6:00 PM 805: Advanced Issues in Purchasing Real Estate in Mexico

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6:00 PM 805: Advanced Issues in Purchasing Real Estate in Mexico
ACC's Annual Meeting 2013
ACC’s 2013 Annual Meeting
October 27-30, Los Angeles, CA
October 27-30, Los Angeles, CA
Tuesday, October 29
4:30 PM - 6:00 PM
805: Advanced Issues in Purchasing Real
Estate in Mexico
Thomas Becket
Partner
McGuireWoods LLP
Michael Ferrier
Counsel
Tesco
Jason Gordon
Vice President and Counsel FNF
Fidelity National Financial
Rodolfo Rivera
International Major Claims Counsel
Fidelity National Title Group
This material is protected by copyright. Copyright © 2013 various authors and the Association of Corporate Counsel (ACC).
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Faculty Biographies
Session 805
Thomas Becket
Thomas Becket is the partner in charge of the Commercial Real Estate Practice of the Los
Angeles Office of McGuireWoods LLP. McGuireWoods has more than 900 lawyers in
19 offices around the world, crossing borders, practices and industries in the U.S., UK,
Belgium and elsewhere around the world.
Mr. Becket's practice is concentrated in the areas of national real property law with an
emphasis on the representation of real estate investors and developers, real estate
portfolio owners and managers, retail mall owners and operators, telecommunications
companies, oil and gas producers and distributors, high tech enterprises and automotive
manufacturers in connection with corporate office, manufacturing, assembly and
distribution facilities and critical infrastructure whether in the form of leasing,
acquisitions or dispositions, project development, project finance and brokerage matters.
Internationally, Mr. Becket has been involved in development projects in Korea, Russia,
China and Saudi Arabia.
Mr. Becket was named to "Southern California Super Lawyers," Real Estate, Super
Lawyers, Thomson Reuters, 2004-2013; selected for inclusion in America's Leading
Lawyers for Business, Real Estate, California, Chambers USA, 2009-2013; named
"Dealmaker 2011," Los Angeles Daily Journal, 2011; named "Deal Maker of the Year,"
California Real Estate Journal, 2009; named to "100 Best Lawyers in Los Angeles," Los
Angeles Business Journal, 2009; and AV Preeminent Rated, Martindale-Hubbell.
Mr. Becket received his BS from the University of Southern California and his JD from
the University of California, Hastings College of the Law.
Michael Ferrier
Michael A. Ferrier is counsel for Latin America for Tesco Corporation based in Mexico
City. In this capacity, Mr. Ferrier oversees all legal matters throughout Latin American
and supports operations and business development. Mr. Ferrier's areas of responsibility
include litigation, commercial and real estate transactions, employment disputes,
corporate governance, whistle blower claims and compliance.
Prior to working at Tesco Corporation, Mr. Ferrier was Latin America claims and
litigation counsel for Stewart Title Guaranty Company. In this capacity, he managed all
title insurance policy claims in Latin America. Prior to working at Stewart Title, Mr.
Ferrier worked in an of-counsel capacity in the Monterrey, Mexico office of the law firm
Sanchez-Devanny, Eseverri, S.C. where he primarily collaborated with Mexican
attorneys on cross-border transactions.
Mr. Ferrier is a member of the U.S.-Mexico Bar Association, the Houston Bar
Association, the Association of International Petroleum Negotiators and the American
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Bar Association, for which he served as the Vice-Chair of the Tort Trial and Insurance
Practice Section of the International General Committee.
Mr. Ferrier is a co-author of Title Insurance Claims in Latin America, which was
published in the ABA Tort Trial and Insurance Practice Section Committee newsletter,
Winter, 2011.
Mr. Ferrier received his undergraduate degree from Boston College and his JD from St.
John's University School of Law.
Jason Gordon
Jason M. Gordon is the president of FNF Title International Holding Company, the
"international division" for the FNF family of title insurance companies.
Prior to joining FNF's International division, he was the manager for Fidelity's Central
New York office and Associate Regional Counsel for the nine Northeast States between
2004-2008. Prior to working on the business side of FNF's operations, Mr. Gordon
worked for three years as in-house litigation counsel, defending FNF's insureds against
title insurance claims ranging from fraud and forgery to boundary line disputes and
probate issues.
Mr. Gordon actively participates in the International section of the New York State Bar
as well as the International Bar Association, and Lex Munde Bar association. He lives in
Westchester, New York traveling between Europe, Latin America and the U.S. in pursuit
of cross-border title insurance opportunities, including developing new operations
globally.
Prior to entering the title insurance industry, Mr. Gordon received his BA from
University of California at Santa Barbara and graduated from Southwestern University
School of Law in Los Angeles.
Rodolfo Rivera
International Major Claims Counsel
Fidelity National Title Group
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Top 10 Concerns When Investing in Mexican Real Estate – A Title Insurer’s Perspective
By Edward Hamann, Esq. & Carlos Moran
Fidelity National Title Insurance Company & Fidelity National Title de Mexico
Mexico is a Federal Jurisdiction comprised of 32 states and a Federal District, which means that there is a complex
interplay of laws and regulations that can impact land transactions. For this reason it is imperative that persons
specialized in land transactions in any given jurisdiction be engaged in any given land transaction to make certain that
the reliability and validity of any given land transaction is secured. The following are the top title concerns when
reviewing any land transaction in Mexico:
1. Registries – The anchor of any land administration system is the respective Land Registries. Except that because
Mexico is a Federal jurisdiction, there are approximately 32 state land registries, along with a Federal Registry
and an Agrarian Registry. Moreover, not every registry is created equal and keeps records the same way.
Beyond that some are more reliable than others and consequently a premium is placed on the due diligence
accomplished and the weight that may be placed on any representation received from a Land Registry in
Mexico.
2. Chains of Title – A common misconception in Mexico is that because of the Certifications issued by the Land
Registries there is no need to perform a full study of the chain of title. The fact of the matter is that although
the Land Registries do provide a checks and balances for a chain of title, except for the State of Quintana Roo
the registry does not validate or create the legal rights in each and every transaction in the chain of title.
Consequently, the full chain of title does need to be reviewed and verified to ensure that there are no
deficiencies or defects that can create a challenge to the title to the Land.
3. Possessory Interests Disguised as Fee Simple Interests – A common legal maxim is possession is 9/10 of the law.
Although this may be the case and possession is often a critical determinant of who has the best legal rights. A
common problem in Mexico is land that is titled based on alleged possessory interests that have not been fully
perfected judicially. These commonly appear as proceedings called an Inmatriculacion Administrativa and/or an
Informacion Ad Perpetuam, but essentially these are still an unperfected possessory interest – no matter how
long it has been of record. This is why full inquiry into a chain of title is essential in establishing the quality of
title acquired.
4. Spousal Interests – Generally speaking spouses will have an interest in Land, but these interests will depend on
the laws of each State. It is presumed that Notary’s in any given transaction will insure that the proper
formalities have been complied with to account for these spousal interests. However, practically speaking it is
not uncommon for these interests to not to be adequately addressed, which requires that compliance be double
checked in the chain of title.
5. Probates in Chain of Title – As would be expected many historical land transfers in Mexico result because of
death. Unfortunately, each Mexican state addresses these transfers differently, which also depends on the
existence of a Will. In many instances, the proceedings are not completed resulting in defects in the chain of
title in other cases there are poor mechanisms to cut off the rights of unknown heirs. Once again leading to the
need for adequate due diligence on chains of title.
6. Legal Descriptions – Experience has taught us that the more precise the description of the Land the less risk of
confusion. Unfortunately, many legal descriptions of Land in Mexico still refer to historical legal descriptions of
the land rather than a metes and bounds legal description of the parcel of Land with proper legal monuments.
For this reason, it is critical that beyond setting clear physical boundaries to a parcel, it is imperative that all
applicable land records reflect these metes and bounds legal descriptions.
7. Boundaries – As indicated above, possession is generally considered 9/10’s of the law. For this reason, it is
critical that the physical boundaries match up with the legal descriptions, which can only generally be
determined with an adequate survey of the Land.
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8. Ejidos – Many people interested in investing in real estate in Mexico will have heard about Ejidos and may even
know that there are mechanisms to purchase these lands for development. However, what few realize is that
this process is highly technical and in many instances the formalities are not complied with creating significant
legal defects in the chain of title. For instance, commonly overlooked requirement are failing to properly
eliminate applicable rights of first refusal and or complying with mandatory appraisals to establish sales prices,
which can cause titles to be void.
9. Federal Lands – Mexico has various regions of the country that are impacted by a federal protections whether,
for ecological, anthropological, or even national security concerns. These limitations can range from being able
to acquire interests in these areas to prohibiting the development of the land. This complex interplay needs to
be understand before entering into any transaction, which may require an independent due diligence.
10. Access – An anchor of legal access to a parcel of land is a legally dedicated parcel of land for public use,
commonly referred to as a road. In Mexico, it is common for parcels to have physical access, but not have legal
access because the points of connection to a public road stem from a potential “prescriptive” right that has not
been perfected or formalized.
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Dear Friend and Clients:
On April 23, 2013, the House of Representatives of Mexico approved a historical
ammendment to article 27 of the Mexican Constitution whereby it now allows foreigners
to acquire real estate within the “restricted zone” (100 kilometers wide from the borders
and 50 kilometers wide from the coastal shores) with fee simple title when purchasing
exclusively for residential purposes. This means that the trust agreement “fideicomiso”
which has been the legal vehicle that allows foreigners to acquire real estate within the
restricted zone will no longer be required when purchasing real estate for residential
purposes. The whole peninsula of Baja California including Los Cabos is considered
restricted zone.
The contents of the constitutional amendment takes into account the following
aspects:
(1) That the real estate is sole and exclusively for residential purposes;
(2) That the use of the real estate may not have a commercial, industrial,
agriculture or any other use other than residential (dwelling);
(3) The foreigner must obtain a permit from the Foreign Affairs Ministry to
acquire real estate and must agree before such Ministry to be subject to the
Mexican laws and to not invoke the protection of their foreign government
under penalty of losing the corresponding real estate;
(4) If the real estate is used for purposes other than residential then, the laws will
establish sanctions that may forfeit ownership of the real estate in favor of the
Mexican government.
The constitutional amendment still requires to be approved by the Mexican Senate
and thereafter, if approved by the Mexican Senate, it will require the approval of the
majority of state congresses of Mexico.
CARRETERA TRANSPENINSULAR KM 26.5, THE SHOPPES AT PALMILLA, OFFICES B-220 & B-221
PALMILLA DEVELOPMENT, LOS CABOS, B.C.S. MÉXICO 23406
TEL: (624) 142 44 35 / FAX: (624) 142 49 66
www.btlaw.com.mx
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The specifics of how to make the conversion from an existing trust agreement
“fideicomiso” into fee simple title, obtaining the permit from the Foreign Affairs
Ministry to acquire real estate directly, the definition of residential purposes and other
provisions must be defined in the foreign investment law which eventually must be
amended to be consistent with the above-mentioned constitutional amendment.
For more information please contact:
Javier Troncoso, Esq.
Bufete Troncoso
Attorneys at Law
The Shoppes At Palmilla
Offices B-220 & B-221
Palmilla Development
Carretera Transpeninsular Km 26.5
Los Cabos, Baja California Sur
México 23406
Tel. (624) 142-4435
Fax (624) 142-4966
[email protected]
CARRETERA TRANSPENINSULAR KM 26.5, THE SHOPPES AT PALMILLA, OFFICES B-220 & B-221
PALMILLA DEVELOPMENT, LOS CABOS, B.C.S. MÉXICO 23406
TEL: (624) 142 44 35 / FAX: (624) 142 49 66
www.btlaw.com.mx
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Indicator
Mexico
Latin America & Caribbean
Procedures (number)
7
7
5
74
67
26
5.3
6.0
4.5
Time (days)
Cost (% of property value)
OECD
No.
Procedure
Time to Complete
Associated Costs
*1
The notary obtains a
15 days (simultaneous with
Procedures 2, 3, 4 & 5)
MXN 124.50
15 days (simultaneous with
Procedures 1, 3, 4 & 5)
MXN 856
7 days (simultaneous with Procedures
1, 2, 4 & 5)
MXN 466
MXN 124 if certificate of good standing ("constancia de no adeudo") is requested
No cost if information is checked online
on the property tax
(predial)
1 day if checked online or 2 weeks if
certificate of good standing
("constancia de no adeudo") is
requested. (simultaneous with
Procedures 1, 2, 3 & 5)
The notary requests a
commercial valuation of the
7 days (simultaneous with Procedures
1, 2, 3 & 4)
MXN 3,000 - MXN 5,500
3 days
Acquisition tax according to the following scale, from Art 130, Tax code of the
Federal District:
certificate of good standing
with the water service
*2
The notary obtains the
Zoning Certificate of the
property
*3
The notary obtains a nonencumbrance certificate
*4
The notary checks the
good standing of the seller
*5
property
6
The notary formalizes the
sale purchase agreement
Lower Value
(MXN)
Higher Value
(MXN)
Fixed Fee
(MXN)
Rate over
excess (MXN)
0.12
80,794.19
152.31
0
80,794.20
129,270.65
152.32
0.03163
129,270.66
193,905.79
1,685.63
0.03261
193,905.80
387,811.69
3,793.38
0.03261
387,811.70
969,529.22
10,116.65
0.03696
969,529.23
1,939,058.44
31,616.94
0.04565
1,939,058.45
Higher
75,875.94
0.04565
Notary Public Fees
I. In transactions up to MXN $ 127,917.00, a fixed quota of MXN $ 4,652.00
II. In transactions from MXN 127,917.01, the fixed quote shall be added with the
amount which results applying the previous table to identify the amount under
following table:
7
Registration of the transfer
30 - 90 days
More than MXN
up to the excess of the lower value
Rate
$ 127,917.01
$ 255,837.00
1.125%
$ 255,837.01
$ 511,673.00
0.975%
$ 511,673.01
$1,023,344.00
0.825%
$ 1,023,344.01
$ 2,046,691.00
0.675%
$ 2,046,691.01
$ 4,093,382.00
0.525%
$ 4,093,382.01
$ 8,186,764.00
0.375%
$ 8,186,764.01
$16,373,527.00
0.225%
$16,373,527.01
hereinafter
0.075%
MXN 13,772
of title at the Public
Registry of Property of the
Federal District
* Takes place simultaneously with another procedure.
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CASE SUMMARIES
1. Ejidetarios (peasants) are claiming title to land where the insured purchased.
Prior to 1946 the ejidetarios petitioned the Cuerpo Consultoria Agrario
(Ejido Governing Board) to declare approximately 8700 acres of land as part
of the ejido. The CCA only approved the designation of 2870 hectares. The
designation occurred in 1946. We have a topographical report showing that
the insured land is outside of the 2870 hectares. The plaintiff is claiming
entitlement to the entire 8700 acres.
2. The Company is providing the insured owner a defense against Plaintiff’s
lawsuit asserting that Plaintiff owns 32 hectares which include the 7 hectare
insured property. The Plaintiff has asked the Court to declare both the
insured’s vesting deed and the insured’s subsequent subdivision plat to be
void. The insured's chain stems from the original 1842 Ejido in the region
and contains a metes and bounds description, whereas the Plaintiff's chain
dates only to the mid-1900s. Plaintiff also failed to provide the metes and
bounds which is a prerequisite in filing this type of action.
3. Between 1924 and 1929, JOSE JIMENEZ acquired 1,320 hectares. On June
13, 1931, SPEEDY GONZALEZ Gomez Ritchie conveyed his 1,320
hectares to MARIA SPEEDY GONZALEZ. On December 31, 1936,
Conseco conveyed a total of 1,759 hectares back to Julio Gomez Ritchie.
On October 2, 1943, SPEEDY GONZALEZ conveyed these 1,759 hectares
to Aravallo, who later conveyed to RICARDO MONTALBAN Following
MONTALBAN’S death, his estate sold 600 of the 1,759 hectares to ACME
HOTEL RESORTS, the insured, in May of 2006. Lawyers Title and Rubber
Title co-insured the transaction and each company issued an owners’ policy
in the amount of $50,500.000.00 to ACME, and a loan policy in the amount
of $62,500,000.00 to ANY BANK A/S London Branch.
SPEEDY GONZALEZ died in the 1960’s. The current claim results from
the executor of his estate claiming that the 1943 conveyance to Aravallo was
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void and of no consequence for 2 reasons: (1) The deed appears to be a
forgery; (2) Julio’s wife did not sign the deed.
On December 16, 2010, the Registrar of Deeds entered an unofficial pencil
drawn transcription of the plaintiff’s suit in the land records despite the fact
that the plaintiff did not post the required bond (approximate cost is
$30,000). Even though it is unofficial, it has the effect, similar to a notice of
lis pendens, of providing purchasers from the insured with notice of the
plaintiffs’ suit. During a conference call among the parties on Friday, April
1, it was agreed that an action would be filed by the insured to expunge this
illegal filing from the land records.
The unofficial transcription of the plaintiff’s suit has now been removed
from the public records. However, the unofficial transcription is still visible
to anyone who reviews the public records. Additionally, the judge entered an
order indicating that the lawsuit was “registered before the Public Registry.”
This is the order which is currently on appeal.
4. Plaintiff Comunidad Indigena de San Pedro Chametlan A.C.(Association)
asserts: i) They have title over 1,215-84-52.6177 Hectares by reason of a
First grant Title issued in 1715; ii) the origin of the title chain of the current
owner (FONATUR) is null and void, and therefore all subsequent transfers
are void. CISP asserts they have title over 208-34-19 Hectares by reason of a
First grant Title issued on 1762, confirmed through established Agrarian
procedures between 1978 to 1994 by the Mexican Agrarian Ministry
(overlap with FONATUR property). FONATUR and the sellers assert that
their title is valid and enforceable and that the property in question is not
part of the land that was sold and therefore does not affect the insured
property.
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Formas de Transmisión de los derechos de
Propiedad sobre Inmuebles en México.!
Definición Propiedad
!
Es el derecho de goce y disposición directa e
inmediata que una persona tiene sobre bienes
determinados para su aprovechamiento total, de
acuerdo con lo permitido por las leyes, y sin
prejuicio de tercero!
Importancia de conocer las leyes que
rigen en territorio mexicano !
Adquirir bienes raíces en México no es lo
mismo que hacerlo en Estados Unidos de
Norteamérica. El sistema legal mexicano no
es igual que su equivalente
estadounidense. Sin embargo, esto no
implica que la operaciones inmobiliarias en
México sean totalmente diferentes o más
complicadas que en los Estados Unidos.
Un comprador extranjero aplica el sentido
común para familiarizarse con las leyes y
los procedimientos involucrados en la
transmisión de bienes raíces en el país de
su interés.
México es un país con leyes formales, con
una reglamentación autorizada de los
procedimientos para el desarrollo de bienes
inmuebles en todos los niveles y que estas
gestiones van acopladas a un marco legal
gubernamental para la transferencia legal
de los bienes raíces. !
Título legal de la propiedad !
Lo primero que debe considerar un
adquiriente es si el vendedor del bien tiene
título legal de propiedad y en caso de
tenerlo, si el bien puede transmitirse
legalmente.
Aunque esto parece ser una precaución
lógica e inevitable, ha habido muchas
operaciones documentales en las que los
extranjeros pensaron haber adquirido
bienes raíces, sólo para darse cuenta
posteriormente que el vendedor no tenía
derecho a transmitir el título legal de
propiedad. Es muy sencillo. El vendedor no
era el propietario del bien o no había
terminado los procedimientos de desarrollo
requeridos para transferir el bien. !
!
Ways!to!Transfer!Real!Property!Rights!in!Mexico!
!
Property!Defined!
The!right!of!use,!enjoyment,!and!the!right!to!
alienate!that!a!person!has!over!property!that!they!
have!complete!use!and!enjoyment!over,!as!defined!
by!law!and!without!prejudice!to!third!parties.!
Importance!of!Understanding!the!Laws!that!govern!
in!Mexico!
Acquring!real!property!in!Mexico!is!very!different!
from!acquiring!real!property!in!the!U.S.,!beginning!
with!the!legal!traditions!that!are!very!different.!!
However,!despite!these!differences!it!does!mean!
that!they!are!radically!different!and!more!
complicated!than!in!the!U.S.!
!
A!foreign!purchaser!simply!needs!to!apply!
common!sense!in!understanding!the!foreign!laws!
involved!in!the!transfers!of!interests!in!real!
property!in!the!country!of!origin.!
!
!
Mexico!is!a!country!that!generally!adheres!to!
formalistic!traditions!in!the!rule!of!law,!with!regard!
to!regulations!for!the!development!of!real!
property.!!This!processes!and!procedures!fit!within!
a!greater!framework!for!how!legal!rights!to!real!
property!are!transferred.!
Legal!Title!to!Property!
Any!purchaser!needs!to!first!determine!that!the!
seller!of!any!property!right!has!the!right!to!transfer!
such!interest!and!also!whether!the!right!to!be!
transferred!is!legally!transferrable.!
!
Although!this!seems!quite!obvious,!!there!have!
been!many!instances!where!this!basic!precaution!
was!not!observed!leading!to!foreigners!purporting!
to!obtain!real!property,!only!to!find!out!that!their!
seller!did!not!have!the!legal!rights!to!transfer!the!
real!property!rights.!!Simply!stated,!the!alleged!
seller!did!not!own!the!real!property!!or!had!not!
formally!completed!the!formal!proceedings!to!
perfect!their!legal!property!rights!over!the!real!
property.!
!
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Participación del Notario Público !
Los adquirientes extranjeros llegan al punto
en que están listos para que se cierre la
operación y se conviertan en propietarios
ya sea de derechos sobre bienes raíces, o
de su bien inmobiliario. En México, todas
las operaciones de bienes raíces y la
transmisión legal de cualquier tipo de
propiedad
inmueble,
involucra
la
participación de un Notario Público.
Las responsabilidades de un notario público
exceden en mucho a la simple legalización
de firmas. Siendo nombrados por el
Gobernador del Estado para un distrito
estatal en particular, los Notarios Públicos
son abogados que deben pasar dos
exámenes formales para poder recibir sus
nombramientos vitalicios. En una operación
típica, prepararán la escritura pública
correspondiente. El Notario Público tiene
ante sí al mismo tiempo, al comprador y al
vendedor para la formalización de la
transmisión del bien y autoriza las firmas
necesarias para la celebración de la
escritura.
Por último, después de que se ha
formalizado la transmisión del bien, el
Notario Público inscribirá la escritura en el
Registro Público de la Propiedad de la
localidad en que se ubica el bien.
Antes del cierre, las tareas adicionales del
Notario Público incluyen: el análisis de los
documentos del vendedor para asegurarse
de su exactitud y legitimidad; la verificación
del título de propiedad y, solicitará
información en las Oficinas del Registro
Público de la Propiedad para determinar la
situación legal del título de propiedad del
vendedor y la existencia de gravámenes
sobre la propiedad.
Se!exponen!los!medios!de!transmisión!de!propiedad!
más!comunes,!y!que!son:
!
Role!of!the!Notary!Public!
When!foreign!purchasers!reach!the!point!in!the!
transaction!when!they!are!ready!to!close!and!
acquire!their!interest!in!Mexican!real!estate!they!
will!find!out!that!any!and!all!transactions!in!real!
estate!must!involve!a!Notary!Public.!
!
A!Notary!Public!in!Mexico!is!responsible!for!far!
more!than!simply!acknowledging!signatures.!!A!
Mexican!Notary!Public!is!appointed!by!the!
Governor!of!their!respective!state!to!have!
jurisdiction!over!a!certain!Notarial!District!in!the!
state.!!The!Mexican!Notary!must!be!an!attorney!
that!will!have!passed!two!separate!competency!
exams!before!they!are!appointed.!!In!an!ordinary!
transaction,!the!Notary!will!prepare!the!public!
deed!and!the!buyer!and!seller!will!appear!before!
him!to!execute!the!public!deed!and!have!the!
Notary!authenticate!the!validity!of!the!transaction.!
!
Lastly,!once!the!execution!of!documents!has!been!
completed!to!formalize!the!transfer,!the!Mexican!
Notary!will!proceed!to!present!for!
recording/inscription!in!the!corresponding!Real!
Property!Registry!where!the!land!is!located!the!
transaction!documents.!
!
Prior!to!the!closing!the!Mexican!Notary!will!be!
responsible!for!the!following:!!1)!evaluating!the!
transaction!documents!of!the!seller!to!confirm!
their!correctness!and!that!seller!can!legally!enter!
into!such!transaction;!2)!Examine!the!title!by!
requesting!the!necessary!information!in!the!
Property!Registry!to!confirm!the!actual!legal!status!
of!the!title!of!the!seller!and!whether!there!are!any!
liens!or!encumbrances!on!the!real!estate.!
!
!
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MEDIOS DE TRANSMISION DE PROPIEDAD
HERENCIA:
Es la transmisión de los derechos y obligaciones
del Finado, la cual puede ser vía testamentaria o
legitima, la misma puede efectuarse de forma
universal o mediante legados.
En estos casos es importante revisar que los
procesos sucesorios se hayan efectuado conforme
a la ley para evitar que una persona tenga
derechos hereditarios supervenientes que afecten
la transmisión de propiedad.
CONTRATO:
Compraventa:
Es el Contrato por el cual el vendedor se obliga a
transferir el dominio de una cosa o derecho al
comprador y éste se obliga a pagar un precio cierto
y en dinero.
Permuta:
Es el Contrato por el cual una parte se obliga a
transmitir la propiedad de una cosa a cambio de
otra que a su vez recibe en propiedad.
Donación:
Contrato por el cual se transmite de forma gratuita
el dominio de los bienes presentes.
Fideicomiso:
Contrato por el cual se transmite el dominio a favor
de una institución financiera autorizada, para que
en base a lo establecido en el Contrato proceda en
beneficio
de
terceros
denominados
Fideicomisarios.
!
How!is!Title!to!Real!Estate!Transferred?!
INHERITANCE!
This!is!the!transfer!of!all!the!legal!rights!and!
obligations!to!the!real!estate!upon!the!death.!!This!
can!be!as!a!result!of!a!Will/Testament!or!via!an!
Intestate!transfer!in!the!case!of!no!
Will/Testament.!
!
There!are!various!legal!steps!that!must!be!
complied!with!to!perfect!the!legal!transfer!upon!
death!that!must!be!reviewed!very!carefully!to!
ensure!that!there!are!no!other!persons!with!rights!
to!inherit!the!real!estate.!!It!is!important!to!note!
that!these!processes!will!depend!from!state!to!
state!and!there!may!be!extensive!statutes!of!
limitations!that!may!leave!residual!periods!to!claim!
upon!the!estate,!which!is!why!it!is!imperative!that!
these!proceedings!be!examined!very!carefully!by!
persons!with!the!special!expertise!in!such!matters.!
!
PURCHASE!AND!SALE!CONTRACT!
!
This!is!the!traditional!purchase!and!sale!contract!
whereby!a!seller!becomes!obligated!to!transfer!the!
legal!title!to!property!or!property!right!and!the!
purchaser!commits!to!paying!money!in!
consideration!for!such!transfer.!
EXCHANGE/SWAP!
This!is!a!contract!to!exchange!one!property!for!
another!property!rather!than!in!exchange!for!a!
monetary!consideration.!
!
GIFT!
This!is!a!contract!where!the!owner!transfers!the!
real!estate!to!another!in!a!gratuitous!transfer.!
!
TRUST!
This!is!a!contractual!arrangement!where!the!real!
estate!is!transferred!to!a!duly!appointed!financial!
institution!to!hold!the!real!estate!in!trust!and!for!
the!benefit!of!the!persons!designated!in!the!Trust!
Agreement.!
!
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ASSIGNMENT!OF!RIGHTS!
This!transfer!of!legal!rights!to!a!third!party!is!
without!creating!a!reciprocal!legal!right!in!return.!
When!dealing!with!real!estate,!this!must!be!done!
En el caso de inmuebles, generalmente debe via!a!Mexican!Notary!Public,!and!as!always!a!full!
hacerse constar en Escritura Pública otorgado ante review!of!the!chain!of!title!to!the!real!estate!must!
un Notario.
be!conducted!to!determine!if!there!is!any!risk!of!
loss!in!the!rights!to!be!acquired.!
Cesión de Derechos:
Es el contrato mediante el cual una persona cede
los derechos a favor de otra sin crear una nueva
relación jurídica.
En todos los anteriores contratos, es importante
revisar la validez del título de propiedad y de su
cadena de tracto registral para conocer si existen
defectos o riegos de los derechos adquiridos.
POR ADJUDICACION:
Nos enfocamos a los casos de remate en un
proceso judicial en donde el postor ganador es
investido de un título de propiedad en forma de
sentencia por parte de la autoridad judicial.
JUDICIAL!SALE/FORECLOSURE!
!
Judicial!sales!usually!take!place!in!the!context!of!a!
foreclosure!proceeding!where!the!winning!bidder!
is!granted!title!to!the!real!estate!via!a!judicial!
En este caso es importante revisar las sentence,!order!or!decree!by!a!court!of!competent!
formalidades del proceso para evitar una nulidad jurisdiction.!
de actuaciones judiciales que pudiese invalidar la
sentencia de adjudicación.
LA PRESCRIPCION POSITIVA ADQUISITIVA.
Es la forma de adquirir la propiedad por el
transcurso del tiempo en base a la posesión, la
cual deberá ser otorgada por una autoridad judicial,
ya sea por medio de un proceso de jurisdicción
voluntaria o de una controversia contra el
propietario registral.
Es indispensable conocer las formalidades del
proceso judicial que otorga la propiedad, ya que en
reiteradas ocasiones lo que tenemos es un
reconocimiento de derechos de posesión y no de
propiedad.
!
ADVERSE!POSSESSION!(Prescripcion*Positiva)!
This!is!a!manner!of!acquiring!property!rights!by!the!
passage!of!time!and!based!on!certain!forms!of!
possession.!!These!interests!can!only!be!formalized!
by!a!court!of!competent!jurisdiction!via!a!judicial!
proceeding!commenced!by!the!person!seeking!
such!right!against!third!parties!or!adversely!to!a!
registered!title!holder.!
!
It!is!critical!to!understand!the!formalities!of!these!
judicial!proceedings!to!vest!title,!because!there!are!
many!instances!where!the!only!right!that!is!
created!is!a!legal!right!of!possession,!and!not!legal!
title!to!the!real!estate.!
!
!
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TITULOS ORIGINARIOS.
Títulos emitidos por autoridades locales o federales
mediante los cuales se otorga el dominio a favor de
un particular respecto de inmuebles de dominio
público y propiedad de la nación.
RESTRICCIONES:
Extranjeros: Se encuentran impedidos de adquirir
el dominio de inmuebles en la Zona restringida
(100 Kilómetros a lo largo de la Frontera y 50
Kilómetros en las costas), el medio que prevé la
Ley lo es vía un Contrato de Fideicomiso con el
permiso de la Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores.
Bienes fuera del Comercio:, como lo son Ejidos,
Terrenos Nacionales e inmuebles del Dominio
Público, tienen las características de ser
inalienables e imprescriptibles. La ley Agraria de
1992 prevé que los Ejidatarios puedan adquirir la
propiedad de parcelas y solares que pueden
transmitir a particulares siempre y cuando se
cumpla con los procesos para desincorporarlos del
Ejido.
October 27-30, Los Angeles, CA
ORIGINATING!TITLES!
In!certain!instances!the!real!estate!may!be!held!by!
a!governmental!entity,!whether!federal!or!state.!!
In!these!instances!the!title!to!the!real!estate!may!
be!transferred!to!private!parties!via!an!originating!
title!or!decree!by!the!corresponding!authority!with!
competent!jurisdiction.!
RESTRICTIONS!
!
FOREIGNERS:!!Foreigners!are!prohibited!from!
acquiring!legal!title!to!real!estate!in!the!following!
areas:!!1)!Within!100!kilometers!a!Border;!and!2)!
Within!50!kilometers!from!the!coast.!!However,!
the!law!will!permit!such!foreigners!to!acquire!
interests!in!these!areas!via!Trust!pursuant!to!a!
permit!issued!by!the!Secretaria*de*Relaciones*
Exteriores.!!
!
INALIENABLE!PROPERTY:!!The!following!types!of!
real!estate!are!generally!considered!inalienable:!1)!
Ejido!Land;!2)!National!lands;!and!3)!Public!Use!
Lands.!!However,!in!1992!changes!made!to!the!
Agrarian!Law!created!a!process!by!which!the!
members!of!the!Ejido!can!acquire!lands!within!the!
Ejido!and!can!eventually!transfer!them!into!the!
private!sector!upon!strict!compliance!with!certain!
protocols.!
!
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