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Convenio MEC
Currículo integrado
hispano-británico para
educación infantil y
orientaciones para su desarrollo
Spanish/English Infants
Integrated Curriculum
Ministerio
de Educación, Cultura
y Deporte
CNIIE
Currículo integrado
hispano-británico para educación
infantil y orientaciones para
su desarrollo
Spanish/English Infants
Integrated Curriculum
Catálogo de publicaciones del Ministerio: www.mecd.gob.es
Catálogo general de publicaciones oficiales: www.publicacionesoficiales.boe.es
MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIÓN, CULTURA
Y DEPORTE
Centro Nacional de Innovación
e Investigación Educativa
Edita:
© Secretaría General Técnica
Subdirección General
de Documentación y Publicaciones
NIPO: 030-12-455-0
ISBN: 978-84-369-5424-1
Autoras del documento original
Mª Teresa Agudo
CP Félix de la Fuente, Coslada, Madrid
Rosa González
CP José Bergamín, Boadilla del Monte, Madrid
Esther Hill
CP José Bergamín, Boadilla del Monte, Madrid
María Antonia Justo
CP San Juan Bautista, Madrid
Rachel Kelly
CP Julio Pinto Gómez, Tres Cantos, Madrid
Margaret Locke
CP Julio Pinto Gómez, Tres Cantos, Madrid
Pilar Medrano
Asesora Técnico Docente, Centro Nacional de Innovación e Investigación Educativa, MECD
Teresa Reilly
Bilingual Project Manager, British Council, Madrid
Autoras de la presente edición
Anna Amin
CEIP Hilarión Gimeno, Zaragoza
Milu Aparajita Dakshy
CEIP Miguel Delibes, Valladolid
Cecila Bradshaw
CEIP San Juan Bautista, Madrid
Anne MacDonald
CEIP Parque de Lisboa, Madrid
Isabel Mas
CEIP José Antonio Labordeta, Zaragoza
Barbara Tosh
CEIP El Quijote, Madrid
Pilar Medrano
Asesora Técnico Docente, Centro Nacional de Innovación e Investigación Educativa, MECD
Teresa Reilly
Bilingual Projects Manager, British Council, Madrid
Margaret Locke
Bilingual Projects Coordinator, British Council, Madrid
Este documento ha sido elaborado siguiendo las normas del currículo español actual para Educación Infantil. Cualquier cambio en el currículo oficial conllevará una revisión de estas orientaciones
para que se adapten a los nuevos desarrollos.
La versión en español no constituye una traducción completa del documento: su objetivo es proporcionar a los directores y profesores de español de los centros un resumen de los objetivos principales, los contenidos y el nivel que debe alcanzarse en la etapa de Educación Infantil, de forma que
se facilite la coordinación entre profesores-tutores y profesores de inglés.
Índice/Index
1. Introducción al currículo (español)............................................................................................ 7
INTRODUCCIÓN................................................................................................................................................................... 7
1. Historia y objetivos del programa........................................................................................................................ 7
2.Fundamentación del documento......................................................................................................................... 8
3.Constitución del grupo y línea de trabajo......................................................................................................... 8
4.Enfoque adoptado para Educación Infantil...................................................................................................... 9
5.El papel de los profesores en el programa...................................................................................................... 9
6.El desarrollo lingüístico en los niños................................................................................................................... 10
7. Introducción a las habilidades de lectura y escritura.................................................................................... 10
8.La evaluación en edades tempranas.................................................................................................................. 11
9.Conclusiones y recomendaciones...................................................................................................................... 12
EL CURRÍCULO INTEGRADO EN LA ETAPA DE EDUCACIÓN INFANTIL......................................................... 15
1. La enseñanza a través de temas.......................................................................................................................... 15
2.El desarrollo de las habilidades sociales..........................................................................................................17
3.Las competencias lingüísticas............................................................................................................................... 17
3.1. El desarrollo de las competencias lingüísticas en Educación Infantil............................................. 17
3.2.Desarrollo de las habilidades orales en Educación Infantil................................................................ 17
3.3.Desarrollo de las habilidades de lectura y escritura en Educación Infantil.................................. 18
4.Objetivos y contenidos de habilidades numéricas........................................................................................ 20
5.Objetivos y contenidos del área de conocimiento del entorno social y natural................................. 20
6.Propuesta de una unidad temática para la etapa de Educación Infantil (topic web)......................... 20
2.Curriculum guidelines (English).......................................................................................................... 23
INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................................................... 23
1. Project background and objectives.................................................................................................................... 23
2.Rationale: curriculum document........................................................................................................................... 24
3.Constitution of the working party and approach adopted.......................................................................... 24
4.Methodological approach to teaching throughout the infant cycle......................................................... 25
5.Roles of teachers in the project............................................................................................................................ 25
6.Children’s language development...................................................................................................................... 26
7. Introducing literacy skills: “real” reading and writing..................................................................................... 26
8.Assessment in the early years.............................................................................................................................. 27
9.Conclusions and recommendations................................................................................................................... 28
THE INTEGRATED CURRICULUM FOR THE INFANT STAGE................................................................................ 31
1. Teaching through topics.......................................................................................................................................... 31
2.Developing social skills........................................................................................................................................... 38
3.Literacy skills................................................................................................................................................................ 40
3.1. The development of Literacy Skills in the infant years......................................................................... 40
3.2.Developing speaking and listening skills in the infant years............................................................. 40
3.3 Developing reading and writing skills in the infant years.................................................................... 44
3.4.Literacy: Listening and Speaking Targets................................................................................................. 49
3.5.Literacy: Reading and Writing Targets........................................................................................................ 50
3.6.Literacy: Bands of Attainment.......................................................................................................................54
3.6.1. Literacy: Speaking and Listening Bands of Attainment............................................................. 54
3.6.2. Literacy: Reading and Writing Bands of Attainment ................................................................. 55
4. Mathematical concepts and skills......................................................................................................................... 57
4.1. Mathematical skills development in the infant years............................................................................ 57
4.2.Mathematical Concepts and Skills Targets: Number............................................................................ 57
4.3.Mathematical Concepts and Skills Targets: Measurement, shape, time,
position and movement.................................................................................................................................. 59
4.4.Mathematical Concepts and Skills: Bands of Attainment....................................................................61
5.Knowledge and Understanding of the World.................................................................................................. 62
5.1. Concepts and Targets...................................................................................................................................... 62
5.2.Knowledge and Understanding of the World targets........................................................................... 63
5.3.Knowledge and Understanding of the World: Bands of Attainment............................................... 67
6.Drawing the strands together in a topic web................................................................................................... 68
6.1. Topic webs........................................................................................................................................................... 69
6.2.Sample lessons..................................................................................................................................................76
3.TOPIC BASED RESOURCES....................................................................................................................................... 81
Introducción
1. Historia y objetivos del programa
El programa bilingüe del Convenio MEC/British Council, nacido en 1996 como una experiencia única
dentro del sistema educativo estatal español, está ya bien establecido. Los primeros grupos de niños
finalizaron la etapa de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria en 2008.
El acuerdo formal entre el Ministerio de Educación y el British Council plantea como objetivo
del programa proporcionar a niños desde los 3 hasta los 16 años una educación bilingüe y bi-cultural
a través de un currículo integrado español/inglés, basado en el currículo español y en el national
curriculum para Inglaterra y Gales. Dicho currículo integrado goza de reconocimiento oficial (BOE,
2 de Mayo de 2000).
La implantación de un currículo como este implica una actitud en el aula muy distinta a la de
la clase de inglés como lengua extranjera (EFL) tradicional, centrada en el aprendizaje de inglés en
vez del aprendizaje en inglés. Este enfoque integrado coincide plenamente con el espíritu de las
directivas del Consejo de Europa, que insiste en la necesidad de que los niños hayan adquirido competencia lingüística en tres idiomas europeos al finalizar la Educación Secundaria Obligatoria, y que
el aprendizaje de la primera lengua extranjera comience en los primeros años de la educación formal.
Los objetivos específicos del programa son los siguientes:
• Fomentar la adquisición y el aprendizaje de ambos idiomas a través de un currículo integrado basado en contenidos.
• Crear conciencia de la diversidad de las dos culturas.
• Facilitar el intercambio de profesores y alumnos.
• Fomentar la utilización de las nuevas tecnologías en el aprendizaje de otras lenguas.
• Si procede, fomentar la certificación de estudios en ambos sistemas educativos.
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
2. Fundamentación del documento
En febrero de 2001, la Comisión de Seguimiento, máxima autoridad del programa, reunió a un equipo mixto de expertos (Joint Study Review Team) con el objetivo de evaluar los resultados obtenidos
hasta esa fecha, concluyendo que para el desarrollo del programa era necesario:
• Una clara definición de los contenidos y materias que han de impartirse en inglés, así como
del momento en que han de ser impartidos.
• Una definición de los criterios de evaluación al final del nivel de la etapa de Educación Infantil, así como al final de cada uno de los ciclos de Primaria (segundo, cuarto y sexto curso)
que, por tanto, determinen el paso de un nivel al siguiente.
Esto llevó al equipo a formular la siguiente recomendación:
Recomendación 4: Currículum y evaluación
“El equipo de expertos recomienda la designación de un grupo de trabajo mixto hispano-británico
que elabore y defina una propuesta realista para el currículo básico, describiendo qué áreas y contenidos deben impartirse en cada lengua en los niveles de Educación Infantil y Primaria. Ese mismo
grupo de trabajo debería también establecer los criterios y directrices para la evaluación. Sería conveniente que el grupo estuviera formado por profesores británicos y españoles con experiencia en
este proyecto, así como por expertos del Ministerio y del British Council”.
En consecuencia, la Comisión de Seguimiento aprobó el siguiente plan de acción:
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Actuación 6
“La Comisión de Seguimiento ratificará la designación de un grupo de trabajo encargado de estudiar
los contenidos del currículo básico (BOE, 2 de Mayo de 2002) y decidir cuáles deben impartirse en
lengua inglesa en los distintos niveles de Educación Infantil y Primaria, así como los criterios de
evaluación. Se deberán incluir también directrices e instrucciones sobre el papel de los tutores y
de los profesores, recomendaciones para un enfoque metodológico conjunto y sugerencias para
un enfoque lógico en la distribución del tiempo. Este documento deberá incluir también una lista
completa de recursos (libros, materiales, equipamiento) para cada nivel”.
3. Constitución del grupo y línea de trabajo
El grupo estaba formado por seis profesores, tres españoles y tres británicos, que habían trabajado en
el programa más de tres años, y otros dos miembros de la Comisión de Seguimiento y responsables
de la gestión.
El grupo de trabajo se constituyó en octubre de 2001 con el objetivo de producir un documento
con directrices para el desarrollo del currículo de Infantil y criterios de evaluación para esta etapa
que fuera ratificado por la Comisión de Seguimiento en junio de 2002; a esto seguiría el desarrollo
de un currículo para el nivel de Primaria en junio de 2003.
El grupo de trabajo examinó los contenidos, enfoques, niveles de consecución, instrumentos
de evaluación, recursos, organización del tiempo, coordinación y roles de los profesores, en 29 de
los 42 colegios que formaban parte del programa en aquel momento. Asimismo, en el periodo de
noviembre de 2001 a marzo de 2002 el grupo visitó diez colegios del programa con el fin de obtener
una visión más profunda de los aspectos mencionados.
El resultado del análisis de toda la información, documentación y observaciones prácticas recopiladas constituye la base del documento inicial.
Introducción
En 2009 se formó un nuevo grupo de trabajo con el objetivo de revisar y actualizar el currículo,
de forma que:
• Reflejara los cambios introducidos en el currículo español.
• Incorporara nuevas metodologías para mejorar los niveles de lectura y escritura temprana.
• Reflejara los avances de los alumnos en edades tempranas.
• Reflejara los cambios y el desarrollo del programa en esos años.
El grupo estaba formado por seis profesoras españolas y seis británicas, todas ellas con más de
tres años de experiencia en Educación Infantil dentro del programa, y fue dirigido por las personas
responsables.
El documento para Educación Infantil se ha desarrollado a partir de las siguientes directrices:
• Enseñanza a través de temas/centros de interés.
• Desarrollo de habilidades sociales.
• Objetivos y contenidos:
−− Comprensión y expresión oral.
−− Lectura y escritura.
−− Habilidades numéricas.
−− Conocimiento del entorno social y natural.
• Niveles de consecución al final de la etapa de Infantil.
• Propuesta de desarrollo de una unidad temática.
• Ejemplo de una lección, partiendo de una unidad temática.
• Recursos útiles.
4. Enfoque adoptado para Educación Infantil
El currículo integrado para el segundo ciclo de Educación Infantil está íntimamente relacionado
con el currículo español para este nivel. El enfoque está dirigido al desarrollo integral del niño a
través de un currículo que tiene en cuenta su desarrollo físico, intelectual, afectivo, social y moral,
tanto como individuo como en el contexto de su entorno inmediato. La adquisición de la lengua,
las habilidades numéricas, la lectura, la escritura etc., ya sea en la lengua materna o en inglés se
hace, sobre todo, a través de un enfoque basado en temas, con una perspectiva holística a lo largo
de los tres años.
El objetivo de este texto es facilitar un documento de trabajo para todos los profesores de inglés que impartan el currículo integrado. Cualquier cambio que se produzca en el currículo español
deberá introducirse en este documento.
5. El papel de los profesores en el programa
Se recomienda que al principio del año escolar el tutor y el profesor de inglés dediquen tiempo a
establecer conjuntamente las rutinas del aula. De este modo se asegurará la continuidad, ayudará a
los alumnos a sentirse más seguros y generará oportunidades para una comunicación positiva.
Aunque los temas de trabajo y la metodología utilizada en la enseñanza del idioma reflejan, con
bastante exactitud, los contenidos y el enfoque del currículo español para estos tres años, esto no implica que se tengan que impartir conceptos idénticos al mismo tiempo en ambos idiomas. El tutor y el
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
profesor de inglés deben planificar las clases conjuntamente para asegurarse de que los conceptos se
imparten y se comprenden en ambos idiomas. Más aún, una coordinación estrecha debería asegurar
una perspectiva nueva desde la que se desarrollen los conocimientos y las habilidades a través de un
tema determinado en cada lengua.
Es importante que tanto el profesor de inglés como el tutor español entiendan que el profesor
del programa hablará en inglés con los niños y que no es necesario que el tutor traduzca o “explique”
en español lo que se ha dicho. Sin embargo, como este estará en el aula, al menos durante el primer
año de Educación Infantil, el profesor de inglés debería aprovechar la circunstancia para explicar de
antemano en qué consiste la clase y qué dificultades podrían presentarse. De esta manera, el tutor
puede ayudar a los niños que tengan dificultades, que sean nuevos o que hayan estado ausentes y
necesiten ayuda especial de forma temporal. Cuando los niños estén trabajando en grupos, particularmente durante las clases de educación plástica, el tutor debería estar disponible para apoyar en
lo que sea necesario a su compañero de inglés: disponer de dos profesionales en el aula es un lujo
y debe aprovecharse al máximo.
6. El desarrollo lingüístico en los niños
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En los primeros años, los niños demostrarán su comprensión en inglés fundamentalmente a través de
respuestas no verbales (respuestas físicas a canciones, juegos, cuentos, respuestas creativas a través
de las actividades artísticas manuales, expresiones de alegría provocadas por cuentos, canciones,
etc.). La comprensión se demostrará también a través de la respuesta verbal en español y a través de
la repetición en inglés de sencillas expresiones de uso cotidiano, especialmente de las que tengan
que ver con las rutinas del aula.
Gradualmente, los niños empezarán a experimentar con una mezcla de inglés y español y a
utilizar esta mezcla junto con respuestas no verbales para hacerse entender. El tiempo requerido para
asimilar el idioma varía de un niño a otro. Sin embargo, el profesor debe animar a los alumnos a que
respondan oralmente y “produzcan” lenguaje tan pronto como sea posible. La mayoría de los niños
tiende a responder positivamente y les gusta participar en inglés, aunque ocasionalmente puede
haber algún alumno que no responda en consonancia. Es importante recalcar que no debe ejercerse
una presión excesiva sobre ese alumno para que hable, y debe respetarse la madurez y el ritmo de
desarrollo particular de cada niño.
7. Introducción a las habilidades de lectura y escritura
Existen razones sólidas para introducir la lecto-escritura en lengua inglesa en el segundo ciclo de
Educación Infantil:
• Aprender a leer y a escribir en inglés es un proceso más largo y más complicado que en español: empezar pronto es esencial para dar tiempo a los niños y para que estos se conviertan
en lectores capaces y en escritores creativos.
• Las ventajas de empezar pronto a adquirir el idioma oralmente son mayores si se acompañan
de una introducción informal de la palabra escrita a través de un contexto significativo. El
uso de libros de ficción y consulta, carteles en el aula, exposiciones en clase y la enseñanza
sistemática de sonidos (synthetic phonics) apoya a una adquisición efectiva del lenguaje y a
un desarrollo equilibrado de las habilidades de lectura y escritura.
• Las diferencias entre el lenguaje oral y el lenguaje escrito son múltiples, y se ha demostrado
que exponer a los niños a ambos a la vez les ayuda a percibir estas diferencias de forma
positiva desde el principio.
La decisión sobre el tipo de letra (cursiva en un idioma y de imprenta en otro) la tomará cada colegio, y no debe ser un problema. Los niños se adaptan satisfactoriamente a cualquier sistema que se utilice.
Introducción
8. La evaluación en edades tempranas
Los principios de la Evaluación para el Aprendizaje (EpA) pueden ser utilizados en los primeros años
escolares.
La Evaluación para el Aprendizaje asegura que la evaluación sea una parte integral del proceso
de enseñanza-aprendizaje diario. Las investigaciones demuestran que los alumnos aprenden mejor
cuando:
• Entienden claramente lo que están aprendiendo.
• Saben lo que se espera de ellos.
• Reciben información (feedback) sobre su trabajo.
• Reciben consejos para mejorar.
• Están plenamente implicados en la evaluación y en los subsiguientes pasos para el aprendizaje.
Ya desde la etapa de Infantil, utilizar la Evaluación para el Aprendizaje proporcionará mayor
claridad en la enseñanza y el aprendizaje y se impulsará el desarrollo en los niños de un aprendizaje
reflexivo. Una práctica sencilla supone:
• Compartir los objetivos de aprendizaje con los alumnos. Para ello se pueden utilizar fórmulas
imaginativas que enganchen a los niños:
−− Una marioneta les cuenta a los niños lo que van a aprender hoy.
−− Se presenta un personaje (WALT) en el mural, que diga “Estamos aprendiendo a/que…”,
y el profesor lo completa o ilustra al comienzo de la clase.
• Exponer las expectativas a los alumnos; es decir, explicarles lo que se pretende. En realidad
se están presentando los criterios de evaluación. También las expectativas se deben presentar
de forma atractiva y con significado para los niños:
−− Una marioneta muy animada les dice a los niños lo que se espera de ellos.
−− Un personaje (WILF) tiene un mural en el que dice “Quiero conseguir…
−− Una marioneta descarada les dice “No creo que puedas…”, a lo que los niños responden: “Yo puedo…”. De esta forma los niños se implican para hacer frases con I can, que
luego podrán utilizarse como criterios de evaluación.
• Ofrecer información (feedback) a los niños. Se puede hacer de muchas maneras, siempre que
sean significativas para los alumnos en esta etapa:
−− Una interacción sencilla y una respuesta positiva utilizando frases familiares, como por
ejemplo Well done, Good work, You can…, Can you…?
−− Gestos que apoyen lo que se está diciendo.
−− Utilizar sellos, por ejemplo con una cara sonriente, con un dibujo y texto, como very
good, good.
−− Pedir a algunos niños que opinen sobre el trabajo de otro compañero, por ejemplo utilizando un semáforo, un abanico con una cara sonriente y otra triste o levantar el dedo
gordo en señal de aprobación. Esto puede hacerse por parejas.
• Ofrecer consejos para mejorar. Los niños necesitan que se aprecien sus logros, pero enseñarles cómo mejorar es también una parte esencial del proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje.
Hacerlo de forma creativa les motivará, y el mensaje llegará con mayor claridad:
−− Creando una pequeña obra con marionetas y peluches utilizando un lenguaje familiar
repetitivo que dé una clara idea de mejora.
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
−− Resaltando el buen trabajo de un niño y mostrando los elementos clave de su éxito.
−− Mostrando un trabajo ideal e invitando a los niños a responder a preguntas sencillas que
ayuden a identificar formas de mejorar. Estas se pueden mostrar en frases sencillas con
ilustraciones que apoyen el mensaje.
• Implicar totalmente a los alumnos en la evaluación y en los pasos siguientes. Los niños son
más conscientes de su aprendizaje cuando se implican directamente en el proceso de evaluación. Podemos implicarles en:
−− La autoevaluación, utilizando semáforos, el pulgar hacia arriba, abanicos con caras, hojas
de autoevaluación sencillas con I can.
−− La evaluación entre iguales utilizando los mismos instrumentos.
−− Fijar objetivos sencillos con el profesor, por ejemplo, mejorar la habilidad para escuchar:
se puede presentar un factor de éxito y cuando se consiga se presenta uno nuevo, de
forma que el alumno que tiene dificultad para mantener la atención pueda desarrollar
esta habilidad paso a paso. Ofrecer tarjetas de objetivos atractivas o cualquier otra forma
de reconocimiento de cada logro premiará y motivará a los niños.
Utilizar la metodología de la Evaluación para el Aprendizaje ayuda a llevar un registro diario del
progreso de cada alumno, lo que facilita una planificación eficaz y una puesta en práctica adecuada.
Se puede dejar constancia de los logros por medio de fotos, muestras de su trabajo y breves grabaciones en vídeo. De esta forma se puede preparar un informe preciso del progreso para los padres,
tanto en reuniones como en informes escritos. Identificar el nivel de consecución de cada alumno al
finalizar la etapa de Infantil será más fácil cuando se adopte esta metodología y se compartan unos
claros objetivos curriculares, se trabaje en ellos y sean evaluados por el profesor y los alumnos.
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9. Conclusiones y recomendaciones
1. El proyecto funciona mucho mejor en aquellos colegios en los que este se considera un
proyecto de todo el centro, un proyecto integrado en todos los sentidos del término: esto
significa que la planificación y la coordinación entre los tutores y los profesores de
inglés de cada clase son esenciales. Cuando ambos trabajan juntos, se ha demostrado
claramente que los niños se benefician de la experiencia en ambos idiomas.
2. Con el fin de alcanzar los objetivos establecidos para el final de la etapa y conseguir que
los niños estén bien preparados para la Educación Primaria, debe dedicarse a la enseñanza
y aprendizaje en lengua inglesa un mínimo del 30% del horario el primer año y del 40% los
dos años siguientes.
3. Los tutores y los profesores de inglés han comprobado que dividiendo la clase en dos
grupos en determinados momentos (desdobles) se consigue un apoyo más individualizado
tanto en español como en inglés. Por tanto, se recomienda que al inicio del año escolar el
horario los incorpore en algunas de las clases. Sin embargo, independientemente de cómo
se organicen las clases, todos los alumnos deben recibir (al menos en los dos últimos años
de la etapa) un mínimo del 40% de su educación en inglés, tal como se ha mencionado
anteriormente.
4. La coordinación entre los profesores del mismo curso es de la máxima importancia para
asegurar la continuidad y la progresión a lo largo de la etapa. Es esencial comunicarse, consultar y planificar juntos para:
−− Comenzar el nuevo curso conociendo los logros y los niveles de todos los alumnos.
−− Presentar los temas desde una perspectiva diferente cada año.
−− Presentar en la etapa siguiente nuevas historias relacionadas con los temas.
Introducción
Esto no será solo una práctica útil para los profesores sino que aumentará la experiencia de
aprendizaje de los niños y contribuirá a mejorar los niveles de los colegios.
5. La coordinación entre los niveles de Infantil y de Primaria es vital para conseguir una transición sin problemas. Las recomendaciones incluyen:
• La coordinación entre los profesores del tercer año de Infantil y los de primero de Primaria
para:
−− Asegurarse de que se prepara a los niños para el paso a Primaria.
−− Garantizar que la metodología y el aprendizaje de la etapa anterior se desarrolla de forma natural en el primer curso de Primaria.
−− Familiarizar a los alumnos del tercer curso de Infantil con su nueva aula y, si es posible,
con los profesores, en el tercer trimestre.
−− Planificar conjuntamente actividades curriculares o culturales para los dos cursos.
• Un profesor de inglés (de transición) que enseñe a los niños durante dos años consecutivos
(en su último año de Infantil y en el primer año de Primaria) para proporcionar un alto nivel
de coherencia y continuidad. Este profesor también coordinaría la planificación con el resto
de los profesores de estas etapas.
6. Es importante haber cubierto todos los contenidos y objetivos de cada una de las materias,
tal y como se describen en este documento, para proporcionar una experiencia educativa
completa en la etapa de Infantil que permita a los niños adquirir la lengua, el conocimiento
y las habilidades a través de actividades de aprendizaje claramente estructuradas a un nivel
adecuado.
7. Al final de la etapa todos los niños deben ser evaluados por su profesor siguiendo los
niveles de consecución descritos en este documento y, salvo en el caso de circunstancias
atenuantes, el porcentaje de alumnos dentro del grupo-clase en cada banda1 debería ser,
para cada uno de los objetivos:
−− Banda o grado 1: 10%
−− Banda o grado 2: 70%
−− Banda o grado 3: 20%
Si estos objetivos no se estuvieran logrando, el centro debería examinar:
• El número de horas impartidas en inglés semanalmente.
• El enfoque, la metodología y los recursos utilizados.
• La coordinación y continuidad en el proyecto.
• La necesidad de enfrentar a los niños a retos mayores y de elevar el nivel y las expectativas.
8. Aunque este documento insiste en que se cubran los contenidos básicos, no hay necesidad
de que los colegios/grupos se ciñan solo y exclusivamente a este. Los profesores que ya
estén logrando estos objetivos podrían ampliar los contenidos básicos/mínimos para
que se adapten a las circunstancias particulares de su colegio o de su aula.
1. La banda o grado 1 corresponde al nivel inferior.
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El currículo integrado en el nivel
de educación infantil
15
1. La enseñanza a través de temas
Los temas (topics) proporcionan un contexto ideal con el que trabajar, en el que confluyen los objetivos de aprendizaje de las diferentes áreas curriculares proporcionando oportunidades para que
los niños:
• Desarrollen su conocimiento y comprensión del mundo.
• Comprendan nuevos conceptos en un contexto significativo.
• Se desarrollen social, emocional, física y cognitivamente a través del aprendizaje de todos los
ámbitos de conocimiento y la experiencia.
• Adquieran el lenguaje de forma natural.
Al utilizar un enfoque transversal, todas las áreas pueden ser estudiadas dentro de un tema
determinado.
• Las conexiones transversales son esenciales para el aprendizaje, pues este consiste en ser
capaz de establecer relaciones entre el conocimiento y las experiencias previas y la información y las experiencias nuevas. Así, poner énfasis en las conexiones entre las distintas áreas
ayuda a los niños a encontrar sentido en lo que están estudiando.
• La enseñanza por temas ofrece también flexibilidad para atender las necesidades de
todos los alumnos por medio de actividades que pueden ser fácilmente adaptadas, permitiendo a todos los niños participar completamente y conseguir desarrollar todo su
potencial individual.
Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
En este programa los contenidos curriculares se enseñan en inglés y, por tanto, los niños
del programa bilingüe entran en un entorno donde se utiliza español e inglés por separado cada día.
Aunque no hayan oído inglés antes de llegar al colegio, los niños se van acostumbrando a escuchar
la lengua inglesa de manera natural, empezando a adquirir la comprensión del idioma. Junto con las
rutinas diarias, los temas proporcionan un contexto significativo en el que la lengua inglesa puede
entenderse poco a poco a través de distintas actividades, primero asimiladas y después reproducidas
por los niños, cada uno a su ritmo. De la misma manera que adquirieron su lengua materna, a medida que avanza su entendimiento, empiezan a utilizar el idioma; al principio con palabras sueltas,
luego grupos de palabras, hasta que empiezan a construir frases completas. Esto lleva tiempo, pero
para lograrlo debemos utilizar el idioma inglés de una forma natural, de este modo nos aseguramos
que los niños no aprenden solo listas de vocabulario, sino que aprenden a manejar el lenguaje en
un contexto significativo.
Los temas que se trabajarán/desarrollarán en esta etapa son:
• Yo mismo.
• Voy al colegio.
• Nuestras casas y nuestras familias.
• La gente que nos ayuda.
• En la ciudad.
• Vamos a comprar comida.
• Tecnologías de la información y la comunicación.
• El cambio climático.
• El transporte.
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• El sistema solar.
• El verano.
• El otoño.
• El invierno.
• La primavera.
• Animales.
• Cuentos tradicionales.
• Festividades.
Muchos de estos temas pueden combinarse fácilmente para crear unidades temáticas integradas.
Los temas no deben ser enseñados de forma aislada y las conexiones deben hacerse cuándo y dónde corresponda. Por ejemplo, “fiestas” y “cuentos tradicionales” son temas individuales pero pueden
presentarse con otras áreas temáticas a lo largo del curso.
Se han incluido en el documento ejemplos de unidades temáticas interrelacionadas. Ver página
67 (Topic webs).
Dado el carácter repetitivo de los temas en la etapa de Educación Infantil, debemos asegurarnos que al planificar las unidades temáticas integradas haya suficiente variedad y progresión de año a año. Si un tema se repite en cada nivel del ciclo, entonces el enfoque debe ser
diferente cada vez. Se trata de mantener la motivación alta, desarrollar la curiosidad, adquirir
un mayor conocimiento y comprensión del mundo y exponer a los niños a un lenguaje más
variado.
Los temas de este documento del currículo han sido seleccionados por su significado e interés
para los niños. Son temas familiares para ellos en su lengua materna, lo que contribuye a facilitar la
El currículo integrado en el nivel de educación infantil
comprensión de los conceptos y les permite asimilar una nueva lengua dentro del contexto de los
temas presentados (la versión en inglés de este documento incluye información detallada sobre cada
uno de estos temas).
2. El desarrollo de las habilidades sociales
El desarrollo de las habilidades sociales es una parte integral de la rutina diaria de los niños en el
nivel de Educación Infantil. Estas ya se estudian como parte del currículo español y deben incluirse
en la planificación de las actividades docentes y de las actividades en inglés. Aspectos particulares se
tratan a través de las diferentes áreas de contenidos (la versión en inglés del documento incluye una
lista de habilidades sociales y su desarrollo).
3. Las competencias lingüísticas
3.1. El desarrollo de las competencias lingüísticas en Educación Infantil
• Adquirir la capacidad de leer y escribir es mucho más que aprender la mecánica de la lectura
y la escritura: estas capacidades proporcionan mayores posibilidades de sobrevivir en el idioma y son fuente de autoestima, identidad y empatía emocional e intelectual. Leer y escribir
permite el acceso a cuentos y a otros materiales que forman y desarrollan el pensamiento y
ayudan a los niños a desarrollar conceptos. La capacidad de leer y escribir en dos idiomas les
da acceso a mundos culturales y sociales diferentes y variados. Además, a medida que crece
la confianza de los niños en su capacidad de leer, sus conocimientos y su control sobre el
lenguaje se hace cada vez más individual y personal.
• En el nivel de Educación Infantil el énfasis a la hora de leer y escribir se pondrá siempre en
ayudar a los niños a convertirse en lectores y escritores entusiastas, ayudándoles a leer y a
disfrutar de libros “de verdad”. Al mismo tiempo, se introduce a los niños desde el principio
a una serie de estrategias de pre-lectura y primera lectura que les ayuden a entender lo que
leen para que gradualmente puedan hacerlo con fluidez, corrección y comprensión pero,
sobre todo, disfrutando.
• Ser capaz de leer y escribir con fluidez y disfrute en inglés es una habilidad que necesita
desarrollarse a lo largo de todos los niveles (Educación Infantil, Primaria y Secundaria), y las
estrategias apropiadas para conseguirlo deben establecerse como parte del currículo desde
el principio. La enseñanza de la lecto-escritura debería asegurar que las cuatro destrezas
(escuchar, hablar, leer y escribir) se integren de forma natural. El énfasis en el desarrollo
de las habilidades orales, ya desde los primeros años, proporciona una base sólida para el
desarrollo de la lectura y la escritura.
3.2. Desarrollo de las habilidades orales en Educación Infantil
Cuando se integran en todos los aspectos de la vida escolar diaria, las habilidades orales constituyen
una base sólida a partir de la cual se desarrolla el aprendizaje, el conocimiento y la capacidad de
comunicación. Para ello podemos hacer uso de:
Rutinas diarias
Las rutinas diarias permiten empezar a familiarizar a los niños con la lengua de una forma natural,
consiguiendo que poco a poco vayan incorporando este lenguaje en su propia rutina. El cambio de
actividades de manera regular es importante para mantener el interés de los niños y favorecer su
participación en las mismas.
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
Cuentos y álbumes ilustrados
Hay que leer y contar cuentos todos los días, seleccionando libros con rimas, ritmo y repeticiones,
y dejar estos libros en el rincón de lectura, junto con marionetas y otros objetos, para que los niños
puedan leerlos por su cuenta.
Dramatización
El juego imaginario tiene un papel fundamental en el desarrollo del lenguaje del niño. Ofrecer oportunidades para que los niños imaginen, utilizando juguetes, marionetas u otros objetos, les permite
utilizar un vocabulario y frases familiares sin la presión de tener otros oyentes. La simulación y las
actividades de teatro más estructuradas, planteadas en contextos familiares o utilizando historias
conocidas, demuestran el inglés en acción. Los niños pueden disfrutar utilizando el inglés que han
aprendido, participar en diálogos con sentido y tener un sentimiento de logro cuando representan
delante de un auditorio.
Juegos, música y movimiento
A los niños les encanta y, sobre todo, necesitan moverse. Los juegos de acción (Total Physical Response) y las actividades con música y movimiento permiten a los niños ejercer sus habilidades de
comprensión auditiva y a la vez estar en movimiento. Los niños deben prestar especial atención a las
instrucciones y al lenguaje referido al tiempo, el espacio, la posición y la calidad de los movimientos.
Modelos
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Para crear un ambiente bilingüe en las escuelas, donde la adquisición de las lenguas extranjeras y de
las lenguas maternas de niños de procedencia étnica y cultural diferente sea verdaderamente valorado, el inglés no debe restringirse a la “clase de inglés”. Es importante proporcionar oportunidades
para que los niños escuchen y hablen con diferentes personas en inglés, es decir, niños mayores,
otros profesores o visitantes.
3.3. Desarrollo de las habilidades de lectura y escritura en Educación Infantil
Para hacer de la lectura una experiencia placentera en la que los niños tengan éxito y disfruten, es
importante seleccionar cuentos apropiados para estas edades. Pero también es importante que los
niños tengan acceso a libros de información ya desde los primeros años y que vean cómo utilizarlos.
Al seleccionar esos libros cuidadosamente para relacionarlos con los temas y la edad e intereses de
los niños se debe tener en cuenta que el tema les llame la atención, que tenga frases simples y cortas
para hacer asequible su comprensión, que tenga fotos, ilustraciones y diagramas que favorezcan la
comprensión, etc.
El profesor juega un papel relevante al demostrar cómo se usan los libros y, por tanto, es importante utilizar libros de historias y de información a diario.
De la misma forma que leemos y utilizamos libros de ficción y de información con todo el grupo
y con grupos pequeños, permitir a los niños el acceso a los libros por su cuenta es importante para el
desarrollo de la lectura y la escritura. Crear un rincón de lectura en el aula proporciona un ambiente
estimulante en el que los niños pueden ojear y leer libros por su cuenta y con sus amigos.
El profesor debe asegurarse de que el espacio es adecuado y cómodo, exponiendo los libros a
la mejor altura para que puedan verlos y alcanzarlos.
La enseñanza de phonics:
Las investigaciones han demostrado que enseñar los 44 fonemas sistemáticamente y a una cierta
velocidad acelera el desarrollo del aprendizaje temprano de la lectura y la escritura. Junto con
El currículo integrado en el nivel de educación infantil
el reconocimiento y conocimiento de los sonidos, también se deben enseñar las técnicas de
unión y fragmentación de los mismos. Los objetivos de lectura y escritura siguen un enfoque
sintético para la enseñanza de phonics y señalan la progresión que de año en año debe producirse. Los objetivos están basados en el documento Letters and sounds: principles and Practice
of High Quality Phonics del Ministerio de Educación inglés. Algunos colegios pueden comprar
un programa de synthetic phonics con materiales para utilizar en el aula. Sin embargo, como no
siempre hay dinero disponible, el programa del Ministerio permite a todas las escuelas el acceso
para utilizar el método de synthetic phonics. La publicación se puede descargar, gratuitamente,
de la página: http://www.teachfind.com/national-strategies/letters-and-sounds-principles-andpractice-high-quality-phonics. Además de esto, también se pueden descargar gratuitamente de
la página: http://www.letters-and-sounds.com/ materiales prácticos y atractivos para usar en el
aula, bien sea para crear una base de materiales para el reconocimiento de sonidos o para complementar materiales que haya en los centros.
Una vez que los sonidos y las técnicas de unión y fragmentación se hayan enseñado a todo el
grupo, es importante contar con actividades que refuercen el reconocimiento y aprendizaje de los
niños. Actividades estructuradas guiadas o independientes pueden incluir, por ejemplo, juegos de
bingo para los sonidos, actividades con abanicos de palabras, la cuerda de tender la ropa, mini-libros
de phonics, etc.
Actividades de lectura y escritura:
Las actividades de lectura y escritura deben empezar ya en esta etapa y deben organizarse de forma
estructurada:
• A nivel de texto: secuenciando historias por medio de dibujos y tarjetas; utilizando marionetas para volver a contar la historia; creando libros de clase y exponiéndolos en el rincón
de lectura, etc.
• A nivel de oración: emparejando frases y dibujos en el contexto de un tema o una historia;
utilizando la pizarra magnética para crear frases sencillas, etc.
• A nivel de palabra: emparejando palabras y dibujos; creando palabras mediante los sonidos
que han aprendido, etc.
Oportunidades de escritura libre:
Proporcionar auténticas experiencias de escritura para niños pequeños es tan importante como
poner a su disposición libros y oportunidades de lectura. Mientras las actividades estructuradas de
escritura basadas en la aplicación de los sonidos estudiados son esenciales para la precisión, las
oportunidades de escritura libre son también de gran importancia.
Aprender a escribir implica una combinación de múltiples procesos mentales y físicos. Como
los niños llegan al colegio con una experiencia de escritura temprana muy diferente, las oportunidades para desarrollar sus habilidades deben ser variadas, permitiendo que cada niño avance a un
ritmo que se ajuste a su experiencia y desarrollo individual. Los niños escribirán a un nivel acorde
con su desarrollo cognitivo y físico. Algunos niños, especialmente en las etapas iniciales, producirán
garabatos y formas que no tienen sentido más que para ellos. Poco a poco los niños formarán letras
y palabras. A medida que desarrollan sus habilidades y conocimiento de phonics, esto se hará evidente en lo que produzcan, pero generalmente en la escritura creativa habrá muchas imprecisiones
al experimentar los niños con sonidos, letras y palabras.
Para muchos niños el inglés que oyen durante el tiempo que están en el colegio es su única
exposición a la lengua inglesa, por ello es importante crear un entorno rico en textos. Asegurarse de
que los niños están rodeados de textos escritos les ayudará a ser más conscientes del texto impreso
y su significado y les animará a leer y escribir.
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
4. Objetivos y contenidos de habilidades numéricas
El objetivo global de los tres años de Educación Infantil es desarrollar en los niños el conocimiento
y la comprensión de las habilidades numéricas y ayudar a los niños a entender su relevancia para la
vida diaria, tanto en inglés como en español.
El desarrollo de las habilidades numéricas en el aula de Infantil se considera generalmente parte
del desarrollo global del niño. Como tal, se introducen, practican y repasan conceptos a lo largo del
año, y luego se reciclan y se fortalecen durante los tres años del nivel. Los objetivos y contenidos
se incluirán por tanto en los distintos temas y se enseñarán a través de actividades continuadas de
Total Physical Response, canciones, rimas, cuentos, juegos de encontrar pareja y de secuencia, y otras
tareas de lenguaje y lectura y escritura (la versión en inglés del documento incluye información detallada para este punto).
5. Objetivos y contenidos de conocimiento del entorno social y natural
El objetivo global de la etapa de Infantil es ayudar a los niños a observar, explorar y comenzar a
hacer preguntas acerca de las cosas vivas, los materiales y los fenómenos.
Estos conceptos e ideas deberían desarrollarse a través de rutinas diarias, actividades cotidianas
y a través de las distintas áreas temáticas. Deberíamos tener en cuenta que los niños están adquiriendo el idioma al utilizarse de forma natural en el entorno escolar, y que su comprensión en inglés
será con frecuencia mayor de lo que se detalla aquí (la versión en inglés del documento incluye
información detallada para este punto).
6. Propuesta de una unidad temática para la etapa de Educación Infantil (topic web)
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Se han incluido siete unidades temáticas en esta sección: tres de ellas desarrollan el mismo tema,
“La primavera”, en los tres años del ciclo, para demostrar cómo se puede enfocar desde distintas
perspectivas y cómo se desarrollan los objetivos en los distintos niveles en un contexto significativo.
Las otras unidades muestran cómo se pueden relacionar los temas y cómo se pueden desarrollar los
correspondientes conceptos y habilidades.
Al igual que el desarrollo de la lecto-escritura, los conceptos y habilidades numéricas y el conocimiento y comprensión del entorno, la educación artística, la música, el movimiento y el drama se
han incorporado a las unidades temáticas. Estos elementos son esenciales en la educación temprana
para conseguir el desarrollo global del niño.
Introduction
1. Project background and objectives
The Spanish Ministry of Education/British Council bilingual project, initiated in 1996 as a unique
experiment within the Spanish state education system: the first groups of children completed compulsory secondary education in 2008.
The formal agreement between the Ministry of Education and the British Council states that the
aim of the project is to provide children from the age of three to sixteen with a bilingual, bicultural
education through an integrated Spanish/English curriculum based on the Spanish National Curriculum and the National Curriculum for England and Wales. This integrated curriculum has official
recognition (BOE May 2000).
The implantation of such a curriculum requires a very different classroom approach from the
traditional EFL classroom where the focus is on learning English as a foreign language as opposed to
learning content of the infant/primary curriculum through English. This integrated approach sits very
positively within the Directives of the Council of Europe which insists on the need for children to be
competent in three European languages by the end of the obligatory period of secondary education
and that the learning of the first foreign language should begin in the early years of formal education.
The specific objectives of the project are:
• To promote the acquisition and learning of both languages through an integrated content
based curriculum.
• To encourage awareness of the diversity of both cultures.
• To facilitate the exchange of teachers and children.
• To encourage the use of modern technologies in learning other languages.
• If appropriate, to promote the certification of studies under both educational systems.
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
2. Rationale: curriculum document
In February 2001 a Joint Study Review Team ( JSRT) was set up by the Comisión de Seguimiento,
Project Board of Directors, to evaluate the progress of the bilingual project.
The JSRT formed the following conclusions on curricular content and assessment, identifying
the need for:
• a clear delineation in the subjects and contents to be taught in English and the levels at which
these should be taught
• a definition of assessment criteria at the end of each stage of education (infant, primaries
two, four and six) which would define the attainment targets for each level within the project
This led to the JSRT making the following recommendation:
Recommendation 4: Curriculum and Assessment:
“The joint team recommend that a mixed Spanish/British working party be formed to work on a
realistic development of the core curriculum in English describing which subject areas and contents
should be taught in English in the infant and primary stages. In conjunction, the working party would
be responsible for establishing criteria and guidelines for assessment. It would be advisable to have
both Spanish and UK teachers who have been involved in the project for some time on the team in
addition to experts in primary education from the Ministerio de Educación and the British Council”.
This led to the following Action Point agreed by the Comisión de Seguimiento:
Action Point Six:
24
“The Comisión de Seguimiento to ratify the appointment of a working party to study the present
curriculum (BOE 2 May, 2000) with a view to specifying content and assessment criteria for the
different levels in infant and primary. This should also include guidelines and strong recommendations on the role of class teachers and project teachers for a joint methodological approach and
suggestions for a logical approach to time allocation. This document should also include a comprehensive list of resources (books, materials, equipment) which are recommended for the success
of the project at each stage”.
3. Constitution of the working party and approach adopted
The working party was constituted in October 2001 with the objective of producing a document on
guidelines for an infant curriculum and assessment criteria for this level to be ratified by the Comisión
de Seguimiento by June 2002: to be followed by a curriculum for primary by June 2003.
The team consisted of six teachers in the project, three Spanish, three British: all six of them had
worked in the project for more than three years. The other two members of the team were responsible for the management of the project and were members of the Comisión de Seguimiento.
The members of the working party consulted 29 infant schools in the project on contents,
approaches, attainment levels, ways of assessing the children, resources, time allocation, project coordination and roles of teachers. In addition, in the period November 2001 to March 2002 the team
visited 10 project schools with a check list of points relating to the above.
The observable results of “best practice” were at all times considered to be what we should be
aiming towards. These compiled from the documentation and visits are what form the basis of the
initial curriculum guidelines
In 2009 the decision was taken to form a new working party to revise and update the curriculum
in order to:
Introduction
• Reflect changes to the Spanish National Curriculum.
• Incorporate current proven methodologies to raise standards in early reading and writing.
• Reflect the achievements that children make in the early years.
• Reflect change and development in the project over the past years.
The team consisted of six Spanish and British teachers, each with more than three years experience working in the infant years in the project and was led by those responsible for the overall
management of the bilingual project.
The document for the infant stage has been developed along the following lines:
• Teaching through topics.
• Development of social skills.
• Concepts and targets:
−− Literacy: listening and speaking.
−− Literacy: reading and writing.
−− Mathematics.
−− Knowledge and understanding of the world.
• Attainment levels at the end of the infant cycle.
• Drawing the strands together in a topic web.
• A sample lesson from the topic web.
• Resources.
4. Methodological approach to teaching throughout the infant cycle
The guidelines in English for the 3 years of the Infant cycle are closely related to the curriculum in
Spanish for this cycle.
The focus is on the development of the whole child through a curriculum which considers the
physical, cognitive, social, emotional and cultural development of each individual in the context of
the immediate society in which the child lives, i.e. the school and his/her environment. The acquisition of language, number skills, literacy skills and science skills, whether in Spanish or English is largely through a topic-based approach taking the development of the whole child into account within
each topic and throughout the three years of the infant cycle.
This document is intended as a working document for all teachers of English involved in the
project. Any changes to the Spanish National Curriculum will inevitably be reflected in changes to
the guidelines.
5. Roles of teachers in the project
At the beginning of the academic year, it is recommended that the class teacher and project teacher
spend time establishing class routines together. This will ensure continuity, help the children feel
more secure and will create opportunities for positive communication.
Though the topics described below and the global approach to teaching in English, reflect
the topics and approach in the Spanish curriculum for these three years, this does not mean that
identical concepts are necessarily covered at the same time in both languages. Clearly, the Spa-
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
nish class teacher and project teacher should plan closely together to ensure that the concepts
are covered and understood in both languages. Not only that, close coordination should ensure
a fresh perspective from which to develop knowledge and skills through a given topic in each
language.
It is essential that both the English project teacher and the Spanish class teacher understand
that the project teacher will speak in English to the children and that there is no need for the Spanish teacher to provide a translation or to “explain” in Spanish what has been said. However, as
the Spanish teacher will normally be present at least during the first year of infantil the English
teacher should take advantage, where possible, of his/her presence to explain beforehand what
the lesson involves and any perceived difficulties. In this way, the Spanish teacher can quietly
support children who are having difficulties, who may be new to the class, or have been absent
and who may require some extra temporary help. This support does not necessarily need to be
given in English.
When the children are working in groups, particularly in art and craft sessions, the Spanish teacher should be available to support the English teacher as necessary: two adults in a class is a luxury
which should be maximised as much as possible.
6. Children’s language development
26
In the initial stages, the children’s understanding of English is largely demonstrated through nonverbal response to the language input: physical response to songs, games, stories, creative response
through art and craft activities, expressions of pleasure arising from stories, songs and rhymes.
Understanding will also be demonstrated through verbal response in Spanish and through repetition in English of “chunks” of familiar language. Initially this will often be language involving
classroom routines and repetitive language in stories.
Gradually, the children will begin to experiment with a mixture of English and Spanish and use
this along with non-verbal response to get their message across.
The time taken to assimilate the language varies from child to child. However, pupils should be
encouraged by the teacher to respond orally and “create” language as early as possible. The majority
of children tend to respond positively and are keen to produce English, but occasionally a child will
not generate the language as hoped. Undue pressure to produce language should not be put on this
child and the maturity and pace of development of each individual respected.
7. Introducing literacy skills: “real” reading and writing
There are good reasons for introducing pre-reading, reading and writing skills in English while the
children are still in the infant class:
• Learning to read and write in English is a longer more complex process than in Spanish. An
early start is essential to allow time for the children to become fluent readers and creative
writers.
• The advantages of an early start to acquiring the language orally are greater if this is accompanied by an informal introduction to the written word through a meaningful context. The
use of fiction and non-fiction books, classroom labels, classroom exhibitions and the systematic teaching of synthetic phonics all contribute to effective language acquisition and the
coherent development of reading and writing skills.
• There are differences between spoken and written language and it has been demonstrated
that exposure to both together helps the children perceive these differences positively from
the start.
Introduction
The question of which script to use (Spanish cursive or English print) is one which has been left
to each school to resolve and is rarely an issue. The children seem to be able to adapt satisfactorily
to whichever system is used.
8. Assessment in the early years
The principles of Assessment for Learning (AfL) can be implemented in the early years.
AfL ensures that assessment is an integral part of the teaching and learning process on a day-today basis. Research has shown that children learn best when they
• understand clearly what they are learning
• know what is expected of them
• receive feedback about the quality of their work
• are given advice about how to make improvements
• are fully involved in assessment and next steps in learning
Right from the infant stages, applying AfL will bring greater clarity to teaching and learning and
will begin to equip children with skills to be reflective learners. Simple practice involves
• Sharing learning objectives with pupils. This can be done in imaginative ways that engage
the children:
−− A puppet tells children what they are learning today.
−− A character (WALT) is portrayed on a display board with a speech bubble saying We are
learning to/that…and the teacher writes and illustrates this at the beginning of a class or
section of a lesson for children.
• Presenting expectations to pupils. This involves explaining to the children what you are
looking for. In reality you are presenting the assessment criteria for success. Again, expectations
need to be presented in a form that will appeal to and have significance for young children.
−− A lively puppet that tells children what’s expected of them.
−− A character (WILF) has a display board and says What I’m looking for, is…
−− A cheeky puppet that says I don’t think you can… to which the children respond I
can… This involves the children in creating I can statements which can then be used as
assessment criteria.
• Giving feedback to children. This can be done in a variety of ways that are meaningful to
pupils in the infant stages.
−− Simple interaction and positive reinforcement using familiar phrases, e.g. Well done.
Good work. You can… Can you…?
−− Facial gestures that support what you are saying.
−− Using stamps, e.g. smiling face, stamps with picture and text, e.g. very good, good.
−− Asking other children to give feedback on another child’s work, e.g. using traffic lights,
fans with facial expressions or the thumbs up approach. This may be done in pairs.
• Giving advice for improvement. Children need to be praised for their achievements but
showing them how to improve is also an essential part of the teaching and learning process.
Presenting ways to improve in imaginative ways will motivate the children and get the message across more clearly.
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
−− Create a little drama with puppets and soft toys using familiar repetitive language that
gives one clear idea for improvement.
−− Highlight good work by a child and show the key factor(s) for his/her success.
−− Show an ideal piece of work and invite children to respond to simple questions that will
help them identify ways to improve. These can then be displayed in simple sentences
with illustrations that support the message.
• Fully involving children in assessment and next steps. Children become more aware
of their learning when they are actively involved in the assessment process. They can be
involved in
−− Self assessment using traffic lights, thumbs up, facial expressions fans, simple self assessment sheets with I can statements.
−− Peer assessment using the same tools.
−− Setting simple goals with the teacher, e.g. to improve listening skills: one factor for
success can be presented and when achieved a new one presented so that a child who
has difficulty maintaining attention can develop skills step by step. Providing attractive
goal cards or form of acknowledgement on the achievement of each step will be rewarding and motivating for children.
28
Using AFL methodology facilitates keeping records of each child’s progress on a day-to day
basis which will serve for effective planning and implementation for progress. Evidence can be
kept of achievements e.g. through photos, samples of work and video clips. This assists accurate
reporting of progress to parents at meetings and through report cards. Identifying the attainment
level of each child at the end of the infant cycle will be made easier when this methodology is
adopted and clear learning objectives from the curriculum are shared, worked on and assessed by
teacher and pupils.
For more information on Assessment for learning:
http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110813032310/http:/www.qcda.gov.uk/
http://www.ltscotland.org.uk/assess/index.asp
http://www.assessmentforlearning.com/
9. Conclusions and recommendations
1. The project is far less successful when it is regarded as an “English” project in a Spanish
school. It is an integrated project in every sense of the word: this means that planning and
co-ordination between the Spanish class teachers and English teachers within each class is
essential. When the two work together, it has clearly been demonstrated that the children
benefit from the experience in both languages.
2. In order to reach the targets set for the end of the three year infant cycle, and so that the
children will be well prepared for primary education, a minimum of 40% of the timetable
must be dedicated to teaching and learning in English.
3. Spanish class teachers and project teachers have found that dividing the class into two
groups at one given time (desdobles) allows for more individualised and small group
support in both Spanish and English. It is therefore recommended that at the beginning
of the school year, timetabling reflects this for some of the classes. However, all children
should receive a minimum of 40% of their education in English, irrespective of how these
classes are organised.
Introduction
4. Coordination between year stage teachers is of the utmost importance to ensure continuity
and progression throughout the infant years. It is essential to communicate, consult and plan
together to
• begin the new academic year knowing the achievements and levels of all pupils
• present topics from a new perspective from year to year
• introduce new stories relating to themes from one stage to the next
This will not only be useful practice for teachers but will enhance the children’s learning
experience and work towards raising standards in the school.
5. Liaison between the infant and primary stages is vital for a smooth transition from Infant 3
to Primary Year 1. Recommendations include:
• Coordination between Infant 3 and Primary Year 1 teachers to
−− ensure that children are being prepared for the change to primary
−− guarantee methodology and learning develop naturally in year 1 from what has gone
before
−− familiarise Infant 3 pupils with their new classroom and, where possible, teachers in the
third term
−− plan joint curricular and or cultural activities for the two year stages
• A transition English teacher who will teach children for two consecutive years to provide a
high level of coherence and continuity for pupils in their last year of infant and first year in
primary. This teacher will also coordinate planning and development with the other teachers
at these stages.
6. All topics and targets in each of the curricular areas should be covered as described in this
document to provide a rich educational experience in the infant years that allows children
to acquire the language, knowledge and skills through clearly structured learning activities
to an appropriate standard.
7. All children at the end of the cycle should be assessed by the teacher, following the bands of
attainment as described in these guidelines and unless there are extenuating circumstances
there should be a clear picture for each class of
−− 10% at band 1
−− 70% at band 2
−− 20% at band 3
for each of the attainment targets. If these levels are not being achieved then this should lead
the school to examine:
a) the number of hours being spent on English per week
b) approach, use of resources
c) co-ordination and continuity in the project
d) the need to challenge children more and raise standards and expectations
8. Though the guidelines insist on core contents being covered and objectives met, there is no
need for schools/groups to remain solely within these guidelines. Teachers who are already
achieving these targets may wish to extend the core contents to suit their individual school/
class circumstances.
29
The integrated curriculum for the infant stage
1. Teaching through topics
Topics give an ideal context from which to work as they merge the learning objectives from the different curricular areas to provide an opportunity for children to
• develop their knowledge and understanding of the world
• understand new concepts in a meaningful context
• develop socially, emotionally, physically and cognitively through the teaching of all curricular
areas
• acquire language in a natural way
By using a cross curricular approach, all subjects can be studied within a given topic.
• Emphasising links between subjects helps children make sense of what they are learning.
• Cross curricular links are crucial to learning as learning depends on being able to make connections between prior knowledge and experiences and new information and experiences.
• Teaching through topics gives the teacher a vehicle through which the children can apply
developing skills and concepts in exciting and innovative ways.
• Also topic work often produces an end result, e.g. a class mural or frieze, allowing younger
pupils to see a purpose and value in having those skills.
• Teaching through topics also allows flexibility to meet the needs of all pupils as activities
can be easily adapted allowing all children to participate fully and to achieve their individual
potential.
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
In essence, curricular contents are being taught in English and so the children in the
bilingual project enter an environment where Spanish and English are used separately each day.
Although they may not have encountered English before coming to school, children become accustomed to hearing English used in a natural way and begin to acquire an understanding of the
language. Along with daily routines, topics provide a meaningful context in which the English
language can gradually be understood through diverse learning activities; assimilated and then produced by the children little by little and each at their own pace. Just as they acquired their mother
tongue, as their understanding develops, children begin to use English; first with single words, then
a few words together until over time they begin to create complete phrases. As teachers use English
in a natural way, children are not just learning lists of vocabulary, but learning to understand and
use language in a meaningful context.
The topics to be worked on throughout the infant years are:
• Myself.
• I go to school.
• Our homes and families.
• People who help us.
• In the city.
• I go shopping for food.
• Information and Communication Technologies (ICT).
• Climate Change.
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• Transport.
• The Solar System.
• Summer.
• Autumn.
• Winter.
• Spring.
• Animals.
• Traditional Stories and Fairytales.
• Festivals.
Many of these topics can be easily combined to create integrated topic webs. The topics do not
need to be taught in isolation and links should be made when and where appropriate. For example
festivals, traditional stories and fairytales are individual topics but can easily be presented with
other topic areas throughout the school year. Many other possibilities exist, a few of which are outlined below as examples.
• People who help us:
−− Myself: Learn about the role of the doctor, nurse and dentist when considering how to
take care of our bodies.
−− I go to School: Look at how people help us at school, e.g. the teacher helps us to learn,
the cook prepares our lunch, the lunch monitor helps us to prepare for lunch etc.
−− Homes and families: Identify roles of family members and how they help us.
The integrated curriculum for the infant stage
• Transport:
−− Summer: Consider how different children will travel to go on holiday.
−− In the City: Learn about different modes of transport in the city.
−− Climate change: Think about ways to reduce pollution when choosing transport.
−− ICT: Learn that we use ICT to make reservations for train, coach, ferry and air travel.
−− The Solar System: Discover how astronauts travel.
• Spring:
−− Animals: Learn about the lifecycles of animals. Look at young animals when considering that animals reproduce.
−− Festivals: Identify animals associated with Easter.
Examples of interlinking topic webs have been included later in the document. See page 67.
Given the repetitive nature of the topics within the Infant Stage, we must ensure when planning
integrated topic webs that there is sufficient variety and progression from year to year. If a topic is
repeated in each stage of the infant cycle, then the approach should be different each time. This
keeps motivation high, develops enquiring minds, allows greater knowledge and understanding of
the world to be acquired and exposes children to a broader range of language.
The topics in this curricular document have been selected as being meaningful and motivating
to young children. They are themes familiar to children in their mother tongue. This contributes to
making the concepts easier for them to grasp and allowing them to assimilate new language within
the context of the topics presented.
The next section outlines the concepts that the children should have grasped and the awareness
and understanding that they should have gained by the end of the three years of infant education.
By the end of the Infant cycle the majority of the children should have developed an
awareness and understanding of the following:
Myself
• The main parts of their body and how they can use them.
• The change in their body and abilities from birth until now.
• The similarities and differences between boys and girls.
• The five senses.
• The basic needs of the human body and how the daily routine caters
for these.
• Their emotions and how these can be expressed.
• The importance of looking after our body: developing healthy habits
and an awareness of safety measures.
• Different physical features of people from different cultures.
I go to school
• The different areas within the school and their purposes.
• The people who work in the school and their function.
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
• The different areas within the classroom and what they are used for.
• The sequence of the daily school routines.
• Positive behaviour patterns appropriate to the school and classroom
environment.
• The importance of shared and individual responsibilities in the class
and school environment.
• The cultural similarities and differences in traditional playground and
classroom games.
Our homes and Families
• The similarities and differences of family units.
• Similarities and differences of roles adopted by different family members, avoiding stereotypes.
• The importance of sharing family tasks.
• The different types of homes that families live in.
• How we use different parts of our home for daily routines of family
life.
• Their own emotions in different family situations.
• Safety in the home.
• Different types of houses around the world (igloo, tepee, hut…).
34
• Different building materials (wood, bricks, glass…).
• Family customs in different parts of the world.
People who help us
• The people in their environment who play an important role in helping them and others.
• The types of clothing associated with different occupations and the
reasons for different dress codes i.e. safety / recognition / hygiene.
• The work places associated with different occupations.
• Procedures of how to contact the emergency services.
In the City
• Different places in the city: shops, hospital, school, library, museum,
zoo, cinema, sports centre, fire station…
• Different reasons for going to different places.
• ICT appliances in the city: traffic lights, barcode scanners, cash registers.
• How to behave in different places.
The integrated curriculum for the infant stage
I go shopping for food
• The similarities and differences between different types of places to
shop i.e. supermarket / market / small specialist shops.
• The sequence of events to select and buy products in a variety of
shopping environments
• Classification of foods i.e. fruit / vegetable / meat.
• The source of different foods.
• Good personal hygiene before, during and after eating.
• Healthy eating habits.
• Basic tastes: sweet, savoury, sour.
• Typical foods from other cultures.
Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)
• Different ICT resources at home and at school: computers, digital
cameras, tape and video recorders, telephones, televisions, remote
controls, programmable toys, DVDs…
• The importance of a moderate use of the television and videogames.
• New and old ways of communicating e.g. e-mail vs. traditional letters.
• Functions and purposes of different information and communication
technologies.
Transport
• The principal modes of transport.
• The similarities and differences between the different kinds of transport i.e. air / road / rail / water; size / speed / comparison of the cost
of travel.
• Our purposes and appropriateness for using specific transport.
• The significance of some traffic signs in the environment.
• Road safety rules.
Looking after our Environment
• The importance of global warming: how gases that come from things
we do everyday are making the Earth hotter.
• The impact that global warming is having on plants and animals.
• Different ways of reducing climate change:
−− Saving electricity: turning off the lights, the television or the computer when not using them, turning the air conditioning down
in summer…
−− Recycling: putting paper, glass and plastic in the right containers.
−− Reusing: plastic bags, old clothes, using paper front and back…
−− Source reduction: buy only what you need, buy things that are
not wasteful in their packaging or use…
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
−− Reducing pollution: taking the bus or the underground, buying
non-polluting cars…
• The importance of water and different ways of saving it: not running
water while you are brushing your teeth, taking short showers, not
flushing the toilet unnecessarily etc.
The Solar System
• The sun as the centre of the solar system.
• The planets that spin round the sun.
• The Earth and the Moon.
• Space journeys: spaceships and astronauts’ equipment.
Summer
• The position of summer in the calendar.
• The months that make up summer.
• The type of weather expected in summer.
• Activities unique to summer.
• The benefits and dangers of the sun.
• How to keep healthy in summer i.e. dressing appropriately, eating
and drinking to prevent dehydration, protecting our skin.
36
• Warm colours.
Autumn
• The position of autumn in the calendar.
• The months that make up autumn.
• The variety of weather patterns in autumn.
• The habits of woodland animals in autumn.
• Autumn fruits and nuts.
• The lifecycle and main parts of a tree.
• Colours associated with autumn.
Winter
• The position of winter in the calendar.
• The months that make up winter.
• The types of weather expected in winter.
• Hibernation and animal habits in winter.
• Activities unique to winter.
• How to keep healthy in winter i.e. dressing appropriately, eating well,
and protecting our skin.
• The colours associated with the cold.
The integrated curriculum for the infant stage
Spring
• The position of spring in the calendar.
• The months that make up spring.
• The typical weather patterns in spring.
• The lifecycles of plants: different plant parts.
• The importance of looking after plants properly.
• Food from plants.
• The lifecycles of animals i.e. caterpillar to butterfly, tadpole to frog.
Animals
• The classification of the main groups of animals.
• The similarities and differences between domestic and wild animals.
• The habitats of different types of animals.
• Basic characteristics of animals which adapt them to their habitats.
• Lifecycles of some animals i.e. tadpole to frog, caterpillar to butterfly.
• How to handle and care for domestic animals.
• Personal hygiene when handling animals.
Traditional Stories and Fairytales
• The different ways in which a fairytale can be told i.e. book, puppets,
acting out.
• The stages of a story.
• The difference between reality and fantasy.
• The similarities and differences between characters in the stories.
• The feelings and emotions of characters and how we can empathise
with them.
• The cultural similarities and differences in traditional fairytales and
stories (e.g. The Gingerbread Man / El niño de mazapán).
• Reading is enjoyable.
Festivals
• Festivals as special days celebrated in their own culture and other
cultures.
• How certain festivals are celebrated, e.g. Christmas, Diwali, Chinese
New Year, Harvest.
• The images associated with different festivals. E.g. star and angels
with Christmas, diyas with Diwali.
• At what times of the year certain festivals occur.
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
2. Developing social skills
The development of social skills is an essential part of the daily routine in Infants. These are already
taught as an integral part of the Spanish curriculum and should be included in classroom planning
for the English part of the curriculum. Particular aspects are concentrated on through different topic
areas. The objectives here are expressed as desirable outcomes and should form part of the teacher’s
ongoing assessment of each child.
By the end of Infants the children should be aware of, or be able to do the following:
Class routines
• Enjoy participating in a story.
• Enjoy listening to each other in the group situation.
• Show a willingness to tidy up and pleasure in helping.
• Not shout in class.
• Realise the importance of switching off lights, turning off taps, flushing the toilet, putting
paper in the bin, etc.
Greetings and goodbyes
• Say good morning, good afternoon, hello and goodbye.
38
• How are you? Fine, thank you.
Feelings
• Express feelings: happy, sad, cross, angry, hungry, frightened, scared, surprised, and shy.
• Express love for family and affection.
• Value the friendship and help of others.
• Have positive self-esteem, actively participate in class and enjoy seeing displays of their own
work and that of their peers.
• Play different roles and express emotions using dramatisation (puppets, soft toys…).
• Participate with pleasure at parties and celebrations.
Personal hygiene and health
• Understand that sweets cause tooth decay.
• Have an awareness of the importance of a balanced diet.
• Understand and respect dining-room rules like: “Wash your hands before you eat”, “Brush
your teeth after eating”.
• Enjoy eating fruit.
• Realise the importance of protection from the sun in summer and the cold in winter.
• Understand daily routines related to hygiene and dress.
• Be able to dress and undress themselves.
The integrated curriculum for the infant stage
Behaviour patterns
• Understand and respect dining-room rules like “Don’t throw food”, “Don’t annoy your friends
when they are eating”.
• Take pleasure in listening.
• Learn to choose, make thoughtful decisions.
• Say “please”, “thank you” and “sorry”.
• Promote positive behaviour patterns in the school, in the classroom and in the playground.
• Accept the concept of losing/winning when playing a game.
• Recognise difference between people, avoid discrimination.
• Have developed a helpful and co-operative attitude during playing time.
• Promote basic organisational habits: constancy, attention, effort, initiative...
• Be aware of the importance of a job well done, and be able to take on board the idea that
correcting errors is part of “doing something better”.
• Appreciate clean and tidy surroundings.
Sharing and participating
• Realise that the classroom equipment belongs to everyone.
• Share classroom equipment, and take turns to use things.
• Enjoy tidying up, and know where to put things.
• Help in class and in the home, i.e. set the table at home, have class monitors.
• Be interested in contributing towards a frieze, decorating the class for Festivals, collecting
items for a display, bringing things from home.
• Take pleasure in giving presents (birthday, Christmas) and giving thanks.
• Take turns and follow the rules in a game.
• Enjoy celebrations and parties.
Showing respect
For people:
• Respect the equality of boys and girls; understand the importance of avoiding sexist stereotypes in games, songs, classroom activities, stories and use of language.
• Realise the importance of taking it in turns to speak.
• Have an appreciation of people who help us in our daily lives.
• Show an interest in other places, cultures and people speaking other languages.
• Have respect for other people’s personal space.
For things:
• Take care of classroom equipment.
• Use different areas of the class correctly.
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
For the environment:
• Appreciate plants and animals.
• Be interested in looking after plants and animals.
• Show curiosity about the immediate environment.
• Know about traditions such as Christmas and other festivities.
• Have an awareness of road safety.
3. Literacy skills
3.1. The development of Literacy Skills in the infant years
40
Literacy is much more than the teaching of the mechanics of reading and writing: literacy provides a greater chance of survival in the language and encourages self-esteem, self-identity and
intellectual and emotional empathy. Literacy enables access to stories and other materials that
shape and develop thinking and help children develop concepts. Bi-literacy gives access to different and varied social and cultural worlds. In addition, as children become confident readers
their knowledge of and control over the language becomes increasingly more individual and
personalised.
In the three years of Infant Education the focus on reading and writing will always be on helping
children to become enthusiastic readers and writers through the understanding and enjoyment of
“real” books. At the same time, children will be introduced from the start to a range of pre-reading
and early reading strategies, including the systematic teaching of phonics, to help them make sense
of what they read so that they will gradually be able to read with fluency, accuracy, and understanding, but above all with pleasure.
Being able to read and write with fluency and enjoyment in English are skills which need to
be developed through the infant, primary and secondary stages. The strategies for success must
therefore be established as part of the curriculum from an early stage. The teaching of literacy skills
requires the natural integration of listening, speaking, reading and writing skills. Right from the early
years placing emphasis on acquiring oral skills provides a strong basis for reading and writing development.
3.2. Developing speaking and listening skills in the infant years
When integrated into all aspects of every-day school life, listening and speaking skills form a firm
foundation from which learning, knowledge and communication skills develop.
Daily Routines:
• Welcome the children individually and collectively at the beginning of the day/class with the
same greeting, i.e. good morning, hello, good afternoon, how are you? Encourage children
to greet you, other adults and their peers as the terms become familiar to them.
• Dismiss the children collectively and individually at the end of the day/class with the same
phrases, i.e. goodbye, bye bye, and build on these to include see you tomorrow, have a good
weekend, see you on Monday. Encourage children to use this language to respond to you
and say goodbye to others.
• Start each class with a familiar routine to allow children to switch comfortably from their
mother tongue to English, e.g. a song which indicates the change to English and a response
from the children which may be to sit on the carpet or sit at their tables.
The integrated curriculum for the infant stage
• Do the class register at the beginning of the day, asking each child to respond with a simple
language structure, e.g. I’m here. I’m present.
• Create and use a simple, interactive day and weather chart with a simple language structure
for children to use each day, e.g. Today is Tuesday. It is sunny./It is cold and windy.
• Change the type of activities within any one class regularly to maintain children’s interest
and participation throughout. Incorporating objects to handle, visual supports, turn taking
strategies, action songs and chants into a lesson, help maintain the pace and sustain interest.
• Invent and sing songs with repetitive language that require a response from the children to
do something. This gets the message across whilst exposing the children to natural forms of
language which they can acquire as they listen, understand and sing initially and later use in
speech to instruct one another. Here are two examples:
♫ Routine: Tidying up at the end of an activity
−− It is time to tidy-up
−− Tidy-up...
−− Quickly! (x2)
−− It is time to tidy-up,
−− Time to tidy-up...
−− Time to tidy-up, tidy-up,
−− Quickly! (Tune: She’ll be coming round the mountain)
♫ Routine: Entering the classroom after break time
−− Take your coats off x2
−− Hang them up x2
−− Walk to the mat/ Walk to your chair x2
−− Now sit down x2
−− (Tune: Frére Jacque)
• Expect and encourage the children to use familiar everyday language. Even three year olds
can say toilet please? or water please? Sometimes with teacher support, but often without.
Use whole phrases when supporting the children so that by the time they are in Infants 3
they can be expected to say, e.g. Can I go to the toilet please?
• Invite a child or a pair of children to repeat instructions to the rest of the class after you have
given simple directions for an activity. When the child/children struggle, the other children
can help them out to make it a positive learning experience.
• Choose a child to lead during the daily register and when recording the date and weather.
Make a teacher’s hat or badge for the role explaining to the children that all interaction with
the teacher has to be in English and follow everyday classroom rules.
• Support the children in reporting their weekend news. The three and four year olds could tell
their news in Spanish and the teacher could repeat what has been said in very simple English
sentences, whilst five years old can begin to construct simple, short sentences in English with
support from the teacher. Using a toy or model microphone to use when reporting increases
motivation and enjoyment.
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
• Promote and support communication between the children. Here are some examples:
−− When there is a birthday: Happy birthday. Thank you for the present.
−− When there are conflicts: I’m sorry. Please be my friend. Don’t push me.
−− When they are working: Please can I have the glue? I need the rubber.
−−
At the beginning and at the end of the day: Goodbye, see you tomorrow!
Picture books and Storytelling:
• Choose attractive, repetitive or rhyming texts to read out aloud.
• Encourage children to join in with the repetitive structures and predictable language in the
story.
• Ask children questions when reading a story, e.g. factual questions about the illustrations
relating to the story, the feelings of the characters.
• Read and re-tell stories with the children using different voices, facial expressions, actions
and songs.
• Create story props or puppets with the children to use in teacher led activities.
• Place story books, puppets and props in the class book corner to encourage children to retell
well-known stories using familiar, repetitive language.
• Provide a listening centre with recorded stories for children to listen to.
• Retell stories through songs, e.g. When Goldilocks went to the house of the bears; There was
a princess long ago.
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• Actively involve children in creating and reading aloud class stories/books modelled on a
story with a repetitive structure, e.g. Brown Bear, Brown Bear by Eric Carle could inspire the
creation of a class book featuring the children, Marta, Marta, what do you see?
• Make-up and tell simple stories with the children using artefacts, photographs or pictures as
starting points.
• Talk about what happens in stories and their endings, e.g. in a circle, on the carpet, order
three large pictures representing the beginning, middle and end of a well known story. Ask
the children who and what they can see in each picture and think of a sentence to represent
each of the pictures, before ordering them and saying the sentences together.
• Talk about and describe characters in stories, e.g. open up a box and take out objects belonging to a character from a story, (for Spot, put in a bone, a ball and a patch of yellow fun-fur).
The teacher talks about the objects and who they could possibly belong to. Once the children have guessed who the character is they pass the objects around the circle, one at a time
and repeat a sentence about the character that has been agreed upon by the whole group i.e.
for the bone, Spot likes bones. For the ball, Spot plays with his ball. For the fur, Spot is yellow.
Role Play and Dramatisation
Imaginary play has a key role in a child’s language development. Providing opportunities for the
children to make believe using toys, puppets or props allows them to use familiar vocabulary and
phrases without the pressure of an audience.
More structured role play and drama activities, set in familiar contexts or using well-known stories, demonstrate English in action. The children can enjoy using the English that they have learnt,
participate in meaningful dialogue and feel a sense of purpose and achievement when performing
for an audience.
The integrated curriculum for the infant stage
• Support imaginary play in English e.g. the teacher speaks in English while playing in the home
corner/shop/Space ship area with the children.
• Encourage children to take on the role of a fairytale or fiction character in the dressing up
area.
• Interview the teacher or a child pretending to be a character from a well known story.
• Dramatise well-known stories using props, puppets, masks or other visual aids. Choose
short, structured stories with opportunities for plenty of action and repetition of phrases and
expressions.
• Create short sketches with simple dialogue or songs or chants related to knowledge and understanding of the different topic areas e.g. the metamorphosis of a butterfly.
Games
Games allow children to actively develop listening skills and give all the children the opportunity to
speak out aloud in a non-threatening atmosphere. As whole class games function best when taught
and played in very controlled settings, the children have to pay special attention to both the teacher
and their peers. As children are keen to participate and play important roles in games, they are generally eager to listen and ready to collaborate.
• Play circle games which require the children to speak out aloud to the rest of the class or to
chant a repetitive phrase in unison e.g.
−− What’s the time Mr Wolf?
−− Who stole the cookie?
−− Mr Bear! Mr Bear! Simon Says..
(Online link http://www.gameskidsplay.net/)
• Play circle games which require the children to describe and guess, e.g. Choose a child to
hide in a large cardboard box in the middle of the circle while another is blindfolded. The rest
of the class have to describe the person in the box.
If the blindfolded child does not know who it is they can speak with ‘the box’ in English.
• Play games which require the children to remember and recall vocabulary taught using artefacts, props, images or their imagination e.g. I went shopping and I bought...
• Play games using picture dice and dominoes, or using cards to match pairs or opposites etc.
Children name the items/concepts as they play.
• Play picture bingo. Choose two children to be the callers.
Games, Music and Movement
Children love to and perhaps more importantly, need to move. T.P.R./action games and music and
movement activities allow children to exercise their listening skills and still be in motion at the same
time. Children have to pay special attention to instructions and language concerning time, space,
position and the quality of their movements.
• Explore moving on different body parts e.g. only using one hand and two knees.
• Explore different ways of travelling e.g. jumping, skipping, sliding, rolling.
• Explore movement quality and rhythm e.g. moving like robots, birds, kites, mice, depending
on the music.
• Explore speed and pace, i.e. listen to the music and move at a speed that suits.
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
• Play games using prepositions e.g. put the bean bag on your head and tiptoe around, inside
or outside of the hoop.
• Play games like Simon Says, Duck Duck Goose! Dead Soldiers etc.
(Online link http://www.gameskidsplay.net/).
• Regularly sing and move to a variety of action songs.
Role Models
In order to create a bilingual atmosphere in schools, where the acquisition of foreign languages
and the mother tongues of children from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds are truly valued,
English should not be restricted to the English class. Provide opportunities for the children to listen
to and speak to different people in English i.e. older children, other teachers and visitors.
3.3. Developing reading and writing skills in the infant years
Choosing Books
To make reading a pleasurable experience where children succeed, it is important to select story
books appropriately at the early stages. Decisive factors for choosing books may include a number
of the following aspects.
• A strong storyline that will capture and hold the children’s attention throughout.
• Rhythm and rhyme to facilitate participation.
• Illustrations that support the text to assist comprehension.
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• Repetitive language throughout the story to help participation and confident use of familiar
language structures in telling and retelling the story.
• Natural forms of language with a range of tenses.
• Eye catching books with special features, i.e. pop up, lift the flap or unexpected endings.
It is important that children have access to non-fiction texts right from the early years and that
they see a model of how to use them. Select these books carefully to link to topics and the children’s
age and interests. Features may include
• The development of one theme to hold the children’s attention.
• Simple, short sentences on each page to make reading and understanding achievable.
• Photos, illustrations and diagrams that support the text to assist comprehension.
• Some characteristics to familiarise children with key features and skills needed to handle
non-fiction texts, i.e.
−− Contents page.
−− Glossary.
−− Index.
Using Books
The teacher plays a significant role in modelling how to use books and so it is important to make use
of story and information books on a daily basis.
The integrated curriculum for the infant stage
• Read stories expressively and with enthusiasm.
• Encourage children to participate in reading the story or parts of the story with you.
• Retell the story in creative ways, inviting the children to dramatise, use puppets, sing and use
repetitive language from the text in the process.
• Demonstrate that we read from left to write.
• In shared reading, point to the specific word you are saying to let the children know where
the word starts and finishes.
• Demonstrate topic related information in non-fiction books.
• Ask a question about a topic, select and use a non-fiction text to find out the answer.
• Encourage the children to ask questions and involve them in the process of selecting a book
that will provide the information.
• Highlight the key features of fiction and non-fiction texts, i.e. cover, title, author, illustrator,
photos, illustrations, contents page.
Making Books Accessible
As well as reading and using fiction and non-fiction texts with the whole class and small groups of
children, allowing children to access books on their own is important for reading and writing development. Therefore, setting up a class book corner provides a stimulating space in which the children
can look at and read books on their own and with their friends.
• Ensure the space is adequate for children to look at books comfortably.
• Make the corner comfortable with carpets, cushions and chairs.
• Display a limited selection of fiction and non-fiction books, some of which the children are
already familiar with.
• Display the books at an appropriate height for young children to see and reach.
• Provide a story bag of a familiar story to encourage children to read and retell a story with
their friends, e.g. The three Little Pigs story bag might contain:
−− A copy of the story.
−− Picture and sentence cards for the children to sequence the story.
−− Stick puppets of the wolf and the three little pigs.
−− Model houses.
Teaching Phonics
Research has proven that teaching the 44 letter sounds systematically and with certain speed accelerates early reading and writing development. Along with the recognition and knowledge of the
sounds, children also require to be taught the skills of blending and segmenting. The reading and
writing targets embrace the synthetic approach to teaching phonics and outline the progress in
knowledge and skills from one year stage to the next. The targets are based on Letters and Sounds:
Principles and Practice of High Quality Phonics from DfE. Some schools may purchase a synthetic
phonics programme with resources to use in the school. However, as funding may not always be
available, the DfE programme will allow all schools access to using the synthetic phonics approach.
The DfE publication can be downloaded free of charge from http://www.teachfind.com/nationalstrategies/letters-and-sounds-principles-and-practice-high-quality-phonics. Additionally, attractive,
practical resources for classroom practice can be downloaded free of charge from http://www.
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
letters-and-sounds.com/ to form the basis of materials used for phonics awareness or to supplement
materials already in place in schools.
Once sounds and skills have been taught to the whole group, the provision of activities for children to reinforce knowledge and learning is important. Structured guided or independent activities
may include some of the following.
• Bingo games for sounds or CVC words.
• Fan activities:
−− Listen to the sound and select on the fan.
−− Listen to and create a CVC word using the fan.
• One step forward: A group of children have a sound each. When they hear their sound they
take a step forward.
• Washing Line: Children make words with the sound cards and then hang them on the washing line.
• Phonics mini-books: Take home to reinforce phonics knowledge and skills.
• Give children access to phonics readers. This will allow them to see their success.
• Mini-whiteboard activities:
−− Listen and write the sound, the word or the simple sentence.
−− Pair work to read and write sounds, CVC words or simple sentences.
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Providing Structured Reading and Writing Activities
Text Level:
• Sequence stories using picture and sentence cards.
• Retell stories using puppets.
• Dramatise stories.
• Create a mini fiction book modelled on a familiar story with repetitive language, e.g. It’s mine
by Rod Campbell, as a stimulus to create a mini book using the repetitive phrase, It’s mine.
• Create a mini information book using simple language structures.
• Create class books and display in the book corner.
Sentence Level:
• Match a sentence to the picture in the context of topic work and stories.
• Read a simple, decodable sentence with familiar language and illustrate.
• Magnet board: Put words and punctuation structures in order to create very simple sentences, e.g. It’s big. I’m happy.
Word Level:
• Word and picture match.
• Word bingo based on topics.
• Create words using phonics knowledge and skills.
The integrated curriculum for the infant stage
Providing Opportunities for Free Writing
Providing authentic writing experiences for young children is as important as making books and
reading opportunities available. Whilst structured writing activities based on the application of
phonics knowledge and skills are key to accuracy, free writing opportunities are also of great
importance.
Learning to write involves a combination of multiple physical and mental processes. Since children come to school with different exposures to early writing, opportunities to develop their skills
should be varied, allowing each child to make progress at a pace that suits his/her individual development and experience.
Fine motor skills can be developed through a variety of activities, including:
• Threading beads.
• Modelling with clay or play dough.
• Using peg boards.
• Sorting small objects such as buttons, paper clips and beads.
• Tracking and maze activities.
• Dot to dot activity sheets.
• Line links: following the line from one object to another, e.g. from mouse to cheese.
Additionally, all of these activities offer opportunities for quality input in English from the teacher, therefore facilitating language acquisition.
The importance of the written word in our everyday lives is constantly modelled by the teacher
as he/she creates or refers to text in the classroom environment, e.g. writing the names of helpers for
the day on a chart, creating labels for the structured play areas, e.g. 4 can play and referring to these
with the children. As children begin to understand that writing conveys meaning, they too want to
write for a purpose. This can be encouraged by integrating opportunities for free writing in different
areas of the classroom.
Children will write at a level that matches their physical and cognitive development. Some children, especially at the initial stages, will produce squiggles and shapes that don’t make sense to anyone but them. Gradually children will form letters and words. As they develop skills and knowledge
in phonics, this will become evident in what they produce but generally in free writing there will be
many inaccuracies as young children experiment with sounds and letters and words.
Some creative writing opportunities are described below.
Role Play Area
Writing can form part of young children’s imaginative play. Some children may require the teacher to
model how the provision of writing materials can be used constructively.
• In the home corner, provide a note pad and pen beside the telephone, a chalkboard on the
kitchen wall, paper and pencil to write a shopping list.
• In the “post office” provide writing paper, postcards, greetings cards, envelopes and a range
of writing materials.
• When preparing the restaurant area, organise opportunities for children to create menus.
Place note pads and pens for the waiters and waitresses in the restaurant.
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
Writing Area
Create an area in the classroom where children can go to write freely.
• Provide paper of different colours, shapes and sizes, postcards, writing paper and envelopes,
and paper with borders relating to the topic.
• Ensure there are pens, markers and pencils for children to choose from.
• Make whiteboards and markers available.
• Supply stimuli such as posters, photos and books related to the current topic.
• Create a word bank or word wall with the children, which they can refer to.
Class Walls
The class walls should display good models of writing in labels, signs and displays created by the
teacher. Encourage the children to use the walls and to look for key words on displays when they
are writing. However, it is also inspiring for the children to see their pieces of writing displayed and
this will allow them to tell other children about what they have produced.
• Create a “speaking wall” area in the class where children can write messages to each other.
• Display children’s writing attractively at a height where they can view each others’ work.
Maximising Text in the Learning Environment
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For many children, their only exposure to the English language is during the time they spend in
school, so it is important to create a text-rich environment. Ensuring that the children are surrounded
by print will help them become aware of written text and meaning and encourage them to read and
write. This can be done in many ways, some of which are described below.
• Label classroom areas with text and pictures e.g. our art area, our book corner, put the scissors here.
• Read aloud labels, name cards and notices to children.
• Provide opportunities for children to identify and recognise their own and peers’ names on
charts for attendance, birthdays, class monitors etc.
• Involve the children in the process of recording and displaying the date and weather on a
daily basis.
• Display children’s work attractively with clear titles and captions.
• Display photographs of the children participating in activities. Create simple sentences to
describe what is being portrayed. If possible create a text with repetition and rhyme. Read
the text together with the children and use the display as a talking point.
• Ensure that displays are at an appropriate height for young children.
The integrated curriculum for the infant stage
3.4. Literacy: Listening and Speaking Targets
Infant 1: 3-4 years
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•
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•
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Sit comfortably and pay attention for up to 20-30 minutes
Show an interest in what is being said in English
Begin to learn not to interrupt and begin to listen to each other
Show an interest in stories
Begin to join in with dramatisation of simple stories and daily routines
Participate physically when singing action songs
Regularly listen to language with plenty of repetition, rhythm and rhyme and respond appropriately
Begin to understand simple instructions and give physical or simple verbal responses in English or in
Spanish
• Begin to repeat words or short phrases
• Begin to use appropriate language for daily routines through song or speech e.g. tidy-up, make a
circle
• Begin to use everyday greetings and simple everyday expressions
Infant 2: 4-5 years
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Pay attention for more than 30 minutes
Listen with interest and respond appropriately
Begin to take turns in speaking and listening to each other
Enjoy listening to stories and start to join in with re-telling them collectively with teacher support
Remember or repeat short dialogues from well known stories e.g. Run, run as fast as you can… from
The Gingerbread Man
Participate in acting out stories, role plays, everyday situations or natural processes, e.g. from seed
to flower, using actions, props, puppets or other visual aids
Participate actively in singing sessions and begin to pronounce more of the lyrics correctly
Understand instructions, key vocabulary from topics and routine language
Use set phrases to ask for permission or help
Give short answers to express preferences and feelings
Infant 3: 5-6 years
• Pupils demonstrate that they can:
• Sustain attention and interest during each activity throughout the lesson
• Show pleasure in listening (e.g. smiling and anticipating) and listen confidently to more complex
language
• Take turns to speak and listen to other children in relation to what has been said before
• Remember chunks of dialogue or short phrases from simple fiction and non-fiction texts
• Remember and use phrases to retell simple stories and explain natural processes e.g. from caterpillar to butterfly
• Enjoy dramatising well known stories using different voices and actions with puppets, masks or
other visual aids
• Recite by heart a large number of songs, rhymes and chants
• Identify and respond to sound patterns in teacher led activities: through rhyming games at circle
time, when reading nursery rhymes and chants, when playing card games
• Confidently understand classroom instructions and be able to repeat them to others
• Confidently use set phrases to ask for help and permission or for other classroom routines
• Begin to use familiar language in new contexts
• Begin to experiment with combining language
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
3.5. Literacy: Reading and Writing Targets
Infant 1: 3-4 years
Working with texts
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
• Show an interest in listening to stories
• Look at books with teacher and respond appropriately, e.g. through simple actions that support understanding
• Understand that books are read from left to right and top to bottom
• Follow instructions such as open the book, turn the page
• Show an awareness of text in the classroom environment
• Recognise own name in written form
• Begin to write experimentally, even though this may be erratic
Preparatory Phonics knowledge and skills
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
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• Recall everyday sounds they hear in the environment: animal noises, musical instruments and traffic
• Identify different sounds and place them in a context, e.g. identify the sounds of ducks quacking and
select the context from 2 illustrations: on the farm or at school
• Use body percussion to produce contrast in rhythm, speed and loudness, e.g. using stamping, clapping or tapping
• Identify hidden sounds, e.g. listen to the sounds of a triangle being played behind a screen and identify the corresponding instrument
• Recognise rhyming words in context, e.g. stories and nursery rhymes
• Hear the differences between the initial sounds in words
• Recognise their own and each other’s voices
• Listen to and recognise discrete phonemes within words and show an awareness of the order in
which they occur to begin to blend words, e.g. first listen to the teacher say c-a-t and blend to say
cat, and then join in
Infant 2: 4-5 years
Working with texts
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Text Level
• Show an interest in listening to stories
• Join in with reading and retelling of simple stories
• Show an interest in books and reading
• Attempt to “read” text in the classroom context, using phonological knowledge and skills and contextual cues, e.g. story books, song displayed on wall, story sequence cards, date and weather chart
and topic related displays
The integrated curriculum for the infant stage
Sentence Level
• Read short captions made up of decodable words and high frequency words that have been taught
• Use developing skills and knowledge in phonics to participate in shared writing to create simple
captions and labels for the classroom, e.g. sit on the mat.
• Show comprehension of a simple sentence made up of decodable words and familiar high frequency words, e.g. by drawing an illustration, creating a play dough model or selecting the corresponding
picture
Word Level
• Recognise own name and many of their classmates’
• Write own name accurately
• Recognise and read high frequency words both in and out of context:
• a an at in is it on can dad mum big
• the to I go no
• he she we me be was my you they her all are
• Write high frequency words:
• a an at in is it on can dad mum big
• no go the I to
Supporting Phonics knowledge and skills
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•
•
•
•
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Copy a sound or pattern of sounds using body percussion or musical instruments
Identify a growing range of hidden sounds
Begin to suggest ideas and create new sounds to accompany a story
Recognise rhyming words
Phonics
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Knowledge
Confidently recognise the sound associated with these letters/
combination of letters
s a t p
i n m d
g o c k
ck e u r
h b f, ff l, ll ss
j v w x
y z, zz qu
Skills
• Recognise and confidently say the sound associated with all letters and combination of letters
taught
• Identify graphemes corresponding to sounds
• Use the correct formation to write letters
• Blend phonemes to read one and two-syllable words
• Segment phonemes to spell a wide range of cvc words
• Use developing knowledge and skills to support text and sentence level work
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
Infant 3: 5-6 years
Working with texts
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Text Level
• Show an interest in listening to and reading stories and simple information books
• Understand the distinction between story and non-fiction books
• Understand key features of story books: cover, title, author, illustration
• Begin to identify “favourite” authors and books, e.g. Eric Carle, Spot books by Eric Hill, Maisy
books by Lucy Cousins
• Begin to recognise important features of non-fiction books: Contents page, index and photos
• Join in with reading and retelling simple stories in shared reading activities
• Read decodable texts with growing confidence
• Attempt to read text in the classroom context, using phonological knowledge and skills and contextual cues: story and information books, songs displayed on wall, story sequence cards, date
and weather chart and topic related displays
•
•
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•
•
•
Sentence Level
Read simple sentences made up of decodable words and high frequency words that have been
taught
Show comprehension of a simple sentence made up of decodable words and familiar high
frequency words, e.g. draw illustration, create play dough model or match to the corresponding
picture
Use developing skills and knowledge in phonics to participate in shared writing to create simple
sentences, captions and labels for the classroom
Recognise simple forms of punctuation: capital letter, full stop, question mark
Begin to use these simple forms of punctuation in shared, guided and independent writing
Word Level
• Write own name accurately, starting with a capital letter
• Recognise and read a wide range of words, e.g. topic related key vocabulary, days, months, number names, children’s names and weather words
• Recognise and read up to 50 high frequency words both in and out of context, including:
a an at in is it on can dad mum big
the to I go no
he she we me be was my you they her all are
as had have and get his not
said so have like little some come do when out what
• Write decodable and non-decodable high frequency words accurately, including:
no go the I to
he she we me be was you
they all are my her
can like big little
• Recognise the letter names
• Understand the difference between letter sound and letter names
• Show an initial awareness of alphabetical order through: songs, chants and sequencing puzzles
The integrated curriculum for the infant stage
Supporting Phonics knowledge and skills
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
• Copy a sound or pattern of sounds using body percussion or musical instruments
• Create a sound or pattern of sounds using body percussion or musical instruments for other children to copy
• Identify a growing range of hidden sounds
• Suggest ideas and create new sounds to accompany a story
• Recognise rhyming words in stories, rhymes and games
Phonics
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Knowledge
• Confidently recognise and say the sound associated with each letter/combination of letters
s a t p
i n m d
g o c k
ck e u r
h b f, ff l, ll ss
j v w x
y z, zz qu
ch sh th ng
ai ee igh oa oo
ar or ur er
ow (cow) oi
ear air ure
Skills
• Recognise and confidently say the sound associated with all letters and combination of letters
taught
• Identify graphemes corresponding to sounds
• Demonstrate growing confidence in forming the letters correctly
• Blend phonemes to read one and two-syllable words
• Blend and read words with adjacent consonants
• Segment and spell words with adjacent consonants accurately
• Use developing knowledge and skills to support text and sentence level work
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
3.6. Literacy: Bands of Attainment
The bands of attainment described are for the end of the three year infant cycle. There are three
bands, with band 1 as the lowest. Each child completing the end of their Infant Education should fit
broadly into one of the three bands. Approximate estimations would be:
• Band 1: 10% of children
• Band 2: 70% of children
• Band 3: 20% of children
3.6.1. Literacy: Speaking and Listening Bands of Attainment
Band 1
• Children can demonstrate through appropriate non-verbal or simple verbal response, (single
words), that they understand basic classroom language, songs, rhymes, appropriate short
fiction and non-fiction texts.
• Children can follow simple instructions for music, movement, art and craft activities, although
they may require support at times.
• Children demonstrate pleasure and interest when listening to stories, rhymes, chants and
poetry.
• Children can participate in role play or in re-enacting stories through movement and using
appropriate facial expression although they require support and encouragement to speak
out aloud.
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• They require considerable support through use of slower speech, repetition, gestures and
individual assistance.
• Children can sustain attentive listening for short periods of time of approximately 10-15 minutes.
Band 2
• Children can demonstrate through simple verbal response, (single words and short phrases),
that they understand a wide range of classroom language, statements and questions, longer
fiction and non-fiction texts which include present, past and future events and include familiar language in unfamiliar contexts.
• They show through formalised oral response, (often one word response), a basic awareness
of personal preferences and feelings in topic areas, stories and non-fiction.
• They cope with language spoken at normal speed in familiar situations with some natural
built in speaker hesitancy.
• Children can participate in role play or in re-enacting well known stories using repetitive
phrases or simple chunks of dialogue, individually, or in unison with others.
• They use set phrases to ask for help, permission and other classroom routines.
• They respect turn-taking at circle time and pay attention to the teacher as well as to their
peers.
• They can sustain attentive listening for longer periods of time.
The integrated curriculum for the infant stage
Band 3
• Children can demonstrate non-verbally and with a growing use of memorised oral response,
(short, simple phrases), that they understand a range of material that contains some complex
sentences and unfamiliar language.
• They begin to listen confidently in areas which interest them and show understanding of the
main points in appropriate fiction and non-fiction texts.
• They are beginning to understand and respond to a variety of speakers in everyday situations, not only their own English teacher.
• Children participate confidently in role play or in re-enacting well known stories using repetitive phrases, simple chunks of dialogue or occasionally their own spontaneous input.
• They use the language they have acquired spontaneously in everyday situations or when
carrying out classroom routines.
• They occasionally experiment with language combinations.
• They can sustain attentive listening during each activity throughout the lesson.
3.6.2. Literacy: Reading and Writing Bands of Attainment
Band 1
• Children demonstrate an interest in listening to stories and looking at books. They can understand the way books work and can follow simple instructions, such as turn the page.
• They can join in with repetitive language when the teacher is telling a story.
• They can generally sequence a story using illustrations but require support to read and match
the corresponding text.
• Children can recognise and say the sound of most of the single letters and some of the letter
combinations taught, however they often require support and reinforcement.
• They can recognise and read less than 20 high frequency words taught.
• They require support to read simple sentences made up of CVC and high frequency words.
• They can write many of the letters clearly but may require support to form specific letters
using the correct sequence of movements.
• They can write some CVC words accurately.
• Children are aware that print carries meaning but they often struggle to make sense of the
text in the classroom environment.
Band 2
• Children can say the sound associated with most of the letters and combinations of letters
taught and can blend these phonemes to read CVC words and some other one syllable words.
• They can recognise and read between 20-30 high frequency words that have been taught.
• They can read simple sentences made up of decodable words and some of the high frequency words that have been taught. Sometimes they require teacher support.
• They can show their comprehension of a simple sentence by matching it to a corresponding
picture.
• Children understand that print carries meaning and with support from the teacher can apply
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
their phonic knowledge and skills, use contextual cues and some word recognition and
graphic knowledge to read words and sentences in books and texts around the classroom.
• They are familiar with the terms, fiction and non-fiction.
• They can join in when the teacher is telling a story and will respond to questions relating
to it.
• They can sequence a story with picture cards and can generally match a simple sentence to
each. They may ask for support at times.
• Children’s writing is generally legible and they tend to use the correct sequence of formation,
however they may require support to form specific letters correctly.
• They apply their phonic knowledge and skills to participate in creating labels, captions and
simple sentences in shared writing.
• They can recognise simple forms of punctuation: capital letter, full stop, question mark and
can demonstrate where to use them in shared writing.
• They can mostly write decodable CVC words accurately. They are beginning to write a few
non-decodable high frequency words correctly.
• They are aware of letter sounds and letter names.
Band 3
• Children can confidently say the sound associated with all letters and combination of letters
taught and can blend these phonemes to read one and two syllable words.
• They can recognise and read most of the high frequency words taught both in and out of
context.
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• They can read simple sentences made up of decodable words and high frequency words that
have been taught.
• They can show their comprehension of a sentence by matching to a corresponding picture
or creating an appropriate illustration.
• Children can apply their phonic knowledge and skills and use contextual cues, word recognition and graphic knowledge to attempt to read simple stories, information books, and text
around the classroom.
• They can distinguish between fiction and non-fiction books and recognise some of the key
features in an information book.
• Children join in when the teacher is telling a story, respond to questions about the text and
sometimes spontaneously make attempts to retell the story afterwards.
• They can sequence a story using illustrations and short sentences.
• They apply their phonic knowledge and skills to participate in creating simple sentences,
captions and labels for the classroom.
• They can form the letters legibly, mostly using the correct sequence of formation.
• They can recognise simple forms of punctuation: capital letter, full stop, question mark and
are beginning to use them in guided and independent writing.
• They can write decodable CVC words accurately and can also write some non-decodable
high frequency words correctly.
• They can demonstrate an awareness of alphabetical order through participating in songs and
completing alphabet puzzles.
The integrated curriculum for the infant stage
4. Mathematical concepts and skills
4.1. Mathematical skills development in the infant years
The development of mathematical skills in the infant classroom is generally regarded as part of the
global development of the whole child. As such, concepts will be introduced, practised and revisited throughout the year and then re-cycled and built on through the whole 3 year cycle. The
concepts and targets described below should therefore be included in your plans for each topic web
and taught through on-going TPR activities, songs, rhymes, stories, matching and sequencing games
and other language and literacy work.
The overall aim in the three years of infants is to develop the children’s knowledge and understanding of mathematics and to help children see their relevance to everyday life in English as well
as Spanish.
Number skills
• Counting and recognising numbers in familiar contexts such as number rhymes, songs, stories, counting games and activities.
• Adding and subtracting.
• Sorting, sequencing and matching.
• Making simple number predictions.
• Using reading skills when working with mathematical concepts.
•
4.2. Mathematical Concepts and Skills Targets: Number
Infant 1: 3-4 years
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
• Participate collectively in counting up to 25 in familiar contexts: identify the number of children in
class
• Say the numbers 1-10 in familiar contexts relating to every day classroom activities and topics
• Sing songs, chants and rhymes with numbers up to 10
• Count reliably up to 10 everyday objects
• Recognise numbers 1-5
• Match numbers to a quantity of objects up to 5
• Sequence numbers 1-5
• Sort familiar objects and pictures into sets of specific numbers up to 5
• Understand and respond to: How many…? questions
• Add and subtract in simple songs like ‘5 little ducks’
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
Infant 2: 4-5 years
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
• Participate collectively in counting up to 31 in familiar contexts: the number of days in a month
• Say and use the numbers up to 25 in familiar contexts: identify the number of children in the
class
• Sing songs, chants and rhymes with numbers up to 10
• Count reliably up to 25 objects and begin to count in other contexts such as clapping sounds or
jumps
• Recognise numbers 1-20
• Match numbers to a quantity of objects up to 10
• Sequence numbers 1-10
• Match number names to the corresponding numeral up to 10
• Make simple estimates and predictions: how many cubes will fit in the box, how many strides
will it take to cross the room
• Add and subtract in the context of simple songs and games
• Begin to relate subtraction to taking away and counting how many are left.
Infant 3: 5- 6 years
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
58
• Say and use the numbers up to 31 in familiar contexts: the number of children in the class, the
number of days in the month
• Begin to show an awareness of numbers beyond 31
• Match numbers and quantity of objects up to 20
• Sequence numbers 1-20
• Match number names to the corresponding numeral up to 20
• Understand and begin to use the vocabulary involved in adding and subtracting : more, less,
and, add, how many, take away, leave, how many are left, lots of, nothing none, greater, smaller,
to compare two numbers
• Find up to two more or two less than a number between 1-10
• Begin to relate addition to combining two and extend to three groups of objects
The integrated curriculum for the infant stage
4.3. Mathematical Concepts and Skills Targets: Measurement, shape, time, position and movement
Infant 1: 3-4 years
Shape
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
• Identify and name the shapes: circle, square and triangle
• Sort shapes into sets
Measurement
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
• Show an understanding of the concepts of : big, small/little within the context of topics
Position and Movement
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
• Understand concepts: in/out, up/down and open/close
• Begin to show an awareness of behind/between/in front of, in everyday classroom situations
• Sequence 3 items by colour, shape or size to form a pattern
Time
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
• Show an awareness of: day/night, morning, daily school routines
Infant 1: 4- 5 years
Shape
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
• Identify and name the shapes: circle, square, rectangle and triangle
• Identify 3 dimensional shapes: cube and sphere
• Select and sort shapes into sets
Measurement
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
• Show an understanding of the concepts of : big/large, small/little, medium/middle-sized, long/
short in familiar contexts
Position and Movement
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
• Understand concepts: on/under, at the top/at the bottom, behind/in front of, between, in the middle
• Sequence 4 items by colour, shape or size to form a pattern
Time
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
• Show an awareness of:
• Morning, afternoon and night
• Daily routines and sequence of familiar events
• The sequence of the days of the week
• The four seasons
• The month in which their birthday falls
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
Infant 1: 5-6 years
Shape
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
• Identify and name the shapes: circle, square, rectangle, triangle and diamond
• Identify and name 3 dimensional shapes: cube, sphere, cylinder, pyramid
• Select and sort shapes into sets
• Use 2 dimensional shapes to make pictures and patterns
• Use 3 dimensional shapes to create models
Measurement
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
• Understand the concepts of measurement from previous years
• Understand the concepts: enormous/tiny and tall/ short in familiar contexts
• Understand and begin to use comparative language: bigger/ smaller, longer/shorter, taller/
shorter
Position and Movement
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
• Understand concepts: opposite, right/left, beside, behind, between and next to
• Sequence 5 items by colour, shape or size to form a pattern
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Time
Pupils demonstrate that they can
• Distinguish between school days and weekends
• Understand: before and after
• Show an awareness of the months of the year
• Show an awareness of ordinal numbers in familiar contexts: instructions for lining up, identifying
the date
• Begin to show an awareness of ordinal signs in the context of the date: 1st 2nd 3rd 10th
• Begin to read o’clock time
The integrated curriculum for the infant stage
4.4. Mathematical Concepts and Skills: Bands of Attainment
The bands of attainment described are for the end of the three year infant cycle. There are three
bands, with band 1 as the lowest. Each child completing the end of their Infant Education should fit
broadly into one of the three bands. Approximate estimations would be:
• Band 1: 10% of children
• Band 2: 70% of children
• Band 3: 20% of children
Band 1
• Children can match numbers and familiar objects up to 10 and are able to recognise the
concept of counting on and counting down in familiar contexts such as songs and rhymes.
• They can sort familiar objects and pictures into sets of specific numbers up to 5.
• They can participate collectively in counting up to 25 in familiar contexts such as identifying
the number of children in class.
• With teacher guidance children are able to recognise and recreate basic patterns and sort
these into sets and sizes.
• Children can identify and name the shapes: circle and square.
• They can understand some simple positional language.
Band 2
• Children can count reliably up to 15 everyday objects, recognise numbers 1-15 in word and
number form and are able to match these symbols with objects.
• They can find one more or less than a number from 1-10; begin to relate the concept of
addition to combining two groups of objects and subtraction to taking away one or more
objects.
• They can use developing mathematical ideas and skills to solve simple everyday problems
such as how many children are absent, how many boys/girls are wearing blue etc.
• They can participate collectively in counting up to 31 in familiar contexts.
• Children show an understanding of size concepts and can use the vocabulary appropriately.
• They can identify and name the shapes: circle, square and triangle.
• They can identify 3 dimensional shapes: cube and sphere.
Band 3
• Children can count reliably at least 25 objects and can count on and back in ones from any
small number.
• They can read, write and sequence numbers from 0-20.
• With teacher guidance children are beginning to use the vocabulary involved in adding and
subtracting.
• They can find two more or two less than a number between 1-10.
• They can say and use numbers up to 31 in familiar contexts.
• They can apply mathematical ideas and skills to solve simple, practical problems.
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
• Children can compare one object to another according to size and length and begin to use
comparative language: bigger/smaller, longer/shorter.
• They can identify, name and work with the 2 and 3 dimensional shapes: circle, square, triangle and diamond/cylinder, cube, cuboids and pyramid.
• They can use everyday words to describe position.
• They can identify and use simple terms relating to time and begin to show an awareness of
ordinal signs in the context of the date.
5. Knowledge and Understanding of the World
5.1. Concepts and Targets
While the targets for each year stage are outlined abstractly, these concepts and ideas should be developed through engaging activities in meaningful contexts including daily routines and topics. Here
are two examples that demonstrate this:
Target
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Context
Activity
Recognise cold colours
Winter
Select paints and materials
from a range of colours to
create a snowy winter scene.
Begin to identify simple properties
of basic materials through exploration, experimentation and use of
these: hard, soft, rough, smooth,
flexible
Our Homes: Different building
materials
Story: The Three Little Pigs
Create a large child friendly
properties table of the materials the pigs selected by experimenting with straw, wood
and bricks.
Use the table to predict which
house they think will be the
strongest.
Continue to read the story and
reflect on their investigations
and predictions.
We should also keep in mind that the children are acquiring the language as a result of hearing
the natural use of the English language in the school environment. Their understanding in English,
therefore, will frequently go beyond what is detailed below.
The integrated curriculum for the infant stage
5.2. Knowledge and Understanding of the World targets
Infant 1: 3-4 years
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Observe and explore colours in the environment
• Identify primary colours: red, blue and yellow
• Identify secondary colour: green
• Recognise black
• Recognise colours associated with autumn and winter
• Create a sequence using 2 colours
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Explore materials in the environment
• Use, explore and experiment freely with a range of basic materials: crayons, paints, water, sand,
plasticine, paper, card, glue
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Explore the properties of sound, pitch and movement
• Distinguish between loud and quiet
• Freely use a range of percussion instruments to create a variety of sounds
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Develop an awareness of ourselves
• Identify some body parts
• Differentiate between boy and girl
• Recognise the importance of personal hygiene in the school environment: washing our hands
after going to the toilet and before meals
• Begin to recognise the importance of clothes for protection: warm clothes in winter, sunhats and
sunglasses in summer
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Develop an awareness of ourselves and others in the environment
• Show an awareness of the family and the people that make up their own family
• Show an awareness of the classroom and the roles of people there
• Begin to show an awareness of some occupations, places and services in the local environment
• Identify principal modes of transport
• Begin to show an awareness of similarities and differences between people from different
cultures
• Participate in and show an awareness of a few customs and ways of celebrating
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Observe and explore living things in the environment
• Identify some domestic animals in the home and on the farm: dog, cat, pig, cow, sheep, horse, hen
• Understand some basic characteristics of some domestic animals: sounds they make, size, number of legs, products from animals
• Understand the basic needs of plants: caring for plants in the classroom environment
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Develop an awareness of how to care for the environment
• Take part in simple recycling activities in the classroom: putting paper in the classroom paper
container, using scrap paper for drawing pictures
• Show an awareness of different ways of saving energy and water in the school environment: turning off the lights, not flushing the toilet unnecessarily
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Observe and identify natural processes
• Identify some types of weather: when completing the weather chart on a daily basis
• Identify some basic features of the four seasons: weather
• Distinguish between day and night
Pupils will demonstrate that they can:
Identify and use information and communication technology (ICT)
• Identify some forms of technology in the classroom and school environment: telephone, television, computer
• Participate in role play using toy forms of technology, e.g. telephone conversation in home corner,
using cash register in shop
Infant 2: 4-5 years
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Observe and explore colours in the environment
• Identify and name primary colours: red, blue and yellow
• Identify and name a range of secondary colours
• Distinguish between dark and light
• Identify and name black and white
• Recognise cold colours
• Create a sequence using 3 colours
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Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Explore materials in the environment
• Use, explore and experiment freely with a wider range of materials: crayons, paints, pencils, water,
sand, plasticine, paper, card, glue, wool, straw, cloth
• Begin to identify simple properties of basic materials through exploration, experimentation and
use of these: hard, soft, rough, smooth, flexible
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Explore the properties of sound, pitch and movement
• Distinguish between loud and soft
• Discriminate between slow and fast
• Use a range of percussion instruments to accompany songs
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Develop an awareness of ourselves
• Identify main body parts in the context of action games and songs, classroom routines
• Recognise the importance of personal hygiene on a daily basis: brushing our teeth, having a
shower, washing our hair, combing our hair
• Identify suitable clothing and classify for use in different weather and seasons
• Recognise the importance of protection from the natural elements: warm clothes in winter, sunhats and sunglasses in summer, wearing protective sun lotion
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Develop an awareness of ourselves and others in the environment
• Show an awareness of home and school environments: the purpose of different rooms and areas,
the roles of the people
• Recognise some occupations, places and services in the local environment
• Recognise similarities and differences between different kinds of transport
• Understand the significance of some traffic signs in the local environment
The integrated curriculum for the infant stage
• Show an awareness of similarities and differences between people from different cultures
• Participate in and be aware of a variety of different customs and ways of celebrating
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Observe and explore living things in the environment
• Identify some domestic and wild animals in different habitats: home, farm, jungle, garden
• Show an awareness of the basic needs of domestic and wild animals: to eat, drink, sleep and look
for protection
• Understand some basic characteristics of domestic and wild animals: basic body parts and their
function, how they move
• Understand simple animal and plant lifecycles: through observation, dramatisation, sequencing
activities
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Develop an awareness of how to care for the environment
Take part in recycling and reusing activities in the classroom and at home: sorting waste correctly
and placing in the right containers, making crafts with used materials
• Show an awareness of different ways of saving energy and water in the school and in the home:
turning off the television and the computer when not in use, not running water unnecessarily
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Observe and identify natural processes
• Identify a wider range of weather types: when completing the weather chart on a daily basis
• Name and sequence the four seasons and identify weather patterns associated with each one
• Distinguish between day and night and identify corresponding features: stars, moon, sun
• Understand that the Sun and the planets make up a system in the Space and identify the Earth as
our planet
Pupils will demonstrate that they can:
Identify and use information and communication technology (ICT)
• Identify a wider range of forms of technology at home and at school: telephone, television, computer, digital camera, video games
• Begin to understand the importance of a moderate use of videogames and television
Infant 3: 5-6 years
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Observe and explore colours in the environment
• Identify and name a wide range of primary and secondary colours
• Identify and name black and white
• Recognise cold and warm colours
• Create a sequence using 4 colours
• Read and match colour names
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Explore materials in the environment
• Use and explore materials in different ways discover some of their properties: by pulling, bending,
squashing, tasting, touching
• Understand concepts: hot/cold, hard/soft, harder/softer, rough/smooth, sweet/savoury, push/pull,
the same/different
• Classify materials by their properties and characteristics:
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Explore the properties of sound, pitch and movement
• Distinguish between louder and softer
• Discriminate between high and low notes
• Use a range of percussion instruments to represent sounds in the environment
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Develop an awareness of ourselves
• Identify how we use our five senses
• Recognise the importance of healthy eating and dental hygiene
• Recognise the importance of personal hygiene on a daily basis: brushing our teeth, having a
shower, washing our hair, combing our hair
• Know how to use and care for items used to keep our bodies clean and healthy
66
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Develop an awareness of ourselves and others in the environment
• Show a broader awareness of home and school environments: the purpose of different rooms
and areas, when these areas are used in daily routines, the roles of the people
• Identify and participate in positive behaviour at home and school: sharing materials, respecting
others, caring for others
• Identify the roles of people who work in the local environment, begin to recognise the importance
of their role and respect them: school kitchen staff, police officers, rubbish collectors etc.
• Recognise purposes and appropriateness for using specific transport
• Show an awareness of road safety rules
• Show a broader awareness of similarities and differences between people from different cultures:
celebrations, food, music, types of houses
• Participate in and be aware of a variety of different customs and ways of celebrating
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Observe and explore living things in the environment
• Identify and classify animals into wild and domestic groups
• Show a greater awareness of the characteristics, habits and habitats of some wild and domestic
animals
• Understand and sequence stages of growth or change in simple animal and plant lifecycles: caterpillar to butterfly, tadpole to frog, yearly cycle of a tree
• Understand that seeds grow into plants when they are planted in soil and receive water and sunlight: through structured experiments, sequencing stages of growth in pictorial form, simple cause
and effect matching task
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Develop an awareness of how to care for the environment
• Begin to understand the concept of global warming and its impact on some animals and plants:
penguins and polar bears, rainforests
• Take part in recycling and reusing activities at school and at home.
• Show an awareness of different ways to save energy and reduce pollution in the wider environment: solar energy, non-polluting cars
Pupils demonstrate that they can:
Observe and identify natural processes
• Identify a wide range of weather types
• Differentiate between different temperatures
• Name and sequence the four seasons, identify weather patterns associated with each one and
begin to recognise how seasonal changes affect living things
• Distinguish between day and night and identify corresponding features: stars, moon, sun
The integrated curriculum for the infant stage
• Understand that the Sun is a star in the centre of our solar system and that planets spin around
the Sun
• Show an awareness of spaceships and basic astronaut equipment
• Observe different features of the planets: size, colour
Pupils will demonstrate that they can:
Identify and use information and communication technology (ICT)
• Identify forms of technology in the wider environment: bar code scanners in supermarkets, traffic
lights, television aerials etc.
• Recognise the different functions and purposes of communication technological items
• Use basic computer skills with software that supports learning: use of mouse to click and drag,
recognition of letters on the keyboard to type their names
5.3. Knowledge and Understanding of the world: Bands of Attainment
The bands of attainment described are for the end of the three year infant cycle. There are three
bands, with band 1 as the lowest. Each child completing the end of their Infant Education should fit
broadly into one of the three bands. Approximate estimations would be:
• Band 1: 10% of children
• Band 2: 70% of children
• Band 3: 20% of children
Band 1
• Children can recognise primary colours and some secondary colours.
• They can identify and with support, sort some materials according to property
• They can identify basic body parts and demonstrate through actions an understanding of
daily routines linked to personal hygiene.
• They are able to classify some foods into groups and with support, name some foods that
are healthy.
• They can identify family members, some occupations, places and transport in the immediate
environment.
• They are able to describe the weather using single words and can select appropriate clothing
linked to the weather or season. They can distinguish between day and night.
• They can identify and name some animals and describe basic characteristics. Children also
demonstrate a basic knowledge of the needs of a seed to grow.
• They can identify basic forms of technology.
Band 2
• Children can recognise a wide range of primary and secondary colours and can match with
names.
• They demonstrate an understanding of concepts such as hot/cold, hard/soft and are able to
identify and classify some materials according to property.
• Children can identify a range of body parts and demonstrate a developing awareness of the
role of the senses. They show a sound awareness of routines linked to personal hygiene and
can name and classify a number of foods that form part of a healthy diet.
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
• They can name a wide range of family members and identify the roles of a variety of people who work in the local environment. They can also name and classify different means of
transport.
• They can name a wide range of animals and classify them according to basic characteristics
and habitats. Children demonstrate an understanding of the stages of growth in a plant and
can identify what it needs to be healthy. They show an awareness of the life cycle of a butterfly. They are also beginning to show an awareness of caring for the environment through
sorting waste products for recycling.
• Children can describe the weather using short sentences and show a developing awareness
of the differences between the seasons. They can identify and name the earth, sun and moon
and understand the planets move around the sun.
• Children participate with enjoyment and interest during computer sessions and can name
and identify the mouse and keyboard.
Band 3
• Children can classify dark/light and cold/warm colours and can match with colour name.
• They demonstrate an understanding of a range of concepts such as hot/cold, hard/soft,
rough/smooth and are able to describe and classify a wide range of materials according to
property.
• Children can name and describe a wide range of body parts and demonstrate a good awareness of the role of the senses. They are able to describe and sequence routines linked to
personal hygiene and they can name and sort a wide range of foods that form part of a
healthy diet.
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• Children can describe different roles of people in the local environment and the family. They
are able to describe, compare and classify different means of transport.
• They can describe, compare and classify a wide range of animals according to their characteristics and habitats. Children can describe the life cycle of simple animals and plants,
name the main parts of a plant and describe what they need to be healthy. They show an
awareness of caring for the environment through sorting waste products for recycling and
conserving water and energy within the classroom setting.
• Children can describe the weather and different features associated to each season using
short sentences. They can name some of the planets that move around the sun.
• Children participate with enjoyment and interest during computer sessions and can name
and identify the mouse and keyboard. They control the mouse confidently and can operate
familiar programmes with increasing independence.
6. Drawing the strands together in a topic web
There are seven topic webs in this section. Three develop one theme: Spring, over the three year
cycle to demonstrate how a topic can be approached from different perspectives as well as how the
targets worked on at the different levels within a meaningful context. The others show examples of
how topic themes can be interlinked and corresponding concepts, knowledge and skills developed.
As well as the development of language and literacy, mathematical concepts and skills and
knowledge and understanding of the world, art, music, movement and drama have also been incorporated into the topic webs. These are essential elements in early year’s education for the development of the whole child.
Activity
Curricular Target
Curricular Area
Topic
Classify main features of
two seasons using simple
illustrations: spring/winter
Keep a daily weather chart
A daily
monitor
looks after
plants in
class
Complete
class day +
weather
chart on a
daily basis
In structured
group activities
children create
items for frieze
then help display
work and
captions with the
teacher
KEY
KN+UND OF THE
WORLD
SPRING
LITERACY
2. Begin to understand
simple instructions and
give physical or simple
verbal responses in
English or in Spanish.
1. Look at books with
teacher and respond
appropriately.
Sequence and retell
the story using
pictures
2. Understand some basic characteristics of domestic
animals (rabbits, ducks, sheep, horses): sounds they
make, size, number of legs
Use a range of materials +
techniques in structured
art activities to create
animals for frieze
Print green hands to use
as leaves in display
3. Identify + name primary colours and secondary
colour: green
Recall
everyday
sounds they
hear in the
environment
Imitate duck
sound during
dramatisation
of the story
2. Show an understanding
of big/small
1. Sequence 2 items by size
to form a pattern
3. Match numbers
to a quantity of
objects up to 5
2. Count reliably up
to 5 objects
1. Show an
understanding of
concepts: in/out,
big/small
Show an awareness of
test in the classroom
environment
2. Look at and “read”
illustrated “Five Little
Ducks” rhyme in
classroom display
1. Label together the
spring frieze
Discover how green can
be created by mixing blue
and yellow in structured
investigation
Participate in and show
awareness of a few
customs and ways of
celebrating: EASTER:
Easter Bunny, Easter Eggs
MATHEMATICAL
CONCEPTS+SKILLS
1. Use, explore and experiment freely with a range of
basic materials: crayons, paints, sand, water, plasticine,
paper, card, glue
SOCIAL SKILLS
Show an
interest in
stories
2. Begin to join in with
dramatization of simple
stories
1. Participate physically
when singing action songs
Create class frieze
displaying the environment in spring and
animals and their babies
Identify some basic
features of spring
Be interested in
looking after plants
and animals.
Participate in
classroom routines
in a quiet, controlled
manner
Being interested in
contributing towards
a frieze
Listen to
“Five Little
Ducks” by
Jose
Aruego
Sing the song “Five Little
Ducks” and act out the story
Play: “Find the Easter Egg”
Decorate Easter Eggs with
paint, crayons, varnish and
glue
Create Easter Bunny Mask
Participate in Chant: “3 little
rabbits on an Easter Day”
Watch teacher dramatise
what the Easter Bunny does
Children hold
pictures of big +
small eggs/duck and
ducklings. They
stand in a line to
create pattern, e.g.
big/small/big/small
Group Game:
3. Play hide + seek
with up to 5 ducks
and put them back
in the pond. Count
and label the
number of ducks
each time one is
found
2. Vary the above
activity with big and
small eggs
1. Place a specific
number of eggs in +
out of a nest/basket.
Count the eggs and
label with corresponding numeral
Age: 3-4 yrs.
Infant 1
The integrated curriculum for the infant stage
6.1. Topic webs
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KN+UND OF THE
WORLD
SPRING
3. Compare Spring weather to weather in
another season. Classify captioned pictorial
weather cards into 2 sets.
6. Children record observations
pictorially/photographic images.
5. Plant seeds and observe them grow over a longer
period of time
4. Read “From Seed to Sunflower” together.
3. Sequence photos to create a lifecycle chart.
2. Respond to questions, “What season
comes after …?” and sequence illustrated
seasons card accordingly
1. Observe the lifecycles of silk Worms.
Age: 4-5 yrs.
Infant 2
Match numerals
to amount of
fruit/food eaten by
caterpillar each
day.
3. Create a
display of what
the caterpillar ate
every day.
2. Sing the days
of the week song.
1. Chant the days
of the week at
assembly time.
Create spheres from
plasticine/play dough to
make a big/small
caterpillar.
Sort spheres and cubes
into 2 sets.
Follow instructions &
use sense of touch to
find cube/sphere in the
“Feely Box”.
Follow simple oral/written
instructions to complete a task
on activity card, e.g. Draw a red
butterfly.
Play word/picture matching
games for the spring topic.
Match numbers to a
quantity of objects
up to 10.
Show an
awareness of
the sequence
of the days of
the week.
3. Show an
understanding of
the concepts:
big/small in
familiar contexts.
Sign “The Hungry Caterpillar
Song” and accompany with
percussion instruments.
Use a range of
percussion
instruments to
accompany
songs.
MATHEMATICAL
CONCEPTS+SKILLS
2. Select & sort
shapes into sets.
1 Identify 3D
shapes: cube &
sphere
Understand instructions,
key vocabulary from
topics and routine
language.
Read together captions on topic display
and respond to simple questions.
Have access to story book to “read” freely
in the book corner.
Read & order illustrated captions about
what the caterpillar ate every day.
1. Attempt to “read” text in
the classroom context
using phonological skills
and contextual cues.
Understand simple animal and plant life cycles.
SOCIAL SKILLS
LITERACY
1. Participate in acting out
stories and natural processes.
2. Teacher takes photos and displays until whole
cycle is created.
Name & sequence the 4
seasons & identify
weather patterns with
each one.
3. Help in class &
at home
2. Be interested
in looking after
plants & animals
1. Appreciate
plants & animals
2. Have an awareness of
the importance of a
balanced diet.
1. Enjoy eating fruit.
1. Enjoy listening to stories
and start to join in with
retelling them collectively
with teacher support.
Act out the lifecycle of the
caterpillar in response to chant
created and recited by teacher.
Participate in whole group acting
out the story, from the role of the
caterpillar.
1. Complete: Day, Weather, Season chart on
a daily basis
3. Feed and care for
silk worms.
2. Look at pictures of
fruit and display with
captions to understand that fruit comes
from plants.
1. Water seeds &
plants
3. Use food & toy food to
make up menus &
decide if they are
healthy/unhealthy
2. Watch the story of
“The Very Hungry
Caterpillar on DVD &
stop periodically to
identify if he was eating
a healthy/unhealthy diet.
1. Taste fruit & express
preference, e.g. I
like/don’t like it
Activity
Curricular Target
Curricular Area
Topic
Listen to the story of “The Very Hungry
Caterpillar” by Eric Carle and participate in
the telling & retelling with actions and use
of repetitive chunks of language
70
KEY
Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
2. Be interested in looping
after plants & animals.
1. Appreciate plants &
animals
Understand daily routines
related to hygiene.
4. Draw conclusions using observations & records to
answer question: “Do plants need sunlight to grow?”
3. Water plants in different conditions-observe, talk
about what’s happening & pictorially/photographically
record observations.
2. Predict what will happen & record using question:
Do plants need sunlight to grow?
1. Plant seeds in soil & place in sunlight/darkness.
1. Understand that seeds grow into plants when they are
planted in soil & receive water and sunlight: through
structured experiments, sequencing stages of growth in
pictorial from, simple cause & effect matching task.
Class monitors look
after silk worms and
water plants.
Wash hands after
touching/caring for
silk worms.
3. Enjoy dramatising well known stories using different
voices & actions with puppets masks or other visual aids.
MATHEMATICAL
CONCEPTS+SKILLS
3. Use authentic non-fiction big book to incorporate
features in shared writing identified in literacy: “Understand the distinction between story & non-fiction.
2. ICT: take photos of the different stages of growth &
make a class information book.
3. Touch raw, hardboiled & poached eggs (all without
shell) & describe how they feel.
2. Squash each egg & observe what happens.
1. Touch hard boiled/raw eggs & describe how shell feels.
2. Understand concepts: hard/soft,
harder/softer, rough, smooth.
1. Understand &
begin to use
vocabulary used in
adding & subtracting: more, less,
add, how many,
take away, how
many are left?
2. Use 2 dimensional
shapes to make
pictures and patterns.
1. Identify and name
2 dimensional
shapes: circle, squire,
rectangle, triangle
and diamond.
2. Understand & begin to use
comparative language:
bigger/smaller, taller/shorter
1. Understand the Concepts:
enormous/tiny & tall/short in
familiar contexts.
2. Beguin to recognise important
features of non-fiction books:
contents page, index and photos.
1. Understand the distinction between
story & non-fiction books
Age: 5-6 yrs.
Infant 3
2. Use pictures of
beanstalks,
flowers & real
seeds to carry out
adding and
subtracting.
1. Sing: “Ten
Yellow Flowers”
adapted from
“Ten Green
Bottles”
1. Follow simple
instructions to
make
plants/flowers
using stickers with
different shapes.
2. Observe,
measure and
compare plant
sizes.
1. Describe
beanstalk in story
& plants they are
growing: it’s
enormous/it’s tiny.
2. Use big book on lifecycle of a plant in shared
reading/knowledge and understanding of the world activities.
1. Compare “Jack and the Beanstalk” with a big book on the
lifecycle of a plant in shared redding.
1. Use & explore materials in different ways
to discover some of their properties:
touching, squashing and tasting.
KN+UND OF THE
WORLD
SPRING
1. Observe the lifecycle of silkworms in the classroom.
Understand and
sequence stages of
growth in simple animal
& plant lifecycles.
SOCIAL SKILLS
LITERACY
3. Show comprehension of simple sentences made up of decodable words and familiar, high frequency words.
1. Attempt to read text in the classroom context, using phonological knowledge & skills & contextual cues: story & information
books, story sequence cards
5. Match simple sentences to plant growth photos.
4. Label plant parts on a wall display
3. Play snap game with parts of a plant
2. Remember chunks of dialogue or short phrases from
simple fiction & non-fiction texts.
3. Participate in role
play to dramatise
parts of the story
2. Participate in telling
the story.
2. Cover up key words in story and find appropriate words to stick on.
1. Sequence “Jack & the Beanstalk” story cards (picture + simple sentence)
2. Recognise a wide range of words: topic related key vocabulary.
Activity
Curricular Target
Curricular Area
Topic
1. Listen to story “Jack
and the Beanstalk”
1. Show pleasure in listening, and listen to more complex
language.
KEY
The integrated curriculum for the infant stage
71
2. Plant seeds & care for
them.
1. Act out caring for plants in
the story: The Little Red Hen.
1. Understand the basic
needs of plants.
2. Put into practice
road safety procedures on class visit.
1. Act out simple road
safety dramas in class
to learn to: stop, look
& listen before
crossing the road;
walk on the pavement.
1. Participate
in baking
bread, tidying
up and tasting
afterwards.
Activity
Curricular Target
Curricular Area
Topic
SOCIAL SKILLS
3. Sort animals by number of legs: use toy animals.
2. Listening Game: Animal sounds/identify animals.
1. Play memory game: farm animals
2. Understand some basic characteristics
of some domestic animals: sounds they
make, number of legs.
1. Identify some domestic animals in the
home & on the farm.
Have an
awareness of
road safety.
2. Show a willingness to
tidy up & pleasure in
helping.
1. Understand and
respect rule: Wash your
hands before
baking/ealing.
1. Look at books with teacher and respond
appropriately, e.g. through simple actions
that support understanding.
1. Participate in telling the story: The Little Red
Hen by acting out; e.g. the actions of planting,
watering the seeds/kneading the dough etc.
NUMERACY
2. Watch/participate in bread
making.
1. Visit a bakers shop & supermarket
1. Begin to show an awareness of some occupations,
places & services in the local
community.
KN+UND OF THE
WORLD
THE LITTLE
RED HEN
LITERACY
1. Show an awareness of text in
the classroom environment.
2. Join in “shared reading” of display with captions.
1. Participate as teacher creates short captions for
photos of visit to the baker shop/supermarket.
72
KEY
1. Use cash register in
baker
shop/supermarket in
class.
1. Participate in role
play using toy forms
of technology.
ICT
1. Identify principal
modes of transport
4. Match numbers to a
quantity of objects up to 5.
3. Understand & respond
to: How many? questions.
2. Sort familiar objects &
pictures into sets of
specific numbers up to 5.
1. Recognise numbers 1-5
Age: 3-4 yrs
Infant 1
So we can shop today.
The lorry’s taking bread to
the supermarket
3. Make up song to support
above story e.g. tune of
“We’re all going to the zoo
tomorrow”; The lorry’s taking
bread to the supermarket,
supermarket, supermarket
2. Role play story of farm
products going from source
to product using toy figures &
vehicles.
1. Play snap game of modes
of transport: tractor, lorry, car
3. Match numeral
to group of
animals after
counting.
2. Count animals
in areas of the
farm, responding
to questions:
How many…?
1. Put set number
of specified
animal into
field/pond/barn
on the toy farm.
1. Identify different sounds and place
them in context & select the context
from 2 illustrations
Listening game: children hold 2 picture cards,
e.g. dog barking/duck quacking. Listen to the
sound. Hold up corresponding card.
Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
Activity
Curricular Target
Curricular Area
Topic
2. Express
feelings.
DWALI
1. Listen to the story of Rama & the Demon
King by Jessica Souhami.
2. Make masks or puppets & re-enact the story.
3. Decorate the classroom with rangoli
patterns.
4. Dance to traditional Indian music.
2. Participate in & be aware of a variety of
different customs & ways of celebrating.
1. Predict & observe what happens
when red then yellow is added to a
glass of water.
2. Identify ‘autumn colours’ from
observation in the local environment.
3. Finger print to create autumn trees.
4. Sequence orange, yellow and
brown leaves.
3. Create a sequence using 3
colours.
2. Identify & name a range of
secondary colours
1. Identify & name primary colours
SOCIAL SKILLS
1. Use leaves & wax
crayons to create leaf
rubbings.
2. Use paint & leaves
to create leaf print.
3. Investigate what
happens when a leaf
is pressed into clay.
Fire in kiln & display
1. Use, explore &
experiment freely
with a wider range
of materials
KN+UND OF THE
WORLD
AUTUMN
FOREST
LITERACY
4. Remember or repeat short dialogues from well known stories.
1. Play different
roles and
express
emotions using
dramatisation
1. Show an awareness of similarities &
differences between people from different
cultures.
Participate with pleasure at parties &
celebrations
1. Dramatise parts of
“Goldilocks & the Three
Bears”
2. Talk about the emotions
of Goldilocks & the bears.
3. Look at pictures of
people who are
sad/angry/ happy/scared
& identify how they are
feeling.
4. Identify what makes us
happy/sad/scared/angry.
2. Remember or repeat short
dialogues from well known stories.
3. Join in with reading & retelling of simple stories.
2. Attempt to ‘read’ text in the classroom context using phonological knowledge & skills & contextual cues.
Use 2D shapes to create
- the bears’ house
- Goldilocks
- the 3 bears
1. Collect items for the
class autumn table.
2. Put into sets & count
(e.g. all the chestnuts)
and label with the
numeral then the
number name.
Age: 4-5 yrs.
Infant 2
Identify and name the shapes:
circle, squire, rectangle, triangle.
2. Recognise
numbers up to 20.
1. Match number
names to the
corresponding
numeral up to 10.
3. Show an understanding
of the concepts:
big/small/middle sized/tiny.
2. Match number names to
the corresponding numeral
up to 10.
1. Sing songs, chants &
rimes with numbers up to 10
1. Observe in video clips: hedgehogs & squirrels in Autumn.
2. Listening comprehension game: listen to simple statement
(e.g. squirrels climb trees) & indicate if it’s correct by holding
up YES/NO card.
2. Understand some
basic characteristics
of domestic & wild
animals: basic body
parts & their function,
how they move.
1. Show an awareness of the basic
needs of domestic &
wild animals: eat,
drink, sleep, look for
protection.
MATHEMATICAL
CONCEPTS+SKILLS
Participate actively
in singing sessions
& begin to
pronounce more of
the lyrics correctly.
3. Write high frequency words (see reading & wiring targets)
2. Recognise & read high frequency words both in & out of
context (see reading & writing targets)
1. Sing the song “When
Goldilocks went to the
house of the bears”.
2. Select or hold up
props/ images to show
size of
bowls/chairs/beds/bears
when singing.
3. Label items with
number names after they
sing, “and she counted
them one, two, three.”
1. Go on an autumn country walk.
2. Identify key features of autumn.
3. Take photos.
4. Create class book with photos & simple sentences in shared writing.
5. Read book together in shared reading.
6. Read individually or with peers in book corner.
1. Use developing skills & knowledge in phonics to
participate in shared writing.
1. Unstructured Play Activities
a) Read “Goldilocks & the Three Bears” book in the book corner
b) Act out story with story containing puppets & props for the story.
2. Structured group task
Act out story with teacher in small groups.
1. Show an interest in books & reading
2. Participate in retelling the story using
props & repetitive phrases, e.g. who’s
been…(eating my porridge?)
1. Listen to the story of “Goldilocks & the
Three Bears”.
1. Enjoy listening to stories & start to
join in with retelling them collectively with teacher support.
KEY
The integrated curriculum for the infant stage
73
2. Appreciate clean &
tidy surroundings.
1. Enjoy tidying up &
know where to put
things.
Help in class and home.
Recognise & read a
wide range of
words: topic related
key vocabulary,
months.
2. Play & sing action songs like “The
Family is in the House” Adapted from
“The Farmer’s in his den.”
1. Look at & talk about photos of class
family units & others.
Show a greater awareness &
understanding of the similarities
and differences of family units.
Tidy up after tasting:
wipe tables, etc.
1. Tidy up after
making Christmas
decorations and
cards.
2. Help to cut & pass
Christmas pudding,
turrón, yule log, etc.
to others.
1. Help to set the
tables for Christmas
tasting activity.
Activity
Curricular Target
Curricular Area
Topic
Play matching games
and snap games with
word cards
KN+UND OF THE
WORLD
THE FAMILY AT
CHRISTMAS
3. Bring photo of family member(s) preparing for/celebrating
Christmas. Talk about what they are doing & what area of
the home they are in.
2. Select image(s) and match to words of the song.
1. Act & sing Christmas song: “Gran is decorating…” “The
Family is singing carols…” “Daddy is cooking turkey” “’Cos
Christmas is here”. Tune: We wish you a merry Christmas.
Show a broader awareness of home &
school environments: the purpose of
different rooms, when these areas are
used in daily routines, the roles of people.
SOCIAL SKILLS
LITERACY
Join in with reading & retelling simple
stories in shared reading activities.
Read picture books related to family
life: “So Much”, “Avocado Baby”,
“You’ll soon grow into them, Titch.”
Sequence 5 items
by colour.
3. Participate in traditions from both cultures: making &
sending Christmas cards, singing Christmas carols, creating
a Nativity Scene, playing party games.
2. Look at & make Christmas decorations: paper chains,
Christmas tree decorations.
1. Taste typical Christmas foods from Spain & UK e.g. turrón/
Christmas pudding.
Show a broader awareness of
similarities & differences between
people from different cultures:
celebrations, food, music.
Use 2 dimensional
shapes to make
pictures & patterns
2. Understand &
begin to use
comparative
language:
bigger/smaller,
taller/shorter.
1. Match numbers &
quantity of objects
up to 20.
2. Begin to use simple forms of punctuation in
shared, guided & independent writing.
MATHEMATICAL
CONCEPTS+SKILLS
1. Remember & use
phrases to retell a
simple story.
Write Christmas cards for
family member. Write short
letter to Father Christmas
Age: 5-6 yrs.
Infant 3
Make paper chains
sequencing 5
different colours to
decorate the
classroom for
Christmas.
Make Christmas stars
& placemats using
tessellating triangles
& squares.
2. Order family
members with picture
props in order of
height.
1. Measure the height
of family members
picture props using
non-standard units:
multilink duplo etc.
1. Use developing skills & knowledge in phonics to
participate in shared writing to create simple
sentences and captions
2. Tell & retell story about family playing hide & seek at
Christmas, e.g. Grandma is hiding under the bed.
1. Re-enact the story: So Much! Role play about parents
visiting for Christmas dinner.
74
KEY
Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
Activity
Fill in different
pictures of the
solar system
using different
materials, e.g.
foil, tissue paper,
cloth, bubble
wrap, plasticine.
Be interested in
contributing
towards a frieze.
Sing and dramatize song:
‘The Planets move around
the Sun’ (tune: ‘The Wheels
on the Bus’).
Understand that the Sun is
a star in the centre of our
solar system + that planets
spin around the Sun.
Curricular Target
Curricular Area
Topic
Make a wall
display:
KEY
2. Make a rocket using a
paper bag and a balloon
and make it fly.
SPACE
LITERACY
Infant 2
Learning
Objectives
Infant 3
Learning
Objectives
Cut out pictures showing
positive/negative actions for
the environment and
classify + give them under
Happy Earth image/Sad
Earth image.
*Develop an awareness of how to care
for environment.
MATHEMATICAL
CONCEPTS+SKILLS
Show comprehension of a
simple sentence made up of
decodable words + familiar high
frequency words by matching to
the corresponding picture.
Sentence level:
2. Use two
dimensional
shapes to
make pictures
and patterns.
Begin to relate subtraction
to taking away and counting
how many are left.
Infant 2+3
Learning
Objectives
1. Identify and
name the
shapes: circle,
square,
rectangle,
triangle,
diamond.
Identify the 3
dimensional shape:
sphere
Cut out the sentences and glue them under the right picture.
Make a mini book based on ‘I want to be an Astronaut’.
KN+UND OF THE
WORLD
1. Talk about the illustrations
in ‘I want to be an
Astronaut’.
Show an awareness
of spaceships + basic
astronaut equipment
SOCIAL SKILLS
*Join in with reading
and retelling of
simple stories.
Text level:
3. Sequence story picture cards.
2. Listen to story and stand up with picture
card when it occurs in story.
1. Listen to story: ‘I want to be an Astronaut’.
*See lesson plan.
Topic Web: Overall
context for example
(Infant 2+3) lesson plans
and materials.
Sing and act
out song: 5
Little Aliens
(tune: 5 little
ducks).
Make a
rocket
using two
dimensional
shapes.
Play the “Feely
Bag” Game:
touch + identify
different
objects: e.g.
button, ball,
marble, coin
and say if they
are shaped like
a circle or a
sphere.
The integrated curriculum for the infant stage
75
Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
6.2. Sample lessons
Cycle: Infants
Year: 4 Year Olds
Topic: Space
Learning Objectives
Evidence for Assessment:
WALT
Listen to the story and put the story in order. (Curriculum objective: Join in with reading and retelling of simple stories)
WILF
You to put story cards in the right order as a group.
Children’s group book. Observation chart. Observation during questioning.
Language structures
This goes here because…
This is in right/not right order.
Well done, Very good, Nearly there.
Grouping
Timing
Pupils
Teacher/s
Whole
Class
10 min
Sing sit down song and good morning
song. Children sing starter rhyme.
Children answer ‘good morning’ to name
called. Sing days of the week song. Sing
weather song.
Lead sit down and good morning song
and encourage children to join in. Gain attention of the children with a starter rhyme
(e.g. Humpty Dumpty).
Lead days and weather songs and encourage children to join in. Choose the daily
‘helper’ and ask them to change the day,
date, weather, month cards.
Share WALT using a puppet (e.g. We are
listening to a story and putting the story
in order)
Outline of Activities
Whole
Class
Talk
partners
5 min
10 min
Lesson Management
76
Groups
Groups
Plenary
Whole
class
10 min
10 min
15 min
Materials
Calendar chart and cards
Puppet
Sing ‘Five Little Astronauts’. (E.g. One
child is the captain, five children take
turns to fly into space as astronauts).
Choose six children to act out song and
give out props (masks, walkie talkies…).
Lead the song and encourage pupils to
join in with singing the song and counting (e.g. How many astronauts are left/
missing?)
Props
Children discuss illustrations and join in
with missing words. Talk partners to answer teacher’s questions. (E.g. Children
have time to discuss the answer with a
partner before answering).
Read story to children ‘I Want to be an
Astronaut’, point to title and author. Point
to the text while reading, miss words out
(e.g. The rocket is flying out into…) and
ask about the illustrations (e.g. What’s
this? What’s the astronaut wearing on
his head?...) Give children time to talk
to talk partner before answering some
questions.
‘I Want to be an Astronaut ‘ by Byron Barton
Listen to the story again. Stand up when
they hear their part of the story. Rest of
class give thumbs up if correct. Each
group decides which story card text matches with.
Share WILF and I Can Statements (see Assessment). Give out large story cards to
groups. Read the story again.
Read out simple sentences for each picture. Ask questions (e.g. Where does this
go?)
Emphasise language structures (e.g. This
is in right order…, This goes here because…)
Large picture story cards.
Large text story
cards.
Make large book by ordering pictures in
a group.
Teacher and extra adult observe two
groups (one each) using chart for observation whether children can order the story.
Make a note of struggling children.
Praise discussing and co-operative work
group.
Large story pictures.
Observation chart.
Two groups swap their books to check if
pictures are in right order.
Each group looks at book and show traffic light fans to say whether they think
the book is right (green), or nearly right
(orange) or if the group need more help
(red) and give reasons.
Swap back and make necessary changes to their own book. Fasten books.
Children indicate whether they are happy/nearly there/need more help with
each I Can statement.
Children sing tidy up song and tidy things
away.
Sing goodbye song and sit ready for the
next activity.
Teacher and extra adult lead groups
swapping work and feedback to each
group. Praise constructive feedback (e.g.
Well done, nearly right because…) Help
children fasten books.
Remind pupils of the WILF and I Can statements.
Ask pupils whether they think they have
achieved the I Can statements by saying
and showing each one physically.
Book fasteners
Traffic light fan per group
Finished book for each
group
Lead tidy up song and model tidying
things away in the classroom. Praise children helping to tidy. Lead goodbye song.
Say ‘goodbye, see you later’.
Assessment
I can listen to the story. I can answer questions about the story. I can put story cards in the right order.
Evaluation
Observations for further planning (evaluation of your teaching).
The integrated curriculum for the infant stage
77
Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
Cycle: Infants
Year: 5 Year Olds
Topic: Climate Change/ The Solar System
Learning Objectives
Evidence for Assessment:
WALT
How to look after our planet. (Curriculum objective: Develop
an awareness of how to care for the environment).
WILF
You to sort pictures into ‘happy planet’ or ‘sad planet’.
Language structures
It is a sad/happy earth because....
It goes here because...
Right, nearly right, need more help.... because...
Pupil’s group charts, post-it notes on group work observations and photos showing each group working.
Why?
Outline of Activities
Grouping
Timing
Pupils
Teacher/s
Materials
Whole
Class
10 min
Sing sit down song and good morning
song. Children sing starter rhyme.
Children answer ‘good morning’ to name
called. Sing days of the week song. Sing
weather song.
Lead sit down and good morning song
and encourage children to join in, gains
attention of the pupils with a starter rhyme
(e.g. Incy Wincy Spider).
Lead days and weather songs and encourage children to join in. Choose the daily
‘helper’ and ask them to change the day,
date, weather, month cards. Share WALT
using puppet. (E.g. We are learning to look
after our planet)
Calendar chart and cards
Sing ‘The Planets Move Around the Sun’.
Children given a planet necklace with the
name of the planet to act out rhyme. (E.g.
One child is the sun in the middle, pupils
with planets take turns to move around
sun).
Lead the song and encourage pupils to
join in with singing the song and help to
recognise planet name (e.g. What sound
does it start with?) Extra adult can help
children move around the child who is the
sun if necessary.
78
Lesson Management
Whole
Class
10 min
Whole
Class
5 min
Children discuss illustrations and join in
with missing words. Talk partners to answer teacher’s questions. (E.g. Children
have time to discuss the answer with a
partner before answering).
Place ‘happy earth’ and ‘sad earth’ cards
on the board. Show example picture of
something that affects the environment.
Ask ‘does this make the earth happy
or sad? Why?’ Listen to a few answers
emphasising language structures, ‘It is a
sad/happy earth because....’
Mixed
ability
groups of
4/5
20 min
Children help to form “I Can” statements
by answering the puppet. (See ‘Assessment’)
Children move to chairs in groups. They
cut out pictures on Resource 1 and place
them in happy earth or sad earth chart
on A3 paper. When the group are happy with their decisions, use glue to stick
onto paper.
Share “I Can” Statements with children
using a cheeky puppet saying ‘I’m sure
you can’t listen in your group’, children
respond with ‘I can listen in my group’.
Observe groups and note on post-it notes for use later. Praise discussing which
earth each picture belongs to and cooperative group work. Additional adult in
the classroom can take a photo of each
group working.
Plenary
15 min
Children show charts to the class group
by group. The rest of class look at chart
and show traffic light fans to say whether
they think the chart is right (green), or
nearly right (orange) or if the group need
more help (red) and give reasons.
Emphasise language structures
(e.g.
Nearly right because....)
Praise correct work and helping other
groups. Share positive observations noted on post-it notes for each group for
good group work. Share photos and comment on how the group are working (e.g.
Look..... is listening to .....).
Whole
class
Children indicate whether they are happy/nearly there/need more help with
each I can statement.
Children sing tidy up song and tidy things
away.
Sing goodbye song and sit ready for the
next activity.
Ask children whether they think they have
achieved the I Can statements by saying
and showing each one physically.
Puppet
Planet necklaces
Happy/sad earth cards
(See Resource 2)
Example picture
Puppet
Digital camera
Post-it notes
A3 copies of Resource 1
per group
A3 Paper with happy/sad
earth chart (Resource 2)
per group
Glue/ scissors
Traffic light fan per group
Finished work for each
group
Photos from session
on computer screen/
projector
Lead tidy up song and model tidying
things away in the classroom. Praise children helping to tidy. Lead goodbye song.
Say ‘goodbye, see you later’.
Assessment
I can work well in a group. (Talk to my group. Listen to my group). I can sort pictures into happy/sad earth.
I can help another group with their work.
Evaluation
Observations for further planning (evaluation of your teaching).
The integrated curriculum for the infant stage
Resource 1
79
Resource 2
The Earth is happy
The Earth is sad
Topic based resources
Songs used in both plans:
GOOD MORNING SONG
Good morning, hello! Good morning, hello! To you and you and you.
DAYS OF THE WEEK SONG
Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday,
Friday, Saturday, Sunday too,
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 days,
Each day different and everyday new!
WEATHER SONG
What’s the weather like today?
Like today?
Like today?
What’s the weather like today?
Is it… (sunny, rainy, cloudy etc?)
TIDY UP SONG
Everybody tidy up, tidy up 1, 2, 3, tidy up, tidy up, you and me.
SIT DOWN SONG
Everybody sit down, sit down, sit down, everybody sit down, on the floor.
THE PLANETS MOVE AROUND THE SUN (tune: ‘The Wheels on the Bus”)
The planets move around the sun,
Around the sun,
Around the sun,
The planets move around the sun,
All day long.
FIVE LITTLE ASTRONAUTS (Tune: ‘5 Little Ducks’)
Five Little astronauts went flying one day,
Out into space and far away,
The captain said,
Zap, zap zap, zap,
But only four little astronauts came flying back.
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
TOPIC BASED RESOURCES
Topic Name: Myself
Fiction Books
ALIKI. My hands. Harper Collins, 1991.
BATES, Ivan. All by myself. HarperCollins, 2000.
BEAUMONT, Karen. I like myself. Harcourt Children’s Books, 2004.
BUNTING, Eve. Flower Garden. Harcourt Children’s Books, 2004.
COONEY, Nancy W. The Wobbly tooth.
COUSINS, Lucy. Maisy goes to bed. Little, Brown Young Readers, 1990.
EVANS, Jean and Lynne BURGES. Myself. (Themes for Early Years). Scholastic. 2006.
HUNT, Rod, The wobbly tooth. Putman, 1978.
INKPEN, Mike. One bear at bedtime. Hodder Children’s Books, 1989.
PENN, Audrey. The kissing hand. Child & Family Press, 2003.
PERKINS, Al. The Nose Book. Random House Books for Young Readers, 2003.
ROSS, Tony. I want my potty. Andersen, 1986.
SHARRATT, Nick. What do I look like? Walker Books, 2008
THOMPSON, Carol. In my bathroom. Delacorte Books for Young Readers, 1990.
WILLIS, Jane and ROSS, Tony. The boy who lost his belly button. Dorling Kindersley Publishing, 2000
Non-Fiction Books
All About Me (Teaching topics in English). Richmond World Facts. Richmond Publishing 2005.
ALIKI. My Five Senses. HarperCollins, 1998
82
Songs
“If you’re happy”
“How do you feel today?”
“Here we go around the Mulberry Bush”
“ Head, Shoulders Knees and Toes”
“The Hokey Cokey”
“Raise your hands above your head”
“Ten little Fingers”
“Fingers like to wiggle, waggle”
“Two little eyes”. Super Songs for very young learners. Oxford University Press, 1997.
“I’ve got 4 eyes”. CANT, Amanda and Mary CHARRINGTON. Fun Time 2 Heinemann.
“Get out of bed”. GERNGROSS, Günter and Herbert PUCHTA. Playway to English. Cambridge University
Press, 1998.
“Sad monster Chant”. CANT, Amanda and Mary CHARRINGTON. Fun Time 2. Heinemann
For lyrics, visit www.kididdles.com
Audiovisuals
DVDs:
“Maisy’s Farm”
“Tweenies”
Online Activities
www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies
Computer Software
Myself CD ROM - Scholastic
Topic based resources
Topic Name: Myself (cont.)
Teacher Resource Books
EVANS, Jean and BURGESS, Lynne. Myself: Themes for Early Years. Scholastic Ltd, 2006
GRAY, Sally. Ourselves: Themes for Early Years Photocopiable. Scholastic Ltd, 1999
Miscellaneous
Photos with children expressing different feelings
Pictures of children from different countries
Wash bags with clothes
Products we use to take care of our bodies: soap, shampoo, comb, etc.
Topic Name: I Go to School
Fiction Books
GUTMAN, Anne & HALLENSLEBEN, Georg. Penelope at School. The Bodely Head, 2005
CLARKE, Gus. What would we do without Missus Mac? (big book) Andersen Press London, 2002
COUSINS, Lucy. Maisy Goes to School. Candlewick Press, 2005
HILL, Eric. Spot Goes to School. Warne, 2009
Non-Fiction Books
CIVARDI, Anna. Going to School. Usborne First Experience, 2005
Songs
http://www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/tweenies/songtime/songs/c/cows.shtml
tweenies song with some house vocab.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/tikkabilla/music/family.shtml
song about family
http://www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/tweenies/songtime/songs/g/gonna.shtml
gonna build a house-song
http://www.kizclub.com/storytime/ten-in-the-bed/print/tenprint1.html song with pictures
Audiovisuals
Online Activities
http://www.kizclub.com/storypatterns/mum.pdf
http://www.kizclub.com/storypatterns/dad.pdf
http://www.kizclub.com/storytime/goldistory/print/goldiprint1.html goldilocks and three bears
http://www.kizclub.com/pigstory/print/pigprint1.html the three little pigs
http://www.kizclub.com/bearstory/print/bearprint1.html
http://www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/rolymo/library/stories/house.shtml good computer activity for house
vocabulary and story sequencing
http://www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/fimbles/comfycorner/story8.shtml computer game
http://www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/stories/threebearsnewbaby.shtml
Computer Software
Teacher Resource Books
Miscellaneous
School Realia
http://www.kizclub.com/Topics/myself/schoolsupplies1.pdf school vocabulary; matching
http://www.kizclub.com/Clipart/classroom1.pdf more vocabulary, good for flashcards
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
Topic Name: Our Homes and Families
Fiction Books
BENNETT, David. Whose Home? Mammoth, 1997
BROWNE, Anthony. My Dad. Picture Corgi Books, 2001
CLARKE, Gus. Along came Eric. (big book) Andersen Press London, 1991
COUSINS, Lucy. Maisy’s Bedtime. Walker Books, 1999
COUSINS, Lucy. Maisie takes a Bath. Candlewick Press, 2000
COUSINS, Lucy. Where does Maisy Live? Candlewick Press, 2000
CRABTREE, Sally. The higgledy piggledy Pigs. Macmillan Books, 2005
CUMMINGS, Pat. My Aunt Came Back. Harper Festival,1998
DONALDSON, Julia. A Squash and a Squeeze. Macmillan Children’s Books, 2000
HILL, Eric. Spot’s Baby Sister. Heinemann LTD, 1991
HILL, Eric. Spot Visits his Grandparents. Puffin, 2003
HILLMAN, Janet. Goldilocks. Literacy Links Big Book 2001
LEWIN, Hugh. Jafta´s Mother. Hamish Hamilton, 1981
MURPHY, Jill. A piece of cake. Walker Books, 2005
MURPHY, Jill. Five Minutes Peace. Walker Books, 1986
MURPHY, Jill. Peace at Last. Macmillan, 2007
SHARRATT, Nick. Goldilocks. Macmillan Children’s Books, 2004
SHARRATT, Nick. Smart Aunties. Walker Books, 1992
UMANSKY, Kaye. A Chair for Baby Bear. OUP, 2004
ZIEFERT, Harriet & BOON, Emilie. Little Hippo’s New House. Dorling Kindersley,1997
84
Classic Fairytales
The Three Little Pigs
Little Red Riding Hood
Goldilocks And The Three Bears
Non-Fiction Books
DOERING, Ann. Homes around the World ABC. A+ Books, 2005
MORRIS, Ann. Houses and homes. Willian Morrow, 1995
OXFAM. Come home with us. Child´s Play Ltd, 1995
PARR, Todd. The Daddy Book. Little, Brown & Co, 2002
PARR, Todd. The Family Book. Little, Brown & Co, 2003
PARR, Todd. The Grandma Book. Little, Brown & Co, 2006
PARR, Todd. The Grandpa Book. Little, Brown & Co, 2006
PARR, Todd. The Mommy Book. Little, Brown & Co, 2002
PARR, Todd. We Belong Together. Little, Brown & Co, 2007
Songs
“3 little ducks”
“5 in the bed”
“A house is where I live”. Playground (OUP)
“Down in the forest where nobody goes”
“I´m gonna build a house”
“Tommy Thumb”
“When Goldilocks went to the house of the bears”
Topic based resources
Topic Name: Our Homes and Families (cont.)
For lyrics and more songs, visit: www.kididdles.com and www.elyrics.net
http://www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/tweenies/songtime/songs/c/cows.shtml
tweenies song with some house vocabulary.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/tikkabilla/music/family.shtml
song about family
http://www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/tweenies/songtime/songs/g/gonna.shtml
gonna build a house-song
http://www.kizclub.com/storytime/ten-in-the-bed/print/tenprint1.html song with pictures
Audiovisuals
DVDs
The little Princess
Peppa Pig
Maisy Mouse
Spot the dog
Online Activities
www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/rolymo/library/stories/house.shtml good computer activity for house vocabulary and store sequencing
www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/fimbles/comfycorner/story8.shtml computer game
www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/stories/threebearsnewbaby.shtmlwww.kizclub.com/storypatterns/mum.pdf
www.britishcouncil.org/kids
www.EnchantedLearning.com
www.kizclub.com/storypatterns/dad.pdf
www.kizclub.com/storytime/goldistory/print/goldiprint1.html goldilocks and three bears
www.kizclub.com/pigstory/print/pigprint1.html the three little pigs
www.kizclub.com/bearstory/print/bearprint1.html
www.maisymousefunclub.com
www.peppapig.com/
www.starfall.com
Computer Software
Teacher Resource Books
HEALD, Chris. Homes: Themes for Early Years. Scholastic Ltd, 1995
Miscellaneous
Different materials for building houses (bricks, straw, sticks).
Photos different family groups, family photos of pupils to make book/display.
Pictures of homes and buildings in different countries.
http://www.kizclub.com/Topics/myself/home.pdf http://www.kizclub.com/Topics/myself/room.pdf
spot the difference game
http://www.kizclub.com/Topics/myself/myfamily.pdf
http://www.kizclub.com/Topics/myself/familytree.pdf
http://www.kizclub.com/craft/home-1.pdf
http://www.kizclub.com/craft/home-1.pdf
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
Topic Name: People who help us
Fiction Books
ADAMSON, Jean. Topsy and Tim, People who help us. Ladybird Books, 1999
CIVARDI, Anna. Going to the doctor. Usborne First Experiences, 2005
COUSINS, Lucy. Doctor Maisy. Candlewick Press, 2001
COUSINS, Lucy. Maisy Drives the Bus. Candlewick Press, 2000
COUSINS, Lucy. Maisy Goes to the Hospital. Walker Books Ltd, 2007
FREEMAN, Don. Corduroy Goes to the Doctor. Viking, 2005
HAFNER, Marylin Mums Don’t Get Sick. Walker Books Ltd, 1996
ROSS, Tony. I want to be. Harper Collins, 2002
SIRETT, Dawn. Going to the dentist. Usborne First Experiences, 2005
BLACKSTONE, Stella. Bear at Work. Barefoot Books, 2008
Non-Fiction Books
HUNTER, Rebecca. People who help us. Series (vet, police, firefighter, doctor etc).Cherrytree Books,
2008
Songs
86
“5 currant buns”
“Cobbler, cobbler, mend my shoe”
“Pat-a-cake”
“Miss Polly had a dolly”
“People who help us”, www.singup.org/songbank/
“People who help us”, book and CD (out of the arc)
“Peter works with one hammer”
For lyrics and more songs, visit: www.kididdles.com and www.elyrics.net
Audiovisuals
DVDs:
Fireman Sam
Postman Pat
Higglytown Heroes to the Rescue. Buenavista Home Video
Bob the builder
Online Activities
www.starfall.com
www.kidzclub.com
www.EnchantedLearning.com
Computer Software
Bob the Builder: Bob Builds a Park. BBC, 2002
Teacher Resource Books
FARR, Anne and MORRIS, Janet. People Who Help Us: Themes for Early Years. Scholastic Ltd, 1997
TAVENER Jenni. People Who Help Us: New Themes for Early Years. Scholastic Ltd, 2007
Miscellaneous
Posters/pictures of people who help us
Create hospital/doctors role play area
Dressing up outfits/props for different roles
Topic based resources
Topic Name: In the City
Fiction Books
COUSINS, Lucy. Maisy Goes to the Library. Candlewick Press, 2005
COUSINS, Lucy. Maisy Goes to the Museum. Candlewick Press, 2009
ISADORA, Rachel, City Seen from A to Z. HarperCollins, 1992
MITSUMASA, Anno, Anno’s journey. Putnam Juvenile, 1997
MCFARLANE, Sheryl, In the City (What’s that sound).Fizhenry & Whiteside, 2004
MOORE, Lou. I live in the City. ABC Western Publishing Company, 1969
WALNER, John (Illustrator), City Mouse-Country Mouse. Scholastic Paperbacks, 1987
Non-Fiction Books
HATT, Christine. London. Chrysalis Children’s Books, 2001
Hello, where do you live? A Big City (Teaching Topics in English).Richmond World Facts. Richmond
Publications, 2005
Songs
“ London Town”
“London Bridge”
For lyrics, visit www.kididdles.com
Audiovisuals
Online Activities
Computer Software
Teachers Resources
Miscellaneous
Postcards of different cities.
Maps of cities, undergrounds, etc.
Photographs of the children’s neighbourhood
Topic Name: I go shopping for food
Fiction Books
ALLEN, Jonathan. The little red hen. Corgi Books, 2003
BARTLETT, Alison and FRENCH, Vivian. Oliver’s Fruit Salad. Hodder Children’s Books, 1998
BARTLETT, Alison and FRENCH, Vivian. Oliver’s Vegetables. Hodder Children’s Books, 1995
BIRCHALL, Mark. Hen Goes Shopping. Dial Books, 2002
BURNINGHAM, John. The Shopping Basket. Candlewick Press, 1997
CARLE, Eric. The Very Hungry Caterpillar. Puffin, 1995
COUSINS, Lucy. Maisy Goes Shopping. Candlewick Press, 2001
COUSINS, Lucy. Maisy Makes Lemonade. Candlewick Press, 2002
ELFFERS, Joost and FREYMANN, Saxton. Fast Food. Arthur A. Levine Books Mar 2006
ELFFERS, Joost and FREYMANN, Saxton. Food Play. Chronicle Books, 2006
GODDARD, Neil. Never use a knife and fork. Macmillan, 2008
HILL, Eric. Spot bakes a cake. Puffin Books, 2003
HUTCHINS, Pat. Don´t forget the bacon. Red Fox Classics, 2002
KERR, Judith. The tiger who came to tea. Harper Collins, 2002
LOBEL, Arnold and ZIEFERT, Harriet. Bear Goes Shopping. Sterling, 2005
SHARRATT, Nick. Ketchup on your cornflakes. Scholastic, 2006
YEE, Patrick. Little Buddy Goes Shopping. ABC/The All Children’s Co, 1992
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
Topic Name: I go shopping for food (cont.)
Classic Fairytales:
Goldilocks and the Three Bears
The Gingerbread Man
Non-Fiction Books
EHLERT, Lois. Eating the Alphabet. Harcourt Brace International, 1993
LLEWELLYN, Claire. Healthy eating. QED Publishing, 2008
O’BRIEN-PALMER, Michelle. Healthy me. Chicago Review Press, 1999
ROYSTON, Angela. Why should I eat this carrot? Heinemann, 2004
Songs
88
“Apples and Bananas”
“Five Currant Buns”, Supersongs
“Five Fat Sausages”, Supersongs
“How Many Fruits”, Tweenies
“I Like”, Tweenies
“Jelly on a Plate”, Supersongs
“Mix a pancake, stir a pancake”
“On Top of Spaghetti”
“Steven, Steven won´t you come to tea?”
“Tall Shops”, Supersongs
For lyrics and more songs, visit: www.kididdles.com and www.elyrics.net
Audiovisuals
“Elmo’s World”, Food, Water & Exercise (DVD) Sony, 2005
“The Very Hungry Caterpillar & Other Stories”, (DVD) 2006
Spot DVDs
Maisy DVDs
Online Activities
www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/tweenies/gametime/bellastall/
www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/bigcooklittlecook
www.playnormous.com/gameplay_lunchcrunch.cfn
pbskids.org/caillou/immersivegames
www.starfall.com
www.kidzclub.com
www.EnchantedLearning.com
Computer Software
Clifford The Big Red Dog Thinking Adventures (Scholastic PC game)
Teacher Resource Books
CLARK, Lesley. Food: Themes for Early Years. Scholastic Ltd, 1998
Miscellaneous
For imaginative play area: plastic food and money, toy cash register, supermarket leaflets, shopping
lists, chef’s hat and apron, recipes
Food to taste
Fruit and vegetable seeds
Topic based resources
Topic Name: Transport
Fiction Books
BARTON, Byron. I want to be an astronaut. Harper Trophy, 1992
BEE, William. And the train goes. Walker Books, 2008
BURNINGHAM, John. Hey! Get off our train. HarperCollins, 1993
BURNINGHAM, John. Mr Grumpy’s motorcar. Puffin Books, 1987
COUSINS, Lucy. Maisy likes driving. Walker Books, 2001
DANN, Penny. Row, row, row your boat. Orchard Books 2001
DANN, Penny. The wheels on the bus. Orchard Books 2001
GRINDLEY, Sally. Don’t Rock the Boat. DK 2001
KUBLER, Annie. The wheels on the bus. Child’s Play International, 2001
ROCKWELL, Anne. Big wheels. Dutton Children’s Books, 1986
RODDIE, Shen. & NEWTON, Jill. Please don’t chat to the Bus Driver. Bloomsbury, 2000
STOCKHAM, Jess. Down by the station. Child’s Play International, 2002
Non-Fiction Books
MACLAREN, Thando and DAMON, Emma. All kinds of transport. Tango Books, 2006
ROCKWELL, Anne. Space Vehicles. Dutton Children’s Books, 1994
Songs
“The wheels on the bus” - Super Songs for very young learners. OUP, 1997
“Row, row, row your boat” – Sarah Williams. Round and round the garden. OUP, 1985
“Down at the station” – Ian Beck and Sarah Williams. Ride a cock-horse. OUP, 1986
“Polly goes by boat” – Leonor Concari et al. Sip Snap A. Macmillan Heinemann ELT, 1990
For lyrics and more songs, visit: www.kididdles.com and www.elyrics.net
Audiovisuals
AUDIOBOOKS
MITTON, Tony and PARKER, Ant. Kingfisher, 1998.
“Amazing Aeroplanes”
“Terrific Trains”
“Dazzling Diggers”
“Flashing Fire Engines”
“Tremendous Tractors”
“Tough Trucks”
DVD
“Maisy. Colours and Counting”, Universal Pictures, 1998
Online Activities
www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/
www.kidzclub.com
www.abcteach.com
Computer Software
Teacher Resource Books
HEALD, Chris. Journeys: Themes for Early Years. Scholastic Ltd, 1996
Miscellaneous
Toy vehicles
Bus in the role-play area
Traffic Signs
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
Topic Name: Climate Change
Fiction Books
BUTTERWORTH, Nick. After the Storm. HarperCollins, 1992
CARLE, Eric. Little Cloud. 1996
DONALDSON, Julia. The Snail and the Whale. Macmillan, 2004
SOLLINGER, Emily. This Is Our World. Simon & Schuster, 2010
Non-Fiction Books
ASCH, Frank. The Earth and I. Gulliver Green, 1994
GREEN, Jen. Why Should I protect Nature? Barron’s Educational Series, 2005
GREEN, Jen. Why Should I Recycle? Barron’s Educational Series, 2005
GREEN, Jen. Why Should I Save Energy? Barron’s Educational Series, 2005
ROCKWELL, Anne. Our Earth. Voyager Books, 2000
WALSH, Melanie. 10 Things I can do to Help My World. Candlewick Press, 2008
Songs
http://www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/tweenies/songtime/songs/i/ihearthunder.shtml Tweenies songs
Audiovisuals
Online Activities
90
http://www.kizclub.com/storytime/skystory/print/skyprint1.html
Story: things in sky, weather, night and day
http://www.kizclub.com/storytime/windstory/print/windprint1.html story: As above
http://www.kizclub.com/waterstory/water1.html.
Facts about water, good for introducing how not to waste water.
http://www.kizclub.com/storytime/winteranimals/print/winterprint.html:
About migration and hibernation. Good for introducing climate change
http://www.kizclub.com/seasonstory/print/beginprint.html .Seasons.
http://www.kizclub.com/treestory/print/treeprint1.html Looking after environment
http://www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/balamory/hoolie/weather.shtml
computer game, good fun, things you need depending on weather
http://www.starfall.com/n/holiday/earthday/load.htm?f&n=main Recycling computer game.
Computer Software
Teacher Resource Books:
MARTIN, Fran and OWENS Paula. Caring for our World: A practical guide to ESD for ages 4-8. Geographical Association, 2008
Miscellaneous
Plants and flowers in the classroom
Recycling Stations in the school and classrooms
Topic based resources
Topic Name: The Solar System
Fiction Books
BARTON, Byron. I want to be an Astronaut. Harper Trophet, 1992
BARTRAM, Simon. The man on the moon! Templar Pub, 2004
CARLE, Eric. Papa please get the moon for me. Neugebauer Press, 1998
JEFFERS, Oliver. The way back home. Harp and Collins, 2008
JEFFERS, Oliver. How to catch a star. Harp and Collins, 2005
MCNAUGHTON, Colin. Here come the aliens! Walker Books, 1997
MITTON, Tony. Roaring rockets. Kingfisher Books, 1999
MORGAN, Gaby. Space Poems. Macmillan, 2006
MURPHY, Jill. Whatever Next. Macmillan, 2007
RABE, Tish (Doctor Seuss). There´s no place like space: all about our solar system.
Random books, 1999
Non-Fiction Books
BORG, Janet. Stars and Planets. Lark Books, 2007
BRANLEY, Franklyn. The Planets in our Solar System. HarperCollins, 1998
BRANLEY, Franklyn. What makes Day and Night. HarperCollins, 2008
GOLDSMITH, Mike. Solar System. Kingfisher Young Knowledge, 2006
Songs
“3 little men in a flying saucer”
“Climb aboard the spaceship” - words www.preschooleducation.com/sspace
“Flying from sun to stars” – words www.b.c.org/kids-songs-space
“Four little stars”
“Space action song”
“Twinkle twinkle”
Audiovisuals
DVD
Adventures of button moon. 2001 DARNELL, John.
Hole in blanket sky. 2008 DARNELL, John.
Online Activities
www.britishcouncil.org/kids
www.kidzclub.com
www.EnchantedLearning.com
www.kidSites.com
http:spaceplace.jpl.nasa.gov/en/kids/ds1dots.shtml
Computer Software
Teacher Resource Books
HEALD, Chris. Journeys: Themes for Early Years. Scholastic Ltd, 1996
Miscellaneous
Paper maché planets
Rockets made from re-cycled materials
Space music for dance and movement
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
Topic Name: Summer
Fiction Books
BROWNE, Eileen. Handa’s Surprise. Walker Books, 1994
COUSINS, Lucy. Maisy Makes Lemonade. Walker BOOKS Ltd, 2004
DONALDSON, Julia. The tale of the whale. Macmillan Books, 2004
DOWLING, Paul. Jimmy’s Sunny Book. Andersen Press, 1994
HAMILTON, Richard. Polly´s picnic. Igloo Books 2007
HILL, Eric. Spot goes on Holiday. Puffin Books, 1985
WADDELL, Martin. and BARTON, J. The pig in the pond. Walker Books, 1992
WADDELL, Martin. The big big sea. Walker Books, 1994
Non-Fiction Books
HUGHES, Monica. Our World. Our Clothes, form hat to shoes. Heinemann, 2002
Songs
“At the Beach” RILEY, A. and GAYNOR, J.
“Bobbing up and down in a boat on the sea”
“I love the sun” BLANCHE, H. and NEWELL BARBOUR, F.
“Incey Wincey Spider”
“The sun has got his hat on”
“You are my sunshine”
92
For lyrics, visit the websites: www.kididdles.com and www.elyrics.net
Audiovisuals
Audiobook:
Tell and Sing a Story “At the Seaside”, ELI 1992
Video Tape:
“Maisy. Colours and Counting”, Universal Pictures, 1998
“Maisy’s Farm”, Universal Pictures, 2001
“It’s Fun to Learn with Spot”, HILL, Eric. Abbey Broadcast Communications, 1991
DVD:
“Magic English. Changing Seasons”, Disney 2003
Online Activities
www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/
www.kidzclub.com
www.abcteach.com
Computer Software
Teacher Resource Book
GARNETT, Sue. Summer: Themes for Early Years. Scholastic, 1999
Miscellaneous
Baby summer clothes and teddy to be dressed
Objects we use at the beach
Flashcards of summer sports (or cutting out from magazines)
Topic based resources
Topic Name: Autumn
Fiction Books
ASBURY, Kelly and BURG, Ann. Autumn Walk. Harper Festival, 2003
BECK, Ian. The Ugly Duckling. Orchard, 2007
BLACKSTONE, Stella. Bear in Sunshine. Barefoot Books, 2001
BRIDWELL, Norman. Clifford’s First Autumn. Scholastic, 1997
BUTTERWORTH, Nick. After the Storm. HarperCollins, 1992
MARTHE, Jocelyn. Ready for Autumn. Tundra Books, 2008
MULLER, Gerda. Autumn. Floris Books, 1994
ROCKWELL, Anne. Apples and Pumpkins. Prentice Hall, 1989
ROSEN, Michael and OXENBURY, Helen. We’re going on a Bear Hunt. Walker Books, 2004
TAFURI, Nancy. The Busy Little Squirrel. Simon & Schuster Children’s Publishing, 2007
Non-Fiction Books
MAESTRO, Betsy. Why Do Leaves Change Colour? Harper Trophy, 1994
Songs
“Autumn Leaves Are Falling Down”
“Here is a Tree”
“Incy Wincy Spider” (Supersongs)
“It’s Raining, It’s Pouring” (Supersongs)
For lyrics and more songs, visit: www.kididdles.com and www.elyrics.net
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Audiovisuals
DVD
The Ugly Duckling, Disney
Online Activities
http://www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/autumnwatch/
http://funschool.kaboose.com/formula-fusion/games/game_fun_in_the_garden.html
http://funschool.kaboose.com/fun-blaster/thanksgiving/games/game_fall_fever.html
http://www.nickjr.com/playtime/shows/dora/games/dora_ticosacorn.jhtml
Computer Software
Teacher Resources
FILER, Janice. Autumn: Themes for Early Years. Scholastic Ltd, 1999
COURT, Carol. Autumn and Winter Festivals: Themes for Early Years. Scholastic Ltd, 1997
Miscellaneous
Puppets
Leaves and nuts
Weather charts
Clothes
Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
Topic Name: Winter
Fiction Books
BRIGGS, Raymond. The Snowman. Puffin Books, 1980
CAMPBELL, Rod. Buster Gets Dressed. Campbell Books Ltd, 2006
COLEMAN, Michael. Ridiculous. Little Tiger Press, 2008
COUSINS, Lucy. Maisy Goes Swimming. Walker Books, 2008
FLEMING, Denise. The First Day of Winter. Henry Holt & Company, 2005
GLASER, Linda. It’s Winter. Millbrook Press, 2002
KEATS, Ezra Jack. The Snowy Day. Puffin Books, 1976
ROFFEY, Maureen. Look, There’s my Hat. Macmillan Children’s Books, 1995
SHARRATT, Nick. The Green Queen. Walker Books, 2007
Non-Fiction Books
BANCROFT, Henrietta. Animals in Winter. HarperCollins, 1997
Songs
“Diddle Diddle Dumpling”
“Five Little Snowmen “ (Tweenies)
“I Am a Little Snowman”
“This is the Way ( I Put on My …)”
For lyrics and more songs, visit: www.kididdles.com and www.elyrics.net
Audiovisuals
DVD
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The Snowman. BRIGGS, Raymond. Universal Pictures, 2008
The Snowy Day. KEATS, Ezra Jack. Scholastic, 2003
Elmo’s World. Jackets, Hats &Shoes. Sony, 2002
Online Activities
http://www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/charlieandlola/funandgames/dressing_up/
http://pbskids.org/caillou/games/dresscaillou.html
http://www.nickjr.com/playtime/shows/max_ruby/games/maxr_skating.jhtml
http://www.nickjr.com/playtime/shows/max_ruby/games/maxr_dressup.jhtml
http://www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/boogiebeebies/play/christmas/
http://www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/balamory/games/embedded_games/snowstorm.shtml
http://www.funwithspot.com/uk/website.html
http://www.maisyfunclub.com
Computer Software
Pingu and Friends. BBC, 1999
Teacher Resource Books
LONSDALE, Mary and MATUSIAK, Caroline. Seasonal Activities- Autumn and Winter: (Bright Ideas
for Early Years). Scholastic Ltd, 1991
MORRIS, Jenny. Winter: Themes for Early Years. Scholastic Ltd, 1999
Miscellaneous
Real clothes
Toy washing machine
Washing line
Dolls
Magnet board figures
Topic based resources
Topic Name: Spring
Fiction Books
BROWNE, Ruth. Ten Seeds. Anderson Press Ltd, 2001
BUTTERWORTH, Nick. Jasper’s Beanstalk. Hodder Children’s Books, 1992 (2008 new ed)
CAIN, Sheridan. The Crunching, Munching Caterpillar. Little Tiger Press, 2005
CAMPBELL, Rod. Oh Dear!
CARLE, Eric. The Bad-tempered Ladybird. Puffin, 1999
CARLE, Eric. The Tiny Seed. Picture Puffin, 1997
CARLE, Eric. The Very Hungry Caterpillar. Puffin Books, 1995
DONALDSON, Julia. Monkey Puzzle. Macmillan Children’s Books, 2000
EMMETT, Jonathan. Ruby Flew Too! Macmillan Children’s Books, 2005
FINN, Isobel. The Very lazy Ladybird. Little Tiger Press, 2000
HILL, Eric. Spot Goes to the Farm. Putnam Publishing Group, 2001
HOOD, Susan. Caterpillar Spring, Butterfly Summer. Reader’s Digest Association, 2003
HUTCHINS, Pat. Titch. Red Fox, 1995
HUTCHINS, Pat. You’ll Soon Grow into Them Titch. Harper Collins, 1992
MOSES, Brian. There’s a Beetle in the Bathroom. Picture Puffin, 2001
ROCKWELL, Anne. My Spring Robin. Turtleback, 1996
SEULING, Barbara. Spring Song. Gulliver Books, 2001
SHARKEY, Niamh and TOLSTOY, Aleksei. The Gigantic Turnip. Barefoot Books, 2006
SYKES, Julia. Dora’s Eggs. Little Tiger Press, 1997
TARBETT, Debbie. Ten Wriggly Wiggly Caterpillars. Little Tiger Press, 2004
WALTERS, Catherine. When Will It Be Spring? Little Tiger Press, 1998
WOOD, A.J. The Golden Egg. Templar Publishing, 2002
Jack and the Beanstalk, (A variety of versions are available, see fairytales for details.)
The Enormous Turnip (big book) Classic Tales (beginners) by O.U.P.
Non-Fiction Books
BYGRAVE, Linda. I am a Frog. Chrysalis Children’s Books, 1998.
GODWIN, Sam. A seed in Need. Wayland, 1998.
HELLINGMAN, Deborah. From Caterpillar to Butterfly. HarperCollins, 1996.
HUGHES, Monica. Spring (Read and Learn: Seasons) Raintree Publishers, 2004.
JENKINS, Rhonda. My Bean Diary (Discovery World) Heinnemann Educational Publishers, 1997.
Life Cycles (various authors) Series by Read and Learn, Raintree Publishers.
Stopwatch Science- Chicken and Egg, Butterfly and Caterpillar, Bumblebee, Snail, Tadpole and
Frog (various authors) Series by A&C Black Publishers Ltd. 1998.
Songs
“Five little butterflies”
“I can sing a rainbow”
“I like eating worms”
“Incy Wincy Spider”
“I’m a hungry caterpillar”
“Little Arabella Miller”
“The Ants” (Tumble Tots CD 1)
“Three little ducks”
“Three little speckled frogs”
“There’s a tiny caterpillar on a leaf”
For lyrics and more songs, visit: www.kididdles.com and www.elyrics.net
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
Topic Name: Spring (cont.)
Audiovisuals
DVD
Minibeasts. Scholastic (Themes for Early Years series).
The very hungry caterpillar and other stories. CARLE, Eric. 2006
Elmo’s World. Springtime Fun. Sony, 2002
Online Activities
www.kidzclub.com
www.underfives.co.uk
www.singup.org/songbank/
www.starfall.com
Computer Software
Minibeasts CD ROM. Scholastic (Themes for Early Years series).
Early Years Activity Chest: I.C.T. Activities. Scholastic.
Teacher Resource Books
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DESHPANDE, Chris. Spring Tinderbox. A&C Black Publishers Ltd, 1992
HARPLEY, Avril and ROBERTS, Ann. Minibeasts: Themes for Early Years. Scholastic Ltd, 2004
SPARKS LINFIELD, Rachel. Planning and Learning through spring. Step Forward Publishing Ltd,
2008.
WILLIAMS, Brenda. Seasons: Early Years Wishing Well. Scholastic Ltd, 2001
Miscellaneous
Growing Plants: Spring flower bulbs, cress, sunflower and mustard seeds. Chickpeas, lentils and
other pulses for planting. Soil, cotton wool, small transparent plastic cups, watering jugs and water
sprayers
Measuring tapes, height charts, magnifying glasses
Topic Name: Animals
Fiction Books
AMERY, Heather and CARTWRIGHT, Stephen. Usborne Farmyard Tales (a selection of stories available) Usborne Publishing Ltd, 2004-2005.
ANDREAE, Giles and WOJTOWYCZ, David. Commotion in the Ocean. Orchard, 1999.
ANDREAE, Giles and WOJTOWYCZ, David. Rumble in the Jungle. Orchard, 1998.
BROWNE, Eileen. Handa’s Surprise. Walker Books, 1995.
BURNINGHAM, John. Mr. Gumpy’s Motorcar. Red Fox, 2002.
BURNINGHAM, John. Mr Gumpy’s Outing. Red Fox, 2001.
BURNINGHAM, John. The Shopping Basket. Red Fox, 1992.
CAMPBELL, Rod. Dear Zoo. Campbell Books, 2007
CAMPBELL, Rod. It’s Mine. Campbell Books, 1999
CAMPBELL, Rod. Noisey Farm. Puffin Books, 1997.
CAMPBELL, Rod. ‘Oh dear! Macmillan, 2002.
Topic based resources
Topic Name: Animals (cont.)
CAMPBELL, Rod. Our Jungle. Campbell Books, 2008
CAMPBELL, Rod. The Pop-Up Jungle. Campbell Books, 2000
CARLE, Eric. From head to toe. Puffin Books, 1999.
CARLE, Eric. Slowly, Slowly, Slowly, said the Sloth. Puffin Books, 2005.
CARLE, Eric. 1 2 3, to the Zoo. Puffin Books, 1999.
CARLE, Eric and MARTIN JR, Bill. Brown Bear, Brown Bear. Puffin Books, 1999.
CARLE, Eric and MARTIN JR, Bill. Panda Bear, Panda Bear. Puffin Books, 2007.
CARLE, Eric and MARTIN JR, Bill. Polar Bear, Polar Bear. Puffin Books, 1999.
CARLE, Eric and MARTIN JR, Bill. The Very Hungry Caterpillar. Puffin Books, 1995.
COUSINS, Lucy. ‘Hooray for fish!’ Walker Books Ltd, 2006. (with DVD)
COUSINS, Lucy. Maisy at the Farm. Walker, 2008
COUSINS, Lucy. Noah’s Ark. Walker Books Ltd, 2006.
DONALDSON, Julia. Monkey Puzzle. Macmillan, 2000
DUNREA, Olivier. Gossie and Friends. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1999.
EMBLETON, Chris. Farmyard pop-up faces. Piggy Toes Press, 2006.
FOREMAN, Michael. Hello World. Walker Books Ltd, 2003.
GUARINO, Deborah. Is Your Mama a Llama? Scholastic, 1997
HAWKINS, Colin & Jaqui. Tog the Dog (and more flip the page rhyme and read books) Pat and Pals
Ltd, 2007.
HILL, Eric. Spot goes to the Farm. Puffin New Edition, 2009.
JARMAN, Julia. Big Red Bath. Orchard, 2005.
McDONNELL, Flora. Giddy-up, Let’s Ride. Candlewick Press, 2002.
McDONNELL, Flora. I Love Animals. (Big book) Walker Books Ltd, 1996.
MCKEE, David. Elmer. Red Fox, 1991
MINNE, Brigitte. The Best Bottom. Macmillan Children’s Books, 2004
RATHMANN, Peggy. Goodnight Gorilla. Egmont Books, 2005
ROSEN, Michael. Snore. HarperCollins Publishers Ltd, 2007.
ROSEN, Michael. We’re going on a bear hunt. Walker Books Ltd, 1993.
ROWE, Jeannette. Whose tail? Southwood Books, 2001
SCHEFFLER, Axel. Jingle Jangle Jungle. Campbell Books, 2003
WADDELL, Martin. Farmer Duck. Walker Books Ltd, 2006.
WEST, Colin. ‘Not Me!’ said the monkey. Walker Books Ltd, 1989.
Non-Fiction Books
BOYNTON, Sandra. Moo Baa La La La. Simon and Schuster Children’s, 2004.
BYGRAVE, Linda. I am a Frog. Chrysalis Children’s Books, 1998.
JAMES, Diane. On the Farm. Two-Can Publishing Ltd, 2000
SCHOFIELD, Jennifer. Animal Babies (on the farm), (on the mountains), (in the house). Kingfisher
Books Ltd, 2004.
SIDERI, Simona. Let’s look at eyes. Zero to Ten, 2001. (Compares human eyes to those of different
animals...also available in the series Let’s look at feet/hands/mouths.)
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
Topic Name: Animals (cont.)
Life Cycles series by Read and Learn
Stopwatch Science Series- Chicken and Egg, Butterfly and Caterpillar, Bumblebee, Snail, Tadpole
and Frog (Various Authors) A&C. Black Publishers Ltd, 1998.
Touch and Feel Farm. DK Publishing, 1998
Touch and Feel Jungle Animals. DK Publishing, 1998
Songs
“Down in the Jungle”
“Five Little Monkeys”
“Old McDonald”
“We’re going to the zoo”
“An elephant goes like this”
“Elephants have wrinkles”
“Mary had a little lamb”
“Baa, baa, black sheep”
“Teddy bear, teddy bear”
“I went to the animal fair”
“This Little Piggy”
“1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Once I caught a fish alive”
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“B-I-N-G-O”
For lyrics and more songs, visit: www.kididdles.com and www.elyrics.net
Audiovisuals
DVDs available for the following books listed above:
Hooray for Fish!
Farmer Duck
Snore
Noah’s Ark
Handa’s Surprise.
DVD:
Minibeasts -Scholastic(Themes for Early Years)
Maisy. Animals
Mama Mirabelle. It’s Movie Time
The Very Hungry Caterpillar and Other Stories. CARLE, Eric.
Online Activities
www.kidzclub.com
www.underfives.co.uk
www.singup.org/songbank/
www.starfall.com
Topic based resources
Topic Name: Animals (cont.)
Computer Software
Early Years Activity Chest: ICT Activities. Scholastic
Minibeasts CD ROM. Scholastic (Themes for Early Years)
JumpStart Animal Adventures. PC Game
Teacher Resources
BURGESS, Lynne. Pets: Themes for Early Years. Scholastic Ltd, 1996
EVANS, Jean and PORTER, Alison. Minibeasts: Themes for Early Years. Scholastic Ltd, 2007
Miscellaneous
Visuals: Posters, pictures, old calendars zebra/tiger/leopard print paper or textiles
For classification: hoops, jars or boxes, play animals, natural objects like feathers, bones, shells or
abandoned nests
For drama and imaginative play: animal masks, musical instruments to imitate animal sounds
Topic Name: Fairytales
Fiction Books
AHLBERG, Janet and Allan. Each Peach Pear Plum. Puffin Books, 1999.
HAWKINS, Colin and Jaqui. Fairytale News. Walker Books Ltd, 2004.
SHARKEY, Niamh and TOLSTOY, Aleksei. The Gigantic Turnip. Barefoot Books, 2006.
SHARRATT, Nick and TUCKER, Stephen. The Three Little Pigs and other stories. Macmillan, 2006
WINTER, Jeanette. The House That Jack Built. Picture Puffins, 2003.
Classic Fairytales:
A First Book of Fairytales, Hoffman (Dorling Kindersly).
Goldilocks and the Three Bears, Penguin Young Readers. Longman 2001. (Other fairytales available
at level 1.)
Ladybird Touch and Feel Fairytales, by a variety of authors and published by Ladybird for very
young children since 2000. www.ladybird.co.uk
Ladybird Favourite Tales, by a variety of authors.www.ladybird.co.uk
The Enormous Turnip (big book), Classic Tales (beginners) by O.U.P.
The Gingerbread man (big book), Classic Tales (beginners) by O.U.P.
The Magic Cooking Pot (big book), Classic Tales (beginners) by O.U.P.
The Shoemaker and the Elves (big book), Classic Tales (beginners) by O.U.P.
The Three Billy Goats Gruff (big book), Classic Tales (beginners) by O.U.P.
Non-Fiction Books
GAINS, Pat. Stories. Belair – Early Years, 2000
HUFF, Mary Jo. Storytelling with puppets, props and playful tales (teacher resource book). Brilliant
Publications, 2000.
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
Topic Name: Fairytales
Animals (cont.)
(cont.)
Songs
“When Goldilocks went to the house of the bears”.
“Run, run as fast as you can...you can’t catch me”.
“In a cottage, in a wood”.
“Songs from Mister Wolf”. Golden Apple book and CD.
For lyrics and more songs, visit: www.kididdles.com and www.elyrics.net
Audiovisuals
Audiobook
Mister Wolf and Red Riding Hood. BRYANT, Ann. Golden Apple book and CD.
DVD
Treasury of 100 Storybook Classics. Scholastic
Online Activities
www.underfives.co.uk/Goldilocks.htm
www.singup.org/songbank/www.starfall.co
www.kidzclub.com
www.EnchantedLearning.com
100
Computer Software
Early Years Activity Chest: I.C.T. Activities, Scholastic.
Teacher Resource Books
Miscellaneous
Posters, pictures.
Hand and finger puppets.
Magnetic or velcro board with magnetic or velcro picture props.
Dressing up clothes: crowns, animal masks, capes.
Props: three bowls, spoons and cups of differing sizes, a mirror and a green and red apple, beans
(for beanstalk), straw, sticks and bricks etc.
Topic based resources
Topic Name: Festivals
Animals (cont.)
Fiction Books
Christmas
ALLSBURG, Chris. The Polar Express. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1985
BROWN, Michael. Santa Mouse, where are you? Price Stern Sloan, 1988
BROWN, Ruth. A dark, dark tale. London: Mantra, 1988
BRUNA, Dick. The Christmas Book. Methuen Children’s, 1992
CAMPBELL, Rod. My presents. Pan Macmillan, 2003
CARLE, Eric. Dream Snow. GP Putnam’s Sons, 2000
COUSINS, Lucy. Maisy’s Snowy Christmas Eve. Walker Books 2003
COUSINS, Lucy. Merry Christmas, Maisy. Candlewick Press, 2003
HAYLES, Karen. The star that fell. Ladybird Books, 1996
HILL, Eric. Spot’s first Christmas. Heinemann, 1992
KNIGHT, Hilary. The Twelve Days of Christmas. Tandam Library, 1999
SYKES, Julie & WARNER, Tim. Santa’s Busy Day. Little Tiger Press, 1998
WALSH, Vivien. Olive, the other reindeer. Chronicle Books, 1997
Easter
COUSINS, Lucy. Maisy’s Easter Egg Hunt. Candlewick Press, 2008
DOWLEY, Tim. My First Story of Easter. Candle Books, 2005
PIENKOWSKI, Jan. Easter. Puffin Books, 1993
Halloween
BROWN, Marc. Witches Four. London: Picture Corgi, 1985
DONALDSON, Julia. Room on the broom. Macmillan, 2002
PIENKOWSKI, Jan. Meg and Mog. Penguin Books Ltd, 2004
THOMAS, Valerie & KORKY, Paul. Winnie the witch. OUP, 1994
Pancake Day
Carle, Eric. Pancakes, Pancakes. Simon & Schuster, 2003
Various World Festivals and Celebrations
CHATTERJEE, Debjani. The most beautiful child. Cambridge University Press, 1996
SINGH, Rani The Indian Storybook. Heinemann, 1988
ZUCKER, J & BARGER COHEN, J. FESTIVAL TIME SERIES. Frances Lincoln Children’s books, 2005.
Including:
“Apples and Honey: a Rosh Hashanah Story”
“Eight Candles for counting: a Chanukah Story”
“Lanterns and crackers: a Chinese New Year Story”
“Lighting a lamp: a Divali Story”
“Hope and New Life: Easter”
“Sweet Dates to eat: a Ramadan and Eid Story”
Non-Fiction Books
JONES, L. Kids around the world celebrate. Jossey Bass, 1999
Festivals. Scholastic, 1994
Time for Celebrations. Richmond
Dancing around the world. Richmond
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Currículo Integrado Hispano-Británico para educación infantil y orientaciones para su desarrollo
Topic Name: Festivals (cont.)
Songs
“A witch has a tall black hat”
“Carnival song”, The music box, Longman
“Halloween’s coming”
“Twinkle, twinkle, little star”
“We wish you a merry Christmas”
“We’re witches of Halloween”
Winnie the witch songs, OUP, 1994
Jingle Bells, 60 minutes of Christmas Favourites, Early Learning Centre
Multicultural songs, Scholastic
For lyrics and more songs, visit: www.kididdles.com and www.elyrics.net
Audiovisuals
DVD
Maisy, Christmas and other stories, Universal Pictures, 1999
The Polar Express
102
Winnie the witch. OUP
Online Activities
www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/
www.kidzclub.com
www.abcteach.com
Computer Software
Festivals CD Rom, Scholastic
Teacher Resource Books
COURT, Carol. Autumn and Winter Festivals: Themes for Early Years. Scholastic Ltd, 1997 COURT,
Carol. Spring and Summer Festivals: Themes for Early Years. Scholastic Ltd, 1997
JONES, Meg. Divali and Holi: Festival Fun for the Early Years. Scholastic Ltd, 2004
TAVENER, Jenny. Christmas and Easter: Festival Fun for the Early Years. Scholastic Ltd, 2004
TAVENER, Jenny. Harvest: Festival Fun for the Early Years. Scholastic Ltd, 2005
Miscellaneous
Toys, puppets and soft toys
Masks
Festivals calendar
Artefacts from different festivals and celebrations
Premios nacionales
Fomento de la lectura
de la prensa 2011
COLECCIÓN MEDIASCOPIO
Ministerio
de Educación, Cultura
y Deporte
SERIE PREMIOS
CmSp
Contents:
- Literacy targets
- Literacy bands
- Science targets
- Science bands
- Geography and history skills targets
- Geography targets
- Geography bands
- History targets
- History bands
- Arts targets
- Arts bands
Integrated
Curriculum
1. El objetivo primordial de estas orientaciones pedagógicas es proporcionar unas pautas comunes para unificar los objetivos, contenidos y
criterios de evaluación en los 44 centros que participan en el proyecto.
2. Las orientaciones pedagógicas han sido elaboradas siguiendo las normas del Currículum Español actual para Educación Primaria.
Cualquier cambio efectuado en este currículum oficial necesitará una revisión de las orientaciones para que se adapten a los nuevos
desarrollos del mismo.
3. La introducción en español a las orientaciones pedagógicas no constituye una traducción completa del documento: su objetivo es dotar a
los directores y profesores de los 44 centros de un resumen de los objetivos principales, los contenidos y los niveles de consecución en los
tres ciclos de Educación Primaria.
1
CONTENIDOS
Página/page
3:
Página/page
62:
Página/page 177:
Aspectos del currículum: (Español)
Curriculum guidelines: (English)
Cross-curricular topics
2
Índice de materias
Áreas
Descripción
Página
Información General
Introducción
Lenguaje, lectura y escritura
Introducción a la enseñanza de la lectura y la escritura en los años de primaria
Franjas de competencia
9
17
Ciencias, Geografía e Historia
Introducción (al área de Ciencias, Geografía e Historia)
Preguntas más frecuentes
Habilidades de investigación y científicas
22
22
26
Ciencias
Ciencias: Guía de la asignatura
Objetivos para desarrollar habilidades científicas
Contenidos de ciencias
Franjas de competencia
27
28
29
33
Geografía e Historia
Guía de la asignatura
Habilidades para la investigación en Geografía e Historia
Contenidos en Geografía
Franjas de competencia
Contenidos de Historia
Franjas de competencia en Historia
38
39
40
44
47
49
Arte y Diseño
Introducción
Contenidos
Habilidades
Franjas de competencia
51
53
54
57
Evaluación
Orientaciones generales sobre evaluación
59
4
3
Introducción
1.1.-Historia y objetivos del proyecto
El proyecto bilingüe del M.E.C.D./British Council, nacido en 1996 como un experimento único dentro del sistema educativo estatal español,
está ya bien establecido. Los primeros grupos de niños, que ahora tienen 11 y 12 años, están en el último curso de primaria y éste es su
octavo año en el proyecto.
El acuerdo formal entre el M.E.C.D. y el British Council plantea como objetivo del proyecto proporcionar a niños desde los 3 hasta los 16 años
una educación bilingüe y bicultural a través de un currículum integrado español/inglés, basado en el Currículum Español y en aspectos del
National Curriculum para Inglaterra y Gales. Dicho currículum goza de reconocimiento oficial (BOE 2 Mayo 2000).
La implantación de un currículum como éste implica una actitud en el aula muy distinta a la de la clase de inglés como lengua extranjera (EFL)
tradicional, centrada en el aprendizaje de inglés, en vez del estudio de distintas áreas a través del inglés. Este enfoque integrado coincide
plenamente con el espíritu de las directivas del Consejo Europeo, que insiste en la necesidad de que los niños hayan adquirido competencia
lingüística en tres idiomas europeos al finalizar la educación secundaria obligatoria, y que el aprendizaje de la primera lengua extranjera
comience en los primeros años de la educación formal.
Los objetivos específicos del proyecto son los siguientes:
Fomentar la adquisición y el aprendizaje de ambos idiomas a través de un currículum integrado basado en contenidos
Crear conciencia de la diversidad de las dos culturas
Facilitar el intercambio de profesores y alumnos
Fomentar la utilización de las nuevas tecnologías en el aprendizaje de otras lenguas
En los casos que sea adecuado, fomentar la certificación de estudios bajo ambos sistemas educativos
1.2.- Fundamentación del documento.
En febrero de 2001, la Comisión de Seguimiento, máxima autoridad del proyecto, puso en marcha un equipo mixto de expertos ("Joint Study
Review Team, JSRT), cuya función era evaluar los progresos del programa obtenidos hasta la fecha. El equipo llegó a las conclusiones de que
para el proyecto eran necesarias:
4
Una clara definición de los contenidos y materias que han de impartirse en inglés, así como especificación de en qué momento habrían
de ser impartidos dichos contenidos.
Una definición de los criterios de evaluación al final del nivel de Educación Infantil, así como al final de cada uno de los ciclos de
Educación Primaria ( segundo, cuarto y sexto curso) que, por tanto, determinen el paso de un nivel al siguiente.
Esto condujo a la JRST a emitir las siguientes recomendaciones:
Recomendación 4: Currículum y evaluación:
El equipo de expertos recomienda la designación de un grupo de trabajo mixto hispano-británico que elabore y defina una propuesta
realista para el currículum básico, describiendo qué áreas y contenidos deben impartirse en cada lengua, en los niveles de Educación
Infantil y Primaria. Ese mismo grupo de trabajo debería también establecer los criterios y directrices para la evaluación. Sería
conveniente que el grupo estuviera formado por profesores británicos y españoles con experiencia en este proyecto, así como por
expertos del Ministerio y del British Council.
Esto llevó al siguiente Plan de Acción aprobado por la Comisión de Seguimiento:
Actuación 6:
La Comisión de Seguimiento ratificará la designación de un grupo de trabajo encargado de estudiar los contenidos del currículum
básico (BOE Mayo 2002) y decidir cuáles deben impartirse en lengua inglesa en los distintos niveles de Educación Infantil y Primaria,
así como los criterios de evaluación. Se deberán incluir también directrices e instrucciones sobre el papel de los tutores y de los
profesores, recomendaciones para un enfoque metodológico conjunto y sugerencias para un enfoque lógico en la distribución del
tiempo. Este documento deberá incluir también una lista completa de recursos (libros, materiales, equipamiento) para cada nivel.
1.3.-Marco - enfoque adoptado por el equipo de trabajo
El grupo de trabajo se constituyó en octubre de 2001 con el objetivo de producir un documento con directrices para el desarrollo del
currículum de Infantil y criterios de evaluación para este nivel que fuera ratificado por la Comisión de Seguimiento en junio de 2002. A esto
seguiría el desarrollo de un currículum para el primer y el segundo ciclo de Primaria en septiembre de 2002 y para el tercer ciclo en junio de
2003.
El equipo está formado por seis profesores del proyecto, tres españoles y tres británicos: los seis han trabajado en el proyecto durante más
de tres años. Los otros dos miembros del equipo son los responsables de dirigir el proyecto y son miembros de la Comisión de
Seguimiento.
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1.4. Enfoque adoptado por el equipo de trabajo
Los miembros del equipo de trabajo consultaron con los departamentos de primaria de los colegios del proyecto las áreas de
conocimiento que se imparten en inglés, el enfoque de la enseñanza de la lectura y la escritura, las ciencias, la geografía, la historia y el
arte, los niveles de competencia, las formas de calificar a los niños, los recursos, la organización de los horarios, la coordinación del
proyecto y el papel a desempeñar por los profesores involucrados en el proyecto.
Además, en el periodo de noviembre de 2002 a marzo de 2003 el equipo visitó 18 colegios del proyecto para lograr una visión más
profunda de las áreas de conocimiento mencionadas más arriba, y para encontrar los mejores ejemplos de práctica docente. El
documento final se ha elaborado cuidadosamente teniendo en cuenta la información recibida de los colegios y los mejores ejemplos de
práctica docente observados en las visitas.
Los miembros del equipo estudiaron a fondo tanto los currículos ingleses como los españoles, para producir un currículo integrado
español/inglés que combine contenidos además de enfoques metodológicos.
1.5 Elementos obligatorios troncales de las directrices curriculares y asignación de las horas de inglés
Las tres áreas que han de ser impartidas en inglés, en las cuales hay que llegar a ciertos niveles de competencia, y sobre las que habrá
que evaluar a los niños son:
Lengua, lectura y escritura
Ciencias, geografía e historia
Arte y diseño
Con objeto de lograr los objetivos docentes marcados para el final de cada ciclo, y para que los niños puedan desarrollarse plenamente
en la secundaria, un mínimo del 40% del horario escolar (10 de las 25 sesiones) deben dedicarse al inglés. Se sugieren combinaciones
como las siguientes hasta llegar a las 10 sesiones:
Lenguaje, lectura y escritura: 4 ó 5 sesiones
Ciencias, geografía e historia: 2, 3 ó 4 sesiones
Arte y diseño: 1 ó 2 sesiones
En este documento no se analiza la enseñanza de educación física a través del inglés, dado que, por lo que se ha observado en los
colegios, ha quedado claro que el desarrollo de la lengua inglesa a través de la educación física es extremadamente limitado después
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de los tres años iniciales del ciclo infantil. En caso de darse clases de educación física éstas sólo deberían impartirse aparte de
las 10 sesiones detalladas más arriba.
Las matemáticas no aparecen como materia troncal en el documento de primaria aunque sí se considere que es una parte integral de
las directrices para educación infantil. Esto se debe a que el enfoque de la enseñanza de las matemáticas difiere radicalmente en los
dos idiomas. Sin embargo, conceptos tales como el tiempo, medidas y tamaños, forma, volumen y el lenguaje de las matemáticas que
se introducen en este ciclo deberían seguir desarrollándose como y cuando surjan en cualquier materia o tema durante la educación
primaria.
El teatro es obviamente un área clave en el desarrollo del niño, permitiendo el desarrollo tanto de la comunicación como de la
creatividad. Como tal, es una materia troncal del currículo. Está incluido en la sección sobre lengua, lectura y escritura, pero, como
ocurre en el currículo español, las sesiones de arte también pueden utilizarse para desarrollar actividades teatrales.
1.6 El papel de los profesores en el proyecto
El proyecto tiene más éxito en aquellos colegios donde ya es considerado como un proyecto integrado, en todos los sentidos del
término. Esto significa que la coordinación entre todos los miembros del profesorado es esencial, tanto dentro de cada ciclo, como entre
los distintos ciclos, así como, claramente, en la etapa de transición entre infantil y primaria. Es un hecho notable que los niveles de
competencia son mucho más altos en aquellos colegios en los que los profesores han dispuesto de un tiempo específico para trabajar
juntos en labores de planificación y coordinación.
El profesor español y el profesor del proyecto deben planificar las clases conjuntamente para asegurarse de que se cubren los
contenidos del currículo integrado de la manera más eficiente posible dentro del tiempo del que se dispone (ver sección 5).
Tener a dos profesores en el aula es una ventaja cuando los dos se apoyan mutuamente mientras imparten clase. Sin embargo, en el
aula de primaria no es indispensable, y puede que el horario se organice mejor si se aprovecha el que haya profesores “extra” para
organizar algunas sesiones, tanto en español como en inglés, con grupos más pequeños. Los profesores del proyecto, como profesores
cualificados, pueden trabajar solos en el aula.
No es esencial que todas las clases tengan un profesor “nativo” al año. Cada vez hay más profesores “del proyecto” que no son
británicos “nativos”, sino bilingües o con un nivel de inglés muy alto. Además, cada año hay más profesores españoles, habitualmente
del “código 99”, que tienen un nivel excelente de inglés. Estas tres “categorías” son igualmente responsables de impartir la parte inglesa
del proyecto. No es profesionalmente aceptable para ningún profesor trabajar con más de cuatro grupos/dos niveles.
Tanto los profesores españoles de inglés como los profesores “del proyecto” pueden impartir todas las áreas del currículo. No es ni
necesario ni recomendable que sólo los profesores “del proyecto” enseñen a leer y a escribir. Muchos profesores de inglés españoles
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han asistido a cursos de lectura y escritura o han ido de viaje de estudios a Liverpool. Siguiendo las directrices del currículo, también
podrían responsabilizarse del área de lengua/lectura y escritura del proyecto.
1.7 Objetivos de las franjas de competencia
Al final de cada ciclo todos los profesores deben considerar el nivel de competencia individual de cada niño. Se trata de los niveles de
competencia descritos para lengua, ciencias, geografía e historia. Salvo circunstancias excepcionales, se debería encontrar una
distribución en torno a:
10% en la primera franja
70% en la segunda franja
20% en la tercera franja (la del nivel superior)
para cada una de las áreas arriba descritas. Si no se logran estos objetivos, la dirección del colegio debería proceder a examinar:
a) el número de horas dedicadas a las sesiones en inglés
b) el enfoque metodológico y la utilización de los recursos
c) la coordinación y continuidad del proyecto
d) la necesidad de estimular más a los niños y de subir el nivel de las expectativas
El equipo que elabora estas directrices agradecería conocer sus opiniones y sugerencias. Es un currículo en desarrollo que cambiará
según los comentarios recibidos, así como, evidentemente, según los cambios en el currículo español.
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Lenguaje, lectura y escritura
INTRODUCCIÓN A LA ENSEÑANZA DE LA LECTURA Y LA ESCRITURA EN LOS AÑOS DE PRIMARIA
¿En qué consiste enseñar a leer y a escribir?
Enseñar a leer y escribir supone mucho más que enseñar la mecánica de leer. El concepto inglés de “literacy” supone dominar las cuatro
destrezas de la lengua: comprensión y expresión oral, escritura y lectura. El equilibrio entre estas cuatro actividades proporciona al niño una
mayor oportunidad de supervivencia en inglés y fortalece su autoestima, su identidad y su desarrollo emocional. Saber leer permite el acceso a
textos tanto de ficción como de no ficción que formarán y desarrollarán intelectualmente al niño. Además, el bilingüismo permite la entrada del
niño en diferentes mundos sociales y culturales. Asimismo, a medida que los niños adquieren confianza en sí mismos y leen mejor, su
conocimiento y su dominio de la lengua se hace más personal e individualizado.
¿Cómo debería desarrollarse la lectura y la escritura en el contexto de todo el colegio?
Ser capaz de leer y de comunicarse con fluidez y en inglés y disfrutando, implica que una serie de destrezas han de desarrollarse a lo largo de
la etapa de primaria. Hay que establecer una política de lectura y escritura que incluya a todo el colegio, y que tiene que ser fruto de una
planificación y coordinación cuidadosas entre cursos y entre ciclos.
¿Cuándo se debería enseñar a leer y a escribir?
Es esencial mantener un enfoque diario sobre la lectura y la escritura, pero no hay que limitarlo a La Hora de la Lectura. También hay que
desarrollar la lengua en geografía, historia, ciencias y arte.
¿Cómo debe organizarse la lectura y la escritura en el contexto del aula?
El papel del profesor en primaria es enseñar las destrezas necesarias para permitir que los niños se conviertan en lectores y comunicadores
confiados e independientes.
La enseñanza de las destrezas lingüísticas deben planificarse para asegurar que hablar, escuchar, leer y escribir se trabajan de una forma
equilibrada e integrada en el aula.
¿Cómo se anima a escuchar activamente?
Escuchar con confianza depende del conocimiento y la experiencia de los niños así como de su motivación y su integración. Escuchan mejor
cuando la información les resulta significativa e interesante, y cuando tiene un objetivo claro. Es necesario:
o leer buenos cuentos, con ritmo, rimas y repeticiones
o elegir textos, tanto de ficción como de no ficción, que respondan a los intereses de los niños
o ofrecer buenos apoyos visuales para facilitar la comprensión
o utilizar gestos y expresiones faciales para facilitar la comprensión
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o
decir a los niños que respondan de una manera específica a lo que escuchan; una respuesta física total aún es importante en el primer
ciclo. En el segundo y en el tercer ciclo se puede pedir a los niños que presten atención, y luego pedirles que recuerden una
información determinada, a menudo para tomar una decisión o hacer una elección sobre lo que han oído.
¿Cómo se estimula a los niños para que hablen?
o Repasos: son narraciones sencillas de sus propias experiencias. Al principio, las fotografías, o los dibujos secuenciales de los niños
pueden utilizarse como apoyo para extraer frases que describan una actividad compartida. El trabajo escrito en segundo o tercer ciclo
puede ir precedido de un repaso oral sobre la experiencia compartida, como por ejemplo un viaje escolar.
o Informar de noticias: es más fácil si los niños pueden pintar o dibujar sus noticias primero. En el primer año el profesor puede
proporcionar un marco de noticias con pequeños diagramas que ilustren las preguntas ¿cuándo? ¿quién? ¿dónde? y ¿qué? Los niños
pueden entonces dibujar las “respuestas” y utilizar estos dibujos para construir una frase con ayuda del profesor. No hay tiempo para
hacer esto con cada uno de los niños, así que dar noticias por turnos es buena idea. Una caja de cartón puede convertirse en un
soporte estimulante para dar noticias o partes meteorológicos. En el segundo ciclo, los niños pueden informar sobre un acontecimiento
con menos estímulos, y en el tercer ciclo esta actividad puede dar lugar a presentaciones orales o a representar las informaciones
como si fueran presentadores de las noticias de la televisión. Estas actividades pueden grabarse en vídeo para que los niños puedan
evaluar su propia actuación y la de los demás.
o
o
o
Contar cuentos o historias: al principio los niños relatan historias con un lenguaje muy repetitivo, muy estructurado y con ayuda del
profesor. A lo largo del primer ciclo empiezan gradualmente a necesitar menos apoyo y a improvisar más. Son útiles los apoyos
narrativos, como imágenes para la pizarra magnética, marionetas, máscaras o sombreros. Es importante repasar el listado de alumnos
para asegurarse de que todos tienen una oportunidad de actuar. En los ciclos segundo y tercero el trabajo de los niños irá en la
dirección de ser capaces de escribir un resumen breve de una historia. Es importante practicar antes de forma oral.
Recitar poemas, canciones y cánticos: los niños deben ir aumentando su repertorio de poemas, canciones y cánticos que se hayan
aprendido de memoria, utilizando música y gestos que les ayuden a recordar la letra y a llenar los textos de sentido. La práctica regular
aumenta la autoestima de los niños, fortaleciendo su confianza en el uso del inglés. También mejoran su conocimiento de las rimas, los
ritmos y los sonidos del idioma. A los niños de primaria más mayores se les puede motivar haciendo uso de canciones pop y de temas
musicales de películas recientes.
Representación de roles y teatro: al trabajar un cuento, es preciso utilizar roles para explorar situaciones, personajes y emociones a
través de la improvisación. La utilización de marionetas y máscaras puede animar a los hablantes más reticentes a participar. A
menudo, después de dramatizar un cuento los niños encontrarán una actividad de lectura o escritura relacionada en el cuento más
estimulante y asequible, porque han representado las situaciones y tienen una mayor comprensión del texto. A los niños también hay
que darles la oportunidad de improvisar un juego de rol y de jugar con las marionetas en un entorno no estructurado. Los teléfonos de
juguete también son buenos apoyos para escenificar diálogos. Los niños deberían ser más capaces de improvisar en inglés en el
segundo ciclo. La improvisación a partir de personajes puede en el tercer ciclo servir de base para escribir sus propias obras de teatro.
A los niños les gusta actuar en público, y en los ensayos aprenden fragmentos de lenguaje útil en su contexto.
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Hablar de sí mismos y de su vida diaria: aprender a describir el aspecto físico, la familia o las mascotas es mucho más fácil si los
niños pueden traer fotografías. Éstas pueden convertirse en libros. Los niños más mayores pueden además trasladar esta exposición
oral sobre sí mismos al trabajo escrito. Si puede establecerse un vínculo con niños de habla inglesa en otro colegio, los alumnos
pueden entonces escribirse los unos a los otros para intercambiar información.
Inglés funcional: los niños deben aprender frases útiles sobre su rutina diaria. Es más fácil insistir en que ciertas peticiones se hagan
siempre en inglés si están colocadas de manera bien visible en el aula, con ilustraciones si es necesario. A través de la práctica
constante, los niños pueden asimilar patrones lingüísticos útiles para así poder formular sus propias construcciones gramaticales con
sentido, por ejemplo, “Can I...?”
Preguntar y conseguir respuestas: los niños deben ser capaces de responder a preguntas más formales para poder relacionarse con
otros adultos, por ejemplo, con gente que visita el colegio. Comprender y utilizar las fórmulas interrogativas puede practicarse de
manera divertida con un juego o una rima, como por ejemplo:
What’s your name? Mary Jane
Where do you live? Down the lane
What’s your number? Cucumber
What’s your address?
Watercress
Esto se puede practicar con marionetas, y luego los niños pueden cambiar las contestaciones para dar respuestas verídicas acerca de
sí mismos.
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Presentaciones orales: desde el segundo ciclo los niños pueden preparar presentaciones orales relacionadas con los temas
que estén estudiando. Pueden practicar en casa y luego hacer su exposición oral frente al resto de la clase. Vale la pena que
todo el grupo evalúe la presentación, ya que obliga a la clase discutir y valorar la forma en que nos expresamos.
¿Cómo se enseña a leer y a escribir?
En la hora diaria dedicada a leer y escribir nos podemos centrar en un texto de ficción o de no ficción. En las Páginas de Recursos al final de
esta sección sobre lenguaje, lectura y escritura se puede encontrar un ejemplo detallado de cómo explotar una historia de ficción para la
enseñanza de la lectura y la escritura, y varios ejemplos de cómo utilizar y construir textos de no ficción.
¿Cómo se enseñan los contenidos de lenguaje?
o Fonética: La enseñanza de la fonética y la ortografía tiene que ser sistemática y, siempre que sea posible, derivada del trabajo
sobre un texto, no estudiada de forma aislada. El colegio debe decidir los objetivos de cada año y de cada trimestre, y revisarlos
con regularidad. El orden en el que se impartan los fonemas y su ortografía depende de los conocimientos previos de los niños,
del lenguaje que se enseñe en otras partes del currículo y de los textos y lecturas adaptadas de que cada colegio disponga.
Pueden encontrarse listas útiles de las palabras más comunes en las guías de los sistemas de lectura y en la página web del
currículo nacional británico: www.nc.uk.net Está escrito para niños que viven en Reino Unido, pero puede adaptarse a nuestras
necesidades.
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Ortografía: aprender la ortografía de unas palabras determinadas para algún tipo de control es algo que puede introducirse a
partir del segundo año. Se pueden seleccionar palabras de ortografía similar, palabras con una irregularidad común, o
vocabulario relativo a un determinado tema. Se puede animar a los niños a aprender a estudiar y memorizar palabras. En cursos
más altos de primaria, puede asociarse el trabajo de ortografía al trabajo con diccionarios o con el glosario de los libros
informativos.
Estructuras sintácticas y gramática: Los niños deben utilizar las estructuras gramaticales habituales en su trabajo escrito
colectivo, y pueden empezar ordenando las palabras de frases comunes. Nuestro objetivo es la fluidez, y al principio es
importante no centrarse en los aspectos formales de la gramática. En el segundo ciclo los niños reciben clase de gramática
formal en español, y es buena idea coordinar estas clases con los profesores españoles, para activar los conocimientos previos
de los niños. La conciencia gramatical se puede adquirir de una manera experimental e investigadora; por ejemplo, los niños de
segundo ciclo pueden investigar los verbos en pasado extrayéndolos de distintos cuentos y luego clasificándolos en regulares o
irregulares. Luego los regulares pueden clasificarse en tres grupos en función de la pronunciación del final de –ed. Los niños
pueden experimentar también sacando el verbo de una frase para ver si ésta sigue teniendo sentido, o sustituyendo un verbo
por otro para ver cómo afecta al significado. En el tercer ciclo los estudiantes han de ser conscientes de todas las estructuras
gramaticales que han aprendido en la primaria, para así tener confianza a la hora de aproximarse a estructuras gramaticales
formales y demostrar fácilmente lo que saben al comenzar la educación secundaria.
Puntuación: hay que enseñar a los alumnos a reconocer la importancia y el propósito de las mayúsculas, los puntos, las
comas, los signos de interrogación, los de exclamación y las comillas. Asimismo hay que demostrar, a la hora de leer, cómo la
puntuación afecta a la lectura de un pasaje. Se les puede enseñar dónde puntuar en los ejercicios de escritura dirigida, y
animarles a hacerlo de manera imaginativa en su escritura personal. Reflexionar sobre cómo un autor ha utilizado la puntuación
puede proporcionar a los niños un contexto estimulante para enfrentarse a la puntuación en su propia escritura.
Vocabulario: se puede animar a utilizar una gama más amplia de vocabulario creando y citando los bancos de palabras
personales o de clase, y trasladando conocimientos de otras partes del currículo. También necesitan utilizar diccionarios
monolingües sencillos y otros libros de referencia a la hora de escribir.
¿Cómo motivar a los niños para que disfruten de la lectura?
También en primaria lo más adecuado es el trabajo con libros “auténticos” (tanto cuentos como libros de referencia y consulta). Es importante
establecer una buena biblioteca de clase con recursos que sean no sólo coloridos y atractivos, sino también de un nivel cognitivo y de interés
adecuado a la edad de los niños. Todas las actividades de lectura deberían ser muy estimulantes y divertidas para los niños. Además de las
actividades dirigidas por el profesor, los niños deben tener la oportunidad de leer por placer en actividades no estructuradas. No todos los
libros del 'rincón la lectura' tienen que apoyarse con actividades de explotación de textos. Algunos libros hay que leerlos por diversión, y habría
que tener disponibles otros libros de menor nivel para la lectura fácil. Esto aumenta la autoestima de los niños y el placer de leer.
Todos los niños han de tener acceso a una zona de lectura agradable y cómoda en algún lugar del colegio. Tienen que poder elegir entre una
gama de cuentos, poemas, obras de teatro y textos de no ficción, y seleccionar libros para leer en casa regularmente. Poder elegir es muy
importante. Acceder a libros cuyo texto venga también en cinta de cassette puede ser divertido para los niños, aparte de que les ayuda a leer
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en alto con más confianza y fluidez. Además de leer solos o con amigos, a los niños de todas las edades les encanta escuchar a un adulto
leyendo cuentos, de manera que establecer un tiempo para la lectura de cuentos puede ser un paso positivo para promover la lectura. A veces
se puede leer un libro simplemente, pero en otras ocasiones es bueno explotar el libro durante un periodo de tiempo para optimizar el
aprendizaje.
Juegos de lectura: pueden centrarse a nivel de palabras aisladas, de frases, o de todo el texto. A los niños les resultan divertidos y les dan la
oportunidad de leer para descubrir el significado, o para deducirlo del contexto del texto.
A medida que desarrollan una mayor comprensión del mundo a través de las asignaturas de ciencias, geografía e historia, se les puede
enseñar lo útil y divertido que puede ser buscar información en libros de no ficción. El profesor puede planificar actividades para animar a los
alumnos a utilizar estos textos eficazmente, y al progresar en la educación primaria deberían darse cuenta de lo estimulantes y útiles que
pueden resultar los libros informativos, ya que los han estado utilizando en contextos significativos.
Teatro: forma parte integral del desarrollo lingüístico, y es una herramienta excelente para contribuir al desarrollo de los niños en las cuatro
destrezas del lenguaje. Generalmente, los niños participan con entusiasmo en improvisaciones de historias, situaciones habituales y en la
representación de un proceso científico, como por ejemplo el sistema circulatorio. Al hacerlo, su comprensión del texto aumenta y su
comunicación oral y escrita se vuelve más eficaz.
Aprender sobre autores, poetas e ilustradores puede despertar el interés de los niños por leer sus obras y les inclina a utilizar ideas
extraídas de su trabajo en su propia escritura. La visita de un escritor conocido puede resultar enormemente estimulante, aunque es muy difícil
de conseguir. Sin embargo, utilizar documentales de vídeo y proporcionar acceso a sitios relevantes de internet constituyen pasos
constructivos para promover la lectura por placer.
Al comenzar el primer ciclo, se puede animar a los niños para que elaboren su propia lista de libros leídos. Durante el segundo ciclo pueden
escribir un breve resumen de los libros que hayan leído, y empezar a expresar su opinión sobre ellos. Para cuando lleguen al tercer ciclo,
deberían haber tenido suficiente acceso a textos de calidad como para haber desarrollado su propio gusto literario.
¿Cómo animar a la escritura personal y creativa?
En todas las etapas los niños deberían participar tanto en actividades de escritura estructurada y guiada por el profesor así como tener la
oportunidad de escribir por placer en actividades no estructuradas. Siempre que sea posible, debería haber un espacio en el aula destinado
exclusivamente a la escritura. Podría situarse cerca de la zona de lectura y estar provista de libros de palabras, diccionarios y cuadros de
palabras afines, además de materiales de escritura y papel. Los niños deberían ser capaces de expresarse libremente de forma escrita. A
medida que vayan sintiéndose más confiados, se les puede animar a inspirarse en textos que conozcan y a utilizar como estímulo principios de
historias que pueden contribuir a desarrollar su escritura. Para cuando lleguen al tercer ciclo, los proyectos de investigación personal
supondrán una oportunidad ideal para que los alumnos escriban por placer y con un objetivo, y les permitan utilizar las muchas destrezas de la
escritura aprendidas a lo largo de la primaria.
Las actividades de escritura guiada son esenciales en todas las etapas. A través de la discusión de clase o de grupo, acerca de la mecánica
de la escritura basada en la palabra suelta, la frase y el texto, antes y después de la escritura individual, los niños pueden ir aprendiendo
nuevas destrezas. Además, aprenden a evaluar su propio trabajo y a estudiar formas de mejorarlo.
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Siempre hay que dar a los niños la oportunidad de expresar sus ideas para hacer de la escritura una actividad personal e imaginativa. Contar
un hecho a la clase, a un grupo o a un amigo puede ayudar a los alumnos a construir su texto, ya sea una oración, en el primer año, un párrafo
corto o un texto más largo en el tercer ciclo. Basándose en la discusión, los alumnos de segundo y tercer ciclo serán capaces de tomar
apuntes y organizar un plan de escritura antes de ponerse a escribir, permitiéndoles así contar con una estructura clara antes de escribir. Esto
se puede hacer en grupos pequeños, en parejas, o individualmente.
La escritura imaginativa puede basarse a menudo en un texto de calidad. Si los niños han disfrutado leyendo un cuento, una obra teatral o un
poema, pueden basar su propia escritura en un esquema similar, volver a contar la historia en un contexto diferente o darle al texto otro final.
Dramatizar situaciones, crear bancos de palabras y colocar reglas de escritura bien visibles en la zona del aula dispuesta para ello son todas
formas eficaces y estimulantes de preparar a nuestros alumnos para convertirse en escritores seguros y eficaces.
Ideas para la escritura guiada:
o elegir un texto que hayan escrito los niños e involucrarlos en su corrección.
o tomar apuntes de una charla y luego utilizarlos como base de la escritura.
o utilizar diagramas con rótulos o tablas de información como base de escritura.
o utilizar a un autor como modelo a seguir.
o escritura de procedimientos, extrayendo de los niños vocabulario clave y verbos esenciales antes de empezar.
o proporcionar actividades de escritura descriptiva, creando un banco de palabras antes de empezar.
o secuenciar oraciones en un texto.
o ordenar palabras en una secuencia.
o proporcionar oportunidades de escritura compartida, en las que se divide a la clase en grupos para escribir distintas secciones de un
cuento o de una obra dramática.
o escribir un resumen de un cuento o de un texto informativo que se haya trabajado previamente en clase.
o responder a preguntas sobre un texto corto.
o formular preguntas, por ejemplo, extraer de los niños áreas que investigar acerca de un tema.
¿Cómo se enseña a escribir con distintos objetivos?
Al llegar al tercer ciclo se espera que los niños sean capaces de escribir con distintos propósitos. Practicarán escribiendo cartas formales e
informales, noticias, experimentos científicos, recetas, listas, cuentos, tiras cómicas, diálogos, instrucciones y explicaciones. Es importante, por
tanto, introducirles gradualmente en los distintos modos de escritura funcional a lo largo de primaria. Para comunicarse dentro del colegio
pueden escribir cartas, notas y mensajes, y confeccionar carteles. El trabajo en geografía, historia y ciencias les proporcionará una base y un
vocabulario adecuado para el trabajo más ensayístico. En las sesiones de lectura y escritura los niños deben familiarizarse con estos distintos
formatos y registros y empezar a pensar en su objetivo y en el público al que se dirigen.
¿Cómo enfocar la escritura de no-ficción?
Hay que presentar a los niños obras de no ficción desde el principio. Debería haber una buena selección de textos de no ficción en la zona de
lectura, con algunos libros confeccionados por los propios niños. Podemos utilizarlos para familiarizar a los niños con las características de los
textos informativos, para que aprendan a buscar información, y también como modelos para los libros que ellos confeccionen. Los libros
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informativos son un elemento importante del trabajo sobre lectura y escritura, y pueden utilizarse para enseñar a nivel de texto, de oración y de
palabra.
En la etapa primaria, los niños deben aprender a leer para localizar información y a escribir con un propósito práctico.
En el primer ciclo pueden empezar a buscar datos en libros informativos o de referencia y a utilizar el índice.
Durante el segundo ciclo ya deberían, con ayuda del profesor, estar seleccionando textos apropiados donde encontrar y utilizar información
específica, y a utilizar estos mismos textos como modelos de su propia escritura. Pueden empezar a crear contenidos e índices al escribir sus
propios libros de no ficción y sus libros informativos de clase. También hay que introducirles en el uso del diccionario y enseñarles a utilizar el
orden alfabético para encontrar palabras, para que en las siguientes etapas de primaria puedan encontrar los significados de las palabras de
manera independiente.
Para más ideas acerca de los textos de no-ficción, ver la sección: Contenidos Inter-curriculares
¿Cómo enseñar caligrafía?
En las clases de inglés los niños pueden aprender caligrafía inglesa o usar la caligrafía española desde el principio. Se adaptan fácilmente a
uno u otro estilo. Los profesores a veces se preocupan en exceso de estos detalles, y es buena idea elaborar unas directrices para todo el
colegio y así resolver cualquier conflicto innecesario. El debate sobre mayúsculas/minúsculas quizá sea más significativo, ya que parecería que
los niños progresan más deprisa en lectura si se aprenden las minúsculas desde preescolar, en lugar de sólo las mayúsculas.
Sea cual sea la política del colegio sobre caligrafía, los profesores siempre habrán de comprobar que los niños sostienen bien el lápiz y
mantienen buena postura en las sesiones de escritura.
¿Cómo involucrar a los padres en la enseñanza de la lectura?
o Las reuniones trimestrales con padres constituyen una buena oportunidad de explicar nuestros métodos de lectura y darles ideas
acerca de cómo colaborar.
o También se pueden repartir entre los padres unos folletos explicativos sobre las diferencias entre leer en inglés y leer en español,
contándoles cómo sus hijos aprenden a leer en inglés, y cómo ellos pueden ayudarles.
o Si se usan lecturas adaptadas por niveles, se pueden grabar cintas de audio para llevar a casa con los libros. También pueden llevarse
a casa cajas de palabras y ortografía, para involucrar a los padres en el proceso de aprendizaje.
¿De qué nos podemos ayudar para enseñar a leer y a escribir?
Caja de herramientas de lectura y escritura:
o punteros para señalar libros grandes
o hojas de acetato para escribir sobre un libro, por ejemplo, inventándose los pensamientos de los personajes y escribiéndolos en
bocadillos
o notas de post-it para tapar palabras/frases o dibujos
o tarjetones en blanco donde escribir palabras clave
o una buena selección de libros de ficción y no ficción en formato grande con al menos 6 libros pequeños para la lectura guiada. Esta
selección debería incluir poemas, rimas y lecturas adaptadas por niveles, como por ejemplo, Oxford Reading Tree y Oxford Literacy
Web, Cambridge Readers...
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o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
una amplia selección de libros de ficción y de no ficción de distintos niveles
carteles del alfabeto y los fonemas
paredes llenas de palabras, bolsillos de palabras, hojas de palabras clave, cajas de palabras (palabras escogidas en cartulina para
trabajar en clase o en casa)
abanicos fónicos y pizarras blancas (ver página de recursos y Progreso en Fonética ISBN 0193122375)
juegos basados en libros
objetos de apoyo, como por ejemplo muñecos de personajes favoritos, marionetas/disfraces/máscaras
vídeos comerciales y cintas de audio/grabaciones de niños leyendo o cantando
una selección de libros elaborados individualmente o por el conjunto de la clase.
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FRANJAS DE COMPETENCIA
Las franjas de aptitud descritas son para el FINAL de CADA CICLO y están organizadas de la siguiente manera:
• Comprensión y expresión oral (escuchar y hablar)
• Comprensión y expresión escrita (leer y escribir)
Hay tres franjas para cada ciclo (siendo la franja 1 la del nivel más bajo). Cada niño que termina el segundo año de
cada ciclo debe encajar aproximadamente en una de las tres franjas. Las estimaciones serían:
• Franja 1- 10% de los niños
• Franja 2- 70% de los niños
• Franja 3- 20% de los niños
___________________________________________________
Comprensión y expresión oral: Primer Ciclo
Franja 1
Los alumnos utilizan el inglés para comunicar sus preocupaciones inmediatas. Escuchan al profesor y responden adecuadamente en la
mayoría de las ocasiones. Se comunican con otros para trasladar significados sencillos, utilizando unas pocas palabras y frases habituales y
sencillas. Ayudan a contar historias con estructuras predecibles y lenguaje estructurado.
Franja 2
Los alumnos son capaces de escuchar atentamente y responder adecuadamente a lo que se ha dicho, especialmente cuando se tratan temas
que les son familiares. Empiezan a compartir sus ideas y sus experiencias, utilizando estructuras habituales sencillas con más confianza.
Hablan en voz alta y clara. Son capaces de dar detalles cuando se les pregunta, para extender sus ideas, eligiendo vocabulario y frases
apropiadas. Pueden repetir la narración de historias con apoyo del profesor. Empiezan a usar el lenguaje y las acciones para describir
situaciones, personajes y emociones.
Franja 3
Los alumnos empiezan a escuchar y a hablar con más confianza, especialmente cuando los temas les resultan familiares. A través de
respuestas adecuadas y de preguntas, demuestran que están escuchando con atención. Comunican sus experiencias, ideas y opiniones a los
demás, utilizando su creciente conocimiento del inglés, además de frases habituales. Hablan en voz alta y con dicción clara. Pueden repetir la
narración de historias con menos apoyo, y en las improvisaciones empiezan a utilizar el lenguaje y las acciones para describir situaciones,
personajes y emociones.
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Comprensión y expresión escrita: Primer Ciclo
Franja 1
Los alumnos reconocen palabras habituales en textos sencillos. Utilizan su conocimiento de los fonemas, además de pistas contextuales para
leer textos, y para establecer el sentido cuando leen en alto. Su escritura comunica significado a través de palabras habituales y frases
sencillas. En estas actividades, los alumnos a menudo necesitan apoyo del profesor. En su lectura y escritura, los alumnos empiezan a ser
conscientes de cómo se utilizan las mayúsculas y los puntos. Empiezan a expresar su opinión sobre acontecimientos importantes o ideas en
cuentos, poemas y textos de no ficción.
Franja 2
Los alumnos reconocen una gama más amplia de palabras en textos sencillos. Usan pistas de tipo fonético, gráfico, sintáctico y contextuales
para enfrentarse a palabras desconocidas y para establecer el sentido cuando leen en alto. Expresan opiniones respecto de los
acontecimientos o ideas importantes que aparecen en cuentos, poemas o textos de no ficción.
La escritura de los alumnos comunica significado, y contiene vocabulario interesante y apropiado. Se organiza en una serie de frases con un
uso bastante adecuado de las mayúsculas y los puntos, y se utilizan estructuras gramaticales sencillas y habituales. Las palabras
monosilábicas conocidas normalmente se escriben sin faltas de ortografía. Los alumnos utilizan bancos de palabras, gráficos de fonemas,
diccionarios ilustrados y otros recursos para intentar escribir palabras menos comunes. En su lectura y escritura los niños demuestran
conocimiento de los elementos que caracterizan las distintas clases de textos.
Franja 3
Los niños leen una gama más amplia de textos con creciente exactitud y comprensión. Tanto en su lectura independiente como en las lecturas
compartidas escogen y utilizan pistas de tipo fonético, gráfico, sintáctico y contextuales para enfrentarse a palabras que no conocen y para
establecer su significado. En la lectura compartida transmiten su comprensión de las ideas principales y expresan sus preferencias al
responder a textos de ficción y no ficción. En la escritura compartida organizan su trabajo en una secuencia de frases y utilizan una gama más
amplia de estructuras y de vocabulario interesante. Los alumnos siguen utilizando bancos de palabras, gráficos fonéticos, diccionarios sencillos
y otros recursos para comprobar la ortografía de palabras menos comunes, pero en general escriben correctamente las palabras comunes. Las
oraciones están puntuadas con mayúsculas y puntos, y los signos de interrogación se utilizan correctamente. En su lectura y escritura los
alumnos empiezan a son conscientes de la correcta utilización de las comas y las comillas. Su escritura informativa transmite comprensión y
uso apropiado de la página de contenidos, el índice, los diagramas con rótulos y las tablas.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Comprensión y expresión oral: Segundo Ciclo
Franja 1
Los alumnos generalmente escuchan con atención y responden adecuadamente a lo que se ha dicho, especialmente cuando los temas les
resultan familiares. Responden correctamente a las preguntas y empiezan a utilizar estructuras sencillas con más confianza. Normalmente
hablan en voz alta y clara, eligiendo vocabulario y frases apropiadas. Pueden utilizar lenguaje sencillo para describir situaciones, personajes y
emociones.
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Franja 2
Los alumnos empiezan a mostrar confianza hablando y escuchando especialmente cuando utilizan lenguaje que conocen a través de su
trabajo en ésta u otras materias. Empiezan a formular preguntas correctamente y demuestran en sus respuestas y preguntas que han
comprendido lo que han oído. Son capaces de comunicar sus experiencias, ideas y opiniones a los demás. Hablan en voz alta y con dicción
clara. Hacen exposiciones orales con menos apoyo, y en las improvisaciones utilizan el lenguaje para describir situaciones, personajes y
emociones.
Franja 3
Los alumnos escuchan y hablan en una serie diversa de contextos con creciente confianza. A través de sus respuestas y preguntas relevantes,
transmiten que están escuchando atentamente. Comunican sus experiencias, ideas y opiniones a los demás, utilizando su dominio cada vez
mayor del inglés, además de frases habituales. Empiezan a adaptar lo que dicen a las necesidades del oyente. Hablan en voz alta y con
dicción clara. Los alumnos están empezando a demostrar su conocimiento del inglés gramatical estándar. Hacen exposiciones orales con
menos apoyo, y en las improvisaciones utilizan lenguaje y acciones para describir situaciones, personajes y emociones.
Comprensión y expresión escrita: Segundo Ciclo
Franja 1
En la lectura de textos sencillos los alumnos muestran generalmente una comprensión exacta. Expresan su opinión acerca de acontecimientos
importantes o ideas en relatos, poemas y textos de no ficción. Reconocen una amplia gama de palabras conocidas y utilizan más de una
estrategia fónica, gráfica, sintáctica o contextual, a la hora de leer palabras que no conocen para darles sentido. Al escribir, organizan su
trabajo en una secuencia de frases y utilizan una gama amplia de vocabulario y de estructuras gramaticales. Los alumnos siguen usando
bancos de palabras, gráficos de fonemas, diccionarios y otros recursos para comprobar la ortografía de las palabras menos comunes, pero en
general escriben correctamente las palabras conocidas. Las frases están puntuadas con mayúsculas y puntos. Los signos de interrogación, de
exclamación, las comas y las comillas son utilizadas correctamente con frecuencia. La estructura gramatical básica de las frases simples suele
ser correcta. La ortografía de las palabras comunes es generalmente correcta.
Franja 2
Los alumnos leen una gama de textos con cada vez mayor fluidez y exactitud. Leen independientemente, utilizando estrategias apropiadas
para interpretar su significado. Al responder a textos de ficción y no ficción demuestran comprensión de sus ideas principales y expresan sus
preferencias. Los alumnos utilizan su conocimiento del orden alfabético para localizar libros y encontrar información. La escritura de los
alumnos comunica significado, tanto en forma narrativa como no narrativa, utilizando vocabulario apropiado e interesante, y mostrando cierta
conciencia del lector al que va dirigida. Los alumnos hacen una utilización precisa de mayúsculas, puntos, signos de interrogación, signos de
exclamación, comas y comillas. La estructura gramatical básica de oraciones simples generalmente es correcta. La ortografía de las palabras
comunes normalmente es correcta.
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Franja 3
Los alumnos leen una gama de textos con fluidez y exactitud. Al responder a una serie diversa de textos, los alumnos demuestran
comprensión de ideas, temas, acontecimientos y personajes significativos. Se refieren al texto cuando explican sus puntos de vista. Localizan y
utilizan ideas e información. La escritura de los alumnos a menudo está bien organizada, es imaginativa y clara. Los rasgos principales de
distintas formas de escritura se utilizan adecuadamente, y empiezan a adaptarse a distintos lectores. La estructura gramatical básica de las
oraciones generalmente es correcta. La ortografía es cada vez más correcta.
__________________________________________________________________________________
Comprensión y expresión oral: Tercer Ciclo
Franja 1
Los alumnos hablan y escuchan con confianza, especialmente cuando utilizan lenguaje conocido. En las discusiones, muestran su
comprensión de los puntos principales. Son capaces de compartir sus ideas y experiencias, utilizando estructuras familiares sencillas con
mayor confianza. Hablan en voz alta y clara. Son capaces de formular preguntas y contestar correctamente. Demuestran conocimiento de la
gramática del inglés estándar y están empezando a utilizar distintos tiempos verbales con corrección.
Franja 2
Los alumnos hablan y escuchan con confianza en una gama cada vez mayor de contextos, incluyendo algunos de naturaleza formal. Cada vez
son más capaces de adaptar su habla a su objetivo y de transmitir hechos e ideas con claridad. En la discusión escuchan con atención,
participan con preguntas y respuestas a las ideas y opiniones de los demás. Utilizan adecuadamente los elementos básicos de la gramática
inglesa estándar.
Franja 3
Los alumnos hablan y escuchan con confianza en una amplia gama de contextos, incluyendo algunos de naturaleza formal. Su habla está
adaptada a su propósito, desarrollando ideas cuidadosamente, describiendo acontecimientos y transmitiendo con claridad sus opiniones. Su
habla capta la atención del oyente. En una discusión, escuchan con atención, e intervienen con preguntas y respuestas a las ideas y opiniones
que exponen los demás. Utilizan adecuadamente muchos de los elementos de la gramática inglesa estándar.
Comprensión y expresión escrita: Tercer Ciclo
Franja 1
Los alumnos leen una gama de textos con fluidez y exactitud. Al responder a una serie diversa de textos, los alumnos demuestran su
comprensión de ideas, temas, acontecimientos y personajes significativos. Se refieren al texto al explicar su punto de vista. Localizan y utilizan
ideas e información. La escritura de los alumnos con frecuencia está bien organizada y es clara e imaginativa. Los elementos principales de los
distintos tipos de escritura se usan adecuadamente, empezando a adaptarse a diferentes lectores. La estructura gramatical básica de las
oraciones suele ser correcta. La ortografía es cada vez más correcta.
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Franja 2
Los alumnos muestran comprensión de una serie diversa de textos, seleccionando ideas clave y utilizando la inferencia y la deducción cuando
resulta apropiado. En sus respuestas, identifican elementos clave, temas y personajes y seleccionan oraciones, frases e información relevante
sobre la que basar sus puntos de vista. Los alumnos buscan y seleccionan información de diversas fuentes. La escritura de los alumnos en
una gama variada de formas es cuidadosa e interesante. Se desarrollan las ideas y se organizan adecuadamente según su propósito y su
lector. Escogen vocabulario de manera más audaz. La ortografía, incluso la de las palabras polisilábicas que se ajustan a patrones regulares,
generalmente es correcta. La puntuación dentro de la oración suele ser correcta. Los textos se organizan en párrafos.
Franja 3
Al leer y analizar una serie diversa de textos, los alumnos comentan su significado y su efecto. Dan respuestas personales frente a textos
literarios, refiriéndose a aspectos del lenguaje, la estructura y los temas para justificar sus opiniones. Resumen información diversa de distintas
fuentes. La escritura de estos alumnos es variada e interesante, transmitiendo el significado claramente en una variedad de formas para
distintos lectores, utilizando un estilo más formal si resulta apropiado. La ortografía, incluyendo la de palabras polisilábicas que responden a
patrones regulares, generalmente es correcta. La puntuación dentro de la oración suele ser correcta. Los textos se organizan en párrafos.
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CIENCIAS, GEOGRAFÍA E HISTORIA
Ciencias, Geografía e Historia: Introducción
A través de las asignaturas de ciencias, geografía e historia, los alumnos conocen el mundo que les rodea.
Estudiar ciencias, geografía e historia supone conocer las condiciones sociales y físicas que influyen o han influido en nuestras vidas y en las
de nuestras comunidades. La adquisición de conocimientos científicos, geográficos e históricos es un proceso por el que pasa cada
generación para comprender su situación actual y, a ser posible, mejorarla.
Nuestra tarea como profesores consiste en desarrollar los conocimientos de los alumnos, así como su comprensión de los principios e ideas
importantes de las ciencias sociales y naturales. También es fundamental enseñar una serie de destrezas para que los niños puedan
desarrollar su capacidad de pensar críticamente y de resolver problemas en un contexto social o científico. Por último, como profesores,
nuestro objetivo ha de ser el de estructurar el aprendizaje de los alumnos para que sean capaces de desarrollar valores basados en la
información acerca de su entorno familiar y de su entorno más amplio a través de experiencias reales y significativas.
Ciencias, Geografía e Historia: Preguntas más frecuentes
¿Cuánto tiempo debe emplearse en enseñar estas asignaturas?
El siguiente currículo troncal se ha diseñado para ser cubierto en al menos 3 sesiones semanales.
La mayoría de los niños del proyecto reciben cinco sesiones a la semana de lo que se conoce en la actualidad como Conocimiento del Medio,
que a menudo se divide en tres sesiones en inglés y dos en español.
¿Cómo se pueden cubrir todos los contenidos de Ciencias, Geografía e Historia en los dos idiomas y en cada uno de los ciclos?
En España, los seis años de Educación Primaria se agrupan en tres ciclos. Cada ciclo es de dos años. Los primeros años de cada ciclo
(Primero, Tercero y Quinto) se basan en nuevos contenidos, mientras que los segundos años (Segundo, Cuarto y Sexto) se centran en la
revisión y consolidación de los que se ha impartido antes. Los contenidos se ordenan cíclicamente para afrontar los mismos temas en distintas
ocasiones a lo largo de la Primaria. Empiezan con los aspectos básicos más significativos para los niños y luego pasan a contenidos más
detallados y complejos.
De los objetivos presentados en este documento, los profesores deben elegir qué impartir en cada año del ciclo, de manera que al final del
ciclo todos hayan sido cubiertos.
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Es importante que para el final de cada ciclo los niños se hayan aproximado a los contenidos de ciencias, historia y geografía en inglés y en
español de una manera organizada y coherente. Así nos aseguramos de haber cubierto conceptos específicos y conocimientos generales en
ambos idiomas. Evidentemente, algunos aspectos del currículo español se enseñan mejor en español (la función del ayuntamiento, por
ejemplo, o la organización regional en Comunidades Autónomas).
Hay distintas maneras de dividir las ciencias, la geografía y la historia entre los dos idiomas. Los siguientes ejemplos muestran tres
posibilidades aunque, por supuesto, existen otras combinaciones posibles.
Ejemplo 1: Dividir el número de temas en dos grupos: inglés y español, para luego intercambiarlos en el siguiente año. Por ejemplo, los niños
aprenden sobre el agua en el primer año en inglés y al siguiente en español.
Ejemplo 2: Enseñar el mismo tema en los dos idiomas al mismo tiempo.
Existe el peligro de que esto se vuelva innecesariamente repetitivo y aburrido para los niños, de forma que hay que decidir qué aspectos han
de impartirse en cada idioma. El español puede utilizarse para presentar el tema, por ejemplo, y el inglés para desarrollarlo, o al contrario.
Por ejemplo, los niños aprenden la clasificación de los animales en español y luego desarrollan un proyecto en inglés sobre uno de los
animales, como por ejemplo el tiburón.
Ejemplo 3: Variar la cantidad de tiempo que se destina a cada tema.
Si un tema ya se ha cubierto extensamente en el primer año de un ciclo, puede revisarse como un mini-tema en el segundo año.
Por ejemplo, en Tercero, el primer año, los niños pueden hacer un gran proyecto sobre plantas, y en Cuarto elaborar un mini-libro sobre el ciclo
vital de la planta que ellos escojan, revisando los conocimientos y el vocabulario estudiados previamente.
¿Cómo coordinar las Ciencias, la Geografía y la Historia?
Al principio del curso escolar, todos los profesores involucrados en la enseñanza de estas tres materias en inglés y del español necesitan
discutir y llegar a un acuerdo acerca de los contenidos que han de cubrirse en cada idioma.
Es muy importante clarificar QUÉ se va a enseñar en cada idioma y CÓMO se van a distribuir los contenidos a lo largo del ciclo. El orden y
forma en que están agrupados los temas en este documento es orientativo. Se pueden diseñar temas para ciencias, geografía e historia
respondiendo a los intereses de los niños, vinculando los temas a otras áreas del currículo. (esquema pag.
Pueden encontrarse ejemplos concretos de documentos inter-curriculares en la sección titulada: Enfoques Inter-curriculares
¿Cuáles son las diferencias principales entre los enfoques español e inglés a la hora de impartir Ciencias, Geografía e Historia?
Existen diferencias tanto en los enfoques como en el contenido.
El currículo español tiene un contenido más amplio de información que hay que aprender. Los contenidos de ciencias se refieren más a la
biología que a la física (procesos físicos) o a la química (materiales y sus propiedades). En el primer ciclo, la geografía y la historia se centran
en el entorno local. En el segundo y tercer ciclos estos contenidos se amplían ligeramente para incluir información sobre España y Europa.
En el currículo británico se da más importancia a la física y la química básicas. En geografía e historia, los niños británicos estudian no sólo el
entorno local, sino también otras partes del mundo.
23
En el sistema español hay un mayor énfasis en las destrezas del conocimiento y las técnicas de estudio (leer, extraer información, clasificar,
resumir o memorizar). Sin embargo, el sistema británico pone el acento más bien sobre la investigación y la comprensión a través del
descubrimiento personal y la experimentación. Por ejemplo, los niños aprenden el concepto de “fair test” y aprenden a diseñar sus propios
experimentos y a sacar conclusiones.
Nuestro objetivo es ofrecer a los niños lo mejor de los dos sistemas. Debemos intentar integrar cuanto nos sea posible de los dos
enfoques.
¿Cómo pueden desarrollarse las destrezas de la lectura y la escritura a través de las ciencias, la geografía y la historia?
Trabajo oral
El trabajo oral es la base de la mayoría de las clases de ciencias, geografía e historia. Este trabajo oral tiene que ser guiado en el primer ciclo
pero gradualmente debería hacerse más independiente a lo largo de la primaria. El trabajo oral es muy importante en la planificación y
desarrollo de tareas. Las discusiones en grupo son necesarias para extraer de ellas las preguntas que se tienen que investigar, el diseño de
los experimentos y la extracción de conclusiones. Las discusiones en grupo son necesarias en todas las etapas para:
• obtener las preguntas que se tienen que investigar
• diseñar experimentos y finalmente
• extraer conclusiones
Actividades prácticas
Las actividades prácticas con equipos reales constituyen una buena oportunidad para utilizar la lengua en un contexto claro. Estas actividades
motivan a los niños para que escuchen atentamente y sigan instrucciones sencillas.
Registro de la actividad
Las actividades de lectura y escritura posteriores a un trabajo oral ofrecen una buena oportunidad para consolidar elementos del idioma;
etiquetar diagramas, apuntar resultados y describir procesos. Estas actividades desarrollan simultáneamente el lenguaje, los conocimientos y
la comprensión.
Información
Los niños deberían tener la oportunidad de desarrollar su capacidad para buscar información y referencias en inglés y para confeccionar sus
propios libros de texto.
Para más detalles acerca de cómo trabajar con textos informativos ver a la sección Enfoques inter-curriculares
24
Acuerdos de ciclo
1¿QUÉ se va a enseñar?
Inglés
Español
2. ¿CÓMO distribuirlo?
Contenidos 1º año
Diseño de unidades didácticas
Contenidos 2º año
Evaluación y análisis de los resultados
Actualización y reutilización
25
Ciencias, Geografía e Historia:
Habilidades de Investigación y Científicas
Las habilidades de investigación son aquellas que se necesitan para pensar, investigar, formular preguntas y descubrir el mundo. Estas
habilidades pueden desarrollarse a través de experimentos prácticos en clase de ciencias, geografía e historia. Sin embargo, no siempre es
posible diseñar experimentos científicos apropiados para todos los temas y/o alumnos. Puede que sea necesario entonces buscar otro tipo de
investigación para desarrollar estas habilidades.
¿Qué tipo de actividades fomentan el desarrollo de las habilidades de investigación y científicas?
Las ciencias, la geografía y la historia estimulan la curiosidad de los niños acerca del mundo que les rodea y les animan a explorar fenómenos
naturales y sociales. Los niños participan en actividades por medio de las cuales desarrollan actitudes, procedimientos, conocimientos técnicos
y comprensión. Estas actividades pueden dividirse en diferentes categorías:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Investigación previa: buscar información, leer, seleccionar y resumir. Las fuentes deberían incluir libros de texto, enciclopedias para
niños, vídeos y el ordenador. Por ejemplo: recabar información sobre los tiburones, los volcanes o el Antiguo Egipto.
Analizar y razonar: analizar información, establecer vínculos, causas y consecuencias. Por ejemplo: los residuos y el daño
medioambiental.
Habilidades básicas: seleccionar el equipamiento, medir y anotar resultados. Por ejemplo: hacer una gráfica, hacer un mapa, medir la
temperatura.
Observación: utilizar los sentidos apropiados para describir, ordenar y clasificar. Por ejemplo: ¿qué clase de árbol es? Hacer
observaciones detalladas a lo largo de un tiempo. Por ejemplo: ¿cómo se desarrolla el tallo de una judía? ¿Cómo crece la oruga de la
seda? ¿Cómo varía la cantidad de agua de lluvia?
Exploración: actividades de “probar y ver”. Por ejemplo: la electricidad estática. ¿Qué pasa si frotas un globo contra el jersey y luego
intentas coger con él trocitos de papel?
Demostración: Hacer una demostración para toda la clase. Por ejemplo: hervir agua y observar la condensación sobre un cristal frío
para ilustrar el ciclo del agua. También los niños pueden escenificar el funcionamiento de algo, por ejemplo representar cómo el oído
detecta sonidos.
Investigación: los niños desarrollan experimentos. Hacen preguntas, predicen resultados, planifican, hacen experimentos y comunican
sus hallazgos. Por ejemplo: ¿qué factores influyen en la velocidad a la que se disuelve el azúcar? ¿Qué bolsa de papel es más fuerte?
Clasificar e Identificar: por ejemplo, ¿cómo podemos agrupar estos invertebrados? ¿Cómo podemos clasificar estas piedras?
Búsqueda de patrones regulares: por ejemplo, ¿qué cosas pesan y cuáles se hunden? ¿En qué lado de los árboles crece el musgo?
Evaluación: comprobar resultados, confirmar información, mostrar comprensión.
26
CIENCIAS: GUÍA DE LA ASIGNATURA
La mayoría de los temas se prestan a experimentos prácticos reales. Debemos utilizar estas oportunidades para desarrollar las habilidades
científicas. Si no es posible hacer experimentos sobre cierto tema, se pueden desarrollar las habilidades investigadoras a través de actividades
como las sugeridas más arriba.
Las investigaciones pueden presentarse en geografía e historia, pero los experimentos suelen surgir del estudio en ciencias de:
o cuerpo humano y la salud
o los seres vivos
o los materiales y sus propiedades
o los procesos físicos
¿Cómo se planifican, desarrollan y registran los experimentos?
Para enseñar a los niños a investigar a través de experimentos tenemos que darles la oportunidad de tener experiencias prácticas. Sin
embargo, es esencial estructurar cuidadosamente la clase para dejarles descubrir cosas por sí mismos. El objetivo de las actividades prácticas
es que los niños aprendan haciendo, de manera que no hay que contarles el resultado o las conclusiones antes de empezar. Un experimento
es una investigación, no una demostración.
Por ejemplo:
Al investigar los circuitos eléctricos, el profesor puede proporcionar a los grupos una pila, cables, pinzas y una bombilla y dejar que los niños
descubran por sí mimos cómo encender la bombilla.
Los currículos británicos se centran en la investigación. Para diseñar sus propios experimentos y evaluar los resultados, los niños necesitan
comprender el concepto de “fair test”, es decir, cambiar una variable y observar y medir su efecto manteniendo el resto de variables
inalterable.
Por ejemplo:
Los niños estudian las plantas y su crecimiento. En lugar de decirle a los niños desde el principio que las plantas necesitan luz para crecer,
esto se puede entender como una hipótesis a probar, y el profesor puede introducir la idea de “fair test.” Algunas plantas pueden dejarse a la
luz y otras en la oscuridad, pero entonces el profesor puede preguntar: “¿pueden respirar las plantas que están a oscuras? ¿Son el mismo tipo
de plantas? ¿Están recibiendo la misma cantidad de agua? ¿Es éste un “fair test”? etc. Los niños pueden reflejar los resultados por medio de
dibujos. El profesor puede entonces seguir las sugerencias de los niños para probar distintas hipótesis.
Al principio los niños necesitarán ayuda, pero a lo largo de la primaria deberían sentirse cada vez más competentes a la hora de formular
preguntas, diseñar experimentos, hacer predicciones, medir y registrar resultados y extraer conclusiones. Para más ideas acerca de cómo
reflejar resultados ver la información sobre el Curso de Ciencias de marzo de 2003.
27
OBJETIVOS PARA DESARROLLAR HABILIDADES CIENTÍFICAS
Objetivos para Primer ciclo
desarrollar
habilidades
científicas
Preparación de
las tareas.
Los alumnos serán capaces de:
Segundo ciclo
Tercer ciclo
Los alumnos serán capaces de:
Los alumnos serán capaces de:
• Hacer preguntas y sugerir formas de
responderlas a través de experimentos.
• Hacer predicciones y reconocer si un
experimento cumple las condiciones
necesarias para ser un “fair test”.
•
•
Comprender la
actividad y planificar
una actividad práctica. •
Hacer predicciones.
“Fair Test”.
Comprender preguntas: ¿Cómo? ¿Por
qué? ¿Qué pasa si?
Ayudar a planificar un experimento y a
hacer predicciones sobre sus resultados.
Realización de
tareas.
Realización de observaciones y
mediciones sencillas.
Completar registro de observación en
formatos sencillos: dibujos, pictogramas y
diagramas de barras.
• Seguir instrucciones sencillas.
•
• Utilizar el equipamiento y las técnicas para •
realizar observaciones y mediciones.
• Registrar los resultados de distintas
•
maneras: dibujos, pictogramas, y
diagramas de barras.
Seguir instrucciones más complejas.
Seleccionar y utilizar instrumentos de medición
adecuados o hacer observaciones.
Reflejar los resultados con una variedad mayor
de formas: dibujos, pictogramas, diagramas,
diagramas de barras, gráficos de líneas y, donde
sea posible, con ordenadores.
Hacer comparaciones sencillas y
responder a preguntas sencillas sobre los
resultados.
• Escritura guiada para reseñar
experimentos.
• Responder a preguntas sencillas, hacer
comparaciones y reconocer relaciones
sencillas. Sacar conclusiones.
Escribir un informe breve sobre una
investigación.
Utilizar conocimientos científicos para dar
explicaciones y responder a preguntas.
Hacer comparaciones e identificar patrones
sencillos.
•
•
Observar y medir.
Reflejar los resultados
de diferentes
maneras.
Revisar e
informar sobre
las tareas.
Informar y presentar.
Interpretar y evaluar
resultados y
procedimientos.
•
28
•
•
•
•
•
Sugerir preguntas y encontrar maneras de
responderlas.
Hacer predicciones razonadas sobre posibles
resultados.
Sugerir maneras de hacer un “fair test”
cambiando un factor y manteniendo el resto
inalterable.
CONTENIDOS DE CIENCIAS:
Primer ciclo
El cuerpo
humano y la
salud
Desarrollar la
comprensión de
los elementos
principales del
cuerpo, la
nutrición y cómo
mantener la
salud.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Identificar las partes principales externas
del cuerpo y sus características.
Identificar algunos órganos internos, su
localización y funciones principales.
Reconocer diferencias sencillas entre
bebés, niños, adultos y ancianos.
Comparar y contrastarse a sí mismos en la
actualidad con cuando eran bebés; es
decir, crecimiento, dentición, habilidades.
Reconocer los sentidos, su función y sus
órganos.
Reconocer que tenemos huesos y
músculos, y que sostienen nuestros
cuerpos y nos permiten movernos.
Comprender que los humanos necesitamos
comida y agua para sobrevivir.
Clasificar las comidas dependiendo de su
origen, es decir, animal, vegetal o mineral.
Reconocer la importancia de hacer
ejercicio y de tener una alimentación sana
para mantener la salud.
Ser conscientes de que los problemas de
salud son consecuencia de no cuidarnos
bien: coger frío, que nos duela la tripa, que
nos salgan caries, etc
Comprender la importancia de observar
reglas de seguridad básica en casa, en el
colegio, en la calle...
Reconocer la importancia de relacionarnos
con los demás, de expresar las emociones
y de tratar a los demás con sensibilidad.
Segundo ciclo
Tercer ciclo
• Identificar las partes principales externas
del cuerpo y sus características.
• Identificar los cinco sentidos y cómo
funcionan.
• Utilizar los sentidos para descubrir y describir
el entorno: formas, tamaños, colores, olores,
sabores...
• Identificar órganos principales y sus
funciones:
o Huesos y músculos
o Cerebro y nervios
o Sistema digestivo
o Sistema respiratorio
o Sistema circulatorio
o Sistema excretor
• Describir sucintamente los procesos de
digestión, respiración y circulación de la sangre.
• Identificar los principales nutrientes de los
alimentos.
• Reconocer las funciones de los dientes y
cómo cuidarlos.
• Diseñar una dieta sana.
• Comprender la importancia de una dieta
sana. Reconocer las comidas principales del día
y las diferencias entre las comidas españolas y
las inglesas: horarios, comidas o bebidas
típicas...
• Identificar formas diferentes de almacenar y
conservar los alimentos.
• Diferenciar hábitos saludables y no
saludables para cuidar nuestros sentidos, huesos
músculos, sistema respiratorio y circulatorio.
• Reconocer la importancia del deporte y del
ejercicio físico. Identificar reglas de seguridad
cuando se practican juegos o deportes en casa,
en el colegio o en la calle.
•
29
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reconocer los elementos principales del sistema
nervioso: cerebro, sentidos, nervios y neuronas.
Describir el sistema nervioso examinando estímulos
y reacciones.
Reconocer los órganos principales del sistema
digestivo y sus funciones.
Describir el proceso de la digestión.
Clasificar los alimentos según sus nutrientes.
Comparar distintas dietas sanas según la edad y la
actividad.
Reconocer los órganos principales y las sustancias
en los sistemas respiratorio, circulatorio y excretor.
Describir los procesos de la respiración, la
circulación de la sangre y la excreción.
Identificar los huesos, músculos y articulaciones
principales y sus funciones.
Comprender cómo se mueve el cuerpo humano.
Identificar los órganos principales del sistema
reproductor.
Comprender las etapas principales del ciclo de la
vida humana.
Desarrollar la conciencia de los cambios
relacionados con la pubertad.
Reconocer las diferencias físicas y sexuales y los
cambios en los humanos y desarrollar una actitud
respetuosa hacia todos los seres humanos.
Conocer los factores que contribuyen a la salud,
incluyendo la dieta, el ejercicio, la higiene, el uso
correcto de los medicamentos y los efectos nocivos
de otras sustancias.
Aprender a ser responsables de su propia salud y
seguridad.
Seres vivos
Comprender los
procesos vitales
de plantas y
animales y su
importancia para
los humanos
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Comprender las diferencias entre los
seres vivos y las cosas inanimadas.
Comprender que los animales se
mueven, comen, utilizan los sentidos y
se reproducen.
Identificar lo que necesitan los
animales para seguir vivos: agua y
alimento.
Reconocer y comparar las partes
externas principales de los cuerpos de
los animales.
Clasificar a los animales según su
relación con el hombre: salvajes o
domésticos.
Comprender cómo los cambios de las
estaciones afectan a la vida de las
plantas y los animales.
Comprender las etapas básicas de la
vida de las plantas.
Comprender la importancia de la tierra,
la luz solar y el agua para las plantas.
Reconocer las partes principales de
una planta con floración.
Clasificar las plantas según su relación
con los humanos: salvajes o cultivadas,
plantas comestibles y no comestibles.
Comprender la importancia de las
plantas y los animales para los
humanos.
Averiguar distintas informaciones sobre
distintas plantas y animales del entorno
cercano.
Establecer vínculos entre diferentes
plantas y animales y sus hábitats.
Desarrollar un comportamiento
cuidadoso hacia los seres vivos en su
entorno local.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Comprender que la nutrición, el
movimiento, el crecimiento y la reproducción
son procesos vitales comunes a los humanos
y a los animales.
Reconocer cómo los cambios
estacionales influyen en el comportamiento de
plantas y animales.
Comprender las diferencias entre
vertebrados e invertebrados.
Reconocer y comparar las características
básicas de distintos vertebrados: movimiento,
sentidos, nacimiento, nutrición, características
externas, reproducción.
Identificar algunos de los ejemplos más
comunes de los cinco grupos de
invertebrados.
Comprender cómo identificar y agrupar
animales y plantas que se encuentran en el
entorno.
Descubrir las etapas principales del ciclo
de la vida de algunos animales o insectos: por
ejemplo, mariposas o ranas.
Comprender que la nutrición, el
crecimiento y la reproducción son procesos
vitales comunes a las plantas.
Comprender el efecto de la luz, el aire, el
agua y la temperatura sobre el crecimiento de
las plantas.
Clasificar las plantas según el tipo de
tallo: árbol, arbusto, hierba.
Identificar las partes principales de la
planta y la flor, y sus funciones.
Identificar los beneficios principales que
los humanos obtienen de animales y plantas.
Comprender cómo los animales y las
plantas interactúan con su hábitat.
Clasificar las cosas vivas en cadenas
alimentarias sencillas.
Desarrollar una actitud responsable
frente a animales y plantas.
30
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Clasificar los seres vivos en: animales, plantas
y micro-organismos.
Reconocer los grupos principales de
invertebrados.
Clasificar a los vertebrados en mamíferos,
aves, peces, reptiles y anfibios.
Averiguar distintas informaciones sobre los
cinco grupos de vertebrados, incluyendo cómo
nacen, crecen, usan sus sentidos, se mueven,
comen, respiran y se reproducen.
Reconocer las características diferenciadoras
de los grupos principales de plantas con y sin
floración.
Comprender cómo las plantas fabrican su
propio alimento y cómo respiran y se reproducen.
Investigar las condiciones específicas
necesarias para el crecimiento de distintas plantas.
Reconocer a los micro-organismos como seres
vivos.
Reconocer las características distintivas de los
micro-organismos.
Reconocer las propiedades beneficiosas o
nocivas de los micro-organismos.
Comprender los vínculos entre los procesos
vitales de animales y plantas y los ambientes donde
se encuentran.
Comprender cómo los animales y plantas de
distintos hábitats se adaptan a su entorno.
Comprender las causas heredadas y
ambientales de la variación.
Elaborar cadenas alimentarias para mostrar las
relaciones alimenticias de un hábitat y predecir las
consecuencias de los cambios.
Identificar seres vivos raros o extinguidos.
Materiales y
sus
propiedades
Comprender cómo pueden agruparse los
materiales:
• Explorar y reconocer similitudes y
diferencias entre materiales utilizando los
sentidos.
• Organizar objetos en grupos según
propiedades materiales sencillas como
aspereza, dureza, brillo, capacidad de
flotar o transparencia.
• Reconocer tipos comunes de materiales:
metal, plástico, madera, papel, roca.
• Reconocer que algunos materiales se
encuentran en la naturaleza.
• Averiguar los distintos usos de diversos
materiales según sus propiedades.
Desarrollar la conciencia de los cambios
materiales:
• Averiguar cómo puede cambiar la forma de
algunos objetos tras determinados
procesos: aplastar, doblar, retorcer, estirar,
etc.
• Explorar y describir cómo algunos
materiales cotidianos cambian cuando son
sometidos al frío o al calor: el chocolate, el
agua, el pan, etc.
Comprender las propiedades básicas de los
materiales:
• Clasificar materiales y objetos según sus
similitudes y diferencias.
• Clasificar materiales según su origen: natural
o manufacturado.
• Relacionar las propiedades de los materiales
con sus utilidades
• Investigar las propiedades básicas de los
sólidos, los líquidos y los gases tomando
como ejemplo el agua.
• Clasificar los minerales y las rocas más
comunes.
Comprender los cambios en los materiales:
• Investigar qué sustancias cotidianas se
disuelven en el agua.
• Reconocer que los materiales pueden
cambiar de formas.
• Investigar cómo los materiales cotidianos
cambian con el calor o con el frío.
• Relacionar los cambios de estado con el ciclo
del agua.
• Comprender que cuando se forman nuevos
materiales, el cambio es permanente.
• Investigar cómo controlar la oxidación.
Comprender las propiedades de los materiales:
• Identificar las propiedades generales de los
materiales: dureza, flexibilidad, masa, volumen,
fuerza y comportamiento magnético.
• Reconocer las diferencias entre sólidos, líquidos y
gases según su facilidad de fluir y su
mantenimiento de la forma y el volumen.
• Identificar y utilizar herramientas sencillas para
medir la masa y el volumen.
• Clasificar un número mayor de minerales y rocas
según sus características: aspecto, textura, y
permeabilidad.
• Identificar cambios físicos en minerales y rocas.
Comprender los cambios en los materiales:
• Reconocer cambios físicos en el entorno y sus
causas: mezclar, disolver, estirar, contraer, derretir,
hervir, congelar.
• Quemar y calentar materiales resulta en la
formación de nuevos materiales.
• Identificar cambios químicos en las cosas vivas:
fotosíntesis, digestión, fermentación.
Separar mezclas de materiales:
• Cómo separar las partículas sólidas de distintos
tamaños con un tamiz.
• Comprender que algunos sólidos se disuelven en
agua formando soluciones, mientras que otros no.
• Cómo separar sólidos insolubles de un líquido por
medio de la filtración.
Adquirir unos conocimientos básicos de fuerzas
y movimientos:
• Averiguar y describir el movimiento de las
cosas cotidianas: rápido, lento, cambio de
Comprender
dirección, etc.
procesos
físicos, la luz, el • Identificar "empujar y tirar" como fuerzas.
• Identificar qué hace que se muevan las
sonido y las
cosas.
fuerzas.
Adquirir unos conocimientos básicos sobre
electricidad:
• Identificar electrodomésticos cotidianos.
• Desarrollar conciencia de circuitos sencillos
con pilas, cables, bombillas e interruptores.
Comprender ideas básicas sobre las fuerzas y
la energía:
• Identificar fuentes variadas de energía
utilizadas en el colegio y en casa.
• Identificar las fuentes de energía utilizadas
por diversos modelos y máquinas.
• Comprender cómo las fuerzas pueden influir
en el movimiento y la forma de los objetos.
• Investigar los efectos de la fricción sobre el
movimiento de los objetos.
•
Identificar las herramientas y las máquinas
más comunes y cómo nos ayuda
Comprensión básica de lo que es la electricidad:
Comprender las fuerzas y la energía
• Identificar el efecto de las fuerzas: movimiento,
tensión, transformación.
• Comprender que los imanes y los materiales
magnéticos ejercen fuerzas de atracción y repulsión
• Comprender que los objetos caen hacia abajo por
la fuerza gravitacional entre ellos y la Tierra.
• Clasificar las energías en renovables y no
renovables.
• Comprender cómo la energía se puede generar a
través de generadores y motores.
• Reconocer los elementos básicos de las máquinas:
cables, bombillas, pilas, motor..
Desarrollar el
conocimientode
distintos
materiales, sus
propiedades y
sus utilidades
Procesos
físicos
31
Adquirir unos conocimientos básicos acerca de
la luz y el sonido
• Identificar diferentes fuentes lumínicas.
• Identificar diferentes fuentes de sonido.
• Identificar distintas clases de sonidos.
Identificar diferentes máquinas y sus usos en la
tecnología moderna.
Comprender la electricidad:
Circuitos sencillos:
•
• Construir circuitos con componentes simples: pilas,
cables e interruptores para hacer que aparatos
•
eléctricos funcionen (timbres, motores)
• Comprender que cambiar el número de
•
componentes (de pilas, de bombillas y de cables)
de un circuito puede hacer que las bombillas luzcan
•
más brillantes o más tenues.
Adquirir unos conocimientos básicos en torno al
• Cómo representar circuitos mediante dibujos y
sonido:
símbolos convencionales.
• Comprender que cuando los objetos vibran
Comprender el fenómeno del sonido:
se produce sonido.
• Identificar fuentes de sonido –vibraciones- y cómo
• Investigar cómo viaja el sonido a través de
se transmiten.
distintos materiales.
• Identificar las cualidades principales de los sonidos:
Comprensión básica de la luz:
intensidad y tono.
• Explorar cómo la luz pasa sólo a través de
• Cómo cambiar el tono y el volumen del sonido en
determinados materiales.
los instrumentos musicales.
• Descubir cómo se producen las sombras.
•
Reconocer los fenómenos relacionados con el
• Investigar el reflejo de la luz sobre espejos y
sonido:
el eco y la reverberación
superficies brillantes.
Comprender
la luz:
Comprensión básica de la Tierra y del espacio:
•
Las
fuentes
de luz y cómo ésta se traslada.
• El sol, la Tierra y la luna son esféricas.
•
El
reflejo
de
la luz en los espejos y en las lentes.
• La posición del sol parece variar a lo largo
del día, cómo cambian las sombras cuando • La luz puede descomponerse en distintos colores.
esto ocurre.
•
Cómo el día y la noche están
relacionados con el giro de la Tierra sobre su
propio eje.
•
Comprender que la Tierra órbita
alrededor del sol una vez al año, provocando
el paso de las estaciones, y que la luna órbita
alrededor de la tierra.
•
Identificar los elementos principales del
sistema solar.
•
Conocer las reglas de seguridad en torno a
las tomas de tierra y el peligro que pueden
suponer.
Construir circuitos sencillos utilizando
componentes sencillos.
Clasificar los materiales en aislantes o
conductores.
Investigar los efectos de la corriente
variable sobre un circuito.
32
•
FRANJAS DE COMPETENCIA
Las franjas de competencia descritas son para el FINAL de CADA CICLO. Las tres franjas detalladas para cada ciclo corresponden a
tres niveles (del más bajo al más alto).
Cada uno de los niños que completa el segundo año de cada ciclo debería encajar aproximadamente en una de las tres franjas. La
estimación aproximada sería
• Franja 1 - 10% de los niños
• Franja 2 - 70% de los niños
• Franja 3 - 20% de los niños
HABILIDADES CIENTÍFICAS
Primer Ciclo
Franja 1
Los niños responden o describen adecuadamente las características sencillas de los objetos, los seres vivos y los acontecimientos que
observan, comunicando sus hallazgos en formatos sencillos (hablando, dibujando, a través de gráficos simples).
Franja 2
Los niños responden a sugerencias acerca de cómo descubrir cosas. Utilizan textos sencillos y equipamiento, con ayuda, para encontrar
información, observar y comparar. Describen sus observaciones utilizando un vocabulario básico y las reflejan en dibujos, gráficos simples, etc.
Franja 3
Los niños responden a sugerencias acerca de cómo descubrir cosas y, con ayuda, lanzan sus propias sugerencias acerca de cómo recoger
datos para responder a preguntas. Utilizan textos sencillos y equipamiento para encontrar información, observar y comparar. Describen sus
observaciones utilizando vocabulario científico y las reflejan en tablas, gráficos, etc. Responden a preguntas sencillas sobre sus resultados.
33
Segundo Ciclo
Franja 1
Los niños responden a sugerencias acerca de cómo descubrir cosas y, con ayuda, lanzan sus propias sugerencias acerca de cómo recoger
datos para responder a preguntas. Utilizan textos sencillos y equipamiento para encontrar información, observar y comparar. Describen sus
observaciones utilizando vocabulario científico y las reflejan en tablas, gráficos, etc. Responden a preguntas sencillas sobre sus resultados.
Franja 2
Los niños responden a sugerencias y proponen sus propias ideas sobre cómo encontrar la respuesta a una pregunta. Entienden por qué es
importante recabar datos para responder a preguntas. Utilizan textos sencillos para encontrar información. Hacen observaciones y miden
cantidades (longitud o masa) utilizando herramientas sencillas. Pueden realizar un experimento “fair test” con algo de ayuda. Registran sus
observaciones de distintas maneras. Informan de sus investigaciones con un vocabulario científico sencillo y comienzan a sacar conclusiones y
a dar explicaciones de lo que han observado.
Franja 3
Los niños responden a sugerencias y proponen sus propias ideas sobre cómo encontrar la respuesta a una pregunta. Entienden por qué es
importante recabar datos para responder a preguntas. Utilizan textos sencillos para encontrar información. Hacen observaciones relevantes y
miden cantidades (longitud o masa) utilizando instrumentos variados. Realizan un experimento “fair test” con algo de ayuda. Registran sus
observaciones de distintas maneras. Informan de sus investigaciones con un vocabulario científico sencillo y comienzan a sacar conclusiones y
a dar explicaciones de lo que han observado.
Tercer Ciclo
Franja 1
Los niños responden a sugerencias y proponen sus propias ideas sobre cómo encontrar la respuesta a una pregunta. Entienden por qué es
importante recabar datos para responder a preguntas. Utilizan textos sencillos para encontrar información. Hacen observaciones relevantes y
miden cantidades (longitud o masa) utilizando instrumentos variados. Realizan un experimento “fair test” con algo de ayuda. Registran sus
observaciones de distintas maneras. Informan de sus investigaciones con un vocabulario científico sencillo y comienzan a sacar conclusiones y
a dar explicaciones de lo que han observado.
Franja 2
Los niños reconocen que las ideas científicas se basan en las pruebas. En su propio trabajo de investigación, deciden el enfoque adecuado
para cada pregunta. Cuando resulta apropiado, describen, o muestran la manera en que realizan la tarea, cómo variar un factor manteniendo
el resto inalterable. Hacen predicciones y seleccionan información de las fuentes que se les dan. Seleccionan y utilizan el equipo adecuado y
los instrumentos de medición, y registran sus resultados de distintas maneras. Empiezan a relacionar sus conclusiones con los conocimientos
de la ciencia y la técnica, y a comunicarse con un vocabulario científico apropiado. Sugieren formas de mejorar su trabajo, dando razones.
34
Franja 3
Los niños reconocen que las ideas científicas se basan en las pruebas. En su propio trabajo de investigación, deciden el enfoque adecuado a
cada pregunta. Cuando la investigación parte de un “fair test”, identifican los aspectos clave que hay que considerar. Hacen predicciones y
seleccionan información de diversas fuentes. Seleccionan y utilizan herramientas apropiadas e instrumentos de medición, y registran sus
resultados de distintas maneras. Dan explicaciones más complejas de sus observaciones. Sacan conclusiones que se ajustan a las pruebas y
empiezan a relacionarlas con los conocimientos de la ciencia y de la técnica, y a comunicarlas con un vocabulario científico apropiado.
Sugieren formas de mejorar su trabajo, dando razones.
CONTENIDOS DE CIENCIAS
Primer Ciclo
Franja 1
Los niños muestran conciencia de las características principales del cuerpo y de cómo cuidarlo. Identifican seres vivos y objetos inanimados.
Comprenden que las cosas se mueven al ser empujadas o si se tira de ellas. Identifican los materiales, las herramientas y las máquinas más
comunes de su vida diaria.
Franja 2
Los niños reconocen algunos órganos internos del cuerpo y sus funciones. Muestran conciencia de los distintos orígenes de los alimentos y de
cómo la comida y el ejercicio nos mantienen sanos. Reconocen las diferencias entre seres vivos y objetos inanimados. Muestran conciencia de
las características básicas de los animales y de las plantas y de cómo crecen y se desarrollan en distintos entornos. Muestran unos
conocimientos básicos de fuerzas, luz y sonido. Reconocen los materiales comunes e identifican sus características y sus usos. Muestran
conciencia de cómo funcionan los aparatos sencillos y el tipo de energía que utilizan.
Franja 3
Los niños identifican algunos órganos internos del cuerpo y explican sus funciones. Clasifican los alimentos según su origen. Comprenden
cómo la alimentación y el ejercicio nos mantienen sanos. Explican las diferencias entre seres vivos y objetos inanimados. Identifican las partes
principales del cuerpo de los animales y de las plantas y muestran conciencia de lo que necesitan para crecer. Poseen cierto conocimiento
sobre los procesos vitales básicos de animales y plantas. Reconocen los cambios en los materiales, por ejemplo en el agua. Identifican el sol,
la luna, la Tierra y relacionan sus movimientos con los días y las noches. Pueden hacer clasificaciones sencillas de distintos materiales según
sus características y sus usos. Reconocen algunas máquinas y aparatos y el tipo de energía que utilizan.
35
Segundo Ciclo
Franja 1
Los niños muestran conciencia de los 5 sentidos y de los órganos principales del cuerpo humano. Muestran su comprensión de los procesos
de digestión, respiración, circulación sanguínea y de los huesos y los músculos. Identifican hábitos básicos nutricionales, higiénicos y de
sueño. Comprenden las diferencias entre los seres vivos y los inanimados. Reconocen y saben nombrar las partes externas de los cuerpos de
los animales y de las plantas. Describen las condiciones básicas que los animales y las plantas necesitan para sobrevivir. Reconocen que los
seres vivos se hallan en distintos hábitat. Identifican el sol, la luna y la Tierra y relacionan sus movimientos con el día y la noche. Comunican
observaciones acerca de cambios en la luz, el sonido o el movimiento que son resultado de acciones (por ejemplo, encender un circuito
eléctrico sencillo). Muestran conciencia de cómo funcionan algunas máquinas y aparatos y del tipo de energía que utilizan. Pueden hacer
clasificaciones sencillas de materiales distintos según sus propiedades y sus usos.
Franja 2
Los niños identifican los 5 sentidos y muestran conciencia de cómo funcionan. Reconocen los órganos internos principales y sus funciones.
Muestran comprensión de los procesos de digestión, respiración y circulación sanguínea, y de cómo funcionan los huesos, los músculos y las
terminaciones nerviosas. Comprenden cómo están relacionadas la dieta, la higiene y el sueño con la salud. Clasifican los seres vivos en
grupos (vertebrados e invertebrados, árboles, arbustos y hierbas). Comunican observaciones básicas acerca de animales y plantas diversos
según sus procesos vitales (cómo nacen, crecen o se reproducen). Identifican cómo un animal se adapta a su entorno. Identifican los
elementos principales del Sistema Solar. Muestran conciencia de las consecuencias del movimiento de la Tierra. Pueden explicar con palabras
sencillas cómo funcionan algunas máquinas o aparatos y el tipo de energía que utilizan. Empiezan a hacer generalizaciones a partir de los
fenómenos físicos. Describen diversas maneras de organizar materiales en grupos según sus propiedades.
Franja 3
Los niños identifican los 5 sentidos y muestran conciencia de cómo funcionan. Reconocen los órganos internos principales y sus funciones.
Muestran comprensión de los procesos de digestión, respiración y circulación sanguínea, y de cómo funcionan los huesos, los músculos y las
terminaciones nerviosas. Son capaces de definir una dieta sana y de explicar cómo la higiene, el ejercicio y el descanso contribuyen a tener
buena salud. Clasifican los seres vivos en grupos (cinco clases de vertebrados, invertebrados, árboles, arbustos y hierbas). Dan muestras de
comprender la clasificación de animales y plantas diversos según sus procesos vitales (cómo nacen, se desarrollan o se reproducen).
Describen la interacción entre los animales y las plantas en el entorno (cadenas alimenticias...). Identifican los elementos principales del
Sistema Solar. Utilizan modelos sencillos para explicar los efectos causados por el movimiento de la Tierra (días, noches, estaciones). Explican
cómo funcionan algunas máquinas y aparatos y el tipo de energía que utilizan. Empiezan a hacer generalizaciones sencillas acerca de los
fenómenos físicos. Vinculan las causas con los efectos a través de explicaciones sencillas. Describen las diferencias entre las propiedades de
distintos materiales.
36
Tercer Ciclo
Franja 1
Los niños identifican los órganos internos del cuerpo y sus funciones, incluyendo el esqueleto, los músculos y las articulaciones. Muestran
comprensión del sistema nervioso y de los procesos de digestión, respiración, circulación sanguínea y reproducción. Relacionan factores tales
como la dieta, el ejercicio y la higiene con la buena salud. Organizan a los seres vivos en grupos y describen la base de estas agrupaciones
(cinco grupos de vertebrados, invertebrados, plantas y micro-organismos). Identifican las partes principales de los animales y las plantas y su
función en sus procesos vitales. Dan muestras de comprender las interacciones entre los animales y las plantas en su entorno (cadenas
alimentarias...). Dan muestras de comprender fenómenos físicos básicos como la energía y las fuerzas, la electricidad, el sonido y el
magnetismo. Empiezan a hacer generalizaciones sencillas sobre los fenómenos físicos. Son capaces de vincular las causas con los efectos a
través de explicaciones sencillas. Describen las diferencias entre las propiedades de distintos materiales.
Franja 2
Los niños describen los procesos de digestión, respiración, circulación sanguínea, reproducción e identifican los órganos que intervienen en
cada proceso. Dan muestras de entender cómo funciona el sistema nervioso. Comprenden la función de los fluidos corporales. Identifican las
características externas e internas de las plantas y los animales. Utilizan claves que les ayuden a clasificar a los seres vivos en vertebrados,
invertebrados y micro-organismos. Describen relaciones alimentarias usando cadenas y términos como depredador y presa. Comprenden la
relación entre los seres vivos y el entorno. Demuestran sus conocimientos y su comprensión de los procesos físicos. Describen y explican
fenómenos físicos. Hacen generalizaciones acerca de los fenómenos físicos. Utilizan ideas físicas para explicar fenómenos sencillos.
Demuestran sus conocimientos y su comprensión de los materiales y sus propiedades. Describen las diferencias entre las propiedades de
distintos materiales y explican cómo estas diferencias sirven para clasificar las sustancias. Utilizan términos científicos como condensación o
evaporación para describir cambios.
Franja 3
Los niños demuestran unos conocimientos y una comprensión cada vez mayores del cuerpo humano. Describen las funciones principales de
los órganos corporales y explican su importancia. Describen las etapas principales del ciclo de la vida humana. Describen e identifican las
funciones principales y las características externas e internas de los animales y la plantas. Describen las etapas principales de la vida animal y
de las plantas con floración y señalan las similitudes entre ellas. Reconocen que hay una gran variedad de seres vivos y comprenden la
importancia de su clasificación. Explican que en distintos hábitats se encuentran distintos organismos debido a diferencias en los factores
ambientales. Demuestran conocimiento y comprensión de procesos físicos. Utilizan ideas para explicar cómo realizar una serie de cambios.
Utilizan algunas ideas abstractas en sus descripciones de los fenómenos cotidianos. Demuestran cada vez mayor conocimiento y comprensión
de los materiales y sus propiedades. Describen algunas propiedades metálicas y utilizan estas propiedades para distinguir los metales de
otros sólidos. Identifican una serie de contextos en los cuales los materiales experimentan cambios.
37
GEOGRAFÍA E HISTORIA: GUÍA DE LA ASIGNATURA
Las ciencias sociales: Geografía e Historia
La geografía y la historia juegan un papel importante en la comprensión de los alumnos de su propio lugar en el mundo.
Al ir aprendiendo acerca de su comunidad local y del entorno más amplio, del presente así como del pasado, los alumnos desarrollan
habilidades que les resultarán importantes en el futuro. A medida que aprenden a investigar, procesar y evaluar la información, van
desarrollando poco a poco una postura responsable frente al mundo.
El desarrollar un conocimiento amplio de la sociedad y del mundo hace a los niños más capaces de evaluar la información desde diversos
puntos de vista. La capacidad de empatizar y de pensar críticamente incrementará a su vez la conciencia de los niños en torno a sus propias
actitudes y valores, así como su respeto por los demás.
Como en cualquier otra materia, es fundamental que los alumnos adquieran gradualmente más responsabilidad ante determinados aspectos
de su propio aprendizaje, y que reconozcan sus puntos fuertes, así como sus debilidades. La capacidad de pensar críticamente, de trabajar
tanto de forma independiente como en equipo les preparará para muchas situaciones de su vida futura.
Las directrices de las siguientes páginas han sido diseñadas pensando en un equilibrio entre la acumulación de conocimientos y la adquisición
de habilidades tales como investigar y evaluar, que resultan esenciales para la comprensión por parte de los alumnos del mundo que les rodea
y de su propio lugar en ese mundo.
En el primer ciclo de la educación primaria, la geografía y la historia se presentan de forma globalizada, pero al final de la primaria se definen
como áreas independientes. En los primeros años de primaria los niños reciben una introducción a técnicas de investigación sencillas en
situaciones de aprendizaje guiadas, para así poder construir una base sólida para el aprendizaje y la investigación más independiente que les
espera en el futuro. De la misma manera que los objetivos que se fijan van constituyendo retos cada vez más difíciles, la capacidad de los
niños de planificar y realizar tareas investigadoras y llegar a conclusiones claras aumenta. Las siguientes directrices se plantean para asegurar
que cada niño tenga la oportunidad de desarrollar sus conocimientos y sus habilidades sistemáticamente, con coherencia, continuidad y
progresión desde primero hasta sexto de primaria.
38
HABILIDADES PARA LA INVESTIGACIÓN EN GEOGRAFÍA E HISTORIA
Primer ciclo
Segundo Ciclo
Los alumnos serán capaces de:
Los alumnos serán capaces de:
• Sugerir (con ayuda)
• Hacer preguntas apropiadas y sugerir
formas de enfrentarse a problemas y
formas apropiadas de enfrentarse a tareas
Planificar tareas de
resolverlos.
específicas: por ejemplo, a los alumnos se
manera sistemática y
les pregunta cómo averiguar la cantidad de • Identificar fuentes de información
lógica.
reciclaje que se lleva a cabo en su casa.
adecuadas de una selección dada.
Las
respuestas
pueden
ser:
hacer
una
Seleccionar fuentes
encuesta, escribir un diario...
apropiadas de
•
Identificar
textos informativos sencillos de
información.
los que puede extraerse material relevante.
Preparación de
las tareas
Llevar a cabo
tareas
• Utilizar índices para encontrar información.
• Encontrar información en una gama de
fuentes, por ejemplo exposiciones de clase,
Seleccionar y
mapas sencillos, libros de ilustraciones,
procesar información
internet
relevante.
• Procesar información sencilla de distintas
maneras. Por ejemplo: los niños hacen un
Evaluar la
diario dibujado de lo que reciclan en casa.
información recogida
• Identificar fuentes, de ficción y de noy las técnicas
ficción, con las que llevar más lejos su
utilizadas en ese
investigación.
proceso.
•
•
•
•
Utilizar textos de referencia de manera
independiente para encontrar
información.
Elegir técnicas adecuadas para recabar
información.
Seleccionar y registrar información para
un propósito específico de una gama de
fuentes.
Distinguir entre las pruebas históricas y la
prosa de ficción para llevar más lejos su
investigación.
Evaluar y exponer • Presentar la tarea como contribución a una • Presentar el trabajo y las averiguaciones
exposición de clase y hacer presentaciones
a sus compañeros de distintas maneras:
conclusiones
Presentar los
hallazgos de forma
adecuada y
coherente.
Presentar
conclusiones
relevantes respecto
de la tarea en
cuestión.
habladas y escritas sencillas sobre su parte
dentro de la actividad de grupo.
•
• Sacar conclusiones sencillas de sus
hallazgos.
• Responder a preguntas sencillas sobre lo
que han averiguado.
•
de forma oral, escrita, en formato de
póster...
Seleccionar y utilizar las formas más
adecuadas de presentar sus
averiguaciones.
Presentar conclusiones claras.
39
Tercer ciclo
Los alumnos serán capaces de:
•
Crear un plan secuencial de cómo
enfrentarse a una tarea investigadora
específica.
•
Identificar una serie de fuentes
adecuadas de una gama amplia y
variada de información de la que puedan
extraerse datos relevantes.
•
•
•
•
•
Seleccionar y utilizar fuentes de ficción
y de no ficción correctamente.
Empezar a evaluar si determinada
técnica es adecuada para procesar una
información.
Empezar a evaluar la fiabilidad de las
fuentes de información.
Presentar sus propias averiguaciones
en un informe con puntos claros.
Presentar conclusiones claras y
razonadas.
Contenidos en Geografía
Areas de
estudio
El mundo
que nos
rodea
Desarrollar la
comprensión de
nuestro entorno
local y más
amplio,
patrones
meteorológicos
y cambios
estacionales
Primer Ciclo
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Identificar y describir con sencillez elementos
físicos fundamentales, por ejemplo un río, una
montaña.
Reconocer algunas similitudes y diferencias
básicas entre el paisaje urbano y el rural.
Identificar distintos paisajes naturales (la
playa, la montaña...) y darse cuenta de sus
diferencias.
Identificar las cuatro estaciones del año y sus
características principales.
Describir las clases principales de
meteorología local y cómo influyen en su
propia vida.
Reconocer algunas diferencias y similitudes
básicas entre los patrones meteorológicos
locales y los del Reino Unido u otros países
europeos, y describir como influyen en la vida
de sus habitantes.
Apreciar la importancia del agua en nuestra
vida cotidiana.
Describir en términos sencillos el ciclo del
agua en la naturaleza.
Ser conscientes de la importancia de los
mapas como herramienta para encontrar
información.
Segundo Ciclo
•
•
•
•
•
•
Identificar y describir distintos paisajes del
mundo: desierto, selva, regiones polares.
Describir y comparar los elementos
físicos de distintos paisajes
Describir los patrones meteorológicos
españoles más importantes, y cómo
influyen en su propia vida y en los
paisajes
Reconocer algunas similitudes y
diferencias entre el clima de España y el
del Reino Unido y otro países europeos, y
describir cómo influyen en su propia vida
cotidiana y en la de los demás.
Identificar y secuenciar los componentes
clave del ciclo del agua
Utilizar mapas como una herramienta
para ubicar lugares
Tercer Ciclo
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
40
Identificar, describir y comparar
distintos ecosistemas.
Comprender las relaciones entre los
seres vivos en un ecosistema (cadenas
alimentarias).
Reconocer las relaciones entre los
seres vivos y sus hábitats dentro de un
ecosistema.
Demostrar cierto conocimiento sobre la
meteorología mundial y los climas, y las
diferencias entre ellos.
Reconocer distintas zonas climáticas y
describir cómo estas variaciones en las
condiciones climáticas influyen en el
paisaje y lo modifican.
Reconocer distintos tipos de medio
ambientes relacionados con zonas
climáticas.
Utilizar los mapas como herramientas
para ubicar lugares y para recabar
información sobre distintos paisajes.
Nuestra vida
cotidiana
Desarrollar la
comprensión de
nuestra vida
diaria y la de los
demás
•
•
•
•
•
Describir los elementos de su rutina diaria.
Comparar su rutina diaria con la de los niños
de otros países e identificar algunas
similitudes y diferencias, como la comida o el
horario escolar.
Identificar el papel de los miembros de la
familia y de los amigos en la vida cotidiana.
Reconocer el papel de todo el personal
escolar, y apreciar la forma en que nos
ayudan todos los días.
Reconocer su propio papel y el de los demás
en casa y en el colegio.
•
•
•
•
Comparar su rutina diaria con las de los
niños de otros países e identificar y
describir algunas similitudes y diferencias,
como la comida o la organización escolar.
Describir el papel de los miembros de la
familia en su vida diaria en casa y en el
colegio.
Reconocer el papel de todo el personal
escolar y mostrar respeto y aprecio por
cómo nos ayudan todos los días.
Reconocer su propio papel y el de los
demás en casa y en el colegio y discutir
maneras de ayudar y de compartir las
tareas.
41
•
•
•
•
Reconocer su propio papel como
miembros de una comunidad.
Comparar su rutina diaria con la de
niños de diversos países (incluyendo
niños del Tercer Mundo) e identificar y
describir algunas similitudes y
diferencias.
Reconocer y describir diversos factores
que influyen en las diferencias entre
sus propias vidas y las de la gente de
otros países, y, si es posible, empezar
a razonar cómo mejorar determinadas
condiciones.
Reconocer su propio papel y el de los
demás en casa, en el colegio y como
miembros de una comunidad más
amplia, y discutir maneras de ayudar y
de compartir las tareas.
La compleja
vida que nos
rodea
Desarrollar la
comprensión de
cómo nuestra
vida se ve
influida por
factores
externos
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Identificar los rasgos principales de su pueblo
o ciudad: edificios importantes, instalaciones
para el ocio, etc y el propósito al que sirven
Identificar a la gente y las profesiones que
proporcionan determinados servicios.
Comprender la idea de vecindario e identificar
a los vecinos.
Hacer observaciones acerca de diferentes
medios de transporte utilizados en su entorno
cercano y clasificarlos de distintas maneras.
Identificar algunos medios de comunicación
interpersonal como el teléfono o el correo.
Identificar maneras mediante las cuales nos
comunicamos a un nivel global: la televisión,
los periódicos...
Participar en el colegio en fiestas tanto
locales como las que se celebran en países
de habla inglesa.
•
o
o
•
•
•
•
•
•
Leer mapas para:
Encontrar los rasgos principales de una
determinada ciudad o pueblo.
Localizar España y otros países europeos
y sus ciudades principales.
Seguir un producto desde su fabricación
hasta el resultado final, identificando las
profesiones involucradas en el proceso.
Identificar y describir sencillamente los
elementos de la organización política de
su localidad.
Discutir las ventajas y los inconvenientes
de distintos medios de comunicación
interpersonal.
Comparar distintos medios de
comunicación global y describir su
eficacia.
Mostrar conciencia de la forma como la
publicidad influye en lo que compramos.
Aprender sobre, y participar en algunas
celebraciones culturales de España y de
países de habla inglesa.
•
o
o
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
42
Leer mapas para:
Encontrar los elementos principales de
una ciudad o pueblo en un plano.
Localizar países y descubrir más cosas
sobre ellos utilizando las leyendas.
Identificar distintos tipos de actividad
económica: sectores agrícola, industrial
y de servicios.
Discutir e investigar posibles razones
de los recientes cambios en la actividad
económica y sus efectos.
Identificar y describir elementos de la
organización política de España.
Identificar diferencias en el desarrollo
de distintos países y los factores que
influyen en él.
Repasar e investigar las reformas y los
cambios sufridos por distintos tipos de
transportes a lo largo del tiempo, y
discutir sus beneficios y sus
inconvenientes.
Investigar y analizar los cambios
sufridos por distintos medios de
comunicación interpersonal y global a lo
largo del tiempo.
Analizar distintos anuncios en distintos
medios y comprender que los anuncios
pueden influir en lo que compramos.
Investigar el origen de un festival
cultural concreto, discutir y compararlo
con cómo se celebra en diferentes
países.
El cuidado de • Reconocer cómo puede mejorarse el colegio
y el entorno local, por ejemplo recogiendo la
nuestro
basura.
mundo
Desarrollar la
comprensión de
la interacción
entre los
humanos y el
medio ambiente
•
Identificar objetos que pueden reciclarse y
participar activamente en proyectos de
reciclaje de toda la clase.
•
•
•
•
Describir cómo las personas pueden
tanto dañar como mejorar el medio
ambiente.
Evaluar las ventajas y los inconvenientes
de distintos medios de transporte y su
efecto sobre el medio ambiente.
Reconocer cambios en el medio
ambiente e identificar su causa:
producidos por el hombre
(contaminación) o naturales (terremoto).
Identificar objetos que se pueden reciclar
y participar activamente en proyectos de
reciclaje de toda la clase.
Identificar e investigar formas en las
que los humanos dañan el entorno y
discutir cómo mejorar el medio ambiente.
• Discutir distintos puntos de vista acerca
de la protección de la naturaleza y el
medio ambiente.
• Diseñar y organizar un proyecto para
contribuir a mejorar el medio ambiente.
•
Para poder cubrir los objetivos se puede enseñar a los alumnos a través de distintos
proyectos, utilizando tanto textos de ficción como de no ficción: por ejemplo, comparando
su propia localidad con otra en España o en el Reino Unido; analizando la influencia del
agua sobre la gente y el medio ambiente, estudiando el reciclaje...
43
FRANJAS DE COMPETENCIA
Los objetivos de competencia descritos son para el FINAL de CADA CICLO. Las tres franjas detalladas para cada ciclo corresponden
a tres niveles (del más bajo al más alto).
Cada uno de los niños que completa el segundo año de cada ciclo debería encajar aproximadamente en una de las tres franjas. La
estimación aproximada sería
• Franja 1_10% de los niños
• Franja 2_70% de los niños
• Franja 3_ 20% de los niños
Primer Ciclo
Franja 1
Los alumnos muestran conocimientos, técnicas y comprensión básicas en estudios a escala local. Reconocen los elementos físicos y humanos
principales en su entorno local, y son capaces de identificar los rasgos físicos principales de otras zonas.
Franja 2
Los alumnos muestran conocimientos, técnicas y comprensión básicas en estudios a escala local. Reconocen y hacen observaciones sobre
los elementos físicos y humanos del entorno local. Muestran conciencia de lugares más allá de su localidad. Empiezan a reconocer cómo la
gente influye en el medio ambiente. Utilizan los recursos que se les dan y sus propias observaciones para responder a preguntas sobre
lugares y ambientes.
Franja 3
Los alumnos muestran conocimientos, técnicas y comprensión en estudios a escala global. Describen elementos físicos y humanos de
distintos lugares y hacen observaciones específicas sobre esos lugares. Reconocen cómo la gente influye en el medio ambiente. Utilizan los
recursos que se les dan y sus propias observaciones para hacer preguntas y dar respuestas sobre lugares y ambientes.
44
Segundo Ciclo
Franja 1
Los alumnos muestran conocimientos básicos, técnicas y comprensión en estudios en torno a diversos lugares y ambientes. Empiezan a
describir y a comparar distintos rasgos humanos y físicos de localidades diversas. Son conscientes de que distintos lugares pueden tener
características tanto similares como diferentes. Reconocen cómo las personas intentan mejorar y mantener el medio ambiente. Utilizan sus
habilidades y distintas fuentes de información para responder a una serie de preguntas de geografía.
Franja 2
Los alumnos muestran conocimientos básicos, técnicas y comprensión en estudios en torno a diversos lugares y ambientes. Describen y
comparan distintos rasgos humanos y físicos de lugares distintos. Empiezan a reconocer y a describir patrones geográficos y a apreciar la
importancia de la zona geográfica general para comprender los lugares. Empiezan a reconocer y a describir procesos físicos y humanos.
Comienzan a mostrar comprensión de cómo estos procesos pueden cambiar los rasgos de un lugar, las vidas y actividades de la gente que lo
habita. Describen cómo la gente puede tanto mejorar como dañar el medio ambiente. Utilizan técnicas y fuentes de información para responder
a una serie de preguntas geográficas y empiezan a utilizar un vocabulario adecuado para comunicar sus hallazgos.
Franja 3
Los alumnos muestran sus conocimientos, técnicas y comprensión en estudios en torno a diversos lugares y ambientes. Reconocen y
describen patrones geográficos y aprecian la importancia de la zona geográfica general para comprender los lugares. Reconocen y describen
procesos físicos y humanos y muestran comprensión de cómo estos procesos pueden cambiar los rasgos de los lugares, y que estos cambios
influyen en las vidas y actividades de la gente que los habita. Ofrecen razones para justificar algunas de sus observaciones y juicios sobre
lugares y ambientes. Describen cómo la gente puede tanto mejorar como dañar el medio ambiente y explican sus propios puntos de vista
sobre ello. Utilizan una gama de técnicas geográficas para ayudarles a investigar lugares y ambientes. Utilizan un vocabulario adecuado para
responder a una serie de preguntas geográficas y para comunicar sus hallazgos.
Tercer Ciclo
Franja 1
Los alumnos muestran conocimientos básicos, técnicas y comprensión en estudios en torno a una serie diversa de lugares y de ambientes en
distintas partes del mundo. Empiezan a describir patrones geográficos y procesos físicos y humanos. Empiezan a mostrar comprensión de
cómo estos procesos pueden cambiar los rasgos de los lugares y que estos cambios influyen en la vida y las actividades de las personas que
los habitan. Sugieren explicaciones de las formas en las que la actividad humana produce cambios en el medio ambiente y de los distintos
puntos de vista en torno a este problema. Reconocen cómo la gente intenta proteger el medio ambiente. Empiezan a explorar cuestiones
geográficas relevantes y a comunicar sus hallazgos utilizando un vocabulario apropiado.
45
Franja 2
Los alumnos muestran sus conocimientos, técnicas y comprensión en estudios en torno a una gama amplia de lugares y ambientes desde el
ámbito local hasta el global. Empiezan a ofrecer explicaciones de patrones geográficos y de una serie de procesos humanos y físicos.
Reconocen que estos procesos pueden dar lugar a similitudes o diferencias en los ambientes de distintos lugares y en las vidas de la gente
que los habita. Reconocen y sugieren distintos modos de enfocar la protección medioambiental. Sugieren preguntas geográficas relevantes y
secuencias de investigación apropiadas utilizando una serie de habilidades y recursos. Presentan sus hallazgos de manera coherente.
Franja 3
Los alumnos muestran sus conocimientos, técnicas y comprensión en estudios en torno a una gama amplia de lugares y ambientes desde el
ámbito local hasta el global. Describen y ofrecen explicaciones de patrones geográficos y de una serie de procesos humanos y geográficos.
Reconocen que estos procesos pueden dar lugar a similitudes y diferencias en los ambientes de distintos lugares y en las vidas de la gente
que los habita. Reconocen y describen distintos modos de enfocar la protección medioambiental. Sugieren preguntas geográficas relevantes y
secuencias de investigación apropiadas utilizando una serie de habilidades y recursos. Presentan sus hallazgos de manera coherente.
46
Contenidos de Historia
Áreas de estudio
Personajes y
acontecimientos
importantes del pasado
Desarrollar la comprensión
de hechos distintivos del
pasado y de la importancia
de determinados personajes
en la historia
El efecto de los
cambios sobre nuestro
mundo
Desarrollar conciencia de
los cambios que suceden
en nuestras vidas y ser
capaces de relacionarlos
con el pasado.
Ordenar
acontecimientos
históricos importantes
del pasado
Desarrollar la comprensión
de la relación entre el paso
del tiempo y hechos
específicos del pasado
Primer Ciclo
Segundo Ciclo
Tercer Ciclo
Los alumnos serán capaces de:
• Identificar y hablar de personajes y
hechos del pasado que les resultan
importantes, en relación con su
familia o su comunidad.
• Escuchar historias que ocurren en
el pasado, y describir lo que han
aprendido.
Los alumnos serán capaces de:
• Identificar y discutir sobre la vida de
unos pocos hombres y mujeres
significativos de la historia de
España/Reino Unido y del mundo en
general: pintores, gobernantes,
exploradores, escritores...
• Mostrar que comprenden las
características principales de las
sociedades estudiadas.
Los alumnos serán capaces de:
• Hacer y responder a preguntas
sobre rasgos característicos: ideas,
creencias, actitudes y experiencias
de los periodos y sociedades
estudiadas.
• Demostrar que son conscientes de la
diversidad social, cultural, religiosa y
étnica de las sociedades estudiadas.
•
•
•
•
•
Identificar cambios que hayan
tenido lugar en su propia vida y en
las de los demás.
Identificar cambios que hayan
afectado a su comunidad.
Demostrar que son conscientes de
la secuencia del año y el orden de
los hechos de su vida y de la de los
demás: empezar el colegio, los
cumpleaños...
Utilizar formas adecuadas de
describir y medir el tiempo:
meses/años, ayer/hoy/mañana,
antes/después.
Crear una cronología sencilla para
mostrar acontecimientos
importantes de su propia vida.
•
•
•
•
•
Identificar diferencias entre tipos de
vida de distintas épocas.
Demostrar que son conscientes de
los cambios que han experimentado
las casas, la vestimenta y la comida
a lo largo del tiempo.
•
Demostrar que son conscientes de
que el pasado puede dividirse en
distintos periodos de tiempo.
Situar acontecimientos, personajes y
cambios en amplios periodos de
tiempo.
Crear y utilizar cronologías en las
que situar acontecimientos
importantes de su vida y de la de los
demás.
•
47
•
•
•
Identificar y describir las razones y
los resultados de los
acontecimientos históricos, las
situaciones y los cambios en los
periodos estudiados.
Analizar de forma sencilla cómo
influye el pasado en los
acontecimientos del presente.
Utilizar fechas y vocabulario relativo
al paso del tiempo, incluyendo
antiguo, moderno, AC, DC, siglo y
década.
Situar acontecimientos, personajes y
cambios en su periodo de tiempo
correcto, estableciendo relaciones
entre ellos.
Aumentar la conciencia de que hay
distintos periodos de tiempo,
reconociendo algunas similitudes y
diferencias entre ellos.
Evidencia histórica
•
Desarrollar la comprensión
de cómo los artefactos
históricos pueden abrirnos
una ventana al pasado.
•
Mostrar artefactos del pasado,
describir su utilidad y explicar por
qué eran importantes.
Comparar y contrastar sus propias
vidas con las de otros niños del
pasado utilizando fotografías,
películas y otras fuentes.
•
•
•
Darse cuenta de que aprendemos
del pasado gracias a restos y a
artefactos.
Hacer y responder a preguntas
sobre el pasado basadas en
observaciones sencillas.
Averiguar cosas sobre hechos,
personajes y cambios de distintas
fuentes de información.
Demostrar que son conscientes
de las distintas maneras en las que
el pasado se representa y se
interpreta.
•
Averiguar cosas sobre hechos,
personajes y cambios a partir de
fuentes de información que van más
allá de simples observaciones,
incluyendo fuentes impresas, cdroms, páginas web y visitas a
museos y lugares de interés
histórico.
•
Para poder cubrir los contenidos descritos más arriba, se anima a los profesores a elegir temas/proyectos cuidadosamente para
que los niños obtengan una visión general de los cambios que se han sucedido a lo largo del tiempo, tengan acceso a la evidencia
histórica y oportunidad de practicar sus habilidades de investigación e información. Estos temas podrían incluir:
Una estudio de historia local para investigar un hecho o un individuo importante para la zona.
Un estudio de Historia del Mundo o de Europa para investigar los rasgos más importantes y el modo de vida de una
sociedad del pasado: los romanos, el Antiguo Egipto…
Un estudio basado en un periodo específico de la historia (por ejemplo, la época medieval) o una civilización del pasado
(los romanos) con efecto directo sobre la historia tanto de España como del Reino Unido. El estudio se centraría en:
• Hechos y personajes históricos significativos que hicieron historia en un momento dado del pasado,
• Una visión general de la vida cotidiana de hombres, mujeres y niños de distintos sectores sociales,
• Similitudes y diferencias entre la historia de España y de Gran Bretaña.
48
FRANJAS DE COMPETENCIA EN HISTORIA
Los objetivos de competencia descritos son para el final de CADA ciclo. Las tres franjas detalladas para cada ciclo corresponden a
tres niveles (del más bajo al más alto).
Cada uno de los niños que completa el segundo año de cada ciclo debería encajar aproximadamente en una de las tres franjas.
La estimación aproximada sería
• Franja 1_10% de los niños
• Franja 2_70% de los niños
• Franja 3_ 20% de los niños
Primer Ciclo
Franja 1
Los alumnos reconocen la diferencia entre el pasado y el presente en sus propias vidas. Comprenden términos básicos acerca del paso del
tiempo. Muestran comprensión de episodios concretos en relatos sobre el pasado.
Franja 2
Los alumnos reconocen la diferencia entre el pasado y el presente en sus vidas y en las de los demás. Utilizan algunos términos relativos al
paso del tiempo. Son capaces de relatar episodios de historias sobre el pasado con algo de ayuda. Pueden responder a preguntas sencillas
sobre el pasado.
Franja 3
Los alumnos muestran su incipiente sentido de la cronología colocando algunos hechos y objetos ordenadamente y utilizando términos
cotidianos sobre el paso del tiempo. Les resultan familiares, y son capaces de relatar, episodios de historias sobre el pasado. Encuentran la
respuesta a preguntas sencillas sobre el pasado a partir de fuentes de información.
Segundo Ciclo
Franja 1
Los alumnos muestran su creciente sentido de la cronología
• Comprendiendo términos relativos al paso del tiempo
• Colocando hechos importantes en una línea cronológica de su vida
• Reconociendo que sus vidas son diferentes a las de las personas que vivían en el pasado.
Responden a preguntas sencillas sobre el pasado. Muestran conciencia de aspectos del pasado que han estudiado.
49
Franja 2
Los alumnos muestran su creciente sentido de la cronología:
• Utilizando términos relativos al paso del tiempo.
• Colocando hechos y objetos en una cronología de sus vidas.
• Reconocer de qué manera sus vidas son diferentes a las de la gente del pasado.
Observan y utilizan fuentes de información para responder a preguntas sobre el pasado basadas en observaciones sencillas. Muestran
conciencia y comprensión de aspectos del pasado, hechos principales y personajes estudiados.
Franja 3
Los alumnos muestran una comprensión creciente de la cronología:
• Utilizando términos relativos al paso del tiempo.
• Colocando hechos y objetos en una línea cronológica de su vida y de la de otras personas.
• Dándose cuenta de que el pasado puede dividirse en distintos periodos de tiempo.
Manejan fuentes de información que van más allá de la simple observación para responder a preguntas sobre el pasado. Muestran
conocimientos y comprensión de ciertos aspectos del pasado, hechos principales y personajes estudiados. Empiezan a reconocer que hay
razones que explican por qué la gente del pasado actuó como lo hizo.
Tercer Ciclo
Franja 1
Los alumnos muestran su creciente comprensión de la cronología utilizando términos relativos al paso del tiempo, dándose cuenta de que el
pasado puede dividirse en distintos periodos de tiempo y colocando acontecimientos y objetos en una línea cronológica. Muestran
comprensión de aspectos del pasado, acontecimientos principales y personajes de las sociedades que han estudiado. Utilizan fuentes de
información que van más allá de la simple observación para responder a preguntas sobre el pasado.
Franja 2
Muestran conciencia y comprensión de los acontecimientos principales del pasado y de las sociedades que han estudiado. Pueden identificar
rasgos clave, acontecimientos y personajes de distintos periodos. Identifican algunas de las maneras de representar el pasado. Empiezan a
seleccionar y a combinar información de distintas fuentes para su trabajo.
Franja 3
Demuestran conocimiento de fechas y comprensión de aspectos de la historia que han estudiado. Pueden describir rasgos y hechos
característicos, identificar personajes y cambios dentro de y a lo largo de distintos periodos. Muestran cierta comprensión de que
determinados aspectos del pasado han sido representados e interpretados de distintas maneras. Empiezan a producir trabajo estructurado
utilizando información de distintas fuentes.
50
Arte & Diseño
ARTE Y DISEÑO: INTRODUCCIÓN
La naturaleza única del arte y el diseño
El arte y el diseño tienden a situarse aparte del resto de las áreas curriculares por muchas razones. La principal es que se distingue de otras
asignaturas porque los niños comunican sus ideas de una forma muy particular –de forma VISUAL. Sin embargo, esta asignatura a menudo se
considera aparte porque se entiende como menos importante que otras áreas curriculares, o simplemente como un tiempo en el que pueden
irse terminando otras tareas que se han dejado sin hacer de otras partes del currículum.
Si se explotan adecuadamente, el arte y el diseño pueden ofrecer excelentes oportunidades para que los niños se expresen de forma única.
No sólo eso: a través del arte y el diseño, pueden desarrollarse determinadas habilidades asociadas más frecuentemente con la lectura y la
escritura, las ciencias o la historia, de forma que resultan complementarias de otras asignaturas.
¿Cuáles deberían ser nuestros objetivos?
El arte y el diseño deberían ofrecer a los niños la oportunidad de:
• Estimular su creatividad y su imaginación a través de experiencias visuales, táctiles y sensoriales
• Comprender y responder al mundo de forma individual
• Desarrollar su comprensión de la línea, la forma, el color, el tono, la textura, el estampado, la perspectiva, la imagen y los medios de
comunicación
• Desarrollar su capacidad de utilizar materiales y procesos para transmitir sensaciones, significados e ideas
• Explorar las ideas y los significados de la obra de artistas y diseñadores importantes
• Aprender cosas acerca de las diferentes funciones del arte y el diseño en sus propias vidas y a lo largo de la historia
• Aprender cómo hacer juicios sosegados y tomar decisiones estéticas prácticas
• Aprender a hacer críticas constructivas y a aceptar las que les hagan sus compañeros
• Involucrarse activamente en darle forma a su colegio, a su casa y a su entorno local
¿Cómo debería progresar la enseñanza del arte y el diseño a través de Primaria?
El arte y el diseño deberían ser, ante todo, estimulantes para los niños. El objetivo debería ser desarrollar la imaginación de los niños
ofreciéndoles actividades artísticas, artesanales y de diseño que, en los primeros años de primaria, deberían relacionarse con la propia
identidad y las experiencias de los niños.
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Durante el segundo y tercer ciclo de primaria, el profesor debe tener como objetivo el desarrollo de la creatividad y la imaginación del niño,
cimentando los conocimientos, las habilidades y la comprensión a través de actividades más complejas. Las experiencias de los niños les
ayudan a desarrollar una comprensión más amplia del papel que el arte y el diseño juegan en el mundo.
¿Es conveniente utilizar un libro de texto?
Como en todas las asignaturas, los libros de texto pueden suponer una buena fuente de ideas. Sin embargo, la misma naturaleza del arte y
el diseño y el hecho de que el acento se ponga en la creatividad y en la necesidad de experimentar con diversas técnicas y materiales,
hace que seguir un libro de texto como único sostén constituya una experiencia muy limitada. Con la llegada de internet, es posible
encontrar una gran riqueza de información para profesores, estupendos planes para clases y, lo más emocionante, la oportunidad de entrar
virtualmente en los museos del mundo. Con semejante tecnología al alcance de la mano parece una lástima concentrar nuestro esfuerzo
en un recurso bidimensional de un solo material. Además, si se sigue un enfoque inter-curricular a lo largo de la primaria, podría ser difícil
encontrar en un libro de texto el material que necesitamos para complementar un tema.
¿Cómo se pueden desarrollar las destrezas del lenguaje a través del arte y el diseño?
Las destrezas del lenguaje forman una parte muy importante del arte y el diseño, especialmente cuando los niños tienen que formarse una
opinión crítica. La capacidad de escuchar y de hablar, por ejemplo, se desarrolla a través de actividades tales como:
• Practicar con lenguaje funcional, por ejemplo, pidiendo materiales
• Discutir los pasos a seguir para realizar una tarea
• Evaluar los mejores materiales a utilizar y las técnicas a emplear
• Describir un cuadro y dar una respuesta personal ante él
• Comparar distintas obras de arte
• Hacer juicios sobre el trabajo del propio niño, de un amigo, o de un artista
• Evaluar el propio diseño o el de otros niños
• Hacer afirmaciones personales sobre la obra de un niño o la vida/obra de un artista
La lectura y la escritura pueden desarrollarse a través de actividades como:
• Seguir instrucciones para completar una tarea
• Investigar información sobre un artista o su obra a partir de textos informativos o de Internet
• Escribir biografías cortas de artistas famosos
• Dar la propia opinión sobre un cuadro, una escultura, etc., por escrito
• Ordenar los pasos a partir de información pictórica o escrita después de realizar la tarea
• Hacer afirmaciones personales sobre el propio trabajo o el de un artista
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Conocimientos y Comprensión
Arte & Diseño: contenidos
Primer ciclo
Segundo ciclo
Tercer ciclo
Los alumnos serán capaces de:
o Identificar elementos táctiles y visuales
incluyendo color, estampado, textura, línea
y tono, forma y tipo de imagen (fotografía,
pintura, collage)
• Identificar materiales utilizados en el arte, la
artesanía y el diseño.
• Ser conscientes de las utilidades básicas
del arte en los medios de comunicación.
• Ser conscientes de las diferencias y las
similitudes entre la obra de unos pocos
artistas conocidos.
Los alumnos serán capaces de:
o Identificar y describir elementos táctiles y
visuales incluyendo color, estampado y
textura, línea y tono, forma, silueta y
espacio, perspectiva, tipo de imagen y
medio y cómo se pueden combinar con
distintos objetivos.
o Identificar materiales utilizados en el arte, la
artesanía y el diseño y ser conscientes de
cómo pueden crearse efectos diferentes al
utilizarlos.
o Utilizar sus crecientes conocimientos de
medios artísticos entre los que seleccionar
el más adecuado para cada tarea.
o Identificar y describir las diferencias y
similitudes entre las obras de artistas
conocidos de distintas épocas.
Los artistas serán capaces de:
o Identificar y describir elementos táctiles y
visuales incluyendo color, estampado y
textura, línea y tono, forma, silueta y
espacio, perspectiva, tipo de imagen y
medio y cómo se pueden combinar y
organizar para distintos propósitos.
o Identificar materiales, técnicas y procesos
utilizados en la creación artística, artesanal
y en el diseño, y ser conscientes de cómo
pueden crearse efectos diferentes al
utilizarlos.
o Identificar y describir las diferencias y las
similitudes entre la obra de artistas,
diseñadores y arquitectos que trabajan en
distintas épocas y culturas.
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ideas
Explore and Develop
Arte & Diseño: habilidades
Primer ciclo
Segundo ciclo
Los alumnos serán capaces de:
• Utilizar observaciones de primera mano, su
imaginación y sus experiencias personales
como inspiración para sus proyectos y
tareas.
• Hacer preguntas sobre los puntos de partida
de su trabajo.
• Recoger información visual para ayudarles a
desarrollar sus ideas.
Los alumnos serán capaces de:
• Utilizar observaciones de primera mano, su
imaginación y sus experiencias personales,
así como su creciente conciencia del mundo,
como inspiración para sus proyectos y tareas.
• Hacer preguntas sobre los puntos de partida
de sus trabajos.
• Buscar y recoger información visual para
ayudarles a desarrollar sus ideas.
• Probar distintas herramientas de forma libre
y espontánea, por ejemplo pintura, ceras y
telas.
• Observar y dibujar objetos seleccionados del
entorno cercano de los niños.
• Utilizar líneas libremente para construir
formas.
• Hacer composiciones sencillas o construir
estructuras.
• Dibujar, pintar y modelar objetos observados,
como casas, barcos o plantas, intentando ser
realistas en el color, el detalle y la forma.
• Hacer imágenes y objetos a través de la
observación basadas en visitas a museos,
galerías o parques.
• Hacer imágenes basadas en ideas o
sentimientos.
• Investigar las posibilidades de distintos
materiales, basándose en ejemplos como la
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Tercer ciclo
Los alumnos serán capaces de:
• Utilizar observaciones de primera mano,
imaginación, experiencias personales y su
creciente conciencia del mundo como
inspiración para proyectos y tareas.
• Evaluar los puntos de partida adecuados para
su trabajo y seleccionar ideas que usar en él
(por ejemplo: ellos mismos, sus experiencias,
historias, objetos naturales y manufacturados
y su entorno local).
• Buscar y seleccionar información visual para
ayudarles a desarrollar sus ideas.
• Utilizar una mayor variedad de métodos o
Utilizar unos pocos métodos para crear
imágenes de forma libre y espontánea pero
combinaciones de métodos de forma libre e
imaginativa dando pruebas de control sobre
dando muestras de mayor control, por
ejemplo, mezclando colores para obtener el
su trabajo.
efecto deseado.
• Dibujar, modelar y construir a partir de objetos
Observar y dibujar los motivos que se les den
observados con mayor detalle.
dibujando, pintando y haciendo bocetos.
• Controlar líneas para hacer formas mostrando
mayor comprensión de la escala y cierta
Controlar las líneas para hacer formas
mostrando nociones de escala.
comprensión de la perspectiva.
Crear composiciones o hacer estructuras en 3 • Crear composiciones más complejas y
dimensiones.
estructuras en 3 dimensiones.
Dibujar, pintar y modelar objetos observados
• Dibujar, pintar y modelar a partir de motivos
como casas, barcos o plantas, intentando ser
observados, como casas, barcos, plantas o
realistas en el color, el detalle y la forma.
personas, intentando ser realistas respecto
del espacio, el color y el tono, el detalle, la
Hacer algunas imágenes y objetos con
forma y la perspectiva.
distintos medios, a partir de la observación y
• Hacer varias imágenes y objetos con distintos
basados en visitas a museos, galerías y
medios, a partir de la observación detallada y
parques.
basados en visitas a museos, galerías y
Transmitir emociones, ideas y sentimientos en
parques.
2 y 3 dimensiones.
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•
•
•
•
arcilla, el papel maché o la escayola para un
proyecto con ayuda del profesor, por
ejemplo: el mejor material para construir un
huevo de Pascua.
Investigar el proceso que implica un diseño –
por ejemplo pintar o hacer un collage, y ser
capaz de ordenar las instrucciones.
Mostrar conciencia creciente de la
importancia del color en nuestra vida
cotidiana, la manera en la que el color puede
representar una atmósfera (por ejemplo, el
gris para un día lluvioso) demostrando su
creciente conocimientos de los colores
primarios y secundarios.
Empezar a trabajar solos en un proyecto con
la ayuda de un profesor.
Modelar objetos en 3 dimensiones.
• Investigar las cualidades visuales y táctiles de
algunos materiales para encontrar el medio
más apropiado a la tarea planteada.
• Investigar el proceso que implica un diseño –
pintar, hacer collage, esculpir, etc, y ser
capaces de plantear una serie de pasos para
llevarlo a cabo.
• Mostrar conciencia creciente de la importancia
del color en nuestra vida cotidiana, de la
manera como el color puede representar
atmósferas o estados de ánimo y refinar el
color mezclando diversas técnicas y
demostrando sus conocimientos de los
colores primarios, secundarios y terciarios.
• Trabajar con éxito solos en un proyecto, con
mayor independencia.
• Empezar a trabajar en un proyecto en grupo
con ayuda de un profesor.
• Crear un artefacto en 2 y 3 dimensiones.
• Crear un dibujo sencillo a distintas escalas.
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• Transmitir sentimientos, ideas y emociones,
reales e imaginarias, en 2 y 3 dimensiones.
• Investigar y combinar las cualidades visuales
y táctiles de los materiales con distintos
procesos, para encontrar el medio más
adecuado de llevar a cabo un proyecto
personal.
• Investigar las posibilidades de los distintos
procesos que implica un diseño: pintar,
collage, hacer impresiones, utilizar medios
digitales, etc, y decidir los pasos a seguir.
• Mostrar mayor conciencia de la importancia
del color en nuestra vida cotidiana, de la
manera como el color puede representar
atmósferas y estados de ánimo y refinar su
color mezclando técnicas y demostrando
conocimiento de los colores primarios,
secundarios y terciarios. Utilizar su creciente
conocimiento de la luz y la oscuridad para
acentuar la sombra, las zonas de luz, la
profundidad y la distancia.
• Trabajar con éxito solos en un proyecto.
• Trabajar con éxito en un proyecto en grupo.
• Crear un artefacto en 2 y 3 dimensiones
probando la eficacia de distintos materiales.
• Crear un artefacto a distintas escalas.
Evaluar y desarrollar ideas
• Con ayuda, describir un cuadro o un objeto y
dar una respuesta personal sencilla.
• Hacer comentarios sencillos sobre el trabajo
propio y el de los demás.
• Desarrollar respeto por su propio trabajo y el
de los demás.
• Identificar lo que podrían cambiar en el
trabajo que estén haciendo con ayuda del
profesor.
• Trabajar con los demás, escuchando y
respetando las ideas de todos.
• Describir un cuadro o un objeto y dar su
respuesta personal.
• Comentar un producto terminado comparando
ideas, métodos y enfoques en su propio
trabajo y el de los demás.
• Desarrollar respeto por su propio trabajo y el
de los demás y aprender cómo dar y recibir
críticas constructivas y elogios.
• Identificar lo que podrían cambiar en el trabajo
que estén haciendo, centrándose en los
medios y técnicas utilizados.
• Evaluar el propio trabajo y expresar qué
cambios podrían realizar en el futuro.
• Valorar el entorno natural y fabricado,
incluyendo los rasgos distintivos de su
localidad.
• Trabajar con los demás, escuchando y
respetando las ideas de todos y aprendiendo
a valorar los distintos intereses del grupo.
• Describir un cuadro, un objeto o un diseño
arquitectónico dando un juicio personal si
resulta apropiado.
• Hacer una o dos afirmaciones personales
sobre su trabajo o el de un artista o diseñador
demostrando su comprensión de los
elementos visuales.
• Desarrollar respeto por su propio trabajo y el
de los demás, y aprender a ofrecer y recibir
críticas constructivas y elogios.
• Identificar lo que podrían cambiar en el
trabajo que estén haciendo, centrándose en
los medios y las técnicas utilizadas.
• Evaluar su propio trabajo y el de los demás, y
expresar lo que podrían cambiar en el futuro.
• Valorar el entorno natural y fabricado,
incluyendo los rasgos distintivos de su
localidad, aprendiendo a evaluar críticamente
el papel y la función del artista en ese
entorno.
• Trabajar con otros, escuchando y respetando
las ideas de todos, y aprendiendo a valorar
los distintos intereses y los puntos fuertes del
grupo.
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ARTE Y DISEÑO: FRANJAS DE COMPETENCIA
Las franjas de competencia descritas son para el FINAL de CADA CICLO. Las tres franjas detalladas para cada ciclo corresponden a
tres niveles (del más bajo al más alto).
Cada uno de los niños que completa el segundo año de cada ciclo debería encajar en aproximadamente a una de las tres franjas.
La estimación aproximada sería
• Franja 1_10% de los niños
• Franja 2_70% de los niños
• Franja 3_ 20% de los niños
Primer ciclo
Franja 1
Los alumnos responden a los estímulos con ayuda del profesor. Utilizan materiales y procesos diversos para comunicar sus ideas y
significados de manera sencilla. Describen lo que piensan o sienten sobre su propio trabajo.
Franja 2
Los alumnos responden a los estímulos. Utilizan materiales y procesos para comunicar sus ideas y significados y para elaborar imágenes.
Describen los que piensan o sienten sobre su propio trabajo, y hacen comentarios sencillos sobre el trabajo de los demás.
Franja 3
Los alumnos responden a los estímulos, examinándolos. Investigan y utilizan materiales y procesos diversos para comunicar sus ideas y
significados. Diseñan y elaboran imágenes. Describen lo que piensan o sienten sobre su propio trabajo, y hacen comentarios sencillos sobre el
trabajo de los demás.
Segundo ciclo
Franja 1
Los alumnos responden a los estímulos, examinándolos. Investigan y utilizan materiales y procesos diversos para comunicar sus ideas y
significados. Diseñan y elaboran imágenes y crean artefactos. Describen lo que piensan o sienten sobre su propio trabajo, y hacen
comentarios sencillos acerca del trabajo de los demás.
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Franja 2
Los alumnos exploran ideas y estímulos y recogen información visual para su trabajo. Investigan las cualidades de determinados materiales y
utilizan diversos procesos para comunicar sus ideas y significados. Diseñan y elaboran imágenes y artefactos. Describen lo que opinan de su
propio trabajo y del de los demás y sugieren formas de mejorar el propio trabajo. Comentan las diferencias entre los trabajos de los demás.
Franja 3
Los alumnos exploran ideas y estímulos y recogen información visual para su trabajo. Investigan las cualidades de determinados materiales y
utilizan diversos procesos para comunicar sus ideas y significados. Diseñan y elaboran imágenes y artefactos con distintos propósitos.
Describen lo que opinan sobre su propio trabajo y el de los demás y sugieren formas de mejorar el propio. Comentan las diferencias y
similitudes entre el trabajo de los demás y el propio.
Tercer ciclo
Franja 1
Los alumnos exploran las ideas y los estímulos y recogen información visual y de otro tipo para su trabajo, incluyendo la de contextos
históricos y culturales diferentes. Investigan las cualidades táctiles y visuales de determinados materiales y utilizan procesos diversos para
comunicar sus ideas y significados. Diseñan y elaboran imágenes y artefactos con distintos propósitos. Describen lo que opinan de su propio
trabajo y del de los demás y sugieren maneras de mejorar el trabajo propio. Comentan las diferencias y similitudes entre su propio trabajo y el
de los demás.
Franja 2
Los alumnos exploran ideas y estímulos y recogen información visual y de otro tipo, incluyendo la de contextos históricos y culturales diferentes
para ayudarles a desarrollar su trabajo. Empiezan a utilizar sus crecientes conocimientos y comprensión de los materiales y los procesos para
comunicar sus ideas y significados de forma personal a través de imágenes y artefactos. Describen lo que opinan de su propio trabajo y del de
los demás y sugieren maneras de adaptar y mejorar el trabajo propio. Comparan y comentan las ideas de los demás y los métodos utilizados
por ellos y por los demás.
Franja 3
Los alumnos exploran ideas y estímulos y recogen información visual y de otro tipo, incluyendo la de contextos históricos y culturales
diferentes, para ayudarles a desarrollar su trabajo. Utilizan sus crecientes conocimientos y su mayor comprensión de los materiales y los
procedimientos para comunicar ideas y significados, combinando y organizando lo visual y lo táctil a través de imágenes y artefactos,
siguiendo sus propias intenciones. Describen lo que opinan de su propio trabajo y del de los demás y adaptan o mejoran su propio trabajo.
Comparan y comentan las ideas, los métodos y los enfoques utilizados en su propio trabajo y en el de los demás.
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Evaluación
La educación se ocupa de aspectos muy diversos del aprendizaje. Tiene que ver no sólo con los conocimientos y las habilidades tales y como
los hemos detallado en este currículum integrado, sino también con las actitudes, los valores y los intereses que deben ser estimulados en los
niños. La evaluación está ligada a todos estos aspectos de la educación.
La evaluación mejorará la calidad del aprendizaje y de la enseñanza siempre que la información recogida tenga un propósito claro, sea
recabada de manera sistemática y se utilice adecuadamente.
La evaluación es una parte importante e integral del proceso de aprendizaje y de enseñanza, y consta de 5 elementos clave:
PLANIFICACIÓN, ENSEÑANZA, CORRECCIÓN, REGISTRO DE LA INFORMACIÓN y EVALUACIÓN.
Todos estos elementos se superponen, y no son secuenciales.
PLANIFICACIÓN: saber lo que se va a aprender y compartirlo.
Los profesores deben tener una idea clara de lo que hay que aprender en los programas de enseñanza que planifican para cada niño, grupos y
clases, teniendo en cuenta lo que se ha enseñado antes. Esto es necesario tanto para la enseñanza como para la evaluación eficaz, ya sea el
plan para un día, una semana, un mes, o un periodo de tiempo más largo. La planificación debería ser lo suficientemente explícita como para
que sea fácil comunicar sus objetivos a los alumnos, los padres, y los demás profesores.
Los métodos de evaluación y registro de la información son una parte integral de nuestro trabajo y deberían ser decididos al planificar una
unidad de docencia.
OBJETIVOS: decidir qué áreas del currículum y qué objetivos se van a incluir en la unidad.
OBJETIVOS ESPECÍFICOS: decidir qué es lo que van a ser capaces de hacer/hacer mejor, o qué materia se habrá cubierto al final de la
unidad.
CLASES: planificar una serie de clases y actividades adecuadas para cumplir estos objetivos. Planificar tareas y marcar expectativas para
cada niño y grupos.
EVALUACIÓN y REGISTRO DE LA INFORMACIÓN: decidir qué parte del trabajo se evalúa o se examina. Esto indicará lo que debe ser
registrado.
APUNTES PARA EL DESARROLLO POSTERIOR DEL TEMA: es importante evaluar la adecuación de los contenidos, las actividades y los
recursos al completar una unidad que vaya a desarrollarse y mejorarse en los próximos años.
ENSEÑANZA: la evaluación como parte de un aprendizaje y una enseñanza efectiva.
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La evaluación es una parte integral del aprendizaje y se ocupa de cuatro aspectos principales:
o Objetivos claros de enseñanza y aprendizaje.
o Motivación.
o Experiencia previa y capacidades actuales.
o Tareas efectivas y métodos de enseñanza flexibles.
La enseñanza efectiva asegurará que todos los alumnos reciban tareas que supongan retos, pero retos asequibles, y que tengan la
oportunidad de asimilar y poner en práctica con éxito los nuevos conceptos, conocimientos, habilidades y actitudes con los que se están
encontrando.
Se deber diseñar actividades de evaluación basadas en lo que los niños dicen, escriben y saben hacer, considerando siempre la experiencia
particular y las capacidades de los niños en el proyecto bilingüe:
o Proponer tareas de evaluación al mismo nivel de dificultad con el que se encuentran en el trabajo diario.
o Diferenciación: diseñar las tareas de evaluación para distintos niveles y habilidades.
o Exponer a los niños a distintos tipos de situación de examen para que comprendan el procedimiento.
o Darles el entrenamiento adecuado para enfrentarse a las situaciones de examen, desarrollando técnicas de estudio y de examen.
o Mantener un equilibrio entre las exigencias lingüísticas y el contenido de las tareas de evaluación.
o Evaluar no sólo sus conocimientos sino también sus logros en el desarrollo de habilidades científicas e investigadoras.
o Ser conscientes de las dificultades que algunos niños tienen para expresar por escrito lo que saben.
REGISTRO DE LA INFORMACIÓN: resumir los logros y el progreso.
Se debe evaluar a lo largo del año o del ciclo de distintas maneras, manteniendo un registro de los resultados y ejemplos del progreso de los
niños. Es importante que el registro se centre en los objetivos de aprendizaje elegidos. El progreso de cada alumno debería actualizarse
convenientemente.
Se debe registrar:
o Información de actividades de un día para otro.
o Información de tareas de evaluación y de examen.
CORRECCIÓN: ofrecer tanto a niños como a padres información útil acerca de sus progresos.
Lo que se aprende de la evaluación va dibujando una imagen de los logros, intereses y aptitudes de cada alumno, que forma la base
de la información que se da a sus padres. Contribuye también a una relación de cooperación entre los profesores, los alumnos, los
padres y otros involucrados en el aprendizaje de los alumnos.
Se debe informar de distintas maneras a lo largo del año:
o
o
Proporcionar información regular y constructiva a los niños, acentuando sus logros y puntos fuertes.
Reuniones individuales con padres.
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o
o
o
o
Informes trimestrales.
Reuniones generales de padres.
Evaluaciones trimestrales de toda la clase.
Evaluación general de final de curso: “la memoria”
Ayudar a los niños a identificar:
o Lo que han aprendido.
o Lo que les queda por aprender.
o Sus siguientes pasos en el aprendizaje
EVALUAR: Utilizar la evaluación para valorar el aprendizaje y la enseñanza.
La evaluación en el colegio debería ayudar a comprobar la efectividad de todas las disposiciones tomadas que aseguran que los niños
aprendan.
Utilizamos distintas herramientas de evaluación para reflejar distintos tipos de actividades realizadas por los niños:
Actividades orales
o Discusiones con cada niño, con grupos, o con toda la clase.
o Hacer preguntas a los alumnos sobre la medida en la que entienden su trabajo.
o Leer en alto.
o Contar repetidas veces una historia.
o Dramatizaciones.
o Presentaciones orales.
Actividades escritas
o Pruebas de “respuestas cortas”.
o Escribir trabajos más largos relacionados con su trabajo en lectura y escritura o en otras áreas de conocimiento.
o Evitar exámenes de gramática y test de EFL (Inglés como Lengua Extranjera).
Actividades prácticas
o Planificación y realización de experimentos.
o Colaboración en proyectos.
o Demostrar que se están poniendo en práctica conocimientos o habilidades.
Trabajo diario
o Evaluar el esfuerzo y el logro, por ejemplo en los deberes de casa y en los cuadernos.
o Auto-evaluación y valoración por parte de los compañeros. Animar a los alumnos a reflexionar sobre su propio trabajo.
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TableofofContents
Contents
Table
Table of Contents
Table of
Area of
Document
Description
General Info
General Introduction
Page
64
Language and Introduction to the teaching of Literacy in the Primary Years
Literacy
Listening and Speaking Targets
Science,
Geography
and History
Science
69
76
Reading and Writing Targets
79
Bands of attainment
99
Resources pages
• Ideas on exploiting a fictional text
• Template for a phoneme fan
• Template for a phoneme wipe-board
• List of recommended books for teaching literacy
• List of useful websites
103
103
112
113
115
129
Introduction to Science, Geography and History
130
Enquiry Skills and Scientific Skills
Science: A subject guide
134
135
Scientific skills targets
137
Science content targets
138
Bands of attainment
142
62
Contents
Area of
Document
Geography
and history
Description
Page
Geography and History: a subject guide
147
Enquiry skills targets
148
Geography content targets
149
Geography bands of attainment
153
History content targets
156
History bands of attainment
158
Resources for Recommended websites
Science,
Geography
Recommended books and videos
and History
160
Art and
Design
An introduction to Art and Design
165
Content targets
167
Skills targets
168
Bands of attainment
171
Assessment
A crosscurricular
approach
Useful websites
General guidelines on assessment
160
… 173
174
Cross curricular topics
• Water
• Ancient Egypt
• Sharks
177
177
178
180
Working with Information texts
181
63
General Introduction to the M.E.C.D/ British Council Bilingual Project
General Introduction to the M.E.C.D/ British Council Bilingual Project
1.1
Project background and objectives
The MECD / BC bi-lingual project, initiated in 1996 as a unique experiment within the Spanish state education system, is now well established:
the first groups of children aged 11-12 are in their final year of primary education and their eighth year in the project.
The formal agreement between the MECD/ BC states that the aim of the project is to provide children from the age of three to sixteen with a bilingual, bi-cultural education through an integrated Spanish /English curriculum based on the Spanish National Curriculum and aspects of the
National Curriculum for England and Wales. This integrated curriculum has official recognition (BOE May 2000).
The implantation of such a curriculum requires a very different classroom approach from the traditional EFL classroom where the focus is on
learning English as a foreign language as opposed to studying areas of the primary curriculum through English. An integrated approach sits
very positively within the Directives of the Council of Europe which insists on the need for children to be competent in three European
languages by the end of the obligatory period of secondary education and that the learning of the first foreign language should begin in the early
years of formal education.
The specific objectives of the project are:
To promote the acquisition and learning of both languages through an integrated content-based curriculum
To encourage awareness of the diversity of both cultures
To facilitate the exchange of teachers and children
To encourage the use of modern technologies in learning other languages
Where appropriate, to promote the certification of studies under both educational systems.
1.2 Rationale : curriculum document
In February 2001 a Joint Study Review Team (JSRT) was set up by the Comision de Seguimiento, Project Board of Directors, to evaluate the
progress of the project to date. The following conclusions on curriculum content and assessment were reached by the JSRT. There is a need
for:
a clear delineation in the subjects and contents to be taught in English and the levels to which these will be taught
a definition of assessment criteria at the end of each stage of education (infant, primaries two, four and six) which will define the
attainment targets for each level within the project
64
This led to the JSRT making the following recommendation:
Recommendation 4: Curriculum and Assessment:
The joint team recommend that a mixed Spanish working party be formed to work on a realistic development of the core curriculum in
English describing which subject areas and contents should be taught in English in the infant and primary stages. In conjunction, the
working party would be responsible for establishing criteria and guidelines for assessment. It would be advisable to have both Spanish
and UK teachers who have been involved in the project for some time on the team in addition to experts in primary education from the
MECD and BC.
This led to the following Action Point agreed by the Comision de Seguimiento:
Action Point Six:
The Comisión de Seguimiento to ratify the appointment of a working party to study the present curriculum (BOE 2002)with a view to
specifying content and assessment criteria for the different levels in infant and primary. This should also include guidelines and
strong recommendations on the role of class teachers and project teachers for a joint methodological approach and suggestions
for a logical approach to time allocation. This document should also include a comprehensive list of resources (books, materials,
equipment) which are recommended for the success of the project at each stage.
1.3 Constitution of the working party
The working party was constituted in October 2001 with the objective of producing a document on guidelines for an infant curriculum and
assessment criteria for this level to be ratified by the Comisión de Seguimiento by June 2002: to be followed by a curriculum for
primaries 1-4 by September 2002 and primaries 5-6 by June 2003.
The team consists of six teachers in the project, three Spanish, three British: all six have worked in the project for more than three years.
The other two members of the team have the responsibility for the management of the project and are members of the Comisión de
Seguimiento.
1.4 Approach adopted by the working party
The members of the working party consulted primary departments in project schools on subject areas being delivered in English,
approaches to literacy and science, geography, history and art, attainment levels, ways of assessing the children, resources, time
allocation, project co-ordination and roles of teachers involved in the project.
65
In addition, in the period November 2002 to March 2003 the team visited 18 project schools in order to gain a more in-depth picture
of the areas listed above and to look for examples of best practice. The final document has been carefully compiled taking into
account evidence given form project schools and models of best practice seen on visits.
Both the Spanish and English curricula were studied in depth by working party members in order to produce a Spanish/English
integrated Curriculum integrating both contents and methodological approaches.
1.5 Core compulsory elements of the curriculum guidelines and allocation of time to English
The three areas which must be taught in English and in which targets must be reached and children evaluated are:
Language and Literacy
Science, Geography and History
Art and Design
In order to reach the targets set for the end of each cycle, and so that children will be able to function effectively at secondary school, a
minimum of 40% of the timetable (10 of the 25 sessions) must be dedicated to English. Combinations such as these below are
suggested to total 10 sessions:
Language and Literacy – 4 or 5 sessions
Science, Geography and History – 2, 3 or 4 sessions
Art and Design – 1 or 2 sessions
There is no focus in this document on teaching Physical Education though English in primary as evidence gathered from the schools
clearly indicates that the development of English language through PE is extremely limited after the initial three year infant stage. If
classes are given in PE these should be over and above the sessions detailed above.
Mathematics does not appear as core subject in the primary document although it is considered to be an integral part of the infant
guidelines: this is because the approaches to teaching formal mathematical skills are radically different in the two languages. However,
concepts such as time, measurement size, shape, volume and language of mathematics introduced in infants (more, less, etc.) should
continue to be developed as and when they appear in any subject or topic.
Drama is obviously a key area in the development of the child, allowing for both the development of communication and creativity. As
such, it is a core subject in the curriculum. It is included in the section on language and literacy but, as occurs in the Spanish curriculum,
art sessions can also be used to develop drama activities.
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1.6 Roles of teachers in the project
The project is most successful in schools where it is already perceived as an integrated project in every sense of the word. This means
that co.ordination between all members of staff is essential, both within each cycles, across cycles and clearly at the transition stage
between infants and first cycle. Where teachers are being given time together to plan and co-ordinate, it is noticeable that the standards
being achieved are very much higher.
Spanish class teacher and project teacher must plan closely together to ensure that the integrated curriculum is covered in the most
efficient way in the time allocated (see section 1.5).
It is an advantage to have two teachers in a classroom if both are supporting each other in the delivery of either part of the curriculum. It
is not however essential in the primary classroom and the timetable might be better organised by using the fact that are “·extra”
members of staff to organise some sessions, bith Spanish and English, in smaller groups. The prject teachers, as qualified teachers, are
able to work I the classroom on their own.
It is not essential for every class to be taught by a “native” teacher every year. There are an increasing number of “project” teaschers
who are not “native” speakers but who are bilingual or with a very high level of English. In addition, each year there are more Spanish
teachers, usually codigo 99, who have an excellent standard of English. All three “categories” are equally responsible for delivering the
English part of the project. It is not more than four groups/two year levels.
Both Spanish teachers of English and “project” teachers are able to deliver all areas of the curriculum. It is neither necessary nor
advisable that only the “project” teachers be teaching the language and literacy. Many Spanish teachers of English have either attended
literacy courses or have been on a study visit to Liverpool. Following curriculum guidelines, they can also be responsible for the
language/literacy area of the project.
1.7 Attainment targets
All teachers at the end of each cycle must consider the individual attainment level of each child. Attainment targets as described for
Language and Literacy, Science, Geography and History. Unless there are extenuating circumstances there should be a clear picture for
each class of:
10% at band 1
70% at band 2
20% at band 3
67
for each of the areas above. If these targets are not being achieved then this should lead to a school management examination of
a) the number of hours being spant on the English part of the curriculum
b) methodological approach and use of resources
c) co.ordination and continuity in the project
d) the need to challenge children more and raise standards of expectation.
The team working on these guidelines would appreciate feedback. It is a developing curriculum wich will change according to comments
received and obviously in line with any changes in the Spanish curriculum.
General Introduction to the M.E.C.D/ British Council Bilingual Project
68
Language and Literacy
INTRODUCTION TO THE TEACHING OF LITERACY IN PRIMARY YEARS
What is Literacy?
Literacy is much more than just the teaching of the mechanics of reading. Literacy involves the four skills of language: understanding, speaking,
reading and writing. A balance of these provide the child with a greater chance of survival in English and encourages self-esteem, self-identity
and emotional development. Literacy enables access to both fiction and non-fiction materials that will shape and develop the child intellectually.
In addition, bi-literacy gives children access to different social and cultural worlds. Furthermore, as children become more confident and literate,
their knowledge of, and control over the language become more individual and personalised.
How should Literacy be developed within a whole-school context?
Being able to read and communicate with fluency and enjoyment in English are skills which need to be developed throughout Primary. A whole
school policy on Literacy must be established - this should include careful planning and co-ordination between levels and cycles.
Where should Literacy be taught?
A daily focus on Literacy is essential but does not have to be confined to The Literacy Hour. Language and literacy should also be developed in
geography, history, science and art.
How should Literacy be organised in a classroom context?
The teacher’s role in Primary is to teach the necessary literacy skills to motivate the children to become confident and independent readers and
communicators.
The teaching of literacy skills should be planned to ensure that speaking, listening, reading and writing are worked in a balanced and integrated
way within the classroom.
How do we encourage active listening?
Listening with confidence depends upon the knowledge and experience of the children as well as their motivation and involvement. They listen
best when the information is meaningful and interesting to them, and has a clear purpose.
o Read good stories with rhythm, rhyme and repetition.
o Choose texts, fiction and non-fiction, with the children’s interests in mind
o Give good visual support to help understanding.
69
o
o
Use gesture and facial expression to aid understanding.
Tell the children to respond in a specific way to what they hear; total physical response is still important in first cycle. In the 2nd and 3rd
cycles children can be asked to listen for, and later recall particular information, often to make a choice or decision upon what has been
heard.
How do we encourage speaking?
o
Recounts: These are simple retellings of experiences. To begin with, photographs or children’s drawings in sequence can
be used
as props to elicit sentences describing a shared activity. 2nd and 3rd cycles oral recounts will precede written work
describing shared
experiences e. g. a school trip.
o
o
o
o
o
Reporting news: It is easier if the children can draw or paint their news first. In Year One the teacher can provide a news framework
with small diagrams illustrating when? who? where? and what? questions. The children can then draw the “answers” and use this as a
framework to make a sentence with teacher support. There is not time to do this with every child, so a news rota is a good idea. A
cardboard box can be made into a stimulating prop for giving news or weather reports. In the second cycle, children can report events
with less prompting, and in the third cycle this can lead to oral presentations and performing reports as if on the television news. These
can be videoed and the children can then evaluate their own and each others performances.
Retelling stories: At first children re-tell stories with very structured, repetitive language, and with help from the teacher. During the first
cycle they gradually use less support and more improvisation. Story props such as magnet board figures, puppets, masks and hats are
all useful. Look at the class list to make sure everyone gets a turn. In second and third cycles children will be working towards being
able to write a simple summary of a story. It is important to practice this orally first.
Reciting poems, songs and chants: Children should have a growing repertoire of poems, songs and chants they have learnt by
heart, using music and gestures to help remember the words and make them more meaningful. Practising these regularly improves the
children’s self-esteem by giving them confidence in using English. They also improve their knowledge of the rhymes, rhythms and
sounds of the language. The older primary children can be motivated by exploiting pop songs and songs from the latest films.
Role-play and drama : When working on a story text use role-play to explore situations, characters and emotions with improvisation.
The use of puppets and masks can encourage the more reluctant speakers to participate. After dramatising a story, children will often
find a related reading or writing activity more stimulating and achievable because they have acted out situations and have a greater
understanding of the text. Children should also be given the opportunity to improvise role-play and play with puppets in an unstructured
setting. Pretend telephones are a useful prop for dialogues. The children will be more able to improvise in English in the second cycle,
and in the third cycle improvising in character can be the basis for scripting their own plays . The children enjoy performing in public, and
during rehearsals they can learn chunks of useful language in context.
Talking about themselves and their daily lives: Learning to describe appearance, family and pets is all easier if the children can bring
in photographs. These can then be made into books. Older children can extend this talking about themselves into written work. If a link
can be established with English speaking children in another school, pupils can then write to exchange information.
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o
o
Functional English: Children should learn useful phrases about their daily routine. It is easier to insist on certain requests being made
always in English if they are prominently displayed in the classroom with illustrations if necessary. With constant practice children can
assimilate useful patterns of language so that they can begin to make up their own original functional phrases . e.g. Can I…..
Questioning and eliciting: Children need to be able to respond to more formal questions so that they can relate to other adults, such
as visitors to the school. Understanding and using question forms can be practised in a fun way with a game or a rhyme .e.g.
What’s your name?
Where do you live?
What’s your number?
What’s your address?
Mary-Jane
Down the lane
Cucumber
Watercress
This can be practised with puppets and then the replies can be changed
by the children to give true answers about themselves.
o
Oral Presentations: From second cycle children can prepare oral presentations related to topic work. They can research a topic and
then prepare a draft to be corrected by the teacher. They can practise at home and then give the talk to the rest of the class. Group
evaluation of these presentations is valuable as it involves class discussion of speaking skills.
o
How do we teach reading and writing?
In the daily literacy hour we can focus upon a fiction or a non-fiction text. In the Resources Pages at the end of the section on Language and
Literacy there is a detailed example of how to exploit a fictional story to teach reading and writing, and various examples of how to use and
make non-fiction texts.
How do we teach knowledge about the language?
o Phonics The teaching of phonics and spelling needs to be done systematically and should whenever possible, come from work on a
text rather than be studied in isolation. The school should agree on targets for each year and each term and revise these regularly. The
order you choose for teaching phonemes and spellings depends upon the children’s previous knowledge, the language taught
elsewhere in the curriculum and on the texts and graded readers available in each school. Useful lists of the most common words can
be found in the guides of reading schemes and from the English national curriculum website : www.nc.uk.net
This is written for children living in England, but can be adapted to our needs.
o
Spelling Learning spellings for some kind of test can be introduced in year two. These can be selected from words with spelling
similarities, common irregular words, or topic vocabulary. Children can be encouraged to learn how to study and remember words. Later
in primary, work on spellings can be related to dictionary work and working on the glossary of information books.
71
o
o
o
Sentence structure and grammar The children should use familiar grammatical structures correctly in shared writing, and can begin by
putting words from familiar phrases in order. We are aiming for fluency, and initially do not focus upon the formal aspects of grammar.
In second cycle the children are introduced to formal grammar in Spanish and it is a good idea to co-ordinate this teaching with the
Spanish teacher, in order to activate the children’s previous knowledge. Grammatical awareness can be taught in an experimental and
investigative way. e.g. In the second cycle children can investigate past tense verbs by collating them from different story books and
then classifying them according to whether they are regular or irregular. The regular verbs can then be classified into three groups
depending on the pronunciation of the –ed ending. Children can also experiment by taking a verb out of a sentence to see if it still makes
sense, or substituting one verb for another to see how it affects the meaning. In the third cycle students need to be consciously aware of
all the grammar structures they have acquired in Primary, so that they are confident in approaching formal grammar structures and can
easily demonstrate what they know when they begin secondary education.
Punctuation Pupils should be taught to recognise the importance and purpose of capital letters, full stops, commas, question marks,
exclamation marks and inverted commas and be able to demonstrate when reading aloud how punctuation affects the way a passage is
read. They can be shown in supported writing where to punctuate and be encouraged to do so in imaginative and personal writing.
Reflecting on how an author has used punctuation can provide the children with a motivating context to approach punctuation in their
own writing.
Vocabulary The children can be encouraged to use a wider range of vocabulary through creating and referring to class and personal
word banks and transferring their knowledge from other areas of the curriculum. They also need to use simple mono-lingual dictionaries
and other reference books when writing.
How do we motivate children to enjoy reading?
The focus in primary continues to be on “real” books (storybooks and information texts), and it is important to establish a good class library
with resources which are not only colourful and attractive, but of a suitable cognitive and interest level for the children. All reading activities
should be highly stimulating and enjoyable for the children. In addition to teacher directed activities, the children should have the opportunity to
read for pleasure in unstructured activities. Not all books in the reading corner have to be exploited for teaching. Some books should be read
for fun and other lower level books should be available for easy reading. This can increase self-esteem and heighten enjoyment.
All children should have access to a comfortable, attractive reading area somewhere in the school. They should be able to choose from a
range of stories, poems, plays and non-fiction texts and be able to select books to read at home on a regular basis.Being able to choose is very
important. Having access to books with the text recorded on tape can be enjoyable for children to listen to, as well as aiding them to read aloud
more confidently and fluently. As well as reading alone or with friends, children of all ages love to listen to stories being read by an adult, so
establishing a story time can be a positive step in promoting reading. Sometimes a book can just be read, while on other occasions the text will
be exploited over a period of time for optimum learning.
Reading games, whether they are aimed at word, sentence or text level can be fun for children, and give them an opportunity to read for
meaning /infer meaning outside the context of the text.
72
As children develop a greater understanding of the world through the subjects of science, geography and history, they can be taught how useful
and enjoyable it can be to refer to non-fiction texts. The teacher can plan activities to encourage pupils to use these texts efficiently, and as
they progress through primary education they should become aware of how stimulating and useful information texts can be, since they have
used them in meaningful contexts.
Drama forms an integral part of language development, and is an excellent tool to support development in all four modes of language.
Generally, children participate with enthusiasm in improvisations of stories, familiar situations and the acting out of a scientific process, e.g. the
circulatory system. In doing so, their understanding of a text increases and they become more efficient in communicating orally and in written
form.
Learning about authors, poets and illustrators can stimulate the children's interest in reading their works and using ideas from them in their
own writing. Whilst a visit from a well-known writer would be highly stimulating, this is difficult to achieve. However, using video documentaries
and providing access to the relevant internet sites are constructive steps to promoting reading for enjoyment.
Beginning in the first cycle, children can be encouraged to keep their own record of the books they have read. During the second cycle they
can write a brief summary of books they have read, and begin to express an opinion about them. By the time children reach the third cycle, they
should have been given sufficient access to good quality texts to have begun to develop their own literary tastes.
How do we encourage personal and imaginative writing?
At all stages the children should both participate in structured, teacher guided writing and also have the opportunity to write for pleasure in
unstructured activities. Whenever possible, there should be an area in the classroom specifically for writing. It could be near the reading area
and provide word books, dictionaries and word family charts, as well as a range of writing materials and paper .The children should be able to
engage in free expression in written form. As they gain confidence children can be encouraged to model their writing on familiar texts and use
stimuli like story starters which may help to develop their writing further. By the time children reach the third cycle, personal research projects
provide ideal opportunities for pupils to write for pleasure and purpose, and allow them to utilise the many writing skills taught and acquired
throughout primary.
Teacher guided writing activities are essential at all stages. Through discussing the mechanics of writing at word, sentence and text level as a
class or group, before and after individual writing, the children are able to adopt new skills . They also learn how to evaluate their own work, and
consider ways to improve it.
Children should always be given the opportunity to discuss their ideas for personal and imaginative writing. Recounting an event to the class, a
group or a friend can help pupils to construct their piece of writing, whether it is a sentence in year one, a short paragraph, or a longer piece of
writing in the third cycle. From discussion, pupils in the second and third cycles will be able to make notes and create a plan for their writing
before starting the task, thus allowing them to form a clear structure before writing. This can be done in a small group, in pairs or individually.
Imaginative writing can often be based on a good quality text. If children have enjoyed reading a story, play or poem they can base their own
writing upon a similar structure, retell the story in a different setting, or give the text a different ending. The teacher shows the pupils techniques
73
used by the author or poet and encourages them to use these in their own work. Dramatising situations, creating word banks and displaying
rules for writing in the classroom area are all stimulating and effective ways of preparing our pupils to become confident, efficient writers.
Ideas for Guided Writing
o Elicit a text from the children and involve them in making corrections.
o Make notes from a talk and then use these as a basis for writing.
o Use a labelled diagram or tabulated information as a basis for writing.
o Use an author as a model.
o Write up procedures, eliciting key topic vocabulary and essential verbs before starting.
o Provide descriptive writing activities, creating a word bank of adjectives before starting
o Sequence sentences in a text
o Order words in a sentence
o Provide shared writing opportunities, where the class is divided into groups to write different sections of a story or a play script.
o Write a summary of a story or information text which has been previously worked on in class.
o Answer questions about short texts.
o Formulate questions, e.g. elicit areas to be investigated at the start of a topic.
How do we teach writing for different purposes?
By the third cycle children will be expected to write for different purposes. They will practise writing: formal and informal letters, news reports,
scientific experiments, recipes, lists, stories, cartoons, dialogues, instructions, and explanations. Therefore it is important to gradually introduce
the children to different forms of functional writing throughout the two previous cycles of primary. To communicate within the school they can
write letters, notes, and messages and create posters. Work in Geography, History and Science will provide a basis and a vocabulary suitable
for more factual work. In literacy sessions children need to become familiar with these different formats and registers and begin to think about
the purpose and the target audience.
How do we approach non-fiction?
Children need to be introduced to non-fiction books right from the start. There should be a good selection of non-fiction books in the reading
area, with some books made by the children. We can use these to familiarise the children with the features of information texts, to learn to look
for information, and as models to make their own books. Information books are an important element of literacy work, and can be used for
teaching at text, sentence and word level.
In the primary stage, children need to learn how to read for information and write for practical purposes.
In the first cycle they can begin to look things up in informational or reference texts and start to use the contents and index.
During the second cycle, they should, with teacher guidance, be selecting appropriate texts to find and use specific information and using these
texts as a model for their own writing. They can start to create contents and indexes when writing their own fact books and class information
books. They should also be introduced to the use of a dictionary and shown how to use alphabetical order to find words, so that in later stages
of Primary, they can find the meanings of words with independence.
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For more ideas on information texts go to the section: Cross-Curricular Topics
How do we teach handwriting?
Children can be taught English style letter formation and print in the English lesson or equally, they can use Spanish style cursive right from the
start. They easily adapt from one style to another. Teachers sometimes worry excessively about these details and a whole-school handwriting
policy is a good plan to remove unnecessary conflict. The upper case/lower case debate is perhaps more significant as the children would
appear to make quicker progress in reading if they can learn lower case letters from Infants, and not just the capital letters.
Whatever the school policy on handwriting, teachers must always check that the children use a comfortable pencil grip and have good posture
in writing sessions.
How do we involve parents in the teaching of reading?
o Termly parents meetings are a good opportunity to explain our reading methods and give parents ideas of how they can help.
o Parents could also be given a pamphlet explaining some of the differences between reading in English and Spanish, saying how their
children learn to read in English, and how they can help.
o If graded readers are used, tapes can be made to be sent home with the books.Word boxes and spellings can also be taken home to
involve the parents in the learning process.
What can we use to help us teach literacy?
Literacy Toolkit
Pointer to use when referring to big books
Acetate sheets for using when writing over a book e.g. inventing characters’ thoughts in thought bubbles
Post-it notes for covering up words/phrases and pictures
Selection of ready-made blank cards for writing key vocabulary
A good selection of story and non-fiction books in big book format with at least 6 small books for guided reading. This selection should
include poems, rhymes and graded readers e.g. Oxford Reading Tree and Oxford Literacy Web, Cambridge Readers….
A wide selection of fiction/ non-fiction books which are at a number of levels
Alphabet and sounds display
Word walls, word pockets, word banks, key word sheets, word boxes (chosen words on card to be worked on at school or at home)
Phonics fans and wipe boards (see resource pages and Progression in Phonics ISBN 0193122375 )
Book-based games
Story props e.g. favourite character figures/puppets/ dressing up clothes/ masks
Commercial videos and cassettes/ recordings of children reading or singing
A selection of books made by individuals and classes
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LISTENING AND SPEAKING TARGETS – First, Second and Third Cycles
These targets are separated into listening and speaking, reading and writing. However, work in these skills will be integrated in the teaching of
literacy. The targets listed for each cycle are those which the children are expected to know by the END OF EACH CYCLE.
LISTENING
First Cycle
Second Cycle
Third Cycle
To listen, understand and respond to others,
To listen, understand and respond appropriately To listen, understand and respond to others,
children will be able to:
to others, children will be able to:
children will be able to:
• Sit comfortably and sustain
• Sustain their attention.
• Sustain their attention.
concentration, responding with interest
• Listen and respond appropriately
• Listen and respond appropriately
throughout the session.
individually and in groups to the teacher
individually and in groups to the teacher
giving explanations, presentations and
giving detailed explanations,
• Listen and respond appropriately
individually and in groups to the teacher
telling stories.
presentations and telling stories. e.g.
and peers giving explanations,
describing how a model works.
• Listen and respond appropriately to
presentations and telling stories.
recordings.
• Listen and respond appropriately to
• Listen to each others’ responses.
recordings.
• Listen for specific information and
• Listen for specific information.
identify key points in discussion.
• Listen for specific information, identify
key points in discussion and evaluate
• Ask questions to clarify their
• Recall and re-present important features
what they hear.
understanding .
of an argument, talk, reading, or video.
• Recall and re-present important features
• Identify and respond to sound patterns in
• Ask relevant questions (with help) to
of an argument, talk, reading, or video.
the language.
clarify understanding and extend ideas.
Identify features of different types of
• Ask relevant questions to clarify
• Show that they know, understand and
texts, and language used for a specific
understanding and extend ideas.
can use the following terms: rhyme,
purpose.
rhythm, sound, low or high voice.
• Identify features of different types of
texts, and identify the purpose. E.g. to
• Show recognition of a few features of
• Listen and respond to others
persuade, instruct or entertain.
different types of texts (e.g. story, poem,
appropriately, taking into account what
information)
• Listen and respond to others
they say.
appropriately, taking into account what
• Listen to grammatically Standard English
they say.
and be exposed to different standard
accents, ( different teachers, recordings
and videos.)
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SPEAKING
First Cycle
Second Cycle
Third Cycle
To speak with growing confidence in a range of
To speak clearly and with growing confidence,
To speak with growing confidence in a range of
contexts, children will be encouraged to:
children should be encouraged to:
contexts, children will be encouraged to:
• Speak audibly and clearly .
• Speak audibly with clear diction.
• Speak audibly and clearly .
• Read aloud and recite rhymes, chants
• Read aloud and recite rhymes, chants
• Read aloud and recite rhymes ,chants
and songs.
and songs.
and songs.
•
Re-tell
stories
with
less
support
and
• Choose and use relevant vocabulary and
• Re-tell stories and use improvisation.
begin to use improvisation.
phrases.
• Choose and use relevant vocabulary.
• Choose and use relevant vocabulary.
• Attempt to organise what they say with
• Use question forms correctly.
• Practise question forms.
the use of simple, familiar structures.
• Focus on the main point and reply to
• Reply to questions appropriately and use
• Focus upon what is being asked and
questions appropriately using because…
because…
respond appropriately .
• Organise what they say.
• Use vocabulary and syntax to express
• Begin to describe experiences, ideas and
• Use vocabulary and syntax to express
more complex ideas.
feelings with help from the teacher.
more complex ideas.
• Describe experiences and feelings with
• Help to tell stories with predictable
• Speak in a range of contexts, adapting
help from the teacher.
structures and patterned language.
what they say to purpose and audience.
• Make a short oral presentation to the
• Re-tell stories with less support and use
• Describe experiences and feelings.
class, giving an introduction and an
improvisation.
• Perform oral presentations to the class,
ending. The teacher will help with
• Communicate with the class teacher and
giving an introduction and an conclusion.
preparation of this.
peers using their increasing knowledge
of English as well as familiar phrases.
• Show that they can understand and use
the following terms: soft, slow, loud,
quick, clear and voice.
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GROUP DISCUSSION AND INTERACTION
First Cycle
Second Cycle
Third Cycle
To join in as members of a group the children will To talk effectively as members of a group,
To talk effectively as members of a group,
be encouraged to:
children will be able to:
children will be able to:
• Take turns in speaking and not to
• Make contributions relevant to the topic
• Make contributions relevant to the topic
interrupt others in the group.
and take turns in discussion.
and take turns in discussion.
• Relate their contributions to what has
• Convey ideas and share experiences.
• Convey ideas and share experiences.
gone on before.
• Make plans, investigate, predict, explain,
• Give reasons for opinions and actions.
report, evaluate select and sort.
• Speak up clearly.
• Make plans, investigate, predict, explain,
• Begin to convey ideas and share
report, evaluate select and sort.
experiences.
• Make plans and investigate (e.g. do a
simple experiment with predictions and
reporting back. )
DRAMA
First Cycle
Second Cycle
Third Cycle
To participate in a range of drama activities the
children will be encouraged to:
• Use language and actions to describe
situations, characters and emotions.
• Work on role play and use puppets to
dramatise stories, using pair work for
short dialogues.
• Watch performances and with support,
comment constructively on them .
To participate in a wide range of drama activities To participate in a wide range of drama activities
and to evaluate their own and others’
and to evaluate their own and others’
contributions, children will be encouraged to:
contributions, children will be encouraged to:
• Use language and actions to explore and
convey situations, characters and
• Use language and actions to explore and
emotions.
convey situations, characters and
emotions.
• Improvise dialogue, create and sustain
roles.
• Improvise dialogue, create and sustain
roles.
• Begin to devise and script dialogues.
• Devise and script plays.
• Present drama to others.
• Present drama to others.
• Watch performances and with support,
• Watch performances and, comment
comment constructively on them .
constructively on them .
78
READING AND WRITING TARGETS – YEAR 1
These targets are separated into reading and writing. Work in these skills will be integrated into other curricular areas as well as the teaching of
literacy. The targets listed are according to EACH YEAR GROUP and children are expected to reach these by the END OF EACH YEAR.
Text level work
Sentence level work
Word level work
Pupils should be able to:
Pupils should be able to:
Develop an awareness of the grammar of a
simple sentence.
Pupils should be able to:
From Infants: practise and secure alphabetical
letter knowledge (including letter sounds and
alphabetical order).
Fiction and Poetry
Reading Comprehension
Reinforce and apply their word-level skills
through shared and guided reading.
Use phonological awareness, contextual,
grammatical and graphic knowledge to work out
and begin to predict the meanings of unfamiliar
words and to start to make sense of what they
read.
Read familiar, short, simple stories and poems
independently, to point while reading and make
correspondence between words said and read.
Choose and read familiar books with
understanding and attention.
Empathise with story settings and incidents.
Recite stories and rhymes with predictable and
repeating patterns, experimenting with patterns
orally by substituting words and playing with
rhyme.
Re-enact stories in a variety of ways, becoming
aware of characters and dialogue through roleplay using dolls or puppets.
Read with appropriate expression and intonation,
From Infants: practise and secure the ability to
e.g. in reading to others, or to dolls, puppets.
rhyme, and to relate this to spelling patterns
through:
With teacher support, write captions and simple
sentences, and to re-read, recognising whether
• Exploring and playing with rhyming
or not they make sense, e.g. missing words,
patterns
wrong word order.
• Generating rhyming strings e.g. FAT,
HAT, CAT.
Begin to investigate the sort of words that fit in
sentences.
From Infants: practise and secure the ability to
hear initial and final phonemes e.g. FIT, MAT,
Recognise full stops and capital letters when
PAN.
reading, and name them correctly.
Identify letter names
Begin using the term sentence to identify
Identify, spelling and reading of initial, final
sentences in text.
and medial letter sounds in simple words.
e.g s-a-t
Recognise that a line of writing is not necessarily
the same as a sentence.
Investigate, read and spell words ending in ff, ll,
ss, ck, ng and begin to discriminate, read and
Begin using full stops to demarcate sentences.
spell words with initial consonant clusters. E.g.
bl, cr, tr, str.
Use a capital letter for the personal pronoun I ,for
names and for the start of a sentence.
For guided reading, read on sight high
Begin to recognise the function of question
frequency words specific to graded books.
marks.
Read on sight other familiar words e.g.
children’s names, equipment labels,
79
classroom captions.
Identify and discuss characters, e.g. appearance
and behaviour, to speculate about how they
might behave (prediction) and talk about how
they are described in the text, e.g. Mum was
cross!
Begin to recognise common spelling patterns
e.g. s for plurals, -ed past tense and -ing
present tense endings.
Writing Composition
Through shared reading and guided writing,
apply phonological, graphic and sight vocabulary
to spell basic words accurately.
Learn new words from reading and shared
experiences, and make collections of personal
interest or key words and words linked to topics
being studied. Use word banks, word sheets.
Use simple rhymes and patterned stories as
models for their own writing.
Be familiar with the terms letter sound and letter
name.
Make simple storybooks with sentences,
modelling them on basic text conventions, e.g.
cover, author’s name, title, layout.
Non-fiction
Reading Comprehension
Read and use captions, e.g. labels around the
school, on equipment.
Read and follow simple instructions, e.g. for
classroom routines, lists for groups in workbooks.
Predict what a given book might be about from a
brief look at both front and back covers, including
blurb, title, illustration; discuss what it might tell
in advance of reading and check to see if it does.
Writing Composition
Choose and write appropriate captions for their
own work, e.g. displays, in class books.
Make simple lists for practical purposes, e.g.
shopping list.
Help to create and draw simple instructions and
labels for everyday classroom use, e.g.
equipment.
80
READING AND WRITING TARGETS – YEAR 2
Text level work
Sentence level work
Word level work
Pupils will be able to:
Pupils will be able to:
Use awareness of simple grammar of a sentence
to decipher new or unfamiliar words, e.g. predict
text from the grammar, read on, leave a gap and
re-read.
Pupils will be able to:
From year 1 Secure knowledge of alphabet
names and sounds and alphabetical order.
Fiction and Poetry
Reading Comprehension
Reinforce and apply their word-level skills through Predict words from preceding words in sentences
and investigate sorts of words that fit in
shared and guided reading.
sentences.
Use phonological, contextual, grammatical and
graphic knowledge to work out, predict and check Recognise full stops and capital letters when
reading and understand how they affect the way a
the meanings of unfamiliar words and to make
sense of what they read.
passage is read.
Read with sufficient concentration to complete a
text and to identify preferences .
Re-tell stories orally and give the main points in
sequence.
Begin to use titles, cover pages, pictures and
blurbs to predict the content of unfamiliar stories.
Read a variety of poems on similar themes, e.g.
families, school, food.
Collect class and individual favourite poems for
class collections, participate in reading aloud.
Writing Composition
Through shared and guided writing, apply
phonological, graphic knowledge and sight
vocabulary to spell words accurately.
Read and spell words containing the digraphs ch,
th, sh, wh and ph.
Learn the common spelling patterns for each of
the long vowel phonemes: ee, ai, ie, oa, oo (long
as in moon)and ar, oy, ow.
Identify phonemes (units of sound) in speech and
writing.
Continue demarcating sentences in writing,
ending a sentence with a full stop.
Blend phonemes for reading.
Recognise and identify words in singular and
plural form.
Spell some common irregular words.
Learn new words from reading and linked to
particular topics and make collections of personal
interest or significant words.
Break down words into phonemes for spelling.
Use the term sentence appropriately to identify
sentences in text, i.e. those demarcated by capital Read on sight extended range of high frequency
letters and full stops.
and familiar words matched to the abilities of
reading groups.
Use capital letters for the personal pronoun ‘I’ for
names, the start of a sentence and other common Recognise words by common spelling patterns.
uses, e.g. book titles, emphasis.
From year 1: Investigate and learn spellings of
Add question marks to questions and begin to use verbs with ed (past tense) -ing (present tense)
inverted commas.
endings.
Learn the terms vowel and consonant and be
81
Write stories using simple settings, e.g. based on
previous reading.
completely familiar with the terms letter sound
and letter name.
Non-Fiction
Reading Comprehension
Recognise that non-fiction books on similar
themes can give different information and present
similar information in different ways.
Identify simple questions and use text to find
answers. Locate parts of text that give particular
information including labelled diagrams and
charts, e.g. Parts of a flower.
Writing Composition
Write simple reports about topics or personal
experiences. Make group/class books e.g. Our
day at school.
Use the language and features of non-fiction
texts, e.g. labelled diagrams, contents to make
class books.
82
READING AND WRITING TARGETS – YEAR 3
Text level work
Sentence level work
Word level work
Pupils will be able to:
Pupils will be able to:
Pupils will be able to:
Fiction and Poetry
Grammatical awareness
Identify phonemes in speech and writing.
Reading and comprehension
Reinforce and apply their word level skills through
shared and guided reading.
Use an awareness of grammar to decipher new or
unfamiliar words, e.g. to predict from the text, to
read on, leave a gap and re-read.
Blend phonemes for reading.
Use phonological, contextual, grammatical and
graphic knowledge to work out, predict and check
the meanings of unfamiliar words and to make
sense of what they read.
Revise alphabet sound and names.
Read aloud with intonation and expression
appropriate to the grammar and punctuation
(sentences, speech marks, exclamation marks, and Revise alphabet order and start to use this to look up
information e.g. to make a vocabulary book.
commas to mark pauses).
Compare books by the same author to evaluate
and form preferences, giving reasons.
Explore the function of verbs.
• Notice that sentences cannot make sense
without them.
• Collect examples from their own reading.
• Be aware of verb tenses and identify
present tense and past tense.
• Use the term verb appropriately.
Collect class and individual favourite poems for
class anthologies, and participate in reading them
aloud.
Write character profiles, e.g. simple descriptions,
posters, passports, using key words and phrases
Explore the function of adjectives.
that describe or are spoken by the characters in the
• Discuss and define what they have in
text.
common.
Use story settings from reading to write a different
• Collect and classify examples from their
story in the same setting.
own reading. e.g. for colours, sizes,
moods.
• Experiment with the impact of different
Read, respond imaginatively, recommend and
adjectives in shared writing.
collect examples of poems.
• Use the term adjective appropriately.
Writing Composition
Apply phonological, graphic knowledge and sight
vocabulary to spell words accurately in shared and
•
•
Extend knowledge of plural nouns
Recognise the use of singular and plural
forms in speech and through shared
83
Break down words into phonemes for spelling.
Revise the common spelling patterns for each of the long
vowel phonemes.
Understand and use vowel and consonant
To read and spell words containing the digraphs: ch, th,
sh, wh, and ph.
To know the common spelling patterns for vowel
phonemes :air, or, and er.
To spell words with common prefixes.
e.g. un-,dis- to indicate the negative.
To spell words with common suffixes.
e.g. –ful, -ly.
To spell common irregular words.
Spelling strategies
To identify mis-spelt words in their own writing, keep a
guided writing.
Write about significant incidents from known
stories.
Write stories using simple settings, e.g. based on
previous reading
•
•
reading.
Transform sentences from singular to
plural and vice versa, noting which words
have to change and which do not.
Recognise the terms singular and plural.
list and learn to spell them.
Learn new spellings with “look, say, cover, write,
check” strategy.
Study at home for regular spelling tests.
Vocabulary
Collect examples and notice the differences
st nd
rd
between verbs in the 1 2 and 3 persons. E.g. I / For guided reading, to read on sight high frequency
words likely to occur in graded texts and matched to the
Use a story structure to write about own experience we do, you /you do, he/ she does / they do.
ability of reading groups.
in a similar form.
Be aware of the need for grammatical agreement in
Read new words from topic work.
Use language of time to structure a sequence of
speech and writing, matching verbs to nouns /
events, e.g. After that…, suddenly…
pronouns correctly, e.g. I am, the children are.
Practise using simple gender forms , e.g. his / her
Non Fiction
in context.
Reading comprehension
Understand the distinction between fact and fiction, Find examples, in fiction and non- fiction, of words
and use the terms fact, fiction and non-fiction
and phrases that link sentences, e.g. after,
appropriately.
during, before, then, next, after a while.
Pose questions and record these in writing prior to
reading non-fiction to find answers.
Use a contents page and index to find way about
text.
Investigate through reading how words and
phrases can signal time sequences. E.g. first, then,
after
Sentence construction and punctuation
Skim-read title, contents page, illustrations, chapter Demarcate the end of a sentence with a full-stop
headings and sub headings to speculate what a
and the start of a new one with a capital letter.
book might be about.
Write in complete sentences.
Use dictionaries and glossaries to locate words by
using initial letter.
Recognise and take account of commas and
exclamation marks in reading aloud with
Understand that dictionaries and glossaries give
appropriate expression.
definitions and explanations.
Use commas to separate items in a list.
Read flow charts and cyclical diagrams that explain
a process.
Identify speech marks in reading, understand their
purpose.
Writing Composition
Make class dictionaries and glossaries of special
Investigate and recognise a range of other ways of
interest words, giving explanations and definitions, presenting texts, e.g. speech bubbles, enlarged,
84
e.g. topics, poems, derived from stories.
bold or italicised print, captions, headings and subheadings. Explore purposes and collect examples.
Use the terms speech marks, comma, full-stop,
Write non-fiction texts using texts read as models
for own writing, e.g. use of headings, sub-headings, exclamation mark and question mark.
captions
Begin to use the above correctly in their own
writing.
Re-read own writing for sense and punctuation.
Revise knowledge about other uses of
capitalisation, e.g. for names headings, titles,
emphasis and begin to use in own writing.
Use a variety of organisational devices, e.g.
arrows, lines, boxes, keys, to indicate sequences
and relationships.
Begin to turn statements into questions, learning a
range of question words: what, where, when and
who, and to add question marks.
85
READING AND WRITING TARGETS – YEAR 4
Text level work
Sentence level work
Word level work
Pupils will be able to:
Pupils will be able to:
Pupils will be able to:
Fiction and Poetry
Reading Comprehension
Grammatical awareness
Identify phonemes in speech and writing.
Use an awareness of grammar to decipher new or
unfamiliar words. e.g. to predict from the text, read
on, leave a gap and return, to use these strategies
in conjunction with knowledge of phonemes, word
recognition, graphic knowledge and context when
reading.
Blend phonemes for reading.
Compare a range of story settings, and select
words and phrases that describe scenes.
Recognise how dialogue is presented in stories,
e.g. through statements, questions, exclamations;
and recognise how paragraphing is used to
organise dialogue.
Identify pronouns and understand their functions
in sentences through:
Be aware of different voices in stories using
• Noticing in speech and reading how they
dramatised readings, showing differences between
stand in place of nouns.
the narrator and different characters used. E.g.
• Substituting pronouns for common nouns
puppets to represent stories
and proper nouns in their own writing.
• Distinguishing personal pronouns, e.g. I,
Read, prepare and present simple play scripts, e.g.
you, him and it and possessive pronouns,
by looking at dialogue, stage directions, layout of
e.g. my, yours, hers.
text in prose and play scripts.
• Investigate how pronouns are used to mark
Read about authors from information on book
gender: he, she, they, etc.
covers, e.g. other books written, whether the author
is alive or dead and who the publisher is.
Extend knowledge of verbs.
• Revise work from year 3.
Identify and discuss patterns of rhythm, rhyme and
• Classify into regular and irregular past
other features of sound in different poems.
tenses.
• Explore different pronunciations of –ed
Comment on and recognise when the reading
words.
aloud of a poem makes sense and is effective.
• Learn and use most frequently used
present and past tense verbs.
Identify and discuss favourite poems and poets,
• Use verb tenses with increasing accuracy
using appropriate terms, i.e. poet, poem, verse,
in speaking and writing .
rhyme etc.
• Use present tense for instructions,
directions and explanations
86
Spell words containing each of the long vowel
phonemes.
Spelling strategies
Identify misspelled words in their own writing, keep
lists and learn to spell them.
Build from other words with similar patterns and
meanings.
Spell by analogy with other known words. e. g. light
and fright.
Use word banks and dictionaries.
Practise new spellings by “look, say, cover, write,
check” strategy.
Spelling conventions and rules
Investigate how the spellings of verbs alter when ing is added.
Investigate spelling pattern –i.e. as in bottle, little.
Recognise and spell common prefixes and how
these influence meanings. e.g. un-, de-, dis-, re-,
pre-.
Writing Composition
Plan a simple structure for story writing,
considering how to capture points in a few words
that can be elaborated later; discuss different
methods of planning.
Describe and sequence key incidents in a variety of
ways, e.g. by listing, charting, mapping, making
simple storyboards.
Create word banks associated with a topic by
brainstorming, word association etc.
Use reading as a model to write own passage of
dialogue.
Develop the use of settings in stories by writing
short descriptions of known places.
Begin to write portraits of characters, using story
text to describe behaviour and characteristics, and
present portraits in a variety of ways, e.g. as
posters, labelled diagrams, letters to friends about
them
Investigate and collect sentences/phrases for story
openings and endings, and use some of these
formal elements in retelling and story writing.
•
•
Use the past tense for narration.
Use the verbs To Be and Have Got in
context.
•
•
•
Extend knowledge of adjectives.
Revise the work from year 3.
Experiment with deleting and substituting
adjectives and noticing effect on meaning.
Examine comparative and superlative
adjectives.
Compare adjectives on a scale of intensity.
•
•
•
•
•
Extend knowledge of plurals
Understand the term collective noun and
collect examples
Use the terms singular and plural
appropriately.
Sentence construction and punctuation
Use speech marks correctly in writing.
Note where commas occur in reading and to
discuss their functions in helping the reader.
Use the term comma appropriately in relation to
reading.
Identify possessive apostrophes in reading and
Write simple play scripts based on own reading and understand to whom or what they refer.
oral work.
Turn statements into questions, noticing how the
word order changes.
Begin to structure stories into paragraphs to show
the beginning, middle and the end.
Non- Fiction
Reading Comprehension
Discuss what definitions are and explore some
simple definitions in dictionaries.
Use a variety of simple organisational devices, e.g.
arrows, lines, boxes, keys to indicate sequences
and relationships.
st
nd
rd
Revise work on verbs in 1 , 2 and 3 person.
• Discuss the purposes for which each can
be used: relating to different types of text,
st
e.g. 1 person for diaries, personal letters;
87
Use knowledge of prefixes to generate new words
from root words, especially antonyms. e.g. happy
/sad, appear/ disappear.
Learn how words change when er, est and y are
added.
Investigate and identify basic rules for changing the
spelling of nouns when s is added.
Use the terms singular and plural appropriately.
Use the apostrophe to spell shortened forms of
words. e.g. don’t ,can’t.
Spell regular verb endings –s, -ed, -ing.
Spell common irregular tense changes .
e.g. go/ went, ,can /could..
Vocabulary extension.
Collect new words from reading and topics and
create ways of categorising them.
e.g. personal dictionaries and glossaries.
Understand the purpose and organisation of the
dictionary.
Match definitions with words and infer the meaning
of unknown words from context.
Define familiar vocabulary in their own words.
Collect / classify words with common roots.
Split familiar oral and written compound words into
their component parts. e.g. policeman, playground.
nd
Understand the distinction between fact and fiction
and use appropriately the terms, fact, fiction and
non-fiction.
Identify differences in the style and structure of
fiction and non-fiction writing.
Locate information, using contents, index,
headings, sub-headings, page numbers and
bibliographies.
Identify the different purposes of instructional texts,
e.g. recipes, route finders, timetables etc.
Read and follow simple instructions.
•
rd
2 person for instructions, directions; 3
person for narrative, recounts.
Understand the need for grammatical
agreement.
Recognise different conjunctions for joining
sentences together, e.g. then, when, if, so, while.
Investigate through reading how words and
phrases can signal time sequences and use in
writing: first, then, after…
.
Summarise orally in one sentence the content of a
passage or text, and the main point it is making.
Writing Composition
Produce simple flow charts or diagrams that
explain a process.
Make simple notes from non-fiction texts to use in
subsequent writing, e.g. key words and phrases,
page references, headings…
Make a simple record of information from texts read
e.g. by completing a chart of information
discovered, by listing key words
Begin to write non-chronological reports from
known texts read, using notes made to organise
and present ideas. write for a known audience, e.g.
peers, teacher, parent.
Begin to write instructions, e.g. recipes, rules for
playing games, using a range of organisational
devises, e.g. lists, dashes, commas for lists in
sentences, and recognise the importance of correct
sequence.
Use IT to bring to a published form.
88
Investigate common vocabulary for introducing and
concluding dialogue.. e.g. said, replied, asked.
Collect examples from reading.
Generate synonyms for high frequency words
READING AND WRITING TARGETS – YEAR 5
Text level work
Sentence level work
Word level work
Pupils will be able to:
Pupils will be able to:
Pupils will be able to:
Fiction and Poetry
Grammatical awareness
Reading Comprehension
To re-read own writing and begin to identify errors.
Read and spell words through:
Identifying phonemes in speech and writing.
Investigate the styles and voices of traditional story
language and collect examples, e.g. story openings
and endings; scene openers list, compare and use
in own writing.
To understand that some words can be changed in
particular ways and others cannot, e.g. changing
verb endings, adding comparative endings,
pluralisation and that these are important clues for
identifying word classes.
Refer to significant aspects of the text, e.g. opening,
build up, atmosphere, and to know language is
Revise work on pronouns from Y4
used to create these, e.g. use of adjectives for
description.
Investigate verb tenses: (past, present and
future)
Identify typical story themes, e.g. good over evil,
• Compare sentences from narrative and
weak over strong, trials and forfeits
information texts, e.g. narrative in past
tense and explanations in present,
Identify and discuss main and recurring characters,
Forecasts in the future. Develop
evaluate their behaviour and justify views.
awareness of how tense relates to purpose
and structure of text.
Choose and prepare poems for performance,
• To understand the term tense (i.e. that it
identifying appropriate expression, tone, volume
refers to time) in relation to verbs and use it
and use of voices and other sounds.
appropriately.
• Learn and use the verbs To be and have
Prepare, read and perform play scripts and
got.
compare organisation of scripts with stories.
• Use Going to + verb
• Use can / could
Chart the build up of a play scene, e.g.how scenes
• To revise and extend work on adjectives
start, how dialogue is expressed, and how scenes
from Y4
are concluded.
• Relating them to suffixes which indicate
degrees of intensity (e.g. –ish, -er, .est)
89
Blending phonemes for reading.
Segmenting words into phonemes for spelling.
Correct reading and spelling of words from Y4.
Spelling strategies
Identify misspelled words in their own writing, keep
lists and learn to spell them.
Build from other words with similar patterns and
meanings.
Spell by analogy with other known words. e. g.
cough and trough.
Use word banks and dictionaries.
Practise new spellings by “look, say, cover, write,
check” strategy.
Spelling conventions and rules
To spell two-syllable words containing double
consonants. e.g. bubble, kettle.
To investigate, spell and read words with silent
Compare and contrast works by the same author,
e.g. different stories, sequels using same
characters in new setting, stories sharing similar
themes.
Writing Composition
Use different ways of planning stories, e.g.
brainstorming, notes, diagrams.
•
Relating them to adverbs which indicate
degrees of intensity.(e.g. very, quite, more,
most)
Sentence construction and punctuation
To identify the common punctuation marks
including commas, semi-colons colons, dashes,
Write character sketches, focussing on small details hyphens, speech marks, and to respond to them
to evoke sympathy or dislike.
appropriately when reading.
Write a story plan for own myth, fable or traditional To practice using commas to mark grammatical
tale, using story theme from reading but substituting boundaries in their own writing, and to recognise
different characters or changing the setting.
how commas, connectives and full-stops are used
to join and separate clauses.
Write alternative sequels to traditional stories using
same characters and settings, identifying typical
To become aware of how the grammar of a
phrases and expressions from story and use these sentence alters when the sentence type is altered,
to help structure the writing.
when, e.g. a statement is made into a question, a
question becomes an order, a positive statement is
Use paragraphs in story writing to organise and
made negative, noting, e.g.
sequence the narrative.
• The order of the words;
• Verb tenses;
Collect suitable words and phrases, in order to write
• Additions and/ or deletions of words;
poems and short descriptions; design simple
• changes to punctuation;
patterns with words, use repetitive phrases; write
imaginative comparisons.
To use the apostrophe to mark possession
Invent calligrams and a range of shape poems,
through:
selecting appropriate words and careful
• Identifying possessive apostrophes in
presentations. Build up class collections.
reading and to whom or what they refer.
•
Distinguish
between uses of apostrophe for
Write simple play scripts based on own reading and
contraction
and possession.
oral work.
Write book reviews for a specified audience, based
on evaluations of plot, characters and language.
letters. E.g. knee, write, knot.
To distinguish the spelling and meaning of common
homophones. e. g. to / too /two.
To recognise and spell the prefixes mis-, non-,ex-,
co-,anti-.
Revise basic rules for changing the spelling of
nouns when s is added.
To recognise and spell common suffixes and how
these influence meaning. e.g.-ly, -ful,-less.
Know that –ll in full becomes-l when used as a
suffix.
Recognise that words ending in a single consonant
preceded by a short vowel double the consonant
before adding –ing etc. e.g. sitting, wetter,
hummed.
Recognise that c is usually soft when followed by i
or e. e.g. circus.
Revise how words change when- er,-- est and -y
are added.
Investigate what happens to words ending in f
when suffixes are added.
To understand how diminutives are formed.
e.g. suffixes -ette, prefixes mini-, adjectives little,
nouns piglet and nicknames .
Vocabulary extension
Search for, collect, and define new words from
reading and topic work and create ways of
categorising them. e.g. personal dictionaries and
glossaries.
Non- Fiction
Reading Comprehension
Identify different types of text, e.g. their content,
90
structure, vocabulary, style, layout and purpose
Organise words or information alphabetically using
the first 2 letters.
Recognise how written instructions are organised,
e.g. lists, numbered points, diagrams and arrows,
bullet points which support the reader in gaining
information efficiently.
Collect / classify words with common roots.
Learn more compound words. e.g. policeman
playground.
Compare the way information is presented, e.g. by
comparing a variety of information texts including
IT-based sources.
Study examples of common vocabulary for
introducing and concluding dialogue. E.g. said,
asked.
Read information passages and identify main points
or gist of text e.g. by noting or underlining key
words or phrases, listing the key points covered.
Practice using alternatives to said when retelling
stories.
To use the term synonym.
Read examples of letters written for a range of
purposes, e.g. to recount, explain, complain,
congratulate etc. and understand form and layout ,
including use of paragraphs, and ways of starting
and ending the letter.
To use synonyms and other alternative words/
phrases that express same or similar meaning.
Write simple definitions of familiar words.
Scan indexes, directories and IT sources to locate
information quickly and accurately.
To investigate and collect “false friends”, words
which appear to be similar in English and Spanish,
but which have very different meanings. e. g. exit /
exito, pretend / pretender.
Locate books by classification in class or school
libraries where possible
Identify the main features of newspapers, including
layout range of information, organisation of articles,
advertisements and headlines
Predict newspaper stories from the evidence of
headlines, making notes then checking against the
original
Identify the features of instructional texts including:
Noting the intended outcome at the
beginning
Listing materials or ingredients
Clearly set out sequential stages
Language of commands, e.g. imperative
verbs
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Writing Composition
Make clear notes through:
Discussing the purpose of note making and
looking at simple examples
Identifying the purpose for which particular
notes will be used
Identify key words, phrases or sentences in
reading
Make use of simple formats to capture key
points, e.g. flow cart, for and against
columns, matrices to complete in writing or
on screen
Write letters, notes and messages linked to work in
other subjects to communicate within school, e.g.
recycling, rules of politeness etc.
Use IT to bring to published form to audience,
discussing relevance of layout, font etc.
Experiment with recounting the same event in a
variety of ways, e.g. in story form, a letter, a news
report
Organise letters into simple paragraphs
Summarise in writing the content of a passage or
text and the main point it is making
Write newspaper style reports, e.g. about school
events or an incident from a story, including:
Composing headlines
Using IT to draft and layout reports
Organising writing into paragraphs
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READING AND WRITING TARGETS – YEAR 6
Text level work
Sentence level work
Word level work
Pupils will be able to:
Fiction and Poetry
Pupils will be able to:
Grammatical awareness
Pupils will be able to:
Read and spell words through:
To discuss, proof read and edit their own writing for Use phonic/ spelling knowledge as a cue, together
with graphic, grammatical and contextual
clarity and correctness.
Identify social, moral or cultural issues in stories,
knowledge when reading unfamiliar texts.
e.g. the dilemmas faced by characters and how
To be aware that their own writing can be adapted
they deal with them.
Correct reading and spelling of high frequency
for different readers and purposes by changing
words from Y5.
vocabulary, tone and sentence structures to suit,
Read stories from other cultures and discuss
e.g. simplifying for young readers.
Spelling strategies
similarities and differences in time, place customs,
relationships etc.
Identify misspelled words in their own writing, keep
Revise and extend the work on verb tenses from
lists and learn to spell them.
Y5 focusing on:
Understand how settings influence events in stories
• Tenses: past, present, future; investigate
and how they affect characters’ behaviour.
Use known spellings as a basis for spelling other
how different tenses are formed by using
words with similar patterns or related meanings.
auxiliary verbs e.g. have, was, shall, will.
Understand that the use of expressive and
• Forms: active, interrogative, imperative;
st
nd rd
descriptive language can create moods, arouse
Build up spellings by syllabic parts using known
• Person: 1 , 2 3 ,. identify and classify
prefixes, suffixes and letter strings.
expectations, build tension and describe attitudes
examples from reading; experiment with
and emotions.
transforming tense/ form/person in these
Build words from other known words and show an
examples.
Explore narrative order, identifying and mapping
awareness of the meaning or derivations of words.
out the main stages of the story, i.e. introductions- Revise use of verbs to be and have got.
Spell by analogy with other known words. e. g.
build ups- climaxes or conflicts- resolutions.
light, fright.
Identify typical story themes, e.g. good over evil,
Use of Must / mustn’t
weak over strong, trials and forfeits
Use dictionaries and IT spell checks.
Reading Comprehension
To identify adverbs and understand their functions
Practise new spellings by look, say, cover, write,
Identify and discuss main and recurring characters, in sentences through:
check strategy.
evaluate their behaviour and justify views.
• Noticing when they occur in sentences and
how they are used to qualify the meanings
Choose and prepare poems for recital, recognising
of verbs;
Spelling conventions and rules
rhyme, rhythm, alliteration and other patterns of
• Collecting and classifying examples of
sounds that create effects.
adverbs, e.g. for speed: Swiftly, rapidly,
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sluggishly; for light: brilliantly, dimly.
Understand the following terms and identify them in
poems: verse, chorus, rhyme, rhythm and
To revise work on apostrophes from Y5
alliteration.
• Understand the basic rules for
Describe how a poet does or does not use rhyme,
apostrophising singular nouns e.g. the
e.g. every alternate line, rhyming couplets, no
man’s hat; for plural nouns ending in “s”
rhyme, other rhyming patterns.
e.g. the doctors' surgery and for irregular
plural nouns e.g. men’s room, children’s
Prepare, read and perform play scripts and
playground.
compare organisation of scripts with stories.
• Begin to use the apostrophe correctly in
their own writing.
Chart the build up of a play scene, e.g. how scenes
start, how dialogue is expressed, and how scenes
Sentence construction and punctuation
are concluded.
Revise work from Y5 on sentence type . Changing
Find out about popular authors and writers and use a statement into a question, a question into an
this information to select reading material by
order and a positive statement into a negative.
favourite writers.
Describe and review own reading habits and widen
reading experience.
Writing Composition
Use different ways of planning stories, e.g.
brainstorming, notes, and diagrams.
Write openings to stories linked to or arising from
reading, focussing on language to create effects,
e.g. building tension, suspense, creating moods,
setting scenes.
To identify the imperative form in instructional
writing and the past tense in recounts and use this
awareness when writing for these purposes.
Recognise and use prepositions of place and
time.
Use: There is /there are, There was/ there were
Revise and reinforce earlier work on word roots,
prefixes and suffixes, investigate links between
meaning and spelling.
Use the terms prefix and suffix.
Revise prefixes: mis-,non-, ex-, co- ,anti- and use
knowledge of these to generate words from root
words .e.g. mislead, mistake , misplace.
Collect and investigate the meanings and spellings
of words with the following prefixes: auto-, bi-,
trans-, tele-, circum-.
Revise and spell common suffixes e.g.-ly, -ful,less.
Use their knowledge of suffixes to generate new
words from root words .e.g. hope /hopeful /
hopeless.
Recognise and spell suffixes –al,-ary, -ic,-ship, hood, -ness, -ment, -ate, ify.
Range of suffixes that can be added to nouns and
verbs to make adjectives e.g. washable, childlike.
Explore and discuss gender words including –ess
suffix.
Revise rules for pluralisation.
Develop use of settings in own writing, making
appropriate use of adjectives and figurative
language, e.g. similes
Words ending in modifying e drop e when adding ing. E.g. taking.
Words ending in a modifying e keep e when adding
a suffix beginning with a consonant. e.g. hopeful.
Lovely.
Write character sketches, focussing on small
details to evoke sympathy or dislike.
Write a story plan for own myth, fable or traditional
tale, using story theme from reading but
substituting different characters or changing the
Words ending in y preceded by a consonant
change to ie when adding a suffix. E.g. flies, tried-
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setting.
except for the suffixes ly or ing.
I before e except after c.
Note and learn exceptions. e.g. receive.
Write an alternative ending for a known story.
Write alternative sequels to traditional stories using
same characters and settings, identifying typical
phrases and expressions from story and using
these to help structure the writing.
Vocabulary extension
Search for, collect, and define new words from
reading and topic work and create ways of
categorising them. e.g. personal dictionaries and
glossaries.
Use paragraphs in story writing to organise and
sequence the narrative.
Use mono-lingual and bi-lingual dictionaries to
learn or check spellings and definitions of words.
Collect suitable words and phrases, in order to
write poems and short descriptions; design simple
patterns with words, use repetitive phrases; write
imaginative comparisons using similes.
Infer the meaning of unknown words from context,
and generate a range of possible meanings.
Invent calligrams and a range of shape poems,
selecting appropriate words and careful
presentations. Build up class collections.
Write their own definitions of words, developing
precision and accuracy in expression.
Write simple play scripts based on own reading and
oral work.
Understand the purpose and organisation of the
thesaurus, and make use of it to find synonyms.
Write book reviews for a specified audience, based
on evaluations of plot, characters and language.
Use adverbs to qualify verbs in writing dialogue.
E.g. timidly, excitedly
Use the thesaurus to extend vocabulary.
Non- Fiction
Collect synonyms which will be useful in writing
dialogue. E.g. shouted, cried yelled. Use in writing.
Reading Comprehension
Identify different types of text, e.g. their content,
structure, vocabulary, style, layout and purpose
Explain differences between synonyms. E.g.
angry, frustrated, upset. Order sets to identify
shades of meaning.
Organise words or information alphabetically using
the first 3 letters.
Recognise how written instructions are organised,
e.g. lists, numbered points, diagrams and arrows,
bullet points which support the reader in gaining
information efficiently.
Explore opposites, e.g. light / heavy, rude / polite.
Compare the way information is presented, and
evaluate its effectiveness e.g. by comparing a
variety of information texts including IT-based
sources.
Explore homonyms which have the same spelling
but different meaning. Explain how they can be
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distinguished in context. E.g. form (shape or
document).
Read information passages and summarise the
main points.
Practise and extend vocabulary through inventing
word games such as puns, riddles and crosswords.
Read, compare and evaluate examples of
discussions and arguments, e.g. letters to press,
articles of current issues, e.g. animal welfare,
environmental issues
Collect and classify a range of idiomatic phrases,
clichés, and metaphorical expressions .
Look at examples of persuasive writing to
investigate how style and vocabulary are used to
convince the intended reader.
Collect and classify common expressions from
reading and own experience .e.g. ways of
expressing surprise. apology, greeting, warning,
thanking etc.
Understand and use the terms fact and opinion,
and begin to distinguish the two when reading.
Practice extending and compounding words
through adding parts .e.g.-ful,-ly,
Ive, -tion, -ic, -ist.
Prepare for factual research by reviewing what is
known, what is needed, what is available, and
where one might search.
Identify how and why paragraphs are used to
organise and sequence information.
Identify the key features of explanatory texts:
Purpose: to explain a process or to answer
a question
Structure: Introduction followed by
explanations organised in paragraphs
Presentation: Use of diagrams and other
illustrations
Read examples of letters written for a range of
purposes, e.g. to recount, explain, complain,
congratulate etc. and understand form and layout,
including use of paragraphs, and ways of starting
and ending the letter.
Scan indexes, directories and IT sources to locate
information quickly and accurately.
Evaluate advertisements for their impact, appeal
and honesty, focussing mainly on how information
96
about the product is presented.
Locate books by classification in class or school
libraries where possible
Identify the main features of newspapers, including
layout, range of information, organisation of
articles, advertisements and headlines
Predict newspaper stories from the evidence of
headlines, making notes then checking against the
original
Identify the features of instructional texts including:
Noting the intended outcome at the
beginning
Listing materials or ingredients
Clearly set out sequential stages
Language of commands, e.g. imperative
verbs
Writing Composition
Make clear notes through:
Discussing the purpose of note making
and looking at simple examples
Identifying the purpose for which particular
notes will be used
Identify key words, phrases or sentences
in reading
Explore ways of writing ideas and
messages in shortened form, e.g. notes,
lists, headlines, to understand that some
words are more essential to meaning than
others
Make use of simple formats to capture key
points, e.g. flow chart, for and against
columns, matrices to complete in writing or
on screen
Fill out brief notes into connected prose
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Collect information from a variety of sources and
present it in one simple format such as a wall chart
or labelled diagram
Use IT to bring to published form to audience,
discussing relevance of layout, font etc.
Experiment with recounting the same event in a
variety of ways, e.g. in story form, a letter, a news
report
Organise letters into simple paragraphs
Summarise in writing the key ideas from a
paragraph, a chapter or a leaflet.
Write newspaper style reports, e.g. about school
events or an incident from a story, including:
Composing headlines
Using IT to draft and layout reports
Organising writing into paragraphs
Write clear instructions using conventions learned
from reading.
Improve the cohesion of written instructions
through the use of link phrases and organisational
devises like sub headings and numbering
Assemble and sequence points in order to plan the
presentation of a point of view, e.g. on school rules
Present a point of view in writing, e.g. in the form of
a letter, a report, or a script, linking points
persuasively.
Design an advertisement such as a poster or radio
jingle on paper or screen.
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BANDS OF ATTAINMENT – FIRST, SECOND AND THIRD CYCLES
The bands of attainment described are for the end of the EACH cycle and are organised as follows:
• Listening and Speaking
• Reading and Writing
There are three bands for each cycle (Band 1 being the lowest). Each child finishing the second year of the each cycle should broadly fit into
one of the three bands. Approximate estimations would be:
• Band 1 _10% of children
• Band 2 _70% of children
• Band 3 _20% of children
___________________________________________________
Listening and Speaking: First Cycle
Band 1
Pupils use English to communicate their immediate concerns. They listen to the teacher and respond appropriately on most occasions. They
communicate with others to convey simple meanings, using a few words and simple, familiar phrases. They help to tell stories with predictable
structures and patterned language.
Band 2
Pupils usually listen carefully and respond appropriately to what has been said before, particularly where the topics are familiar to them. They
begin to share their ideas and experiences, using familiar simple structures more confidently. They speak audibly and clearly. They can provide
more details when asked in order to extend their ideas, choosing relevant vocabulary and phrases. They retell stories with support. They begin
to use language and actions to describe situations, characters and emotions.
Band 3
Pupils begin to show confidence in talking and listening particularly when topics are familiar to them. Through relevant responses and
questioning, they convey that they listen carefully. They communicate their experiences, ideas and opinions to others, using their increasing
knowledge of English, as well as familiar phrases. They speak audibly and with clear diction. They retell stories with less support, and in
improvisations they begin to use language and actions to describe situations, characters and emotions.
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Reading and Writing: First Cycle
Band 1
Pupils recognise familiar words in simple texts. They use their knowledge of phonics, as well as contextual cues to read texts, and to establish
meaning when reading aloud. Their writing conveys meaning through familiar words and simple phrases. In these activities, pupils will often
require teacher support. In their reading and writing pupils begin to show awareness of how capital letters and full stops are used. They begin to
express opinions about major events or ideas in stories, poems and non - fiction texts.
Band 2
Pupils recognise a wider range of familiar words in simple texts. They use phonetic, graphic, syntactic and contextual cues to attack unfamiliar
words and to establish meaning when reading aloud. They express opinions related to major events and ideas in stories, poems and nonfiction texts.
Pupils’ writing communicates meaning, and appropriate and interesting vocabulary is used. Their writing is organised in a series of sentences
with fairly accurate use of capital letters and full stops, and simple, familiar grammatical structures are used. Familiar monosyllabic words are
generally spelled accurately. Pupils use word banks, phonics walls, picture dictionaries and other resources to attempt to write less common
words. In their reading and writing pupils show an awareness of typical features of different types of text.
Band 3
Pupils read a wider range of texts with increasing accuracy and understanding. In shared and independent reading they choose and use
phonetic, graphic, syntactic and contextual cues to attack unfamiliar words and to establish meaning. In shared reading they convey
understanding of the main points and express preferences when responding to fiction and non - fiction texts. In shared writing they organise
their work in a sequence of sentences and a broader range of interesting vocabulary and structures are used. Pupils continue to use word
banks, phonics walls, simple dictionaries and other resources to spell less familiar words, but they generally spell common words accurately.
Sentences are punctuated with capital letters and full stops, and question marks are used appropriately. In their reading and writing pupils begin
to show awareness of how commas and inverted commas are used. Informational writing conveys understanding and appropriate use of
contents page, index, labelled diagrams and charts.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Listening and Speaking: Second Cycle
Band 1
Pupils usually listen carefully and respond appropriately to what has been said before, particularly where the topics are familiar to them. They
respond correctly to questions and begin to use familiar simple structures more confidently. They usually speak audibly and clearly, choosing
relevant vocabulary and phrases. They can use simple language to describe situations, characters and emotions.
Band 2
Pupils begin to show confidence in talking and listening particularly when using familiar language from literacy work or topics. They begin to
formulate questions correctly and show by their responses and questions that they have understood what they have heard. They are able to
communicate their experiences, ideas and opinions to others. They speak audibly and with clear diction. They give oral recounts with less
support, and in improvisations they use language to describe situations, characters and emotions.
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Band 3
Pupils listen and talk in a variety of contexts with increasing confidence. Through relevant responses and questioning, they convey that they
listen carefully. They communicate their experiences, ideas and opinions to others, using their increasing knowledge of English, as well as
familiar phrases. They begin to adapt what they say to the needs of the listener. They speak audibly and with clear diction. Pupils are beginning
to show awareness of grammatically Standard English . They give oral recounts with less support, and in improvisations they use language and
actions to describe situations, characters and emotions.
Reading and Writing: Second Cycle
Band 1
Pupils´ reading of simple texts shows understanding and is generally accurate. They express opinions about major events or ideas in stories,
poems and non-fiction. They recognise a wide range of familiar words in simple texts and use more than one strategy, such as phonic, graphic,
syntactic and contextual, in reading unfamiliar words and establishing meaning. In writing they organise their work in a sequence of sentences
and a broad range of vocabulary and structures are used. Pupils continue to use word banks, phonics walls, dictionaries and other resources to
spell less familiar words, but they generally spell common words accurately. Sentences are punctuated with capital letters and full stops.
Question marks, exclamation marks, commas and inverted commas are often used appropriately.
Band 2
Pupils read a range of texts with increasing fluency and accuracy. They read independently, using strategies appropriately to establish
meaning. In responding to fiction and non-fiction they show understanding of the main points and express preferences. Pupils use their
knowledge of the alphabet to locate books and find information. Pupils writing communicates meaning in both narrative and non-narrative
forms, using appropriate and interesting vocabulary, and showing some awareness of the reader. Pupils demonstrate an accurate use of :
capital letters, full stops, question marks, exclamation marks, commas and inverted commas. The basic grammatical structure of simple
sentences is usually correct. Spelling of familiar words is usually accurate.
Band 3
Pupils read a range of texts fluently and accurately. In responding to a range of texts, pupils show understanding of significant ideas, themes,
events and characters. They refer to the text when explaining their views. They locate and use ideas and information. Pupils´ writing is often
organised, imaginative and clear. The main features of different forms of writing are used appropriately, beginning to be adapted to different
readers. The basic grammatical structure of sentences is usually correct. Spelling is increasingly accurate. The basic grammatical structure of
simple sentences is usually correct.
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
Listening and Speaking: Third Cycle
Band 1
Pupils talk and listen confidently particularly when using familiar language. In discussion they show an understanding of the main points. They
can share their ideas and experiences, using familiar simple structures more confidently. They speak audibly and clearly. They are able to
formulate questions and reply correctly. They show an awareness of the grammar of standard English and are beginning to use different
tenses appropriately.
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Band 2
Pupils talk and listen with confidence in an increasing range of contexts, including some of a formal nature. They are increasingly able to adapt
their talk to the purpose and convey facts and ideas clearly. In discussion they listen carefully and make contributions and ask questions that
are responsive to others’ ideas and views. They use appropriately the basic features of standard English grammar.
Band 3
Pupils talk and listen confidently in a wide range of contexts, including some that are of a formal nature. Their talk is adapted to the purpose;
developing ideas thoughtfully, describing events and conveying their opinions clearly. Their talk engages the attention of the listener. In
discussion, they listen carefully, making contributions and asking questions that are responsive to others’ ideas and views. They use
appropriately many of the features of standard English grammar.
Reading and Writing: Third Cycle
Band 1
Pupils read a range of texts fluently and accurately. In responding to a range of texts, pupils show understanding of significant ideas, themes,
events and characters. They refer to the text when explaining their views. They locate and use ideas and information. Pupils´ writing is often
organised, imaginative and clear. The main features of different forms of writing are used appropriately, beginning to be adapted to different
readers. The basic grammatical structure of sentences is usually correct. Spelling is increasingly accurate. The basic grammatical structure of
simple sentences is usually correct.
Band 2
Pupils show understanding of a range of texts, selecting key points and using inference and deduction where appropriate. In their responses,
they identify key features, themes and characters and select sentences, phrases and relevant information to support their views. Pupils retrieve
and collate information from a range of sources. Pupils´ writing in a range of forms is thoughtful and interesting. Ideas are developed and
organised appropriately for the purpose of the reader. Vocabulary choices are becoming more adventurous. Spelling, including that of
polysyllabic words that conform to regular patterns, is generally accurate. Punctuation within a sentence is usually accurate. Texts are
organised into paragraphs.
Band 3
In reading and discussing a range of texts, pupils comment on their significance and effect. They give personal responses to literary texts,
referring to aspects of language, structure and themes in justifying their views. They summarise a range of information from different sources.
Pupils writing is varied and interesting, conveying meaning clearly in a range of forms for different readers, using a more formal style where
appropriate. . Spelling, including that of polysyllabic words which conform to regular patterns, is generally accurate. Punctuation within a
sentence is usually accurate. Texts are organised into paragraphs.
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RESOURCES PAGES
Reading and writing: ideas on exploiting a fictional text
The aim of this section of the Curriculum Framework is to offer ideas on how to use a fictional text within the Literacy
Hour focusing principally on the areas of reading and writing.
The book My cat likes to hide in boxes by Eve Sutton, published by Puffin has been selected because it is available in
every project school in both big book format and guided reader form.
Before looking at a series of lesson plans based on My cat likes to hide in boxes, it is worth considering some general points which
need to be thought about when planning a unit of work for the Literacy Hour.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Relevance of text – does it fit in with the overall aim of the teacher/teachers? Does the level of language in the book
match the children’s cognitive level? Does the text contain patterned language or rhyme?
Timing – how many hours will be needed to complete the activities? Will the children know how long they have to do
a task?
Balance between text, sentence and word level work – will the planned activities reflect this?
Balance between whole class teaching and group work – Will there be sufficient activities for children to work
more independently and in smaller guided groups?
Importance of including listening and speaking – although the major focus may be on reading and writing, will the
activities allow for oral and aural work?
Coordination – will more than one teacher be involved in the planning/teaching of the unit of work? Will there be
cross-curricular links?
Class dynamics? – will the unit be taught with one teacher and the whole class or half the class (desdobles). Will
there be another present in the class?
Resources – which resources will have to be made up? Who will make them up? Which resources could be recycled
from other literacy projects?
Differentiation – how will the activities be adapted for different ability groups?
Assessment – what will be assessed? What form will assessment take?
103
My cat likes to hide in boxes can be exploited in a variety of ways and at a number of different levels for
teaching Literacy. In the following pages a series of lessons aimed at Year 2 (primer ciclo) have been
presented with the focus being on the development of reading and writing at text, sentence and word level. The
following plan is of course, only a suggestion of how the book can be used and should be adapted according to
each class’ needs and general level.
In this sample unit of work it was decided that it would be taught over four 1-hourly lessons within the Literacy class with possible
extensions in Knowledge and Understanding of the World, Drama and Art.
In each lesson the general aims for text, sentence and word are stated at the top of the page. These aims will later be used as the
basis of informal assessment. The balance between text, sentence and word level work is evident over the whole unit of work
rather than each separate class since some classes may be used to focus on one particular area of reading and writing, e.g. writing
a new class book.
The unit has been designed to be taught with a whole class. Obviously, some teachers will be fortunate enough to have small
numbers of children within a class or, indeed, half classes. Some project teachers may also have the help of another English
specialist in the classroom. However, according to the information we have received from project schools, the majority of Literacy
teaching is done with the whole class and with the project teaching delivering the lesson on their own ,although their may be
another adult present helping with discipline. Obviously, teachers who are lucky enough to have smaller classes may want to
change some of the contents of the unit of work focussing perhaps more on several group activities within a class.
The activities have been divided into:
Whole class skills work
Guided group activities
Independent group tasks
Plenary session
Some of the resources mentioned can be found in photocopiable form at the at the end of this section.
104
Unit of Work: My Cat Likes To Hide In Boxes (By Eve Sutton)
Text: My Cat Likes to Hide in Boxes
Author: Eve Sutton
Text Level
Day 1
Sentence Level
Word Level
Aim: to use rhymes and patterned stories as Aim: to write captions and simple sentences and Aim: to identify phonemes in initial position
models for their own writing
to re-read recognising whether they make sense
or have words missing
Guided Group Work
Independent Group Work
Plenary
Whole Class Work
Look at the cover of the book. Identify author, title and The class is going to (Photocopiable sheet available at Range of children present
illustrator. Predict what is going to happen in the story. Read make a class book end of section)
their work. Listen to the
text to children.
based on My Cat likes to All children to work individually to sentences which match
hide in Boxes.
Each draw
their
particular the pictures. Do they
Put magnetic letters with the beginning sounds of the group will take it in turns pet/friend/member of the family and make sense? Read one
countries on a magnetic board.
Elicit responses from to create some pages something they like to do a lot. They out again making a
children paying particular attention to Japan, Spain, Greece. for the book.
begin with two model answers and deliberate mistake. What’s
have to draw a suitable illustration wrong?
Ask children if they remember what each cat from a certain Teacher presents a for each.
Then they continue
country liked doing? (Accept oral or physical response)
model for writing, e.g.
drawing family, animals etc.. and
But my _________ likes write sentence/caption to match (as
modelled orally in whole class
Ask children if they have a pet or friend who likes doing to _________
session).
something a lot. Teacher shows a picture of a pet/ friend
doing something they like and models through speech how
the idea can be put into a sentence. Children talk in pairs
about what their friend/ pet does a lot.
Listen to responses and help to construct correct oral
responses.
Resources: Big book: My Cat Likes to Hide in Boxes, book pointer, magnetic letters, magnetic board or laminated letters and blue tack, blank big book,
photocopies for independent writing activities.
105
Text: My Cat Likes to Hide in Boxes
Author: Eve Sutton
Text Level
Day 2
Sentence Level
Word Level
Aim: to use rhymes and patterned stories as Aim: to write simple sentences and to check they Aim: to recognise the initial blends of words fr/
models for their own writing
make sense. To read sentences and relate them sp/gr/
to an illustration
Whole Class Work
Guided Group Work
Independent Group Work
Plenary
Have a bag with the different cats The class is going to make a class Children work individually to write Children display their ‘cat’ and put
from the book coloured and book based on My Cat likes to hide sentence(s) to match picture from their matching sentence on the floor
laminated. Using a puppet of an in Boxes. Each group will take it in the book that will give the reader a along with a selection of others by
alien who can’t speak English very turns to create some pages for the little more info. about the cat (as children.
They show their cat
modelled in whole class session).
well and certainly not Spanish, book.
chosen from the story and other
present the puppet with the cats.
children must see if they can pick out
Start saying: The cat from Fr…and Teacher presents a model for
the sentence written by child.
get the children to complete the writing, e.g.
Teacher can guide and maybe elicit
But my _________ likes to
corrections from rest of class.
word.
_________
Look closely at the illustrations in the
book. Where does my cat like to
hide each time? We know it’s in
boxes but what else could we say to
give the reader more detail? E.g. the
colour/ shape/ size of the box. Show
a variety of sentences about the
boxes shown in the book and get
children to say which one is
appropriate for each illustration
Resources: My Cat Likes to Hide in Boxes Big Book, coloured and laminated pictures of the different cats, sentences on card describing different boxes,
class big book, strips of card for writing extended sentences.
106
Text: My Cat Likes to Hide in Boxes
Author: Eve Sutton
Text Level
Day 3
Sentence Level
Word Level
Aim: to use rhymes and patterned stories as Aim: to write simple sentences and to check they Aim: to generate words containing the different
models for their own writing
make sense.
spelling patterns for the same vowel phoneme (ai/
a_e,) To recognise words that have the same
rime.
Whole Class Work
Guided Group Work
Write the word Spain on the board. Children suggest
what has the same middle sound. Put suggestions on
post-its. Put up more suggestions if children not
forthcoming! See if children can see a pattern emerging
i.e. ai, a_e. Mix up words, say them orally and get
children to point to the correct sound pocket.
The class is going to make a class
book based on My Cat likes to
hide in Boxes. Each group will
take it in turns to create some
pages for the book.
Take out bag with the cats in it and this time also have
another bag with the objects associated with the
cats,e.g. aeroplane, fan, police hat etc…children match
the two sets. Take away the pictures and replace with
text. Do the activity again this time only with text i.e.
Cat from Spain ----Flew an aeroplane. Draw children’s
attention to the rhyming words to help them match the
sentences.
Teacher presents a model for
writing, e.g.
The 1. __from 2._______
The teacher may need to give
some help in form of cards which
have suggestions of what to put
for 1. and 2.
Independent
Work
Group Plenary
Target range of children to
read out their completed
Differentiated through
sentences. Have they
response
Photocopiable sheet available managed to rhyme the
number with the final
at the end of the section
word?
Upper ability:
Children do the second half of Re-read missing out some
words. What’s wrong? How
the worksheet where they
have to connect the words that could we fix it? (go back ,reread, correct).
rhyme and underline the
particular part of the word
which rhymes
Medium ability:
Children do the second part of
the worksheet but only have to
match the words which rhyme.
Resources: My Cat Likes to Hide in Boxes Big Book, post-it notes, poly pockets for sound pockets, coloured and laminated pictures of the different cats,
coloured and laminated pictures of key objects in book, sentences from book enlarged and on strips of card, photocopies of worksheets for matching
rhyming words
107
Text: My Cat Likes to Hide in Boxes
Author: Eve Sutton
Text Level
Day 4
Sentence Level
Word Level
Aim: to use rhymes and patterned stories as models for their own Aim: recognise the critical features Aim: to blend phonemes for reading (ai,a_e)
writing
of sentences – full stops and
capital letters. To be familiar with
the term sentence
Whole Class Work
Guided Group Work
Put a word containing ai or a_e on the board e.g.
The class is going to make a
class book based on My Cat
P l a n e
likes to hide in Boxes. Each
(If using a_e make sure to put a line linking the two to remind group will take it in turns to
create some pages for the
children) then put sound buttons beneath each sound
Then get children to come out and press the sound buttons in order book.
to read the whole word
Teacher presents a model for
Enlarge, display and re-read some of later pages from text with writing, e.g.
some words covered. Whole class strategy check: what could it be? The 1. __from 2._______
Why? (Key Points: using pic./initial sound/context/re-reading for
sense). How many sentences can you see/count on the page? The teacher may need to give
Display sets of cards which have the 2 ‘halves’ of sentences on some help in form of cards
which have suggestions of
them.
Refer back to children’s ideas from Monday. (Writing own version in what to put for 1. and 2.
similar style)Teacher demo. with opening statement (e.g. My dog
likes to bury bones).
Then continue to teacher demo. What could come next if we are to
keep in same style? (The dog from number 8 likes to jump at the
gate but…my dog..). Repeat with next idea and re-read. Choose 1
to add to shared writing.
108
Independent
Work
Group Plenary
Photocopiable sheet available
at the end of this section)
Children work in pairs to read
and match the countries with
their respective cats. They are
given the countries in a box
and have to use all cues
modelled in the whole class
session to
help them.
Children show how
the class book is
progressing especially
the new pages which
concentrate on rhyme.
Think of a title page
and illustration.
Unit of Work (Year 2): My Cat Likes To Hide In Boxes (By Eve Sutton)
Possible areas for extension of the unit of work:
Geography- focusing on the geographical aspect of the book and the idea of national costumes
Drama: acting out the book as it is or adapting it according to the class book
Mathematics: doing a class survey about peoples’ likes/ dislikes and representing results in various types of graphs (bar
graph/ pie chart …)
Art and Design: designing a national costume for a made up land including focus on materials and textures.
109
Name:____________________________________ Class:___________
Write the correct word in the sentences below:
Greece
Spain
1. The cat from _______________________ waved a big, blue fan.
2. The cat from _______________________ joined the police!
Norway
3. The cat from _______________________ got stuck in the doorway.
4. The cat from _______________________ played the violin.
Brazil
5. The cat from _______________________ caught a very bad chill.
6. The cat from ______________________ liked to sing and dance.
Berlin
7. The cat from ______________________ flew an aeroplane.
Japan
Match the words that rhyme then underline the part of the word that sounds the same.
Spain
Brazil
Berlin
Greece
Japan
France
Norway
fan
dance
aeroplane
doorway
violin
chill
Police
110
Name________________________________Class:_________________
My Cat Likes to Hide in Boxes By Eve Sutton
My cat likes to eat fish.
My cat likes to sleep in its basket.
111
Template for Phonic Fan – put your own phoneme sounds in the circles.
112
Template for Phonic Wipe-board – 3 sounds
113
Template for Phonic Wipe-Board - 4 sounds
114
RECOMMENDED BOOKS AND WEBSITES
These lists are not exhaustive and schools may have many other equivalent texts that fit the criteria. The suggested texts represent
the level of challenge appropriate to most children in a year group. For more extensive lists of books and their appropriate level
consult Book Bands for Guided Reading produced by the UK Reading Recovery National Network www.ioe.ac.uk/cdl/readrec.html
The texts mentioned below may be used in timetabled time for teacher-led reading, independent reading, for reading at home and
for independent reading during the literacy hour.
Year 1: fiction
Whilst year 1 children may not be able to read these texts independently, they will be able to take part in shared reading and
understand what is being read. After a text has been introduced many children may attempt subsequently to read it independently.
Suggested criteria for choice:
Texts which:
make demands on young readers’ developing phonological knowledge, sight vocabulary and decoding skills;
present features of language and techniques that are used for effect, e.g. humour, repetition, rhyme;
include words, ideas and pictures which help children to begin to understand characters and events, and how authors describe
them;
engage the readers’ interest and relate to imagined and familiar experiences;
use large, clear type.
Suggested texts:
Beck, Ian
Blackstone, Stella
Body, W & Cullimore, S
Brown, Ruth
Browne, Anthony
Butterworth, N & Inkpen, M
Carle, Eric
Casey, Patricia
Dale, Penny
Picture Book
Who are you?
Late Again, Mai-Ling?
A Dark, Dark Tale
I Like Books
Jasper’s Beanstalk
Have You Seen My Cat?
My Cat Jack
Ten in the Bed
115
Fleming, Denise
Grejniec, Michael
Grindley, Sally
Hawkins, Colin
Hill, Eric
Martin, Bill
McDonnell, Flora
Miller, Virginia
Murphy, Mary
Nicholls, Judith
Prater, John
Rathman, Peggy
Souhami, Jessica
Umansky, K & Chamberlain, Margaret
Walsh, Melanie
Watanabe, Shigeo
Wildsmith, Brian
Williams, Sue
In the Tall, Tall Grass
What Do You Like?
Knock Knock Who’s There?
What’s the Time, Mr Wolf?
Where’s Spot?
Brown Bear, Brown Bear, What do you See?
I Love Animals
Say Please
I Like it When
Snail Song
On Friday Something Funny Happened
Goodnight Gorilla
Old MacDonald
Pass the Jam, Jim
Do Pigs Have Stripes?
How Do I Put It On?
Cat on the Mat
I Went Walking
Year 1: non-fiction
All books selected for use in Year 1 should provide:
accurate information;
well written, clearly presented texts;
consistent use of non-fiction book organisational features,
e.g. contents page, index, glossary;
use a range of features to present and explain information,
e.g. simple charts, diagrams, labels, captions.
Types and features of texts chosen for use in Year 1:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
word books with picture word match;
books about basic concepts;
alphabet books; simple picture dictionaries;
first person reports; question and answer formats;
descriptions.
116
Suggested texts:
Anholt, Catherine
Baker, Susan
Bryant-Mole, Karen
Bunting, Jane
Burningham, John
Jenkins, Rhonda
MacKinnon, Debbie
McDonnell, Flora
Micklethwait, Lucy
Micklethwait, Lucy
Morris, Jackie
Nicholson, Sue
Patilla, Peter
Sieveking, Anthea
Thorburn, P
Tofts, Hannah
Tofts, Hannah
Yorke, Jane
Yorke, Jane
One, Two, Three, Count with Me
Day and Night
Images: Clothes
My First ABC Book
First Steps
My Body
What Shape?
ABC
I-spy: Alphabet in Art
I-spy: Numbers in Art
Bears, Bears and More Bears
A Day at Greenhill
My First Counting Book
What’s Inside?
Picture Words
I Eat Fruit
I Eat Vegetables
My First Look at Counting
My First Look at Time
Year 2: fiction
Extracts can be taken from these books to exploit in class and they are not all intended for independent reading
Suggested criteria for choice:
Texts which:
reflect the demands of children’s phonological knowledge and sight vocabulary;
provide models of good literacy language, rhythm, rhyme and sequence;
offer a wide range of stories which are set in the context of real and imagined worlds and other cultures;
include accessible and familiar themes and subjects, as well as those that are more distant from children’s experience or make
use of fantasy;
include both well-established and recent fiction written in a range of styles and techniques;
engage the interest of young readers.
Suggested texts:
Ahlberg, Allan and Janet
Akass, Susan
Alborough, Jez
Andrae, Giles and Wojtowycz, David
Burningham, John
Funnybones
Magic Coat
Where’s My Teddy?
Rumble in the Jungle
The Shopping Basket
117
Carle, Eric
Dodds, Siobhan
Farjeon, Eleanor and Mortimer, Anne
Foster, John
Geraghty, Paul
Hallworth, Grace
Hutchins, Pat
Hutchins, Pat
Keats, Ezra Jack
Magee, Wes
McNaughton, Colin
Rowe, John
Seuss, Dr
Simon, Francesca
Smee, Nicola
Smith, Brenda
Smith, Brian
Sutton, Eve
Vipont, Elfrida
Waddell, Martin
Waddell, Martin
Wilson, Robin A
The Very Hungry Caterpillar
Grandad Pot
Cats Sleep Anywhere
Size Poems
Slobcat
Down by the River
Titch
Don’t Forget the Bacon
The Snowy Day
Missing Bear
Suddenly!
Can you Spot the SpottyDog
Green Eggs and Ham
What’s That Noise?
Charlie’s Choice
Wake up, Charlie Dragon!
Do You Know What Grandad
Did?
My Cat Likes to Hide in Boxes
The Elephant and the Bad Baby
The Pig in the Pond
Owl Babies
Harry’s Elephant
Year 2: non-fiction
All books selected for use for Year 2 should provide:
accurate information;
well written, clearly presented texts;
consistent use of some or all non-fiction book organisational features, e.g. contents page, index, glossary;
use a range of features to present and explain information, e.g. simple charts, captions, headings and supportive illustration.
Types and features of texts chosen for use in year 2:
• alphabet book;
• picture dictionary with simple spelling checklist;
• non-chronological and chronologically organised texts;
• range of print scripts, fonts and sizes; various textual layouts, e.g. lists, labels
• charts, headers, simple sentences and captions containing common vocabulary;
• various illustrative forms, e.g. photographs, drawings, charts, diagrams.
118
Suggested texts:
Axworthy, Annie
Bryant-Mole, Karen
Butterfield, Moira
Clark, Dorothy
Ehlbert, Louis
Gibson, Ray
Godwin, Sam
Gore, Sheila and Pragoff, Fione
Humphrey, Paul
Lapage, Ginny
Ling, Mary
Ling, Mary
Macro, C and Hartley, K
Micklethwait, Lucy
Perols, S
Powell, Jillian
Robinson, Claire
Taylor, Geraldine
Theodorou, Rod
Yorke, Jane
Guess What I’ll Be
Tools
Who Am I? Big & Bulky
Grandpa’s Handkerchief
Eating the Alphabet
I can draw animals
The Drop Goes Plop
My Cake
Look out on the road
Emergency Dictionary
Diggers and Dumpers
Frog
Ladybird
Child’s Book of Play in Art
Colours
Who are You?
Penguin
Picture Dictionary
Big and Small
Pets
Year 3: fiction
Extracts can be taken from these books to exploit in class and they are not all intended for independent reading
Suggested criteria for choice:
Texts which:
make demands on children’s developing vocabulary, and their ability to read complex sentences;
require reading to be sustained;
show how authors portray characters, setting and plot through dialogue, action
and interaction;
include traditional and classic stories and poems, as well as texts which include
challenging themes;
represent a range of techniques and styles and also draw on those of other
cultures.
119
Suggested texts:
Ahlberg, Allan
Cook, Helen and Styles, Morag
Craig, Helen
Evans, Gregory
Foster, John
Gates, Susan
Geras, Adele
Gliori, Debi
Hughes, Shirley
Impey, Rose
Inkpen, Mick
Inkpen, Mick
King-Smith, Dick
Kuskin, Karla
Mark, Jan
Martin, Francesca
McKee, David
Moon, Pat
Nichols, Grace
Pitcher, Caroline
Rawnsley, Irene
Rayner, Shoo
Rice, John
Ross, Tony
Snell, Gordon
Velthuijs, Max
Wilkinson, Tony
Ms Cliff the Climber
Don’t Do That!
The Town House and the Country Mouse
Owl in the House
A Red Poetry Paintbox
Beware The Killer Coat
Chalk and Cheese
Mr Bear Babysits
Chips and Jessie
Too Many Babies
Kipper’s Birthday
Nothing
Happy Mouseday
James and the Rain
A Worm’s Eye View
The Honey Hunters
Elmer
Ben’s Bear
Asana and the Animals
The Snow Whale
Jungle Shorts
The Ginger Ninja
Down at Dinosaur Fair
Lazy Jack
Lottie’s Letter
Frog and The Stranger
Hector The Rat
Year 3: non-fiction
All books at this stage should provide:
accurate information;
well written clearly presented texts;
consistent use of some or all non-fiction book organisational features, e.g.
contents page, index, glossary;
use a range of features to present and explain information, e.g. simple
charts, diagrams and labels, captions, headings and supportive illustration.
120
Types and features of texts chosen for use in year 3:
• non-chronological texts;
• chronological texts, e.g. life cycles and timelines;
• simple explanations, instructions;
• different books on the same topic;
• dictionary with simple definitions;
• various additional non-fiction organisational features, e.g. head words and
glossary.
Suggested texts:
Black, Christine
Bryant-Mole, Karen
Cox, Kath
Cromwell, Sharon
De Bouchony, A
Goldsmith, E
Henry, S
Jago, Jill
Langran, Ann
Ling, Mary
Ling, Mary
Mettler, Rene
Moignot, Daniel (illus)
O’Neill, Amanda
Root, Betty
Royston, Angela
Royston, Angela
Savage, Stephen
Shuter, Jane
Stanfield, Jeff
Tuxworth, Nicola
Wallace, Karen
Watson, Carol
Watts, Barrie
Wood, Jenny
Chicken and Egg
Food – discovered through History
School
How do I Know it’s Yukky?
Vincent van Gogh
My First Oxford Dictionary
How Babies Grow
Kijo The Baby Gorilla
Has it Gone Off?
In the Sea
Wild Animal Go-Around
The Egg
Let’s Look at Animals Underground
Spiders Have Webs – I wonder why
spiders spin webs
My First Dictionary
Mouse
Tractors
Blackbird
Shops, Picture the Past
School
Flying Machines
Red Fox
Vet
Spider’s Web
Buddhism – Our culture
121
Year 4: fiction
Extracts can be taken from these books to exploit in class and they are not all intended for independent reading
Suggested criteria for choice:
Texts which:
include more complex structures and figurative language;
include characterisation and events which challenge pupils’ understanding of
theme;
include stories and poems with more sustained plots, descriptions and
interactions;
require a deeper response, for example drawing more extensively on skills of
inference and deduction;
represent a range of genres, for example traditional stories and stories from other
cultures.
Suggested texts:
Agard, John
Andersen, Hans Christian
Benjamin, Floella
Binch, Caroline
Cameron, Ann
Carpenter, Humphrey
Cresswell, Helen
Dahl, Roald
Doherty, Berlie
Fine, Ann
French, Fiona
French, Vivian and Korky, Paul
Geras, Adele
Heide, Florence Parry
Hughes, Ted
James, Simon
King-Smith, Dick
McGaughrean, Geraldine
Medlicott, Mary
Nimmo, Jenny
Onyefulu, Obi
Padt and Freeman
We Animals Would Like a Word With You
Steadfast Tin Soldier
Skip Across the Ocean
Hue Boy
The Julian Stories
Mr Majeika
A Gift From Winklesea
The Magic Finger
Willa and Old Miss Annie
The Diary of a Killer Cat
Little Inchkin
Aesop’s Funky Fables
The Six Swan Brothers
The Shrinking of Treehorn
The Iron Man
Dear Greenpeace
George Speaks
Daedalus and Icarus
The King with Dirty Feet and other Stories
The Owl Tree
Chinye
Shanti the Zebra
122
Pearce, Phillippa
Rosen, Michael
Rosselson, Leon
Souhami, Jessica
Toksvig, Sandi
Tomlinson, Jill
Whelehan, Dennis
Mrs Cockle’s Cat
Moving
Rosa’s Singing Grandfather
Rama and the Demon King
Unusual Day
The Owl Who Was Afraid of the Dark
The Dad Library
Year 4: non-fiction
All books selected for use this stage should provide;
accurate information;
well written, clearly presented texts in a variety of layouts;
consistent use of non-fiction book organisational features e.g. contents page,
index, glossary, subheadings;
use a range of features to present and explain information;
technical and specialist vocabulary within subject specialisms, where
appropriate;
opportunities for sustained reading.
Types and features of texts chosen for use in year 4:
• varied non-fiction organisational features and print styles;
• paragraphing of blocks of text;
• a range of formats and notations, e.g. charts, lists, tables, plans and numbered
bullet points, dictionary with more detailed information, thesaurus.
Suggested texts:
Amos, Janine
Bennett, Paul
Bloomfield, Leam
Brassey, Richard
Child’s World
Croser, Josephine
Dunbar, James
French, Vivian
French, Vivian
Gardner, Faye
Kalman, Bobbie
Kalman, Bobbie
Macdonald, Fiona
Animals in Danger
Eating
Collins Junior Thesaurus
Look into their Eyes
All Kinds of Animals
Which is Which?
Making Puppets
Spider Watching
Whale Journey
School Life in Grandma’s Day
Bears
A Koala is not a Bear
Houses & Homes
123
Morgan, Michaels
Powell, Jillian
Purkis, Sally
Sansome, Rosemary
So, Sungway
Taylor, Barbara
Wallace, Karen
Wardley, R
Introductory Encyclopedia of British
Wild Animals
Spring on the Farm
Food – A sense of History
The Oxford Illustrated Junior Dictionary
C is for China
Where People Shop
Think of an Eel
First Dictionary
Year 5: fiction
Extracts can be taken from these books to exploit in class and they are not all intended for independent reading
Suggested criteria for choice:
Texts which:
make demands on children’s growing understanding of how characters and
plots are developed and paced throughout a book;
provide a variety of approaches to telling a narrative;
exemplify a wide range of more complex structures ideas and underlying
themes, sometimes set in different times, worlds and cultures;
engage the interest of children through style and content.
Suggested texts:
Agard, John and Nicholls, Grace
Ahlberg, Allan and Janet
Aiken, Joan
Aston, Charles
Binch, Caroline
Branford, Henrietta
Cresswell, Helen
Cross, Gillian
Crossley-Holland, Kevin
Fine, Anne
Foster, John
Gavin, Jamila
Goodhart, Pippa
Grahame, Kenneth
Jaffrey, Madhur
Jeffers, Susan
A Caribbean Dozen
The Clothes Horse and other Stories
Fox Hounds Wind Cat Sea Mice
The Boy Who Was a Bear
Gregory Cool
Spacebaby
The Sea Piper
The Crazy Shoe Shuffle
Storm
The Angel of Nitshill Road
Dragon Poems
Our Favourite Stories
Flow
The Reluctant Dragon
Robi Dobi
Brother Eagle, Sister Sky
124
Leeson, Robert
MacLachlan, Patricia
Masters, Anthony
Mayo, Margaret
Morpurgo, Michael
Murphy, Jill
Nimmo, Jenny
Scieszka, Jon
Steptoe, John
Stevenson, Robert Louis
Thomas, Frances
Trivizas, Eugene
Wilson, Jacqueline
Wilson, Jacqueline
Smart Girls
Sarah, Plain and Tall
Ghost Blades
The Orchard Book of Creation Stories
The Butterfly Lion
The Worst Witch
The Dragon’s Child
The True Story of the Three Little Pigs
Mufaro’s Beautiful Daughters
A Child’s Garden of Verses
Mr Bear and the Bear
The Three Little Wolves and the Big
Bad Pig
Cliffhanger
The Suitcase Kid
Year 5: non-fiction
All books selected for use this level should provide:
accurate information;
well written, clearly presented texts in a variety of layouts;
consistent use of non-fiction book organisational features, e.g. contents page,
index, glossary, subheadings;
use a range of features to present and explain information;
technical and specialist vocabulary within subject specialisms, where
appropriate;
opportunities for sustained reading.
Types and features of texts chosen for use in year 5:
varied presentations of key points, supported by longer blocks of text;
different writing forms, e.g. report, instruction, argument.
Suggested texts:
Armstrong, S
Barton, Miles
Bingham, Caroline
Bingham, Jane
Burns, Peggy
First Encyclopaedia of Science
Why Do People Harm Animals?
Racing Car – and other speed machines
Illustrated Thesaurus
Writers – Famous Lives
125
Chrisp, Peter
Evans, Mark
Greenway, T
Lapage, Ginny
Malam, John
Manning, Mick
Moses, Brian
Parker, Steve
Parker, Steve
Pipes, Rose
Royston, Angela
Suthering, Jane
Tahta, Sophy
Tames, Richard
Taylor, Barbara
Whittle, Fran
Wood, Richard
A Tudor School
How to Look after your Pet Puppy
The Really Hairy Scary Spider
Collins Junior Dictionary
Roald Dahl
A Ruined House
A Tudor Warship
Making Tracks
I Wonder Why Tunnels are Round?
Rainforests
A First Look at Birds
Children’s Quick and Easy Cook Book
Usborne Children’s Atlas of Britain &
Northern Ireland
What do we know – Tudors and Stuarts
About the Weather
Simple Machines – Design and Make
Kitchens through the Ages
Year 6: fiction
Extracts can be taken from these books to exploit in class and they are not all intended for independent reading
Suggested criteria for choice:
Texts which:
challenge children’s understanding of author techniques and narrative devices;
make increased demands on children’s ability to sustain their reading;
provide a range of settings in terms of time and place;
represent a range of genres, including science fiction, historical fiction, myth,
classic texts and contemporary stories and poems;
include significant authors, both contemporary and well established.
Suggested texts:
Ahlberg, Allan
Bawden, Nina
Berry, James
Byars, Betsy
Causley, Charles
Cresswell, Helen
The Giant Baby
The Peppermint Pig
A Thief in the Village and other Stories
The Midnight Fox
Figgie Hobbin, Poems for Children
Moondial
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Crossley-Holland, Kevin
Doherty, Berlie
Howarth, Lesley
Hughes, Ted
Ibbotson, Eva
Kipling, Rudyard
Lewis, C S
Longfellow, Henry W
McKay, Hilary
Moore, Christopher
Morpurgo, Michael
Nicholls, Judith
Norriss, Andrew
Noyes, Alfred
Pullman, Philip
Ridley, Phillip
Rowling, J K
Turnbull, Ann
White, E B
Wilde, Oscar
Wilson, Jacqueline
The Green Children
Children of Winter
Maphead
The Iron Woman
The Secret of Platform 13
Just So Stories
The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe
Hiawatha
The Exiles
Ishtar and Tammuz
Grania O’Malley
Earthways Earthwise
Matt’s Million
The Highwayman
The Firework Maker’s Daughter
Krindlekrax
Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s
Stone
Pigeon Summer
Charlotte’s Web
The Happy Prince and other stories
The Lottie Project
Year 6: non-fiction
All books selected for use this level should provide:
accurate information;
well written, clearly presented texts in a variety of layouts;
consistent use of non-fiction book organisational features, e.g. contents page,
use a range of features to present and explain information;
technical and specialist vocabulary within subject specialisms, where
appropriate;
opportunities for sustained reading.
Types and features of texts chosen for use in year 6:
range of presentations and notations;
thematically and conventionally organised encyclopaedia.
127
index, glossary, subheadings;
Suggested texts:
Armstrong, S, Ed
Bateman, Dick
Benjamin, Floella
Bevan, Finn
Bingham, Jane
Bischoff-Mierch, Andrea and Michael
Copey, Susan Elizabeth
Dahl, Roald
Doney, Meryl
Ganeri, Anita
Hawkins, Joyce
Hooper, Meredith
McLaughlin, P and McLeod, I
Morris, Neil
Parker, Steve
Parker, Steve
Redmond, Ian
Scoones, Simon
Steele, Phillip
Walker, Jane
Watt, Fiona
Weigand, Patrick
First Encyclopaedia of Science
Oxford Children’s A-Z of Geography
Coming to England
Mighty Mountains – Landscapes and
Legends
Illustrated Thesaurus
Do you know the Difference? Wild Animals
Children Just like Me
Revolting Recipes TV
Puppets
From Reed Pen to Word Processor
The Oxford School Dictionary
The Pebble in my Pocket
In Other Words
Mountain Ranges The World’s Top Ten
Animal Autopsy – An approach to Zoology
Human Body
Gorilla
A Family from Japan
Black Holes
Volcanoes
Pasta and Pizza for Beginners
Oxford Junior Atlas
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RECOMMENDED WEBSITES
This list contains only a tiny fraction of websites available to teachers. We would recommend each school compiles its own list of websites and
that this list is added to frequently.
Educational Organisations and institutions
www.dfes.gov.uk
www.nc.uk.net
www.ioe.ac.uk/cdl/readrec.html
www.literacytrust.org.uk
www.standards.dfes.gov.uk
General Websites
www.primaryresources.co.uk
www.schoolzone.co.uk
www.vtf.ngfl.gov.uk
www.naturegrid.org.uk
www.atozteacherstuff.com
www.teachervision.com
www.proteacher.com
www.teachingideas.co.uk
www.bbc.co.uk/education
www.eagle.ca
www.educate.org.uk
www.teachingideas.co.uk
www.home.freeuk.net/elloughton13/index.htm
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Science, geography and history
SCIENCE, GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY: AN INTRODUCTION
The subjects Science, Geography and History bring together the main ways in which pupils learn about the world.
Studying Science, Geography and History involves learning about the social and physical conditions that influence, or have influenced our lives
and those of our communities. The acquisition of scientific, geographic and historical knowledge is a process which every generation
undergoes in order to understand their present situation and ideally to better it.
It is our role as teachers to develop pupils’ knowledge and understanding of the important principles and ideas of social subjects and science. It is also
fundamental that a range of skills are taught so that children can enhance their capacity to think critically and solve problems within social and scientific
contexts. Finally, as teachers our aim must be to structure pupils' learning so that they are able to develop informed values about both their familiar and wider
environment through real life meaningful experiences.
SCIENCE, GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY: FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
How much time should be spent teaching these areas?
The following core curriculum has been designed to be covered in at least three sessions a week.
Most children in the project receive five sessions a week of what is collectively known at the moment as Knowledge and Understanding of the World and
these are often divided into 3 sessions in English and 2 sessions in Spanish.
How can we cover all of the contents of Science, Geography and History in both languages in each cycle?
The six years of Primary Education in Spain are grouped into three cycles. Each cycle is two years. The first years of each cycle
cycle ( Years 1,
3 and 5) are based on new targets and contents while the second
second years ( Years 2, 4 and 6) highlight revision and consolidation of what
occasionss during
has been taught. The contents are arranged in a cyclical pattern so that the same topics are approached on different occasion
Primary. They start with the most basic and significant
significant aspects for children and move to more detailed and complex content.
From the blocks of targets presented in this document, teachers should choose what to teach in each year of the cycle, so that by the end of the cycle all of
them have been covered.
It is important that by the end of each cycle children have approached the contents of science, history and geography in English and in Spanish in an organised
and coherent way. This will ensure that specific concepts and general knowledge have been covered in both languages. Clearly, some areas of the Spanish
curriculum are best taught in Spanish. e.g. the Spanish town hall (el Ayuntamiento) or Spanish regional organisation (las Comunidades Autónomas).
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There are different ways of dividing science, geography and history between the two languages. The following examples show three possibilities although of
course, other combinations are possible.
Example 1: Divide the number of topics into two blocks: English and Spanish, then swap them over in year 2.
e.g. Children learn about water in English in yr 1 and in Spanish in yr 2.
Example 2: Teach the same topic in both languages at the same time.
There is a danger that this becomes unnecessarily repetitive and boring for the children, so decide which aspects are to be taught in each language. Spanish
could be used to introduce a topic and English to develop it, or the other way round.
e.g. Children learn the classification of animals in Spanish and then develop an English project about one of the animal- e.g. sharks.
Example 3: Vary the length of time devoted to a topic.
If a topic has already been covered extensively in the first year of a cycle, it could be revised as a mini-topic in the second year.
e.g. Children do a major project about plants in year 3 and in year 4 they make a mini-book about the lifecycle of a plant of their choice, revising the
knowledge and vocabulary previously studied.
How should Science, Geography and History be co-ordinated?
At the beginning of the school year ,all of the teachers involved in the teaching of these 3 subjects through English and Spanish need to discuss, and reach an
agreement about the contents to be covered in each language.
It is very important to clarify WHAT is going to be taught in each language and HOW the contents are going to be distributed throughout the cycle. When
designing topics for Science, Geography and History, it is not necessary to follow the groupings and order presented in the blocks of targets. Topics can
follow children’s interests and link-up with other areas of the curriculum.
Concrete examples of cross-curricular documents can be found in the section
entitled: Cross- Curricular Approaches.
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Cycle agreements:
1. WHAT is going to be taught?
English
Spanish
2. HOW to distribute it?
Year 1 input
Design of topic units
Year 2 input
Evaluation and feedback
Up-date and re-cycle
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What are the main differences between the Spanish and the British approaches to Science, Geography and History?
There are differences both in approach and in content.
The Spanish curriculum contains a broader content of information to be learnt. The Science contents relate more to Biology than to Physics (physical
processes) or chemistry (materials and their properties). In the first cycle, Geography and History contents focus upon the local environment. In the second
and third cycles these contents widen slightly to include some information about Europe.
In the British curricula, more importance is given to basic Physics and chemistry. In Geography and History, British children study not only the local
environment , but also other parts of the world.
In the Spanish system there is a greater emphasis upon knowledge and study skills (reading, gleaning information, classifying, summarising or memorising)
The British system however, puts the emphasis more on investigation and understanding through personal discovery e.g. The children are taught the concept
of a “fair test” and they learn to devise their own experiments and to draw conclusions.
We aim to give the children the benefit of the best of both systems. We must try to integrate as much as possible from both approaches.
How can literacy skills be developed through Science, Geography or History?
Oral work
Oral work forms the basis for most Science, Geography and History classes. This oral work will have to be guided in the first cycle but should gradually
become more independent throughout primary. Oral work is very important in the planning and reporting of tasks. Group discussions are needed to elicit the
questions to be investigated, the design of experiments and the drawing of conclusions. Group discussions are necessary at every stage to:
• elicit the questions to be investigated, then
• design experiments and finally
• draw conclusions.
Practical Activities
Hands on activities with practical equipment provide good opportunities for using language in clear context. These activities motivate the children to listen
carefully and follow simple instructions
Recording
Follow up reading and writing activities provide good opportunities for consolidating language; labelling diagrams, recording results and writing up
procedures. These activities simultaneously develop language and knowledge and understanding.
Information
Children should have the opportunity to develop reference skills in English and to make their own information books.
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For more details on how to work with information texts go to the section on crosscurricular approaches.
SCIENCE, GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY:
ENQUIRY SKILLS AND SCIENTIFIC SKILLS
Enquiry skills are those skills needed to think, investigate, formulate questions and discover the world. These skills can be developed through
practical classroom experiments in science, geography and history. However, not all science experiments lend themselves to classroom
experimentation. It may therefore be necessary to look for other kinds of investigation to develop these skills.
Which activities develop enquiry and scientific skills?
Science, Geography and History stimulate children’s curiosity about the world around them and encourage them to explore phenomena. children take part in
activities through which they develop attitudes, processes, skills knowledge and understanding. These activities can be divided into different categories:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Research - Looking for information, reading ,selecting and summarising. Sources could include information books, children’s encyclopaedias, videos
and the computer. E.g. Investigate sharks, volcanoes and Ancient Egypt.
Analysing and reasoning - Analysing information, establishing links, causes and consequences. e.g. waste and environmental
damage.
Basic skills - Selecting equipment, measuring and recording. e. g. make a graph, make a map ,measure temperature.
Observation - Use appropriate senses to describe, sort and classify. e.g. What type of tree is it? Make careful observations over time. E.g. How does a
bean shoot develop? How does a silkworm grow? How does rainfall vary?
Exploration - “Try and see” activities. E.g. static electricity. What happens if you rub a balloon on your jumper and try to pick up bits of paper?
Illustration - Do a whole class demonstration. E.g. boil water and observe the condensation on a cold glass to illustrate the water cycle. Or children
dramatise how something works. E.g. Act out how the ear detects sounds..
Investigation - Children design experiments. They ask questions, predict outcomes, plan, test, and communicate findings. E.g. What affects the rate
at which sugar dissolves? Which paper bag is the strongest?
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•
•
•
Classifying and identifying - e.g. How can we group these invertebrates? How can we classify these rocks?
Pattern seeking - e.g. Which things float and which sink? Which side of the tree does the moss grow on?
Evaluation - Checking results, confirming information, showing understanding.
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A SUBJECT GUIDE: SCIENCE
Most Science topics lend themselves to practical hands-on experiments. We should use these opportunities to develop Scientific Skills. If experiments are not
possible in a certain topic, then enquiry skills can be developed through other kinds of investigation as suggested above..
Elements of discovery may come into Geography and History, but experiments will usually arise from the study in Science of:
o The Human body and health
o Living things
o Materials and their properties
o Physical processes
How do we plan, carry out and report on experiments?
To teach children to investigate through experiments we have to provide them with opportunities for practical experiences,. However, it is essential that we
carefully structure our teaching to allow them to discover things for themselves. The objective of practical activities is that the children learn by doing, so they
should not be told the results or the conclusions before they start. An experiment is an investigation, not a demonstration .
For example:
When investigating electrical circuits, the teacher can provide groups with : a battery, wires, crocodile clips and a bulb and then leave the children to
discover for themselves how to make the bulb light.
The British curricula put the emphasis on investigation. To design their own experiments and evaluate the results, the children need to understand the concept
of a “fair test”. i.e. change one factor and observe or measure the effect whilst keeping other factors the same.
For example:
Children study plants and how they grow. Instead of telling the children in advance that plants need light to grow, this can be treated as a hypothesis to be
tested and the teacher can introduce the idea of a “fair test.” Some plants can be kept in the light, and some in the dark , but then the teacher can ask :”Can
the plants in the dark still breathe ?Are they the same type of plants? Are they getting exactly the same amount of water? Is this a fair test?” etc. The children
can record the results pictorially. The teacher may then follow the children’s suggestions for testing different hypotheses.
Children will need help at first ,but throughout primary they should become increasingly competent at : formulating questions, designing tests, making
predictions, measuring results, recording results and drawing conclusions. For more ideas for recording results see information from the Science Course
March 2003.
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SCIENTIFIC SKILLS TARGETS
Scientific
Skills Targets
First cycle
Second cycle
Third cycle
Preparing for
Pupils will be able to:
Pupils will be able to:
Pupils will be able to:
tasks.
•
• Ask questions and suggest ways of answering
them with experiments.
• Make predictions and recognise when a test is
unfair.
• Suggest questions for exploration and decide how they
might find an answer.
• Make reasoned predictions about a possible outcome.
• Suggest ways of making a test fair by changing one
factor while keeping other factors the same.
Understanding the task •
and planning a practical
activity.
Predicting.
Undertaking fair testing.
Carrying out tasks. •
Observing and
measuring.
Recording findings in a
variety of ways.
•
Reviewing and
•
reporting on
tasks.
Understand questions. How ?Why? and What
happens if?
Help to plan an experiment and make
predictions about results
Carry out simple observations and
• Follow simple instructions.
measurements.
• Use equipment and techniques to make
Record observations in a simple form: drawings,
observations and measurements.
pictograms and block graphs.
• Record findings in a range of ways: drawings,
pictograms, block graphs, and tables.
•
•
Make simple comparisons and answer simple
questions about results.
•
•
• Do guided writing to report investigations
• Answer simple questions, make comparisons
and recognise simple relationships. Draw
conclusions.
Reporting and
presenting.
Interpreting and
evaluating results and
processes.
137
•
•
Follow more complex instructions.
Select and use appropriate measurement devices or
make observations.
Record findings in a greater range of ways: drawings,
pictograms, diagrams, block graphs , line graphs and,
where possible, ICT.
Write a short report of an investigation.
Draw on scientific knowledge to make explanations
and answer questions.
Make comparisons and identify simple patterns.
SCIENCE CONTENT TARGETS
First cycle
The Human
Body
and Health
• Identify the main external parts of the body and
features.
• Identify some internal organs, their location and
main functions.
Developing an
• Recognise some simple differences between
understanding of
babies, children, adults and elderly people.
main body
•
Compare
and contrast themselves now from
features, nutrition
when
they
were babies e.g. growing up, teeth,
and how to keep
abilities.
healthy
• Recognise the senses, their function, and organs.
• Recognise that we have bones and muscles, and
how they support our bodies and help us move.
• Understand that humans need food and water to
stay alive.
• Classify foods according to their origin i.e.
animal, plants and minerals.
• Recognise the importance of exercise and a
healthy diet to look after our body.
• Be aware of health problems as a consequence
of not looking after ourselves properly. e.g.
Cold, tummy ache, tooth decay
• Understand the importance of observing basic
safety rules at home, at school, on the street…
• Recognise the importance of relating to other
people, expressing emotions and treating others
sensitively
Second cycle
• Identify the external parts of the body and features.
• Identify the five senses and how they work
• Use senses to discover and describe the
environment: shapes, sizes, colours, smells, tastes…
• Identify main organs and basic functions:
• Bones and muscles
• Brain and nerves
• Digestive system
• Respiratory system
• Circulatory system
• Excretory system
• Outline the processes of digestion, breathing and
blood circulation.
• Identify main nutrients in food.
• Recognise functions of teeth and how to care for
them.
• Design a healthy diet .
• Understand the importance of a healthy diet.
Recognise main meals of the day and the differences
between British and Spanish meals – timetables,
typical foods or drinks…
• Identify different ways to store and preserve food.
• Differentiate healthy and unhealthy habits to look
after our senses, bones, muscles, respiratory and
circulatory systems.
• Recognise the importance of sports and physical
exercise. Identify safety rules when playing sports, at
home, in the school or on the street
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Third cycle
• Recognise main elements in the Nervous System:
brain, senses, nerves and neurons.
• Describe the Nervous System looking at stimulus
and reaction.
• Recognise the main organs in the Digestive system
and their functions.
• Describe the process of digestion
• Classify food according to its nutrients
• Compare different healthy diets according to age
and activity.
• Recognise main organs and substances in the
Respiratory, Circulatory and Excretory Systems.
• Describe the processes of breathing, blood
circulation and excretion.
• Identify main bones, muscles and joints and their
functions.
• Understand how the human body moves.
• Identify the main organs in the Reproductive
System.
• Understand main stages of the human life cycle.
• Develop an awareness of puberty-related changes.
• Recognise physical and sexual differences and
changes in humans and develop a respectful
attitude for every human being.
• Learn about factors that contribute to good heath
including diet, exercise, hygiene, safe use of
medicines and harmful effects of other substances.
• Take responsibility for their own health and safety.
Living
Things
•
Developing an
understanding of
the life
processes of
animals and
plants and their
importance for
humans
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Understand differences between living and
non-living things
Understand that animals move feed, grow,
use their senses and reproduce.
Identify what animals need to stay alive:
water and food
Recognise and compare main external parts
of animals’ bodies
Classify animals depending on their
relation to humans: wild or domestic.
Understand how seasonal changes
influence animal and plant lives.
Understand basic stages of plant life cycles
Understand the importance of soil, sunlight
and water for plants
Recognise the main parts of a flowering
plant
Classify plants in relation with humans:
wild or cultivated, plants we eat or we
don’t.
Understand the importance of animals and
plants for humans
Find out about different animals and plants
in the local environment
Establish links between different animals
and plants and their habitats
Develop a caring behaviour towards living
things in their local environment
• Understand that nutrition, movement, growth and
reproduction are common life processes for
humans and animals.
• Recognise how animal and plant behaviour is
influenced by seasonal changes.
• Understand differences between vertebrates and
invertebrates.
• Recognise and compare basic features of different
vertebrates:
movement, senses, birth, nutrition,
external
features, reproduction
• Identify some of the common members of the five
vertebrate groups.
• Understand how locally occurring animals and
plants can be identified and assigned to groups.
• Find out about the main stages in the life cycle of
some animals/insects e.g butterflies or frogs.
• Understand that nutrition, growth and reproduction
are common life processes for plants
• Understand the effect of light, air, water and
temperature on plant growth.
• Classify plants according to the type of stem: tree,
bush, grass.
• Identify main parts of the plant and the flower and
their functions.
• Identify main benefits that humans get from
animals and plants
• Understand how animals and plants interact with
the habitat
• Order living things in simple food chains.
• Develop a responsible attitude towards animals and
plants.
139
• Classify living things as: animals, plants and
micro-organisms.
• Recognize main groups of invertebrates.
• Classify vertebrates into mammals, birds, fish,
reptiles and amphibians.
• Find out about the five groups of vertebrates
including how they are born, grow, use their
senses, move, eat, breathe and reproduce.
• Recognise the main distinguishing features of the
major groups of flowering and non- flowering
plants.
• Understand how plants make their own food and
how they breathe and reproduce.
• Investigate the specific conditions necessary for
the growth of different plants.
• Identify micro-organisms as living things.
• Recognise the main distinguishing features of
micro-organisms.
• Recognise beneficial or harmful properties of
micro-organisms.
• Understand links between life processes in animals
and plants and the environments in which they are
found.
• Understand how animals and plants in different
habitats are suited to their environment.
• Understand inherited and environmental causes of
variation.
• Make food chains to show the feeding relationships
in a habitat and predict consequences of changes.
• Identify living things that are rare or extinct.
Materials and
their
properties
Developing an
understanding of
different
materials, their
properties and
uses
Physical
Processes
Understand the basic properties of materials:
Understand how materials can be grouped:
• Classify materials and objects according to their
• Explore and recognise similarities and
similarities and differences.
differences between materials by using
senses.
• Classify materials according to their origin, natural
or manufactured.
• Sort objects into groups on the basis of
simple material properties like roughness,
• Relate properties of materials and uses.
hardness, shininess, ability to float or
• Investigate basic properties of solids, liquids and
transparency.
gases as exemplified by water.
• Recognise common types of materials:
• Classify most common minerals and rocks.
metal, plastic, wood, paper, rock.
Understand basic changes in materials:
• Recognise that some materials are found
• Investigate which everyday substances dissolve in
naturally.
water.
• Find out about different uses of a variety of
• Recognise that materials can change in a desirable
materials according to their properties.
or an undesirable way.
Develop an awareness of changing materials:
• Investigate how everyday materials can change by
• Find out how the shapes of some objects
heating or cooling.
can be changed by some processes –
• Relate changes of state to the water cycle.
squashing, bending, twisting, stretching, etc. • Understand that when new materials are formed,
• Explore and describe how some everyday
the change is permanent
materials change when heating or cooling –
• Investigate how rusting can be controlled.
chocolate, water, bread, etc.
Have a basic knowledge of forces and motions:
• Find out and describe the movement of familiar
things – fast, slow, changing direction, etc.
Developing an
•
Identify
pushes and pulls as forces.
understanding
•
Identify
what makes things move.
of physical
Have
a
basic
knowledge of electricity:
processes,
•
Identify
everyday
appliances that use electricity.
light, sound and
•
Develop
an
awareness
of simple circuits
forces.
involving batteries, wires, bulbs and switches .
Have a basic knowledge of light and sound:
• Identify different light sources.
Have a basic understanding of Forces and Energy:
• Identify the range of energy sources used in
school and at home
• Identify the sources of energy used by a variety
of models and machines.
• Understand how forces can affect the movement
and shape of objects.
• Investigate the effect of friction on the
movement of objects.
•
Identify most common tools and machines and
how they help us.
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Understand the properties of materials:
• Identify general properties of materials: hardness,
flexibility, mass, volume, strength and magnetic
behaviour.
• Recognise differences between solids, liquids and
gases in terms of ease of flow and maintenance of
shape and volume:
• Identify and use simple tools to measure mass and
volume.
• Classify a wider number of minerals and rocks on
the basis of characteristics : appearance, texture
and permeability.
• Identify physical changes in minerals and rocks.
Understand changes in materials:
• Recognise physical changes in the environment
and their causes: mixture, dissolving, stretching,
contraction, melting, boiling, freezing .
• Burning materials and baking results in the
formation of new materials.
• Identify chemical changes in living things:
photosynthesis, digestion, fermentation.
Separating mixtures of materials.
• How to separate solid particles of different sizes by
sieving.
• Understand that some solids dissolve in water to
give solutions, others do not.
• How to separate insoluble solids from liquid by
filtering.
Understanding Forces and Energy:
• Identify the effect of forces: movement, strain and
transformation.
• Understand that magnets and magnetic materials
exert a force of attraction and repulsion.
• Understand that objects are pulled downwards
because of the gravitational attraction between
them and the Earth.
• Classify energy sources in to renewable and nonrenewable.
• Identify different sound sources.
• Identify different kinds of sounds
Have a basic understanding of electricity:
• Know about the safe use of mains electricity and
its associated dangers.
• Construct simple circuits using simple
components.
• Classify materials as insulators or conductors.
• Investigate the effects of varying current in a
circuit .
Have a basic understanding of sound:
• Understand that sound is produced when objects
vibrate.
• Investigate how sound travels through a variety
of materials.
A basic understanding of light:
• Explore how light passes through some materials
and not others.
• Find out how shadows are formed.
• Investigate the reflection of light from mirrors
and shiny surfaces.
A basic understanding of the Earth and beyond:
• The Sun, Earth and Moon are spherical.
• The position of the Sun appears to change during
the day, how shadows change as this happens.
• How day and night are related to the spin of the
Earth on its own axis.
• Understand that the Earth orbits the Sun once a
year, causing variations in seasons, and that the
Moon orbits the Earth.
• Identify the main elements of the Solar system.
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• Understand how energy can be transformed
through generators and motors.
• Recognise basic elements in machines: cables,
light bulb, batteries, motor…
• Identify different machines and their uses in
modern technology.
Understanding electricity:
Simple circuits
• To construct circuits with simple components:
battery, wires, and switches to make electrical
devices work (buzzers, motors)
• Understand how changing the number components
(batteries, bulbs and wires) in a circuit can make
bulbs brighter or dimmer.
• How to represent series circuits by drawings and
conventional symbols.
Understanding sound:
• Identify sources of sound – vibrations.- and how
they are transmitted.
• Identify main qualities of sounds: intensity and
pitch.
• How to change the pitch and loudness of sound in
musical instruments.
• Recognise sound phenomena: echo and
reverberation.
Understanding light:
• The sources of light and how it travels.
• The reflection of light from mirrors and lenses.
• Light can be broken down into different colours.
SCIENCE BANDS OF ATTAINMENT
The bands of attainment described are for the end of the EACH cycle. The three bands described for each cycle correspond to three
levels (from the lowest to the highest).
Each child finishing the second year of each cycle should fit broadly into one of the three bands. Approximate estimations would
be:
• Band 1 - 10% of children
• Band 2 - 70% of children
• Band 3 - 20% of children
SCIENTIFIC SKILLS
First Cycle
Band 1
Children describe or respond appropriately to simple features of objects, living things and events they observe, communicating their findings in simple ways
(Talking, drawing , through simple charts.)
Band 2
Children respond to suggestions about how to find things out. They use simple texts and equipment, with help, to find information, observe and compare.
They describe their observations using basic vocabulary and record them through drawings, simple charts, etc.
Band 3
Children respond to suggestions about how to find things out and, with help, make their own suggestions about how to collect data to answer questions. They
use simple texts and equipment to find information, observe and compare. They describe their observations using scientific vocabulary and record them
through tables, charts, etc. They answer simple questions about results.
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Second Cycle
Band 1
Children respond to suggestions about how to find things out and, with help, make their own suggestions about how to collect data to answer questions. They
use simple texts and equipment to find information, observe and compare. They describe their observations using scientific vocabulary and record them
through tables, charts, etc. They answer simple questions about results.
Band 2
Children respond to suggestions and put forward their own ideas about how to find the answer to a question. They recognise why it is important to collect
data to answer questions. They use simple texts to find information. They make observations and measure quantities (length or mass) using simple equipment.
They carry out a fair test with some help . They record their observations in a variety of ways. They provide simple explanations for observations. They report
investigations using simple scientific vocabulary and begin to draw conclusions.
Band 3
Children respond to suggestions and put forward their own ideas about how to find the answer to a question. They recognise why it is important to collect data
to answer questions. They use simple texts to find information. They make relevant observations and measure quantities (length or mass) using a range of
simple equipment. They carry out a fair test with some help. They record their observations in a variety of ways. They report investigations using simple
scientific vocabulary and begin to draw conclusions and provide explanations for observations.
Third Cycle
Band 1
Children respond to suggestions and put forward their own ideas about how to find the answer to a question. They recognise why it is important to collect data
to answer questions. They use simple texts to find information. They make relevant observations and measure quantities (length or mass) using a range of
simple equipment. They carry out a fair test with some help. They record their observations in a variety of ways. They report investigations using simple
scientific vocabulary and begin to draw conclusions and provide explanations for observations.
Band 2
Children recognise that scientific ideas are based on evidence. In their own investigative work, they decide on an appropriate approach to answer a question.
Where appropriate they describe or show in the way they perform their task, how to vary one factor while keeping the others the same. They make predictions
and select information from sources provided for them. They select and use appropriate equipment and measurement devices, and record results in a variety of
ways. They begin to relate their conclusions to scientific knowledge and understanding, and to communicate them with appropriate scientific language. They
suggest improvements in their work, giving reasons.
Band 3
Children recognise that scientific ideas are based on evidence. In their own investigative work, they decide on an appropriate approach to answer a question.
When an investigation involves a fair test, they identify key areas to be considered. They make predictions and select information from a range of sources.
They select and use appropriate equipment and measurement devices, and record results in a variety of ways. They make more complex explanations for
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observations. They draw conclusions that are consistent with the evidence and begin to relate these to scientific knowledge and understanding, and to
communicate them with appropriate scientific language. They suggest improvements in their work, giving reasons.
SCIENCE CONTENTS
First Cycle
Band 1
Children show an awareness of main body features and how we look after our bodies. They identify living and non-living things. They understand that things
move by pushing or pulling. They identify most frequent materials, tools and machines in their daily life.
Band 2
Children recognise some internal organs in the body and their functions. They show an awareness of the different origins of food and how food and exercise
help us keep healthy. They recognise differences between living and non-living things. They show an awareness of basic features of animals and plants and
how they grow and develop in different environments. They show a basic knowledge of forces, light and sound. They recognise common materials and
identify their characteristics and uses. They show an awareness of how simple devices work and the kind of energy they use.
Band 3
Children identify some internal organs in the body and explain their functions. They classify food according to its origin. They understand how food and
exercise help us to keep healthy. They explain differences between living and non-living things. They identify main parts of animals and plants and show an
awareness of what they need to grow. They show an awareness of basic animals and plants life processes. They recognise changes in materials, for example
in water. They identify the Sun, Moon and Earth and relate their movements to days and nights. They can make simple classifications of different materials
according to their characteristics and uses. They recognise some machines and devices and the kind of energy they use.
Second Cycle
Band 1
Children show an awareness of the 5 senses and the main organs in the human body. They show an understanding of the processes of digestion, breathing,
blood circulation and the functions of bones and muscles. They identify basic nutritional, hygienic and sleeping habits. They understand the differences
between living and non living beings. They recognise and name external parts of animals’ bodies and plants. They describe the basic conditions that animals
and plants need in order to survive. They recognise that living things are found in different environments. They identify the Sun, Moon and Earth and relate
their movements to day and night. They communicate observations of changes in light, sound or movement that result from actions (for example switching on
144
a simple electrical circuit). They show an awareness of how some machines and devices work and the kind of energy they use. They can make simple
classifications of different materials according to their properties and uses.
Band 2
Children identify the 5 senses, and show an awareness of how they work. They recognise the main internal organs in the body and their functions. They show
an understanding of the processes of digestion, breathing and blood circulation and how bones, muscles, and nerves work. They understand how a healthy
diet, hygiene and sleeping habits are related to health. They sort living things into groups (vertebrates and invertebrates, trees, bushes and grasses).They
communicate basic observations of a range of animals and plants in terms of life processes (how they are born, grow up or reproduce ). They identify ways in
which an animal is suited to its environment. They identify the main elements of the Solar System. They show an awareness of the consequences of the
Earth’s movements. They can explain in simple words how some machines and devices work and the kinds of energy they use. They begin to make simple
generalisations about physical phenomena .They describe a variety of ways of sorting materials into groups according to their properties.
Band 3
Children identify the 5 senses, their functions and how they work. They recognise some internal organs in the body and their functions. They show an
understanding of how bones, muscles and nerves work. They show an understanding of the processes of digestion, breathing and blood circulation. They
define a healthy diet and explain how hygiene, exercise and rest contribute to good health. They sort living things into groups and describe the basis for their
groupings ( five groups of vertebrates, invertebrates, trees, bushes and grasses).They show an understanding of a range of animals and plants in terms of life
processes (how they are born, grow up or reproduce ). They describe interactions between animals and plants in the environment (food chains…). They
identify main elements of the Solar System. They use simple models to explain the effects caused by the Earth’s movements (days, nights, seasons). They
explain how some machines and devices work and the kinds of energy they use. They begin to make simple generalisations about physical phenomena. They
link cause and effect in simple explanations. They describe differences between the properties of different materials.
Third Cycle
Band 1
Children identify internal organs in the body and their functions including skeleton, muscles and joints. They show an understanding of the nervous system
and the processes of digestion, breathing, blood circulation and reproduction. They relate factors such as diet, exercise and hygiene to good health. They sort
living things into groups and describe the basis for these groupings ( five groups of vertebrates, invertebrates, plants and micro-organisms). They identify the
main parts of animals and plants and their functions in terms of life processes. They show understanding about interactions between animals and plants in the
environment (food chains…). They show understanding about basic physical phenomena such as energy and forces, electricity, light, sound and magnetism.
They begin to make simple generalisations about physical phenomena. They link cause and effect in simple explanations. They describe differences between
the properties of different materials.
Band 2
Children describe the processes of digestion, breathing, blood circulation, reproduction and identify which organs play a role in each process. They show an
understanding of how the nervous system works. They understand the function of body fluids. They identify external and internal features of animals and
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plants. They use keys to help them classify living things within vertebrates, invertebrates and micro-organisms. They describe feeding relationships using food
chains and terms such as predator and prey. They understand the relationship between living things and the environment. They demonstrate knowledge and
understanding of physical processes. They describe and explain physical phenomena. They make generalisations about physical phenomena. They use
physical ideas to explain simple phenomena. They demonstrate knowledge and understanding of materials and their properties. They describe differences
between the properties of different materials and explain how these differences are used to classify substances. They use scientific terms like condensation or
evaporation to describe changes.
Band 3
Children demonstrate an increasing knowledge and understanding of the human body. They describe the main functions of the organs of the human body and
explain how these are essential. They describe the main stages of the human life cycle. They describe and identify the main functions of external and internal
features of animals and plants. They describe the main stages of animal life cycles and flowering plants and point out similarities between them. They
recognise that there is a great variety of living things and understand the importance of classification. They explain that different organisms are found in
different habitats because of differences in environmental factors. They demonstrate knowledge and understanding of physical processes. They use ideas to
explain how to make a range of changes. They use some abstract ideas in descriptions of familiar phenomena. They demonstrate an increasing knowledge and
understanding of materials and their properties. They describe some metallic properties and use these properties to distinguish metals from other solids. They
identify a range of contexts in which changes to materials take place.
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A SUBJECT GUIDE :GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
The Social Subjects: Geography and History
Geography and History play an important role in the development of pupils’ understanding of their own place in the world.
In the process of learning about their local community and the wider environment, the present as well as the past, pupils develop skills that are important for
later life. As they learn to investigate, process and evaluate information and evidence, they gradually develop informed attitudes about the world around them.
By developing a broader knowledge of the world and society, children will become more able to evaluate situations from a variety of viewpoints. The ability
to empathise and think critically will in turn increase the children’s awareness of their own attitudes and values and their respect for others.
As in any subject area, it is essential that pupils gradually take on more responsibility for aspects of their own learning and to recognise their strengths and
weaknesses. The ability to think critically, to work independently and also as part of a team will prepare them for many situations in later life.
The guidelines on the following pages are designed to provide a balance between knowledge acquisition and skills such as investigating and evaluating,
which prove vital in pupils´ understanding of the world around them and their place in it.
In the first cycle of primary education, History and Geography are presented in a more global form but as clear subject areas in the middle and upper stages of
primary. In years one and two the children are introduced to simple research techniques in guided learning situations in order to build a firm foundation for
future learning and more independent research later on. Just as the content targets become more challenging, the ability to plan and carry out enquiry tasks and
reach clear conclusions increases. The following guidelines plan to ensure that every child is given the opportunity to develop their knowledge and skills
systematically with coherence, continuity and progression from year one through to year six.
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ENQUIRY SKILLS FOR GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
First cycle
Preparing for
tasks
Planning tasks
systematically and in a
logical manner.
Selecting appropriate
sources of information.
Second cycle
Pupils will be able to:
Pupils will be able to:
• Suggest (with guidance)
• Ask appropriate questions and suggest ways
appropriate ways of approaching specific tasks
of approaching and solving problems
e.g. Children are asked how we can find out the • Identify appropriate sources of information
amount they recycle at home. Possible answers
from a given range.
may be conducting a survey, using a diary etc.
• Identify simple information texts from which
relevant material can be gathered.
Carrying out tasks
• Use contents and index pages to source
information.
• Find information from a range of
sources
e.g. displays, simple maps, picture books,
internet
•
Process simple information in a variety of ways
Evaluating information
e.g. Children keep a pictorial diary of what and
gathered and the
how much they recycle at home.
techniques used in the
process.
• Identify fiction and non-fiction sources to
further their enquiry.
•
Selecting and
processing relevant
information.
•
• Present work by contributing to a class display
and give simple oral and written accounts of
their part in the class activity.
• Draw simple conclusions from their findings.
• Answer simple questions about what they have
found out.
•
Reviewing and
reporting on tasks
Presenting findings in
an appropriate and
coherent way.
Presenting conclusions
that are relevant to the
original task set
•
•
•
•
Third cycle
Pupils will be able to:
•
Create a sequential plan of how to tackle a
specific enquiry task.
•
Identify a number of appropriate sources
from a wide and varied range of information,
from which relevant data may be gathered.
Use reference texts independently to source
information
Choose appropriate information gathering
techniques.
Select and record information for a specific
purpose from a range of sources.
Distinguish between factual evidence and
fictional prose to further their enquiry.
•
Present work and findings to peers in a
variety of ways i.e. orally, written, in poster
form
Select and use the most appropriate forms to
present their findings.
Present clear conclusions.
•
148
•
•
•
Select and use fiction and non fiction
resources accordingly.
Begin to evaluate the appropriateness of
techniques used in processing information.
Begin to evaluate the reliability of sources
of information.
Present findings in a report with clear key
points.
Present clear conclusions with reasons.
Geography content targets
Areas of
study
The world
around us
Developing an
understanding of
our local and
wider
environment,
weather patterns
and seasonal
changes
Our daily lives
Developing an
understanding of
the everyday lives
of ourselves and
others
First cycle
• Identify and simply describe major local physical
features, e.g. River, mountain.
• Recognise somebasic similarities and differences
between urban and rural landscapes.
• Identify various natural landscapes (seaside,
mountain...) and appreciate the differences
between them.
• Identify the four seasons of the year and their main
characteristics.
• Describe the main types of local weather, and how
these affect their own lives
• Recognise some basic similarities and differences
between local weather patterns and those in UK or
other European countries, and describe how these
affect people’s daily lives.
• Appreciate the importance of water in our daily
lives.
• Describe in simple terms the water cycle in nature.
• Be aware of the importance of maps as a tool to
get information.
• Describe the features of their daily routine.
• Compare their daily routines with children in other
countries, and identify some similarities and
differences. e.g. food we eat, school timetable
• Identify the roles of family members and friends in
their daily lives.
• Recognise the roles of all school staff, and
appreciate how they help us on a daily basis.
• Recognise their own and others’ roles in the home
and at schol.
Second cycle
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Third cycle
Identify and describe different landscapes
around the world: desert, rainforest, Polar
Regions.
Describe and make comparisons between
the physical features of different landscapes
Describe the main types of Spanish weather,
and how these affect their own lives and
landscapes
Recognise some similarities and differences
between Spanish weather patterns and
those in UK or other European countries,
and describe how these affect their own and
other people’s daily lives.
Identify and sequence the key components
of the water cycle
Use maps as a tool to find locations
• Identify, describe and make comparisons
between different ecosystems.
• Understand relationships between living
creatures in an ecosystem (food chains).
• Recognise relationships between living
creatures and their habitat in ecosystems.
• Show a developing awareness and
understanding of world weather and climate
and the differences between them.
• Recognise different climatic zones and
describe how these varying weather
conditions affect or change the landscape.
• Recognise different types of biomes in
relation to the climatic zones
• Use maps as a tool to find locations and to
get information about different landscapes
Compare their daily routines with children in
other countries and identify and describe
some similarities and differences e.g. food,
school organization.
Describe the roles of family members and
friends in their daily lives at home and at
work.
Recognise the roles of all school staff, and
show respect and appreciation for how they
help us on a daily basis.
Recognise their own and other’s roles in the
• Recognise their own role as a member of a
community.
• Compare their daily routines with children in
a variety of countries (including third word
countries) and identify and describe some
similarities and differences.
• Recognise and describe various factors
influencing the differences between their
lives with those of people in other countries,
and where appropriate begin to reason how
certain conditions may be bettered.
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The busy life
around us
Developing an
understanding of
how outside
factors influence
our lives
• Identify the main features of their village/town/city
e.g. important buildings, leisure facilities etc. and
the purpose that they serve.
• Identify people and professions involved in
providing local services
• understand the notion of neighbourhood and
identify their neighbours
• Make observations about different forms of
transport used in their local environment and
classify them in different ways
• identify some means of interpersonal
communication e.g. telephone, post
• Identify ways in which we communicate on a more
global level i.e. television, newspaper.
• Participate in local festivities and those celebrated
in the school from English speaking countries.
•
o
o
•
•
•
•
•
•
home and school and discuss ways of
helping and sharing duties.
• Recognise their own and other’s roles in the
home, school and as a member of the wider
community and discuss ways of helping and
sharing duties.
Read maps to:
Find the main features of a particular village,
town or city.
Locate Spain and other European countries
and their main cities.
Follow a product from its manufacture to
end result, identifying professions involved
in the process.
Identify and describe simply the features of
the political organisation of their locality.
Discuss the pros and cons of different means
of interpersonal communication.
Compare different means of global
communication and describe the
effectiveness of these.
Show an awareness of how publicity
influences what we buy.
Develop a growing awareness of, and
participate in some important cultural
celebrations of Spain and other English
speaking countries
• Read maps to:
o Find main features on a town or city plan
o Locate countries and find out more about
them using keys
• Identify the various types of economic
activity i.e. agricultural, industrial and service
sectors.
• Discuss and research possible reasons for
the recent changes in types of economic
activity and the effect of such changes.
• Identify and describe features of the political
organisation in Spain.
• Identify differences in development
between countries and factors that influence
development.
• Review and research the reforms and
changes to different types of transport over
time, and discuss the benefits and
disadvantages of these.
• Research and analyse the changes of types
of interpersonal and global communication
over time.
• Analyse different advertisements in different
media and understand that adverts may
affect what we buy
• Research the origin of a specific cultural
festival and discuss and compare how it is
celebrated in different countries.
150
Caring for our • Recognise how the school and local environment
world
Developing an
understanding of
the interaction
between humans
and the earth’s
natural
environment
may be improved e.g. litter being picked up
• Identify items that can be recycled and actively
participate in class recycling projects.
•
•
•
•
Describe how people can both improve and
damage the environment.
Assess the pros and cons of different forms
of transport and their effect on the
environment.
Recognise changes in the environment and
identify their cause: man-made (pollution) or
natural (earthquake, flood)
Identify items that can be recycled and
actively participation in recycling projects
• Identify and research ways in which humans
cause damage to the environment and
discuss how improvements can be made.
• Discuss different approaches to protecting
nature and managing the environment.
• Design and organise a project to help
improve the environment.
In order to cover the targets pupils may be taught through different projects and using both/ether
fiction and /or non-fiction texts e.g. contrasting their own locality with another in Spain or the UK,
water and its effects on people and the environment, recycling….
151
GEOGRAPHY BANDS OF ATTAINMENT
The attainment targets described are for the end of EACH cycle. The three bands detailed for each cycle correspond to three
levels (from the lowest to the highest).
Each child finishing the second year of each cycle should broadly fit into one of the three bands. Approximate estimations would
be:
• Band 1 _10% of children
• Band 2 _70% of children
• Band 3 _20% of children
First Cycle
Band 1
Pupils show basic knowledge, skills and understanding in studies at a local scale. They recognise the main physical and human features in the local
environment and can identify the major physical features of other areas.
Band 2
Pupils show their knowledge, skills and understanding in studies at a local scale. They recognise and make observations about physical and human features of
the local environment. They show an awareness of places beyond their locality. They begin to recognise how people affect the environment. They use
resources that are given to them and their own observations to respond to questions about places and environments.
Band 3
Pupils show their knowledge, skills and understanding in studies at a local scale. They describe human and physical features in different places and make
observations about those features that give places their character. They recognise how people affect the environment. They use resources that are given to
them and their own observations to ask and respond to questions about places and environments.
Second Cycle
Band 1
Pupils show basic knowledge, skills and understanding in studies of a range of places and environments. They begin to describe and make comparisons
between the physical and human features of different localities. They are aware that different places may have both similar and different characteristics. They
recognise how people seek to improve and sustain environments. They use skills and sources of evidence to respond to a range of geographical questions.
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Band 2
Pupils show their knowledge, skills and understanding in studies of a range of places and environments. They describe and make comparisons between the
physical and human features of different places. They begin to recognise and describe geographical patterns and to appreciate the importance of wider
geographical location in understanding places. They begin to recognise and describe physical and human processes .They are beginning to show
understanding of how these processes can change the feature of places and the lives and activities of people living there. They describe how people can both
improve or damage the environment. They use skills and sources of evidence to respond to a range of geographical questions and begin to use appropriate
vocabulary to communicate their findings.
Band 3
Pupils show their knowledge, skills and understanding in studies of a range of places and environments. They recognise and describe geographical patterns
and appreciate the importance of wider geographical location in understanding places. They recognise and describe physical and human processes and show
understanding of how these processes can change the feature of places and that these changes affect the lives and activities of people living there. They offer
reasons for some of their observations and judgments about places and environments. They describe how people can both improve or damage the
environment and explain their own point of views about it. They use a range of geographical skills to help them investigate places and environments. They
use appropriate vocabulary to respond to a range of geographical questions and to communicate their findings.
Third Cycle
Band 1
Pupils show basic knowledge, skills and understanding in studies of a range of places and environments in different parts of the world. They begin to
describe geographical patterns and physical and human processes. They begin to show understanding of how these processes can change the feature of places
and that these changes affect the lives and activities of people living there. They suggest explanations for the ways in which human activities cause changes to
the environment and the different views people hold about them. They recognise how people try to sustain the environment. They begin to explore relevant
geographical questions and communicate their findings using appropriate vocabulary.
Band 2
Pupils show their knowledge, skills and understanding in studies of a wide range of places and environments from local to global. They begin to offer
explanations for geographical patterns and for a range of physical and human processes. They recognise that these processes can lead to similarities and
differences in the environments of different places and in the lives of people who live there. They recognise and suggest different approaches to managing
environments. They suggest relevant geographical questions and appropriate sequences of investigation using a range of skills and sources. They present their
findings in a coherent way.
Band 3
Pupils show their knowledge, skills and understanding in studies of a wide range of places and environments from local to global. They describe and offer
explanations for geographical patterns and for a range of physical and human processes . They recognise that these processes can lead to similarities and
differences in the environments of different places and in the lives of people who live there. They recognise and describe different approaches to managing
environments. They suggest relevant geographical questions and appropriate sequences of investigation using a range of skills and sources. They present their
findings in a coherent way.
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History Content Targets
Areas of study
Important people and
events in the past
Developing an understanding
of distinctive events in the past
and the importance of certain
people in history.
First Cycle
Second Cycle
Third Cycle
Pupils will be able to:
• Identify and talk about people and
events in the past that are important to
them, in relation to their family or
community.
• Listen to stories that are set in the past,
and describe what they have learned.
Pupils will be able to:
• Identify and discuss the lives of a
few significant men and women in
the history of Spain/UK and the
wider world. e.g. artists, rulers,
explorers, writers.
• Show understanding of main
characteristics of the societies
studied.
Pupils will be able to:
• Ask and answer questions about
characteristic features: ideas, beliefs,
attitudes and experiences from the
periods and societies studied.
• Show an awareness of the social,
cultural, religious and ethnic diversity of
the societies studied.
The effect of change in our
world
•
Developing an awareness of
changes taking place in our
lives and being able to relate
this to the past..
•
Sequencing important
events in the past
•
Developing an understanding
of relationship between time
and specific events in the
past.
•
•
Historical Evidence
•
Developing an understanding
of how historical objects can
give us insight into the past.
•
Identify changes that have had an effect
on their own and on others’ lives.
Identify changes that have had an effect
on their community.
•
•
Show an awareness of annual patterns
and the sequence of events in their own
and others’ lives e.g. starting school,
birthdays...
Use appropriate ways of describing and
measuring time. E.g. months / days,
yesterday/ tomorrow, before / after.
Create a simple timeline to show
important events in their own lives.
•
Show objects from the past, describe
their use and explain why they were
important .
Compare and contrast their lives with
other children from the past using
photographs, films and other sources.
•
•
•
•
•
Identify differences between ways of
life at different times.
Show an awareness on changes on
houses, clothes and food over time.
•
Show an awareness that the past can be
divided into different periods of time.
Place events, people and changes into
large periods of time.
Create and use timelines to place
important events in their own and other
people’s lives.
•
Realise that we learn about History from
remains and artefacts.
Ask and answer questions about the past
on the basis of simple observations.
Find out about events, people and
changes from different sources of
information.
154
•
Identify and describe reasons for and
results of historical events, situations
and changes in the periods studied.
Analyse in a simple way how the
past influences actual events.
Use dates and vocabulary relating to the
passing of time, including ancient,
modern, BC, AD, century and decade.
• Place events, people and changes into
correct periods of time, establishing
relations among them.
• Increase awareness of the different
periods of time, recognising some
similarities and differences between
them.
• Show an awareness of the different ways
in which the past is represented and
interpreted.
• Find out about events, people and
changes from sources of information
that go beyond simple observations,
including printed sources, cd-roms,
Internet and visits to museums and sites.
In order to cover the above content targets, teachers are encouraged to choose topics/ projects carefully so that children will have
an overall view of the changes over time, access to historical evidence and opportunities to practise their enquiry and reporting
skills. These topics may include:
A local History study to investigate on a significant event or individual for the locality.
A European or World History study on the key features and way of life of a past society, e.g. Romans, Ancient Egypt,…
A History study based on an specific period of time ( e.g. Medieval Times ) or a civilization from the past ( e.g. Romans )
with a direct effect on the History of both Spain and Britain. The study would focus on:
• significant events and individuals who shaped the History in a certain time in the past ,
• an overview of the everyday lives of men, women and children from different sections of society,
• similarities and differences in both Spanish and British History.
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HISTORY BANDS OF ATTAINMENT
The attainment targets described are for the end of EACH cycle. The three bands detailed for each cycle correspond to three
levels (from the lowest to the highest).
Each child finishing the second year of each cycle should broadly fit into one of the three bands. Approximate estimations would
be:
• Band 1 _10% of children
• Band 2 _70% of children
• Band 3 _20% of children
First Cycle
Band 1
Pupils recognise the distinction between present and past in their lives. They understand basic terms about the passing of time. They show an understanding of
episodes from stories about the past.
Band 2
Pupils recognise the distinction between present and past in their own and other people’s lives. They use some terms related to the passing of time. They can
recount episodes from stories about the past with some help. They can answer some simple questions about the past.
Band 3
Pupils show their emerging sense of chronology by placing a few events and objects in order and by using everyday terms about the passing of time. They are
familiar with and can recount episodes from stories about the past. They find answers to some simple questions about the past from sources of information.
Second Cycle
Band 1
Pupils show their developing sense of chronology by:
• Understanding terms concerned with the passing of time.
• Placing important events in a timeline in their lives.
• Recognising that their lives are different from the lives of people in the past.
They answer simple questions about the past . They show understanding of aspects from the past they have studied.
Band 2
Pupils show their developing sense of chronology by:
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• Using terms concerned with the passing of time.
• Placing events and objects in a timeline on their lives.
• Recognising how their lives are different from the lives of people in the past.
They observe and handle sources of information to answer questions about the past on the basis of simple observations. They show knowledge and
understanding of aspects from the past, main events and people they have studied
Band 3
Pupils show their developing understanding of chronology by:
• Using terms concerned with the passing of time.
• Placing events and objects in a timeline on their own and other people’s lives.
• Realising that the past can be divided into different periods of time.
They handle sources of information that go beyond simple observations to answer questions about the past. They show knowledge and understanding of
aspects from the past, main events and people they have studied. They are beginning to recognise that there are reasons why people in the past acted as they
did.
Third Cycle
Band 1
Pupils show their developing understanding of chronology by using terms concerned with the passing of time, realising that the past can be divided into
different periods of time and placing events and objects on a timeline. They show understanding of aspects from the past, main events and people from
societies they have studied. They use sources of information that go beyond simple observations in order to answer questions about the past.
Band 2
They show knowledge and understanding of main events and people from societies they have studied. They can identify characteristic features, events and
people across different periods. They identify some of the different ways in which the past is represented. They begin to select and combine information from
different sources for their work.
Band 3
They show factual knowledge and understanding of aspects of History they have studied. They can describe characteristic features and events, identify people
and changes within and across different periods. They show some understanding that aspects of the past have been represented and interpreted in different
ways. They are beginning to produce structured work using information from different sources.
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GENERAL WEBSITES FOR SCIENCE, GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
www.standars.dfee.gov.uk/schemes
www.nc.uk.net
www.enchantedlearning.com
www.proteacher.com
www.heineman.co.uk
www.usborne.com
www.teachervision.com
www.nationalgeographic.com
SCIENCE, HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY: BOOKS
Books for teachers
SCIENCE
• Science KS1. Curriculum Bank. Scholastic. Brian Pengelly and Georgina Beasley. ISBN.0 590 53387 8
• 100 Science lessons. Scholastic (different levels)
• Science KS1. Learning Targets. Nelson Thornes. Wendy Clemson. ISBN 0 7487 3589 5
• First Science for ages 5 and 6. Let’s learn at home. Scholastic. Peter Riley. ISBN 0 590 53996 5
• Plants in their environment. Resource bank. Scholastic. Dawn Sanders. ISBN 0 439 01644 4
• Developing Science Language . Scholastics.
• Back to basic Science ( Letts) Six levels for KS1 and KS2.
• Resources bank. Scholastic, for example:
Physical Processes KS1 ISBN 0 439 01798 X
Electricity KS2 0 590 53870 5
Me & my body KS1. ISBN 0 439 01644 4
•
•
•
•
•
Science made easy. ( D.K). KS1 KS2.
Ready to go! Ideas for Science investigations. Scholastic.
Curriculum bank Science. Scholastic (different levels)
Primary Science and Literacy. Association for Science Education ISBN 0 86357 296 0
Richmond- Santillana Science, book from 1 to 6 - FOR REFERENCE ONLY
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GEOGRAPHY
• Geography KS1. Learning Targets. Stanley Thornes. Sue Thomas. ISBN 0 7487 3588 7
• In the country KS1. Photocopiable activities. Essentials for Geography. Scholastic. David Flint. ISBN 0 590 53548 X
• Houses and homes KS1. Photocopiable activities. Essentials for Geography. Scholastic. David Flint. ISBN 0 590 533541
• Geography Success ( starter level through to book 4) O.U.P.
• Curriculum bank Geography. Scholastic (different levels)
• Primary Foundations. Geography. Scholastic (different levels)
HISTORY
• Look in the past. Wayland. Collection:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The Normans
The Ancient Chinese
The Incas
(another titles)
Dorling Kindersley – Eyewitness Guides. Big collection with titles on History, Science and Art, for example:
Shakespeare. Peter Chrisp.
Curriculum Bank – History. Scholastics (different levels)
Primary Foundations – History. Scholastics (different levels)
Craft topics collection. Watts:
The Greeks. Rachel Wright
Victorians.
( another titles)
Exploring History…Collection by Philip Brooks. Lorenz Books:
Prehistoric Peoples
Ancient Civilisations
120 Great History Projects. R. Halstead and S. Reid . Select Editions
How would you survive…Collection. Watts, for example:
… as a Viking?
… in the Middle Ages?
Smelly Old History. Mary Dobson. Oxford. Collection, for example:
Victorian Vapours
Mouldy Mummies
Greek Grime
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Books for children
GENERAL
•
•
•
Nine information books (Bubbles. Dinosaurs. Osprey. Seal. The bridge. The forest. The harbour. Animal senses. Scots pine) and Teacher’s guide.
Becoming a reader. Cambridge University Press. Several authors. Teacher’s Guide ISBN 0 521 56602 9
Six Information Poster Pack (Dinosaurs. Make a bird cake. Harbour. Bridges. Setting up my hamster’s home. An apple tree’s year) and Teacher’s
notes. Cambridge readings. Cambridge University Press. Several authors. Teacher’s Guide ISBN 0 521 78588 X
Six Information Poster Pack ( Model patterns. Secret alphabet. Why do rivers flood?. Using a dictionary. Scuba diving. Could humans live on other
planets?) and Teacher’s notes. Cambridge readings. Cambridge University Press. Several authors. Teacher’s Guide ISBN 0 521 78589 8
SCIENCE
• Pets. Longman. Julie Ashworth. ISBN 0 00 370786 5
• Heineman First Library:
Eat Well. ISBN 0 431 09151 X
Really Wild. Elephant. ISBN 0 431 02881 8
Senses of living things. ISBN 0 431 09734 8
Animal young. Insects. ISBN 0 431 03084 7
Bug books. Snail. ISBN 0 431 01 700 X
How plants grow. ISBN 0 431 002150
Life Cycle of a chicken. ISBN 0 431 08361 4
Life Cycle of a frog. ISBN 0 431 08385 1
Life Cycle of a Sunflower. ISBN 0 431 08384 3
Pets compilation 0 431 03384 6
• Lifecycles (Watts) ,for example:
From seed to sunflower ISBN 074963142 2
The journey of a butterfly ISBN 0 74963145 7
The journey of a whale ISBN 0 7496 3147 3
• Get-Set-Go! ( Watts) , for example:
Smell and taste ISBN 0749626364
• Why? Why? Why? ( Parragon) , for example:
What do my lungs do? ISBN 0-75255-360-7
• Make it work! The hands-on approach to Science ( Watts), for example:
Dinosaurs ISBN 185434380-7
Electricity ISBN 185434134-0
• Up the garden path (Kingfisher), for example:
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GEOGRAPHY
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Are you a grasshopper? ISBN 0 7534 0552 0
Are you a dragonfly? ISBN 0 7534 0540 7
Are you an ant? ISBN 0 7534 0551 2
How to save the world in a week. Longman. Julie Ashworth. ISBN 0 17 556673 9
Fact Finders ( Oxford Reading tree) for example:
Playing safety ISBN 019916632-3
Schools around the world ISBN 019916949-7
Why? Why? Why?: Parragon
Why are jungles in danger? ISBN 0-75255-362-3
First starts ( Watts) , for example:
Deserts ISBN 0749605731
People and places (Oxford First Encyclopedia) ISBN 0 19910558 8
Natural disasters ( Watts) , for example:
Tidal waves and flooding ISBN 0 7496 0760 2
Famine ,drought and plagues ISBN 0 7496 0817 X
Picture a country (Watts), for example:
Egypt ISBN 0 7496 4290 4
Spain ISBN 0 7496 4283 1
Italy ISBN 0 7496 4287 4
HISTORY
• Oxford Primary History. O.U.P. Collection:
The Roman Invasion. Tim Vicary
The Vikings. Tim Vicary
The Great Plague. Tim Vicary
Christopher Columbus. Tim Vicary.
The story of York Minster.Tim Vicary
Mrs. Pankhurst. Tim Vicary
A family in the Second World War. Valery Fawcett
A family in the 1920s. Valery Fawcett.
A family in the 1930s. Valery Fawcett
A family in the 1950s. Valery Fawcett
A family in the 1960s. Valery Fawcett
• I wonder why (Kingfisher), for example:
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Romans wore togas ISBN 0 7534 0148 7
Pyramids were built ISBN 1 85697 312 3
Greeks built temples ISBN 0 7535 0167 3
Children’s reference books
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Oxford First Encyclopaedia. Oxford University Press ISBN 0 19 910091 828.
Oxford First Encyclopaedia- My body. Oxford University Press ISBN 0 19 910560-X.
First Book of Knowledge. Parragon ISBN 0 75253 664 8.
First Fun Encyclopaedia. Miles Kelly Publishing ISBN 1 902947 85 1.
A Body Dictionary. Oxford Literacy Web. ISBN 0 19 917368 0.
Collins Picture Atlas of the World. Collins. ISBN 0 00 196571 9.
The Great Animal Search. Usborne. ISBN 0 7460 1739 1.
The Usborne Pocket Scientist. Internet linked. Usborne ISBN 0 7460 4682 0.
The Usborne First Book of Knowledge. Usborne ISBN 0 7460 1963 7
Science school: your own Science laboratory in a book (Kingfisher ISBN 075340210-6.
Nature school: your own nature adventure in a book ( Kingfisher) ISBN 075340210-5
Homework Helpers ( Longman), 4 levels.
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Art& Design
ART AND DESIGN: AN INTRODUCTION
The unique nature of Art and Design
In many ways Art and Design tends to stand apart from other curricular areas. Primarily, it differs from other subjects in the unique way in which children
communicate their ideas i.e. in a VISUAL way. However, this subject is often considered apart because it is seen being not as important as other curricular
areas or is simply viewed as a time for finishing off tasks left over from other parts of the curriculum.
If exploited properly, Art and Design can provide excellent opportunities for children to express themselves in a unique way. Not only that, through Art and
Design, skills more often associated with literacy, science or history can be developed thus complementing other subject areas.
What should we be aiming for?
Art and Design should offer opportunities for children to:
• Stimulate their creativity and imagination by providing visual, tactile and sensory experiences
• Understand and respond to the world in a unique manner
• Develop their understanding of line, shape, colour, form, tone, texture, pattern, perspective, image and media
• Develop their ability to use materials and processes to convey feelings, meanings and ideas
• Explore the ideas and meanings behind works of famous artists and designers
• Learn about the different functions of art and design in their own lives and throughout history
• Learn how to make thoughtful judgements and aesthetic practical decisions
• Learn how to criticise constructively and accept criticism from peers
• Become actively involved in shaping their school, home and local environment
How should the teaching of Art and Design progress through primary?
Art and design should above all be stimulating for the children. The aim should be to develop children’s imagination through providing art, craft and
design activities that in the first years of primary should relate to children’s own identities and experiences.
During the second and third cycles of primary, the teacher should be aiming at developing the child’s creativity and imagination by building on
knowledge, skills and understanding through more complex activities. Children’s experiences help them to develop a wider understanding of the roles of
art and design in the wider world.
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Should we use a text book?
As in all subject areas, textbooks can be a useful resource for getting ideas. However, the very nature of art and design and its emphasis on creativity and
the need to experiment with diverse techniques and materials makes following a textbook as the only input a very limiting experience. With the advent
of the Internet, it is possible to find a wealth of information for teachers, great lesson plans and most exciting of all, the chance to tour the world’s
museums virtually! With such technology at our fingertips it seems a shame to concentrate our efforts on a two-dimensional and mono-material resource.
Furthermore, if a cross-curricular approach is being implemented throughout primary, it could be difficult to find the material needed in a textbook to
complement the topic.
How can language skills be developed through Art and design?
Language skills form a very important part of Art and Design especially when children have to form a critical opinion. For example speaking and
listening skills are developed through activities such as:
• Practising functional language e.g. asking for materials
• Discussing the steps involved in carrying out the task
• Evaluating the best materials to use and techniques to employ
• Describing a picture and making a personal response to it
• Making comparisons between art works
• Making a judgement about a child’s own piece of work, a friend’s or an artist’s
• Making an evaluation about a child’s own design or that of others
• Making personal statements about child’s own work or artist’s work/ life
Reading and writing skills can be developed through such activities as:
• Following instructions to complete a task
• Researching information about an artist or his/her work from information texts/ Internet
• Writing short biographies of famous artists
• Giving a written opinion of a painting, sculpture etc..
• Sequencing steps from pictorial/written information after doing the task
• Making personal statements about child’s own, friend’s or artist’s work
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Knowledge and
Understanding
Art& Design: content targets
First cycle
Second cycle
Third cycle
Pupils will be able to:
• Identify visual and tactile elements including
colour, pattern and texture, line and tone, shape ,
form and type of image (photo, painting,
collage)
• Identify materials used in making art, craft and
design.
• Be aware of the basic uses of art media.
• Be aware of the differences and similarities
between the works of a few well-known artists.
Pupils will be able to:
• Identify and describe visual and tactile elements
including colour, pattern and texture, line and
tone, shape, form and space, perspective, type of
image and media and how they can be combined
for different purposes.
• Identify materials used in making art, craft and
design and be aware of how different effects can
be created using these.
• Use increasing knowledge of art media to select
appropriately media for a given task.
• Identify and describe the differences and
similarities between the works of well-known
artists from various periods in time.
Pupils will be able to:
• Identify and describe visual and tactile elements
including colour, pattern and texture, line and
tone, shape , form and space, perspective, type
of image and media and how they can be
combined and organised for different purposes.
• Identify materials, techniques and processes
used in making art, craft and design and be
aware of how different effects can be created
using these.
• Identify and describe the differences and
similarities between the works of artists,
designers and architects working in different
times and cultures.
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ideas
Explore and Develop
Art& Design: skills targets
First cycle
Second cycle
Third cycle
Pupils will be able to:
• Use first-hand observations, imagination and
personal experiences as inspiration for projects
and tasks.
• Ask questions about the starting points of their
work.
• Collect visual information to help them develop
their ideas.
Pupils will be able to:
• Use first-hand observations, imagination, personal
experiences as well as a growing awareness of the
wider world as inspiration for projects and tasks.
• Ask and answer questions about the starting points
of their work.
• Look for and collect visual information to help
them develop their ideas.
• Try out tools in a free and spontaneous way e.g.
paint, crayons and fabrics
• Observe and draw selected items from children’s
close environment
• Use lines freely to make shapes
• Make simple compositions or build structures
• Draw, paint and model from observed objects
such as houses, boats, plants to attempt realism in
colour, detail and pattern
• Make images and items through observation –
based on visits to museums, galleries and parks
• Make images based on ideas or feelings
• Investigate the possibilities of using a range of
materials – referring to examples such as clay,
papier maché or plaster for a given project with
teacher help. E.g. the best material to use to make
an Easter egg.
• Investigate the process involved in a design – e.g.
painting or collage and be able to sequence
instructions
• Show a growing awareness of the importance of
colour in our daily lives, the way colour can
represent atmosphere e.g grey for rainy day and
• Use a few methods or to create images in a free
and spontaneous way but with evidence of
increasing control e.g. mixing colours to get a
desired effect.
• Observe and draw given sources by drawing,
painting and sketching.
• Control lines to make shapes showing some
understanding of scale
• Create compositions or make structures in 3dimensions
• Draw, paint and model from observed objects such
as houses, boats, plants and people to attempt
realism in space, colour, detail and pattern
• Make some images and items through close
observation with different media – based on visits
to museums, galleries and parks
• Convey feelings, ideas and emotions in two and
three dimensions
• Investigate the visual and tactile qualities of some
materials to find the most appropriate media
according to the given task
• Investigate the processes involved in design –
painting, collage, sculpting etc. and be able to
Pupils will be able to:
• Use first-hand observations, imagination, personal
experiences and an ever-increasing awareness of
the wider world as inspiration for projects and
tasks.
• Assess suitable starting points for work and select
ideas to use in work. (E.g. themselves, their
experiences, stories, natural and made objects and
the local environment)
• Look for and select visual information to help
them develop their ideas.
• Use a wider variety of methods or combination of
methods in a free and imaginative way with
evidence of good control.
• Draw, model and construct from observed objects
with increasing detail.
• Control lines to make shapes showing increasing
understanding of scale and some understanding of
perspective
• Create more complex compositions and 3dimensional structures
• Draw, paint and model from observed objects such
as houses, boats, plants and people to attempt
realism in space, colour and tone, detail, pattern
and perspective
• Make various images and items through detailed
observation with different media – based on visits
to museums, galleries and parks
• Convey feelings, ideas and emotions, real and
imagined, in two and three dimensions
• Investigate and combine the visual and tactile
qualities of materials and processes to find the
most appropriate media for personal projects
• Investigate the possible processes involved in a
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Evaluate and Develop ideas
begin to use colour mixing techniques
demonstrating their increasing knowledge of
primary and secondary colours
• Begin to work alone on a project with teacher
guidance
• Model objects in 3-dimensions
• With support, describe a picture or an object and
give a simple personal response to it.
• Make simple comments about own and others
work
• Develop respect for their own and others' work
• Identify what they might change in their current
work with teacher guidance
• Work with others, listening to and respecting
each other's ideas
devise a series of steps to carry out the process
• Show an increased awareness of the importance of
colour in our daily lives, the way colour can
represent atmosphere and moods and refine their
colour mixing techniques demonstrating
knowledge of primary, secondary and tertiary
colours
• Work successfully on a project alone with
increasing independence
• Begin to work on a project in a group with teacher
guidance
• Create an artefact in two and three dimensions
• Create a simple drawing in different scales
• Describe a picture or an object and give a personal
response to it
• Comment on finished product comparing ideas,
methods and approaches in their own and other
people’s work.
• Develop respect for their own and others' work and
learn how to offer and receive constructive
feedback and praise;
• Identify what they might change in their current
work focussing on the media and techniques used
• Evaluate own work and express what they may
change in the future
• Value the natural and made environment, including
the distinctiveness of their locality
• Work with others, listening to and respecting each
other's ideas and learning to value different
interests within the group;
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
design – painting, collage, printmaking or digital
media etc. and decide on the most appropriate
steps
Show an increased awareness of the importance of
colour in our daily lives, the way colour can
represent atmosphere and moods and refine their
colour mixing techniques demonstrating
knowledge of primary, secondary and tertiary
colours. Use increasing knowledge of light and
dark to emphasize shadow, light areas, depth and
distance
Work successfully on a project alone
Work successfully on a project in a group
Create an artefact in two and three dimensions
trying the effectiveness of different materials
Create an artefact in different scales
Describe a picture, object or architectural design
and give a personal judgement including criticism
where appropriate.
Make or e or two personal statements about their
own and artist or designer’s work, showing an
understanding of the visual elements
Develop respect for their own and others' work and
learn how to offer and receive constructive
feedback and praise
Identify what they might change in their current
work focussing on the media and techniques used
Evaluate own work and express what they may
change in the future
• Value the natural and made environment,
including the distinctiveness of their locality, and
learn to evaluate critically the role and function of
art and design within it.
• Work with others, listening to and respecting each
other's ideas and learning to value different
interests and strengths within the group;
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ART AND DESIGN: BANDS OF ATTAINMENT
The attainment targets described are for the end of EACH cycle. The three bands elaborated for each cycle correspond to three
levels (from the lowest to the highest).
Each child finishing the second year of each cycle should broadly fit into one of the three bands. Approximate estimations would
be:
• Band 1 _10% of children
• Band 2 _70% of children
• Band 3 _20% of children
First cycle
Band 1
Pupils respond to stimuli with teacher guidance. They use a variety of materials and processes to communicate their ideas and meanings in a simple way.
They describe what they think or feel about their own work.
Band 2
Pupils respond to stimuli. They use a variety of materials and processes to communicate their ideas and meanings to make images. They
describe what they think or feel about their own work, and make simple comments about the work of others.
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Band 3
Pupils respond to and explore stimuli. They investigate and use a variety of materials and processes to communicate their ideas and meanings.
They design and make images. They describe what they think or feel about their own work, and make simple comments about the work of
others.
Second Cycle
Band 1
Pupils respond to and explore stimuli. They investigate and use a variety of materials and processes to communicate their ideas and meanings.
They design and make images and create artefacts. They describe what they think or feel about their own work, and make simple comments
about the work of others.
Band 2
Pupils explore ideas and stimuli and collect visual information for their work. They investigate the qualities of certain materials and use a variety
of processes to communicate their ideas and meanings. They design and make images and artefacts. They describe what they think about
their own work and that of others and suggest simple ways of improving their own. They comment on differences in other’s work .
Band 3
Pupils explore ideas and stimuli and collect visual and other information for their work. They investigate the visual and tactile qualities of certain
materials and use a variety of processes to communicate their ideas and meanings. They design and make images and artefacts for different
purposes. They describe what they think about their own work and that of others and suggest ways of improving their own. They comment on
differences and similarities between their own and other’s work .
Third cycle
Band 1
Pupils explore ideas and stimuli and collect visual and other information for their work including different historical and cultural contexts. They
investigate the visual and tactile qualities of certain materials and use a variety of processes to communicate their ideas and meanings. They
design and make images and artefacts for different purposes. They describe what they think about their own work and that of others and
suggest ways of improving their own. They comment on differences and similarities between their own and other’s work .
Band 2
Pupils explore ideas and stimuli and collect visual and other information including different historical and cultural contexts to help them develop their work.
They begin to use their increasing knowledge and understanding of materials and processes to communicate ideas and meanings in a personal way through
images and artefacts. They describe what they think about their own work and that of others and suggest ways of adapting and improving their own. They
compare and comment on ideas and methods used in their own and other’s work.
Band 3
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Pupils explore ideas and stimuli and collect visual and other information including different historical and cultural contexts to help them develop their work.
They use their increasing knowledge and understanding of materials and processes to communicate ideas and meanings ,combining and organising visual and
tactile through images and artefacts qualities to suit their intentions. They describe what they think about their own work and that of others and adapt and
improve their own work. They compare and comment on ideas ,methods and approaches used in their own and other’s work.
ART AND DESIGN: USEFUL WEBSITES
ArtsEdNet
www.artsednet.getty.edu/ An online service developed by the J Paul Getty Trust. It focuses on helping arts educators, general classroom teachers,
museum educators, and university staff involved in art education
arteducation.co.uk
www.arteducation.co.uk Over 600 pages of art lessons, art projects and ideas about teaching art. Written by leading art educators in the UK with
primary and secondary teachers in mind
The @rt Room
www.arts.ufl.edu/art/rt_room/@rtroom_home.html A resource for 2nd and 3rd cycles art and design projects
Virtual Teacher Centre (VTC)
www.vtc.ngfl.gov.uk/resource/esr/ Art pages with links to galleries, web resources, UK art departments online
Web Museum
www.sunsite.unc.edu/wm/ Information about art and artists all over the world.
24 Hour Museum
www.24hourmuseum.org.uk Provides public access to non-profit-making museums, galleries and heritage attractions in the UK.
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Assessment
Education is concerned with a wide range of aspects of learning. It involves not only the knowledge and skills as specified in this integrated curriculum but
also the attitudes, values and interests which are to be encouraged in children. Assessment relates to all these aspects of education.
Assessment will improve the quality of learning and teaching if the information gathered has a clear purpose, is collected systematically, and is used
appropriately.
Assessment is an important and integral part of the learning and teaching process and it has five key elements: PLANNING, TEACHING, RECORDING,
REPORTING and EVALUATING.
These elements all overlap and are not sequential.
PLANNING: Knowing and sharing what is to be learned.
Teachers should have a clear idea of what is to be learned in the teaching programmes they plan for individuals, groups and classes, taking into account what
has gone before. This is necessary for effective teaching and effective assessment, whether the plan is for a day, a week, a month, or a longer period of time.
Planning should be explicit enough to make it easy to communicate aims to pupils, parents and other teachers.
Methods of assessment and recording are an integral part of our work and should be decided on when planning a topic.
AIMS: Decide which areas of the curriculum and targets will be included in the topic.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: Decide what the children are going to be able to do/ do better /will have covered by the end of the unit
LESSONS: Plan a series of appropriate lessons and activities to meet these objectives. Plan tasks and set expectations for individuals and groups.
ASSESSMENT AND RECORDING: Decide which aspects of work to assess or test. This will indicate what should be recorded.
NOTES FOR FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF TOPIC: it is important to evaluate the appropriateness of the content, activities and resources when
completing a topic unit to develop and improve it in following years.
TEACHING: Assessment as a part of effective learning and teaching.
Assessment is an integral part of teaching and involves four main concerns:
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o Clear teaching and learning aims.
o Motivation.
o Previous experience and present abilities.
o Effective tasks and flexible teaching methods.
Effective teaching will ensure that all pupils are given tasks which are challenging but attainable, and that they are given opportunities to assimilate and apply
successfully the new concepts, knowledge, skills and attitudes which they are meeting.
Design assessment activities based on what children say, write and can do, always considering particular experience and abilities of the children in the bilingual project:
o Set assessment tasks at the same level of challenge they face in everyday work
o Differentiation: design assessment tasks for different levels and abilities.
o Expose children to different types of test situations so that they understand the procedure.
o Give them the appropriate training to face test situations, developing study skills and exam techniques.
o Keep a balance between the linguistic demands and the content of assessment tasks.
o Assess not only their knowledge but their achievements in the development of scientific and enquiry skills.
o Be aware of the difficulties some children have to express in written form what they know.
RECORDING: Summarising success and progress.
Assess throughout the year/ cycle in a variety of ways keeping a record of the results and samples of children’s progress. It is important that this record
focuses on the chosen learning targets. The progress of each pupil should be updated and recorded in a convenient way.
Record:
o Information from day to day activities
o Information from assessment tasks/ tests.
REPORTING : Providing useful feedback.
The knowledge gained from assessment builds up a picture of each pupil’s attainments, interests and aptitudes, which forms the
the basis of
reporting to parents. It also contributes
contributes to a coco-operative relationship among teachers, pupils, parents and others involved in the pupils
learning.
Report in different ways throughout the year:
o
o
o
o
Provide regular, supportive feedback to children highlighting their achievements and strengths.
Individual meetings with parents .
Termly report cards.
General parents’ meetings.
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o
o
Termly evaluations of whole class.
General end of term evaluation “la memoria”
Help children to identify:
o
o
o
What they have learned.
What they still have to learn
Their next steps in learning.
EVALUATING: Using assessment to evaluate learning and teaching.
Assessment in school should help teachers to evaluate the effectiveness of all the various arrangements made to ensure that learning takes place.
We use different tools for evaluation to reflect the different types of activities the children experience:
Oral activities
o Discussions with individuals, groups and the class.
o Questioning pupils about their understanding of their work.
o Reading aloud.
o Re-telling a story.
o Dramatisations.
o Oral presentations.
Written activities
o “Short-answer” assessments.
o Writing longer pieces of work related to their work in literacy or other subject areas.
o Avoid EFL type written and grammar tests.
Practical activities
o Planning and carrying out experiments
o Co-operating in a project.
o Evidence of putting knowledge or skills into practice.
Daily work
o Assess effort and achievement . e.g. in homework and notebooks.
o Self- evaluation and peer assessment. Encourage pupils to reflect on their own work.
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A cross-curricular approach
LITERACY
Cross- Curricular Topics
ART AND CRAFT
-A sinking feeling (O.R.T.)
Make boats using
different materials:
paper, cardboard,
plastic, aluminium foil...
-Mr.Gumpy’s outing
(Project pack for
exploitation)
st
1 cycle: Water
CONCEPTS
1. - Knowledge of basic properties:
- Water has no colour
- Water has no taste
- It adapts to the container ‘s
shape
-Everybody got wet
(O.R.T.)
-Nobody got wet (O.R.T.)
2. - Soaking, sinking, floating.
Experiment and learn that water
affects different materials in
different ways.
SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS
1.-Using the boats children made:
CROSS-CURRICULAR LINKS
SONG
-Peter, Patter and
Flop ( Snip-Snap
B. Heinemann)
-Row, row, row
your boat.
- Put different material boats in water
1. - Water as a valuable element. Encourage the sensible
use of water. Ask children to illustrate the slogan:
DON’T WASTE WATER. Display their drawings
around the school toilets and fountains at the
playground.
2. - Making water music. Create a musical pattern and
explore different sounds using glass containers with
different amount of water.
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and note what happens to them.
- Predict how many marbles they
will hold before sinking
2.- Using 3 glasses with water:
- Note the different flavour of water
when sugar is added.
- Note how the water gets colour
when ketchup or a colouring
additive is put in the glass
* Class display with the steps of the
2nd Cycle: ANCIENT EGYPT
AIMS:
•
•
•
•
•
•
To stimulate the children to enjoy learning by studying a very interesting topic, by playing games and doing craft activities.
To recycle previous knowledge in new contexts, by studying: materials, daily routines, tools , machines and geography.
To study the creative processes of building a pyramid and making papyrus paper.
To develop knowledge and understanding of the existence of an Ancient civilization : their beliefs , their way of life etc.
To encourage personal investigation, to learn where and how to find information, focusing upon reading comprehension with visual support.
To encourage literacy and to focus upon the use of past tenses in context.
RESOURCES:
The Awesome Egyptians Horrible histories Terry Deary and Peter Hepplewhite
The Usborne internet-linked Encyclopaedia of Ancient Egypt
The website
www.usborne-quicklinks.com ( type in ancient Egypt)
Mummy DK Eyewitness project pack
You Longman textbook
ACTIVITIES AND GAMES
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Life in ancient Egypt game. Describe and match pictures to written texts.
Literacy The afterlife text. Reading race :read the different sections and put in order.
Reading text , instructions: How to make a Canopic jar.
Gap fill : How to make a mummy.
Maps of Egypt now, and ancient Egypt. Geography of the Nile.
Wall display and exhibition of things brought in by the children.
Game –objects from a tomb , encourage speaking and do guided writing to answer the question Why did they want to take it with them?
Costumes for may 15th school show. Dress as Egyptians and dramatise an Egyptian story in Spanish.
Make a paper mummy
DK Project pack Mummy all about mummification. A self-access unit with reading comprehension and writing practice.
TRIPS
Archaeological museum with exploitation before and after.
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Imax cinema The mysteries of Egypt.
Talk in Spanish from a specialist ,with a slide show.
(write reports of all these)
•
Make individual books about Egypt using different activities from the whole topic as chapters in the book. Make a title page, order the chapters,
write headings, do final decorations , write contents, index and glossary. Put together.
NOTES
The final test included material from this topic.
A very successful and motivating topic, with a wealth of material. There were lots more things we could have done…
Make papyrus paper.
Make a mummy with a plasticine base and plaster of Paris bandages.
Follow up the reading text and make a Canopic jar.
Make hieroglyphs with potato prints.
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3rd cycle: SHARKS
SHARKS
AIMS:
To extend the topic about living things to a specific animal in order to interest and motivate the students
To develop knowledge and understanding of different species of sharks.
To encourage personal investigation, focusing upon reading comprehension with visual support.
Learn to summarise information, and practice making sentences from summarised information.
To practice formulating questions and answering them. Concentrate on what ?how? why ?when? questions.
To encourage speaking.
RESOURCES:
DK Eyewitness project pack Shark
Hungry, hungry sharks
Sharks Usborne . website: www.usborne-quicklinks.com
www.enchantedlearning.com
shark school
Video DK Eyewitness Shark
ACTIVITIES:
Introduce topic eliciting interesting questions about sharks. Answer looking at the FAQs in the shark school website. Read and match questions with
answers.
Label a diagram of a shark, describe body parts. Do spelling test with new vocabulary, practice making up definitions of new words.
Gather information from books, internet web pages, tabulate information and write fact files describing the similarities and differences between sharks
/ bony fish, sharks/rays, the 8 different orders of sharks.
Use these information charts to write proper sentences.
Self-access work using the worksheets of the project pack.
Reading practice with adapted texts such as Hungry ,hungry sharks.
MINI-PROJECT :
Each student researches one particular shark and prepares a short oral presentation for the whole class, writing a first draft of the composition, then writing it
out neatly taking care with the layout and adding illustrations and photographs.
Art and craft: Make a plasticene model of the chosen shark.
Do an oral presentation for the whole class of approx. 2 minutes duration.
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WORKING WITH INFORMATION TEXTS
How do we select non-fiction books?
We choose :
o
o
o
o
o
o
Alphabet books and simple dictionaries
Books which link with the Science, Geography,History and Art curriculum.
Different books on the same topic.
Simple how to books with instructions . e.g. recipe books.
Chronological texts e.g. The lifecycle of a frog.
Non-chronological texts, to start looking up information using the contents.
Our students easily understand non-fiction books because…
o
o
o
o
o
o
They present accurate information.
The language is usually simple .
There is a straightforward link between experience and writing.
They have good illustrations e.g. photographs, drawings, charts and diagrams.
They have clear organisational features e.g. contents, index, headings, glossary.
They use a range of features to present and explain information :simple charts, captions, headings and supportive illustrations
How do we familiarise children with the special features of information texts?
Point them out in group reading sessions.
Make an extension activity
For example Explanation books have diagrams with labels.
Look at this diagram. It is a diagram of a bean growing. Can you read the labels?
Now I’m going to cover up the labels. Can you remember them? What is this label? Yes! very good!
Now everyone draw a diagram of a bean. Write the labels on yellow paper. How do you spell shoot ? etc. Where do we stick this label on?
Oh dear, look everyone , I’ve made a mistake with my labels. What’s wrong?
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How do we teach children to use reference texts?
In Primary we aim to stimulate the children’s natural curiosity and show them how to answer their own queries and extend their knowledge. Looking for
simple information is the first step to research, and children need to gradually develop the skills to learn autonomously. Training children to develop these
skills involves a lot of teacher guidance in the early stages, but then students begin to access information more independently using encyclopaedias and the
internet.
Start by using an information text to answer a question which has come from one of the children.
For example Alejandro wants to know how many eggs the frog lays.
Where is a book about frogs. Lets read the title The lifecycle of a frog.
Here is the list of contents .Lets read it together. Where is the information about eggs? What is the page number? Let read it together. Alejandro, how many
eggs do frogs lay?
Then children can be given guided tasks to find specific information using the contents page. Short and simple information books such as
Factfinders OUP are easy to use.
If enough books are available, pupils can help to classify them according to subjects and then locate them by classification.
Children can be given tasks to practise scanning indexes, dictionaries and IT sources to find information quickly and accurately.
Pupils can summarise orally in one sentence the content of a passage, and decide if it is relevant .
Pupils can be given a short text to read ,and then they can answer simple questions, and summarise in writing the main points it is making.
Worksheets and illustrated texts can be used to practise these skills.
DK Eyewitness project packs and teaching websites are good resources for preparing these materials.
Some books in the Usborne series are internet -linked, and this makes it simple for children to search the website for further information when
researching a topic.
Students can be given tasks where they begin to take notes when researching a topic, identifying key words, phrases and sentences.
How do we make information texts with the children?
In literacy lessons pupils practise presenting the same information in different ways. e.g. a news report, a story and a letter. They will also make different types
of factual compositions which relate to other areas of the curriculum.
ORAL WORK These writing tasks will be preceded by oral work and can also be the basis of oral presentations to the rest of the group.
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There are 4 main types of information texts, and children need to become familiar with each distinct framework.
RECOUNT
This is a simple retelling of an experience such as news telling. e.g. We went to the farm park.
The text is usually in the past tense and follows a when? who? where? why? plus evaluation, sequence. Use sentences to indicate the time and link the
sequence of events e. g .On Friday/ First we saw/ then we had lunch etc.
Take photos of the children during the trip .
Elicit captions for the photos from the children using models and half sentences in guided writing sessions.
Play games in group sessions for ordering, reading and matching the captions to the photos.
Add a summarising sentence We had a great time! and make a title page .Put it all together to make a book .
Put it in the reading corner to be enjoyed by everyone.
In the second and third cycles children can learn to retell events more autonomously in guided writing sessions. The basic recount format can
be developed in different ways:
• News writing can be developed with simple diaries and guided writing about holidays and other shared experiences.
• In the third cycle the children can all contribute to a class diary containing photographs and reports of significant events and trips during the
year.
• A school magazine can also provide a good incentive for pupils to write reports. Students can type up their best work in ICT sessions.
• As class libraries become more established there should be an attractive range of books for the children to borrow. The pupils can begin to
write book reviews and simple summaries of stories they have read.
PROCEDURE
This is a how to book and it could be about a craft activity, an experiment, or a recipe e.g. How to cook scones.
The framework is a list of what is needed, and then steps to show the way to do something, followed by an evaluation.
In a recipe book there is a list of vocabulary to be read and understood. learning these can be done by playing games in the group sessions e.g. Kim’s
game. The words must then be sorted into 2 groups, utensils and ingredients. These can be presented to the children as the things you can’t eat and the
things you can eat.
The description of the method can be illustrated by photographs of the children making the scones , or they can draw and label the steps involved.
Captions can be written in the present tense starting with doing words e.g. put , take, mix , stir. games can be played in group sessions to order, read
and match the captions.
Elicit an introductory and a final phrase e.g.. We made scones. They tasted yummy.
Finally, involve the children in making a cover, writing a title ,writing on the authors names ,and put it in the reading area.
Cross-curricular links:
o Children should become familiar with this format in first cycle so that later on in primary they are able to write up scientific experiments.
o Art and craft techniques can be presented as simple written instructions about the steps to follow, or the procedure can be written up
afterwards, linking literacy and art.
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REPORT
This gives factual or scientific information and could be a simple report about an animal. e.g. Dolphins or a bigger project book e.g. My book about space, My
book about volcanoes, Welcome to Medieval Times.
The framework for a simple animal report could be:
The title
What sort of animal is it?
What does it look like?
Diagram with labels.
Where does it live?
What does it do?
Summarising comment.
Dolphins
A mammal.
It is big and blue. It has a long body, a long
nose and a long tail. It has fins.
In the sea.
It can swim and jump and catch fish.
Dolphins are very clever.
A project book can be made like this.
Collate worksheets from the project and decide on an order.
Divide the work into chapters with headings.
Write a list of contents, an index and a glossary of new words.
Make a title page.
Project books can become more extensive in second and third cycles. The pages of information can be the result of working a text in different ways, as a
variety of approaches is more stimulating.
Texts can come from:
o A gap-fill exercise.
o Word ordering .
o Sentence ordering.
o Matching a picture to an illustration.
o Drawing illustrations from a given text.
o Composing a text (with help) to match given illustrations.
o A recount of a school trip related to the project.
o The procedure of a related art and craft activity.
The glossary of the book can be the end result of vocabulary work on definitions or a spelling test. An attractive cover for the book can be designed and made
in art and craft sessions.
EXPLANATION
An explanation text involves a description of cause and effect and can therefore be difficult for children to create in the first cycle. They can however become
familiar with the format by reading why? books in the group reading sessions.
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The basic framework is
A title
Tell what it is.
Talk about the parts
A diagram with labels
Tell how it works
Tell how it is used.
This type of book will be easier for children to create in the second and third cycles. The pupils will have a wider vocabulary and will be more competent at
describing cause and effect from their studies of Science, Geography and History. e.g. From work on forces and electricity.
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