas que posee la sonda a su alrededor y el motor principal es capaz de
desarrollar una fuerza de 400N y posee dos tanques con 267 litros de propelentes impulsados
por helio. La antena principal de comunicaciones tiene un diámetro de 1,8 metros y la
secundaria una longitud de 40 cm. La velocidad de transmisión puede llegar a 230kbps. El
disco duro de la nave tiene una capacidad de 12 Gb. donde los datos serán almacenados antes
de ser transmitidos a la Tierra.
INSTRUMENTOS MARS EXPRESS:
Mars Express lleva cuatro instrumentos dedicados al estudio de la superficie.
- High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC): Cámara de altísima resolución que realizará mapas
topográficos y tomará imágenes con una resolución de hasta 2 metros.
- IR Mapping Spectrometer (OMEGA): espectrómetro infrarrojo para el suelo y las rocas.
- Radio Science Experiment (MaRS): experimentos de radio que analizarán el interior de Marte
y su geodesia.
- Sub-surface Sounding Radar / Altimeter (MARSIS): Radar que medirá la profundidad y
composición del suelo marciano. Se espera que este aparato determine hasta una profundidad
de 3 kilómetros la cantidad de agua que hay actualmente en Marte.
Y otros tres instrumentos se dedicarán al estudio de la atmósfera.
- Energetic Neutral Atoms Analyser (or ASPERA): estudiará la atmósfera superior y examinará
los efectos del viento solar sobre ella, midiendo los gases neutros y los cargados
eléctricamente.
- Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS): estudiará la atmósfera en infrarrojos creando mapas
en tres dimensiones de temperaturas y presiones.
- UV and IR Atmospheric Spectrometer (SPICAM): medirá la composición y estructura de la
atmósfera.
LA SONDA DE DESCENSO - BEAGLE 2:
El Beagle-2 es una sonda de descenso a Marte diseñada y construida por completo por un
consorcio de universidades británicas, que llegará al planeta rojo a bordo de la sonda de la
Agencia Espacial Europea Mars Express. Su misión fundamental será la búsqueda de indicios
biológicos y experimentos atmosféricos y geoquímicos. La sonda fue aprobada en noviembre
de 1.999 con un peso inicial de 108kg. pero este peso ha sido reducido hasta los 30 kg. debido
a la miniaturización y los recortes presupuestarios. Es hasta este momento la sonda con mayor
carga de instrumentos en relación a su peso.
Se espera que su vida útil en la superficie sea de seis meses extensibles hasta 24 meses en
total. Como sitio de aterrizaje se elegirá un lugar en el cual hayan acontecido inundaciones en
el pasado para que la superficie sea lo más lisa posible y aumente la posibilidad de encontrar
restos orgánicos. Cinco días después de entrar en órbita, Mars Express soltará al módulo de
descenso, siendo este un momento crítico ya que si no se soltara ninguna de las dos partes
podría seguir su misión. La sonda va metida en una cápsula que la protege de la
contaminación biológica en la Tierra, de las radiaciones del espacio durante el viaje y del calor
de la entrada en la atmósfera marciana. Una vez frenada en la atmósfera la mayor parte de la
velocidad, se despliega un paracaídas hasta las cercanías de la superficie donde este se
soltará y se abrirán los airbags que protegen a Beagle-2 del impacto contra el suelo hasta que
el conjunto quede inmovilizado por completo.
INSTRUMENTOS BEAGLE 2:
- Espectrómetro de masas: analizará muestras del suelo en busca de restos biológicos.
Contiene el GAP - Gas Analysis Package, aparato encargado de calentar las muestras en
presencia de oxígeno e introducirlas en el espectrómetro. Las muestras calentadas
desprenderán dióxido de carbono y el espectrómetro medirá la abundancia de dos isótopos del
12
13
carbono y ver la relación existente entre ellos ( C y C). Otros gases como el metano también
serán analizados. Las muestras serán analizadas en un amplio intervalo de temperaturas, pero
las muestras orgánicas deben de descomponerse en temperaturas entre los 200 y 500ºC.
También estudiará componentes de la atmósfera que nos informarán sobre la historia climática
de Marte.
- Cámaras: la sonda de descenso llevará tres cámaras, dos de ellas formarán un sistema de
visión estéreo y estará montadas en el brazo robótico. Una de ellas está provista de un espejo
y nos dará la primera imagen de Marte antes incluso de que el brazo esté desplegado. La
tercera cámara está acoplada a un microscopio en el brazo robótico y nos servirá para analizar
las rocas del entorno de la nave con una resolución de cuatro micrones y en varias longitudes
de onda.
- Recogida de muestras: Llamado Pluto, es un mecanismo de penetración en el suelo marciano
para tomar muestras sin contaminar y analizarlas en el espectrómetro. Todo el aparato se
encuentra al final de un cable de tres metros de longitud que será la distancia a la cual podrá
ser lanzador el recogedor de las muestras.
- Espectrómetro Mossbauer: nos dará información acerca de las muestras de terreno y su
composición en mineral de hierro midiendo la velocidad de los rayos gamma emitidos por las
rocas y el análisis de un detector de rayos-X.
- Equipo de sensores medioambientales: En total habrá un conjunto de 7 sensores entre los
que tenemos un sensor ultravioleta para detectar el flujo de radiación solar en los 200-400 nm.,
MAOS que es un instrumento capaz de identificar y cuantificar las moléculas oxidantes de la
atmósfera, un sensor de radiaciones de protones solares y rayos cósmicos de alta energía,
termómetros que medirán variaciones de hasta 0.05ºC, sensores de presión atmosférica con
sensibilidad de hasta 0,1mBar, una veleta para medir la velocidad de los vientos y su dirección,
detectores de impacto de polvo para medir la fuerza de impacto de los granos de arena en
Marte y un acelerómetro triple que medirá las condiciones en las que se encuentra la nave
durante el descenso y datos sobre las capas altas de la atmósfera.
WEBS:
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MILSTAR 6
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NSSDC ID: 2003-012A
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Alternate Names
Description
USA 169 is an American military geostationary, super-secure
communications satellite that was launched by a Titan 4 rocket
from Cape Canaveral AFS at 13:43 UT on 8 April 2003. The
4.5 tonne satellite is also known as MILSTAR 6 (MILitary
Strategic and TActical Relay satellite 6). With the end of the
cold war, MILSTARs are no longer engineered for "heroic
survivability". No further details are available.
USA 169
27711
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0408
Launch Vehicle: Titan
IV
Launch Site: Cape
Canaveral, United States
Funding Agency
Department of Defense
(United States)
Discipline
Surveillance and Other
Military
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Launch/Orbital
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6
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6
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Mimosa
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NSSDC ID: 2003-031B
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Alternate Names
Description
MIMOSA is a Czech minisatellite that was launched by a Rokot
rocket from Plesetsk at 14:15 UT on 30 June 2003. The 66 kg
satellite is nearly spherical with 28 sides and carries a
microaccelerometer to monitor atmospheric density profile by
sensing the atmospheric drag.
27841
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0630
Launch Vehicle: Rokot
Launch Site: Plesetsk,
Russia
Funding Agency
Czechoslovakia Academy
of Sciences (Czech
Republic)
Discipline
Earth Science
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Mimosa
Experiments on Mimosa
Data collections from
Mimosa
Questions or comments
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Molniya 1-92
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-011A
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Alternate Names
Description
Molniya 1-92 is a Russian military communications spacecraft
that was launched from Plesetsk by a Molniya-M rocket at
01:53 UT on 2 April 2003.
27707
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0402
Launch
Vehicle: Molniya-M
Launch Site: Plesetsk,
Russia
Funding Agency
Unknown (Russia)
Discipline
Surveillance and Other
Military
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Molniya 192
Experiments on Molniya 192
Data collections from
Molniya 1-92
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
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Molniya 3-53
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-029A
Maps
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Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Molniya 3-53 is a two-tonne Russian military communications
spacecraft that was launched into a highly elliptical orbit by a
Molniya-M rocket from Plesetsk at 20:00 UT on 19 June 2003.
It will be the last in the Molniya 3 series.
27834
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0619
Launch
Vehicle: Molniya-M
Launch Site: Plesetsk,
Russia
Funding Agency
Unknown (Russia)
Disciplines
Communications
Surveillance and Other
Military
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Molniya 353
Experiments on Molniya 353
Data collections from
Molniya 3-53
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Monitor-E/Breeze
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-031A
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Alternate Names
Description
MONITOR-E/Breeze is a Russian mockup of a MONITORE(arth) satellite that remained unseparated from the BreezeKM upper stage.
27840
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0630
Launch Vehicle: Rokot
Launch Site: Plesetsk,
Russia
Funding Agency
Unknown (Russia)
Discipline
Earth Science
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for MonitorE/Breeze
Experiments on MonitorE/Breeze
Data collections from
Monitor-E/Breeze
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NSSDC ID: 2003-031D
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Description
MOST is a Canadian (CSA) astronomy satellite that was
launched by a Rokot rocket from Plesetsk at 14:15 UT on 30
June 2003. The 65 x 65 x 30 cm, 51 kg satellite carries a 60
cm aperture reflecting telescope to monitor the brightness
variations in a star caused by soundwaves on its surface, or
from reflections from an orbiting planet. Because of its light
weight and low cost, it has been dubbed as Humble
Telescope.
27843
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0630
Launch Vehicle: Rokot
Launch Site: Plesetsk,
Russia
Funding Agency
Canadian Space Agency
(Canada)
Discipline
Astronomy
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Most
Experiments on Most
Data collections from Most
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
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Personnel
Name
Role
Original Affiliation
E-mail
Dr. Jaymie
Matthews
Mission Principal
Investigator
University of British
Columbia
[email protected]
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Mozhayets 4
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NSSDC ID: 2003-042A
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Alternate Names
Description
Mozhayets 4 is a Russian cadets' training satelite that was
launched by a Kosmos 3M rocket from Plesetsk at 06:12 UT on
27 September 2003. It will help in laser-assisted geodesic
measurements via its optical reflectors.
27939
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0927
Launch
Vehicle: Kosmos-3M
Launch Site: Plesetsk,
Russia
Funding Agency
Unknown (Russia)
Discipline
Other
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Mozhayets
4
Experiments on Mozhayets
4
Data collections from
Mozhayets 4
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Navstar 51
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NSSDC ID: 2003-005A
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Alternate Names
Description
Navstar 51 (also known as USA 166, and as GPS 2R-8) is the
latest to join the American (DoD) fleet of Global Positioning
Satellites. It was launched by a Delta 2 rocket from Cape
Canaveral at 18:06 UT on January 29 2003. The fleet is
operating in full capacity with 24 spacecraft (in six planes, with
four satellites in each). GPS 2R-8 will replace the aging GPS
2A-18, which will be shifted away in its Plane-B and then
retired.
USA 166
GPS 2-R-8
27663
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0129
Launch Vehicle: Delta
II
Launch Site: Cape
Canaveral, United States
Funding Agency
Department of Defense
(United States)
Discipline
Navigation & Global
Positioning
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Navstar 51
Experiments on Navstar 51
Data collections from
Navstar 51
Questions or comments
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Navstar 52
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-010A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Navstar 52, also known as USA 168 and as GPS 2R-9, is an
American Global Positioning Satellite that was launched by a
Delta 2 rocket from Cape Canaveral AFS at 22:09 UT on 31
March 2003. It will replace the aging GPS 2-5 in the fleet (of 28
satellites).
USA 168
27704
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0331
Launch Vehicle: Delta
II
Launch Site: Cape
Canaveral, United States
Funding Agency
Unknown (United States)
Discipline
Navigation & Global
Positioning
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Navstar 52
Experiments on Navstar 52
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Navstar 52
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Navstar 53
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NSSDC ID: 2003-058A
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Alternate Names
Description
Navstar 53, also known as USA 175, as GPS 2R-10, and as
SVN-47, is an American navigational satellite in the GPS fleet.
It was launched by a Delta 2 rocket from Cape Canaveral AFS
at 07:50 UT on 21 December 2003. It will replace the aging but
still operational GPS 2A-10 craft in Plane-E and Slot-2. The
GPS constellation consists of 24 satellites split into six orbital
planes with four in each plane, all in circular orbits of altitude
20,200 km, and inclination of 55 degrees. There are also four
additional satellites orbiting as reserves. The full list is available
at
http://leonardo.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/Programs/gps.html
USA 175
GPS 2R-10
SVN-47
28129
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-1221
Launch Vehicle: Delta
II
Launch Site: Cape
Canaveral, United States
Funding Agency
Unknown (United States)
Discipline
Navigation & Global
Positioning
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Navstar 53
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Data collections from
Navstar 53
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
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Nigeriasat 1
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-042C
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Nigeriasat 1 is a Nigerian DMC (multinational Disaster
Monitoring Constellation) satellite that was launched by a
Kosmos 3M rocket from Plesetsk at 06:12 UT on 27
September 2003. It carries imaging cameras for disaster
monitoring, urban planning and agriculture.
27941
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0927
Launch
Vehicle: Kosmos-3M
Launch Site: Plesetsk,
Russia
Funding Agency
Unknown (Nigeria)
Discipline
Other
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Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Nigeriasat
1
Experiments on Nigeriasat
1
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Nigeriasat 1
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Opportunity
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NSSDC ID: 2003-032A
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Opportunity
Description
"Opportunity" (Mars Exploration Rover B or MER-1) is one of
the two rovers launched to Mars in mid-2003. The rovers
arrived at Mars in January of 2004 equipped with a battery of
scientific instruments and will be able to traverse 100 meters a
day. The nominal plan calls for the missions to last for 90 days,
until April 2004, but it is likely the mission will last beyond this
time. The scientific goals of the rover missions are to gather
data to help determine if life ever arose on Mars, characterize
the climate of Mars, characterize the geology of Mars, and
prepare for human exploration of Mars. To achieve these
goals, seven science objectives are called for: 1) search for
and characterize a variety of rocks and soils that hold clues to
past water activity, 2) determine the distribution and
composition of minerals, rocks, and soils surrounding the
landing sites, 3) determine what geologic processes have
shaped the local terrain and influenced the chemistry 4)
perform "ground truth" of surface observations made by Mars
orbiter instruments, 5) search for iron-bearing minerals,
identify and quantify relative amounts of specific mineral types
tha contain water or were formed in water, 6) characterize the
mineralogy and textures of rocks and soils and determine the
processes that created them, and 7) search for geological
clues to the environmental conditions that existed when liquid
water was present and assess whether those environments
were conducive to life.
Spacecraft and Subsystems
The Mars Exploration Rover consists of a box-like chassis
mounted on six wheels. The chassis contains the warm
electronics box (WEB). On top of the WEB is the triangular
rover equipment deck, on which is mounted the Pancam mast
assembly, high gain, low gain, and UHF antennas, and a
camera calibration target. Attached to the two forward sides of
the equipment deck are solar arrays which are level with the
deck and extend outward with the appearance of a pair of
swept-back wings. Attached to the lower front of the WEB is
the instrument deployment device, a long hinged arm which
protrudes in front of the rover.
The wheels are attached to a rocker-bogie suspension system.
Each wheel has its own motor and the two front and two rear
wheels are independently steerable. The rover has a top speed
of 5 cm per second, but the average speed over time on flat
hard ground would be 1 cm/sec or less due to the hazard
avoidance protocols. The rover is designed to withstand a tilt of
45 degrees without falling over, but is programmed to avoid
exceeding tilts of 30 degrees. The warm electronics box
houses the computer, batteries, and other electronic
components. The box is designed to protect these components
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=2003-032A[14/10/2010 0:36:26]
Alternate Names
MER 1
Mars Exploration Rover 1
Mars Exploration Rover B
MER-B
27849
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0708
Launch Vehicle: Delta
II 7925
Launch Site: Cape
Canaveral, United States
Mass: 185.0 kg
Funding Agency
NOAA National
Environmental Satellite
Service (United States)
Discipline
Planetary Science
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and control their temperature. Thermal control is achieved
through the use of gold paint, aerogel insulation, heaters,
thermostats, and radiators.
Power is provided by the solar arrays, generating up to 140 W
of power under full Sun conditions. The energy is stored in two
rechargeable batteries. Communications with Earth are in Xband via the high gain directional dish antenna and the low
gain omni-directional antenna. Communications with orbiting
spacecraft are through the UHF antenna. The onboard
computer has 128 Mb RAM. An inertial measurement unit
provides 3-axis information on position.
The rover carries a suite of instruments for science and
navigation. The panoramic camera (Pancam) and navigation
cameras are mounted on top of the Pancam mast assembly,
at a height of about 1.4 meters from the base of the wheels.
The mast, mounted at the front of the equipment deck, also
acts as a periscope for the Miniature Thermal Emission
Spectrometer (Mini-TES). Attached to the end of the
instrument deployment device are the Alpha Particle X-Ray
Spectrometer (APXS), Mossbauer Spectrometer (MB),
Microscopic Imager (MI), and Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT). A
magnet array is attached to the front of the equipment deck.
Two hazard avoidance cameras are mounted on the front of
the rover and two on the rear. The group of science
instruments (Pancam, Mini-TES, APXS, MB, MI, and RAT) is
known as the Athena science package.
The rover will be compactly stowed in a tetrahedron shaped
landing platform and encased in an aeroshell consisting of a
heat shield and a backshell for launch, cruise, and
atmospheric entry. The lander platform has a mass of 348 kg,
the backshell and parachute 209 kg, and the heat shield 78
kg. The cruise stage mass is 193 kg and propellant mass is 50
kg.
Mission Profile
Opportunity was launched on a heavy Delta II 7925H on 8 July
2003 at 03:18:15 UT (July 7, 11:18:15 p.m. EDT). After
insertion into a circular Earth parking orbit, the spacecraft third
stage reignited and put the craft on a trajectory to Mars, after
which the aeroshell, lander, and rover separated from the third
stage. The cruise phase to Mars ended on 11 December 2003,
45 days before Mars entry. The approach phase lasted from
this date until martian atmospheric entry on 25 January 2004.
On entry the lander and components had a mass of 827 kg
and were travelling at 19,300 km/hr. The aeroshell decelerated
the lander in the upper martian atmosphere for about four
minutes to a velocity of 1600 km/hr, followed by deployment of
a parachute. The parachute slowed the spacecraft to about
300 km/hr. A series of tones transmitted by the spacecraft
during entry and after landing indicated the successful
completion of each phase. Just prior to impact, at an altitude
of about 100 m, retrorockets slowed the descent and airbags
inflated to cushion the impact. The craft hit at roughly 50 km/hr
and bounced and rolled along the surface, stopping in a small
crater. The airbags deflated and retracted, the petals opened,
and the rover deployed its solar arrays. The landing took place
at 5:05 UT (Earth received time), 12:05 a.m. EST or
approximately 1:15 p.m. local time, about two and a half hours
before Earth set at Terra Meridiani. On Mars it was the latter
half of southern summer. The landing ellipse is centered at
2.07 S, 6.08 W and is roughly 119 by 17 km oriented at 88
degrees. Terra Meridiani is also known as the "Hematite Site"
because it displays evidence of coarse-grained hematite, an
iron-rich mineral which typically forms in water. It also appears
to be one of the smoothest and therefore safest areas for a
landing.
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An egress phase took place over the first 4 days, involving
deployment of the Pancam mast and high gain antenna, rover
stand up, imaging and calibration, selection of proper egress
path, and finally driving of the rover off the lander deck onto
the martian surface. Over three years of surface operations,
involving driving the rover, imaging, and use of the science
instruments has already been achieved, the Opportunity rover
has covered over 10 km and continues to operate.
Personnel
Name
Role
Original Affiliation
E-mail
Ms. Joy Anne
Crisp
Project
Scientist
NASA Jet Propulsion
Laboratory
[email protected]
Mr. Peter C
Theisinger
Project
Manager
NASA Jet Propulsion
Laboratory
[email protected]
Dr. James B.
Garvin
Program
Scientist
NASA Headquarters
[email protected]
Dr. Firouz M.
Naderi
Program
Manager
NASA Jet Propulsion
Laboratory
[email protected]
Selected References
Crisp, J. A., et al., Mars Exploration Rover mission, J. Geophys. Res., 108, No. E12, 8061,
doi:10.1029/2002JE002038, 2003.
Squyres, S. W., et al., Athena Mars rover science investigation, J. Geophys. Res., 108, No. E12,
8062, doi:10.1029/2003JE002121, 2003.
Squyres, S. W., et al., The Opportunity Rover's Athena Science Investigation at Meridiani
Planum, Mars, Science, 306, No. 5702, 1698-1703, Dec. 2004.
Cook, R. A., The Mars exploration rover project, Acta Astronaut., 57, No. 2-8, 116-120, 2005.
Squyres, S. W., et al., Two years at Meridiani Planum: Results from the Opportunity Rover,
Science, 313, No. 5792, 1403-1407, Sept. 2006.
Squyres, S. W., et al., Overview of the Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover Mission to Meridiani
Planum: Eagle Crater to Purgatory Ripple, J. Geophys. Res., 111, E12S12,
doi:10.1029/2006JE002771, 2006.
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"Opportunity" images from Meridiani Planum
Mars Exploration Rover "Spirit" Page
Labelled Diagram of the Mars Exploration Rover
NASA Mars Rovers Braving Severe Dust Storms - NASA Press Release 20 July 2007
Durable Mars Rovers Sent Into Third Overtime Period - NASA Press Release 5 April 2005
Opportunity Rover Finds Strong Evidence Meridiani Planum Was Wet - NASA Press Release 2
March 2004
Mars Rovers Head for Exciting Landings in January - NASA Press Release 2 December 2003
NASA Selects 28 Participating Scientists for Mars Rover Mission - NASA Press Release 29 May
2002
NASA Plans to Send Rover Twins to Mars in 2003 - NASA Press Release 10 August 2000
Announcement of Rover Option - NASA Press Release 27 July 2000
Mars Pathfinder Rover
Mars Exploration Rover Home Page - NASA JPL
Athena Science Package Site - Cornell University
Mars Home Page
Mars Fact Sheet
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Optus 1C
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-028B
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Optus 1C is an Australian dual-use (civil-military) geostationary
satellite that was launched by an Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou
at 22:38 UT on 11 June 2003. The 4.7 tonne satellite carries
24 Ku-band civilian transponders and eight military
transponders. The civilian part of the payload will enable video
and internet links to Australia, New Zealand and East Asia,
after parking over 156 deg-E longitude.
27831
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0611
Launch Vehicle: Ariane
5
Launch Site: Kourou,
French Guiana
Funding Agency
Unknown (Australia)
Discipline
Communications
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Experiments on Optus 1C
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Optus 1C
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Orbview 3
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-030A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Orbview 3 is an American photo-imaging minisatellite that was
launched at 18:55 UT on 26 June 2003 by a Pegasus rocket
that was released from an L-1011 cargo plane flying out of
Vandenberg AFB. The 304 kg satellite carries high-resolution
cameras to enable black-and-white images at 1.0 meter
resolution and color images at 4.0 meter resolution.
27838
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0626
Launch
Vehicle: Pegasus
Launch
Site: Vandenberg AFB,
United States
Funding Agency
Unknown (United States)
Discipline
Surveillance and Other
Military
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Progress M-47
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-006A
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Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Progress M-47 is a Russian automatic cargo carrier that was
launched by a Soyuz-U rocket from Baikonur at 12:59 UT on 2
February 2003. It was the 100th launch of the Progress craft
series (with 43 Progress, 46 Progress-M, nine Progress M1,
and one Progress M-SO1). It transported food, fuel, and
equipment to the ISS and docked automatically with the
Zvezda module of the ISS at 14:49 UT on 4 February. The
previously docked Progress M1-9 had been undocked and
deorbited in advance.
27681
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0202
Launch
Vehicle: Soyuz-U
Launch Site: Tyuratam
(Baikonur Cosmodrome),
Kazakhstan
Funding Agency
Unknown (Russia)
Discipline
Resupply/Refurbishment/Repair
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Progress
M-47
Experiments on Progress
M-47
Data collections from
Progress M-47
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Progress M-48
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-039A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Progress M-48 is a Russian automatic cargo carrier that was
launched by a Soyuz-FG rocket from Baikonur at 01.47 UT on
29 August 2003. It carried 2.6 tonne of food, fuel, water, and
equipment to be delivered to the International Space Station
(ISS). It docked automatically with the Zvezda module of the
ISS at 3:45 UT on 31 August 2003. In anticipation, the
previous carrier, PROGRESS M-47, containing the trash from
the ISS was undocked and deorbited on 27 August.
27873
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0829
Launch Vehicle: Soyuz
FG
Launch Site: Tyuratam
(Baikonur Cosmodrome),
Kazakhstan
Funding Agency
Unknown (Russia)
Discipline
Resupply/Refurbishment/Repair
Additional
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Launch/Orbital
information for Progress
M-48
Experiments on Progress
M-48
Data collections from
Progress M-48
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Progress M1-10
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-025A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Progress M1-10 is a Russian automatic cargo carrier that was
launched by a Soyuz-U rocket form Baikonur at 10:34 UT on 8
June 2003. It docked at 11:15 UT on 11 June with the PIRS
module of the International Space Station (ISS) automatically
and delivered 2.3 tonnes of food, fuel, water, and
scientific/engineering equipment.
27823
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0608
Launch
Vehicle: Soyuz-U
Launch Site: Tyuratam
(Baikonur Cosmodrome),
Kazakhstan
Funding Agency
Unknown (Russia)
Discipline
Resupply/Refurbishment/Repair
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Progress
M1-10
Experiments on Progress
M1-10
Data collections from
Progress M1-10
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about this spacecraft can
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Quakesat
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-031F
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Quakesat is an American photo-imaging nanosatellite that was
launched by a Rokot rocket at 14:15 UT on 30 June 2003. It is
equipped with an earthquake detection instrument.
27845
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0630
Launch Vehicle: Rokot
Launch Site: Plesetsk,
Russia
Funding Agency
Unknown (United States)
Discipline
Surveillance and Other
Military
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Quakesat
Experiments on Quakesat
Data collections from
Quakesat
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Rainbow 1
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-033A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
RAINBOW 1 is an American geostationary communications
satellite that was launched by an Atlas 5 rocket from Cape
Canaveral at 23:45 UT on 17 July 2003. The 4.3 tonne satellite
will provide direct-to- home television services in the
contiguous United States through its several transponders.
Parking longitude is not available.
27852
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0717
Launch Vehicle: Atlas
V
Launch Site: Cape
Canaveral, United States
Funding Agency
Unknown (United States)
Discipline
Communications
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Rainbow 1
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Rubin 4
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-042B
Maps
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Alternate Names
Description
Rubin 4 is a German satellite that was launched by a Kosmos
3M rocket from Plesetsk at 06:12 UT on 27 September 2003. It
remained attached to the upper stage of the rocket so as to
monitor its position, velocity, and acceleration.
27940
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0927
Launch
Vehicle: Kosmos-3M
Launch Site: Plesetsk,
Russia
Funding Agency
Unknown (Federal
Republic of Germany)
Discipline
Communications
Additional
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Launch/Orbital
information for Rubin 4
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Data collections from
Rubin 4
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Scisat 1
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-036A
Maps
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Lunar/Planetary Events
Description
SCISAT 1 is a Canadian (CSA) atmospheric research satellite
that was launched at 02:10 UT by a Pegasus XL rocket
released from a an L-1011 cargo plane flying out of
Vandenberg AFB on 13 August 2003. The 152 kg, 70 W, "bias
momentum stabilized" spacecraft points to the Sun at one
degree accuracy, and carries two instruments, FTS and
MAESTRO, to monitor the atmospheric ozone and dust
composition in the 4-100 km altitude range. More details of the
mission and the instruments are available via
http://www.space.gc.ca/asc/eng/
Alternate Names
Atmospheric Chemistry
Experiment (ACE)
ACE
27858
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0813
Launch
Vehicle: Pegasus XL
Launch
Site: Vandenberg AFB,
United States
Funding Agency
Canadian Space Agency
(Canada)
Discipline
Earth Science
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information for Scisat 1
Experiments on Scisat 1
Data collections from
Scisat 1
Questions or comments
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Name
Role
Dr. Peter F. Bernath
Mission Scientist
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Original Affiliation
E-mail
[email protected]
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SERVIS 1
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-050A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
SERVIS 1 (Space Environment Reliability Verification
Integrated System) is Japanese test satellite that was
launched by a Rokot rocket from Plesetsk at 13:43 UT on 30
October. The 900 kg, 1.4 x 1.4 x 2.3 m, 1.2 kW satellite carries
mostly commercially available off-the-shelf household items
like PCs and cell phones so as to ascertain the viability of such
inexpensive satellites. It carries parts evaluation monitors also
to measure the degradation due to gamma rays and energetic
particles.
Space Environment
Reliability Verification
Integrated System
28060
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-1030
Launch Vehicle: Rokot
Launch Site: Plesetsk,
Russia
Funding Agency
Unknown (Japan)
Discipline
Other
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SERVIS 1
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Shenzhou 5
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-045A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Shenzhou 5 was the fifth spacecraft in a series of launches
which was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of sending a
human into space by the People's Republic of China and the
first to contain a human presence. The spacecraft was manned
by Lt. Col. Yang Liwei, who orbited the Earth for nearly 21.5
hours before landing in the grasslands of Inner Mongolia at
22:23 UTC (6:23 a.m. local time). While in orbit the taikonaut
dined on specially prepared versions of Chinese food, talked
with his wife and son, and took a three hour nap in addition to
performing various planned activities. A total of 14 orbits were
made.
The Shenzhou spacecraft is based on the three-seat Russian
Soyuz capsule, although extensive modifications have been
made.
Although the budget for China's space program was a closelyheld secret, the government announced that it had spent $2.18
billion up to the point of this launch.
Divine Vessel 5
28043
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-1015
Launch Vehicle: Long
March 2F
Launch Site: Jiuquan,
Peoples Republic of China
Funding Agency
China National Space
Administration (Peoples
Republic of China)
Discipline
Shenzhou 5
Human Crew
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5
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Shenzhou 5
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SHENZHOU 5
ESPECIAL MISIÓN SHENZHOU 5. PRIMERA MISIÓN TRIPULADA DE CHINA
Lanzamiento: miércoles 15 de octubre - 01:00 GMT
Aterrizaje: miércoles 15 de octubre - 22:23 GMT
El primer chino que ha sido puesto en el espacio regresó satisfactoriamente a la Tierra este
miércoles 15 de octubre. Con este retorno, China se une a la Unión Soviética y a Estados
Unidos en el exclusivo club de las naciones que han conquistado el espacio.
Suspendida en el aire con un gran paracaídas, la cápsula espacial en la que viajaba Yang Liwei
aterrizó en las praderas del interior de Mongolia hacia las 6.23 a.m (hora local), tras 21 horas
de odisea que le llevó a dar 14 vueltas alrededor de la Tierra. Yang apareció unos quince
minutos después del aterrizaje, saludando y con aspecto cansado.
Apenas pronunció tres frases antes de volar hacia Pekín: “ La nave operó suavemente; me
siento bien; estoy orgulloso de mi patria.”
Su retorno ha supuesto el final feliz para el primer viaje espacial chino, que tiene lugar cuadro
décadas después de que el cosmonauta soviético Yuri Gagarin y el americano Alan Shepard se
convirtieran en los primeros tripulantes de vuelos espaciales en 1961. Esta misión culmina el
programa espacial iniciado por Mao Zedong en 1958, aunque éste fue inmediatamente
abandonado durante la guerra fría. Un año después, China lanzó su primer satélite a bordo del
cohete Long March, difundiendo el himno de la Revolución Cultural “El Este es Rojo.” La
hazaña refleja el poder emergente de China, miembro permanente del Consejo de Seguridad
de la ONU y una de las economías con mayor crecimiento. También ha sido elegida como sede
de los Juegos Olímpicos de 2.008.
“Nuestro héroe espacial Yang Liwei salió de la cápsula por su pie. Nuestro primer vuelo
tripulado ha sido un completo éxito”, afirmó el comandante de la misión Li Jinai. En una misión
que parece contrarreloj, un cohete Long March 2F chino despegó hacia un despejado cielo azul
sobre el desierto del Gobi (01:00 GMT del miércoles), alcanzando su órbita predeterminada
diez minutos después. Yang realizó varias actualizaciones de sus condiciones a lo largo del
viaje. La última de ellas, cuando la cápsula flotaba sobre el campo tras la re-entrada. También
contactó con su mujer cuando el Shenzou V, también llamada “Nave Divina V” comenzaba su
octava vuelta a la Tierra, asegurándole desde el espacio: “Me siento bien, no te preocupes.”
Yang, un teniente coronel del Ejército de Liberación del Pueblo, fue elegido entre catorce
aspirantes. Es originario de la provincia china de Liaoning. Los medios estatales afirmaron que
la cápsula de Yang portaba una pistola, un cuchillo y una tienda de campaña para el caso de
que aterrizase en un lugar equivocado. Esta misión ha recibido muchas felicitaciones. En los
Estados Unidos, el director de la NASA, Sean O’Keefe, describió el lanzamiento como un
acontecimiento muy importante. El Secretario General de la ONU, Kofi Annan, afirmó que
“cuando la exploración espacial no conoce límites nacionales, la misión del Shenzou-V es un
paso adelante para toda la humanidad.” La tripulación que está a punto de despegar hacia la
Estación Espacial Internacional afirmó que China es un serio competidor en la carrera por la
supremacía en el espacio. “¿Es China una potencia rival? Naturalmente, no sólo en el espacio,
sino en aspectos comerciales, económicos, incluso militares,” afirmó el astronauta
norteamericano Michael Foale, comandante de la 8ª Expedición a la ISS.
Un tupido velo de secreto ha cubierto todo el programa espacial chino. El Estado retrasó la
transmisión de televisión, tanto la del lanzamiento como la del aterrizaje.
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NSSDC ID: 2003-043C
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SMART 1
Description
The SMART-1 (Small Missions for Advanced Research in
Technology 1) is a lunar orbiter designed to test spacecraft
technologies for future missions. It entered initial lunar orbit on
13 November 2004. The primary technology being tested is a
solar-powered ion drive. It will also carry an experimental
deep-space telecommunications system and an instrument
payload to monitor the ion drive and study the Moon. The
primary scientific objectives of the mission are to return data
on the geology, morphology, topography, mineralogy,
geochemistry, and exospheric environment of the Moon in
order to answer questions about planetary formation
accretional processes, origin of the Earth-Moon system, the
lunar near/far side dichotomy, long-term volcanic and tectonic
activity, thermal and dynamical processes involved in lunar
evolution, and water ice and external processes on the
surface.
Spacecraft and Subsystems
SMART-1 is a box-shaped spacecraft roughly a meter on a
side with two large solar panel wings spanning 14 meters
extending from opposite sides. The launch mass, including
fuel, is 366.5 kg, the mass at the time it reaches the Moon
should be about 305 kg. A solar-electric propulsion system (a
Stationary Plasma Hall-effect thruster, PPS-1350) uses xenon
gas as a propellant by ionizing the xenon and accelerating and
discharging the plasma from the spacecraft at high speed.
Electrons are also released into the flow to maintain a neutral
charge on the spacecraft. A thrust of 70 milliNewtons and a
specific impulse of 1600 s is produced. 82 kg of supercritical
xenon propellant will be carried aboard SMART-1 in a tank
mounted in the center of the structure above the thruster. The
spacecraft is three-axis stabilized using four skewed reaction
wheels and eight 1-N hydrazine thrusters mounted on the
corners of the spacecraft bus. Attitude knowledge is provided
by a star tracker, sun sensor, and angular rate sensors.
1850 W of power is produced from an array of gallium-indiumphosphide gallium arsenide germanium (GaInP/GaAs/Ge)
solar cells covering an active surface on the wings of about 10
square meters. Solar array power is regulated to 50 V in the
power control and distribution unit and distributed via solidstate power controllers. Power is stored in five 130-Whr lithium
ion battery cells. Roughly 75% of the power is used to run the
propulsion system during flight. Thermal control is achieved
through the use of radiators, heat pipes, multilayer insulation
blankets, thermistor controlled heaters, and high emissivity
optical properties. Communication takes place via a medium
gain and two low gain S-band antennas as well as the antenna
for the experimental Ka/X system. The medium gain antenna
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Alternate Names
Small Missions for
Advanced Research in
Technology 1
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0927
Launch Vehicle: Ariane
5
Launch Site: Kourou,
French Guiana
Mass: 305.0 kg
Discipline
Planetary Science
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for SMART 1
PDMP information for
SMART 1
Experiments on SMART 1
Data collections from
SMART 1
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Dr. David R.
Williams.
NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details
provides a telemetry rate of 65 kb/s. The two low gain
antennas provide omin-directional ground coverage at 2 kb/s.
The medium gain, Ka/X band, and one low gain antenna are
mounted on one side panel of the spacecraft bus and the other
low gain antenna is mounted on the opposite panel.
The spacecraft will carry a suite of science and technology
instruments with a total mass of 19 kg. The science
instruments include a pan-chromatic camera (AMIE) for lunar
imaging, Langmuir probes mounted on booms (SPEDE) to
measure the plasma environment, and radio science
experiments (RSIS). Science instruments which are being
tested as part of the technology verification are a miniaturized
visible/near-infrared spectrometer (SIR) for lunar crustal
studies, a miniature X-ray spectrometer for astronomy and
lunar chemistry (D-CIXS), and an X-ray spectrometer to
calibrate D-CIXS and to study the Sun (XSM). The Electric
Propulsion Diagnostic package (EPDP) is a multi-sensor suite
designed specifically to monitor the ion propulsion system, it
also works in concert with the SPEDE to study the space
plasma environment. The RSIS is also used to monitor the ion
propulsion system. Finally an experimental telecommunication
and tracking system, the Ka/X-band TTC (Telemetry and
Telecommand) Experiment (KaTE) is included in the payload
for technology assessment. The AMIE camera will also be
used to support a test of an image-based On-Board
Autonomous Navigation (OBAN) system. OBAN is designed to
minimize the amount of ground intervention required for the
mission.
Mission Profile
The SMART-1 spacecraft launched on 27 September 2003
from Kourou, French Guiana as an auxiliary passenger on an
Ariane-5 Cyclade which launched two other large satellites as
its primary payload. It was put into a geostationary transfer
orbit, 742 x 36,016 km, inclined at 7 degrees to the equator.
The spacecraft used its ion drive over a period of 14 months to
elongate its Earth orbit and utilized three lunar resonance
maneuvers in August, September, and October 2004 to
minimize propellant use. Its final continuous thrust maneuver
took place over 100 hours from 10 to 14 October 2004. Lunar
orbit capture occurred on 13 November 2004 at a distance of
60,000 km from the lunar surface. The ion engine began firing
in orbit at 05:24 UT (12:24 a.m. EST) on 15 November to start
a 4.5 day period of thrust to lower the orbit. The first perilune
took place on 15 November at 17:48 UTC (12:48 p.m. EST) at
an altitude of about 5000 km above the lunar surface. The
engine was then used to lower the initial 4962 x 51477 km
altitude, 5 day, 9 hour period, 81 degree inclination orbit,
putting SMART-1 into a 300 x 3000 km polar orbit. Lunar
commissioning began in mid-January 2005 and lunar science
operations in February 2005. The mission has been extended
from its originally planned 6-month lifetime by a year, so it will
now conduct mapping of the Moon's surface and evaluating
the new technologies onboard from lunar orbit until August
2006. The xenon-ion engine was shut down in September
2005 after exhausting its fuel supply. It operated for almost
5000 hours and underwent 843 starts and stops. SMART-1
performed a controlled crash into the Moon at about 2 km/sec
on 3 September 2006, at 5:42 UT in the mid-southern region of
the near side of the Moon in Lacus Excellentiae (Lake of
Excellence) at 34.4 S, 46.2 W. The total cost of the spacecraft
is estimated at 100 million euros in 2001 economic conditions
(~$90 million U.S.).
Personnel
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Name
Role
Original Affiliation
E-mail
Dr. Guiseppe
D. Racca
Project
Manager
ESA-European Space Research and
Technology Centre
[email protected]
Dr. Bernard
Foing
Project
Scientist
ESA-European Space Research and
Technology Centre
[email protected]
Selected References
Foing, B. H., et al., SMART-1 mission to the Moon: Technology and science goals, Adv. Space
Res., 31, No. 11, 2323-2333, 2003.
Racca, G. D., et al., SMART-1 mission description and development status, Planet. Space Sci.,
50, 1323-1337, 2002.
Foing, B. H., et al., The ESA SMART-1 mission to the Moon with solar electric propulsion, Adv.
Space Res., 23, No. 11, 1865-1870, 1999.
Rathsman, P., et al., SMART-1: Development and lessons learnt, Acta Astronaut., 57, No. 2-8,
455-468, 2005.
Foing, B. H., et al., SMART-1 after lunar capture: First results and perspectives, J. Earth Syst.
Sci., 114, No. 6, 689-697, Dec. 2005.
Foing, B. H., et al., SMART-1 mission to the Moon: Status, first results and goals, Adv. Space
Res., 37, No. 1, 6-13, 2006.
SMART 1 Stationary Plasma Thruster (Credit ESA)
SMART 1 Status Reports
Impact landing ends SMART-1 mission to the Moon - ESA Press Release, 3 September 2006
Europe rediscovers the Moon with SMART-1 - ESA Press Release, 17 August 2006
Europe Reaches the Moon - ESA Press Release, 16 November 2004
SMART 1 leaves Earth on a long journey to the Moon - ESA Press Release (28 September
2003)
SMART 1 Home Page - ESA
SMART 1 Mission Review - ESA
ESA Home Page - Italy
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SMART 1 image of Pythagoras Crater (Credit ESA)
Moon Home Page
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NASA Official: Dr. Ed Grayzeck
Curator: E. Bell, II
Version 4.0.14, 08 October 2010
Smart 1
DESCRIPCIÓN DE LA MISIÓN:
La Agencia Espacial Europea (ESA) posee un programa de pequeñas sondas de bajo coste
denominadas genéricamente SMART (Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology)
que permiten probar nuevas tecnologías de comunicaciones y navegación que serán luego
aplicadas a otras misiones de mayor tamaño.
La sonda SMART-1 cuyo destino es La Luna, es la primera en ver la luz de todo el proyecto y
su objetivo primario es probar un nuevo sistema de propulsión llamado 'solar eléctrico' o
'propulsión iónica' que será usado posteriormente en la misión BepiColombo a Mercurio entre
otras. Hasta ahora la única sonda en usar este sistema ha sido la Deep Space 1 de la NASA en
1.998. Además de este sistema de propulsión llevará varios instrumentos científicos para
estudiar la Luna.
Esta nave con un peso total de 350kg. es la primera que la ESA envía a nuestro satélite y se
espera que lo orbite durante al menos 6 meses. Será enviada al espacio desde la Guayana
Francesa, como carga secundaria en un Ariane 5 en septiembre de 2.003. La sonda será
controlada desde el Centro Europeo de Operaciones Espaciales (European Space Operations
Centre, ESOC, en Darmstadt, Alemania).
SISTEMA DE PROPULSIÓN:
Ha sido desarrollado por la empresa SNECMA de Francia y utiliza el sistema conocido como
'propulsión eléctrica por iones', basado en el uso del gas xenón como propelente y los paneles
solares como fuente de energía eléctrica, proporcionando una fuerza de empuje total de 70
miliNewtons, que la sonda utilizará para ir aumentando progresivamente su órbita en forma de
espiral hasta alcanzar la Luna. Además de la propulsión, la sonda utilizará las técnicas de
sobrevuelo y de los puntos de Lagrange lunares para ahorrar combustible y completar su
recorrido hasta nuestro satélite que será de unos 16 meses. Otros dos instrumentos llamados
SPEDE y EPDP medirán los datos y comportamientos del sistema de propulsión durante el
viaje.
La misión usa un sistema electrostático conocido como motor de efecto Hall. El modelo para la
misión llamado PSS-1350 desarrollado por SNECMA usa el gas xenón como propelente. Es un
aparato muy compacto construido alrededor de una cámara de cerámica de forma anular de 10
cms de diámetro rodeada de imanes. En un lado se sitúa el cátodo que es un aparato que crea
electrones. Estos electrones atraviesan una cámara anular y son atrapados por campos
magnéticos, los electrones chocan con el gas xenón que entra en la cámara y forma iones de
xenón cargados positivamente y más electrones. Esos electrones son usados otra vez para
acelerar los iones, los cuales salen disparados de la cámara acelerados por el campo eléctrico
creado por los electrones del cátodo. Estos iones brillan con una característica luz azul.
El empuje producido por el motor del SMART-1 es apenas perceptible, el equivalente al
ejercido por un trozo de papel en la palma de la mano, pero tiene la ventaja de que funciona
por largos periodos de tiempo (lo que no ocurre en los motores químicos), por lo que a la larga
la sonda adquiere una mayor velocidad. Para las misiones interplanetarias, a pesar de tener un
impulso bajo, al acumularse durante largos periodos de tiempo de manera continua, la nave
alcanzará su destino antes que otra dotada con un motor químico.
ÓRBITAS DE LA MISIÓN:
De la Tierra a La Luna
Órbita de acercamiento a La Luna
FECHAS PRINCIPALES:
Lanzamiento: 27 de septiembre 2.003
Llegada a La Luna: diciembre 2.004
Fin de la misión: junio 2.005 - diciembre 2.006
INSTRUMENTOS SMART-1:
De los siete instrumentos de a bordo, tres están destinados a la monitorización de los sistemas
de propulsión eléctrica y los otros son para telecomunicaciones experimentales y tres para
investigaciones lunares.
AMIE, Asteroid-Moon Micro-Imager Experiment: Es una cámara miniaturizada de alta
resolución para fotografiar la superficie lunar, desarrollada por el Centre Suisse d'Electronique
et de Microtechnique (CSEM) en Neuchatel, Suiza. Su peso total es de sólo 450 gramos y está
diseñada para tomar imágenes en color, almacenarlas en memoria propia, comprimir las
imágenes y enviarlas a la computadora de la nave. Posee un CCD de 1.024x1.024 pixeles con
un campo de visión de 5,3 grados, alcanzando una resolución de 50 metros/pixel. Puede
funcionar en luz visible, infrarrojo y ultravioleta gracias a los filtros que lleva incorporados.
- SIR: Espectrómetro de infrarrojo cercano entre los 900 y los 2.400 nm, para investigar los
minerales de la superficie de la Luna desarrollado por el Max Planck Institute für Aeronomie
(MPAe) en Garching, Alemania. Podrá distinguir entre varios componentes de la superficie
como los piroxenos, olivinos y feldespatos.
- D-CIXS: Espectrómetro de Rayos-X miniaturizado para determinar la composición de la
superficie lunar. Funciona analizando los rayos-X reflejados en la superficie lunar y que
provienen del Sol. Como cada elemento tiene su propia huella, el espectrómetro podrá
determinar la composición del terreno. Posee un sub-instrumento llamado XSM que es un
sensor de rayos-X que medirá la radiación X del Sol para calibrar al D-CIXS. De camino a la
Luna estudiarán otras fuentes de rayos-X de nuestro sistema solar y la galaxia. Se ha
desarrollado en el Rutherford Appleton Laboratory del Reino Unido, la Universidad Politécnica
de Catalunya y el Instituto de Estudios Espaciales. Nos dará un mapa global de la composición
y distribución de los minerales (magnesio, aluminio, silicio, hierro...).
- KaTE: Demostrador tecnológico de telemetría y comunicaciones digitales en el espacio
profundo en las bandas X y Ka. De esta manera en el futuro se usarán sistemas de
comunicación con las sondas más efectivos y menos costosos. Se realizará un experimento de
radio (RSIS) que observará el comportamiento del sistema de propulsión. Servirá como test
para la futura misión a Mercurio que utilizará este medio junto a la cámara de imágenes para
medir la libración del planeta y su estructura interna.
- Laser Link Experiment: Usando la Estación Óptica de Seguimiento de Tenerife se realizará
este experimento que servirá estudiar las comunicaciones ópticas entre la Tierra y la nave y
además probará el sistema autónomo de navegación. Este sistema de comunicaciones por
láser permitirá a futuras sondas enviar muchísima más cantidad de información en menos
tiempo.
- OBAN, Onboard Autonomous Navigation: Desarrolla un sistema experimental que permite a la
sonda actuar de forma autónoma sin tener que esperar los comandos y órdenes que le llegan
desde la Tierra y actuar de forma independiente. Estos sistemas de navegación fueron
probados con gran éxito en la sonda Deep Space 1 de la NASA y permite que en situaciones
de emergencia, la nave decida que es lo que tiene que hacer en cada momento. Esto no
implica que la sonda pueda cambiar su rumbo, sino simplemente ajustar la trayectoria y actuar
en el caso de que se produzca una llamarada solar.
- SPEDE/EPDP: Medirá los efectos que produce el motor iónico sobre el resto de la sonda y su
funcionamiento. Estos efectos serán físicos, mecánicos, térmicos y eléctricos.
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SORCE
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-004A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
SORCE (SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment) is an
American (NASA) Sun-Earth Connection satellite that was
launched at 20:13 UT by a Pegasus XL rocket released from a
L-1011 cargo aircraft flying out of Cape Canaveral. It is to
measure solar irradiance in a number of wavelength-bands
through three spectrometers and a photometer.
The URL http://lasp.colorado.edu/sorce/ provides much
detailed descriptions of the experiments and data availability.
The PI is Gary J. Rottman of LASP, University of Colorado,
Boulder, with many co-investigators.
SOlar Radiation and
Climate Experiment
27651
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0125
Launch
Vehicle: Pegasus XL
Launch Site: Cape
Canaveral, United States
Funding Agency
National Aeronautics and
Space Administration
(United States)
Discipline
Solar Physics
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for SORCE
Experiments on SORCE
Data collections from
SORCE
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
Office.
Personnel
Name
Role
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E-mail
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Dr. Thomas P.
Sparn
Program
Manager
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University of Colorado
[email protected]
NASA Official: Dr. Ed Grayzeck
Curator: E. Bell, II
Version 4.0.14, 08 October 2010
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SOYUZ TMA 3
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-047A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Soyuz TMA 3 is a Russian passenger-transporting satellite that
was launched by a Soyuz-FG rocket from Baikonur at 05:38
UT on 18 October 2003. It carried three astronauts (a Russian,
an American and a Spanish) to the International Space Station
(ISS). It docked automatically with the ZARYA module 20
October 2003 and the crew moved into the ISS. The Spanish
astronaut will conduct some microgravity life science
experiments, code named Cervantes (the author of Don
Quixote novel) while in the ISS for about 10 days. The other
two crew members will remain in the ISS for a six-month stay,
relieving the two astronauts from the previous mission. The two
astronauts that had stayed on ISS for six months, plus the
Cervantes astronaut returned to Earth in the SOYUZ TMA 2
module (that had remained docked with the ISS) at 02:41 UT
on 28 October 2003, soft-landing at the precisely planned
location in Kazakhstan.
28052
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-1018
Launch Vehicle: Soyuz
FG
Launch Site: Tyuratam
(Baikonur Cosmodrome),
Kazakhstan
Funding Agency
Unknown (Russia)
Disciplines
Human Crew
Resupply/Refurbishment/Repair
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for SOYUZ
TMA 3
Experiments on SOYUZ
TMA 3
Data collections from
SOYUZ TMA 3
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
Office.
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Curator: E. Bell, II
Version 4.0.14, 08 October 2010
Soyuz TMA-3
Launch, orbit and landing data
Launch date:
Launch time:
Launch site:
Launch pad:
Altitude:
Inclination:
Landing date:
Landing time:
Landing site:
18.10.2003
05:38 UT
Baikonur
1
376 - 385 km
51,63°
30.04.2004
00:12 UT
50° 39' N, 67° 27'
E
Crew
No
.
Surnam
e
Given name
1
Kaleri
Aleksandr
Yuriyevich
2
Duque
Pedro Francisco
3
Foale
Colin Michael
Job
Commander
Flight
Engineer
Flight
Engineer
Flight No.
4
2
6
Duration
Orbit
s
194d 18h 34m 3054
9d 21h 02m
155
194d 18h 34m 3054
Crew seating arrangement
Launch
1 Kaleri
2 Duque
3 Foale
Landing
1 Kaleri
2 Kuipers
3 Foale
Flight
Launch from Baikonur; landing 59 km NE of Arkalyk; ISS-expedition 8; "caretaker" crew; docking
to ISS; crew replaced expedition 7 crew.
Note
Duque landed on 28.10.2003 at 02:40 UT with Soyuz TMA-2-spacecraft.
Photos / Drawings
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Soyuz TMA-2
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-016A
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Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Soyuz TMA-2 is a Russian passenger transport craft that was
launched by a Soyuz-U rocket from Baikonur at 03:54 UT on
26 April 2003. It carried two astronauts, one Russian and one
American, for a six-month stay at the International Space
Station (ISS), performing microgravity biology experiments. It
docked with the ISS at about 07:00 UT on 28 April 2003. The
previous three-man crew in ISS will leave the station on 4 May
2003 on the earlier Soyuz TMA-1 that has remained docked.
27781
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0426
Launch
Vehicle: Soyuz-U
Launch Site: Tyuratam
(Baikonur Cosmodrome),
Kazakhstan
Funding Agency
Unknown (Russia)
Discipline
Human Crew
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Soyuz
TMA-2
Experiments on Soyuz
TMA-2
Data collections from
Soyuz TMA-2
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
Office.
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Version 4.0.14, 08 October 2010
Soyuz TMA-2
Launch, orbit and landing data
Launch date:
Launch time:
Launch site:
Launch pad:
Altitude:
Inclination:
Landing date:
Landing time:
Landing site:
26.04.2003
03:54 UT
Baikonur
1
388,2 - 413,2 km
51,67°
28.10.2003
02:40 UT
49° 57' 06" N, 67°
02' 15" E
Crew
No
.
1
2
Surname
Given name
Malenchenk Yuri
o
Ivanovich
Edward
Lu
Tsang
Job
Flight No.
Duration
Orbit
s
Commander
3
184d 22h 46m 2890
Flight
Engineer
3
184d 22h 46m 2890
Crew seating arrangement
Launch
1 Malenchenko
2 Lu
3
Landing
1 Malenchenko
2 Duque
3 Lu
Flight
Launch from Baikonur; landing 42 km south of Arkalyk in Kazakhstan; ISS-expedition 7;
"caretaker" crew; docking to ISS; crew replaced expedition 6 crew.
Photos / Drawings
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Spirit
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NSSDC ID: 2003-027A
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Spirit
Description
The "Spirit" rover (Mars Exploration Rover A or MER-2) is one
of the two rovers launched to Mars in mid-2003. The rovers
arrived at Mars in January of 2004 equipped with a battery of
scientific instruments and will be able to traverse 100 meters a
day. The nominal plan calls for the missions to last for 90 days,
until April 2004, but it is likely the mission will last beyond this
time. The scientific goals of the rover missions are to gather
data to help determine if life ever arose on Mars, characterize
the climate of Mars, characterize the geology of Mars, and
prepare for human exploration of Mars. To achieve these
goals, seven science objectives are called for: 1) search for
and characterize a variety of rocks and soils that hold clues to
past water activity, 2) determine the distribution and
composition of minerals, rocks, and soils surrounding the
landing sites, 3) determine what geologic processes have
shaped the local terrain and influenced the chemistry 4)
perform "ground truth" of surface observations made by Mars
orbiter instruments, 5) search for iron-bearing minerals,
identify and quantify relative amounts of specific mineral types
tha contain water or were formed in water, 6) characterize the
mineralogy and textures of rocks and soils and determine the
processes that created them, and 7) search for geological
clues to the environmental conditions that existed when liquid
water was present and assess whether those environments
were conducive to life.
Spacecraft and Subsystems
The Mars Exploration Rover consists of a box-like chassis
mounted on six wheels. The chassis contains the warm
electronics box (WEB). On top of the WEB is the triangular
rover equipment deck, on which is mounted the Pancam mast
assembly, high gain, low gain, and UHF antennas, and a
camera calibration target. Attached to the two forward sides of
the equipment deck are solar arrays which are level with the
deck and extend outward with the appearance of a pair of
swept-back wings. Attached to the lower front of the WEB is
the instrument deployment device, a long hinged arm which
protrudes in front of the rover.
The wheels are attached to a rocker-bogie suspension system.
Each wheel has its own motor and the two front and two rear
wheels are independently steerable. The rover has a top speed
of 5 cm per second, but the average speed over time on flat
hard ground would be 1 cm/sec or less due to the hazard
avoidance protocols. The rover is designed to withstand a tilt of
45 degrees without falling over, but is programmed to avoid
exceeding tilts of 30 degrees. The warm electronics box
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Alternate Names
MER 2
MER-A
Mars Exploration Rover A
Mars Exploration Rover 2
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0610
Launch Vehicle: Delta
II 7925
Launch Site: Cape
Canaveral, United States
Mass: 185.0 kg
Funding Agency
National Aeronautics and
Space Administration
(United States)
Discipline
Planetary Science
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Spirit
PDMP information for
Spirit
Telecommunications
information for Spirit
Experiments on Spirit
Data collections from Spirit
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Dr. David R.
NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details
houses the computer, batteries, and other electronic
components. The box is designed to protect these components
and control their temperature. Thermal control is achieved
through the use of gold paint, aerogel insulation, heaters,
thermostats, and radiators.
Power is provided by the solar arrays, generating up to 140 W
of power under full Sun conditions. The energy is stored in two
rechargeable batteries. Communications with Earth are in Xband via the high gain directional dish antenna and the low
gain omni-directional antenna. Communications with orbiting
spacecraft are through the UHF antenna. The onboard
computer has 128 Mb RAM. An inertial measurement unit
provides 3-axis information on position.
The rover carries a suite of instruments for science and
navigation. The panoramic camera (Pancam) and navigation
cameras are mounted on top of the Pancam mast assembly,
at a height of about 1.4 meters from the base of the wheels.
The mast, mounted at the front of the equipment deck, also
acts as a periscope for the Miniature Thermal Emission
Spectrometer (Mini-TES). Attached to the end of the
instrument deployment device are the Alpha Particle X-Ray
Spectrometer (APXS), Mossbauer Spectrometer (MB),
Microscopic Imager (MI), and Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT). A
magnet array is attached to the front of the equipment deck.
Two hazard avoidance cameras are mounted on the front of
the rover and two on the rear. The group of science
instruments (Pancam, Mini-TES, APXS, MB, MI, and RAT) is
known as the Athena science package.
The rover will be compactly stowed in a tetrahedron shaped
landing platform and encased in an aeroshell consisting of a
heat shield and a backshell for launch, cruise, and
atmospheric entry. The lander platform has a mass of 348 kg,
the backshell and parachute 209 kg, and the heat shield 78
kg. The cruise stage mass is 193 kg and propellant mass is 50
kg.
Mission Profile
Spirit was launched on a standard Delta II 7925 on 10 June
2003 at 17:58:46.773 UT. After insertion into a circular Earth
parking orbit, the spacecraft was despun and the third stage
was reignited to put the craft on a trajectory to Mars, after
which the aeroshell, lander, and rover separated from the third
stage. The cruise phase to Mars ended on 20 November 2003,
45 days before Mars entry. The approach phase lasted from
this date until martian atmospheric entry on 4 January 2004.
On entry the lander and components had a mass of 827 kg
and were travelling at 19,300 km/hr. The aeroshell decelerated
the lander in the upper martian atmosphere for about four
minutes to a velocity of 1600 km/hr, followed by deployment of
a parachute. The parachute slowed the spacecraft to about
300 km/hr. A series of tones was transmitted by the spacecraft
during entry and after landing to indicate the successful
completion of each phase. Just prior to impact, at an altitude
of about 100 m, retrorockets slowed the descent and airbags
were inflated to cushion the impact. The craft hit at roughly 50
km/hr and bounced and rolled along the surface. After it
stopped the airbags deflated and retracted, the petals opened,
and the rover deployed its solar arrays. The landing took place
at 04:35 UT on 4 January 2004 (Earth received time), (11:35
p.m. Jan. 3 EST) approximately 2:00 p.m. local time, about
one hour before Earth set, in Gusev Crater, roughly 15
degrees south of the equator. On Mars it is the latter half of
southern summer. The landing ellipse is centered at 14.82 S,
184.85 W and is 96 km by 19 km oriented at 76 degrees.
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About three hours after landing the first images were returned
to Earth, showing a flat plain littered with small rocks. Gusev
Crater was chosen as a landing site because it has the
appearance of a crater lakebed. If Gusev was at one time filled
with water, the bottom of the crater may contain sedimentary
deposits laid down in the submarine environment.
An egress phase took place over the first few days, involving
deployment of the Pancam mast and high gain antenna, rover
stand up, imaging and calibration, and selection of proper
egress path. The rover drove off the platform onto the surface
of Mars on 15 January at 8:41 UT (3:41 a.m. EST). Over three
years of surface operations, involving driving the rover,
imaging, and use of the science instruments has already been
achieved, and the Spirit rover continues to operate, although it
has lost the use of one of its six wheels. It has covered a total
of about 7 km.
Personnel
Name
Role
Original Affiliation
E-mail
Ms. Joy Anne
Crisp
Project
Scientist
NASA Jet Propulsion
Laboratory
[email protected]
Mr. Peter C
Theisinger
Project
Manager
NASA Jet Propulsion
Laboratory
[email protected]
Dr. James B.
Garvin
Program
Scientist
NASA Headquarters
[email protected]
Dr. Firouz M.
Naderi
Program
Manager
NASA Jet Propulsion
Laboratory
[email protected]
Selected References
Crisp, J. A., et al., Mars Exploration Rover mission, J. Geophys. Res., 108, No. E12, 8061,
doi:10.1029/2002JE002038, 2003.
Squyres, S. W., et al., Athena Mars rover science investigation, J. Geophys. Res., 108, No. E12,
8062, doi:10.1029/2003JE002121, 2003.
Squyres, S. W., et al., The Spirit Rover's Athena science investigation at Gusev crater, Mars,
Science, 305, No. 5685, 794-799, Aug. 2004.
Cook, R. A., The Mars exploration rover project, Acta Astronaut., 57, No. 2-8, 116-120, 2005.
Arvidson, R. E., et al., Overview of the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover Mission to Gusev Crater:
Landing site to Backstay Rock in the Columbia Hills, J. Geophys. Res., 111, E02S01,
doi:10.1029/2005JE002499, 2006.
"Spirit" Rover Images From Gusev Crater, Mars
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More "Spirit" Images of Gusev Crater
"Opportunity" Images of Meridiani Planum
Press Release on the landing - 4 January 2004
Comparison of Spirit, Mars Pathfinder, and Viking Panoramas
Spirit's route on Mars, artist's concept of the rover on Mars and a map of the landing sites
showing Gusev and Meridiani
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Mars Exploration Rover "Opportunity" Page
Labelled Diagram of the Mars Exploration Rover
NASA Mars Rovers Braving Severe Dust Storms - NASA Press Release 20 July 2007
Durable Mars Rovers Sent Into Third Overtime Period - NASA Press Release 5 April 2005
Spirit Rolls All Six Wheels Onto Martian Soil - NASA Press Release 15 January 2004
Spirit Lands on Mars and Sends Postcards - JPL Press Release 4 January 2004
Mars Rovers Head for Exciting Landings in January - NASA Press Release 2 December 2003
NASA Selects 28 Participating Scientists for Mars Rover Mission - NASA Press Release 29 May
2002
NASA Plans to Send Rover Twins to Mars in 2003 - NASA Press Release 10 August 2000
Announcement of Rover Option - NASA Press Release 27 July 2000
Mars Pathfinder Rover
Mars Exploration Rover Home Page - NASA JPL
Athena Science Package Site - Cornell University
Mars Home Page
Mars Fact Sheet
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Version 4.0.14, 08 October 2010
Mars Exploration Rovers
DESCRIPCIÓN: Esta nueva misión de la NASA a Marte (conjuntamente con Dinamarca y
Alemania) supone el retorno del 'rover', que tanto éxito tuvo en la misión Pathfinder en el año
1.997. En este caso serán dos los rovers que se utilizarán para la misión, ambos idénticos, con
muchísima más capacidad que el conocido Sojourner de 1.997. Estos exploradores serán
capaces de recorrer más de 100 metros diarios y llevarán consigo todos los instrumentos
(Athena Science Payload) y sistemas de comunicaciones ya que no tendrán una base de
operaciones como la 'Carl Sagan Memorial Station' de la misión Pathfinder. Su objetivo
principal es la búsqueda de agua pasada o presente en el planeta y su interacción con las
rocas del entorno.
Cada dos años, la Tierra y Marte se encuentran en una posición de su órbita alrededor del Sol
que posibilita el envío de naves al planeta rojo con el mínimo gasto posible de combustible,
resultando en un ahorro para la misión. Uno de estos períodos tendrá lugar a mediados del año
2.003 y será aprovechado para lanzar las dos sondas con apenas un mes de diferencia. El
primero de ellos, el MER-A fue lanzado desde Cabo Cañaveral el 10 de junio de 2.003 en un
cohete Delta II y el MER-B lo siguió el 8 de julio. Tras un viaje de siete meses llegarán a Marte
en enero de 2.004 con pocos días de diferencia.
Diagramas del lanzamiento
Recorrido de las naves
Cada uno de los rovers aterrizará en una zona distinta del planeta cercana al ecuador para
aprovechar mejor la energía solar. Para llegar a la superficie seguirán un procedimiento muy
similar al de la misión Pathfinder.
Una vez pasadas las capas altas de la atmósfera se abrirá un paracaídas, cerca de la
superficie se encenderán varios cohetes que disminuirán aún más la velocidad y poco después
se abrirán unos gigantescos airbags que harán que el rover rebote una docena de veces
durante 1 kilómetro. Una vez detenido el airbag, se desinflará y se abrirán los pétalos que
protegían la nave dejando al rover al descubierto.
En esos momentos se abrirán los paneles solares, el mástil de la cámara y las ruedas y
quedará listo para salir. Instantes después, tomará una panorámica completa de 360º de su
entorno en color e infrarrojos y la mandará a Tierra para que los ingenieros conozcan el
entorno y poder decidir que primer camino tomará la nave. Lo fascinante de esta misión es que
cada día se podrá analizar todo el entorno del rover desde una posición nueva. Los científicos
analizaran las tomas panorámicas del rover para decidir el día siguiente que camino tomará
para fotografiar desde allí nuevos lugares y nuevos análisis de las rocas del lugar. Y todo ello
por duplicado. En un sólo día recorrerán la misma distancia que Sojourner en toda la misión.
Como comparación, el rover Sojourner pesaba 11 kg. por 185 kg. de estos rovers y su altura es
5 veces mayor. Cada rover analizará el suelo y las rocas, usando espectrómetros, abriendo la
roca para analizar su interior y fotografiando su estructura microscópica y se espera que duren
al menos 90 días sobre la superficie del planeta hasta mayo del 2.004, pero si se mantiene su
buena salud podrá ampliarse la misión.
Mapa Global de Marte. Zonas elegidas para el aterrizaje
Gusev Crater / Meridiani Hematite
Fase de reentrada en la atmósfera. (Pulsa para ampliar la imagen)
FECHAS PRINCIPALES:
Lanzamiento MER-A / MER-2 / Spirit: 10 de junio 2.003
Lanzamiento MER-B / MER-1 / Opportunity: 8 de julio 2.003
Llegada a Marte MER-A: 4 de enero 2.004
Llegada a Marte MER-B: 25 de enero 2.004
Fin de las operaciones de ambos rovers: mayo 2.004 (ampliable).
COMPONENTES E INSTRUMENTOS:
- PANCAM. Es la cámara principal de la nave y la encargada de realizar las fotografías
panorámicas de alta resolución, en estéreo y en color, siendo su resolución tres veces mayor
que la del Sojourner. Las cámaras ayudarán a los técnicos a decidir el camino a emprender y
tomar imágenes de las rocas y lugares que rodean en cada momento al rover. Imagen de
prueba.
- MINI-TES o Mini-Thermal Emission Spectrometer. Es un espectrómetro que tomará imágenes
en infrarrojo de las rocas y el suelo y nos permitirá saber su composición. Va situado en el
mástil de la cámara panorámica. De todas las imágenes que tome, se podrá sacar el espectro
completo por separado de cada uno de los pixeles que la componen.
- APXS o Alpha-Particle-X-Ray Spectrometer . Es el espectrómetro de rayos X que determinará
la química y composición del suelo y las rocas marciana, así como la abundancia de los
distintos elementos químicos.
- Mössbauer Spectrometer. Es otro espectrómetro que determinará con gran precisión la
abundancia y distribución de minerales derivados del hierro, lo que nos dará información sobre
el magnetismo y la interacción del agua con esos minerales.
- RAT o Rock Abrasion Tool. Es un aparato que funcionará a modo de perforador sobre las
rocas
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Spitzer Space Telescope
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-038A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Description
The Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly SIRTF, the Space
Infrared Telescope Facility) is a 0.85-meter telescope with
three cryogenically cooled instruments, operating in the 3 - 180
micron range. The observatory is the final element in NASA's
Great Observatories Program. The science capabilities include
imaging/photometry at 3 - 180 microns, spectroscopy at 5 - 40
microns, and spectrophotometry at 50 - 100 microns. Spitzer
will study a wide variety of astronomical phenomena, extending
from our Solar System to the distant reaches of the early
Universe.
The spacecraft consists of an octagonal bus structure, and a
solar array to power the science instruments. The pointing
control subsystem employs a celestial-inertial, three-axis
stabilized control system. Spitzer has an Earth-trailing
Heliocentric orbit.
The Spitzer telescope is a lightweight reflector of RitcheyChrétien design. The telescope has an 85 cm diameter
aperture. The instruments selected include: 1) a four-channel
infrared array camera imaging at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 microns.
2) an imaging photometer, with three detector arrays imaging
at 24, 70, and 160 microns (one array will also take lowresolution spectra at 50 - 100 microns); 3) a spectrograph
providing high- and low-resolution spectroscopy at mid-infrared
wavelengths (5 - 40 microns).
Alternate Names
Space InfraRed
Telescope Facility
SST
27871
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0825
Launch Vehicle: Delta
7920H ELV
Launch Site: Cape
Canaveral, United States
Mass: 865.0 kg
Funding Agency
NASA-Office of Space
Science (United States)
Discipline
Astronomy
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Spitzer
Space Telescope
PDMP information for
Spitzer Space Telescope
Telecommunications
information for Spitzer
Space Telescope
Experiments on Spitzer
Space Telescope
Data collections from
Spitzer Space Telescope
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
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be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
Office.
Personnel
Name
Role
Original Affiliation
E-mail
Dr. Michael W.
Werner
Project
Scientist
NASA Jet Propulsion
Laboratory
[email protected]
Mr. David B
Gallagher
Project
Manager
NASA Jet Propulsion
Laboratory
[email protected]
Other Sources of Spitzer Information/Data
Spitzer Project page
Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC)
Spitzer Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS)
Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) Home Page
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STS 107
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-003A
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Alternate Names
Description
Space Shuttle Columbia, STS 107 was an American shuttle
spacecraft launched from Cape Canaveral at 15:39 UT on 16
January 2003. It was the first flight in recent years that was not
related to International Space Station (ISS) activities. It carried
seven astronauts who helped oversee 80 microgravity
expriments on board. These ranged from K-12 interest to
significant commercial and scientific potential.
After a 16 day mission, the shuttle began its reentry on 1
February 2003, but communications failed at 14:00 UT when
the shuttle was at an altitude of 60 km with a speed of 20,100
km/hr. It soon disintegrated over east central Texas on its path
towards Cape Canaveral. The debris was scattered over
hundreds of square miles. There were no survivors. This was
the 28th mission for Columbia.
Columbia
27647
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0116
Launch
Vehicle: Shuttle
Launch Site: Cape
Canaveral, United States
Funding Agency
National Aeronautics and
Space Administration
(United States)
Disciplines
Engineering
Human Crew
Life Science
Microgravity
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for STS 107
Experiments on STS 107
Data collections from STS
107
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
Office.
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Thuraya 2
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-026A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Thuraya 2 is a UAE (United Arab Emitrate) geostationary
communications spacecraft that was launched by a Zenit 3SL
rocket fired from Odyssey (the floating launch platform in the
equatorial Pacif ocean) at 13:56 UT on 10 June 2003. The 5.2
tonne (with fuel), 11 kW satellite carries many transponders to
relay mobile telephone calls from/to countries in and around
the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent, after parking over
44 deg-E longitude. Its 200 spot beams can be steered to
meet the varying call densities, and will enable it to handle
13,750 calls simultaneously.
27825
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0610
Launch Vehicle: Zenit
3SL
Launch Site: Odyssey
(Sea Launch Platform), null
Funding Agency
Unknown (United Arab
Emirates)
Discipline
Communications
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Thuraya 2
Experiments on Thuraya 2
Data collections from
Thuraya 2
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
Office.
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UFO 11
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-057A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
UFO 11, also known as USA 174, is an American
geostationary military communications satellite that was
launched by an Atlas 3 rocket from Cape Canaveral at 02:30
UT on 18 December 2003. ("UFO" has been identified as the
acronym for Uhf Follow-On.) The 1.4 tonne satellite is the
eleventh and final of the UFO constellation which provide
secure communications in UHF band and frequencies among
ships, aircraft, mobile ground terminals even during severe
weather conditions. It will be parked at 172 deg E longitude.
USA 174
28117
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-1218
Launch Vehicle: Atlas 3
Launch Site: Cape
Canaveral, United States
Funding Agency
Unknown (United States)
Disciplines
Communications
Surveillance and Other
Military
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for UFO 11
Experiments on UFO 11
Data collections from UFO
11
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
Office.
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USA 167
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-008A
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New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
USA 167, also known as DSCS 3A3, is an American
geostationary military communicatons spacecraft of the DSCS
3 constellation that will provide super secure glabal links to the
military. It was launched by a Delta 4 rocket from Cape
Canaveral AFS at 00:59 UT. These DSCS 3 spacecraft are
triaxially stabilized spacecraft with solar power of 1.24 kW.
They operate at 6 SHF frequencies between 40 and 85 MHz.
Parking longitude will be unavailable.
DSCS 3A3
27691
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0311
Launch Vehicle: Delta
IV
Launch Site: Cape
Canaveral, United States
Funding Agency
Unknown (United States)
Discipline
Surveillance and Other
Military
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for USA 167
Experiments on USA 167
Data collections from USA
167
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
Office.
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USA 170
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-040A
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Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
USA 170, also known as DSCS 3B6, is an American, Defense
Satellite Communications System's geostationary, supersecure communication satellite that was launched by a Delta 4
rocket from Cape Canaveral AFS at 23:13 UT on 29 August
2003. It is the 10th and final member of the DSCS phase 3
fleet enabling worldwide links among the American military
personnel. The parking longitude is unavailable.
DSCS 3B6
27875
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0829
Launch Vehicle: Delta
IV
Launch Site: Cape
Canaveral, United States
Funding Agency
Unknown (United States)
Discipline
Communications
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for USA 170
Experiments on USA 170
Data collections from USA
170
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
Office.
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USA 171
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-041A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
USA 171 is an American geostationary military spacecraft that
was launched from Cape Canaveral at 04:29 UT on 9
September 2003. It is reported to be an ORION-class craft
belonging to the National Reconnaissance Office. No further
information is available.
27937
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0909
Launch Vehicle: null
Launch Site: Cape
Canaveral, United States
Funding Agency
Unknown (United States)
Discipline
Surveillance and Other
Military
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for USA 171
Experiments on USA 171
Data collections from USA
171
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
Office.
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USA 173
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-054A
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Alternate Names
Description
USA 173 is an American military satellite (operated by the
National Reconnaissance Office) that was launched by an
Atlas 2AS rocket from Vandenberg AFB at 10:04 UT on 2
December 2003. It is reported to be part of the NOSS (Naval
Ocean Surveillance System) fleet.
28095
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-1202
Launch Vehicle: Atlas
2AS
Launch
Site: Vandenberg AFB,
United States
Funding Agency
Unknown (United States)
Discipline
Surveillance and Other
Military
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for USA 173
Experiments on USA 173
Data collections from USA
173
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
Office.
+ Privacy Policy and Important Notices
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=2003-054A[15/10/2010 22:37:35]
NASA Official: Dr. Ed Grayzeck
Curator: E. Bell, II
Version 4.0.14, 08 October 2010
NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details
Saturday, 16 October 2010
NSSDC Master
Catalog Search
Spacecraft
Experiments
Data Collections
Personnel
XSS 10
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-005B
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
XSS 10 is an American (AFRL/DoD) technology demonstration
microsatellite (28 kg) that was launched by a Delta 2 rocket
from Cape Canaveral at 18:06 UT on 29 January 2003. It will
also keep its sight on the second stage of Deta 2. Its batterypowered operational life was 24 hours.
27664
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-0129
Launch Vehicle: Delta
II
Launch Site: Cape
Canaveral, United States
Funding Agency
Department of DefenseDepartment of the Air
Force (United States)
Discipline
Technology Applications
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for XSS 10
Experiments on XSS 10
Data collections from XSS
10
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
Office.
+ Privacy Policy and Important Notices
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=2003-005B[15/10/2010 22:37:54]
NASA Official: Dr. Ed Grayzeck
Curator: E. Bell, II
Version 4.0.14, 08 October 2010
NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details
Saturday, 16 October 2010
NSSDC Master
Catalog Search
Spacecraft
Experiments
Data Collections
Personnel
Yamal 201
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-053B
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Yamal 201 is one of a pair of Russian geostationary
communications satellites that were launched by a Proton-K
rocket from Baikonur at 06:22 UT on 24 November 2003. The
pair, Yamal 201 and Yamal 202, are identical satellites, with a
mass of 1.3 kg, and power 3.6 kW. Yamal 201 carries nine Cband and six Ku-band transponders, while Yamal 202 carries
18 C-band transponders. They will provide voice and video
communications throughout the Eurasian continent, after
parking: Yamal 201 at 90 deg-E and Yamal 202 at 49 deg-E.
28094
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-1124
Launch
Vehicle: Proton-K
Launch Site: Tyuratam
(Baikonur Cosmodrome),
Kazakhstan
Funding Agency
Unknown (Russia)
Discipline
Communications
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Yamal 201
Experiments on Yamal 201
Data collections from
Yamal 201
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
Office.
+ Privacy Policy and Important Notices
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=2003-053B[15/10/2010 22:38:29]
NASA Official: Dr. Ed Grayzeck
Curator: E. Bell, II
Version 4.0.14, 08 October 2010
NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details
Saturday, 16 October 2010
NSSDC Master
Catalog Search
Spacecraft
Experiments
Data Collections
Personnel
Yamal 202
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-053A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Yamal 202 is one of a pair of Russian geostationary
communications satellites that were launched by a Proton-K
rocket from Baikonur at 06:22 UT on 24 November 2003. The
pair, Yamal 202 and Yamal 201, are identical satellites, with a
mass of 1.3 kg, and power 3.6 kW. Yamal 201 carries nine Cband and six Ku-band transponders, while Yamal 202 carries
18 C-band transponders. They will provide voice and video
communications throughout the Eurasian continent, after
parking: Yamal 201 at 90 deg-E and Yamal 202 at 49 deg-E.
28089
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-1124
Launch
Vehicle: Proton-K
Launch Site: Tyuratam
(Baikonur Cosmodrome),
Kazakhstan
Funding Agency
Unknown (Russia)
Discipline
Communications
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Yamal 202
Experiments on Yamal 202
Data collections from
Yamal 202
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
Office.
+ Privacy Policy and Important Notices
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=2003-053A[15/10/2010 22:39:08]
NASA Official: Dr. Ed Grayzeck
Curator: E. Bell, II
Version 4.0.14, 08 October 2010
NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details
Saturday, 16 October 2010
NSSDC Master
Catalog Search
Spacecraft
Experiments
Data Collections
Personnel
Zhongxing 20
Publications
NSSDC ID: 2003-052A
Maps
New/Updated Data
Lunar/Planetary Events
Alternate Names
Description
Zhongxing 20 is a Chinese (PRC) military communications
spececraft that was launched by a Long March 3A rocket from
Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XSLC) on 14 November
2003.
28082
Facts in Brief
Launch Date: 2003-1114
Launch Vehicle: Long
March 3A
Launch Site: Xichang,
Peoples Republic of China
Funding Agency
Unknown (Peoples
Republic of China)
Disciplines
Communications
Surveillance and Other
Military
Additional
Information
Launch/Orbital
information for Zhongxing
20
Experiments on Zhongxing
20
Data collections from
Zhongxing 20
Questions or comments
about this spacecraft can
be directed to: Coordinated
Request and User Support
Office.
+ Privacy Policy and Important Notices
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=2003-052A[15/10/2010 22:39:45]
NASA Official: Dr. Ed Grayzeck
Curator: E. Bell, II
Version 4.0.14, 08 October 2010

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