Design Recherche Europe Art Métiers

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Design Recherche Europe Art Métiers
Design Recherche Europe Art Métiers
(research on design, crafts & applied arts in europe)
Published by
Fundación Española para la Innovación de la Artesanía
C/ General Zabala 12
28002 Madrid
Tel. +34 915 610 262 - Fax +34 915 633 788
[email protected]
www.fundesarte.org
Editorial coordination and texts
Fundación Española para la Innovación de la Artesanía
Laura Miguel
Institut National des Métiers d’Art
Catherine Virassamy
Osservatorio Mestieri d'Arte
Benedetta Zini
Western Finland Design Centre
Tanja Oraviita
Publication design
marcosGpunto
Legal deposit
M-22500-2011
This work programme has been funded with support from
the European Commission.
This publication reflects the views only of the author, and
the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use
which may be made of the information contained therein.
04
Preface_ 08
Design Recherche Europe Art Métiers_ 10
Master Class on Textile Fibres - Florence (Italy)_ 14
Master Class on Glass - Barcelona (Spain)_ 26
Master Class on Wood - Vaasa (Finland)_ 40
Project partners_ 52
Contacts_ 58
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Europe possesses a wealth of savoir-faire related to
ancestral practices in which aesthetics and the quality
of hand-crafted, limited edition or one-of-a-kind productions were in line with local needs and culture.
While these traditional hand-crafted productions do
meet certain demands of a specific public interested in
heritage - the human and ecological dimensions, excellence and luxury - and represent a true “niche” market,
they have not completely found their place in a globalised
economy.
Often perceived as the relics of bygone times, the public
at large and the young in particular view this knowledge
and skill as dated and hold it in low esteem.
PREFACE
Within this context, European crafts and applied arts
need to gain recognition by portraying an image representative of today’s cultural identity and demonstrative
of the potentials of artisanal crafts in terms of irrefutable
resources in the economy, education and training and
exploring current cultural trends.
In order to come out from the shadows, the sector’s
main challenge is to produce or display quality works
that inspire confidence and win over the general public
in the same way as industrial products do.
The DREAM “Design Recherche Europe Art Métiers”
project, part of the European Commission’s culture
program, was implemented by the Institut National des
Métiers d’Art (INMA), the Fundación Española para la
Innovación de la Artesanía (Fundesarte) for Spain, the
Western Finland Design Centre for Finland, the Agence
de Création Industrielle (APCI) for France, the Osserva-
torio Mestieri d'Arte (OMA) for Italy and the Complexul
National Muzeal Astra (Astra Museum) for Romania. The
project aims to restore the meaning crafts once had and
revive these professions by encouraging young people
to equip themselves with a culture of knowledge and
skill, while repositioning crafts and applied arts within
the context of today’s society and economy.
The partner countries in this task present the study
carried out within the framework of three master classes
that took place in Italy, Spain and Finland and focused
on the emergence of a new generation of craftspeople
& designers in Europe.
Marie-Hélène Frémont
General Director
Institut National des Métiers d’Art
Mercedes Valcárcel
General Coordinator
Fundación Española para la Innovación de la Artesanía
Annika Hissa
Western Finland Design Centre
(Aalto University School of Art and Design
- University of Vaasa)
Anne-Marie Boutin
Présidente - Agence pour la Promotion de la Création Industrielle
Professor Giampiero Maracchi
President - Osservatorio Mestieri d'Arte
Valeriu Ion Olaru, General Director
Complexul National Muzeal Astra
(research on design, crafts & applied arts in europe)
“Design Recherche Europe Art Métiers”
DREAM
As part of the European Commission’s Culture
programme, the DREAM “Design Recherche
Europe Art Métiers” project was coordinated by
the Institut National des Métiers d’Art (INMA France) in association with the Fundación Española para la Innovación de la Artesanía (Fundesarte - Spain), the Western Finland Design
Centre, the Osservatorio Mestieri d'Arte (OMA
- Italy), the Complexul National Muzeal Astra
(Astra Museum - Romania) and the Agence pour
la Promotion de la Création Industrielle (APCI France), with a view to:
• Defining and enhancing the image that
crafts and applied arts have in today’s
world.
• Defining a training methodology that
brings together heritage and creativity.
• Defining the notion of innovation in
relation to crafts and applied arts.
Three actions have been implemented in an
attempt to meet these objectives.
1
The creation of a European Gallery of craft and applied art productions
www.dreamcraftgallery.eu in order to equip young members of the
general public with a culture of the knowledge and skill of art professions by giving these professions a new image.
The dreamcraft gallery www.dreamcraftgallery.eu is an online “text
and image” database created to improve the visibility of craft and
applied art productions in Europe. A European showcase of crafts and
applied arts, it presents leading works representative of the cultural
identity of each country taking part, (in the categories of traditional,
rare, contemporary, and innovative objects) and reviews the history
of this savoir-faire and the various techniques used in Europe.
The first productions included in this database relate to three sectors
- wood, natural fibres and glass - and five countries - Spain, Finland,
France, Italy, and Romania. The productions include traditional Romanian textiles, decorative Italian painting, glass works by Iitala in Finland
and Lalique in France and the linens and natural willow fibres used
in outdoor structures in Spain and the “Carré Hermès” in France.
The site’s architecture allows for its extension to other sectors and
European countries can easily be added.
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2
The organisation of the “Crafts and Applied Arts” Master Classes in three
different countries. This experimental intercultural training was organised with
a view to promoting the emergence of a new generation of craftspeople and
designers.
Training was carried out in the form of a “Crafts and Applied Arts” Master
Class in order to allow young craft and design professionals to consider a new
approach to their work, bringing together tradition and modernity, heritage and
creativity, art and economics, and suggest productions adapted to the economic
market.
Three ten-day master classes were organized, each on a sector representative
of the host country: glass in Spain, wood in Finland, and natural fibres in Italy.
Each country hosted two students from each of the other countries, bringing
the number of students per master class to ten. In order to encourage a
multidisciplinary approach, these classes were composed of students of crafts,
applied arts, and design, under the codirection of an accomplished craftsperson
and a renowned designer in the given sector.
The approaches varied from one country to another, allowing the questions of
enhancing cultural identity, innovation in the transformation of materials and
the place of crafts and applied arts in a sector such as fashion to be addressed.
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3
The enhancement of the image of crafts and applied arts in today’s
society and its promotion via a European-wide event.
The research was carried out with a view to sharing results with
those involved in the sector throughout Europe and providing these
European professionals with better visibility. The first step was the
distribution of the project’s results among those involved in crafts
and applied arts in collaboration with the Euroart network, which
brings together European institutional craft and applied art stakeholders. This is the objective of the “Crafts, Applied Arts and Design”
Exchanges organised within the framework of the DREAM project’s
closing seminar. The second step was to take advantage of this occasion
to instigate the organisation of “European Craft and Applied Art
Days” such as those organised in France, by asking European professionals to open up their workshops to the general public on a given
day of the year.
The study and concrete actions carried out among these five European
countries in partnership on the DREAM project were born of a common
goal: to promote crafts and applied arts in Europe. This work prefigures
what we hope will be a renewed interest in crafts and applied arts in
Europe and ensures developments in this sector.
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MASTER CLASS ON TEXTILE FIBRES
Ten days, ten female students, five garments
and five designs, an endless number of fittings,
ideas, sketches and outlines. The DREAM
project’s Master Class in natural fibres was
held in Florence from January 17 to 26, 2011.
The work group, composed of ten students, two
from each participating European country, gathered in the sartorial atelier of master tailor
Irma Schwegler, who specialises in natural fibre
clothing projects. Daniele Davitti, a young designer from the Polimoda, and Marie Astier, an
expert in vegetable dyes, as well as Irma’s assistant in the tailoring class, also participated.
The work environment was set up in an open
space in which two different work groups were
organised: one for the dressmakers and one
for the designers. The two groups worked at
two different tables because of the need for
different tools (pencils, sheets of papers, geometrical drawing supports for the designers,
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and scissors, needles, threads, sewing machines
and professional irons for the dressmakers).
However, the open space was meant to encourage the two work groups to have a natural
and continuous exchange of opinions.
First, the teachers worked together arranging
the various details and helping to solve problems and doubts. The to and fro from one
place to another in the open space was the
course’s main characteristic.
The girls were subdivided into pairs from different countries, so that the two members’
cultural singularities could give each microgroup strength and support for its activity. The
whole group used Casentino cloth, a typical
textile from the Tuscan area of the same name,
which on this occasion was made of local wools
and dyed only with vegetable colours. Casentino cloth is a very thick woollen fabric that is
hard to work with, which often leads to unpredictable results.
The students participating in the design group
were asked to design a skirt that could later
actually be tailored. This is why the pairs needed to work together right from the start. The
girls were encouraged to find inspiration for
their collections autonomously. They had a
series of volumes on the history of fashion and
notes on various types of modelling at their
disposal. However, the most creative solutions
sprang up during the last days when, after
touring the city at the end of the work, visiting
exhibitions and exchanging their opinions, they
were able to fully express their creativity.
Not all the girls who took part in the Natural
Fibres Master Class had adequate technical
preparation. Many of them had to be taught
the basic elements of tailoring. The first two
days, they practised free-hand sewing and
inserting zippers (one visible and one invisible)
with the help of an electronic sewing machine.
They also practiced pressing with a professional iron and a suction ironing board was useful
for showing the girls the real results that can
be achieved by using this extremely particular
cloth.
During the first days, the designers, who did
not necessarily come from the fashion industry,
toiled at their projects. In conclusion, however,
the quality of the work achieved in those ten
days was outstanding, for both the enormous
progress made by the students in just a few
days of study and the atmosphere of open
collaboration and exchange that was created
right from the very first hours, as well as for
the potential and quality typical of their places
of birth that all the students were able to bring
to the micro group.
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Meeting Point
Work group: Verónica Villalón Gordón (Spain) and Luisa Maria Salvioli di Fossalunga (Italy).
Material: Textile fibres. Natural white Casentino cloth/black tulle.
Project
Starting point
A geographical map. Black stitching and strips in black tulle on natural white Casentino cloth.
The pattern chosen consists in a series of lines converging towards the same point, which symbolises
a meeting point among different ideas and nationalities. The stitching is reinforced by tulle strips
that represent the meridians and parallels of this ideal geographical map.
Technique
Classic tailoring technique (paper pattern, cutting, tacking, fitting on the dressmaker’s dummy and
final sewing) and freehand drawing.
Project development
Designer (Verónica Villalón Gordón) development of a mini-collection project to create a skirt.
Dressmaker (Luisa Maria Salvioli di Fossalunga). Practice of basic tailoring techniques. Stitching
and freehand sewing, preparing a size-42 paper model, tacking technique and learning how to use
an electronic sewing machine and a professional iron to better understand how the cloth reacts
and thus, evaluate the feasibility of the design with one’s partner. Assembly of the skirt on the
dressmaker’s dummy and final touches.
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An Open Door
Work group: Anziza Mohamadi (France) and Aniela Hanciuc (Romania).
Material: Textile fibres. Black Casentino cloth/ natural linen thread.
Project
Starting point
Creating a skirt that is a perfect mingling of the two cultures of this group’s members. The French
structure is enriched by a series of weaves typical of Aniela Hanciuc’s Romanian tradition. Aniela
worked hard to choose the most suitable weave pattern to be made using natural linen threads to
create a decoration to be applied on the skirt.
Technique
Classic tailoring technique (paper pattern, cutting, tacking, fitting on the dressmaker’s dummy and
final sewing) and freehand drawing and weaving.
Project development
Designer (Anziza Mohamadi): development of a mini-collection project to create a skirt. After
numerous tests and fittings, the skirt has a transverse structure and is ankle length, unlike the
models chosen by the other students.
Dressmaker (Aniela Anciuc). Practice of basic tailoring techniques. Stitching and freehand
sewing, preparing a size-42 paper model, tacking technique and learning how to use an electronic
sewing machine and a professional iron to better understand how the cloth reacts and thus, evaluate
the feasibility of the design with one’s partner. Aniela worked hard (also in the evenings at the
hotel) to create her weave. After many trials, a weave pattern typical of the Rumanian tradition
was chosen, which gave the girls’ final work a vivid personality due to its strongly ethnic character.
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Never Ending Dream
Work group: Anamaria Silea Sut (Romania) and Emeline Raphanaud (France).
Material: Textile fibres. Natural green Casentino cloth/green tulle.
Project
Starting point
The girls wanted to give a strongly original character to a basic mermaid-style skirt. They chose
to apply the Casentino cloth to organza, which was extremely difficult but gave the skirt an elegant
and very original look. A curious aspect was the name chosen for the project: The Never Ending
Dream. It refers to the construction of a model that seemed impossible to complete on time.
Technique
Classic tailoring technique (paper pattern, cutting, tacking, fitting on the dressmaker’s dummy
and final sewing) and freehand drawing.
Project development
The Never Ending Dream, one of projects most appreciated by the public on presentation day,
required very long, complex work that made extensive use of classic freehand sewing techniques
and great skilfulness and precision in cutting. On an organza base, the girls applied a series of
tone-on-tone discs of various sizes, which give the work a dreamy, romantic appearance. The use
of a sewing machine was limited to the basic structural seams, while the external appliqués were
sewn entirely by hand. The two participants, Anamaria Silea Sut and Emeline Raphanaud, worked
together on the project and the sartorial assembling.
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The dream in the drawer
Work group: Ester Cellucci (Italy) and María Arroyo Marín (Spain).
Material: Textile fibres. Beige Casentino cloth dyed with natural madder.
Project
Starting point
Geometry. The project for this skirt was dominated right from the first day by the idea of creating
an item of clothing that respected the rigid rules of geometry. Hence, imagination, but firmly linked
to rationality.
Technique
Classic tailoring technique (paper pattern, cutting, tacking, fitting on the dressmaker’s dummy and
final sewing) and geometric drawing.
Project development
Designer (Ester Cellucci): development of a mini-collection project to create a skirt. The initial
idea was a series of vertical boxes along the length of the skirt with a herringbone pattern on the
back that matched them. Precision was essential in transfering the drawing to both sides of the
skirt, which is why this was the only project executed during the master class that was not
created freehand, but used a square and ruler. The drawing of the skirt uses a 20 cm double square
repeated four times on the front. The 20 cm are reproduced on the back to make up the herringbone.
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The marble works of the Loggia
Work group: Sara Albertazzi (Italy) and Katja Virta (Finland).
Material: Textile fibres. Beige Casentino cloth dyed with natural walnut and cotton blend fabric
for the lining.
Project
Starting point
Overlays. The initial idea of this project was to create a double-faced, layered skirt, a complex
project because this idea requires a strong, solid structure and great skill in joining the two fabrics.
Technique
Classic tailoring technique (paper pattern, cutting, tacking, fitting on the dressmaker’s dummy and
final sewing) and freehand drawing.
Project development
This is a very interesting project, especially because of the difference between the two group
members. Katja, a designer from the world of architecture, drew inspiration from Renaissance
Florentine buildings (as can be seen in the final drawing where the skirt is in the Brunelleschi
arcade of the Spedale degli Innocenti in Piazza Santissima Annunziata). There were long discussions
to decide which fabric to use for the skirt lining. Katja wanted a damask fabric to light up the
monochromatic quality of the walnut-coloured Casentino cloth. The lining was made without cutting,
placing the entire paper pattern on the lining itself. Despite its complexity, the work was made
easier by the tailoring skills of Sara, who was the only participant in the master class with solid
technical preparation.
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MASTER CLASS ON GLASS
The course was organised in order to facilitate contact between students and the many
different glass processing techniques.
Due to the students’ different backgrounds and the impossibility of their having a
uniform level, the proposal for each student to develop a project and for course work
to consist in completing these projects during the course was ruled out.
The course was organised from the perspective of open research. The students had
widely different levels of knowledge of the glass processing techniques proposed and
their profiles did not fall clearly into either the designer or artisan category. This artisandesigner duality is typical of a field in which this difference is not well defined. A
proposal was made to investigate the relationships between design and craftsmanship
(and art).
The plan was to analyse the ways in which artisans and designers can use their knowledge
to tackle the crisis in the markets, crisis of thought and crisis of processes, while trying
out artisan production systems for new designs.
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The objective was to investigate freely the innovative possibilities and needs in the field
of glass and combine knowledge and artisan skills with the processes and potential of
design.
Within this context, an experimental approach provides more everyone options, so that
each can find his or her own level and learn on that basis to discover new technical
aspects that enrich the work, the projects.
This course enabled students to share knowledge and teach their own colleagues, some
students teaching certain areas, while others taught other areas.
The workshops encouraged the students to treat different techniques creative, especially
those with which they were already familiar.
We hope that this experience will enrich the students' work processes and provide them
with new ideas for their future projects.
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Stained Glass
Stained glass is a technique that involves assembling different pieces of glass together. Normally, the pieces of glass are in different colours
or textures and create a picture.
The definition of the pictures can be topped
off through enamels and vitifiable glass paint
fired in a kiln, which transforms the glass
pieces’ colour and shape.
Glass has been welded in many different ways
throughout history. One of the best known
techniques is leaded glass. The windows are
held together by an h-shaped lead profile, which
is then welded with tin. Profiles from other
metals have also been used.
Stained glass can also be made by joining pieces
with cement. This stained glass uses thicker
pieces of glass and a sort of wall with colour
transparencies that generate the picture is
created.
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Techniques based on new adhesives without
lead or cement have recently been developed.
These new adhesives eliminate the need for
the dark line. Silicone is one of the adhesives
used, but other plastic adhesives catalysed
with ultraviolet rays can also be used.
The workshop, held at the Massana School,
developed techniques for lead-free stained
glass assembled with silicone.
The workshops were taught by Pere Valldepérez, a glass craftsman, artist and teacher at
the Escola Massana.
Each student developed a composition based
on one of his or her own ideas. They executed
the project and pattern and learned about cutting glass with a diamond-bladed roulette to
practice the technique. The results were flat,
stained glass pieces on topics freely determined
by each participant.
Fusing
Fusing consists in firing different pieces of
flat, coloured glass in the kiln until they take
on a soft flat consistency and meld into a single
sheet of coloured glass.
Normally, the glass is not worked with moulds
and fusing the different pieces of glass takes
place on a flat, non-stick surface. Granulated
glass, glass threads, etc., can also be added.
The different pieces of glass and elements are
often arranged on transparent glass that acts
as the basis for the fusion.
The final glass plate will be 6 mm thick, with
free edges. The size of the piece will be larger
or smaller according to the initial thickness of
the glass. To obtain thicker pieces, the pieces’
edges must be delimited.
If a piece is to have a certain final shape, it
can be determined by delimiting the base with
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nonstick material or by cutting it.
A new piece of glass is born by the end of the
process. In other words, it will not be like a
mosaic in which the pieces are joined by a
medium, but rather a new and unique glass
plate is created.
The picture is obtained from pieces of glass,
granulated glass or glass threads that are prepared for fusion.
Each student developed his or her own project
and accordingly made a composition and fired
it at 800-850° C in a glass kiln. The ten resulting glass compositions were the outcomes of
each student’s experimentation.
The workshop was taught by Daniel Orquin,
glass artist and technician at the Fundació
Centre del Vidre in Barcelona, where the workshop took place.
Thermoforming
The thermoforming process involves creasing
glass in a hot kiln in order to give it volume
for folding or bending.
The glass can be bent or folded into the
desired shape on an open mould or a matrix
in nonstick, refractory material.
Softened by the heat, the glass adapts to fit
the shape of the base in which it is fired.
The glass can also be allowed to flow freely
through a hole or from one end of the mould,
controlling it as it falls to decide whether to
let the mass of glass touch the floor of the
kiln or other surface or stop it at some point
in the air.
The temperature, heat rate and time to stop
the heat must be very carefully controlled
to obtain the desired shapes.
The glass also needs to be cooled to develop
a certain rhythm to prevent internal tensions
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and ruptures.
The moulds for thermoforming glass are made of refractory blanket or refractory ceramic material. They can also be constructed
of plaster and silica, giving them a shape
modelled previously in any kind of plastic
material.
The students were able to experiment freely
and try out the technique; afterwards each
student made his or her own project. Based
on this design, the corresponding mould was
made and a piece of thermoformed glass
fashioned by placing it in the kiln and controlling the temperature curve.
The results were several pieces of voluminous glass.
The workshop was taught by Daniel Orquin,
glass artist and technician at the Fundació
Centre del Vidre in Barcelona, where the
workshop took place.
Blown glass
Blown glass technique consists in blowing a
mass of molten glass in a crucible at 1200° C
through a tube by blowing inside it, which
generates volume.
The mass of glass is plastic and expands according to the force of the air introduced.
It forms a bubble of glass and different shapes
can be achieved.
When blowing air, the technician or artisan
works the glass globe by spinning a rod and
uses tongs to extract the glass paste onto wood
or marble surfaces to shape the hot mass.
When the piece is achieved, it is separated
from the rod with a blade.
A kiln for casting glass was set up at the Escola
Massana.
The students experimented with glass blowing
to build empty volumes of air without moulds.
In this workshop, the project was intuitive and
students worked sensitively, finding shapes
and developing ideas creatively.
Given the students’ different levels, there was
a good deal of collaboration among them to
create a very active and dynamic working environment and sense of group.
The workshop’s output was very large; each
student made many pieces, some of which were
very interesting from an experimental and creative standpoint.
Glass can be blown in the air or inside a mould.
Solid glass forms can also be made by removing
them from the kiln with another rod or tube
and modelling them with tongs.
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The workshop was taught by Ferran Collado,
an expert in many processing techniques, artist
and artisan glassblower.
Engraving sandblasting
Engraving through sandblasting consists in
eroding a glass surface with the help of blasted
pressure.
A compressor and tool in the shape of a thin
tube can be used to sandblast the glass surface.
By eliminating the transparency of the glass,
its surface is modified, obtaining effects of
opacity and transparency, such as matt tones
or different tones or shades, so that drawings
based on these transparent and translucent
effects and textures can be created.
With the help of a self-adhesive plastic sheet
or elastic paints, reserves can be made and the
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shapes uncovered, generating a specific pattern
that is etched on the glass.
After engraving, it is revealed by eliminating
the adhesive or paint.
The students experimented with this technique
and made freehand designs, according to their
designs on the flat, transparent glass.
The results were prints. The workshop was
supervised by Professor Jordi Vidal, engraver,
stained glassmaker and expert in various technical glass processing processes, artisanglassblower, artist and owner of the Vidalglass company where the engraving workshop was held.
Lectures
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A series of lectures on the different applications of glass was also offered.
• Architecture. Glass facades. The role of glass as a structural element.
This lecture was given by Xavier Ferrer, architect, construction glass expert
and professor at the Escola Massana.
• Art, design and crafts. The lecturer was Jesús Ángel Prieto, bachelor of
art history and specialist in the study of craft and its relationship to art
and design.
• Glass design. Sandra Moneny, bachelor of fine arts and an expert in glass.
She works on her own creations and industrial processes.
• Glass and jewellery. Nutopia is a company devoted to creating with glass.
Nuria Torrente, David Hierro and Esther Hierro work in various fields of
creative, artistic objects, especially jewellery.
• Vidrioh! Presentation and communication. Alessandro Rancati, architect
and founder of the Dirección creativa company in Barcelona, creator and
director of the virtual magazine Vidrioh! explains the particular features
of communication in art, design and glass crafts.
• The creative process. Tom Carr holds a bachelor’s degree and doctorate
in fine arts and is a sculptor and artist. He works on public spaces and
explores the concept of time and space. His lecture delves into the creative
process. He also analyses the use of light as a material in artistic creation.
MASTER CLASS ON WOOD
The Wood Master Class was organised in Finland, in the region of Ostrobothnia, which
has historically been known for its wood sector, especially shipbuilding and furniture.
The Wood Master Class was inspired by the Finnish woodworking and design tradition
motivated by nature. The students visited museums and spent time outdoors observing
nature (e.g., a winter walk from the workshop space to the museum).
The students were also introduced to Finnish design and consumer behaviour and
orientation in order to provide them with a more realistic viewpoint of market situations
and thus, better preconditions for creating lucrative products. This created a unique
space and starting point for the design and artisan students’ work. After the in-depth
introduction, each team of artisan/designers headed to work.
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The work process revealed the two professions’ diverse natures, which made the
experiment successful. The differences could be seen e.g., in the two groups’ work styles
and thought patterns. The design students were more abstract, descriptive and comfortable
with more time spent on discussions; the artisan students had a hands-on approach to
practices: they wanted to dive into action. However, this difference did not seem to create
any problems and the students learnt from each other. It was not the outcome of the
final product, but the development and the learning process that was important. It also
better prepared students for professional situations and challenges. Indeed, we found
that these kinds of learning-by-doing experiments are of great interest in educating
future professionals. Although the workshops can only take place on a yearly basis, they
will be first time experiences for the students. This is just the start and it will be curious
to see further adaptations and developments in Wood Master Classes.
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Beehive light
is connected to the candle holder. This proves
to be more sensitive by connecting different
lighting methods.
Process / concept
Work group: Alan Zinchi (Italy, craft) and Sujeong
Han (Finland, design).
Material: Wood. A reinterpretation of the beehive, a structure made of wooden, honeycombshaped battens.
Hypothesis
Beekeepers draw honey from honeycombs that
are taken from hives. Likewise, people can draw
inspiration from beekeepers and generate light
using honeycomb products.
The target is the international market that needs
more sensitive lighting.
Project
Beehive light provides two kinds of lighting methods: one is a more traditional way with the
honeycomb as a candleholder as if wax were
being extracted for candles, and the other is a
more contemporary manner with bulbs. Each
bulb generates a light spot from each honeycomb,
projecting a honeycomb-shaped beam.
Each way of lighting can have a remote control
to switch the LED light on and off or dim it, that
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Analysis of light development: candle, bulb and
lead. Sketches and drawings. Carving, Cutting
wood battens, fitting the lights, burning and
painting wood, monitoring the small lights and
candles.
Skills / techniques
Wooden honeycomb-shaped battens form a
structure to reinterpret the hive. Moreover,
carving, pyrography and painting are used for
the wood finish and LED lamps are used as an
effective light source.
Results in products / Results in process
Beehive products for lighting: a light from the
beehive.
Why would I buy it?
- Simple design, matches any style of home
- Functional on both sides, up and down the
wooden honeycomb
- Lightweight and shape
- Sensitive light
Conclusion
The spirit of this project is very Finnish, so it
came quite as a surprise to see that the author
is from South Korea. This is definitive proof of
the relevance of such professional, cross-cultural
projects.
Process / concept
The object was composed of 3 main elements:
leaves, the central section and the supporting stem.
We designed the most secure box for transport,
since we care about our precious work.
Fruitful Experience
in Design
Skills / techniques
The leaves were made out of wenge wood that
benefit from the strong effect of the pattern.
We also came up with a multi-plan shape to get
a more realistic shape.
The central part was made out of teak and has
notches that enable the stems to support the
leaves properly.
Work group: Radu Nechifor (Romania, craft) and
Paolo Rovere (Italy, design).
The stems were designed to balance the generally
curved lines with straight ones, but also to be
able to bear the weight of the whole object.
Material: Wood. Local wood and wenge.
Results in products / Results in process
Hypothesis
Final concept: a fruit bowl.
The handmaking process is time intensive.
Starting idea - “sedonars” - cutlery trays.
After brainstorming kitchen utensils, the team
decided to change the utility of the main object
of inspiration (from cutlery, trays to fruit basket),
but stick to the original design.
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Conclusion
Project
Exchanging experiences about different traditional objects from the participating countries learning from others about special craft techniques and use of materials.
The designing process was lengthy, but we eventually obtained the basic shape that would lead
the team to the final object: the leaf.
Collecting opinions and suggestions about the
way designers can manipulate the utility or visual
elements of traditional objects.
Kaiku
cheese is prepared with an interesting system
made of hot stones inserted inside the kaiku.
The shepherd dips these stones into the milk
to make it boil and lend it the occasional burnt
flavour.
Project
The project aim to publicise the kaiku bowl so
as to make it known to a larger public for modern use.
Work group: Julien Descherre (France, craft)
and Maite Fuentes Liberal (Spain, design).
Material: Wood. A local wood: birch. A local
technique: steam-bent wood.
Hypothesis
Kaiku is the Basque name of the product selected, a recipient make of birch wood measuring
15.5 cm x 26.5 cm. It is part of the traditional
culture of the Basque-Navarre zone in Northern
Spain. This tradition displays find a clear vocation for livestock activities. These objects were
used by shepherds for milking and at the same
time for making cottage cheese and cheese. The
shepherds used to handle dairy products with
different recipients (kaikus) that have been
handmade ever since the Bronze Age.
The kaiku is by far the most complex, distinctive
recipient in Europe because of its typology.
Kaikus are made in one piece, with an inclinable
axle that makes milking easier because of its
flexibility. They can hold between 3 and 12 litres.
That milk is used for making curd. This cottage
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Culture worth/cultural value, simplicity, double
function, made in one piece, ergonomic, resistant, region, north of Spain, Basque Navarre,
work technique, birch wood. The outside is
worked with an axe and the wood is bent to
create the handle. The inside is emptied out
with a special knife. The people who make
kaikus, formerly shepherds and today artisans,
addressed the main functional issue: no one
milks by hand today, because the material is
not hygienic.
Market problems
People only buy it as an ornamental object.
You can buy it only in the rural zones of Basque
Navarre.
Size (very big).
The object is carefully designed, which is why
it is difficult to make variations.
It is not stackable.
Sketches / drawings
Mock-up & cutting of veneer leafs (1.2 - 3 mm)
with a band saw and plane.
Bending birch veneer in a warm water bath,
finding rough solutions in order to settle problems (salvaged materials).
Do-it-yourself process (material required: a
shower, a kettle, and some clamps, etc...).
Fixing forms with straps and waiting for them
to dry.
Skills / techniques
Preparing the wood for work and using machines
Carving...
Difficulties in carving and turning: hardness of
birch wood, lack of appropriate tools to speed
up the carving process, designer’s lack of carving skills.
Results in products / Results in process
Final concept: a set of stackable bowls.
Why would I buy it?
- Simple design, matches any house style
- Functional on both sides
- Lightweight and easy to clean
Conclusion
It would be better to know the materials and
techniques that will be used before designing.
Designers have a broader capacity to conceive
small changes that can improve a product in many
aspects: aesthetically, conceptually, practicality
and functionally etc. Artisans have a better understanding of the piece. When a modification is
suggested, they immediately know how to proceed, which tools to use and which design proposals are impossible to realise by hand.
The “Comtoise”
(or clock from Franche Comté)
Work group: Reinhold Lutz (Finland, craft) and
Julie Duverne (France, design).
Material: Wood. 1 local wood (spruce). 2 local
wood (birch).
Hypothesis
“La Comtoise”, date: 17 th century, region: Franche Comté - France.
Description: clock with a solid wooden box (fir
is the most traditional material). Pendulum and
dial in metal.
Use: it was the only clock in 17 th century farmhouses, so it needed to be loud, which is why
they used to be made of solid, carved wood. It
is not just a clock, but a large piece of furniture
set in the dining room.
Project
- To keep the shape of the clock, which is its
key feature
- To revive the Comtoise clock
- To use local wood (spruce)
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- To select the wood
- To conceive the use
- The French should be able to distinguish the
original shape in the final product
Process / concept
Analysis: head = dial, body = pendulum, and
sound box, feet = storage space
Features: solid - stable - marked identity
Shape: big size - colossal - loud noise - seems
unshakable - local wood
Wood working: graphism & wood. Use the end
grain of pine to take advantage the pattern.
Find a different way of setting out the wood.
Skills / techniques
Step 1: Draw the product scale 1:1.
Step 2: Cut and get pieces ready for gluing.
Step 3: Glue the pieces.
Step 4: Glue with the hydraulic press.
Step 5: Cut the pieces.
Step 6: Clean the piece before assembling.
Step 7: Assemble with glue and biscuits.
Step 8: Round of the side.
Step 9: Finish with wax.
Results in products / Results in process
Final concept: to create a portable clock.
Main features:
- Shape: universal and feminine
- Thinness of the wall clock
- Relief created by the grooves
- A clock and a pendulum
- The pendulum generates noise by rubbing
against the groove
Why would I buy this piece of furniture?
- Suited to modern interiors
- Multi-purpose pieces of furniture
- Cultural value due to the silhouette and use.
Why would I buy it this piece of furniture?
-
Suited to modern interiors
Universal, timeless shape
Cultural value due to the woods
Noise generated by rubbing
Good points
- Different points of views which make the
project more interesting
- Two different backgrounds
- Craftsman meets design
- The designer learns the craft process
- Different cultures
Issues encountered during this week
Who decides what between the craftsman and
designer?
How can good and useful collaboration be achieved? Who is who?
who
- Too big of a project for a week
- Several options were left out during the week
Use of burned wood
Use of a painting colour
Use of veneer
Process / concept
Features: two bowls with a double function.
They can be used separately for tapas or any
other type of food. The handle is inspired by
Finnish sauna buckets. Birch wood for the bowls
and teak wood for the handle.
Tapas board
Skills / techniques
Prepare the wood to work and use the machines.
Carving...
Difficulties with carving and turning: hardness
of birch wood, lack of appropriate tools to speed
up the carving process and the designer’s lack
of carving experience.
Results in products / Results in process
Final concept: a set of stackable bowls.
Why would I buy it?
Work group: Emil Roata (Romania, design) and
Ana Schleicher (Spain, craft).
Material: Wood. Birch and teak wood.
Hypothesis
Traditional tapas board. Strong social value:
the time we spend with friends and family sharing food.
Project
Changes were introduced by agreement between
the artisan and the designer: The pieces ranged
from an uneven tray with food holders to a set
of stacking bowls.
50
- Simple design, matches any house style
- Functional on both sides
- Lightweight and easy to clean
Proposals
It would be better to know the materials and
techniques that will be used before designing
begins. Designers have a broader capacity to
conceive of small changes that can improve
many aspects of a product: aesthetically, conceptually, commodity of use and function, etc.
Artisans have a better understanding of the
piece. When a modification is suggested, they
immediately know how to proceed, which tools
to use and which design proposals are impossible to realise by hand.
PARTNERS OF THE PROJECT
Institut National des Métiers d’Art
The Institut National des Métiers d’Art (National
Institute of Art Trades - INMA) is under the
double guardianship of the Secretary of State in
charge of commerce and the craft industry, SME,
tourism, free professions and consumer affairs,
and the Minister of Culture and Communication.
This unique interdepartmental structure for
referral for métiers of art has 4 principle missions:
• to develop an expertise on craftsmen and their
savoir-faire (know-how).
• to lead the networks of craftsmen together
52
with all the institutional actors and professionals.
• to develop the promotion of craftsmen nationally and internationally.
• to explore new realms of cultural development
and interactions in the domains of fine art, design and fashion.
The INMA played the role of coordinator for the
project DREAM and participated in the realization of the actions as the research on natural
fibers, glass and wood, and in the creation of
the online virtual gallery.
Fundación Española para la Innovación de la Artesanía
The Fundación Española para la Innovación de
la Artesanía (Spanish Foundation for Innovation
in Crafts) - Fundesarte - is a national public
foundation that was created in 1981. It is a nonprofit organisation attached to the Directorate
General for SME Policy of the Spanish Ministry
for Industry, Tourism and Trade. Fundesarte’s
mission is to work together with administrations
and artisans for the promotion, professionalization and success of small crafts enterprises
within the framework of State public policies
for SMEs. Its programmes are innovationoriented so as to help tackle the new situations
the market now requires.
Its values are:
• To seek and promote QUALITY, personalisation and exclusivity in crafts products.
• To focus the value of CRAFTS on their
DIFFERENCES: their origins lie in tradition
and their future in innovation. Crafts are
culture, knowledge, singularity, image and
sustainability; they are communication;
they are identity.
• To demonstrate that crafts are synonymous with identity and SUSTAINABILITY.
• To seek out CLOSE COLLABORATION
with cultural identities and innovation. The
foundations of tradition as roots for the
future.
In this project, Fundesarte plays a role in research and experimentation by organizing a Master
Class on the glass sector (in collaboration with
the Escola Massana) and the iconographic and
historical research on the wood, natural fibre
and glass sectors aimed at the online virtual
gallery.
53
Osservatorio dei Mestieri d'Arte
The Osservatorio dei Mestieri d'Arte (Observatory of Craftsmen - OMA) was born in 2006 upon
the initiative of the Savings Bank of Florence.
The Osservatorio Mestieri d'Arte is an ensemble
made up of projects developed in the initiatives
sector of the Savings Bank of Florence, oriented
towards the safeguarding and tutelage of historic
and artistic heritage and savoir-faire.
A series of cultural and promotional activities
is registered at the Observatory that aim at
awareness, information, research, discussion of
territorial identity and promoting the sector of
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métiers of art, the creation of a capable national
and European network of institutions to encourage the comprehension of diverse cultural identities, as well as the in-depth examinations of
themes such as the quality productions, the
economy and training.
In this project, the Fondazione per il clima e la
sostenibilità per OmA plays a research and experimentation role by organizing a Master Class
on the natural fibre sector and historical, iconographic research on the wood, natural fibre and
glass sectors in order to create the online virtual
gallery.
Western Finland Design Centre - MUOVA
Muova is a research and development centre of
the University of Art and Design Helsinki and
the University of Vaasa. MUOVA is a governmental, non-profit organization, funded in 1988.
- Muova offers design, research and training
services.
- Muova specializes in increasing competitiveness including that of the companies.
- Muova combines multidisciplinary applied
research, innovative methods and a consumer
oriented approach.
- Muova has developed expertise in brand and
design management, creativity, usercenteredness and design.
- Muova has executed more than 200 projects
with different companies.
In this project, MUOVA plays a research and
experimentation role of by organising a Master
Class in the wood sector and historical, iconographic research on the wood, natural fibre and
glass sectors in order to create the online virtual
gallery.
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Complexul National Muzeal Astra
ASTRA is a group of museums created in 2001,
having as core one of the largest open air museums in Europe (about 96 ha and 335 monuments and preindustrial installations) that traces
its origin back in 1963.
and visual anthropology.
The nowadays Complex of Museums from Sibiu
is made up of 4 units, of different profiles: ASTRA
Museum of Traditional Folk Civilization- the
open-air museum, the Museum of Transylvanian
Civilization, Franz Binder Museum of Universal
Ethnography and Emil Sigerus Museum of Saxon
Ethnography and Folk Art.
Besides its impressive collections that illustrate
the tangible cultural heritage ASTRA Museum
undertakes a broad Program- “Living Human
Treasures” whose main goal is to hand down to
young generations the authentic cultural traditions.
Important supporting departments include: Conservation and Restoration Centre (Astra Centre
for heritage), ASTRA Museum Publishing House,
Marketing and Public Relation Office and ASTRA
Film, an important centre for documentary film
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ASTRA gathers about 185.825 cultural goods
(heritage objects) divided in specific collections,
according to region or ethnical groups.
As a partner in the DREAM project ASTRA Museum brings its expertise on traditional arts and
crafts, having an important input in the research
field as well as in the emergence of a new generation of artists that will blend tradition and
innovation.
Agence pour la promotion de la création industrielle
The Agence pour la promotion de la création
industrielle (APCI) promotes design and a usercentred approach as key factors in the technical,
economical and social innovation processes,
oriented towards the quality of life and respect
for sustainable development.
It works with companies, groups and NGOs of
all sizes to:
• Increase their awareness of design and
accompany them in their design strategy.
• Promote their design items through the
“Observeur du Design” award, exhibited in
a science and industry museum in Paris.
• Inform them through its website and the
Panorama/Guide to design in Europe.
• Offer to help them participate in French
pavilions and delegations abroad during
targeted events.
APCI develops projects to help craftspeople innovate through collaborating with designers in
France and participates in the development and
implementation of global design policies in several countries.
APCI is a nonprofit organization that acts synergistically with the networks of design and innovation stakeholders.
In this program, APCI plays a role by contributing
its expertise and participating in reflection on
design and industrial creation.
57
CONTACTS
PROJECT LEADER
Institut National des Métiers d’Art (INMA)
23, avenue Daumesnil - 75012 Paris (France)
Phone: +331 55 78 85 89
Fax: +331 55 78 86 17
www.institut-metiersdart.org
PARTNERS
Fundación Española para la Innovación
de la Artesanía (Fundesarte)
C/ General Zabala 12 - 28002 Madrid (Spain)
Phone: +34 91 561 02 62
Fax: +34 91 563 37 88
www.fundesarte.org
Osservatorio Mestieri d'Arte (OMA)
Ente Cassa di Risparmio di Firenze
Via Bufalini, 6 - 50122 Firenze (Italia)
Phone: + 39 055 5384966
Fax: +39 338 5317014
www.osservatoriomestieridarte.it
Aalto University School of Art and Design
University of Vaasa
Western Finland Design Centre MUOVA
Wolffintie 36 F 11 - 65200 Vaasa (Finland)
Phone: +358 6†357 6330
Fax: +358 6†312 8664
www.muova.fi
58
Complexul National Muzeal Astra
11 Piata Mica - 550182 Sibiu (Romania)
Phone: +40 269 218195
Fax: +40 269 218060
www.muzeulastra.ro
Agence pour la promotion de la
création industrielle (APCI)
24 rue du charolais - 75012 Paris (France)
Phone : +33 (0)1 43 45 04 50
www.apci.asso.fr
MASTER CLASS ON NATURAL FIBRES - FLORENCE
Tutors
Irma Schwegler
Artisan /Dressmaker and Taylor
www.oldfashionsartoria.com
Daniele Davitti
Designer / Performer
www.danieledavitti.it
Marie Astier
Old Fashion Sartoria
www.la-tana-artigiana.com
Costanza Menchi
Italian Fashion Research Consultant
www.costanzamenchi.it
Laura Bacci
Cnr Istituto Ibimet
www.ibimet.cnr.it
[email protected]
Verónica Villalón Gordón - Spain
[email protected]
Participants
MASTER CLASS ON GLASS - BARCELONA
Katja Virta - Finland
[email protected]
Anziza Mohamadi - France
[email protected]
Emeline Raphanaud - France
[email protected]
Sara Albertazzi - Italy
[email protected]
Ester Cellucci- Italy
[email protected]
Luisa Salvioli - Italy
[email protected]
Aniela Hanciuc - Romania
[email protected]
Anamaria Silea Sut Romania
[email protected]
Tutors
Xema Vidal
Director of the Master Class
Escola Massana
www.escolamassana.es
Xavier Ferrés
Escola Massana
www.escolamassana.es
Jesús Angel Prieto
Escola Massana
www.escolamassana.es
Daniel Orquin
Fundació Centre del Vidre Barcelona
www.fcv-bcn.org
Sandra Moneny
Artist / researcher
www.sandramoneny.com
María Arroyo Marín - Spain
59
Pere Valldepérez
Escola Massana
www.escolamassana.es
Jordi Vidal
Vidalglass
www.vidalglass.com
Sandrine Isambert - France
[email protected]
Simon Muller - France
[email protected]
Sofía Villamarín - Italy
[email protected]
Nuria Torrente and David Hierro
Nutopia
www.nutopia.es
Ileana Simona Mircea - Romania
[email protected]
Philippa Beveridge
www.philippa-beveridge.com
Olivia Smadu - Romania
[email protected]
Ferran Collado
Vidres Collado
www.vidrescollado.com
Tess Hill Orero - Spain
[email protected]
Alessandro Rancati
vidrioh!
www.vidrioh.com
Andrea Pizarro Vilchez - Spain
[email protected]
María Castro Zuzuárregui - Spain
[email protected]
Participants
MASTER CLASS ON WOOD - VAASA
60
Tommi Moilanen - Finland
[email protected]
Tutors
Erno Takala - Finland
[email protected]
Paola Cabrera Viancha
Consultant: Strategic design
or the craft sector
http://paolacabreraviancha.com
Radu Nechifor - Romania
[email protected]
Teres Paronen - Craft Tutor
www.yrkesakademin.fi
Emil Roata - Romania
[email protected]
Sofia Dahl - Craft Tutor
www.yrkesakademin.fi
Maite Fuentes Liberal - Spain
[email protected]
Participants
Ana Schleicher Puiggròs - Spain
[email protected]
Reinhold Lutz - Finland
[email protected]
Sujeong Han - Finland
[email protected]
Julien Descherre - France
[email protected]
Julie Duverne - France
[email protected]
Alan Zinchi - Italy
[email protected]
Paolo Rovere - Italy
[email protected]
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Design Recherche Europe Art Métiers
(research on design, crafts & applied arts in europe)