Worksheets - Colegio de la Asunción

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Worksheets - Colegio de la Asunción
158225_Portadilla.pdf 16/3/09 10:33:18
Reinforcement and Extension
Worksheets
Science, Geography and History
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The Reinforcement and Extension Worksheets for Essential Science, Science,Geography
and History for Year 5 of Primary Education are a collective work, conceived,
designed and created by the Primary Education department at Santillana,
under the supervision of José Tomas Henao and Javier Pérez rubalcaba
Contributing author: Lesley Thompson
Editors: Martin Minchom, Sheila Klaiber
Illustrations: Jorge Salas
Art Director: José Crespo
Design coordinator: Rosa Marín
Cover design: Martín León Barreto
Artwork coordinator: Carlos Aguilera
Coordinator design development: Javier Tejeda
Design development: José Luis García and Raúl de Andrés
Technical director: Angel García Encinar
Technical coordinators: Fernando Carmona, Marisa Valbuena
Layout: Alfonso García, Pedro Valencia
Research and photographic selection: Amparo Rodriguez
Photographs: C. Suárez; Carlos Jiménez/photoAlquimia; GARCÍA-PELAYO/Juancho; I. Rovira;
J. C. Muñoz; J. I. Medina; J. Jaime; MICROS/J. M. Blanco; J. Lucas; J. M.ª Escudero; J. V. Resino;
Krauel; L. M. Iglesias; Larrión-Pimoulier; M. Blanco; M. San Félix; O. Torres; ORONOZ; P. Esgueva;
P. López; Prats i Camps; S. Enríquez; S. Padura; TERRANOVA INTERPRETACIÓN Y GESTION
AMBIENTAL; A. G. E. FOTOSTOCK/Science Source; ARCHIVO SAHATS/Domench - Azpilicueta;
DIGITAL BANK; EFE/Dennis M. Sabangan; EFE/SIPA-PRESS/Letterio Pomara, R. L.; GETTY IMAGES
SALES SPAIN; HIGHRES PRESS STOCK/AbleStock.com; I. Preysler; J. M.ª Barres; JOHN FOXX IMAGES;
MUSEUM ICONOGRAFÍA/J. Martin; O. Daidola; PHOTODISC; SEIS X SEIS/D. Lezama; Armand ColinVéronèse; BIBLIOTECA NACIONAL DE ESPAÑA/Laboratorio Biblioteca Nacional; I. Nieva; MATTON-BILD;
REAL ACADEMIA ESPAÑOLA DE LA LENGUA, MADRID; SERIDEC PHOTOIMAGENES CD; ARCHIVO
SANTILLANA
© 2009 by Santillana Educación, S. L. / Richmond Publishing
Torrelaguna, 60. 28043 Madrid
Richmond Publishing is an imprint
of Santillana Educación, S. L.
Richmond Publishing
26-28 Hammersmith Grove
London W6 7BA
United Kingdom
PRINTED IN SPAIN
CP: 158225
D.L.:
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission in writing of
the publisher.
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Contents
Page
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Reinforcement Worksheets
11 Living things ...........................................
12 Plants ....................................................
13 Invertebrates...........................................
14 Vertebrates .............................................
15 Nutrition .................................................
16 Matter.....................................................
17 The atmosphere......................................
18 The landscape ........................................
19 Rivers .....................................................
10 Population ..............................................
11 The economy ..........................................
12 Prehistory and Antiquity ..........................
13 The Middle Ages .....................................
4
6
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10
12
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24
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Extension Worksheets
11 Living things ...........................................
12 Plants .....................................................
13 Invertebrates...........................................
14 Vertebrates .............................................
15 Nutrition .................................................
16 Matter.....................................................
17 The atmosphere......................................
18 The landscape ........................................
19 Rivers .....................................................
10 Population ..............................................
11 The economy ..........................................
12 Prehistory and Antiquity ..........................
13 The Middle Ages .....................................
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
Answer Key ..................................................
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1 Living things
REINFORCEMENT
1. Name three living and three non-living things.
a. Three living things:
b. Three non-living things:
2. Match the two columns.
a. Nutrition
1. Living things react to their environments.
b. Sensitivity
2. Living things have offspring.
c. Reproduction
3. Living things eat food, which contains nutrients.
3. Use these words to complete the sentences.
unicellular
a.
wall
multicellular
membrane
cytoplasm
nucleus
cells
are the smallest living units in a living thing.
b. Living things which are made up of a single cell are
.
c. Living things which are made up of many cells are
.
d. The
is the covering around the cell.
e. The
is the part which controls the cell.
f.
is between the nucleus and the membrane.
g. Plant cells also have a hard cell
around the membrane.
4. Label this cell.
cytoplasm
nucleus
membrane
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ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 ◾ PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S. L.
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REINFORCEMENT
5. Match the characteristics to the kingdom.
Animals
1. They make their own food.
2. They have roots in
the ground.
Plants
3. They have a nervous system
and sense organs.
4. They depend on other
organisms for food.
Fungi
5. They can move from one
place to another.
6. They eat other living things.
6. Answer the questions.
a. How are fungi and plants similar?
b. How are fungi and animals similar?
ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 ◾ PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S. L.
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2 Plants
REINFORCEMENT
1. Find 12 words and complete the sentences.
G
Y
M
N
O
S
P
E
R
M
S
F
L
O
W
E
R
I
N
G
O
N
G
E
S
P
N
W
L
K
N
I
U
K
C
S
H
A
D
E
V
G
S
T
V
F
E
R
N
S
O
L
A
T
R
P
R
S
O
L
T
E
G
K
U
I
W
U
A
O
D
E
W
X
V
R
E
L
I
O
T
V
M
C
K
P
E
N
G
T
N
S
L
E
A
V
E
S
T
A
N
G
I
O
S
P
E
R
M
S
a. The
of a plant are in the soil.
b. The
supports the leaves.
c. Water and
are transported
from the roots to the leaves inside the stem.
d. The
breathe and make
the plant’s food.
e.
plants are the biggest
group of plants.
f.
have small flowers
.
but no
g.
have flowers and fruit.
h. Non-flowering plants need
and
i.
.
are small plants
which live on rocks and trees.
j.
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have big leaves.
ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 ◾ PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S. L.
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REINFORCEMENT
2. Use the words to label the illustration of plant nutrition.
elaborated sap
carbon dioxide
leaf
oxygen
raw sap
roots
stem
water and
dissolved minerals
3. Circle the correct option.
a. Flowers are the nutritional / reproductive organs of plants.
b. The stamens are the male / female parts which produce pollen.
c. Tiny pollen grains form on the stamens / petals.
d. Respiration / Pollination is the movement of pollen from the stamens to the ovary.
e. The ovary / corolla is the female part which contains ovules.
f. Sunlight / Wind can carry pollen to other plants.
g. After pollination, the ovary / calyx grows and becomes a fruit with seeds.
h. When seeds germinate, they open / close and small roots grow.
4. Label these stems: tubers, bulbs or stolens.
a
b
c
ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 ◾ PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S. L.
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3 Invertebrates
REINFORCEMENT
1. Complete the text about invertebrates.
Invertebrates are animals which do not have a (a.)
(b.)
or a
. Most invertebrates are very (c.)
,
but some are enormous. Most are (d.)
, but some have
irregular bodies. Many invertebrate bodies are protected by (e.)
or (f.)
. Invertebrates are (g.)
;
a larva hatches from an egg.
2. Identify the invertebrate groups.
a
b
c
d
e
f
3. Name the invertebrates.
a. Invertebrates you have seen:
b. Invertebrates you have eaten:
c. Invertebrates which can sting you:
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REINFORCEMENT
4. Which invertebrate group is being described?
a. They have soft bodies. Many are covered by shells.
b. They are marine animals with jelly-like bodies and tentacles.
c. They are covered by a hard exoskeleton.
d. They have irregular bodies and cannot move.
e. They have long, soft bodies. Many are parasites.
5. Label the parts of this arthropod.
6. Match the columns.
1. Their bodies are divided into three parts.
2. They have ten or more legs.
Arachnids
3. They have long bodies with many legs.
Crustaceans
4. The thorax has six legs.
Insects
5. They are the most numerous arthropod group.
Myriapods
6. They have eight legs.
7. The head has one pair of short antennae.
8. The body is divided into the abdomen
and the cephalothorax.
ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 ◾ PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S. L.
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4 Vertebrates
REINFORCEMENT
1. Find 8 words in the wordsearch.
P
R
I
M
A
T
E
S
U
A
L
V
D
O
L
P
H
I
N
S
L
P
M
N
L
M
S
L
G
E
I
V
L
K
S
R
L
S
U
V
O
E
L
E
L
E
S
P
L
L
N
S
A
Y
Z
E
B
R
A
S
S
S
P
S
M
S
R
F
T
M
C
A
R
N
I
V
O
R
E
S
C
E
T
A
C
E
A
N
S
A
2. Complete the table. Use words from the wordsearch.
Mammal group
Example
A characteristic
They have no hair.
3. Circle the correct option.
a. The bodies of reptiles are covered with fur / scales.
b. Reptiles are warm-blooded / cold-blooded animals.
c. All reptiles breathe through their lungs / gills.
d. Reptiles are oviparous / viviparous.
e. Most reptiles are herbivores / carnivores.
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REINFORCEMENT
4. Identify the reptile groups.
a
b
c
d
5. Which reptile group is being described?
a. They have a shell to protect their body.
b. They have very short legs, and they crawl.
c. They have long bodies with no limbs, and they slither.
d. They spend a lot of time in water, and they use their large teeth to capture their
prey.
6. True or false? Decide and write T or F.
a. A fish’s body is covered with thin, shiny scales.
b. Fish use their gills to swim.
c. Fish and amphibians are oviparous.
d. Sharks are bony fish.
e. Amphibians stay in or near water to keep their skin dry.
f. Amphibians without tails have a long body and four similar limbs.
g. Amphibians without tails have long, strong back legs and a long tongue
they use to catch their prey.
ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 ◾ PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S. L.
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5 Nutrition
REINFORCEMENT
1. Answer the questions.
a. What are nutrients?
b. What are the two types of carbohydrates? What do they give us?
c. Why do we need proteins?
d. How does fibre help us?
e. What is chyme?
2. Use these words to label the excretory system.
bladder
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kidneys
renal artery
renal vein
ureters
urethra
ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 ◾ PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S. L.
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REINFORCEMENT
3. Match the columns. Then answer the question.
a. We breathe
1. and passes through the pharynx.
b. Air enters through the nose
2. and into each lung.
c. From the pharynx, the air
3. the bronchi divide into bronchioles.
d. Next, it goes to the bronchi
4. are the alveoli.
e. In the lungs,
5. to obtain oxygen from the air.
f. At the end of the bronchioles,
6. goes to the larynx and the trachea.
• What happens in the alveoli?
4. Use these words to complete the sentences.
systemic circulation
pulmonary circulation
blood vessels
arteries
capillaries
veins
circulation
a.
is the movement of blood through the circulatory system.
b.
are tubes which transport blood.
c.
are the blood vessels which carry blood away from the heart.
d.
are the blood vessels which carry blood into the heart.
e.
are tiny blood vessels which connect arteries to veins.
f.
is the movement of blood between the heart and the lungs.
g.
is the movement of blood to the rest of the body.
ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 ◾ PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S. L.
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6 Matter
REINFORCEMENT
1. Match the columns.
a. Everything in the universe
1. tiny particles called atoms.
b. Matter is made up of
2. is made of matter.
c. An element is matter which
3. like mass and volume.
d. Mixtures are made up of
4. consists of only one type of atom.
e. A compound is matter which
5. several pure substances.
f. Pure substances are made
up of
6. a single type of element or
compound.
g. All matter has general
properties
7. consists of more than one kind
of atom.
2. Name examples of types of matter.
a. Two examples of pure substances:
b. One example of a mixture:
3. Answer the questions.
a. What is mass?
b. What is volume?
c. What is density?
d. How do we calculate density?
e. What is the density of water?
f. What is the density of iron?
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REINFORCEMENT
4. Complete the sentences about changes in matter.
Contraction Combustion Expansion Fragmentation Oxidation Putrefaction
a.
: one substance changes into another when it reacts with oxygen.
b.
: the object is divided into small pieces.
c.
: this occurs when a living thing decomposes.
d.
: when the temperature of an object increases, it gets bigger.
e.
: when the temperature of an object decreases, it gets smaller.
f.
: when an object or a substance is burned, it changes into
another substance.
5. Tick (✓) the properties of each state of matter.
Fixed volume
No fixed volume
Fixed shape
No fixed shape
solids
liquids
gases
6. Identify these changes in state.
Then write the word.
2
1
3
4
a. A solid changes into a gas:
b. A solid changes into a liquid:
c. A gas changes into a liquid:
d. A liquid changes into a gas:
ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 ◾ PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S. L.
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7 The atmosphere
REINFORCEMENT
1. Tick (✓) the true sentences.
a. The atmosphere is the wind which surrounds the Earth.
b. Air is mainly made up of carbon dioxide and oxygen.
c. Ozone filters harmful ultraviolet rays.
d. The troposphere is the lowest layer of the atmosphere.
e. Plants and animals live in the troposphere.
f. The stratosphere is the next layer.
g. The thin layer of ozone in the upper statosphere is called outer space.
2. Complete
the paragraph
on the water
cycle.
The water cycle is the constant
of water
between the sea, the
and land.
1. Liquid water in the sea
the
because of heat from
. It becomes
2. Water vapour rises and
form
.
into drops of water which
.
3. Water falls from the clouds as
.
4. This water filters into the land and also forms rivers and lakes and some returns
to the
5. The
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.
starts again.
ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 ◾ PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S. L.
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REINFORCEMENT
3. Match the columns.
a. Waves
1. are the rise and fall of the sea level.
b. Tides
2. are the movement of large masses of ocean water.
c. Ocean currents
3. are the rise and fall of the water’s surface.
• What causes tides?
4. Answer the questions.
a. What is magma?
b. What is lava?
c. What do you see in these photographs?
5. Look for examples of the damage done by earthquakes or erosion in your area
or on the Internet. Describe what you see.
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8 The landscape
REINFORCEMENT
1. Circle the correct option.
a. All the features of the Earth’s surface make up the geosphere / landscape.
b. Hills have a lower / higher altitude than mountains.
c. Several mountains grouped together are called a mountain range / chain.
d. A plateau is a plain at a low / high altitude.
2. Find 10 words in the wordsearch. Then complete the sentences.
B
F
P
G
X
M
D
J
A
a. The
E
U
D
U
V
A
B
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A
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A
c. High coasts have rocky
.
is almost completely surrounded by water.
is completely surrounded by water.
f. An
is a group of islands.
h. An
C
O
A
S
T
P
X
F
O
.
e. An
g. A
Q
D
D
F
X
G
B
F
G
is the place where the land meets the sea.
b. Low-lying coasts have sandy
d. A
E
E
S
T
U
A
R
Y
P
is wet land near the mouth of a river.
is the part of a river which opens into the sea.
i. A
is land which extends into the sea.
j. A
is a place where the sea extends into the land.
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REINFORCEMENT
3. Label these places on the map.
• Central Plateau
• Pyrenees
• Gualdalquivir depression
• Atlantic coast
• Cantabrian coast
• Mediterranean coast
• Ebro depression
• Canary Islands
• Balearic Islands
• Betic Chain
N
E
W
S
• Indicate where you live on the map.
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Which coast is nearest to your home?
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9 Rivers
REINFORCEMENT
1. Match the columns.
a. A river is
1. artificial lakes.
b. The course is
2. a body of moving water.
c. The flow is
3. the route a river takes.
d. Reservoirs are
4. areas where all the rivers flow into the same sea.
e. Watersheds are
5. the amount of water a river carries.
2. Label the watersheds and the rivers.
• Describe the rivers in each watershed.
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ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 ◾ PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S. L.
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REINFORCEMENT
3. Label the illustration.
polar zone
polar zone
temperate zone
temperate zone
Equator
tropical zone
4. Complete the table on climate in Spain.
Climate
Atlantic
Location
Rainfall
Temperatures
mild
Continental
Mediterranean
Subtropical
5. Answer the questions.
a. What is flora?
b. What is fauna?
c. Investigate one of the National Parks in Europe and write about the climate, the
flora and the fauna there.
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10 Population
REINFORCEMENT
1. Complete the sentences.
a. The population of an area is
.
b. A census measures the size of
.
c. Population can be classified by
.
d. Population density is measured by
2. Classify these causes for migration. Add one more cause to each category:
wars
political problems
droughts
earthquakes
floods religious problems
Natural causes
Social factors
• Are you an immigrant? Do you know any immigrants?
Why did you / they come?
3. Answer the questions.
a. Why did many emigrants leave Europe in the past?
b. Where did they go?
c. Why do many immigrants come to Europe today?
d. Where do they come from?
e. Why do some young European adults emigrate?
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REINFORCEMENT
4. Write about population density in Spain.
The population is not evenly distributed.
• Describe the population density where you live.
Population density
More than 1,000,000
inhabitants
Between 500,000 and
1,000,000 inhabitants
Less than 500,000
inhabitants
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11 The economy
REINFORCEMENT
1. Match the columns.
a. The active population
includes
1. people who work but receive no
money.
b. The primary sector includes
2. is also called the tertiary sector.
c. In the secondary sector
3. fishing and forestry.
d. The service sector
4. natural resources are transformed.
e. Schools and tourism are
5. in the service sector.
f. The inactive population
includes
6. unemployed people who are
looking for work.
2. Classify these means of transport.
a
b
c
d
e
f
Private transport
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Public transport
ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 ◾ PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S. L.
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REINFORCEMENT
3. Find 11 words in the wordsearch and classify them.
Primary sector
F
B
A
N
K
S
I
M
R
H
B
E
G
B
D
F
N
N
E
O
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L
Secondary sector industries
Service sector
4. Answer the questions.
a. What percentage of the Spanish active population works in each sector?
primary:
seconday:
service:
b. Which sector is most important where you live?
c. What kind of work do most of the people do?
5. Write about one of these two kinds of tourism.
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12 Prehistory and Antiquity
REINFORCEMENT
1. Are the sentences true or false? Write T (true) or F (false).
a. Prehistory is the long period before the invention of the wheel.
b. The Stone Age began about five million years ago.
c. In the Palaeolithic period, people moved from place to place.
d. In the Neolithic period, people made pots and cloth.
e. In the Neolithic period, people built the first cities.
f. The Metal Ages began about ten thousand years ago.
g. The wheel and the plough were invented during the Metal Ages.
h. During the Metal Ages, craftsmen made weapons and jewellery.
2. Answer the questions.
a. Where did the Phoenicians come from?
b. Where did the Greeks come from?
c. Where did the Carthaginians come from?
• Colour the Phoenician colonies green, the Greek colonies red, and the
Carthaginian colonies blue. Label them.
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REINFORCEMENT
3. Complete the sentences about Roman times. You can use some of these words.
Carthagians
Greek
Seneca
Trajan
Phoenician
Greeks
Hadrian
Hispania
Latin
Visigoth
a. More than 2,000 years ago, the Romans defeated the
and
conquered the Iberian Peninsula.
b. The Romans called it
.
c. The Carthaginians adopted Roman customs and spoke
d. The emperors
.
and
e. After about 400 A.D.,
were from Hispania.
invaders entered the peninsula.
f. Five cities on the Iberian Peninsula which were founded by the Romans were
4. Identify these examples of Roman archuitecture.
forum
temple
theatre
road
aqueduct
a
b
c
d
e
f
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circus
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13 The Middle Ages
REINFORCEMENT
1. Complete the sentences about the Visigoths.
a. The Visigoths settled in
b. Toledo
c. Later they conquered
d. The Visigoths converted to
e. They based their laws on
f. The Visigoths lived in villages and used the land for
g. They were expert
h. The Visigoth kingdom ended
2. Answer the questions. Then complete the map of the Muslim conquest.
a. When did the Muslim army invade
Visigothic Spain?
b. What did they call Hispania?
c. What do the arrows represent?
d. Where were the three main battles?
Locate them on the map.
e. Where were the independent Christian
territories? Shade them on the map.
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REINFORCEMENT
3. Circle the correct option.
a. The highest authority of the Muslims was the king / caliph.
b. The religion of the Muslims was Latin / Islam.
c. The Christians lived in the countryside / cities in the north of the peninsula.
d. The Muslims built mosques / churches to practise their religion.
e. The first Christian kingdom was in Navarre / Asturias.
f. After the year 1000, Al Andalus broke up into small caliphs / taifas.
g. The Christian kingdoms prospered / weakened.
h. The Catholic Monarch conquered Córdoba / Granada in 1492.
4. Answer the questions.
a. What characterises Gothic arquitecture?
b. Who are these people? Work with a friend.
1
2
3
4
c. Why is the year 1492 so important?
d. Why are the 16th and 17th centuries called the Golden Age of Spain?
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1 Living things
EXTENSION
Bacteria ◆ A bacterium (plural: bacteria) is a member of a large group of organisms which
have cell walls, but not an organised nucleus. Bacteria are usually unicellular. They can live in
different environments such as water, soil, air or inside other living things.
Bacteria are the smallest living things. Most of them are so small that they can only be seen
with a microscope. These bacteria are called micro-organisms or microbes. They often feed
on decaying matter, such as dead animals or plants.
Some bacteria are helpful: for example, they help us to make food. Milk is fermented with
special types of bacteria to make cheese. ‘Good’ bacteria are also used to make yoghurt and
bread. They give a unique texture and taste to the food.
Other bacteria are harmful and can make you ill. Some diseases, such as measles and mumps,
are caused by ‘bad’ bacteria. Bacteria can cause food to decay. If you eat mouldy bread, you
can have stomach problems. Bacteria also cause tooth
decay. We can protect ourselves from harmful bacteria
by washing our hands, cleaning our teeth, and storing
food carefully. We should also be careful how we cook
our food. The bacteria which cause the disease
salmonella can be killed by careful cooking.
Bacteria en yoghurt
1. Answer the questions.
a. How many cells do bacteria usually have?
b. Where do bacteria live?
c. What do you need if you want to see bacteria? Why?
d. What do we call the smallest type of bacteria?
e. What do bacteria feed on?
f. How do we use ‘good’ bacteria?
g. Find examples in the text of illnesses caused by bacteria.
h. How can we fight ‘bad’ bacteria?
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EXTENSION
2. Find words in the text that mean the following:
a. with one cell
e. bad for you
b. places
f. illness
c. going bad
g. with fungus on it
d. special or unusual
h. conserving
3. Complete the text about ‘good’ bacteria.
Some bacteria are harmful and others
.
The good bacteria can be found in
such as
. Bacteria are used in the fermentation of
in order to make
.
4. Write about ‘bad’ bacteria. Include information about problems caused by bad
bacteria and things we can do to protect ourselves.
‘Bad’ bacteria can cause
5. Investigate.
a. Who was the first person to see
bacteria through a microscope
and describe them?
b. Look up the word ‘bacterium’ in a dictionary.
Which language is it from?
Why was it given its original name?
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2 Plants
EXTENSION
The olive tree ◆ The olive is an evergreen tree which can live for a very long time.
It grows in dry, rocky places and is common in Mediterranean countries.
The trunk of the olive tree is thick and twisted. Its bark is silver-grey in colour.
Its leaves are narrow and pointed. They are dark green and smooth on top.
The flowers of the olive tree are cream
coloured and each flower has four petals
and four short stamens. The fruit of the olive
is like a berry. At first, it is green and then it
ripens and becomes black. The fruit has a
single brown seed inside.
The olive tree has been cultivated since
Antiquity. Olives are used to produce olive
oil and are also eaten as a snack or in
salads.
1. Make notes about the olive tree.
The olive tree
Type of tree: evergreen
Habitat:
Trunk:
Bark:
Leaves:
Flowers:
Fruit:
Seeds:
Uses:
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EXTENSION
2. Investigate. Find out about the stone pine tree, and complete the information.
The stone pine tree
Type of tree:
Habitat:
Trunk: straight, widely forked above
Bark: grey or red-brown
, grey-green
Leaves:
Flowers:
Seeds: like a nut, with a hard coat
Uses: often planted to give shade; the seeds
are edible
• Now write a short description of this tree.
3. Group work: roots.
Trees and other plants have roots which are in the soil. They absorb water and
other substances from the soil through the roots. However, not all roots are the same.
Match the plant or tree with their roots. Discuss the answers with your group.
old oak trees
eucalyptus trees
mosses
strawberry plants
tubers
water lilies
a. Their stems grow roots underground and leaves above ground.
b. They have very tiny roots.
c. Their roots grow very fast and spread over large areas.
d. Their roots can go down to a depth of nearly two metres.
e. Their roots are in the mud under the water.
f. Their roots grow from stolons which extend across the ground.
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3 Invertebrates
EXTENSION
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea ◆ Jules Verne (1828-1905) was a French writer who
wrote about fantastic adventures. In his book 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, he imagines an
enormous submarine which travels round the world. One of the people on the submarine –
Doctor Aronnax – is a famous scientist. His servant Conseil loves classifying all the animals
and plants under the sea. One day, the Doctor and Conseil are walking along the sea bed:
Conseil: Look, Doctor! White coral and sea anemones – members
of the cnidarian group of invertebrates!
Aronnax: I’m sure you’re right, Conseil. But there’s something different
over there – it’s an enormous, long worm!
Conseil: Yes, Doctor, there are different worms.
That one is a sea worm and then there’s the –
Aronnax: How beautiful those starfish are!
Can you see them?
Conseil: Oh, yes. They belong to the echinoderms.
Be careful, don’t put your hand on that!
It’s in the same group as the starfish,
but it’s covered with spines!
Aronnax: Ouch! Too late…
Conseil: Sorry, Doctor. Hey, look over here.
Our eight-legged friend, of the mollusc
group, the same as clams and snails…
Aronnax: And lobsters, like this one here…
Conseil: No, sir, this lobster is an arthropod.
Do you see its hard exoskeleton?
Aronnax: So we can’t see arthropods on land.
Conseil: Oh, yes we can! There are many types
of arthropod: insects, centipedes, arachnids…
Aronnax: I think you’re a better scientist than
me, Conseil!
1. Answer the questions.
a. What type of invertebrates are coral and sea anemones?
b. Which type of worm does Conseil see?
c. Which group do starfish belong to?
d. Which animal do you think Aronnax puts his hand on?
e. What is ‘our eight-legged friend’?
f. Which arthropod does Aronnax see?
g. Which other arthropods does Conseil name?
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EXTENSION
2. Correct Doctor Aronnax’s classifications.
a. Aronnax: Coral and sea anemones are echniderms.
Conseil: No, they are cnidarians.
b. Aronnax: Starfish and sea urchins are molluscs.
Conseil:
No, they are
c. Aronnax: Beetles and scorpions are sponges.
Conseil: No,
d. Aronax Octopi and clams are fish.
Conseil:
e. Aronax: Lobsters, shrimp and crabs are worms.
Conseil:
3. Read the descriptions and write the name of the invertebrate.
a. This arthropod has many pairs of legs along its body.
b. This worm is a parasite in humans, pigs and other animals.
c. This insect has two pairs of colourful wings.
d. This insect has long legs and can jump very high.
4. Guess the names.
Write short descriptions of three invertebrates. Give them to your partner who
guesses the names. Use the descriptions in Activity 3 to help you.
5. Investigate.
Arthropod sense organs are well developed: they
have antennae and eyes. The eyes can be simple
or compound. Compound eyes are made up of
many smaller, simpler ‘eyes’.
Find some examples of insects with compound
eyes. How do compound eyes help the insect?
(Think about flies. Is it easy to hit them when they
are on walls or other surfaces?)
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4 Vertebrates
EXTENSION
Animals at play ◆ It is hard to imagine an ant or a worm playing. On the other hand,
children and young animals, such as puppies and kittens, often play. In fact, most young
mammals spend a lot of time playing. Young chimpanzees chase each other around, young
badgers roll around on the ground, and ducklings splash about in the water. Mammals use
their intelligence and learn from experience. Children who do not play when they are very
young develop more slowly than children who play.
Why do animals play? There are many theories. Play makes muscles strong and develops
coordination. We can see this when chimpanzees jump from tree to tree and swing from
branches.
Play is also important for survival. In the wild, carnivores such as lions, must learn how to hunt
in order to survive. In their games, the young cubs ‘fight’ and jump on each other. This is
practice for when they must catch their prey in order to eat. We can see this type of behaviour
in kittens when they play with a ball of wool: they sometimes jump on it and shake it as if it
were a mouse. Herbivores, such as zebras, must learn about danger when they are young in
order to survive. In their games, they spend time running after each other; this is practice for
when a carnivore is trying to catch them.
Play is also important in establishing
communication. ‘Sociable’ mammals such as
humans and chimpanzees play in order to
decide who is more important in the group
and who is less important. When two puppies
play, they give out ‘signals’ to show that they
want to play and not to fight. For example,
they put the front part of their body on the
floor and wag their tails.
1. Match the animals with their description.
a. Ant:
1. a young lion.
b. Worm:
2. a type of ape.
c. Puppy:
3. an invertebrate with a long, soft body.
d. Kitten:
4. a young dog.
e. Chimpanzee:
5. a young cat.
f. Cub:
6. a small busy insect that lives in colonies.
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EXTENSION
2. Read the text and tick the correct statements about why animals play.
a. They learn to breathe.
d. They have fun.
b. They become stronger.
e. They communicate with their species.
c. They learn to survive.
f. They keep their skin moist.
3. Answer the questions.
a. Why do chimpanzees jump from tree to tree?
b. Why do young cubs fight with each other?
c. Why do young zebras run after each other?
d. How do puppies show that they want to play and not to fight?
4. Complete the sentences with and, but or because.
a. Ants and worms probably do not play,
b. Children play to learn
c. Lion cubs must fight
we cannot be sure.
improve their coordination.
they have to kill in order to survive.
d. Zebras must learn to escape
other animals want to kill them.
e. Dogs like running after sticks
playing with other animals.
5. Investigate.
Find out more about dolphins. Are they
sociable animals? Why do some people
want to swim with them? Do you think
they follow boats for fun?
Write a paragraph about dolphins.
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5 Nutrition
EXTENSION
The heart ◆ Our heart plays an important part in our circulatory system. It works like a
pump and moves blood through the body. It never stops beating. When you are resting, your
heart beats between 60 and 80 times every minute. When you do exercise, or if you are very
anxious, the number of heartbeats can increase up to 200 a minute.
The heart is a muscle and, like all muscles, it needs exercise to keep it healthy. That is why it
is important to be active and play sports. We also need to eat the right foods to keep our heart
in good condition. Substances such as alcohol and tobacco can damage our hearts.
The heart is divided into two parts, left and right. In pulmonary
circulation, blood leaves the heart and goes to the lungs. In the
lungs, the blood absorbs oxygen and releases carbon dioxide.
Then the blood goes back to the heart through the pulmonary
veins. In systemic circulation, blood with oxygen from the lungs
leaves the heart through the aorta. This blood provides the body
with nutritive substances and oxygen. Finally, it returns to the heart
through the vena cava.
We cannot live without a heart. In the past, people with very
unhealthy hearts died. Then, in 1967, Doctor Christiaan Barnard
carried out the first human heart transplant. In this operation, the
healthy heart of someone who has died replaces the unhealthy
heart of another person. Since then, thousands of heart transplants
have been carried out. The first transplant patients did not live for
very long, but techniques and drugs improved and today transplant
patients are living for much longer.
1. Are the sentences true or false? Write T (true) or F (false).
a. The heart is important in the circulation of the blood.
b. When you are worried, your heart goes slower.
c. The heart is a gland.
d. We should do exercise if we want to keep our heart healthy.
e. Smoking and drinking are good for the heart.
f. The heart is divided into several parts.
g. There are two types of circulation.
h. Pulmonary circulation involves the lungs.
i. The blood in the lungs absorbs carbon dioxide.
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EXTENSION
2. Write three sentences in the correct order using ‘first’, ‘next’ or ‘finally’.
a. The blood goes back to the heart
through the pulmonary veins.
Blood leaves the heart and goes
to the lungs.
The blood absorbs oxygen and
releases carbon dioxide.
b. Nutritive substances are
distributed throughout the body.
Blood with oxygen from the lungs
leaves the heart through the aorta.
Blood returns to the heart through
the vena cava.
a. Pulmonary circulation:
b. Systemic circulation:
3. Experiment. Does lung capacity vary with breathing movements?
We cannot measure our lung capacity directly, so we will use an indirect method.
Work in pairs. Measure your chest with a metric measuring tape.
a. Measure your chest at three different times: when you inhale normally, when you
exhale normally, when you inhale deeply. Record the results in the table.
Breathing movement
Chest size
Inhale normally:
cm
Exhale normally:
cm
Inhale deeply:
cm
b. When is your lung capacity greatest?
When is it smallest?
c. Write a report. Include the answers to
these questions:
What did you do? What materials did
you use? What were the results?
Explain the results.
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6 Matter
EXTENSION
Salt ◆ Salt is the common name for sodium chloride. Salt takes the form of transparent
cubic crystals. It is most familiar to us as a food supplement, but it has many other uses. For
example, salt is used in the chemical industry as a source of chlorine. (Chlorine is a green,
gaseous element which you can sometimes smell in the water of a swimming pool.) Salt is also
used for removing snow and ice from roads, softening water, preserving food and stabilising
soil for construction. Salt is obtained from two sources: rock salt and brine.
Rock salt is crystallised salt. It is the result of the evaporation of ancient oceans millions of
years ago. Sometimes, pressure from inside the Earth forces up large amounts of rock salt to
form salt domes.
Brine is water that contains a high concentration of salt. It comes
mainly from the sea. Salt is obtained when the water evaporates.
The simplest form of evaporation is solar evaporation. This can
only take place in hot, dry, sunny places. The brine is collected
into shallow ponds and allowed to evaporate in the Sun. The salt
which remains is washed and made into huge piles. The piles
are left to drain for two or three months.
Salt forms an important part of our diet. Salt for human
consumption must be very pure.
1. Match the words with their definitions.
a. Supplement:
1. hard round hills
b. Remove:
2. not deep
c. Soil:
3. small area of water
d. Dome:
4. hill-shaped quantity of something
e. Mainly:
5. take away
f. Shallow:
6. very large
g. Pond:
7. mostly
h. Huge:
8. something that we add
i. Pile:
9. rock and mineral particles
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EXTENSION
2. Answer the questions.
a. What does salt look like?
b. What is the most common use of salt?
c. What other uses does salt have?
d. How do we obtain salt?
e. What role does solar evaporation play in obtaining salt?
3. Complete the text using these words.
sun
brine
water
process
ponds
evaporation
Brine is a
chemical
mixture
of salt and water. The salt is separated from the
water by the process of
this
dry
impurities
. In hot countries, the sun is used in
.The
is usually collected from the sea.
It is left in small, shallow
for a period of time.
The
acts on the brine and evaporation takes place.
The
gradually disappears and soon only the salt remains.
This salt contains some
, and it must be washed several times.
The salt is made into piles which
in the Sun for two to three
months. Some salt is used in food and other types of salt are used, for example,
in the
industry.
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7 The atmosphere
EXTENSION
Clouds ◆ Clouds are made up of millions of tiny water droplets. The droplets form when
water vapour rises into the atmosphere and cools down. If the cloud is extremely cold, it is
made up of ice crystals.
In 1803, a man called Luke Howard invented a way of classifying clouds. He used Latin words
to describe their characteristics, for example:
•cirrus means a filament or tuft (like a piece of hair)
•cumulus means a heap or pile
•stratus means a layer
•nimbus means carrying rain
Today, we usually refer to ten basic types of cloud. We use combinations of the four words
above to describe them. We can divide the ten types of cloud into three sections: low clouds,
medium clouds and high clouds.
• Low clouds have their base below 200 metres
from the ground. They are usually made up of
water droplets.
• Medium clouds have their base between
2,000 and 7,000 metres. They are mainly
water but they can contain ice crystals.
• High clouds have their base between 5,500
and 14,000 metres. They are normally made
up of ice crystals.
In our Solar System, any planet or moon with an
atmosphere also has clouds. Venus’s clouds are
made up of sulphuric acid droplets. Mars has high,
thin clouds of water ice.
1. Answer the questions.
a. What are clouds made of?
b. How do clouds form?
c. What did Luke Howard do? When?
d. How many basic types of cloud are there today?
e. What do clouds look like from space?
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2. Complete the table.
Type of cloud
Height
Composition
Low clouds
2,000-7,000 metres
High clouds
ice crystals
3. Draw clouds.
a. Which type of cloud do you
think this is?
b. Can you draw another cloud?
Compare your drawing with a partner.
4. Investigate.
How clean is the rain in your neighbourhood? To find out, you need:
• a plastic bottle
• scissors
• coffee filter paper
a. Cut the bottle in half and reverse the top to make a funnel.
b. Put the filter paper in the funnel and put the bottle outside.
c. Examine the paper after it rains. What colour is it? How clean is your rain?
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8 The landscape
EXTENSION
1. Complete the newspaper article.
A new motorway
◆
A new motorway will be built
the
towns of Oldcastle in the Chevron Hills and the coastal town of Winbay. At the
moment, travellers must use the old A47, a dangerous road, and the journey
takes three hours. A tunnel will go
new bridge will go
the mountains and a
the River Wane. Several acres of forest
will disappear as well as part of Caster Castle, an historic monument. Many
people
Oldcastle and Winbay are in favour of the new
motorway, but local ecology groups are
it.
2. Classify the landscape features.
reservoir
hill
road
tunnel
forest
river
motorway
valley
Landscape features
Man-made
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EXTENSION
3. Answer the questions.
a. Do you know any motorways like these? Where are they?
b. Which landscape features are obstacles for a motorway?
c. How can you build a flat motorway if there are hills, valleys and mountains?
d. Do motorways spoil the landscape?
e. Can motorways improve people’s lives?
4. Write a short letter to a newspaper in favour of, or against, a new motorway.
Dear Editor,
Yours sincerely,
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9 Rivers
EXTENSION
The Amazon
◆ The Amazon River runs 6,400 kilometres from the Andes mountains to
the sea. It is the longest river in the world after the Nile. The Amazon is the largest river in
terms of its watershed, the number of tributaries (over 200), and the volume of water which it
discharges into the sea. The Amazon basin is huge: it covers more than 7,050,000 square
kilometres. The mouth of the Amazon is so wide and deep that large, ocean-going ships have
navigated its waters and have travelled as far as two-thirds of the way up the river. In the flood
season, the Amazon widens and covers its banks and the islands in the middle of the river.
The sediment left by the floods enriches the soil.
There are no bridges across the Amazon
because it flows mostly through tropical
rainforest where there are few roads and
cities. The tropical rainforests are home
to more than a third of all the species in
the world. It is home to wonderful
animals such as the jaguar, the largest
cat outside of Africa and Asia, and the
anaconda, an enormous, heavy snake.
The rainforests are in danger from overexploitation and pollution.
1. True (T ) or false (F )? Correct the false sentences.
a. The Amazon is the longest river in the world.
b. The Amazon has the biggest watershed of all rivers.
c. The Amazon basin is not very big.
d. It is impossible for large ships to sail up the Amazon.
e. The Amazon is the same width all year.
f. There are no bridges across the Amazon.
g. The rainforests contain a great variety of flora and fauna.
h. If we are not careful, the rainforests could disappear.
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EXTENSION
2. Complete the table about the Amazon.
Continent:
Countries: Peru, Colombia, Brazil, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia
Length:
Number of tributaries:
Source: Lago Villafro in the Andes Mountains in Peru
Mouth: Atlantic Ocean, Brazil
Other information:
3. Use the information in Activity 2 to write a paragraph about the Amazon.
It flows through
The Amazon is in
It is
long. It has
.
. Its source is
. Its mouth
4. Investigate.
Find out about another river and complete information. Add an illustration.
River:
Continent:
Countries:
Length:
Number of tributaries:
Source:
Mouth:
Other information:
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10 Population
EXTENSION
An interview
◆ Juan is 32. He comes from a small village in Spain but now he lives
in Madrid. A reporter is interviewing him for a newspaper article about population in Spain.
Reporter: How long have you lived in Madrid, Juan?
Juan: Just over ten years.
Reporter: Why did you leave your village?
Juan: All the young people were leaving. There was
no work except in agriculture and I didn’t want
to do that.
Reporter: What do you do now?
Juan: I work for a telecommunications company.
Reporter: Do you miss your village?
Juan: Yes, I miss my family. On the other hand,
Madrid has a lot of advantages: good entertainment,
services, people from different countries….
Reporter: Are there any bad things about living in
the city?
Juan: Of course. Everyone’s in a hurry, it’s noisy –
and it’s expensive!
Reporter: Will you go back to live in your village?
Juan: Maybe when I’m old I’ll go back, but not now.
I have a job here, I’m learning new things and I’m
making new friends.
Reporter: You say that many young people left your
village. Do you think it will disappear?
Juan: I hope not. Actually, some city people are
beginning to buy houses there now. They say it’s
healthier than the city… so maybe things are changing.
1. Answer the questions.
a. Where does Juan live now?
b. Why did he leave his village?
c. Where does he work now?
d. What does he miss about his village?
e. What are the good and bad things about living in Madrid?
f. Does Juan think his village will disappear in the future? Why? / Why not?
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2. Make full sentences.
a. Many villages / Spain / losing population.
Many villages in Spain are losing population.
b. Young people / moving / cities.
c. Population / villages / getting older.
d. Village life / more peaceful / life in the city.
e. Population density / higher / cities than / country.
3. Write I agree. or I disagree. next to these sentences. If you disagree, explain why.
a. Life is more pleasant in a village than in a city.
b. In 20 years’ time, most villages in Spain will not exist.
c. Everything is more expensive in a city than in a village.
d. There is always more work in a city than in a village.
e. It is important to have people of all ages in a village.
4. Investigate.
Do people in your class or neighbourhood come from
a different country or another region? Prepare questions
to ask them and write down their answers. For example:
Why did you come here? What was the most difficult thing
when you first arrived? Did you have any problems? What
were they? What do you miss most about your previous
home? Would you like to go back there?
Write a paragraph about your interview and read it to the class.
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11 The economy
EXTENSION
Tourism in Spain ◆ The tourist industry in Spain is very important. It provides a lot of jobs
in the service sector – in hotels, restaurants and bars. It also creates work in the area of
transport. Most tourists visit Spain’s coasts. They come to relax on the beaches in the Sun.
Some tourists travel inland to the mountains or visit cities such as Barcelona or Salamanca.
Many tourists come from abroad, but Spanish people also take holidays in their own country.
A good transport system is essential for successful tourism. In Spain, there are airports in
most of the major cities and good rail and road systems. In the cities, there is quick, inexpensive
underground transport.
A lot of people depend on tourism for
employment. Today, there is competition from
other countries which want to attract tourism.
Some of these countries are cheaper than
Spain and some are less exploited – they have
not yet built too many holiday resorts. Some
Spanish resorts are half-empty in the winter
months, so income from tourism decreases.
The decline of agriculture in Spain is also partly
connected with tourism. Land previously used
in agriculture has been used for building tourist
apartments and hotels. This could be a bad
thing. If tourist numbers fall, many apartments
will stay empty and it will be too late to use the
land for agriculture.
1. Match the columns.
a. Tourism is
1. come from abroad.
b. Success in the tourist industry
2. is much less important than tourism.
c. Many Spanish cities
3. one of Spain’s most important industries.
d. Not all tourists in Spain
4. from tourism in other countries.
e. Spain is facing competition
5. have efficient public transport.
f. Spain’s agricultural industry
6. depends in part on good transport.
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2. Answer the questions.
a. Why is tourism important in Spain?
b. Why is good transport important?
c. Why are some tourists going to other countries instead of Spain?
d. What happens to some Spanish resorts in the winter months?
3. Tick (✓) the jobs which belong to the tourist industry
a. waitress
f. fisherman
b. coach driver
g. lawyer
c. engineer
h. cook
d. tour guide
i. nurse
e. cleaner
j. journalist
4. Write descriptions of two jobs.
Example: A waitress works in a restaurant and serves food.
5. Investigate. Write about tourism in your area.
Use these questions to help you: How important is tourism in your area? What do
tourists visit? Where do they stay? Does anyone you know work in the tourist
industry? What do they do? Would you like to work in the tourist industry? Why (not)?
Tourism is important / not important in
Tourists come
to visit
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12 Prehistory and Antiquity
EXTENSION
Digging up the past
◆ Eva is a student. Last summer, she spent part of her summer
holidays working on a ‘dig’ (or archaeological excavation). Her favourite subject is History and
she loves finding things which bring the past to life.
The site where Eva worked last summer is near Alicante. The government had started to build
a new road. Then, one of the excavating machines uncovered some old stones. These stones
were ruins which belonged to a very old building. The government stopped building the road
and put up a fence to protect the area. Archaeologists came with helpers such as Eva.
Carefully, they began to take away the earth and slowly the remains of ancient civilisations
began to emerge.
‘It’s very interesting,’ says Eva. ‘The first layer looks like the remains of a Roman villa or bath
house. But under that, we found objects from earlier periods. There are fish hooks and other
tools. They are probably from the
Phoenician or Carthaginian civilisations.
We also found some pots and jewellery
which are definitely from Iberian times:
some of the decoration is like that on the
Lady of Elche. I hope the government
doesn’t start building the road again. This
is a very important site. It can teach us a
lot about the people who lived here before
us and their way of life. Who knows? If
we continue to dig, we could find
something from prehistoric times.’
1. Match the words and the definitions.
a. Dig
1. a barrier around an area
b. Subject
2. we make things with this
c. Site
3. an archaeological excavation
d. Fence
4. something we study at school
e. Remains
5. an area of land
f. Tool
6. rings and bracelets
g. Pot
7. a container, sometimes used for cooking
h. Jewellery
8. historical ruins
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2. Answer the questions.
a. What did Eva do last summer?
b. When was the site discovered?
c. What remains are in the first layer?
d. What remains are under the first layer?
e. What does Eva hope to find in the future?
f. What must the government do to preserve the site?
3. Complete the table.
Civilization
Iberian
Discoveries
Iberian
Carthaginian and
Roman
remains of a villa or
4. Write a letter.
Imagine that you are working on a dig. Write a short letter to your English pen pal
about your experience. Use these questions to help you.
Where was the dig? What ruins did you find there? What objects did you find?
Which civilisations are they from? How do you feel about your discoveries?
Dear
,
I am writing to tell you about the dig where I worked this summer. It was in / near
Best wishes,
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13 The Middle Ages
EXTENSION
Thomas Aquinas
◆ Thomas Aquinas was born in his father’s castle in Italy in 1227. His
father was Count Landulf, an important nobleman. When he was five years old, Thomas began
his education at a monastery. At that time, monasteries were important centres of learning
and knowledge. They had schools and libraries. This was before the age of printed books (the
printing press was invented in about 1450) so the books which Thomas studied were made by
hand. The scribes copied manuscripts onto parchment and decorated them with illustrations
and very thin layers of gold.
Thomas was an intelligent student and was always asking
questions. In 1244, he went to study in Cologne in Germany.
After that, he continued his studies at the University in Paris.
Classes there consisted of reading and explaining texts.
Examinations were oral. Thomas eventually became a university
professor. He taught theology in different European cities. He
worked very hard and spent a lot of time travelling. On one of
his journeys, he became ill. He was taken to a monastery in
Italy where he died in 1274.
Thomas was a great philosopher and theologian. He wrote
many important works. He tried to explain his ideas clearly and
simply.
In 1323, Pope John XXII made Thomas a saint of the Catholic
Church. Today, the Roman Catholic Church celebrates the
feast of Saint Thomas Aquinas on January 28th. This is the
publication date of his most famous work, Summa Theologica.
1. Find words in the text which mean the following:
a. A nobleman:
b. A machine for making books:
c. Someone who writes books by hand:
d. A type of paper made from animal skin:
e. A university teacher:
f. A subject which is about religion:
g. A person who studies the meaning of life:
h. Someone who is very special in the eyes of the Church:
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2. True (T ) or false (F )?
a. Thomas was born into a poor family.
b. He was French.
c. His first school was in a monastery.
d. The books which Thomas studied were printed in Germany.
e. Thomas studied in Germany and England.
f. Thomas was a teacher and a writer.
g. Thomas wrote his masterpiece in French.
h. Thomas died on one of his journeys.
i. The feast of Saint Thomas Aquinas is on his birthday.
3. Circle the best answer.
a. Thomas studied with:
1 a religious order
2 noblemen
3 soldiers
b. The religion which Thomas studied was:
1 Muslim
2 Christian
3 Jewish
c. Thomas spent a lot of time:
1 fighting
2 resting
3 thinking
d. During his exams, Thomas had to:
1 write
2 talk
3 draw
e. The main language which Thomas used for studying was:
1 Arabic
2 Latin
3 English
f. Thomas is the patron saint of:
1 animals
2 travelling
3 students
4. Write a biography.
Think of other famous people from the Middle
Ages. Choose one and find some information
about them. Make notes, and write a short
biography. Use the text about Thomas
Aquinas to help you.
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Answer key
REINFORCEMENT ACTIVITIES
UNIT 1: LIVING THINGS
1. Name three living and three non-living things.
Model answers:
• Three living things: cows, sheep and trees.
• Three non-living things: stone, wood and paper.
2. Match the two columns.
UNIT 2: PLANTS
1. Find 12 words and complete the sentences.
Across: gymnosperms, flowering, shade, ferns, leaves,
angiosperms.
Down: fruit, mosses, roots, stem, moisture, nutrients.
a. The roots of a plant are in the soil.
b. The stem supports the leaves.
c. Water and nutrients are transported from the roots to
the leaves inside the stem.
a. Nutrition:
3. Living things eat food, which contains nutrients.
d. The leaves breathe and make the plant’s food.
b. Sensitivity:
1. Living things react to their environments.
f. Gymnosperms have small flowers but no fruit.
c. Reproduction:
2. Living things have offspring.
h. Non-flowering plants need shade and moisture.
3. Use these words to complete the sentences.
a. Cells are the smallest living units in a living thing.
b. Living things which are made up of a single cell are
unicellular.
c. Living things which are made up of many cells are
multicellular.
d. The membrane is the covering around the cell.
e. Flowering plants are the biggest group of plants.
g. Angiosperms have flowers and fruit.
i. Mosses are small plants which live on rocks and trees.
j. Ferns are larger than mosses and have big leaves.
2. Use the words to label the illustration of plant nutrition.
Top to bottom: carbon dioxide, oxygen, raw sap,
elaborated sap, leaf, stem, roots, water and dissolved
minerals.
3. Circle the correct option.
e. The nucleus is the part which controls the cell.
a. Flowers are the reproductive organs of plants.
f. Cytoplasm is between the nucleus and the
membrane.
b. The stamens are the male parts which produce pollen.
g. Plant cells also have a hard cell wall around
the membrane.
d. Pollination is the movement of pollen from the stamens
to the ovary.
c. Tiny pollen grains form on the stamens.
e. The ovary is the female part which contains ovules.
4. Label this cell.
Top to bottom: nucleus, cytoplasm, membrane.
5. Match the characteristics to the kingdom.
Animals:
3. They have a nervous system and sense organs.
5. They can move from one place to another.
6. They eat other living things.
Plants:
f. Wind can carry pollen to other plants.
g. After pollination, the ovary grows and becomes a fruit
with seeds.
h. When seeds germinate, they open and small roots
grow.
4. Label these stems: tubers, bulbs or stolens.
bulbs, stolens, tubers
1. They make their own food.
2. They have roots in the ground.
Fungi:
4. They depend on other organisms for food.
6. Answer the questions.
a. How are fungi and plants similar?
Plants and most fungi are multicellular.
They cannot move.
b. How are fungi and animals similar?
Animals and most fungi are multicellular.
They do not make their own food.
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UNIT 3: INVERTEBRATES
1. Complete the text about invertebrates.
Invertebrates are animals which do not have a (a.) skeleton
or a (b.) backbone.
Most invertebrates are very (c.) small, but some are
enormous. Most are (d.) symmetrical, but some have
irregular bodies. Many invertebrate bodies are protected
by (e.) shells or (f.) exoskeletons. Invertebrates are (g.)
oviparous; a larva hatches from an egg.
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REINFORCEMENT
2. Identify the invertebrate groups.
3. Circle the correct option.
a. sponges; b. cnidarians; c. arthropods; d. echinoderms;
e. worms; f. molluscs.
a. The bodies of reptiles are covered with scales.
b. Reptiles are cold-blooded animals.
c. All reptiles breathe through their lungs.
3. Name the invertebrates.
Model answers:
d. Reptiles are oviparous.
a. Jellyfish, earthworms, beetles, and snails.
e. Most reptiles are carnivores.
b. Clams, river crabs and ocotopuses.
4. Identify the reptile groups.
c. Jellyfish and scorpions.
a. crocodiles; b. lizards; c. snakes; d. turtles.
4. Which invertebrate group is being described?
a. They have soft bodies. Many are covered by shells.
molluscs
b. They are marine animals with jelly-like bodies and
tentacles. cnidarians
c. They are covered by a hard exoskeleton. arthropods
d. They have irregular bodies and cannot move. sponges
e. They have long, soft bodies. Many are parasites. worms
5. Label the parts of this arthropod.
5. Which reptile group is being described?
a. They have a shell to protect their body. turtles
b. They have very short legs, and they crawl. lizards
c. They have long bodies with no limbs, and they slither.
snakes
d. They spend a lot of time in water, and they use their
large teeth to capture their prey. crocodiles and alligators
6. True or false? Decide and write T or F.
True sentences: a, c, g.
Left, top to bottom: wing, abdomen.
Corrected false sentences:
Right, top to bottom: thorax, antenna, leg.
b. Fish use their gills to breathe.
d. Sharks are cartilaginous fish.
6. Match the columns.
Arachnids:
e. Amphibians stay in or near water to keep their skin moist.
6. They have eight legs. 8. The body is divided into the
abdomen and the cephalothorax.
f. Amphibians with tails have a long body and four similar
limbs.
Crustaceans:
2. They have ten or more legs. 8. The body is divided into
the abdomen and the cephalothorax.
Insects:
UNIT 5: NUTRITION
1. Answer the questions. Model answers:
1. Their bodies are divided into three parts. 4. The thorax
has six legs. 5. They are the most numerous anthropod
group.
a. They are the substances which our body needs to
survive, grow and repair itself.
Myriapods:
b. The two types are sugars and starches. They give us
energy.
3. They have long bodies with many legs. 7. The head has
one pair of short antennae.
c. We need proteins for our body to grow and repair itself.
d. It helps food to move through our digestive system.
e. It is a thick liquid which is produced in the stomach.
UNIT 4: VERTEBRATES
Left, top to bottom: kidneys, bladder.
1. Find 8 words in the wordsearch.
Across: primates, dolphins, zebras, carnivores, cetaceans.
Down: lions, monkeys, ungulates.
2. Complete the table. Use words from the wordsearch.
Mammal group
Example
2. Use these words to label the excretory system.
A characteristic
Right, top to bottom: kidneys, renal vein, bladder, urethra.
Far right, top to bottom: renal artery, ureters.
3. Match the columns.
a. We breathe (5) to obtain oxygen from the air.
cetaceans
dolphins
They have no hair.
b. Air enters through the nose (1) and passes through
the pharynx.
carnivores
lions
Model answer:
They hunt for food.
c. From the pharynx, the air (6) goes to the larynx and
the trachea.
zebras
Model answer:
They have feet with
hoves.
monkeys
Model answer:
They have five
fingers.
ungulates
primate
d. Next, it goes to the bronchi (2) and into each lung.
e. In the lungs, (3) the bronchi divide into bronchioles.
f. At the end of the bronchioles, (4) are the alveoli.
• What happens in the alveoli? In the alveoli, oxygen from
the air passes into the blood. The blood releases carbon
dioxide which passes into the alveoli.
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REINFORCEMENT
4. Use these words to complete the sentences.
5. Tick (✓) the properties of each state of matter.
a. Circulation is the movement of blood through the
circulatory system.
Fixed
volume
b. Blood vessels are tubes which transport blood.
solids
✓
c. Arteries are the blood vessels which carry blood away
from the heart.
liquids
✓
d. Veins are the blood vessels which carry blood into the
heart.
e. Capillaries are tiny blood vessels which connect arteries
to veins.
f. Pulmonary circulation is the movement of blood
between the heart and the lungs.
g. Systemic circulation is the movement of blood to the
rest of the body.
gases
No fixed
volume
Fixed
shape
No fixed
shape
✓
✓
✓
✓
6. Identify these changes in state. Then write the word.
a. A solid changes into a gas:
2; sublimation.
b. A solid changes into a liquid:
1; melting.
c. A gas changes into a liquid:
3; condensation.
d. A liquid changes into a gas:
4; evaporation.
UNIT 7: THE ATMOSPHERE
UNIT 6: MATTER
1. Match the columns.
a. Everything in the universe (2) is made of matter.
b. Matter is made up of (1) tiny particles called atoms.
c. An element is matter which (4) consists of only one
type of atom.
d. Mixtures are made up of (5) several pure substances.
e. A compound is matter which (7) consists of more than
one kind of atom.
f. Pure substances are made up of (6) a single type of
element or compound.
g. All matter has general properties (3) like mass and volume.
2. Name examples of types of matter.
1. Tick (✓) the true sentences.
True sentences: c, d, e, f.
Corrected false sentences:
a. The atmosphere is the air which surrounds the Earth.
b. Air is mainly made up of nitrogen and oxygen.
g. The thin layer of ozone in the upper stratosphere is
called the ozone layer.
2. Complete the paragraph on the water cycle.
The water cycle is the constant circulation of water
between the sea, the atmosphere and land.
1. Liquid water in the sea evaporates because of heat from
the Sun.
It becomes water vapour.
Model answers:
2. Water vapour rises and condenses into drops of water
which form clouds.
a. Two examples of pure substances: iron, salt.
3. Water falls from the clouds as precipitation.
b. One example of a mixture: sea water.
4. This water filters into the land and also forms rivers and
lakes and some returns to the sea.
3. Answer the questions.
a. Mass is the amount of matter in an object.
b. Volume is the amount of space which an object occupies.
5. The water cycle starts again.
3. Match the columns.
c. Density is mass per volume.
a. Waves (3) are the rise and fall of the water’s surface.
d. To calculate density, we divide the mass of a substance
by its volume.
b. Tides (1) are the rise and fall of the sea level.
e. The density of water is one kilo per litre of water.
f. The density of iron is 7.9 kilos per litre of iron.
4. Complete the sentences about changes in matter.
a. Oxidation: one substance changes into another when it
reacts with oxygen.
c. Ocean currents (2) are the movement of large masses
of ocean water.
• What causes tides? The gravitational pull of the Moon
and Sun causes tides.
4. Answer the questions.
a. Magma is red-hot liquid rock. It is just under the surface.
b. Fragmentation: the object is divided into small pieces.
b. Lava is magma when it reaches the surface.
c. Putrefaction: this occurs when a living thing
decomposes.
c. Model answer: Both photographs are of volcanoes. The
volcano on the left is not active. We can see a volcanic
cone. The volcano on the right is active. We can see the
hot lava flowing down the side of the mountain.
d. Expansion: when the temperature of an object
increases, it gets bigger.
e. Contraction: when the temperature of an object
decreases, it gets smaller.
f. Combustion: when an object or a substance is burned,
it changes into another substance.
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5. Look for examples of the damage done by earthquakes or
erosion in your area or on the Internet. Describe what
you see.
Open answer.
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REINFORCEMENT
UNIT 8: THE LANDSCAPE
4. Complete the table on climate in Spain.
Climate
1. Circle the correct option.
a. All the features of the Earth’s surface make up the
landscape.
Location
Cantabrian
coast, Galicia
Atlantic
central Spain
Continental
b. Hills have a lower altitude than mountains.
c. Several mountains grouped together are called a
mountain range.
d. A plateau is a plain at a high altitude.
Temperatures
abundant
mild
irregular
hot summers
cold winters
Mediterranean
near the
Mediterranean
light
hot summers
mild winters
Subtropical
Canary Islands
rainfall
limited
to a few
months
hot all year
round
2. Find 10 words in the wordsearch. Then complete the
sentences.
Across: beaches, island, gulf, marsh, archipelago.
Rainfall
5. Answer the questions.
a. The coast is the place where the land meets the sea.
a. What is flora? Flora is all the plant life or vegetation in
an area.
b. Low-lying coasts have sandy beaches.
b. What is fauna? Fauna is all the animal life in an area.
c. High coasts have rocky cliffs.
c. Investigate. Open answer.
Down: cliffs, estuary, cape, peninsula, coast.
d. A peninsula is almost completely surrounded by water.
e. An island is completely surrounded by water.
UNIT 10: POPULATION
f. An archipelago is a group of islands.
g. A marsh is wet land near the mouth of a river.
1. Complete the sentences.
h. An estuary is the part of a river which opens into
the sea.
a. The population of an area is the number of people who
live there.
i. A cape is land which extends into the sea.
b. A census measures the size of a population.
j. A gulf is a place where the sea extends into the land.
c. Population can be classified by gender and age.
3. Label these places on the map.
Students label the map.
• Open answer.
d. Population density is measured by dividing the total
number of inhabitants by the surface area of the place
where they live.
2. Classify these causes for migration. Add one more cause
to each category.
UNIT 9: RIVERS
1. Match the columns.
a. A river is (2) a body of moving water.
Natural causes: droughts, earthquakes, floods + open
answer.
Social factors: wars, political problems, religious problems
+ open answer.
c. The flow is (5) the amount of water a river carries.
• Are you an immigrant? Or do you know any immigrants?
Open answer.
d. Reservoirs are (1) artificial lakes.
Why did you / they come? Open answer.
b. The course is (3) the route a river takes.
e. Watersheds are (4) areas where all the rivers flow into
the same sea.
2. Label the three watersheds and the two rivers.
Students label the map: Cantabrian watershed,
Mediterranean watershed, Atlantic watershed, River Ebro,
River Duero, River Tagus/Tajo, River Guadalquivir.
• Descibe the rivers in each watershed. Model answer:
Atlantic: the rivers have an abundant and fairly regular
flow.
Cantabrian: the rivers are short and rapid. Their flow is
abundant and regular.
Mediterranean: the rivers are short and their flow is
irregular, except for the Ebro.
3. Label the illustration.
Students label the illustration.
3. Answer the questions. Model answers:
a. They left to escape from war or to find work.
b. They went to the United States and to countries in Latin
America.
c. They come to find work and to escape from persecution.
d. They come from Africa, Latin America and Asia.
e. They emigrate to study or work.
4. Write about population density in Spain.
• Model answer:
The population is not evenly distributed. Some areas such
as the coast and the Autonomous Community of Madrid
are densely populated. Other areas are sparsely populated,
for example, the rural areas, especially the provinces
surrounding the Autonomous Community of Madrid.
• Open answer.
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REINFORCEMENT
UNIT 11: THE ECONOMY
1. Match the columns.
a. The active population includes (6) unemployed people
who are looking for work.
b. The primary sector includes (3) fishing and forestry.
c. In the secondary sector (4) natural resources are
transformed.
• Colour the Phoenician colonies green, the Greek
colonies red, and the Carthaginian colonies blue.
Phoenician colonies (green): Cádiz, Almuñecar.
Greek colonies (red): Denia, Ampurias.
Carthaginian colonies (blue): Cartagena, Ibiza.
3. Complete the sentences about Roman times. You can
use some of these words.
d. The service sector (2) is also called the tertiary sector.
a. More than 2,000 years ago, the Romans defeated the
Carthagians and conquered the Iberian Peninsula.
e. Schools and tourism are (5) in the service sector.
b. The Romans called it Hispania.
f. The inactive population includes (1) people who work
but receive no money.
c. The Carthaginians adopted Roman customs and spoke
Latin.
2. Classify these means of transport.
Private transport: a. bicycle, c. car, e. motorcycle.
Public transport: b. bus, d. train, f. underground.
3. Find 11 words in the wordsearch and classify them.
Across: agriculture, shops, schools, restaurants,
hospitals.
Down: banks, forestry, mining, metal, car, textiles.
Primary sector: agriculture, forestry, mining.
d. The emperors Trajan and Hadrian were from Hispania.
e. After about 400 A.D., Visigoth invaders entered the
peninsula.
f. Five cities on the Iberian Peninsula which were
founded by the Romans were Lugo, Zaragoza,
Tarragona, Sagunto, Mérida.
4. Identify these examples of Roman architecture.
a. temple; b. theatre; c. circus; d. aqueduct; e. forum;
f. road.
Secondary sector / industries: metal, car, textiles.
Service sector: shops, banks, schools, restaurants,
hospitals.
4. Answer the questions.
UNIT 13: THE MIDDLE AGES
1. Complete the sentences about the Visigoths.
a. What percentage of the Spanish active population
works in each sector? primary: 5% secondary: 30%
service: 60%
a. The Visigoths settled in the centre of the Iberian
Peninsula.
b. Open answer.
c. Later they conquered the territories occupied by other
Germanic tribes.
c. Open answer.
5. Write about one of these two kinds of tourism.
Open answer.
1. Are the sentences true or false? Write T (true) or F
(false).
True sentences: c, d, g, h.
Corrected false sentences:
a. Prehistory is the long period before the invention of writing.
b. The Stone Age began about two and a half million years
ago.
e. During the Metal Ages, people built the first cities.
f. The Metal Ages began about seven thousand years ago.
2. Answer the questions.
a. Where did the Phoenicians come from? They came
from Asia.
b. Where did the Greeks come from? They came from
Greece.
c. Where did the Carthaginians come from? They came
from North Africa.
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d. The Visigoths converted to Christianity.
e. They based their laws on Roman law.
f. The Visigoths lived in villages and used the land for
agriculture, livestock farming and pastures.
UNIT 12: PREHISTORY AND ANTIQUITY
60
b. Toledo became their capital.
g. They were expert metalworkers.
h. The Visigoth kingdom ended after the Muslim invasion
in 711 A.D.
2. Answer the questions. Then complete the map of the
Muslim conquest.
a. They invaded in 711 A.D.
b. They called Hispania Al Andalus.
c. The main Muslim expeditions.
d. They were in Covadonga, Roncesvalles and Guadalete.
e. They were in the north of Spain.
Students complete the map.
3. Circle the correct option.
a. The highest authority of the Muslims was the caliph.
b. The religion of the Muslims was Islam.
c. The Christians lived in the countryside in the north
of the peninsula.
d. The Muslims built mosques to practise their religion.
ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 ◾ PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S. L.
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EXTENSION
e. The first Christian kingdom was in Asturias.
f. After the year 1000, Al Andalus broke up into small taifas.
g. The Christian kingdoms prospered.
h. The Catholic Monarch conquered Granada in 1492.
4. Answer the questions.
a. What characterises Gothic architecture? Great height,
pointed arches and large windows.
b. Who are these people? Work with a friend.
1. Colón, 2. Isabella I of Castile, 3. Miguel de Cervantes,
4. Diego Velázquez.
c. Why is the year 1492 so important? Model answer:
In the year 1492, Columbus’ expedition reached
America. The Catholic Monarchs unified the kingdoms
of Spain and began the conquest of America. Spain
became the centre of a great empire. The Jews were
expelled from Spain.
d. Why are the 16th and 17th centuries called the Golden
Age of Spain? Model answer: Spain produced many
great works of literature and art during this period.
4. Write about ‘bad’ bacteria. Include information about
problems caused by bad bacteria and things we can do
to protect ourselves. Model answer:
‘Bad’ bacteria can cause illnesses, such as mumps,
measles and salmonella, and other health problems, such
as tooth decay and stomach ache. To protect ourselves,
we should wash our hands, clean our teeth and be careful
when storing or cooking food.
5. Investigate.
a. Who was the first person to see bacteria through a
microscope and describe them?
Anton van Leeuwenhoek from Holland, 1632–1723.
b. Look up the word ‘bacterium’ in a dictionary.
Which language is it from? Latin, from Greek bakterion
‘little rod’.
Why was it given its original name? Because the first
ones to be discovered were rod-shaped.
UNIT 2: PLANTS
EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
1. Make notes about the olive tree.
Type of tree: evergreen
UNIT 1: LIVING THINGS
Habitat: dry, rocky places
Trunk: thick and twisted
Bark: silver-grey
1. Answer the questions.
a. They are usually unicellular.
Leaves: narrow, pointed, dark green
b. Bacteria can live in different environments such as
water, soil, air or inside other living things.
Flowers: cream coloured, four petals
c. You need a microscope because they are so small.
Seeds: one per olive, brown
d. We call them micro-organisms or microbes.
Uses: make olive oil, snacks
e. They often feed on decaying matter, such as dead
animals or plants.
f. We use it to make food: cheese, yoghurt and bread.
g. Measles, mumps and salmonella.
h. We can fight ‘bad’ bacteria by washing our hands,
cleaning our teeth, and storing and cooking food
carefully.
2. Find words in the text that mean the following:
a. with one cell
unicellular
b. places
environments
c. going bad
decaying
d. special or unusual
unique
e. bad for you
harmful
f. illness
disease
g. with fungus on it
mouldy
h. conserving
storing
Fruit: like a berry; green then black
2. Investigate. Find out about the stone pine tree, and
complete the information.
Type of tree: conifer, evergreen
Habitat: Portugal and the Mediterranean region
Leaves: needles, pointed
Flowers: cones
• Now write a short description of this tree. Model answer:
The stone pine’s trunk is straight and widely forked above.
Its bark is grey or red-brown. Its leaves are needles. They
are pointed and grey-green.
3. Group work: roots.
a. tubers; b. mosses; c. eucalyptus trees; d. old oak
trees; e. water lilies; f. strawberry plants.
UNIT 3: INVERTEBRATES
3. Complete the text about ‘good’ bacteria.
Some bacteria are harmful and others are helpful. The
good bacteria can be found in food such as cheese,
yoghurt and bread. Bacteria are used in the fermentation
of milk in order to make cheese.
1. Answer the questions.
a. cnidarians; b. a sea worm; c. echinoderms; d. a sea
urchin; e. an octopus; f. a lobster; g. insects, centipedes,
and arachnids.
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2. Correct Doctor Aronnax’s classifications.
UNIT 5: NUTRITION
a. No, they are cnidarians.
b. No, they are echinoderms.
1. Are the sentences true or false? Write T (true) or F (false).
c. No, they are arthropods.
True sentences: a, d, g, h.
d. No, they are molluscs.
Corrected false sentences:
e. No, they are arthropods.
b. When you are worried, your heart goes faster.
3. Read the descriptions and write the name of the
invertebrate.
a. This arthropod has many pairs of legs along its body.
centipede
b. This worm is a parasite in humans, pigs and other
animals. tapeworm
c. This insect has two pairs of colourful wings. butterfly
d. This insect has long legs and can jump very high.
grasshopper
4. Guess the names. Open answers.
Write short descriptions of three invertebrates. Give them
to your partner to guess the answers. Use the descriptions
in Activity 3 to help you.
5. Investigate. Open answers.
UNIT 4: VERTEBRATES
1. Match the animals with their description.
a. Ant: (6) a small busy insect that lives in colonies.
c. The heart is a muscle.
e. Smoking and drinking are bad for the heart.
f. The heart is divided into two parts.
i. The blood in the lungs absorbs oxygen.
2. Write three sentences in the correct order using first,
next or finally.
a. First, blood leaves the heart and goes to the lungs.
Next, the blood absorbs oxygen and releases carbon
dioxide. Finally, the blood goes back to the heart
through the pulmonary veins.
b. First, blood with oxygen from the lungs leaves the heart
through the aorta. Next, the blood distributes nutritive
substances and oxygen throughout the body. Finally,
blood returns to the heart through the vena cava.
3. Experiment. Does lung capacity vary with breathing
movements?
a. Open answers.
b. Model answer: It is biggest when I inhale deeply. It is
smallest when I exhale.
c. Write a report. Open answers.
b. Worm: (3) an invertebrate with a long, soft body.
c. Puppy: (4) a young dog.
UNIT 6: MATTER
d. Kitten: (5) a young cat.
e. Chimpanzee: (2) a type of ape.
f. Cub: (1) a young lion.
2. Read the text and tick the correct statements about why
animals play.
Correct statements: b, c, d, e.
3. Answer the questions.
a. To develop strength and coordination.
b. To learn how to hunt their prey.
c. To develop survival techniques.
d. They put the front part of their bodies on the floor and
wag their tails.
4. Complete the sentences with and, but or because.
a. Ants and worms probably do not play, but we cannot be
sure.
b. Children play to learn and improve their coordination.
c. Lion cubs must fight because they have to kill in order
to survive.
d. Zebras must learn to escape because other animals
want to kill them.
e. Dogs like running after sticks and playing with other
animals.
5. Investigate. Open answer.
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1. Match the words with their definitions.
a. 8; b. 5; c. 9; d. 1; e. 7; f. 2; g. 3; h. 6; i. 4.
2. Answer the questions
a. Transparent cubic crystals.
b. In food.
c. Salt is also used to obtain chlorine, to remove snow and
ice from roads, to soften water, to preserve food and to
stabilise soil.
d. Salt is obtained from two sources: rock salt and brine.
e. Brine is collected into shallow ponds. Through solar
evaporation the water evaporates and the salt remains.
3. Complete the text using these words.
Brine is a mixture of salt and water. The salt is separated
from the water by the process of evaporation. In hot
countries, the Sun is used in this process. The brine is
usually collected from the sea. It is left in small, shallow
ponds for a period of time.
The Sun acts on the brine and evaporation takes place.
The water gradually disappears and soon only the salt
remains. This salt contains some impurities, and it must be
washed several times. The salt is made into piles which dry
in the Sun for two to three months. Some salt is used in
food, and other types of salt are used, for example, in the
chemical industry.
ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 ◾ PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S. L.
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EXTENSION
UNIT 7: THE ATMOSPHERE
1. Answer the questions.
UNIT 9: RIVERS
1. True (T) or false (F)? Correct the false sentences.
a. They are made up of millions of tiny water droplets.
True sentences: b, f, g, h.
b. Clouds form when water vapour rises into the
atmosphere and cools down.
Corrected false sentences:
c. He invented a way of classifying clouds. In 1803.
c. The Amazon basin is huge.
d. There are ten types.
d. It is possible for large ships to sail two-thirds of the way
up the Amazon.
e. Model answer. They look like pieces of cotton.
e. The Amazon is wider in the flood season.
2. Complete the table.
Type of cloud
low clouds
a. The Nile is the longest river in the world.
Distance from
the ground
Composition
200 metres
water droplets
medium clouds
2,000 –
7,000 metres
mainly water
droplets, can contain
ice crystals
high clouds
5,000 –
14,000 metres
ice crystals
2. Complete the information about the Amazon.
Continent: America
Countries: Peru, Colombia, Brazil, Venezuela, Ecuador,
Bolivia
Length: 6,400 kilometres
Number of tributaries: over 200
Source: Lago Villafro in the Andes mountains in Peru
Mouth: Atlantic Ocean, Brazil
3. Draw clouds.
a. Which type of cloud do you think this is? Model answer:
I think these clouds are cumulus clouds.
b. Can you draw another cloud? Open answer.
4. Investigate. Open answer.
UNIT 8: THE LANDSCAPE
1. Complete the newspaper article.
A new motorway will be built between the towns of
Oldcastle in the Chevron Hills and the coastal town of
Winbay. At the moment, travellers must use the old A47,
a dangerous road, and the journey takes three hours. A
tunnel will go through / under the mountains, and a new
bridge will go across / over the River Wane. Several acres
of forest will disappear as well as part of Caster Castle,
an historic monument. Many people from / in Oldcastle
and Winbay are in favour of the new motorway, but local
ecology groups are against it.
2. Classify the landscape features.
reservoir,
road,
tunnel,
motorway
Natural
hill,
forest,
river,
valley
3. Answer the questions.
Open answers.
4. Write a short letter to a newspaper in favour of or against
the new motorway.
Open answer.
3. Use the information in Activity 2 to write a paragraph
about the Amazon.
The Amazon is in America. It flows through Peru,
Colombia, Brazil, Venezuela, Ecuador and Bolivia.
It is 6,400 kilometres long. It has over 200 tributaries.
Its source is Lago Villafro in the Andes mountains in Peru.
Its mouth is in the Atlantic Ocean in Brazil. The Amazon
runs through tropical rainforests which contain many
different species.
4. Investigate. Open answers.
UNIT 10: POPULATION
1. Answer the questions.
a. In Madrid.
b. He did not want to work in agriculture.
c. In a telecommunications company.
d. He misses his family.
Landscape features
Man-made
Other information: it runs through rich tropical
rainforests
e. Good things: entertainment, services, people from
different countries.
Bad things: people hurry, noisy, expensive.
f. He is not sure. Some people are starting to move from
the cities to the country.
2. Make full sentences.
a. Many villages in Spain are losing population.
b. Young people are moving to the cities.
c. (The) population in villages is getting older.
d. Village life is more peaceful than life in the city.
e. Population density is higher in (the) cities than in
the country.
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EXTENSION
3. Write I agree. or I disagree. next to these sentences.
If you disagree, explain why. Open answers.
4. Investigate. Open answers.
UNIT 11: THE ECONOMY
1. Match the columns.
3. Complete the table.
Civilization
Discoveries
Roman
remains of a villa or bath house
Carthaginian and Phoenician
fish hook and tools
Iberian
pots and jewellery
4. Write a letter. Open answers.
a. 3; b. 6; c. 5; d. 1; e. 4; f. 2.
2. Answer the questions.
a. It provides a lot of jobs.
b. It makes coming to Spain and travelling in Spain easy.
c. They are going to cheaper countries with fewer tourists.
d. They are half-empty.
3. Tick the jobs which belong to the tourist industry.
Jobs which belong to the tourist industry: a. waitress,
b. coach driver, d. tour guide, e. cleaner, h. cook.
4. Write descriptions of two jobs.
Open answers:
5. Investigate. Open answers.
UNIT 12: PREHISTORY AND ANTIQUITY
1. Match the words and the definitions.
a. 3; b. 4; c. 5; d. 1; e. 8; f. 2; g. 7; h. 6.
2. Answer the questions.
UNIT 13: THE MIDDLE AGES
1. Find words in the text which mean the following:
a. A nobleman: count.
b. A machine for making books: printing press.
c. Someone who writes books by hand: scribe.
d. A type of paper made from animal skin: parchment.
e. A university teacher: professor.
f. A subject which is about religion: theology.
g. A person who studies the meaning of life: philosopher.
h. Someone who is very special in the eyes of the Church:
saint.
2. Tick the true sentences.
True sentences: c, f, g, i, j.
Corrected false sentences:
a. Thomas was born into a rich family.
b. He was Italian.
d. The books which Thomas studied were made by hand.
e. Thomas studied in Italy, Germany and France.
a. She worked on a dig.
h. Thomas wrote his masterpiece in Latin.
b. When the government started to build a new road.
k. The feast of Saint Thomas Aquinas is on the date of
publication of Summa Theologica.
c. The remains in the first layer are from a Roman villa or
bath house.
d. They are probably from the Phoenician or Carthaginian
or Iberian civilisations.
e. More remains of other civilizations.
f. The government must protect this area.
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3. Circle the best answer.
a. 1; b. 2; c. 3; d. 2; e. 2; f. 3.
4. Write a biography.
Open answers.
ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 ◾ PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S. L.
15/4/09 17:18:04

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