villa massimo - congreso internacional sobre eficiencia energética y

Comentarios

Transcripción

villa massimo - congreso internacional sobre eficiencia energética y
LÓPEZ, M.; YÁÑEZ, A.; GOMES DA COSTA, S.; AVELLÀ, L., (Coord.). Actas del Congreso Internacional
de Eficiencia Energética y Edificación Histórica / Proceedings of the International Conference on
Energy Efficiency and Historic Buildings (Madrid, 29-30 Sep. 2014). Madrid: Fundación de Casas
Históricas y Singulares y Fundación Ars Civilis, 2014. ISBN: 978-84-617-3440-5
Edited by
Fundación de Casas Históricas y Singulares
Fundación Ars Civilis
Coordinated by
Mónica López Sánchez. Fundación Ars Civilis
Ana Yáñez Vega. Fundación de Casas Históricas y Singulares
Sofia Gomes da Costa. Fundación de Casas Históricas y Singulares
Lourdes Avellà Delgado. Fundación Ars Civilis
© Copyright
2014. Texts: the respective authors (or their employers); Proceedings: the coordinators and editors.
International Conference
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
IN HISTORIC BUILDINGS
MADRID 29-30 | 09 | 2014
Table of contents
PRESENTACIÓN ............................................................................................................... - 11 Eficiencia energética y edificación histórica: un reto del presente..................................... - 13 Cristina Gutiérrez-Cortines y Mónica López Sánchez. Fundación Ars Civilis
Eficiencia energética y edificación histórica: un reto del futuro ........................................ - 14 Ana Yáñez Vega. Fundación de Casas Históricas y Singulares
Committees .................................................................................................................... - 15 Programme..................................................................................................................... - 16 -
Governance, management, participation and mediation..........................................- 21 SUSTAINABLE ENERGY ACTION FOR WORLD HERITAGE MANAGEMENT ............................ - 22 RONCHINI, C.; POLETTO, D.
ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND URBAN RENEWAL OF A UNESCO-LISTED HISTORICAL
CENTER: THE CASE OF PORTO .......................................................................................... - 38 SANTOS, Á.; VALENÇA, P.; SEQUEIRA, J.
HISTORICAL HERITAGE: FROM ENERGY CONSUMER TO ENERGY PRODUCER. THE CASE
STUDY OF THE ‘ALBERGO DEI POVERI’ OF GENOA, ITALY .................................................. - 45 FRANCO, G.; GUERRINI, M.; CARTESEGNA, M.
IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN HISTORIC CORNISH BUILDINGS – GRANT
FUNDING, MONITORING AND GUIDANCE ........................................................................ - 61 RICHARDS, A.
ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND BUILDINGS WITH HERITAGE VALUES: REFLECTION,
CONFLICTS AND SOLUTIONS ............................................................................................ - 75 GIANCOLA, E.; HERAS, M. R.
PROPUESTA METODOLÓGICA PARA LA REHABILITACIÓN SOSTENIBLE DEL
PATRIMONIO CONTEXTUAL EDIFICADO. EL CASO DEL CENTRO HISTÓRICO DE LA
CIUDAD DE MÉRIDA, YUCATÁN / Methodological proposal for the sustainable
rehabilitation of context heritage building. The case of the historic downtown of
Merida, Yucatan ............................................................................................................. - 82 MEDINA, K.; RODRÍGUEZ, A.; CERÓN, I.
More contents on http://energyheritage.wordpress.com/
-5-
International Conference
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
IN HISTORIC BUILDINGS
MADRID 29-30 | 09 | 2014
Traditional and technological knowledge: concepts, techniques, practices, uses,
materials, methodologies ........................................................................................- 99 SUSTAINABLE REFURBISHMENT OF HISTORIC BUILDINGS: RISKS, SOLUTIONS AND
BEST PRACTICE.............................................................................................................. - 100 HEATH, N.
EFICIENCIA ENERGÉTICA Y VALORES PATRIMONIALES. LECCIONES DE UNA
INVESTIGACIÓN Y UN SEMINARIO / Energy efficiency and heritage values. Lessons of
a Research and a Seminar ............................................................................................. - 110 GONZÁLEZ MORENO-NAVARRO, J. L.
ARCHITECTURAL INTEGRATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS IN HISTORIC DISTRICTS.
THE CASE STUDY OF SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELA .......................................................... - 118 LUCCHI, E.; GAREGNANI, G.; MATURI, L.; MOSER, D.
HISTORIC BUILDING ENERGY ASSESSMENT BY MEANS OF SIMULATION TECHNIQUES ..... - 135 SOUTULLO, S.; ENRIQUEZ, R.; FERRER, J. A.; HERAS, M. R.
DESIGN OF A CONTROL SYSTEM FOR THE ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN A WALL-HEATED
CHURCH: SANTA MARIA ODIGITRIA IN ROME................................................................. - 145 MANFREDI, C.; FRATERNALI, D.; ALBERICI, A.
EXEMPLARY ENERGETICAL REFURBISHMENT OF THE GERMAN ACADEMY IN ROME
"VILLA MASSIMO" ........................................................................................................ - 160 ENDRES, E.; SANTUCCI, D.
SISTEMA MÓVIL INTEGRADO PARA LA REHABILITACIÓN ENERGÉTICA DE EDIFICIOS:
LÁSER 3D, TERMOGRAFÍA, FOTOGRAFÍA, SENSORES AMBIENTALES Y BIM / Integrated
mobile system for building energy rehabilitation: 3D laser, termography, fotography,
environmental sensors and BIM .................................................................................... - 169 SÁNCHEZ VILLANUEVA, C.; FILGUEIRA LAGO, A.; ROCA BERNÁRDEZ, D.; ARMESTO GONZÁLEZ, J.;
DÍAZ VILARIÑO, L.; LAGÜELA LÓPEZ, S.; RODRÍGUEZ VIJANDA, M.; NÚÑEZ SUÁREZ, J.; MARTÍNEZ
GÓMEZ, R.
CONSECUENCIAS CONSTRUCTIVAS Y ENERGÉTICAS DE UNA MALA PRÁCTICA.
ARQUITECTURAS DESOLLADAS / Energy and constructive consequences of a bad
practice. Skinned architectures ..................................................................................... - 186 DE LUXÁN GARCÍA DE DIEGO, M.; GÓMEZ MUÑOZ, G.; BARBERO BARRERA, M.; ROMÁN LÓPEZ,
E.
EL BIENESTAR TÉRMICO MÁS ALLÁ DE LAS EXIGENCIAS NORMATIVAS. DOS CASOS.
DOS ENFOQUES / Thermal comfort beyond legislation. Two examples. Two
approaches ................................................................................................................... - 201 DOTOR, A.; ONECHA, B.; GONZÁLEZ, J. L.
LA MONITORIZACIÓN Y SIMULACIÓN HIGROTÉRMICA COMO HERRAMIENTA PARA LA
MEJORA DEL CONFORT, PRESERVACIÓN Y AHORRO ENERGÉTICO DE ESPACIOS
PATRIMONIALES. EL CASO DE LA IGLESIA DE SAN FRANCISCO DE ASIS, MORÓN DE LA
FRONTERA / Measurement and hygrothermal simulation model, a tool to enhance
thermal comfort, preservation and saving energy of heritage site. Case study: the
church of San Francisco of Asís in Morón de la Frontera ................................................. - 210 MUÑOZ, C.; LEÓN, A.; NAVARRO, J.
More contents on http://energyheritage.wordpress.com/
-6-
International Conference
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
IN HISTORIC BUILDINGS
MADRID 29-30 | 09 | 2014
TERESE3: HERRAMIENTA INFORMÁTICA PARA LA EFICIENCIA ENERGÉTICA MEDIANTE
LA SIMULACIÓN CALIBRADA DE EDIFICIOS / TERESE3: informatic tool for the energetic
efficiency through the calibrated simulation of buildings ............................................... - 226 GRANADA, E.; EGUÍA, P.; MARTÍNEZ, R.; NÚÑEZ, J.; RODRÍGUEZ, M.
EFICIENCIA ENERGÉTICA Y ANÁLISIS TÉRMICO PARA SISTEMAS DE AIRE
CENTRALIZADO: UN CASO DE ESTUDIO / Energy Efficiency and thermal analysis for
centralized air heating systems: a case study ................................................................. - 238 MARTÍNEZ-GARRIDO, M. I.; GOMEZ-HERAS, M.; FORT, R.; VARAS-MURIEL, M. J.
ANALISIS ENERGETICO DEL MUSEO DE HISTORIA DE VALENCIA MEDIANTE DISTINTAS
HERRAMIENTAS DE SIMULACIÓN / Energy assessment of the History Museum of
Valencia using various simulation tools ......................................................................... - 249 TORT-AUSINA, I.; VIVANCOS, J.L.; MARTÍNEZ-MOLINA, A.; MENDOZA, C. M.
APROVECHAMIENTO SOLAR PASIVO EN LA RETÍCULA URBANA DE LA CIUDAD
HISTÓRICA. EL CASO DE CÁDIZ / Passive solar gains in the urban grid of the historic
city. The case study of Cadiz .......................................................................................... - 257 SÁNCHEZ-MONTAÑÉS, B.; RUBIO-BELLIDO, C.; PULIDO-ARCAS, J. A.
TECHNICAL SYSTEM HISTORY AND HERITAGE: A CASE STUDY OF A THERMAL POWER
STATION IN ITALY ......................................................................................................... - 275 PRETELLI, M.; FABBRI, K.
ANALISIS ENERGÉTICO Y PROPUESTAS DE MEJORA DE UNA CASA EN REQUENA
MEDIANTE PROGRAMAS DE SIMULACIÓN / Energy analysis and improvement
proposal of a house in Requena (Spain) using simulation software ................................. - 281 TORT-AUSINA, I.; VIVANCOS, J.L.; MARTÍNEZ-MOLINA, A.; MENDOZA, C. M.
UNA REVISIÓN DE PUBLICACIONES EN EDIFICIOS DESDE EL ASPECTO ENERGÉTICO / A
review of papers in buildings from the energetic perspective ......................................... - 292 TORT-AUSINA, I.; MARTÍNEZ-MOLINA, A.; VIVANCOS, J.L.
MORTEROS MIXTOS DE CAL Y CEMENTO CON CARACTERÍSTICAS TÉRMICAS Y
ACÚSTICAS MEJORADAS PARA REHABILITACIÓN / Lime-cement mixture with
improved thermal and acoustic characteristics for rehabilitation ................................... - 303 PALOMAR, I.; BARLUENGA, G.; PUENTES, J.
NEAR ZERO ENERGY HISTORIC BUILDING. TOOLS AND CRITERIA FOR ECOCOMPATIBLE
AND ECOEFFICIENT CONSERVATION .............................................................................. - 318 BAIANI, S.
INTEGRANDO RENOVABLES EN LA CIUDAD HEREDADA: GEOTERMIA URBANA /
Integrating renewable in the inherited city: urban geothermal....................................... - 329 SACRISTÁN DE MIGUEL, M. J.
ANÁLISIS Y PROPUESTAS DE MEJORA DE LA EFICIENCIA ENERGÉTICA DE UN EDIFICIO
HISTÓRICO DE CARTAGENA: ANTIGUO PALACIO DEL MARQUÉS DE CASA-TILLY /
Analysis and proposals for improving the energy efficiency of a historical building in
Cartagena: the former Palace of the Marquis of Casa-Tilly ............................................. - 344 COLLADO ESPEJO, P. E.; MAESTRE DE SAN JUAN ESCOLAR, C.
REHABILITACIÓN ENERGÉTICA DE EDIFICIOS DE VIVIENDAS BAJO EL PLAN ESPECIAL DE
PROTECCIÓN DEL PATRIMONIO URBANÍSTICO CONSTRUIDO EN DONOSTIA-SAN
SEBASTIÁN / Building energy retrofit of dwellings under the special plan of urban
built heritage protection in Donostia-San Sebastian ....................................................... - 357 -
More contents on http://energyheritage.wordpress.com/
-7-
International Conference
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
IN HISTORIC BUILDINGS
MADRID 29-30 | 09 | 2014
MARTÍN, A.; MILLÁN, J. A.; HIDALGO, J. M.; IRIBAR, E.
IS TEMPERIERUNG ENERGY EFFICIENT? THE APPLICATION OF AN OLD-NEW HEATING
SYSTEM TO HERITAGE BUILDINGS ................................................................................. - 366 DEL CURTO, D.; LUCIANI, A.; MANFREDI, C.; VALISI, L.
TERMOGRAFÍA INFRARROJA Y EDIFICIOS HISTÓRICOS.................................................... - 380 MELGOSA, S.
SIMULATION MODEL CALIBRATION IN THE CONTEXT OF REAL USE HISTORIC
BUILDINGS .................................................................................................................... - 388 ENRÍQUEZ, R.; JIMÉNEZ, M.J.; HERAS, M.R.
THE THERMOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TECHNICAL ELEMENTS IN THE
HISTORIC ARCHITECTURE: EXPERIENCES IN PALERMO .................................................... - 397 GENOVA, E.; FATTA, G.
ENERGY EVALUATION OF THE HVAC SYSTEM BASED ON SOLAR ENERGY AND
BIOMASS OF THE CEDER RENOVATED BUILDING ............................................................ - 407 DÍAZ ANGULO, J. A.; FERRER, J. A.; HERAS, M. H.
Legal and technical regulation and historic buildings ............................................. - 419 OLD BUILDING, NEW BOILERS: THE FUTURE OF HERITAGE IN AN ERA OF ENERGY
EFFICIENCY ................................................................................................................... - 420 JANS, E.; ICOMOS, M.; KOPIEVSKY, S.; AIRHA, M.
HISTORIC WINDOWS: CONSERVATION OR REPLACEMENT. WHAT'S THE MOST
SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTION? LEGISLATIVE SITUATION, CASE STUDIES AND CURRENT
RESEARCHES ................................................................................................................. - 432 PRACCHI, V.; RAT, N.; VERZEROLI, A.
ENERGY RETROFIT OF A HISTORIC BUILDING IN A UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITE: AN
INTEGRATED COST OPTIMALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT............................ - 450 TADEU, S.; RODRIGUES, C.; TADEU, A.; FREIRE, F.; SIMÕES, N.
PARQUE EDIFICADO O PATRIMONIO EDIFICADO: LA PROTECCIÓN FRENTE A LA
INTERVENCIÓN ENERGÉTICA. EL CASO DEL BARRIO DE GROS DE SAN SEBASTIÁN /
Built Park or Built Heritage: Protection against energy intervention. The case of Gros
district of San Sebastian ................................................................................................ - 464 URANGA, E. J.; ETXEPARE, L.
SIMULTANEOUS HERITAGE COMFORT INDEX (SHCI): QUICK SCAN AIMED AT THE
SIMULTANEOUS INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL COMFORT EVALUATION FOR PEOPLE AND
ARTWORKS IN HERITAGE BUILDINGS ............................................................................. - 478 LITTI, G.; FABBRI, K.; AUDENAERT, A.; BRAET, J.
PROBLEMÁTICA DE LA POSIBLE CERTIFICACIÓN ENERGÉTICA CON CE3X DEL
PATRIMONIO ARQUITECTÓNICO: EL CASO DEL ALMUDÍN DE VALENCIA / Difficulties
found in the possible energy certification of heritage by using the CE3X software: the
case of El Almudín of Valencia ....................................................................................... - 495 CUARTERO-CASAS, E.; TORT-AUSINA, I.; MONFORT-I-SIGNES, J.; OLIVER-FAUBEL, E. I.
PROTOCOL FOR CHARACTERIZING AND OPTIMIZING THE ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN
PUBLIC BUILDINGS: CASE STUDY OF POZUELO DE ALARCÓN MUNICIPALITY ................... - 506 RUBIO, A.; MACÍAS, M.; LUMBRERAS, J.
More contents on http://energyheritage.wordpress.com/
-8-
International Conference
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
IN HISTORIC BUILDINGS
MADRID 29-30 | 09 | 2014
Promotion, training, education .............................................................................. - 513 THE WORK OF THE SUSTAINABLE TRADITIONAL BUILDINGS ALLIANCE AND AN
INTRODUCTION TO THE GUIDANCE WHEEL FOR RETROFIT ............................................. - 514 MAY, N.; RYE, C.; GRIFFITHS, N.
TRAINING OF EXPERTS FOR ENERGY RETROFIT AT THE FRAUNHOFER CENTRE FOR THE
ENERGY-SAVING RENOVATION OF OLD BUILDINGS AND THE PRESERVATION OF
MONUMENTS AT BENEDIKTBEUERN .............................................................................. - 528 KILIAN, R.; KRUS, M.
SPECIALIZED ENERGY CONSULTANTS FOR ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE ............................ - 535 DE BOUW, M.; DUBOIS, S.; HERINCKX, S.; VANHELLEMONT, Y.
RENERPATH: METODOLOGÍA DE REHABILITACIÓN ENERGÉTICA DE EDIFICIOS
PATRIMONIALES / RENERPATH: Methodology for Energy Rehabilitation of Heritage
Buildings....................................................................................................................... - 543 PERÁN, J. R. ; MARTÍN LERONES, P.; BUJEDO, L. A.; OLMEDO, D.; SAMANIEGO, J.; GAUBO, F.;
FRECHOSO, F.; ZALAMA, E.; GÓMEZ-GARCÍA BERMEJO, J.; MARTÍN, D.; FRANCISCO, V.; CUNHA,
F.; BAIO, A.; XAVIER, G.; DOMÍNGUEZ, P.; GETINO, R.; SÁNCHEZ, J. C.; PASTOR, E.
LEVANTAMIENTOS ARQUITECTÓNICOS EN EL MEDIO RURAL / Architectural surveys in
rural areas .................................................................................................................... - 553 HIDALGO, J.M.; MILLÁN, J. A.; MARTÍN, A.; IRIBAR, E.; FLORES, I.; ZUBILLAGA, I.
AUTHORS INDEX .................................................................................................... - 567 -
-9-
More contents on http://energyheritage.wordpress.com/
International Conference
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
IN HISTORIC BUILDINGS
MADRID 29-30 | 09 | 2014
EXEMPLARY ENERGETICAL REFURBISHMENT OF THE
GERMAN ACADEMY IN ROME "VILLA MASSIMO"
ENDRES, E.; SANTUCCI, D.
ENDRES, E.: Ingenieurbüro Hausladen GmbH/Technische Universität München. München – Deutschland.
[email protected]
SANTUCCI, D.: Ingenieurbüro Hausladen GmbH/Technische Universität München. München – Deutschland.
[email protected]
ABSTRACT
The German Academy in Rome "Villa Massimo" is a property of the “Federal Republic of Germany” and
the most important institution for promoting German artists abroad. The complex, which consists of
different buildings included in a park, was built in first decade of the 20th century inspired by the renaissance
villas and by the contemporary architectural tendencies, both with a high cultural value. In cooperation and
with the support of governmental funding the Villa Massimo should become an exemplary refurbishment, to
fulfil the targets of the energy transition of the Federal Republic of Germany. The main energetical issue is
the development of active and passive measures and components which can ensure a year-round energy
supply from renewables and achieve a zero-energy standard. The methodology, which was developed to
provide solutions for the energetical optimization of the building stock, includes three elements of a holistic
approach: Building, technical- and energy supply. Based on the current research in the field of energyefficient building design the project identifies methodological aspects and technologies combined with the
building to achieve the goal of a zero energy property in Rome´s climate. It is not considering only the
aspects of the energy performance: besides the necessary refurbishment interventions, the focus is pointed
on the optimization of consumption and the conversion to renewable energy sources by simultaneous
increasing the indoor comfort. All measures that shall lead to the target of a zero energy complex have to be
considered in terms of appropriateness of the intervention and compatibility with building culture. As
renewable energy support is set to be the fundamental element of this sustainable approach in dialogue
with the building culture, the energetical concept was developed to explore the synergetic effects between
the different functions and systems composing the property and its relation to the public grid. The entire
property will be equipped with surface cooling and heating on a low-exergy level, which aims to keep the
building on a continuous indoor climate. This solution is compatible with the use of environmental energy
and guarantees a basic conditioning of all buildings. Beyond that, additional systems have to cover in an
efficient way fluctuating peaks determined by temporary functions and usage. The integration of all new
systems in the existing architecture and its compatibility with the building culture is set to be the most
relevant aspect of the intervention.
Keywords: building culture, comfort, resources, grids, relations, systems, synergies.
1. INTRODUCTION
Monumental and historic buildings are rarely included in energy optimization programs, since
the preservation of their original architectural quality is prior. Nevertheless those buildings cause
an important amount of energy consumption without reaching their original goal: to guarantee
good climatic conditions inside without active conditioning systems. In addition, the requirements
for indoor comfort have increased. Following this premise, it seems indispensable to develop
strategies and concepts to approach them without affecting their historic building quality.
Interventions and improvements have to consider both the existing building and its technology
and the requirements of our present days: involve the users to save energy and take advantage of
renewable energy.
More contents on https://energyheritage.wordpress.com/
- 160 -
International Conference
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
IN HISTORIC BUILDINGS
MADRID 29-30 | 09 | 2014
The strategy for the energetical refurbishment of the German Academy in Rome “Villa
Massimo” bases on the intention to create a zero-energy balance of the whole property by
applying technological solutions excluding invasive interventions on the fabric. The project
procedure started in 2010 with an initiative funded by the “German Federal Environmental
Foundation” (Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt). This first phase had its core on the definition of
optimization the performance of the existing technical supply systems integrating renewables in
the complex. To the first feasibility study a second phase of investigation succeeded, supported by
joint funding from the Ministry of Economics and Technology (Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft
und Technologie (BMWi)), the Ministry of Transportation and Development (Bundesministerium
für Verkehr, Bau und Stadtentwicklung (BMVBS)) as well as through a grant from the Government
of the Federal Republic of Germany through the “Beauftragten der Bundesregierung für Kultur
und Medien (BKM)”. The German Academy in Rome is the first property which is selected to
demonstrate technical innovation combined with the research and development on integrated
design applied to an existing extraterritorial property of the Federal Republic of Germany. In the
second phase, a further reduction of the energy demand is planned by futher investigations on
the buildings and by the replacement of technical supply to achieve the goal of a zero-energy
balance.
Through the development of the design and through the implementation of interventions on
the building stock of Villa Massimo, general knowledge should emerge and consequently, the
complex should become a positive example of the use of innovative technologies and its
integration in a complex of great historical value.
The goal of the project is to develop a process that can be applied to different typologies of
historic buildings. Most of those buildings have a high consumption associated to a low level of
indoor comfort conditions, often as a result of selective interventions on the building envelope,
on the technical supply systems as well as due to modifications of their original functions. The first
step of this process is the assignment of the energy consumption to the different buildings and
systemps, divided into electricity and gas supply. Through the analysis of those assumptions
combines with user profiles and user behaviour, measures have to be to propose to reduce
energy consumption and to improve comfort conditions. In general it is more a holistic and
integrated strategy to be defined than a list of selective investigations. All the indicated measures
have to be verified considering effects on the comfort, energy consumption, costs and lifecycle as
well as compatibility with the architectural quality of the buildings.
As Renewable energy supply is set to be the fundamental element of sustainable approach,
the feasibility study was developed and evolved to explore the synergetic effects between the
different functions and systems composing the complex and its relation to the city, its grids and
energy potential.
The overall mission of the initiative is the formulation of a strategy to reduce the energy
consumption, to implement renewables and to evaluate synergetic effects in a listed historic
building complex without interfering with the quality of architecture. The choice to examine the
property of the German Academy in Rome, was originated on the one hand by the request to act
on a building of particular historical value, on the other to interact with the warm climate also in
relation to the use of solar energy. The property has the potential to explore the combination of
load curves from different usage increasing comfort by reducing the current consumption and
costs. Almost ten years ago, from 2000 to 2003, the institution was closed due to an overall
refurbishment. This intervention has radically changed the performances of the buildings due to
the new installed technical systems. As a result of these measures, the energy demand has
increased significantly but did not ensure the achievement of the desired comfort conditions.In
More contents on https://energyheritage.wordpress.com/
- 161 -
International Conference
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
IN HISTORIC BUILDINGS
MADRID 29-30 | 09 | 2014
addition to this, the discussion about sustainability and requirements has radically changed since
that time. Refurbishments of historic and heritage buildings are generally driven by the aspects of
conservation and reconstruction of the architectural significance, without enough attention to
energetical aspects. Historical and monumental buildings present a series of architectural
characteristics which define the urban identity. For the transformation of those buildings to reach
the standards and requirements of our present days, it is necessary to add the issue of energy
optimization to the priority of conservation and protection of the architectural quality.
The proposed strategy for the “German Academy in Rome, Villa Massimo”, started from this
point as a model project to find solutions for reducing the primary energy demand of the property
with technologies that avoid invasive interventions on the built environment.
2. THE PROPERTY
- 162 -
Figure 1: Site plan. Source: Daniele Santucci
The “Villa Massimo” complex built in the early twentieth century, following in parts an
architectural language inspired by the Roman summer residence of the sixteenth and seventeenth
century as well as contemporary architecture of the first modernism. It consists of 6 buildings
placed in a park and located between the Via Nomentana and Viale XXI Aprile. The buildings are
typologically very different and have different functions. The villa, the most representative
building, is used for administrative and representing functions, a library and a multipurpose hall
for concerts and events. The artists' studios and director’s apartment are located in different
buildings on the opposite of the villa. The other buildings included in the park are the entrance
building with apartment for the concierge and a small exhibition space. Eduard Arnold, a wealthy
German industrialist, funded the property and donated money for the foundation. Ten of
Germany’s highly gifted artists from the areas of art, music, architecture and literature have the
possibility to live and work one year in Rome, eventually together with their families. The Villa
Massimo is the best known German cultural institution and has given a high impact to Germany’s
cultural development since its foundation in 1913. These reasons, coupled with the potential of
More contents on https://energyheritage.wordpress.com/
International Conference
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
IN HISTORIC BUILDINGS
MADRID 29-30 | 09 | 2014
Rome´s climate, provide the Villa Massimo to represent an optimal object to demonstrate
innovative technologies and integrated strategies.
- 163 -
Figure 2: Villa - south façade. Source: Daniele Santucci
Villa Massimo´s architecture is an example to show how the Roman building tradition was
inspiring not only for the symbolic character, but also to ensure an optimized solution in terms of
building climatology. In this sense, the thermal insulation of the thick solid brick walls, the south
oriented façade that uses the wind situation of Rome to cool in late summer afternoons, and the
water storage in the park which contributes in hot Roman summer to cool the outside air by
evaporation, all typological features which have got proven to have benefits on the climatic
conditions. Ancient buildings were designed bto guarantee high comfort levels with the lowest
use of resources: materials, typologies and technologies correspond to the opportunities and the
proximity of locally available resources.
Due to the interventions which occurred in the past years, some of the pre-existing passive
measures have changed due to the modifications in the intended use of some parts of the
buildings. As a result of these uneffective interventions, the energy demand has increased
significantly but did not ensure the aimed comfort conditions.
More contents on https://energyheritage.wordpress.com/
International Conference
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
IN HISTORIC BUILDINGS
MADRID 29-30 | 09 | 2014
- 164 -
Figure 3 + 4: Inside impressions Villa. Source: Daniele Santucci
More contents on https://energyheritage.wordpress.com/
International Conference
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
IN HISTORIC BUILDINGS
MADRID 29-30 | 09 | 2014
Figure 5: Studio`s north façade outside / inside. Source: Daniele Santucci
3. METHODOLOGY
To reach the proposed target of zero-energy building the strategy considers and applies
technology and knowledge resulting from scientific research in the field of sustainable design. The
proposed strategy analyses the potential of both passive and active components and is divided
into phases which involves the three components: building, technical- and renewable energy
supply. This strategy allows the development of integral design approaches to achieve a reduction
of the current energy consumption by increasing comfort conditions and by a parallel transfer the
energy supply toward renewable energy sources. The identified measures are adapted to the
constraints imposed by the protection and are discusses to be in accordance with the property. In
fact, the project started from the discussion on components, giving priority on the conservation of
the original complex and avoiding any interference on the buildings. This integral design approach
in historical buildings is not a difficult principle for itself, the point is to evaluate all aspects and to
identify the potentials of the building as well as of local renewable sources and to connect the
result of this analyze with suitable technical systems
In the first phase of the study the building was evaluated in terms of consumption, finding a
combination between the present technical supply and conditioning systems with the profiles of
the different functional areas. Critical issues related to the conditions of comfort both in summer
and winter were later identified. The assignment of consumption was particularly complex
because, as in most similar cases, there are no values related to the different consumers but only
those of the total consumption of the whole property. Therefore it was necessary to classify the
type of consumption and attribute it to the buildings and systems estimating qualitatively the
different needs. Thermal simulations were used both to express statements in relation to the
comfort conditions as well as to dimension the load curves of the different systems. Calculations
were made to quantify the heat and hot water demand. Simulations also have proven to be an
indispensable tool for quantifying the needs for comfort and to verify the proposed measures.
Through thermal simulations it was possible to verify the optimization measures assumed or
replacement of technical supply systems quantifying the costs, the actual reduction in terms of
demand, the effects on comfort conditions and the compatibility with the architectural quality of
the building. In addition, the potential obtainable from renewable energy sources was calculated,
in particular the amount of solar energy that can be captured by photovoltaic systems integrated
without creating visual interference with the historical complex. The particular south oriented
double-pitched roofs of the studios formed the basic condition for considering this possibility. In
this sense the integration of photovoltaic systems is the prior element to support the
More contents on https://energyheritage.wordpress.com/
- 165 -
International Conference
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
IN HISTORIC BUILDINGS
MADRID 29-30 | 09 | 2014
intervention. Basing on the available amount of solar radiation, variants have been formulated
that combine different technical supply- and conditioning systems.
4. STRATEGY
Energy and technical Supply
Roof integrated photovoltaics will gain solar radiation and produce electricity. To cover the
base load of electricity, combined-heat-and-power-production will be used by a fuel cell and a
micro CHP plant. The heat from this process will be used for the domestic water supply all over
the year. Solar gained electricity with peaks on sunny days will cover parallel the cooling peak
loads of the administrative building by compressive chillers. This combination shows an efficient
way of solar cooling and provides benefits for the urban grid. In Rome, as well as in other cities
with high requests on cooling, the grid often breaks down on highest point of demand in
summer.The studios will be supplied by ground water, due to less internal heat loads.The ground
water temperatures in summer are sufficient to achieve comfort indoor climate, in winter the
temperature level of ground water will be raised by a heat pump.
Passive and active building strategy – Studios and director´s apartment
Passive building components to reduce the heat demand are necessary for the studios and the
director’s apartment due to the low internal gains in the apartments. The external walls of the
studios will be covered with a high performance plaster as well as an insulation will be applied
inside the roof of both buildings. The north oriented glass façade of the artist working space in the
studios will be replaced by a new one. Openings in the roofs will provide better ventilation
conditions, especially for night cooling in the summer. In the studios, clay plaster on the internal
walls of all rooms will regulate the humidity. Floor cooling and heating, supplied by ground water,
combined during wintertime with a heat pump, will regulate indoor temperature. Due to the
natural ventilation strategy with night cooling effects in combination with the clay plaster and
artificial thermal mass provided by PCM, there is no need for a mechanical ventilation system.
Passive building strategy – Villa
The functions and the resulting requirements in the Villa determine another strategy, based on
efficient active systems. The complexity of the façade of the Villa and the low heat consumption
are not compatible with a thermal insulation on the external walls. Insulation will be installed
under the roof to reduce partially the heat demand. Where ever possible and necessary, shading
systems will be installed to reduce the solar gains in summer especially in south oriented offices
and meeting rooms. Base loads will be covered by surface cooling and heating, integrated in the
walls or as a free standing element in the room. For peak loads the current fan coils will be used.
The recooling process of the compression chiller will be covered by ground water temperature.
More contents on https://energyheritage.wordpress.com/
- 166 -
International Conference
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
IN HISTORIC BUILDINGS
MADRID 29-30 | 09 | 2014
Figure 6: Strategy winter + summer conditioning systems and energy supply. Source: IB Hausladen /
Elisabeth Endres / Daniele Santucci
- 167 -
5. VISION
The use of renewable energy determines the need to constantly define the criteria and the
way of interaction with the building. The design of increasingly sophisticated systems to produce
clean energy must have as its primary objective the maximum integration with the architecture.
In this sense, the key aspect for the definition of the energy supply system is the determination
of potentials deriving from renewable resources and their availability, considering the context and
the existing infrastructure. Another aspect to be taken into consideration is the temporal
availability of production and therefore the simultaneity of production and consumption. In the
design phase needs and the load profiles should be therefore identified and classified, comparing
them to the available potential out of fluctuating renewable sources. In an optimized system the
production and consumption must match and have to be put in effective relation.
Following this premise, the Villa Massimo project evaluated the possibility to achieve a
substantial reduction in energy requirements by exploiting the network and the relationship with
the city as a condition to prefigure new scenarios. The project's goal is to achieve an annual zero
primary energy balance by experimenting innovative systems and technologies and redefining the
role of the historic buildings in the context of existing structures and the local energy grid.
In the case of the complex of the German Academy in Rome the interactions and the
synergetic effects between buildings are considered since there are several functions and load
curves, and, consequently different technical systems. The villa, with the administrative functions
has different comfort and energy requirements as the residential buildings that are used
continuously. While the villa has a peak demand due to overheating in summer and significant
More contents on https://energyheritage.wordpress.com/
International Conference
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
IN HISTORIC BUILDINGS
MADRID 29-30 | 09 | 2014
internal loads during exhibitions and events, other buildings, which account for 75% of the total
area, have a relatively low demand for cooling but have a high consumption of hot water. In this
sense, the two structures are put in relation to integrate each other´s curves and demands. The
project for the Villa Massimo is an example for an integral planning methodology dealing with
passive and active components as it is needed in future, to deal with the historical building stock
and with the transformation of built structures in the post fossil decade, without losing
architectural building culture.
- 168 -
More contents on https://energyheritage.wordpress.com/
International Conference
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
IN HISTORIC BUILDINGS
MADRID 29-30 | 09 | 2014
- 573 -
More contents on https://energyheritage.wordpress.com/

Documentos relacionados