The United States Through Modern Times

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The United States Through Modern Times
The United States
Through Modern Times
Sample Lesson
Welcome to History Alive! The United States Through Modern Times. This document
contains everything you need to teach the sample lesson “World War II.” We invite
you to use this sample lesson today to discover how TCI can make history come
alive for your students.
Contents
Overview: Sample Lesson 29: World War II
2
Student Text
5
Procedures34
Student Materials
42
Teacher’s Guide
74
Assessment
75
Differentiating Instruction
76
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Our Colonial Heritage
Americans in the Mid-1800s
1 The First Americans
17 An Era of Reform
2 European Exploration
and Settlement
18 The Worlds of North and South
3 The English Colonies in
North America
4 Life in the Colonies
Revolution in the Colonies
5 Toward Independence
History Alive! The United States
Through Modern Times captures
the story of the United States from the
precolonial era to the 21st century.
Students investigate the people, events
and movements that define our nation
and practice skills that help them
understand how the past influences
and shapes the present.
6 The Declaration of
Independence
7 The American Revolution
Forming a New Nation
8 Creating the Constitution
19 African Americans in the
Mid-1800s
The Union Challenged
20 A Dividing Nation
21 The Civil War
22 The Reconstruction Era
Migration and Industry
23 Tensions in the West
24 The Rise of Industry
25 The Great Wave of Immigration
9 The Constitution: A More
Perfect Union
A Modern Nation Emerges
10 The Bill of Rights
27 The United States Becomes
a World Power
Launching the New Republic
11 Political Developments in the
Early Republic
12 Foreign Affairs in the
Young Nation
Sample Lesson:
13 A Growing Sense of Nationhood
29 World War II
14 Andrew Jackson and the Growth
of American Democracy
An Expanding Nation
26 The Progressive Era
28 The Roaring Twenties and the Great Depression
The United States Since 1945
29 World War II
30 The Cold War
31 The Civil Rights Movement
32 Contemporary American
Society
15 Manifest Destiny and the
Growing Nation
16 Life in the West
F R E E 3 0 DAY T R I A L
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Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
Overview
In a Problem Solving Groupwork activity, students present radio broadcasts on the
impact of World War II on eight social and ethnic groups in the United States.
Below is a sampling of slides from the Classroom Presentation.
Preview: Students show what they know before diving into the lesson.
Activity: Students create a timeline of key events in World War II.
3
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
Sample Lesson 29: World War II
Processing: Students create a commemorative stamp set that shows how World
War II affected the people of the United States.
4
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
Activity: In a Problem Solving Groupwork, students present radio broadcasts on the
impact of World War II on eight social and ethnic groups in the United States.
Geography Challenge
The United States in the
Modern Era
World War II was a global war fought on an
unprecedented scale. Historians estimate that
as many as 60 million people throughout the
world died in the conflict. In the course of the
war, U.S. troops fought overseas in Europe,
North Africa, and Asia. The war also profoundly changed life within the United States by
providing new economic and social opportunities for many Americans.
6
The United States and its allies emerged
victorious from World War II, but this did not
mean an end to conflict. The United States and
the Soviet Union, who had been allies during
the war, quickly became rivals. The communist
Soviet Union and the democratic and capitalist
United States held fundamentally conflicting
worldviews. Their rivalry, known as the Cold
War, was the central factor that shaped how
the United States engaged with the rest of the
world for the next 40 years.
Like World War II, the Cold War was also
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
Student Text
7
As the nation was engaged in a global struggle with the Soviet Union, many changes were
occurring within the United States. The African
American civil rights movement, when activists
and ordinary people fought to end segregation
and racial discrimination in the United States,
had a profound impact on the nation beginning
in the 1950s. Americans also dealt with evolving economic conditions, including periods of
growth and periods of contraction. Additionally,
the decades after World War II were shaped by
far-reaching political and cultural change.
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
fought on a global scale. As this map shows, the
United States and the Soviet Union competed to
draw nations onto their side, creating a bipolar
world. By 1955, two opposing alliances had
formed. The United States led NATO, the Western
alliance. The Soviet Union led the Warsaw Pact,
the alliance centered in Eastern Europe. The two
powers also fought to gain influence in countries
that were not formal members of either alliance.
As a result, events in nations throughout the
world were affected by the Cold War struggle.
Some of these events are highlighted on the map.
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
556 Chapter 29
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Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
Chapter 29
World War II
How did World War II change the United States?
29.1 Introduction
▲
The peace settlement that ended World War I was unsatisfactory to many
nations, even some nations on the winning side of the war. As a result,
the peace of the 1920s was a troubled one, marked by instability within
nations and between them. Unrest intensified in the 1930s, as the Great
Depression that began in the United States spread around the world.
The hard times that followed, when added to tensions that already existed, caused people in some countries to support dictators—rulers who
have absolute power—who promised order, prosperity, and a better future. Dictatorships developed in Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union.
In Italy, a leader named Benito Mussolini overthrew the government in 1922. Within a few years, he turned the Italian government
into a dictatorship based on a political philosophy called fascism.
Mussolini planned to expand Italy’s territory and to restore Italy to the
glorious days of the ancient Roman Empire.
Russia also became a dictatorship. In 1922, the Communist Party
in Russia formed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), commonly known as the Soviet Union. By the 1930s, Soviet leader Joseph
Stalin had established a dictatorship and created a totalitarian state.
The Communist Party totally controlled all aspects of the government,
economy, and society.
Under the Nazi Party, Germany also fell to dictatorship. In Germany, the effects of the Great Depression were especially severe. By 1932,
about a third of German workers were out of work. Industrial production was cut nearly in half, and German exports fell dramatically.
Banks failed and could no longer make loans to businesses. Many
German farmers lost their farms, which led to food shortages.
In the 1930s, a leader named Adolf Hitler took advantage of
Germany’s troubles to stir up German nationalism. Hitler led the
National Socialist German Workers’ Party, also known as the Nazi Party.
The Nazis wanted to create a powerful Germany, and to greatly expand
German territory. They also believed that ethnic Germans were racially
superior to other peoples. They aimed to deny citizenship and political
power to those who were not ethnically German—and especially to Jews.
Benito Mussolini established a
dictatorship in Italy in the 1920s.
Mussolini based his rule on the ideals
of fascism, the authoritarian political
philosophy he developed. Adolf Hitler
was influenced by Mussolini’s ideas,
and established a fascist state in
Germany in the 1930s.
This American propaganda poster shows cannons labeled with the flags of the
Allied powers that fought against Germany, Italy, and Japan in World War II.
World War II
9
557
or system marked by strong
central authority that places the
nation above individual rights
and freedoms
totalitarian a governing system
in which a ruling elite holds all
power and controls all aspects of
society, allowing no opposition
and often maintaining power with
the use of terror and secret police
In the 1930s, Adolf Hitler and the
Nazi Party transformed Germany
into a totalitarian state. Hitler’s
promise to create a stonger, more
prosperous Germany appealed to many
discontented Germans.
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Chapter 29
The Nazis promised to impose order, promote their racial policies, and create a stronger, more prosperous Germany. Their message
appealed to unemployed workers, farmers, and young people eager
to support the ideals of German nationalism. The Nazi message also
appealed to middle-class Germans who were being hurt by the depression. By the end of 1932, the Nazis were the largest political party in
the German parliament.
In 1933, Germany’s president named Hitler as chancellor—the top
position in the German cabinet. Once in power, Hitler moved quickly
to create a government based on the principles of fascism in which he
held all the power.
Hitler brought Germany under complete Nazi control and established a totalitarian state. All other political parties were banned.
Nazis were appointed to head all state and local governments. In 1934,
Hitler combined the offices of president and chancellor and ruled
Germany as a dictator.
Like the Nazis, in Japan military leaders also sought to greatly
expand their nation’s territory. In the 1930s, the military began to gain
more power and play a greater role in government. They used aggressive military action to conquer new land and seize raw materials. In
1931, Japan invaded and took control of a region in China called Manchuria. More aggression followed in 1937. The Japanese army attacked
Beijing, China’s capital, and went on to capture the city of Nanjing. In
Nanjing, Japanese soldiers massacred about 300,000 Chinese civilians.
Meanwhile, European leaders Mussolini and Hitler began to use
military force to gain territory. Mussolini invaded the East African
nation of Ethiopia in 1935. In 1936, Hitler sent German troops to occupy the Rhineland, a German region on the border with France. The
Treaty of Versailles prohibited military action in this region. But the
League of Nations did nothing to stop Germany. In 1938, Hitler annexed Austria and part of Czechoslovakia as part of his plan to unite
all German-speaking peoples.
At first, Great Britain and France chose to avoid war by allowing
Hitler to expand German territory. But in 1939, when Germany took
over the non-German speaking area of Czechoslovakia, Britain and
France were prompted to take stronger action. They said that if Germany made further attacks on small states, they would declare war.
Hitler had no interest in avoiding war. He had already made plans to
invade Poland.
On Hitler’s order, German troops invaded Poland on September 1,
1939. Two days later, Great Britain and France declared war on Germany. World War II had begun. Great Britain and France were known
as the Allied powers. In 1940, Germany, Italy, and Japan formed a
military and political alliance called the Axis powers. When war
broke out, the United States stayed neutral. Despite its tradition of isolationism, however, the United States would soon join the Allies in the
fight against the Axis powers.
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
fascism a political philosophy
At first, the Axis powers seemed unstoppable. By the end of 1941, Japanese forces had conquered most of China and had moved into French
Indochina. France had fallen to Germany, and the German army had
begun an invasion of the Soviet Union. The Axis powers also controlled
most of North Africa. Great Britain and the Soviet Union were the only
powers left to fight against the dictators in Europe.
The United States Provides Aid President Franklin Roosevelt
knew that Americans were not yet ready to abandon isolationism and
join the war. But he was able to persuade Congress to sell, lend, or lease
war supplies to “any country whose defense the President deems vital to
the defense of the United States.” Passed in early 1941, this legislation was
called the Lend-Lease Act. Over the course of the war, the United States
gave about $50 billion in war supplies to more than 40 Allied nations.
Most of the aid went to Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and China.
At the same time, Roosevelt prepared for war. He got funding from
Congress for ships and planes, and started the first peacetime draft.
Japan Attacks the United States While the war in Europe
grabbed headlines, tensions were also rising between the United States
and Japan. In 1942, Japan began to occupy bases in southern Indochina
(now Vietnam and Cambodia). The United States protested by halting
trade with Japan. This trade embargo cut Japan off from the one thing
its leaders could not live without—oil for their armed forces. They could
get oil by seizing the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). But the United
States and its navy stood in their way.
The morning of Sunday, December 7, 1941, dawned cloudy at Pearl
Harbor, Hawaii, the home of the U.S. Navy’s Pacific fleet. Aboard the
battleship Oklahoma, crew members were eating breakfast when loudspeakers blared out, “Real planes, real bombs; this is no drill!” Japanese planes roared out of the clouds, raining bombs on the naval base.
The Oklahoma sank almost immediately. Four hundred
and twenty-nine crew members aboard were killed. Nearby,
the battleship Arizona caught fire and disappeared beneath
the waves, taking more than 1,000 men with it. In a little more
than two hours, the Japanese had sunk or damaged all eight
battleships in the U.S. Pacific Fleet. The attack destroyed or
damaged 347 aircraft. More than 2,400 Americans were killed.
The next day, President Roosevelt spoke to a shocked
nation. “Yesterday,” he began, “December 7, 1941—a date
which will live in infamy [evil fame]—the United States of
America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and
air forces of the Empire of Japan.” Within an hour, Congress
declared war on Japan. In turn, Germany and Italy declared
war on the United States. America was finished with isolationism. It was time to fight.
On December 7, 1941, the Japanese
launched a surprise attack against the
U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor. This
photograph shows the wreckage of the
USS Arizona. The United States lost all
eight battleships in the Pacific Fleet.
World War II
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559
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29.2 The United States Enters World War II
During the course of the war, the Red
Army, as the Soviet forces were known,
destroyed more German divisions than
all the other Allied forces combined.
But the Soviets also suffered enormous
loses. Historians estimate that 20
million Soviet soldiers and civilians died
in the war. In this image, two soldiers in
the Red Army operate a machine gun.
General Dwight D. Eisenhower directed
the invasion of France that began with
D-Day on June 6, 1944. Eisenhower is
shown here preparing his troops the
day before the start of the invasion
in which 176,000 British, Canadian,
and American soldiers landed on the
coast of German-occupied France.
Eisenhower’s military career as
supreme commander of the Allied
forces in Western Europe would later
help him win the presidency.
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Chapter 29
The War in Europe
Great Britain and France had been fighting Germany since
1939. In 1940, Italy entered the war on the side of Germany
and the Axis powers. France surrendered to Germany in 1940.
Great Britain fought on alone, led by Prime Minister Winston
Churchill. In the Battle of Britain, the Royal Air Force successfully defended Britain from bombing raids launched by
German planes over a devastating three-month period in the
summer and fall of 1940.
By the time the United States entered the war, the Axis
powers controlled most of Europe. In late December 1941,
President Roosevelt met with Churchill in Washington, D.C.
Believing that Germany posed a bigger threat to the world than Japan,
they agreed that the Allies should concentrate first on the war in Europe.
The Allies Invade North Africa and Italy When the United
States entered the war, the Allied powers were not strong enough to
attack Germany directly. Instead, they began their campaign in North
Africa, where German defenses were weaker. In November 1942, more
than 100,000 Allied troops landed in North Africa with a mission to
destroy the Axis forces. The bulk of the Axis troops in North Africa
were Italian, but Germany’s Afrika Korps formed the backbone of the
force. The Afrika Korps was led by General Erwin Rommel, the legendary “Desert Fox.” After months of fierce desert fighting, the Afrika
Korps surrendered in May 1943.
From North Africa, the Allies crossed the Mediterranean Sea to
attack Italy. The Italian island of Sicily fell quickly. But conquering the
mountainous Italian peninsula proved to be far more difficult. Even after the Italians surrendered, German troops stubbornly defended Italy.
It took the Allies almost two years to drive the Germans off Italian soil.
The Battle of Stalingrad Meanwhile, beginning in June 1941,
Hitler launched an invasion of the Soviet Union. Under the leadership
of Joseph Stalin, the Soviets joined the Allies and fought back against
Germany. Advancing rapidly, German troops reached the industrial
city of Stalingrad in the summer of 1942. At Stalingrad, German firebombs set most of the city ablaze, but Stalin ordered his soldiers not to
retreat. As the brutal Russian winter set in, the German army attacking the city was surrounded by Soviet troops and forced to give up.
The bloody defense of Stalingrad cost the Soviets more than 1
million soldiers and civilians—more than all the American casualties
in the entire war. However, the victory marked a turning point. After
Stalingrad, the Russian army stopped retreating and began to advance
on Germany. The Soviet struggle on the Eastern front played a huge
role in defeating Germany. In the course of the war, Soviet troops
destroyed more German divisions than the British, Americans, and
other Allied countries combined.
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
29.3
D-Day June 6, 1944, the day
that the Allied invasion of German-occupied France began
German Concentration Camps By 1945, the Allies were closing
in on Germany. While marching across Poland toward the German
capital of Berlin, Soviet troops came upon Majdanek, a German concentration camp. There they found a thousand people so weak and sick
that they seemed like living corpses. They also found a huge crematorium—a furnace for burning dead bodies. “This is not a concentration
camp,” reported a horrified Soviet war correspondent. “It is a gigantic
murder plant.”
World War II in Europe and North Africa, 1942–1945
ICELAND
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Axis powers
before World War II
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SOVIET UNION
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Extent of Axis control
early Nov. 1942
At the start of 1942, the Axis powers
controlled much of Europe and
North Africa. The Allied strategy for
defeating Germany and Italy called for
massive invasions of Axis-controlled
territory. Allied troop movements
ultimately joined in Germany, where
the Allies captured Berlin, the capital
city, in May 1945.
TCI7 67
Europe and North Africa, 1942–1945
USH_SE_36-3A
Black Cyan Magenta Yellow
Fourth Proof
L I B YA
(IT.)
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LEBANON
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(BR.)
Alexandria
Nov
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Canal
El-Alamein
(Oct. 23–Nov. 5, 1942)
EGYPT
SAUDI
ARABIA
World War II 561
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
The Allies Liberate France While the Soviet Union prepared
to invade Germany from the east, the Allies readied an invasion of
France from the west. They gave the mission the code name of Operation Overlord. D-Day, or invasion day, came on June 6, 1944. Early
that morning, about 176,000 troops, 4,000 landing craft, 600 warships,
and almost 14,000 planes left England for the beaches of Normandy,
on the coast of German-occupied France.
The D-Day invasion was the largest combined land-sea-air operation in history. It began with a massive air and sea bombardment of
German positions on the Normandy coast. Even with this support,
troops landing on the beaches were met by murderous fire from
the cliffs above. “It seemed we had entered hell itself,” an American
recalled. “The whole beach was a great burning fury. All around were
burning vehicles, puffed-up bodies. . . . The water was burning.”
Despite heavy losses, the troops captured the Normandy beaches.
Within two weeks, the Allies landed a million soldiers in France and
began to move inland.
state-sponsored persecution and
murder of Jews and other minority groups by the Nazis
When American soldiers landed on Iwo
Jima in February 1945, they faced fierce
opposition from the Japanese, who
believed in fighting to the death. Almost
7,000 Americans died during the battle
to capture this small island. In this photo
taken during the battle, U.S. troops
advance up a hill.
The War Ends in Europe By April 30, 1945, Hitler knew the war
was lost. Rather than surrender, the German dictator committed
suicide in his Berlin headquarters. A week later, Germany surrendered
to the Allies.
Throughout the Allied countries, people celebrated V-E Day (Victory in Europe Day). But the struggle was only half over. On the other
side of the world, the Pacific war still raged.
29.4
The War in the Pacific
The United States did not wait until V-E
Day to move against Japan. While the
Americans rebuilt their Pacific Fleet after
the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japan quickly
expanded its Asian empire. By the spring
of 1942, Japanese forces controlled an area
covering almost a seventh of the earth.
The Battle of Midway In May 1942,
a huge Japanese fleet headed for Midway
Island in the Pacific. From that point,
Japanese forces could easily invade Hawaii. Although outnumbered, U.S. bombers attacked the Japanese fleet again and
again. By the end of the Battle of Midway,
Japan had lost four aircraft carriers and
322 planes. Never again would Japan directly threaten the United States. The tide
of battle in the Pacific had turned.
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Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
Holocaust the systematic,
He was right. Long before invading Poland, Hitler and his followers had persecuted Jews and other groups, including Gypsies and
Poles. They viewed these groups as inferior to the German “master
race.” When German troops invaded the Soviet Union, they formed
mobile killing squads, and executed over 1 million Jews as the army
advanced into Soviet territory. Germany then turned to more industrial methods of killing. Wherever German troops went, they rounded
up Jews and other groups they considered inferior and sent them
to prison camps. Some were forced to work as slaves. The rest were
murdered soon after their arrival. This massive program of systematic
murder came to be called the Holocaust. Across Europe, the Nazis
murdered 11 million people in the Holocaust. Six million of them
were Jews.
As the Allies pushed toward Berlin from the west, they found more
death camps, each more horrifying than the last. After seeing the horrors at the Gunskirchen concentration camp, one American said, “I
finally knew what I was fighting for, what the war was all about,” and
why Hitler had to be defeated.
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The Allies Push Toward Japan The Allies’ push through the Pacific steadily shrank the defensive forces the Japanese had established
around Japan. Those forces disappeared after the Allies captured the
key islands of Iwo Jima and Okinawa in early 1945. The month-long
Battle of Iwo Jima was among the bloodiest of the war. Nearly all of
the 22,000 Japanese troops fought to their deaths. More than 6,800
American troops also died.
To capture the much larger island of Okinawa, the Allies mounted a
huge invasion in April 1945. More than 1,300 American ships, including 40 aircraft carriers, supported a force of 182,000 American troops.
As on Iwo Jima, the 120,000 Japanese troops defending Okinawa fiercely
resisted the invaders. The Battle of Okinawa continued for three months.
It claimed the lives of some 12,000 American and more than 100,000
Japanese soldiers.
Earlier in the Pacific war, the Japanese had introduced a new
method of attack. Japanese pilots flew planes filled with explosives
into American warships to blow them up. The men flying these suicide
missions were called kamikaze pilots. Kamikaze, which means “divine
wind,” was the name given to a legendary storm that saved Japan from
an invasion by sea in 1281. In the Battle of Okinawa alone, kamikaze
attacks killed 5,000 American seamen.
After the Battle of Midway, the Allies
began their offensive in the Pacific
in August 1942 with the invasion of
Guadalcanal. The Battle of Guadalcanal
lasted for six long months. U.S. troops
fought the Japanese on land, in the
air, and at sea. As the Allies captured
islands, they then used these islands as
bases for attacks on other islands. This
strategy of island-hopping successfully
and gradually drove the Japanese
forces back toward Japan.
World War II
15
563
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Island Hopping After Midway,
World War II in the Pacific, 1942–1945
the Allies began the task of driv180˚
165˚W
165˚E
150˚E
90˚E
105˚E
120˚E
135˚E
ing the Japanese off hundreds of
Alaska
SOVIET UNION
(U.S.)
islands scattered over thousands
Dutch Harbor
Attu I.
of miles of ocean. Rather than
nds
Aleutian Isla
attack every Japanese stronghold,
MONGOLIA
MANCHURIA
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I
ril
45˚N
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the Allies adopted a strategy
Beijing
known as “island hopping.”
KOREA
PACI FI C
CHINA
Using this strategy, Allied
Tokyo
Hiroshima O CEAN
Nagasaki Chongqing
troops seized islands that were
Shanghai Okinawa
30˚N
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uk Midway
Ry
less well defended. Then they used
Ro
Burma
INDIA
Iwo Jima
Formosa
Hong
5
Hawaiian Is.
BURMA
these islands as bases from which
Wake I.
Mariana Is.
Kong
5
Pearl Harbor THAILAND
Saipan
to attack Japanese ships supplyManila
1944
15˚N
PHILIPPINE
N
Guam
FRENCH
3
ISLANDS
ing nearby islands. As a result,
INDOCHINA
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Is.
W
E
reported a Japanese officer, “Our
CAROLINE ISLANDS
MALAYA
1
94
Singapore
S
4
strong points were gradually
Tarawa Equator 0˚
Borneo
194
New
Gilbert Is.
Celebes
Guinea
starved out.”
DUTCH EAST INDIES
Solomon
Is.
INDIAN
Java
While island-hopping worked,
Guadalcanal
OCEAN
Coral
few islands fell easily. Japanese
1942
Sea
15˚S
Areas under Japanese control, 1942
soldiers viewed surrender as
Greatest extent of Japanese naval power, 1942
2,000 mi.
0
1,000
Allied advances
deeply shameful, and they offered
0
1,000
2,000 km
Major battles
fierce resistance. One U.S. marine
observed, “You don’t really comprehend it until you get out there and fight people who are faced with
The U.S. military led the Allied forces in
the Pacific and did most of the fighting.
an absolutely hopeless situation and will not give up.”
powerful weapon whose violent
energy comes from splitting the
atom (the basic unit of matter)
The detonation of an atomic bomb
creates a mushroom-shaped cloud of
atomic explosion. This image shows
the detonation of an atomic bomb
over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945.
The explosion instantly killed an
estimated 40,000 people.
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The United States Uses the Atomic Bomb Truman did not
hesitate. “I regarded the bomb as a military weapon and never had
any doubt that it should be used,” he wrote of his decision. Japan was
warned that it faced “prompt and utter destruction” unless it surrendered at once. No surrender came.
On August 6, 1945, an American plane named the Enola Gay
dropped an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. A blinding flash filled the sky. The explosion that followed killed about 70,000
people, most in mere moments. “I felt I had lost all the bones in my
body,” recalled a survivor. “I saw a beautiful blue sky and a dead city.”
A stunned Japan did not surrender. Three days later, a second
atomic bomb exploded over the city of Nagasaki, killing an estimated
40,000 people. “I cannot bear to see my
innocent people suffer any longer,” said
Japanese emperor Hirohito. He announced Japan’s surrender. As many as
250,000 Japanese may have died from
the two atomic bombs, either directly
or as the result of burns, radiation poisoning, or cancer.
On August 15, 1945, Americans celebrated V-J Day (Victory in Japan Day).
After signing the surrender treaty,
American general Douglas MacArthur
announced, “A great victory has been
won. The skies no longer rain death—
the seas bear only commerce—men
everywhere walk upright in the sunlight.
The entire world is quietly at peace.”
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atomic bomb an immensely
The United States Develops the Atomic Bomb President
Roosevelt did not live to see the hard-won victory in Okinawa. On
April 12, 1945, he died from a stroke. Vice President Harry S Truman
became the nation’s new president.
A few days later, Truman was handed a memo that began, “Within
four months we shall in all probability have completed the most terrible weapon ever known in human history.” This was the first Truman had heard of the Manhattan Project and the atomic bomb.
The Manhattan Project was a top-secret U.S. government program
established to build an atomic weapon. The program had been set
up under Roosevelt in 1942 and was kept so secret that even his vice
president did not know about it. A team of scientists, many of whom
had fled from fascist nations in Europe, carried on the research and
development. When the first bomb was successfully tested at a site in
New Mexico in July 1945, Truman faced a terrible choice. He could
order an invasion of Japan, which might cost half a million American
lives. Or he could use this frightening new weapon.
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29.5 The Aftermath of World War II
Millions of people around the world celebrated the end of World War
II. But they also mourned the terrible loss of life. As many as 60 million people died in World War II. About half of them were civilians,
or people not serving in the military. The Soviet Union suffered the
highest losses. Perhaps 20 million or more Soviet soldiers and civilians were killed, although an accurate count was never made. Poland
was also hit hard, suffering about 6 million deaths, nearly all of them
civilians. Nearly 2 million Japanese were killed and more than 7 million Germans. Britain, France, and the United States each lost several
hundred thousand people.
More than 20 million Europeans were made homeless by the fighting. The huge number of dead and homeless in China and the rest of
Asia will probably never be known. Nor can the cost of all the property destroyed, resources depleted, and economic activity disrupted
by the war. Just the money governments paid to fight the war totaled
more than a trillion dollars.
The Allies Reshape Europe The Allies set out to restructure
Germany after the war. In February 1945, President Franklin Roosevelt,
British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet leader Joseph
Stalin met in the Soviet city of Yalta for the Yalta Conference. The
Allied leaders agreed that after the war they would divide Germany
into four military zones occupied by American, British, French, and
Soviet forces.
The German capital of Berlin lay entirely within the Soviet zone. In
July 1945, Allied leaders met at another conference in Potsdam, near Berlin. This time, the United States was represented by President Truman,
who had taken office after FDR died. At the Potsdam Conference, the
Allies divided Berlin into four sectors—one for each occupying power.
At the Potsdam Conference, the Allies
agreed to divide the German city of
Berlin into four sectors. Each sector
would be controlled by one of the Allied
powers—the United States, Great
Britain, France, or the Soviet Union. In
this photograph, British military police
erect a sign to mark the boundary
between the British and Russian sectors
of Berlin.
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After Japan’s surrender, the American
General Douglas MacArthur was put
in charge of the country. MacArthur’s
team demobilized Japan’s military
forces and wrote a new constitution
that went into effect in 1947. The
occupation of Japan ended in 1952.
war crime a violation of inter-
nationally accepted practices
related to waging war
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War Crimes Trials The Allies made a number of demands of the
Axis powers at the end of World War II. Germany and Japan had to
disarm and give up all territory they had taken. The Allies did not
want to inflict more suffering on the people of these defeated nations. However, they did want to punish those who had committed
war crimes.
The most famous of the war crimes trials occurred in November
1945, when the Allies put 22 Nazi leaders on trial in the German city
of Nuremberg. They were charged not only with war crimes but also
with crimes against humanity, such as enslavement and extermination. Judges from the United States, the Soviet Union, Great Britain,
and France heard their cases. Twelve defendants were condemned to
death by hanging, seven received prison terms, and three were acquitted
in the Nuremberg Trials.
In May 1946, a separate court in Tokyo put 28 Japanese war criminals on trial. All were found guilty. Sixteen received life sentences.
Seven were sentenced to death by hanging, including Japanese Prime
Minister Tojo.
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The Allies Occupy Japan The Americans took a different approach to postwar
Japan. They put American general Douglas
MacArthur in charge of the country. Allied
soldiers occupied Japan, but they did not
control it directly as they did in Germany.
Instead, the Japanese government carried out
a series of political and economic reforms
that MacArthur and his staff prescribed.
However, MacArthur had ultimate power in
Japan, and could overrule Japanese decisions
as he saw fit. The Allies also disbanded, or
broke up, Japan’s military.
The Allies worked to bring democracy to
Japan. U.S. officials working under MacArthur’s command prepared a new constitution. It set up a parliamentary government,
based on the British model, with a strong
legislature and an independent judicial
branch. The emperor would only have
ceremonial powers. Women as well as men
could elect members of parliament. A bill
of rights listed civil and political liberties.
MacArthur also made sure that the Japanese
constitution banned the use of force as an
instrument of power. Japan’s new constitution took effect in 1947. The Allied occupation of Japan ended in 1952.
The Granger Collection, New York
Life on the War Front
World War II changed life for all Americans,
most especially the people who served in the
military. The day after the attack on Pearl
Harbor, thousands of Americans signed up
to fight. More than 5 million people volunteered for the military during World War II.
Another 10 million were drafted.
Becoming a GI The military mixed
Americans together as never before. Northerners and southerners, city dwellers and
farmers, Protestants, Catholics, and Jews all
trained together. After three months of basic
training, they were battle-ready GIs. The
term GI—meaning “Government Issue”—
was stamped on government-issued uniforms and supplies. Soon the troops were
applying it to themselves.
Military life for GIs began at training
camps, where new recruits were turned into
fighting teams. Officers expected obedience
to every order. Recruits exercised, drilled,
and crawled through the mud with heavy
equipment as machine guns fired overhead. After basic training, more
than half the troops were sent overseas. The rest worked on military
bases in the United States in a wide variety of jobs.
Life in Combat American GIs frequently complained about the military. But combat soldiers had the most to complain about. They griped
about their rations of dried and canned food. They complained about
having no beds, toilet paper, or showers. They grumbled about endless
marching, about digging trenches, about cold nights and hot days.
Combat was deafening and terrifying. “The ground all around
us shook with gigantic explosions,” said one soldier. “Each man is
isolated from everyone else. Death is immediately in front of him. He
only knows that his legs and arms are still there and that he has not
been hit yet. In the next instant he might.”
Yet even when overwhelmed by fear, most GIs did the job they
were trained to do. Where did ordinary men find such courage? When
asked, they answered that they were motivated by patriotism and by
the desire to help their buddies.
More than 292,000 Americans died in World War II battles. Those
who survived were proud of their military service. “You felt you were
doing something worthwhile,” said a GI who was part of the D-Day
invasion. “I always felt lucky to have been part of it.”
American soldiers showed tremendous
courage in the face of great dangers
and hardships. Here, a Coast Guard
gunner’s mate—an artilleryman—
gives water to a soldier wounded in the
Allied invasion of Leyte Island in the
Philippines in 1944. The four-day Battle
of Leyte Gulf ended in victory for the
Allies and the destruction of most of the
Japanese fleet. The Battle of Leyte Gulf
marked the first major use of Japanese
kamikaze attacks.
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29.6
When World War II began, the American economy was focused on
producing consumer goods. The head of the German air force joked
that “Americans can’t build planes—only electric iceboxes and razor
blades.” It probably shocked Germany to see how quickly the American government transformed the United States into what President
Roosevelt called the “arsenal of democracy.”
American factories, guided by the
War Production Board, turned out
an avalanche of weapons for World
War II. Thousands of tanks, aircraft,
and ships rolled off the assembly line.
This photograph shows two workers
painting a B-25 bomber at an aviation
factory in California in 1942.
bond a government certificate
that pays interest; selling bonds
is a way for the government to
raise money temporarily for
some public purpose
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Increasing Production In January 1942 , just
a month after the attack on Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt set up the War Production Board.
This agency’s job was to transform American
factories into machines for making war supplies
and equipment. The board banned the production
of nonessential civilian goods, from cars to coat
hangers. Automakers began making tanks, jeeps,
and trucks. Shirtmakers went to work making
mosquito nets to protect soldiers from diseasecarrying mosquitoes in tropical regions.
The War Production Board organized nationwide
drives to collect scrap iron, tin cans, paper, rags, and
cooking fat for recycling into war goods. Children
took part by searching through their homes, vacant
lots, and back alleys for useful scrap. During one
paper drive in Chicago, schoolchildren collected
36 million pounds of paper in just a few months.
To prevent worker strikes that might shut down essential wartime
production, the government also established the War Labor Board.
This agency worked with unions and workers to settle labor issues
without halting production.
Americans took pride in aiding the war effort. In 1939, U.S. aircraft
companies turned out only 6,000 planes. By 1944, however, they were
producing 96,000 planes a year. Shipbuilders cut the time needed
to make military cargo vessels, known as Liberty ships, from eight
months to as little as two weeks. Within two years of Pearl Harbor,
U.S. factories were producing more military equipment than all of the
Axis countries combined.
Supporting the War Effort Huge amounts of money were needed
to fight the war. To raise these funds, the government borrowed from
banks, businesses, and individuals. Millions of Americans bought war
bonds as a way of lending the government money for the war.
To keep spirits high, the government established an Office of War
Information. This office provided upbeat stories and photographs to
newspapers, magazines, and radio stations. Government officials read
news stories before they were published. Often they cut out reports of
setbacks and tragedies to keep them from reaching the public.
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29.7 Wartime Government
Wartime Consumers
As factories and farms focused on military needs, consumers were
hit by shortages of almost everything. While some complained, most
Americans encouraged each other to “use it up, wear it out, make it
do, or do without.”
Price Controls and Rationing Expanding war production created
millions of new jobs, ending the Great Depression. With more money
flowing into workers’ pockets, the government feared that inflation
would cause a rapid rise in the price of scarce consumer goods. So the
government established the Office of Price Administration (OPA) to
control the prices of most goods.
The OPA also set up a rationing system. Rationing means limiting
the amount of scarce items that any one individual can buy. Each person received ration coupons labeled for specific items. Anybody who
wanted to buy a rationed item, such as shoes or gas, had to provide the
proper coupons along with the money.
Every meal reminded Americans of the war. Meat, sugar, and
coffee were strictly rationed. Most people understood why. Meat
was needed to feed soldiers. Sugarcane was better used for making
gunpowder than sugar cubes. Importing coffee from Latin America
required ships that were better used to support troops overseas.
Victory Gardens and Pocketless Pants To supplement their
food rations, Americans planted “victory gardens” in backyards and
playgrounds. By 1943, 20 million gardens were producing over a third
of all the vegetables eaten in the United States.
Wartime shortages changed what was available to Americans to
buy. With steel needed for weapons, stores no longer stocked lawn
mowers, bicycles, or even
hairpins. With cloth needed for
uniforms, the War Production
Board ordered that women’s
skirts be made without pleats
and men’s trousers be made
without pockets or cuffs.
In 1943, the government
hired a Harvard professor to
find out how Americans were
reacting to rationing. “The good
temper and common sense of
most people under restrictions
and vexations [annoyances]
was really impressive,” he reported. “My own observation is
that most people are behaving
like patriotic, loyal citizens.”
inflation a rise in prices caused
by an increase in the supply of
money and a resulting decline
in its value
When voluntary efforts to reduce
the consumption of certain foods
such as sugar proved inadequate, the
government rationed these items.
Consumers received ration books with
coupons that were needed, in addition
to money, to purchase a product. This
poster reminded Americans that their
ration of sugar was two pounds per
person month.
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29.8
Women in World War II
As men went into the armed forces,
business owners worried that the nation
would not have enough workers to meet
its military and industrial needs. They
were wrong. By 1944, nearly 18 million
workers were laboring in war industries,
three times as many as in 1941. More
than 6 million of these workers were
women.
During World War II, more than
6 million women joined the workforce
as mechanics, electricians, welders,
and machinists. Half had never earned
a wage before. This U.S. government
poster shows a woman working in an
airplane factory.
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Women on the Job At first, war
industries were reluctant to hire women.
Employers feared that women were not
strong enough for factory work. But once
women showed they could use a riveting
gun as well as a man, employers couldn’t
hire enough of them. Women worked as
welders, electricians, and machinists.
They became police officers, doctors, taxi
drivers, and railroad workers. No matter
how well they worked, however, women
were paid only about 60 percent as much
as men doing the same jobs.
New work also posed new difficulties.
Women in industry were often criticized
as being “unfeminine,” especially those
whose jobs required them to wear pants.
Despite the challenges and lower pay,
women valued their new opportunities.
“Those years changed our lives,” recalled
one woman. “All of a sudden I was making money. I was head of a household and
it made a different person of me.”
Most women wanted to keep their jobs after the war was over. “I
like my work so much that they’ll have to fire me before I leave,” said
one electrical worker. As it turned out, many women were fired at
war’s end to make way for returning men.
Women in the Military Women also took on new jobs in the military. Until World War II, the military had accepted women only as nurses. Under the slogan “Free a Man to Fight,” women were now recruited
into the armed forces to take on a variety of noncombat assignments.
More than 200,000 women played vital roles in the armed services
as radio operators, armed guards, translators, codebreakers, and mechanics. Women served as test pilots and flight instructors. More than
200 women, mostly nurses, died in the line of duty during the war.
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29.9
Japanese Americans and the War
On December 7, 1941, an angry white neighbor came to the home of
a Japanese American family. “You . . . started the war,” the neighbor
yelled. “You bombed Pearl Harbor!” Of course, Japanese Americans
had nothing to do with starting the war. But after the Japanese attack
on Pearl Harbor, a cloud of suspicion settled on these loyal citizens.
Internment Camps Japanese immigrants to the United States had
already endured decades of racial prejudice. After Pearl Harbor,
politicians, military leaders, and opinion makers warned that Japanese
Americans might be secretly working to help Japan attack the West
Coast. The Los Angeles Times warned, “. . . a Japanese American born
of Japanese parents . . . grows up to be a Japanese, not an American.”
In response to these fears, President Roosevelt ordered the removal
of people of Japanese ancestry from the West Coast in 1942. About
120,000 Japanese Americans were forced to leave their homes and
businesses and move to distant internment camps. There they would
remain for three long years, even though not one Japanese American
was ever accused of spying or treason.
Most of the hastily constructed camps were located in bleak
deserts. Families were crowded together in flimsy housing with no
running water. Barbed wire and armed guards surrounded each camp.
One resident recalled, “We struggled with the heat, the sandstorms,
the scorpions, the rattlesnakes, the confusion, the overcrowded barracks, and the lack of privacy.”
Overcoming Injustice Despite the injustice suffered by their
families, many young men in the camps volunteered for military
service. In the Pacific, Japanese Americans worked as interpreters.
In Europe, the Japanese American
442nd Regiment earned more
medals than any other army brigade
in U.S. history. President Truman
welcomed the brigade when they
returned home. “You fought not
only the enemy,” the president said.
“You fought prejudice—and you
won.”
In 1988, Congress passed legislation that gave $20,000 to every
Japanese American who had been
interned, or confined, in the camps.
With each check came a written
apology from President George H.W.
Bush for “the serious injustices that
were done to Japanese Americans
during World War II.”
internment camp a prison
camp where people are forcibly
confined
As part of a war emergency measure,
about 120,000 Japanese Americans
were moved into internment camps
during World War II. The camps were
set up in California, Arizona, Idaho,
Utah, Wyoming, and Arkansas. These
people were on their way to the
Manzanar camp in California. In 1988,
Congress issued a formal apology
and gave $20,000 to each Japanese
American who had been subjected to
internment.
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29.10
When Japanese bombs hit the battleship West Virginia at Pearl Harbor in 1941, an African American
cook named Dorie Miller grabbed an antiaircraft
machine gun and started shooting. Miller, who
had never been trained to fire a weapon, showed
immense bravery as he shot at attacking Japanese
planes. In 1942, the U.S. Navy awarded him with
the Navy Cross. He was the first African American
to earn such an honor.
Miller had no weapons training because the military limited black soldiers and sailors to unskilled
support jobs. As a result, African Americans in the
armed forces faced what some called the “Double
Victory” campaign. They were fighting dictatorship
overseas as well as discrimination at home.
African Americans served with
distinction in all branches of the armed
forces. In 1941, the U.S. army organized
the nation’s first flying unit made up
of black pilots. The Tuskegee Airmen,
named for the Tuskegee military base
in Alabama where they trained, were
known for their bravery in flight against
German warplanes. This photograph
shows members of the Tuskegee
Airmen in Italy in 1945.
African American Servicemen Almost
900,000 African Americans served in the military
during the war. Trained in segregated camps, they
were assigned to noncombat jobs such as driving
trucks and cooking.
Under great pressure from civil rights organizations, the military
changed its policy. African Americans began to serve in every kind
of combat position, from fighter pilots to tank operators to sailors.
Although still in segregated units, by the end of the war blacks served
alongside whites on Navy ships.
Many black units distinguished themselves in combat. The 92nd
Infantry Division, nicknamed the “Buffaloes,” won more than 200
medals for courage under fire. The 99th Pursuit Squadron, better
known as the Tuskegee Airmen, won awards for its daring aerial combat against the German air force.
Progress at Home As factories geared up for war production, many
would not hire African Americans. An aviation company expressed
the attitude of many in the defense industry when it announced that
African Americans would be hired only as janitors. It was not company policy to hire them as mechanics or aircraft technicians.
To protest such discrimination, the nation’s leading black labor
leader, A. Phillip Randolph, called for a march on Washington, D.C.
President Roosevelt responded by issuing an order calling on employers and labor unions to end “discrimination because of race, creed,
color, or national origin” in defense industries.
By 1944, some 2 million African Americans were working in defense plants across the nation. “The war made me live better, it really
did,” said one black woman. “My sister always said that Hitler was the
one that got us out of the white folks’ kitchen.”
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29.11 African Americans in the War
Sergeant José López was called a “one-man army.” In one battle, he
singlehandedly held off dozens of attacking Germans so that his company could retreat to safety. For his courage, he received the nation’s
highest military decoration, the Congressional Medal of Honor.
Mexican American Servicemen More than 500,000 Latinos,
most of them Mexican Americans, served in the military during
World War II. Unlike African Americans, they did not fight in segregated units. But they did face prejudice. “I’ll never forget the first time
I heard [a racial insult],” one Mexican American soldier recalled. “It
really hurt me.” Still, military service had its rewards. A California
soldier remembered:
I view the service and World War II, for me and many others, as
the event that opened new doors. I, like so many of the Hispanic
people, was from a farm family. When I went into the Air Corps
and I found that I could compete with Anglo people effectively,
even those with a couple years of college, at some point along the
way I realized I didn’t have to go back to the farm.
Braceros and Zoot Suits To help American farmers grow more
food, the United States began the Bracero Program (after brazo, the
Spanish word for arm). Under this program, large numbers of Mexican farmworkers were brought into the United States to harvest crops.
Farmers liked hiring braceros because they were cheap labor. Braceros
were sometimes treated unfairly. One farmworker reported working
for twelve hours a day, but only getting paid for eight.
Many Mexican Americans
moved to cities to take jobs in
defense industries. They found
housing in poor, mostly Mexican
neighborhoods called barrios. In
the barrios, young Mexican Americans developed a style of dress
called the “zoot suit” that featured
a long jacket and baggy trousers.
Influenced by generations
of prejudice, whites associated
youths in zoot suits with gang
violence and crime. In June 1943,
hundreds of white soldiers and
sailors roamed through Los Angeles attacking zoot suiters. The
violence quickly escalated to race
riots that spread from Los Angeles to other cities.
25
Police officers arrested and chained
together Mexican Americans dressed
in zoot suits during a 1943 riot in Los
Angeles that began when white soldiers
and sailors attacked local Mexican
American youths. Eight days of violence
left more than 100 people injured.
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29.12 Mexican Americans in the War
Jewish Americans in the War
When Hitler took power in Germany in 1933, the United States was
home to 4.5 million Jews. Some were recent immigrants. Others were
members of families who had come to America in colonial times. But
all lived under the shadow of anti-Semitism, or prejudice against Jews.
While this prejudice worried American Jews, they were far more concerned about the fate of Jews in Europe.
Albert Einstein was one of the 100,000
Jewish refugees from Nazi persecution
allowed to enter the United States.
This brilliant nuclear physicist urged
President Roosevelt to begin developing
the atomic bomb before the Nazis
succeeded in building one.
Jewish Refugees Hitler and his Nazi Party blamed Germany’s
problems on Germany’s Jews. After taking power, Hitler ordered Jews
to be removed from government jobs. They were stripped of their civil
rights and forced to wear a yellow star on their clothing to mark them
as Jews.
Every year, tens of thousands of Jews fled Germany. But few countries would accept them. Between 1933 and 1941, the United States admitted about 150,000 Jewish refugees. Despite the persecution of Jews
in Europe, the U.S. government refused to relax its strict immigration
limits. Widespread anti-Semitism played a part in this decision. In addition, many Americans worried that accepting more refugees would
mean added competition for jobs that were already scarce due to the
Great Depression.
Many Jewish Americans protested the government’s reluctance to
help Jewish refugees. In 1943, when Americans began to hear stories
about German death camps, more than 400 Jewish rabbis marched
in Washington, D.C., to urge the Allies to rescue Europe’s Jews from
Nazi extermination.
In 1944, President Roosevelt finally
created the War Refugee Board. In just a
few months, the board rescued 200,000
Jews from the Nazis. But this effort came
too late to help the vast majority of Europe’s Jews.
Jewish American Servicemen More
than 550,000 Jews served in the military
during World War II, a greater proportion
than among Americans overall. By the
end of the war, Jewish war heroes had
received 52,000 decorations.
Jewish soldiers had even more reason
than others to be horrified at what they
found in Hitler’s death camps. “Some
cried,” wrote an officer, “while others
raged.” A rabbi who served with the army
said grimly, “If my own father had not
caught the boat [out of Europe] on time, I
would have been there.”
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29.13
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Chapter Summary
In this chapter, you read about how the United States fought World War II and how the
war affected Americans at home. The war began in Europe and grew until it engulfed the
globe. All Americans were touched in some way by the war.
The United States Enters World War II The war began when Germany invaded Poland
in 1939. At first, the United States remained neutral. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
brought the United States into World War II.
The War in Europe In Europe, the Allies attacked Germany from three directions before
finally winning victory on V-E Day. Only after defeating Germany did the Allies discover
the full extent of the Holocaust, Germany’s systematic murder of millions of Jews and other
peoples.
The War in the Pacific In the Pacific, Allied forces battled the Japanese on many small
islands before dropping the atomic bombs that destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These
bombs forced Japan to surrender, ending the war.
The Aftermath of the War The Allied powers occupied Germany and Japan after the war and
disbanded their militaries. In the Nuremberg Trials, the Allies charged Nazi leaders with war
crimes. Similar trials were held in Japan, and U.S. officials drafted a new constitution for
the country.
American Servicemen Millions of Americans served in the armed forces. More than
292,000 Americans died in World War II battles.
Wartime Government The government created new agencies to manage the production of
war materials and to control the flow of war information. Americans at home aided the war
effort by producing weapons, planes, ships, tanks, and other vehicles.
Wartime Consumers and Women in World War II American consumers contributed to
the war effort by coping creatively with rationing and food shortages. Women replaced men
in vital occupations and served in noncombat roles in the armed forces.
Japanese Americans and the War For Japanese Americans on the West Coast, the war
was a painful time of unjust confinement in internment camps. Despite this injustice, many
Japanese Americans volunteered for military service.
African Americans and Mexican Americans in the
War African Americans and Mexican Americans also
coped with prejudice even as they contributed to the war
effort.
Jewish Americans and the War Jewish Americans
witnessed how anti-Semitism and a fear of refugees kept
the United States from responding sooner to the plight of
European Jews.
The Marine Corps War Memorial, shown here, is a large bronze
statue modeled after a famous photograph of U.S. troops raising
the American flag during the Battle of Iwo Jima
World War II
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The United States on the World Stage:
Conflict and Cooperation
The United States emerged from World War II as one of
the two strongest nations in the world. Post-war American
leaders resolved to use their power to promote U.S. interests and increase world stability and security. Since then,
the United States has been actively engaged in foreign affairs, and has used many different methods to achieve its
foreign policy goals.
Like no other conflict before it, World War II made a permanent
impact on the United States. The war taught American leaders that
retreating into isolationism, as the nation did after World War I, could
not guarantee peace. They realized that the security of the United
States depended on the security of the rest of the world as well. President Franklin Roosevelt believed that stability could be achieved if
nations cooperated with each other.
Before he died in 1945, Roosevelt supported a new international organization modeled after the League of Nations. He argued that “we shall
have to take the responsibility for world collaboration [cooperation], or we
shall have to bear the responsibility for another world conflict.” In 1944,
the United States, the Soviet Union, Great Britain, and France drafted the
charter for the United Nations, the organization that would replace the
League. The UN charter declared the aims of the new organization:
To save succeeding generations from the scourge [curse] of
war . . . to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights . . . to
establish . . . respect for the obligations arising from treaties and
other sources of international law . . . and to promote social progress and better standards of life. . . .
The U.S. military often cooperates with
other nations to achieve American
foreign policy goals. Here, soldiers
from Kazakhstan (left) and soldiers
from the U.S. Army’s 82nd Airborne
Division (right) march together in
a military ceremony in 2000. The
ceremony marked the beginning of
a multi-national peacekeeping and
humanitarian effort in Central Asia.
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Reading Further
Multilateral Military Cooperation
Multilateral Military Cooperation
In 1945 the Soviet Union founded the United
Nations along with the United States. But the
two powers soon became rivals. This rivalry,
known as the Cold War, began after World
War II and lasted until the fall of the Soviet
Union’s communist government in 1991. The
Cold War profoundly influenced U.S. foreign
policy in the post-World War II era.
One of the first major actions the United
Nations took—its intervention in the Korean
War—was motivated by the Cold War
conflict. At the end of World War II, the
Korean Peninsula was divided in half. In
the north, the Soviet Union put a communist government in power. In the South, the
United States supported the existing anticommunist government. In
The United States led a coalition of
34 nations to drive Saddam Hussein’s
1950, North Korean troops invaded South Korea with the aim to unite
forces out of Kuwait in the Persian
all of Korea under communist rule. The United States feared that the
Gulf War in 1991. After the war, the UN
North Korean attack on South Korea was a first step in a Soviet plan
established a no-fly zone over Iraq,
to spread communism throughout the world. Truman ordered U.S.
which these two American pilots helped
forces to help South Korea repel the invaders.
to enforce.
Truman also turned to the United Nations for support. The UN condemned the North Korean invasion and called on member states to aid
South Korea. At the time, the Soviets had boycotted the Security Council,
so the UN did not face Soviet opposition to the operation. Troops from
16 nations joined the UN force, although the vast majority of the soldiers
World War II 577
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The United Nations was committed to maintaining security and
stability in the world, using military force if necessary. The organization established a Security Council whose primary purpose was to
maintain peace between nations. The UN charter authorized the Security Council to take military action in foreign nations, using troops
from UN member states.
In the decades since World War II, the United States has worked
with the United Nations to confront threats to their interests and to
world stability. But it has also used other methods to respond to foreign policy challenges. In some situations, the United States has taken
a multilateral, or “many-sided,” approach to foreign policy, and has
worked with other nations. In other situations, the United States has
acted unilaterally, in a “one-sided” way.
This Reading Further will examine the different ways the United
States has engaged with the outside world. Some of the methods the
United States has used include: multilateral military cooperation,
multilateral peacekeeping operations, unilateral military action, and
diplomacy and treaty negotiations.
Multilateral Peacekeeping Operations
The United States has also worked with the
UN by participating in peacekeeping
operations around the globe. In many
different circumstances, the United Nations
has deployed peacekeeping forces to serve
as a buffer between warring parties. UN
peacekeeping missions are designed to be
non-violent. They involve military troops
from several different nations, under the
command of the UN Security Council. In
the 1990s, for example, the UN undertook
peacekeeping missions in Cambodia,
Yugoslavia, and Bosnia.
Beginning in 1992, the United States
aided a UN peacekeeping mission in Somalia, an East African country that had descended into civil war. But
this peacekeeping mission ended in tragedy for the United States. In
1993, 18 U.S. soldiers died in a firefight. Their bodies were dragged
through the streets of the Somali capital. News of this event outraged
the American public, and the United States decided to pull its troops
out of Somalia. The UN mission ended shortly thereafter. The incident
Multilateral Peacekeeping Operations
As part of the UN peacekeeping
operation in Somalia, U.S. Navy doctors
established medical relief clinics. In
this 1993 image, a U.S. Marine helps
a Somali woman leave a clinic in the
capital city of Mogadishu.
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came from the United States. In 1953, the war ended in a stalemate.
Aside from the Korean War, however, multilateral UN operations were
largely impossible during the Cold War. Proposals for multilateral action were often blocked by Soviet Security Council vetoes.
But as the Cold War came to an end in the early 1990s, the United
States was able to use multilateral military action more effectively. For
example, the United States led a multilateral force against the country
of Iraq in the Persian Gulf War. Iraq was ruled by the dictator Saddam Hussein. In August 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait, its much smaller
neighbor. President George H.W. Bush condemned the invasion. He
called for a multinational coalition, or alliance, to force Saddam Hussein out of Kuwait. Thirty-four countries joined the UN-sponsored coalition. The coalition forces included more than 500,000 U.S. soldiers.
On January 16, 1991, the Persian Gulf War began. Coalition forces
chased Saddam Hussein’s troops into Iraq and encountered little
resistance. Iraq soon agreed to a cease-fire. For the United States and
its partners, the Persian Gulf War was a success. They had shown that
multilateral military cooperation could be used against a common
enemy for the purpose of opposing aggression.
The Korean War and the Persian Gulf War are just two examples of
how the United States has taken part in multilateral military actions.
Another way the United States has cooperated with foreign nations is
through multilateral peacekeeping operations.
Unilateral Military Action
Unilateral Military Action
As the previous examples show, the United States
has often cooperated with nations around the
world to achieve its foreign policy goals. But
there have also been times when the United
States has acted alone and pursued its interests
using unilateral military action. Especially during the Cold War, the United States sometimes
took a unilateral approach to dealing with foreign countries.
During the Cold War, if a foreign nation
seemed to be in danger of becoming communist,
the United States would sometimes undertake a
covert action in the country. A covert action is
a secret political, economic, or military operation. Covert operations
These three U.S. Marines were among
the troops sent to Panama in 1989 by
were usually carried out by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), an
President George H.W. Bush. In the
organization under the direction of the executive branch. CIA agents
course of the invasion, around 200–300
tried to shape events or influence affairs in foreign countries while
Panamanian soldiers were killed, in
hiding their role in these events. Because the United States wanted to
addition to 300 civilians. Twenty-three
keep its actions secret, it had to act alone.
American soldiers also lost their lives.
In 1954, the United States began a covert action in Guatemala. The
CIA supported a military coup that overthrew Guatemala’s elected president, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán. The United States did this because it was
concerned Guatemala might become a communist state. U.S. leaders
also opposed President Guzmán’s plan to hand over thousands of acres
of land to landless peasants because much of this land was owned by an
American company. The covert action successfully prevented Guatemala from becoming communist. But U.S. intervention in Guatemala also
caused many Latin Americans to view the United States as an enemy
of social reform. The United States also used covert actions to influence
domestic politics in Iran in 1953 and in Chile in 1970.
In addition to using unilateral military force in covert operations,
the United States has also openly sent troops overseas on unilateral
missions. In 1989, President George H.W. Bush used the U.S. military
to overthrow General Manuel Noriega, who ruled as a dictator in
Panama. The United States accused Noriega of drug trafficking, violating human rights, and undermining democracy in Panama. President
Bush sent more than 20,000 U.S. troops to invade Panama, where they
captured General Noriega. Eventually Noriega was convicted of drug
trafficking charges and put in prison in the United States. Many Latin
Americans were angered by the American intervention, and thought it
was unjustified.
World War II
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in Somalia underscored the danger of sending U.S. troops on UN
peacekeeping missions. It made U.S. leaders less eager to participate in
such ventures in the future.
Diplomacy and Treaty Negotiations
Diplomacy is a valuable non-military method the United States uses to
engage with the world. American diplomats, such as the secretary of
state or American ambassadors, negotiate with foreign governments to
achieve their foreign policy goals.
For example, the United States has used diplomacy to manage its
changing relationship with China. When China became a communist
state in 1949, the United States refused to recognize the new state. U.S.
leaders refused to negotiate with the Chinese communist government
in any way. American leaders hoped that by isolating China they could
prevent communism from spreading elsewhere in Asia.
By the early 1970s, however, some U.S. leaders began to question
the approach they had taken. China and the Soviet Union had once
been communist allies. But by the time President Nixon took office,
the two nations had become hostile neighbors. Nixon believed that
establishing friendly diplomatic relations with China might pressure
Soviet leaders, who feared Chinese power, to cooperate more with the
United States. As a result, in 1972, President Nixon made an official
By mediating the negotiations between
state visit to China. By 1979, the United States and China had estabEgyptian President Anwar Sadat and
lished full diplomatic relations.
Israeli Prime minister Menachem
Since then, although tensions remain between the two countries,
Begin, President Carter helped bring
the United States and China have continued to negotiate with each
about a landmark peace agreement
between the two nations. Here, Sadat
other. U.S. and Chinese leaders engage in diplomacy to ensure continand Begin celebrate as the Accords are
ued peaceful relations. Diplomacy also protects the important ecoannounced in the U.S. Congress.
nomic ties that exist between the two nations.
Another important result of American
diplomacy is that the United States has helped
Diplomacy and Treaty Negotiations
to negotiate treaties throughout the world. U.S.
leaders and diplomats have acted as mediators
between warring countries, helping to arrange
peace agreements.
One of the United States’ most successful
treaty negotiations occurred during the Carter
administration. In 1978, President Jimmy Carter
invited the leaders of Egypt and Israel to engage
in peace talks. The talks were held at Camp David, the presidential retreat in Maryland. Just five
years earlier, Egypt and Israel had fought each
other in the Yom Kippur War. Still the leaders
were able to forge an agreement known as the
Camp David Accords. The Accords provided a
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The United States usually turns to unilateral military action only
if it is unable to achieve its goals by diplomatic means. In many cases,
the United States can avoid using military force by engaging in peaceful diplomacy—by conducting negotiations with foreign countries.
The duties of the U.S. secretary of state
include meeting with foreign diplomats
and negotiating international treaties.
Here, Hillary Clinton, who served as
secretary of state under the Obama
administration, meets with the South
Korean foreign minister.
World War II
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framework for peace between the two countries. President Carter was
praised as “the master builder responsible for the bridge” that brought
“two one-time enemies” together. By helping bring about peace
between Israel and Egypt, the United States also advanced its own
foreign policy goal of creating greater stability in the Middle East.
In addition to negotiating treaties between other nations, the United States itself signs treaties. One example of this is the arms control
treaties the United States has negotiated with Russia. During the Cold
War, both nations developed large stockpiles of nuclear weapons. To
restrain the dangerous buildup of weapons, both President Nixon and
President Carter signed Strategic Arms Limitations Talks (SALT I and
SALT II) treaties with the Soviet Union. In 2010, the Obama administration negotiated another weapons reduction treaty with Russia,
known as the New START (Strategic Arms Reduction Talks) treaty.
Today, the United States faces more foreign policy challenges than
ever. Just as they did throughout the post-World War II era, U.S. leaders today will continue to use many different foreign policy strategies
to face the challenges of the new century.
Overview and Objectives
Overview
In a Problem Solving Groupwork activity, students present radio broadcasts on the impact of
World War II on eight social and ethnic groups in the United States.
Objectives
In the course of reading this lesson and participating in the classroom activity, students will
Social Studies
• explain the causes and conduct of World War II including the nations involved, major political
and military figures and key battles, and the Holocaust.
• analyze how the United States mobilized its economic and military resources during World
War II.
• describe the impact of World War II on the home front.
Language Arts
• determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development.
• summarize key supporting details and ideas.
Social Studies Vocabulary
Key Content Terms: fascism, totalitarian, D-day, Holocaust, atomic bomb, war crime, bond,
inflation, internment camp
Academic Vocabulary: prohibit, neutral, acquit, reluctance
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Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
Procedures
Suggested time: 30 minutes
1 Introduce the Preview activity Ask students to think about the events in their life that have
shaped the person they are today. Have them choose the one event they think has had the
most impact on their life.
2 Have students complete the Preview activity Have studetns make a simple sketch of
the event they chose on a separate sheet of paper. Then ask them to write a short paragraph
explaining how that event affected them.
3 Have students share their responses in pairs or with the class.
4 Explain the connection between the Preview and World War II. Tell students that of all the
events of the 20th century, few have shaped the United States as significantly as World War
II. Many historians believe that World War II is the single most influential event of the entire
20th century. Explain to students that no American living in the United States at that time was
untouched by the war.
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Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
Preview
Suggested time: 30–40 minutes
1 Introduce the Key Content Terms. Have students locate the Key Content Terms for the
lesson in their Interactive Student Notebooks. These are important terms that will help them
understand the main ideas of the lesson. Ask volunteers to identify any familiar terms and how
they might be used in a sentence.
2 Have students complete a Vocabulary Development handout. Give each student a copy of
the Vocabulary Development handout of your choice from the Reading Toolkit. These handouts
provide extra practice and support, depending on your students’ needs. Review the completed
handout by asking volunteers to share one answer for each term.
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Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
Vocabulary Development
1 Introduce the Essential Question and have students read Section 1. Then have students
use information from the section and the Student Text opening images to propose possible
answers to the Essential Question: How did World War II change the United States?
2 Have students complete the Reading Notes for Sections 2 through 5. Assign Sections 2
to 6 during phase 1 of the activity as indicated in the procedures for Phase 1: Creating
a Timeline.
3 Have students complete the Reading Notes for Sections 6 to 13. Instruct students to read
the section corresponding to the group they have been assigned as part of their preparations
for creating a radio broadcast. Then, have students read Sections 6 to 13 before each radio
broadcast is presented, according to the procedures for the Problem Solving Groupwork activity.
Remind students to use the Key Content Terms where appropriate as they complete their
Reading Notes.
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Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
Reading
Suggested time: 50 minutes
Introduce phase one of the activity. Explain that in phase one of the activity, students will
work in pairs to create a timeline of World War II. Have students get into pairs. Make sure each
student has a copy of Student Handout A.
Have students read the Student Text and complete their timelines. Have students cut out
all of the images from Student Handout A, making sure to keep the captions with their images.
Instruct students to read Section 2 of the Student Text. With their partners, have students find
the cut-out images that correspond with events from Section 2. Have them circle or highlight
the most important word or phrase for each event. Instruct them to glue or tape them in their
proper place on the timeline in their Reading Notes. Have students repeat this process for
Sections 3-5 in their Student Text to complete their timelines.
Have students check their work. Instruct each pair to exchange timelines and check each
other’s work.
Have students share their completed timelines with the class. You can also click on each
empty box in the presentation to reveal the correct placement for each event.
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Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
Phase 1: Creating a Timeline
Suggested time: 120 minutes
1 Introduce the activity. Tell students that in this activity they will create a radio broadcast
about one of eight groups of Americans during World War II. Play the short radio excerpt in the
presentation from a newscast entitled “One Hundred Million Questions.” Tell students that this
excerpt is a good model for the broadcasts they will be creating themselves.
2 Divide students into groups and assign subjects for the radio broadcasts. Divide students
into groups of four and assign one of the eight groups listed in the presentation to each group.
Make sure each student has a copy of Student Handout B: Preparing a Radio Broadcast. Have
students assign each member of the group one of the roles listed in Student Handout B. Then,
have students review the responsibilities listed for their role.
3 Have students learn about their assigned group. Instruct students to read the section in
their Student Text about their assigned group and complete the corresponding section of their
Reading Notes.
4 Have students create their radio broadcasts. Instruct students to complete steps 4 to 7
on Student Handout B. Students will write a script and rehearse their radio broadcast. Remind
students to include all elements listed in step 4 in their broadcast. Allow groups adequate
time—about two class periods—to prepare. You may want to monitor their progress by checking
their work and initialing Student Handout B as they complete each of the six steps.
5 Present the first radio broadcast, about the military in World War II. Instruct the group
presenting on the military to set up for the radio broadcast and display its promotional poster.
Meanwhile, tell audience members to read Section 6, Life on the War Front, and complete the
corresponding set of Reading Notes. Then, have the presenting group perform its broadcast.
6 Repeat this process for all other groups. Call up each remaining group in the order they
appear in the presentation. Instruct each group to set up for its radio broadcast and display its
promotional poster. As each group sets up, tell the audience to read the corresponding section
of the Student Text and complete the Reading Notes. By the end of the radio broadcasts,
students should have read and completed the Reading Notes for sections 7 to 13. Have each
presenting group perform its broadcast.
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Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
Phase 2: Problem Solving Groupwork
7 Debrief the activity. Ask,
• What challenges did different American groups face during World War II?
• What were the positive effects of World War II on American society?
• What were the negative effects of World War II on American society?
• How might American society have changed as a result of the events that happened on the
home front during World War II?
Processing
Suggested time: 15 minutes
Have students complete the Processing activity on a separate sheet of paper. They will
create a commemorative stamp set that shows how World War II affected the people of
the United States.
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Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
Phase 2: Problem Solving Groupwork (continued)
1 Discuss U.S. foreign policy with the class. Explain that after World War II, the United States
emerged as one of the two strongest nations in the world. Ask students:
• How did the United States approach foreign policy before World War II? Can you give a
historical example?
• What approach to foreign policy do you think U.S. leaders would likely take after World War II?
Tell students that unlike the United States’ previous tendencies toward isolationism, post-war
American leaders resolved to use their power to promote U.S. interests and increase world
stability and security. They used many different methods to achieve their foreign policy goals.
2 Have students read the first part of the Reading Further up to the subhead “Multilateral
Military Cooperation.” Once they have read, ask students to list the four different approaches
to foreign policy the Reading Further will discuss. List these approaches on the board:
multilateral military cooperation, multilateral peacekeeping operations, unilateral military action,
and diplomacy and treaty negotiations.
3 Have students finish the reading.
4 Have Students complete the Reading Further: Preparing to Write activity in their
Interactive Student Notebook. Instruct students to read each newspaper excerpt and answer
the questions below.
5 Have students write a letter to the editor. Instruct students to read the third newspaper
excerpt. Then, have students write a letter to the editor in respose to the article.
6 Have students share their letter with a partner or with the class.
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Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
Reading Further: The United States on the World Stage:
Conflict and Cooperation
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Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
Student Materials: Geography Challenge
C H A L L E N G E
Geography Skills
Analyze the map and carefully read the text in “Geography Challenge” in the Student Text.
Then answer the following questions and fill out the map as directed.
1. Which nation led the Warsaw Pact? Label it on your map and shade it red.
2. Which nation led NATO? Label it on your map and shade it blue.
3. What European country was divided into two separate nations after World War II? Label
the names of the two nations on the inset portion of the map. Also shade each nation red or
blue according to the alliance each joined.
4. Label Cuba on the map. Shade it red or blue according to what side it was allied with or
influenced by during the Cold War. How does this allegiance compare with the allegiance
of the nations that surround it?
5. What Asian country has been under communist rule from 1949 to today? Label it on your
map and shade it red.
6. What highlighted event on the map in the Student Text occurred in a nation allied with
neither side during the Cold War? Label the nation in which this event occurred.
7. What Asian countries fought a war between 1950 and 1953? Label and shade these countries according to their Cold War allegiances. How do you think these allegiances might
have contributed to the conflict?
8. Which power, the United States or the Soviet Union, won the most nations to its side
during the Cold War?
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Geography Challenge 2
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G E O G R A P H Y
C H A L L E N G E
Critical Thinking
Answer the following questions in complete sentences.
9. In what ways did the Cold War create a bipolar world? How does the map in the Student
Text support this description?
10. How might the location of the nation you identified in Question 3 have led to its division?
11. How might having allies in Western Europe have helped the United States in its rivalry
with the Soviet Union?
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Geography Challenge 3
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
G E O G R A P H Y
I N T E R A C T I V E
S T U D E N T
N O T E B O O K
World War II
How did World War II change the United States?
P R E V I E W
Think about the events in your life that have shaped the person you are today. Choose one
event you think has had the most impact on your life.
On a separate sheet of paper, make a simple sketch of the event you chose. Then write a short
paragraph explaining how that event affected you.
R E A D I N G
N O T E S
Key Content Terms
As you complete the Reading Notes, use these terms in your answers.
fascism
Holocaust
bond
totalitarian
atomic bomb
inflation
D-day
war crime
internment camp
Sections 2 to 5
Cut out the images and captions from Student Handout A. Paste them on this timeline in the
proper sequence. Circle or highlight the most important word or phrase for each event.
World War II in Europe
World War II in the Pacific
September 1939
1939
1940
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World War II
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Student Materials: Interactive Student Notebook
S T U D E N T
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
I N T E R A C T I V E
N O T E B O O K
World War II in Europe
World War II in the Pacific
1941
1941
December 1941
1942
June 1944
May 1942
August 1942
1943
1944
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World War II
5
S T U D E N T
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
I N T E R A C T I V E
N O T E B O O K
World War II in Europe
World War II in the Pacific
1945
February 1945
February 1945
May 1945
August 6 and 9, 1945
November 1945
October 1946
1946
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World War II
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S T U D E N T
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I N T E R A C T I V E
N O T E B O O K
Section 6
Describe life for members of the U.S. military during World War II.
Use the words from the Word Bank.
Word Bank
GIs
training camps
rations
combat
Section 7
Describe U.S. government actions to promote the war effort.
Use the words from the Word Bank.
Word Bank
“arsenal of democracy”
War Production Board
War Labor Board
bonds
Office of War Information
Section 8
Describe life for consumers during World War II. Use the words
from the Word Bank.
Word Bank
rationing
victory gardens
shortages
pocketless pants
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World War II
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S T U D E N T
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
I N T E R A C T I V E
N O T E B O O K
Section 9
Describe life for women during World War II. Use the words from
the Word Bank.
Word Bank
war industries
less pay
noncombat assignments
nurses
Section 10
Describe life for Japanese Americans during World War II. Use the
words from the Word Bank.
Word Bank
internment camps
West Coast
deserts
442nd Regiment
Section 11
Describe life for African Americans during World War II. Use the
words from the Word Bank.
Word Bank
segregated
noncombat jobs
Tuskegee Airmen
defense plants
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S T U D E N T
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I N T E R A C T I V E
N O T E B O O K
Section 12
Describe life for Mexican Americans during World War II. Use the
words from the Word Bank.
Word Bank
prejudice
Bracero Program
barrios
zoot suits
Section 13
Describe life for Jewish Americans during World War II. Use the
words from the Word Bank.
Word Bank
anti-Semitisim
refugees
death camps
War Refugee Board
P R O C E S S I N G
On a separate piece of paper, create a commemorative stamp set that shows how World War II
affected the people of the United States.
Follow these guidelines when creating your stamp set.
• Your stamp set must include at least four stamps.
• Two stamps should commemorate two groups included in the radio broadcasts: members of
the military, the government, consumers, women, Japanese Americans, African Americans,
Mexican Americans, or Jewish Americans.
• Two stamps should commemorate two major battles in World War II.
• Each stamp should include images or symbols to represent the impact of World War II on
the group or the importance of the battle.
• Each stamp should contain a short caption that explains the stamp.
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World War II
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S T U D E N T
N O T E B O O K
R E A D I N G
F U R T H E R
Preparing to Write: Analyzing Primary Sources
Below are excerpts from newspaper articles about U.S. foreign policy decisions. These articles
appeared in the newspaper at the time these events occurred. Read the articles carefully. Then use
what you have learned in the Reading Further and the articles to answer the questions that follow.
It is widely believed that the ground
war in Kuwait will last months and cost
thousands of American lives. This view is
unduly pessimistic. The U.S. military can
liberate Kuwait in less than a week and
suffer relatively few casualties — probably
less than 1,000 fatalities. Although the
Iraqi Army fights well from fortified
positions, it is inept at fighting mobile
armored battles.
. . . In contrast, the U.S. Army, which
will carry the lion's share of the offensive
burden, is well-trained for tank battles.
. . . The tragedy that war inflicts must
not be forgotten. Fortunately, a quick victory
will reduce losses on both sides.
- New York Times February 8, 1991
What military operation does this article refer
to? When did it take place?
Which of the foreign policy methods outlined
in the Reading Further does this operation
represent?
Does the author support or oppose the
operation? Why?
© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute
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. . . Judging from its early political
impact, the firefight, in which 18 Americans
were killed and 75 wounded, may well
be one of those searing battlefield experiences whose memory shapes public opinion
and sharply influences what the United
States will and will not do in the world.
The casualties, and the images of a
dead American soldier being dragged
through Mogadishu after the raid, prompted
President Clinton to order a withdrawal from
Somalia. . . . It also forced the Administration to rethink and possibly scrap plans
to use American troops for United Nations
peacekeeping operations in Bosnia, Haiti
and other trouble spots — plans that were
central to its whole conception of foreign
policy.
- New York Times October 25, 1993
Where and when did the incident this article
discusses take place?
Which of the foreign policy methods outlined
in the Reading Further was the United States
pursuing when this incident took place?
According to the article, how might the
incident affect U.S. foreign policy?
World War II
10
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
I N T E R A C T I V E
S T U D E N T
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
I N T E R A C T I V E
N O T E B O O K
Writing a Letter to the Editor
Readers sometimes write letters to the editor of a newspaper to express their opinions on the
articles they have read. Carefully read the following excerpt about the U.S. invasion of Panama
that appeared in a newspaper in 1989. Write a letter to the editor in response to the article.
Be sure to include the following:
• a brief summary of the argument the author makes
• whether you agree or disagree with the author, and why
• what method you think the United States should have used to deal with the
situation in Panama
How does President Bush justify sending 10,000 troops into combat in tiny
Panama? He offers four reasons, two of
them so inflated that they evaporate on
inspection. ''To defend democracy in
Panama,'' he said. Yes? Well, who appointed
America the world's political policeman?
''To combat drug trafficking,'' he said. Yes?
Well, when did it become the mission of
America's armed forces to chase after
Manuel Noriega?
But impatience with puffed-up reasons
should not detract from solid ones. The
President also said he acted to safeguard
the lives of Americans and to protect the
integrity of the Panama Canal treaties.
Those are sound reasons, and taken together
they support the intervention. Mr. Bush
was not obliged to act yesterday, but he was
justified in doing so.
- New York Times December 21, 1989
Use this rubric to evaluate your letter. Make changes in your letter if you need to.
Score
Description
3
The letter responds to all bulleted prompts. It is well constructed with correct letter
format. There are no spelling or grammar errors.
2
The letter responds to at least two bulleted prompts. It is constructed with correct letter
format. There are some spelling or grammar errors.
1
The letter responds to only one, or none, of the bulleted prompts. It is not constructed
with correct letter format. There are many spelling or grammar errors.
© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute
52
World War II
11
S T U D E N T
H A N D O U T
A
World War II Events
A.
B.
U.S. soldiers land on the key island of Iwo
Jima, where they faced fierce opposition
from the Japanese.
At the Tokyo Trials, the Allies put 28
Japanese leaders on trial for war crimes and
crimes against humanity.
C.
D.
The Allies capture Berlin, and Germany
surrenders. World War II in Europe is over.
Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin meet at
Yalta to decide to divide Germany into four
military zones after the war.
E.
F.
Congress passes the Lend-Lease Act, allowing the United States to supply war supplies
to Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union,
China, and other Allied nations.
The United States wins the Battle of Midway. This battle is a turning point, and the
Allies wage an offensive war from this point
forward.
© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute
53
World War II 1
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
Student Materials: Student Handout
H A N D O U T
A
World War II Events
G.
H.
Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, causing the
United States to enter World War II.
The Allies begin the liberation of France on
D-day.
I.
At the Nuremberg Trials, the Allies put 22
Nazi leaders on trial for war crimes and
crimes against humanity.
An American plane drops an atomic bomb
on Hiroshima, Japan. Three days later, a second atomic bomb is dropped on Nagasaki.
Japan surrenders less than a week later.
K.
L.
The Allies begin their offensive in the Pacific
at the Battle of Guadalcanal.
German forces invade Poland. World War II
begins.
© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute
54
J.
World War II 2
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
S T U D E N T
H A N D O U T
B
Preparing a Radio Broadcast
Work with your group to create a realistic, entertaining radio broadcast that includes
interesting stories, sound effects, and music. Follow the steps below.
Step 1: Assign groups. Circle the name of the group to which you have been assigned.
the military
women
Mexican Americans
the government
Japanese Americans
Jewish Americans
consumers
African Americans
Step 2: Review the roles. After you have been assigned a role, read the information below. Make sure everyone understands his or her responsibilities.
Station Manager: You will create the radio station’s promotional poster and the introduction
and conclusion to the broadcast. You are also responsible for the sound effects for the introduction and conclusion.
News Anchor: You will write and report the lead story for the broadcast. You are also responsible for the sound effects for the lead story.
Reporter: You will write and report the human-interest story for the broadcast. You are also
responsible for the sound effects for the human-interest story.
Ad Manager: You are responsible for writing and performing the advertisement for the broadcast. You are also responsible for the sound effects for the advertisement.
Step 3: Learn about your assigned group. Read the section in your Student Text about
your assigned group and complete the corresponding section of your Reading Notes.
Step 4: Review the requirements for the radio broadcast. Your radio broadcast must
include the elements listed below.
•
A promotional poster for your radio station. It must contain the station’s call letters and a
logo that shows your station’s support for American forces in World War II.
•
10- to 15-second introduction to the broadcast that welcomes listeners and gives them an
overview of the evening’s broadcast.
•
A 1- to 2-minute lead story that includes key information about how World War II is
affecting your group.
•
A 1- to 2-minute human-interest story that tells how World War II is affecting one person
from your group. The human-interest story must contain an interview or direct quotations
from the subject of the story.
© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute
55
World War II 3
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
S T U D E N T
H A N D O U T
B
•
A 30-second advertisement for a company that manufactures goods for the war effort or a
30-second public service announcement asking citizens to contribute to the war effort. The
advertisement or public service announcement must contain a musical jingle and humor to
make it memorable.
•
A 10- to 15-second conclusion to the broadcast that thanks listeners and previews what they
will hear in the next broadcast.
•
At least five sound effects. Examples of sound effects include: wind blowing, footsteps,
factory noise, police sirens, World War II music, or news broadcasts.
Step 5: Brainstorm ideas for all parts of your radio broadcast.
Station Manager: List ideas and sketches for the promotional poster.
Station Manager: List ideas for the introduction, including sound effect(s). List the name or names
of group members who will speak in the introduction.
News Anchor: List ideas for the lead story, including sound effect(s). List the name or names of
group members who will speak in the lead story.
© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute
56
World War II
4
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
S T U D E N T
H A N D O U T
B
Reporter: List ideas for the human interest story, including sound effect(s). List the name or names
of group members who will speak in the human interest story.
Ad Manager: List ideas for the advertisement, including sound effect(s). List the name or names of
group members who will participate in the advertisement.
Station Manager: List ideas for the conclusion, including sound effect(s). List the name or names of
group members who will speak in the conclusion.
Step 6: Create your radio broadcast. Create a script for your broadcast. Be sure the script
includes all five parts of the broadcast—introduction, lead story, human-interest story, advertisement, and conclusion. Collect the materials needed for sound effects and complete work on the
poster for the broadcast. Write your script on a separate sheet of paper. You may wish to make
copies of the script to use during the broadcast. If required, give your teacher a copy of the script.
Step 7: Rehearse your radio broadcast. After you have completed all of the parts of the
broadcast, make sure you can present it in five minutes. As you rehearse, check that
•
•
•
each group member is actively involved in the presentation.
the presentation runs smoothly.
sound effects are used effectively.
© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute
57
World War II
5
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
S T U D E N T
58
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
Student Materials: Spanish Geography Challenge
G E O G R Á F I C O
Destrezas Geográficas
Analiza el mapa y lee atentamente el texto de “Reto Geográfico” en el Libro del Estudiante.
Luego, contesta las preguntas siguientes y completa el mapa conforme a las instrucciones.
1. ¿Qué nación encabezó el Pacto de Varsovia? Rotula esta nación en el mapa y sombréala de
rojo.
2. ¿Qué nación encabezó la OTAN? Rotula esta nación en el mapa y sombréala de azul.
3. ¿Qué país europeo se dividió en dos naciones separadas después de la Segunda Guerra
Mundial? Escribe los nombres de las dos naciones en el recuadro insertado en el mapa.
Sombrea cada nación en rojo o en azul según la alianza a la cual se juntó.
4. Rotula a Cuba en el mapa. Sombréala en rojo o en azul según el lado que influyó en ella o
al cual se alió durante la Guerra Fría. ¿Cómo compara esta lealtad con la lealtad de sus
naciones vecinas?
5. ¿Qué país asiático ha estado bajo el dominio comunista desde 1949 hasta hoy? Rotúlalo en
el mapa y sombréalo de rojo.
6. ¿Qué suceso resaltado en el mapa del Libro del Estudiante ocurrió en una nación que no
estuvo aliada con ninguno de los dos lados en la Guerra Fría? Rotula la nación donde
ocurrió este hecho.
7. ¿Qué países asiáticos tuvieron una guerra entre 1950 y 1953? Rotula y sombre estos países
según su lealtad durante la Guerra Fría. ¿Cómo habrían contribuido estas lealtades al
conflicto?
8. ¿Qué potencia, los Estados Unidos o la Unión Soviética, ganó más naciones adeptas para su
lado durante la Guerra Fría?
© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute
59
Desafío Geográfico 2
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
D E S A F Í O
G E O G R Á F I C O
Pensamiento Crítico
Contesta las preguntas siguientes con oraciones completas.
9. La Guerra Fría ¿cómo generó un mundo bipolar? ¿Qué respaldo ofrece el mapa para esta
descripción?
10. La ubicación de la nación que identificaste en la Pregunta 3 ¿cómo habría contribuido a su
división?
11. El hecho de tener aliados en Europa Occidental ¿cómo ayudó a los Estados Unidos en su
rivalidad con la Unión Soviética?
© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute
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Desafío Geográfico 3
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
D E S A F Í O
C U A D E R N O
D E
E S T U D I A N T E
I N T E R A C T I V O
La Segunda Guerra Mundial
¿Cómo cambió la Segunda Guerra Mundial a los Estados Unidos?
V I S T A Z O
P R E V I O
Piensa en los hechos de tu vida que te han convertido en la persona que eres hoy. Elige un
suceso que ha tenido el mayor impacto en tu vida.
En una hoja aparte, dibuja un esbozo sencillo del suceso que escogiste. Luego escribe un párrafo corto para explicar cómo te afectó ese hecho.
N O T A S
D E
L A
L E C T U R A
Palabras Clave
As you complete the Reading Notes, use these terms in your answers.
fascismo
Holocausto
bono
totalitario
bomba atómica
inflación
Día D
crimen de guerra
campo de internamiento
Secciones 2 a 5
Recorta las imágenes y leyendas de la Hoja de Trabajo A. Pégalas en esta línea cronológica en la
secuencia correcta. Señala con un círculo o con marcador la palabra o frase más importante para
cada suceso.
La Segunda Guerra Mundial en Europa
La Segunda Guerra Mundial en el Pacífico
Septiembre de 1939
1939
1940
© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute
61
La Segunda Guerra Mundial
4
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
Student Materials: Spanish Interactive Student Notebook
D E
E S T U D I A N T E
La Segunda Guerra Mundial en Europa
I N T E R A C T I V O
La Segunda Guerra Mundial en el Pacífico
1941
1941
Diciembre de 1941
1942
Junio de 1944
Mayo de 1942
Agosto de 1942
1943
1944
© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute
62
La Segunda Guerra Mundial
5
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
C U A D E R N O
D E
E S T U D I A N T E
La Segunda Guerra Mundial en Europa
I N T E R A C T I V O
La Segunda Guerra Mundial en el Pacífico
1945
Febrero de 1945
Febrero de 1945
Mayo de 1945
Agosto 6 y 9 de 1945
Noviembre de 1945
Octubre de 1946
1946
© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute
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La Segunda Guerra Mundial
6
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
C U A D E R N O
D E
E S T U D I A N T E
I N T E R A C T I V O
Sección 6
Describe la vida de los militares estadounidenses durante la Segunda
Guerra Mundial? Usa las palabras del Banco de Palabras.
Banco de Palabras
GI
campos de
entrenamiento
raciones
combate
Sección 7
Describe las medidas tomadas por el gobierno de los Estados
Unidos para promover el esfuerzo de guerra. Usa las palabras
del Banco de Palabras.
Banco de Palabras
“arsenal de la democracia”
Junta de Producción de Guerra
Junta de Trabajo de Guerra
bonos
Oficina de Información de
Guerra
Sección 8
Describe la vida para los consumidores durante la Segunda Guerra
Mundial. Usa las palabras del Banco de Palabras.
Banco de Palabras
racionamiento
huertas de la victoria
escaseces
pantalón sin bolsillos
© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute
64
La Segunda Guerra Mundial
7
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
C U A D E R N O
D E
E S T U D I A N T E
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
C U A D E R N O
I N T E R A C T I V O
Sección 9
Describe la vida para las mujeres durante la Segunda Guerra
Mundial. Usa las palabras del Banco de Palabras.
Banco de Palabras
industrias de guerra
pago inferior
misiones de no combatiente
nurses
Sección 10
Describe la vida para los nipoamericanos durante la Segunda Guerra
Mundial? Usa las palabras del Banco de Palabras.
Banco de Palabras
campos de internamiento
costa del Pacífico
desiertos
Regimiento 442
Sección 11
Describe la vida para los afroamericanos durante la Segunda
Guerra Mundial? Usa las palabras del Banco de Palabras.
Banco de Palabras
segregados
misiones de no combatiente
Pilotos de Tuskegee
plantas de defensa
© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute
65
La Segunda Guerra Mundial
8
D E
E S T U D I A N T E
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
C U A D E R N O
I N T E R A C T I V O
Sección 12
Describe la vida para loa mexicano americanos durante la Segunda
Guerra Mundial? Usa las palabras del Banco de Palabras.
Banco de Palabras
prejuicio
Programa de Braceros
barrios
zoot suits
Sección 13
Describe la vida para los judíos americanos durante la Segunda
Guerra Mundial? Usa las palabras del Banco de Palabras.
Banco de Palabras
antisemitismo
refugiados
campos de muerte
Junta de Refugiados de Guerra
P R O C E S A R
En una hoja aparte, haz un juego de estampillas postales conmemorativas que muestren cómo
la Segunda Guerra Mundial afectó a los habitantes de los Estados Unidos.
Sigue estas directricees al crear tu juego de estampillas.
• Eljuegodeestampillasdebeincluirporlomenoscuatroestampillaspostales.
• Dosestampillasdebenconmemoraradosgruposincluidosenlastransmisionesradiales:
militares, el gobierno, consumidores, mujeres, nipoamericanos, afroamericanos, mexicano
americanos o judíos americanos.
• DosestampillasdebenconmemorardosbatallasimportantesdelaSegundaGuerraMundial.
• CadaestampilladebetraerimágenesosímbolosquerepresentenelimpactodelaSegunda
Guerra Mundial sobre el grupo o la importancia de la batalla.
• Cadaestampilladebetraerunaleyendacortaquelaexplique.
© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute
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La Segunda Guerra Mundial
9
D E
E S T U D I A N T E
L E E R
M Á S
I N T E R A C T I V O
A
F O N D O
Preparación para la Escritura: Analizar Fuentes Primarias
Abajo hay algunos fragmentos de artículos de periódico sobre decisiones de los Estados Unidos en
materia de política exterior. Estos artículos aparecieron en el diario cuando ocurrieron los hechos.
Lee los artículos atentamente. Luego aplica lo que has aprendido y los artículos para contestar las
preguntas que siguen.
Es opinión general que la guerra en
Kuwait durará meses y que costará millares
de vidas americanas. Esta idea es pesimista
sin razón. El ejército de los Estados Unidos
puede liberar a Kuwait en menos de una
semana y sufrir relativamente pocas bajas:
probablemente menos de 1,000 muertes.
Aunque el ejército iraquí pelea bien desde
posiciones fortificadas, es inepto para librar
batallas blindadas movilizadas.
. . . En cambio, el ejército estadounidense, que llevará gran parte de la carga
ofensiva, está bien entrenado para batallas
con tanques.
. . . No hay que olvidar la tragedia que
una guerra inflige. Afortunadamente, una
victoria pronta reducirá las pérdidas de
ambas partes.
. . . A juzgar por su primer impacto
político, el cruce de fuego, el cual murieron
18 estadounidenses y 75 resultaron heridos,
bien puede ser una de aquellas experiencias
lacerantes en el campo de batalla cuyo recuerdo moldea la opinión pública e influye
agudamente en lo que hará y no hará Estados
Unidos en el mundo.
Las bajas, y las imágenes de un soldado
al cual llevan arrastrado por Mogadishu
después delataque, motivaron al presidente
Clinton a ordenar un retiro de Somalia…
Igualmente, obligó a la Administración a
replantear y posiblemente desechar los planes
de usar tropas americanas en las operaciones
de pacificación de la Naciones Unidas en
Bosnia, Haití y otros lugares problemáticos:
planes que eran fundamentales dentro de su
concepto total de la política externa.
- New York Times Febrero 8 de 1991
¿A qué operación militar se refiere este
artículo? ¿Cuándo tuvo lugar?
¿Cuál de los métodos de política exterior indicados en Leer Más a Fondo está representado
por esta operación?
¿El autor apoya la operación o se opone a ella?
¿Por qué?
© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute
67
- New York Times Octubre 25 de 1993
¿Dónde y cuándo tuvo lugar el incidente citado
en este artículo?
¿Cuál de los métodos de política exterior indicados en Leer Más a Fondo estaba aplicando los
Estados Unidos cuando se produjo el incidente?
Según el artículo, ¿qué efecto podría tener este
incidente sobre la política externa de los Estados
Unidos?
La Segunda Guerra Mundial
10
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
C U A D E R N O
D E
E S T U D I A N T E
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
C U A D E R N O
I N T E R A C T I V O
Escribir una Carta a la Redacción
A veces los lectores dirigen cartas a la redacción de un periódico para expresar su opinión
sobre algún artículo que han leído. Lee atentamente el fragmento que sigue sobre la invasión
estadounidense de Panamá, aparecido en un periódico en 1989. Escribe una carta a la redacción
enrespuestaalartículo.Noolvidesincluirlosiguiente:
•unbreveresumendelargumentopresentadoporelautor
•siestásdeacuerdooendesacuerdoconelautor,yporqué
•quémétodocreesquedebióaplicarlosEstadosUnidosparamanejarlasituaciónenPanamá.
¿Cómo justifica el presidente Bush
el envío de 10,000 tropas a combatir en
el diminuto país de Panamá? Ofrece cuatro
razones, dos de ellas tan infladas que se
evaporan al inspeccionarlas. “Para defender
la democracia en Panamá”, dijo. ¿Sí?
Pues, ¿quién nombró a los Estados Unidos
policía político del mundo? “Para combatir
el tráfico de drogas”, dijo. ¿Sí? Pues,
perseguir a Manuel Noriega ¿cuándo se
convirtió en misión de las fuerzas armadas
de los Estados Unidos?
Pero la impaciencia por las razones
infladas no debe restar nada de las sólidas.
El presidente también dijo que obró para
proteger la vida de los estadounidenses y
para proteger la integridad de los tratados
del Canal de Panamá. Esas son razones
válidas, y tomadas en conjunto apoyan la
intervención. El Sr. Bush no estaba obligado
a actuar ayer, pero hacerlo fue justificado.
- New York Times Diciembre 21 de 1989
Evalúa tu carta con ayuda de estas pautas de calificación. Hazle cambios si es necesario.
Calificación
Descripción
3
La carta responde a los tres puntos indicados en las instrucciones. Está bien estructurada y tiene el formato de carta correcto. No hay errores de ortografía ni de
gramática.
2
La carta responde por lo menos a dos puntos indicados en las instrucciones. Está
bien estructurada y tiene el formato de carta correcto. Hay algunos errores de ortografía o gramática.
1
La carta responde a uno solo o ninguno de los puntos indicados en las instrucciones.
No está estructurada en el formato de carta correcto. Hay muchos errores de ortografía o de gramática.
© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute
68
La Segunda Guerra Mundial
11
H O J A
D E
T R A B A J O
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
Student Materials: Spanish Student Handout
A
Sucesos de la Segunda Guerra Mundial
A.
B.
Soldados estadounidenses desembarcan en
la isla de Iwo Jima donde enfrentan la feroz
resistencia de los japoneses.
En los Juicios de Tokyo, los Aliados
llevaron ante la corte a 28 jefes japoneses por
crímenes de guerra y crímenes contra
la humanidad.
C.
D.
Los Aliados capturan a Berlín y Alemania se
rinde. Termina la Segunda Guerra Mundial
en Europa.
Churchill, Roosevelt y Stalin se reunen en
Yalta para decidir acerca de la división de
Alemania en cuatro zonas después de la
guerra.
E.
F.
El Congreso aprueba la Ley de Préstamo y
Arriendo, permitiendo que los Estados Unidos le suministre material de guerra a Gran
Bretaña, Francia, la Unión Soviética, China y
otras naciones Aliadas.
Estados Unidos gana la batalla de Midway.
Esta batalla es un momento clave y los Aliados logran ponerse a la ofensiva de la guerra
a partir de ese momento.
© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute
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La Segunda Guerra Mundial
1
D E
T R A B A J O
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
H O J A
A
Sucesos de la Segunda Guerra Mundial
G.
H.
Japón ataca a Pearl Harbor haciendo que los
Estados Unidos entren en la guerra.
Los Aliados inician la liberación de Francia
en el Día D.
I.
En los Juicios de Nuremberg, los Aliados
llevaron ante la corte a 22 jefes nazis por
crímenes de guerra y crímenes contra la
humanidad.
Un avión estadounidense arroja la bomba
atómica sobre Hiroshima, Japón. Tres días
más tarde, se arroja una segunda bomba
atómica sobre Nagasaki. Japón se rinde menos de una semana después.
K.
L.
Los Aliados comienzan su ofensiva en el
Pacífico después de la batalla de
Guadalcanal.
Las fuerzas alemanas invaden a Polonia.
Comienza la Segunda Guerra Mundial.
© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute
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J.
La Segunda Guerra Mundial
2
D E
T R A B A J O
Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
H O J A
B
Preparar una Transmisión de Radio
Trabaja con tu grupo para crear una transmisión de radio realista y entretenida, que contenga
historias interesantes, efectos de sonido y música. Sigue los siguientes pasos.
Paso 1: Asignación de grupos. Encierra en un círculo el nombre del grupo que te
asignaron.
los militares
las mujeres
los mexicanos-americanos
el gobierno
los japoneses-americanos
los judíos-americanos
los consumidores
los africanosamericanos
Paso 2: Repasa los papeles. Una vez que te hayan asignado un papel, lee la información
siguiente. Asegúrate de que todos entiendan sus responsabilidades.
Jefe de la estación de radio: Crea el cartel promocional de la estación, la introducción y
conclusión de la transmisión. También es responsable de los efectos de sonido de la
introducción y del final de la transmisión.
Presentador de noticias: Escribe y presenta la noticia principal. También es responsable de los
efectos de sonido de la noticia principal.
Reportero: Escribe y presenta un reportaje sobre una noticia de interés humano en la
transmisión. También es responsable de los efectos de sonido de la noticia de interés humano.
Jefe de publicidad: Es responsable de escribir y presentar la publicidad durante la transmisión.
También es responsable de los efectos de sonido de la publicidad.
Paso 3: Lee acerca del grupo que te asignaron. Lee la sección del Libro del Estudiante
sobre el grupo que te asignaron y completa la sección correspondiente en tus Notas de la
Lectura.
Paso 4: Lee los requisitos para la transmisión de radio. Tu transmisión de radio debe
comprender los elementos que se indican a continuación.
•
Un cartel promocional para tu estación de radio. Debe mostrar las siglas de identificación
y un logotipo de apoyo a las fuerzas estadounidenses en la Segunda Guerra Mundial.
•
Una introducción a la transmisión de 10 a15 segundos para darles la bienvenida a los
radioescuchas y ofrecerles un resumen del contenido de esa noche.
•
Una noticia principal de 1 o 2 minutos que presente información clave sobre la manera en
que Segunda Guerra Mundial afecta a tu grupo.
•
Una noticia de interés humano de 1 o 2 minutos que cuente cómo la Segunda Guerra
Mundial está afectando a una persona de tu grupo. Esta noticia debe tener una entrevista
o citas textuales de la persona que ocupa la noticia.
•
Un comercial de 30 segundos de una compañía que manufactura bienes para el esfuerzo de
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guerra, o un anuncio de 30 segundos de un servicio público pidiéndoles a los ciudadanos que
contribuyan con el esfuerzo de guerra. El comercial o el anuncio de servicio público debe tener
una melodía y buen humor para que sea inolvidable.
•
A 10- to 15-second conclusion to the broadcast that thanks listeners and previews what they
will hear in the next broadcast.
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Por lo menos cinco efectos de sonido. Algunos ejemplos de efectos de sonido son: el viento que
sopla, ruido de pasos, sirenas de policía, música de la época de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, o
transmisiones nuevas.
Paso 5: Lluvia de Ideas para Todas las Partes de tu Transmisión de Radio.
Jefe de la estación de radio: Escribe ideas y bosqueja el cartel promocional.
Jefe de la Estación de Radio: Hace una lista de ideas para la introducción, incluídos los efectos
de sonido. Escribe el nombre, o los nombres, de los miembros del grupo que hablarán en la
introducción.
Presentador de Noticias: Escribe ideas sobre la noticia principal, incluídos los efectos de sonido.
Escribe el nombre, o los nombres, de los miembros del grupo que hablarán en la noticia principal.
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Reportero: Hace una lista de ideas para la noticia de interés humano, incluídos los efectos de
sonido. Escribe el nombre, o los nombres, de los miembros del grupo que hablarán en la noticia de
interés humano.
Jefe de Publicidad: Hace una lista de ideas para el comercial, incluídos los efectos de sonido.
Escribe el nombre, o los nombres, de los miembros del grupo participarán en la publicidad.
Jefe de la Estación de Radio: Hace una lista de ideas para la conclusión, incluídos los efectos
de sonido. Escribe el nombre, o los nombres, de los miembros del grupo que hablarán en la
conclusión.
Paso 6: Crea tu transmisión de radio. Haz un guión para tu transmisión de radio. Fíjate
que el guión incluya las cinco partes de la transmisión: introducción, noticia principal, noticia de
interés humano, publicidad y conclusión. Reune los materiales necesarios para los efectos de sonido
y completa el cartel de la transmisión. Escribe tu guión en una hoja de papel aparte. Haz copias
para usarlas durante la transmisión. Si te lo pide, dále una copia del guión a tu maestra.
Paso 7: Ensaya tu transmisión de radio. Una vez que hayas completado todas las partes de la
transmisión, ensáyala para que dure cinco minutos. A medida que ensayas, verifica que
•
•
•
cada miembro del grupo participe activamente en la presentación.
la presentación se desarrolle sin contratiempos.
los efectos de sonido sean eficaces.
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Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
H O J A
To protect the integrity of answers, this feature
has been removed from the sample lesson.
When you purchase the program, you’ll receive
answers to the Geography Challenge, Interactive
Student Notebook, and Student Handouts.
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Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
Teacher’s Guide
To protect the integrity of assessment questions, this
feature has been removed from the sample lesson.
These videos will help you learn more about our print and
online assessment tools.
Creating Printable Assessments (2:33 min)
Creating Online Assessments (2:25 min)
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Overview | Student Text | Procedures | Student Materials | Teacher’s Guide | Assessment | Differentiating Instruction
Assessment
English Language Learners
Highlight the Dates Have students read each section in small groups and highlight the dates
for key events. As a class, work together to match the events on Student Handout A with each
subsection of the Student Text.
Learners Reading and Writing Below Grade Level
Focus on the Sequence Have students read each section in small groups and highlight the
dates for key events. Provide a timeline with some of the key events already filled in. As a class,
fill in the missing events until the timeline is complete.
Learners with Special Education Needs
Work Collaboratively Create a timeline with all of the key events already filled in. Have
students work together to match the images from Student Handout A with each subsection of
the Student Text and place the images on the timeline.
Advanced Learners
Present Opposing Viewpoints Have students create an illustrated timeline showing the
viewpoints of both Allied and Axis leaders. Have students research additional images and
content for their timelines and find out how each side viewed the events of the war. Make sure
that their timelines reflect opposing viewpoints of the war.
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Differentiating Instruction

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