Programme - Sociedade Portuguesa de Psicologia Comunitária

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Programme - Sociedade Portuguesa de Psicologia Comunitária
B u i l d i n g
P a r t i c i p a t i v e ,
E m p o w e r i n g
&
d i v e r s e
C o m m u n i t i e s
To
Aos(às),
Conference participants,
Participantes na Conferência
Welcome to Lisboa, Portugal. We are honored that you have
Bem-vindos(as) a Lisboa, Portugal. Muito nos honra que tenha
chosen to participate in the II International Conference on
escolhido participar na II Conferência Internacional de Psicologia
Community Psychology held under the title”Building participative,
Comunitária a decorrer sob o título “Construção de Comunidades
empowering & diverse communities” from the 2 to the 6 of
participativas, empowering e diversificadas” de 2 a 6 de Junho de
June 2008 (www.2iccp.com).
2008 (www.2iccp.com).
For this event we have received over 500 abstract proposals on
Para este evento recebemos mais de 500 propostas numa
a wide variety of themes and formats for the presentation of
variedade de temas e formatos para a apresentação de trabalhos
work developed on community research and practice from 36
de investigação e acção comunitária provenientes de 36 países,
different countries. We have organized our Conference program
pelo que organizámos o programa da Conferência de modo a
in order to convey and support the idea of an international spirit
dar visibilidade e a apoiar a ideia de um espírito internacional da
of Community Psychology.
Psicologia Comunitária.
The challenge of building participatory, empowering and diverse
O
communities is our common ground to enhance local as well
empowering e diversificadas funcionará como espaço comum
as global platforms of understanding among researchers &
para realçar o papel crucial que pode ser desempenhado
practitioners in the field of community psychology and other
pelas plataformas locais e globais de entendimento entre
human sciences.
investigadores(as) e interventores(as) no campo da Psicologia
Each and everyone is welcome, and we hope to contribute for the
Comunitária e de outras ciências humanas.
strengthening of Community Psychology worldwide
Todos(as) e a cada um(a), são bem-vindos(as) e esperamos poder
nd
th
desafio
de
construirmos
comunidades
participativas,
contribuir para o fortalecimento da Psicologia Comunitária à
Best whishes
escala global.
Lisboa, 2nd of June, 2008
Os meus melhores cumprimentos
Lisboa, 2 de Junho, 2008
José H. Ornelas
Conference Chair
Associate Professor ISPA - Portugal
Sociedade Portuguesa de Psicologia Comunitária
José H. Ornelas
Conference Chair
Professor Associado ISPA - Portugal
Sociedade Portuguesa de Psicologia Comunitária
1
II
I n t e r n a t i o n a l
C o n f e r e n c e
o n
C o m m u n i t y
P s y c h o l o g y
Scientific Committee
Organizing Committee
Christopher Sonn - Ph.D. (Chair)
José Ornelas - Ph.D. (Chair)
Victoria University (Australia)
Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada (Portugal)
Alípio Sanchéz-Vidal - Ph.D. (Co-Chair)
David Pérez-Jiménez - Ph.D.
Universidad de Barcelona (Spain)
Universidad de Puerto Rico (Puerto Rico)
Marybeth Shinn - Ph.D.
Adrian Fisher - Ph.D.
New York University (USA)
Victoria University (Australia)
Irma Serrano-García - Ph.D.
David Chavis - Ph.D.
Universidad de Puerto Rico (Puerto Rico)
Association for the Study and Development of Community (USA)
Maritza Montero - Ph.D.
Carolyn Kagan - Ph.D.
Universidad Central de Venezuela (Venezuela)
University of Manchester (UK)
Donata Francescato - Ph.D.
Grace Pretty - Ph.D.
Universidad di Roma (Italy)
Australian Psychological Society (Australia)
Carlos Arango - Ph.D.
Francine Lavoie - Ph.D.
Universidad del Valle (Colombia)
Université Laval - Quebec (Canada)
Wolfgang Stark - Ph.D.
Isabel Menezes - Ph.D.
University of Essen (Germany)
Universidade do Porto (Portugal)
Cate Curtis - Ph.D.
Toshi Sasao - Ph.D.
Waikato University (New Zealand)
International Christian University (Japan)
Fátima Quintal Freitas - Ph.D.
Anthony Naidoo - Ph.D.
Universidade Federal do Paraná (Brazil)
Stellenbosch University (South Africa)
Ronelle Carolissen - Ph.D.
Manuel Ramirez - Ph.D.
Stellenbosch University (South Africa)
Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)
Alba Zambrano Constanzo - Ph.D.
Jaime Alfaro Inzunza - Ph.D.
Universidad de La Frontera-Temuco (Chile)
Universidad de Valparaíso (Chile)
Vincent Francisco - Ph.D.
University of North Carolina-Greensboro (USA)
2
B u i l d i n g
P a r t i c i p a t i v e ,
E m p o w e r i n g
&
d i v e r s e
C o m m u n i t i e s
Table of contents
Welcome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Scientific Committee & Organizing Committee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Agreement for International Cooperation for the Advancement of Community Psychology. . . . . . . . . . . . 5
General Conference Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Keynote speakers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Location venues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Conference schedule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Abstracts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Poster abstracts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
3
II
I n t e r n a t i o n a l
C o n f e r e n c e
Executive Committee
Maria Vargas-Moniz (Coord.)
Sónia Amaral
Susana Elvas
Tânia Madeira
Teresa Duarte
Fátima Monteiro
João Paulo Amaro
Daniel Matias
Alice Homem
Lúcia Oliveira
Liliana Filipe
Ana Franco
Florisbela Soares
Inês Almas
Rosa Lopes
Vera Coelho
Design
Filipe Bianchi
4
o n
C o m m u n i t y
P s y c h o l o g y
B u i l d i n g
P a r t i c i p a t i v e ,
E m p o w e r i n g
Agreement for International
Cooperation for the Advancement of
Community Psychology
&
d i v e r s e
C o m m u n i t i e s
to all planning activities;
4. Participate in a planning process on how to being international
cooperation, beginning with activities at the Second
International Community Psychology Conference in Lisboa;
5.Report the results of the planning process to the participants
Community Psychology has grown to become an international
at the Third International Community Psychology Conference
field of study and practice. Around the globe there are
in South Africa.
academic programs and practitioners promoting and advancing
community psychology. Community psychologists share some
We, the organizations signed below, make this commitment in
core perspectives and values in each of these countries and
order to advance community psychology as a field of study and
regions of the world. In every inhabited continent of the world,
as an approach to promoting public health and welfare around
community psychology has grown and has its own unique
the world.
origins, influences, and evolution. The common core belief is
that community psychology shows great promise in addressing
the most pressing social and health issues locally and globally.
Many national and regional associations and other organizations
of community psychologists have developed around the world.
These associations have elected leaders, journals, conferences,
newsletters, and other mechanism to support community
psycologist and advance the field. The time has now come to
bring together these associations to determine as equals how
community psychology can advance through international
cooperation. By sharing the knowledge and experience of
community psychologist from around the world, community
psychology can advance and make even greater contributions.
Potential goals for international cooperation for the advancement
of community psychology include:
• Facilitate communication and learning about community
psychology internationally;
• Exchange information about advances in theory, research, and
practice;
• Build skills and capacity for community psychology practice;
• Promote the development of community psychology
associations or networks where needed;
• Undertake educational and other activities that increase public
awareness and use of community psychology; and
• Secure resources to facilitate international cooperative
activities that address pressing social problems;
We, the undersigned representatives of community psychology
organizations and associations commit to participating in a
process to plan how a best to pursue international cooperation
for the advancement of community psychology. We commit to a
planning process that will:
1.Operate under the principle that all organizations and
perspectives are equal and need to be represented;
2.Communicate in multiple languages and be accessible to all
(transparency);
3. Provide official representation of each member organization
5
II
I n t e r n a t i o n a l
C o n f e r e n c e
o n
C o m m u n i t y
P s y c h o l o g y
General Conference Information
Conference Information and Registration
Lunch and Coffee Breaks
The Conference Secretariat shall be located in the main building
All catering is included in the registration fee.
of the Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian. Conference Secretariat is
Refreshments during official conference breaks will be served at:
open:
• Bar located near the Auditorium 2 - Fundação Calouste
June 3 : 14:30 to 17:30
rd
Gulbenkian
June 4 to 6 : 8:00 to 17:30
th
th
• Bar Hotel Marquês de Sá
The Conference venue is also a cultural center, open to the general
public. Therefore some of the spaces shall be shared. Smoke is
Lunch will be served in two different locations, at the Fundação
not allowed inside the building.
Calouste Gulbenkian:
• Restaurant located at the 1st floor of the main building of the
Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian
Room Sessions
• Restaurant located in the Modern Art Centre - Gulbenkian
Park
Due to the size of the Conference, some concurrent sessions will
Color-coded lunch tickets shall be included in the participant
be held in the Hotel Marquês de Sá, Hotel Príncipe and INR, which
bags and are required for entry into each of the lunch locations.
are adjacent from the Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian. A map of
the different locations is provided in this Program. Conference
staff will be available to provide directions and assistance.
Translation
Simultaneous translation (Portuguese - English - Portuguese and
Spanish - English - Spanish) will be provided in the following
rooms: Auditorium 2, Auditorium 3, Room 1 and Room 2.
Headphones will be provided in the Conference secretariat.
In all the other rooms there will be consecutive translation, when
required by conference participants. Please inform in advance
Conference staff.
6
B u i l d i n g
P a r t i c i p a t i v e ,
E m p o w e r i n g
Keynote speakers
Welcome Address
José Ornelas
Conference Chair
ISPA, Portugal
Keynote Address
James Kelly
Professor Emeritus of Psychology University of Illinois at Chicago
Research Associate University of California, Davis, USA
Thematic Keynotes
Wolfgang Stark
President of the European Community Psychology Association
University of Essen, Germany
James Calvin
Johns Hopkins University, USA
David Chavis
Association for the Study and Development of Community, USA
Donata Francescato
University of Rome, Italy
Maritza Montero
Universidad Central de Venezuela,Venezuela
Shepherd Zeldin
University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA
Heather Gridley
Victoria University, Australia
Kevin Browne
World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Child Care and
Protection
University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
7
&
d i v e r s e
C o m m u n i t i e s
II
I n t e r n a t i o n a l
C o n f e r e n c e
o n
C o m m u n i t y
P s y c h o l o g y
Location venues
Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian
Auditorium 2
Auditorium 3
Room 1
Room 2
Room 3
Meeting Room
Posters Hall
Instituto Nacional para a Reabilitação
Auditorium INR
Hotel Marquês de Sá
Room Douro 2
Room Douro 3
Room Minho 3
Room Tejo
Hotel Príncipe
Room Saldanha
Room Valmor
Room Ávila
8
B u i l d i n g
P a r t i c i p a t i v e ,
E m p o w e r i n g
&
d i v e r s e
C o m m u n i t i e s
Conference schedule
Wednesday, June 4
09:00 - 17:30
Posters displayed
Place
Posters hall
Abstracts ID
G
P1-P49
09:00 - 09:30
Opening session
Place
Auditorium 2
G
Title
Presenter
Welcome address
Visioning Community Psychology in a
worldwide perspective
José Ornelas
Associate Professor ISPA - Portugal
President of the Sociedade Portuguesa de Psicologia Comunitária
Welcome address
Christopher Sonn
Chair of the Scientific Committee
Victoria University - Australia
Title
Presenter
On the Spirit of Community
Psychology: One Personal Story
James Kelly
Professor Emeritus of Psychology University of Illinois at Chicago
Research Associate University of California, Davis
09:30 - 10:20 am
Plenary session
Place
Auditorium 2
G
10:20 - 10:45
Coffee break
10:45 - 12:00
Concurrent sessions
Place
Auditorium 2
Abstract ID Format
G
-
1-3
Thematic keynote
Title
Chair
Empowerment for Change. Linking
Community Psychology to Community
Building and Societal Change in a Global
Perspective
Wolfgang Stark
José Ornelas
Panel presentations
Auditorium 3
G
4
Organized symposium
Community Psychology and Politics
Maritza Montero
Room 1
G
5
Organized symposium
Advancing Social Justice in Community
Psychology
Geoffrey Nelson
Room 2
G
6-11
Panel
Education and community intervention
José Morgado
Room 3
G
12-16
Panel
Training in community psychology
Clifford R.
O’Donnell
Meeting room
G
17
Organized symposium
Community Intervention and Disability
Pedro Teixeira
Room Douro 3
M
18
Organized symposium
Impact of statewide implementation of
multi-systemic therapy on youth outcomes
Christian Connell
Auditorium INR
I
19
Roundtable
Understanding links between place-based
psychological stress cancer outcomes
Erin Kobetz
9
II
I n t e r n a t i o n a l
C o n f e r e n c e
o n
C o m m u n i t y
P s y c h o l o g y
Room Valmor
P
20-24
Panel
Health and community
David PérezJiménez
Room Avila
P
25-29
Panel
Families and community
Maria Angela
Mattar Yunes
Room Saldanha
P
30-34
Panel
Prevention of child abuse
Susana Maria
12:15 - 13:30
Concurrent sessions
Place
Auditorium 2
Abstract ID Format
G
-
35-37
Thematic keynote
Title
Chair
Community Development and Community
Psychology
James Calvin
Wolfgang Stark
Panel presentations
Auditorium 3
G
38
Organized symposium
Hedonism or heart: Motivation in mutual
help groups
Brian Bishop
Room 1
G
39
Organized symposium
Collaborative intervention community
practices
Eduardo Almeida
Acosta
Room 2
G
40
Organized symposium
Family Violence in Portugal and the United
States: Exploring Collaborative Approaches
to Change
Nicole Allen
Room 3
G
41
Roundtable
Training for Community Practice: Part 1
Kelly Hazel
Meeting room
G
42
Workshop
Taller HADECNEC: Destrezas ciudadanas en
espacios conversacionales distintos
Mota Botello
Auditorium INR
I
43
Organized symposium
Aportando desde el enfoque comunitario
a la política social y a los servicios públicos:
experiencias y perspectivas
Carmona Monferrer
Moises
Room Saldanha
P
44
Organized symposium
Social Indicators and Community Program
Intervention Design
Manuela Calheiros
Room Valmor
P
45
Roundtable
Migration and children
Josh Diem
Room Avila
P
46
Roundtable
The garbage in contemporaneous society:
actors, environmental policies and
associative practices
Marília Novais da
Mata Machado
Room Douro 3
M
47-52
Panel
Promotion of professional competencies
Manuel GarciaRamirez
13:30 - 14:30
Lunch
14:30 - 15:45
Concurrent sessions
Place
Auditorium 2
Abstract ID Format
G
-
53-55
Thematic keynote
Title
Chair
Psychology of community: Theory, Research
and Practice
David Chavis
Christopher Soon
Panel presentations
Auditorium 3
G
56
Organized symposium
Racism, Coloniality and Representation:
Examining Dynamics of Oppression and
Liberation in Community
Mariolga Reyes Cruz
Room 1
G
57
Organized symposium
Community organizing in confronting
disasters in Mexico
María Eugenia
Sánchez
Room 2
G
58-62
Panel
Prevention of Child Abuse
Armando Leandro
Room 3
G
41
Roundtable
Training for Community Practice: Part 2
Kelly Hazel
10
B u i l d i n g
P a r t i c i p a t i v e ,
Meeting room
G
63
Posters hall
G
P1-P49
Poster session
Auditorium INR
I
64-68
Room Douro 3
M
69
Room Avila
P
70-74
Room Valmor
P
75
Room Saldanha
P
76-80
E m p o w e r i n g
Innovative session
&
d i v e r s e
C o m m u n i t i e s
La utopia del Siglo XXI: Comunidad,
Patrimonio e Interculturalidad
Graciela Mota
Panel
Training in community psychology
Marybeth Shinn
Organized symposium
Organización Social y Territorio: Experiencias Francisco Javier
Latinoamericanas
Guevara Martinez
Panel
Health promotion
Aldina Gonçalves
Organized symposium
A Multidisciplinary Perspective of
Community Assets in Health and Behavior
Emilie Smith
Panel
Building community capacity
Wanda I. Pacheco
Bou
15:45 - 16:15
Coffee break
16:15 - 17:30 am
Concurrent sessions
Place
Abstract ID Format
Title
Chair
Organized symposium
Asociatividad y construcción de
comunidades participativas, empoderadas y
saludables
Mariane Krause
International Forum
Visioning Community Psychology in a
worldwide perspective
David Chavis
82
Organized symposium
“International perspectives on self-help/
mutual aid”
Chris Barker
G
83
Organized symposium
The diverse nature of community
Ottilie Stolte
Room 3
G
84
Innovative Session
Safety Planning for Abused Children: Using a Thomas Carr
Multi-disciplinary approach
Meeting room
G
85
Innovative Session
Nuevas metodologías en investigación y
prevención de la violencia en la pareja
Vanesa Gomero
Auditorium INR
I
86
Organized symposium
Advocacy and Youth-Produced Media: A
Strengths-based Approach with Adolescent
Girls
Shabnam Javdani
Room Saldanha
P
87-91
Panel
Community Intervention and Youth
Graziela Mota
Room Valmor
P
92-96
Panel
Education and Community
João Paulo Amaro
Room Avila
P
97-101
Panel
Community change
Shepherd Zeldin
Room Douro 3
M
102-107
Panel
Building community capacity
Maria Teresa Duarte
Auditorium 2
G
81
Auditorium 3
G
-
Room 1
G
Room 2
11
II
I n t e r n a t i o n a l
C o n f e r e n c e
o n
C o m m u n i t y
P s y c h o l o g y
Thursday, June 5
09:00 - 17:30
Posters displayed
Place
Posters hall
Abstracts ID
G
P50-P93
09:00 - 10:20
Concurrent sessions
Place
Auditorium 2
Abstract ID Format
G
-
108-110
Thematic keynote
Title
Chair
Women’s movements and community
psychology:an empowering alliance for
visioning and implementing personal and
social change
Donata Francescato
José Ornelas
Panel presentations
Auditorium 3
G
111
Organized symposium
Prosocial communities in cultural context
Wade Pickren
Room 1
G
112
Organized symposium
Critical Perspectives on Teaching and
Learning Community Psychology
Scot Evans
Room 2
G
113
Roundtable
Sense of Community and Community
Psychology: Where do we go from here?
(Part I)
David Chavis
Room 3
G
114-118
Panel
Youth and community intervention
Gary Harper
Meeting room
G
119
Organized symposium
Promoting Resilience in Families and
Adolescents in Contexts of Risks
Maria Angela Mattar
Yunes
Room Tejo
M
120-125
Panel
Community building
David Chavis
Room Minho 3
M
126
Organized symposium
Community Intervention and Music:
Maria de Fátima
Contributions to Community Projects in the Quintal de Freitas
Projects in the Perspective of Latin-American
Social Communitarian Psychology
Room Saldanha
P
127-132
Panel
Health and community
Fátima JorgeMonteiro
Room Douro 2
M
133-137
Panel
Families and community
Henrique Pereira
Auditorium INR
I
138-142
Panel
School interventions
Cate Curtis
Room Valmor
P
143
Innovative session
Ceding power and using community based
participatory research in Little Haiti
Josh Diem
Room Avila
P
144
Workshop
Community capacity-building through
strategic philanthropy & training
Yoel CamaydFreixas
10:20 - 10:45
Coffee break
10:45 - 12:00
Concurrent sessions
Place
Auditorium 2
Abstract ID Format
G
-
145-147
Auditorium 3
G
148
Thematic keynote
Title
Chair
Theory Construction in Community Praxis:
From Action to Explanations, from concepts
to action
Maritza Montero
Edmundo Martinho
International manifestations of community
critical psychology I
David Fryer
Panel presentations
Organized symposium
12
B u i l d i n g
P a r t i c i p a t i v e ,
E m p o w e r i n g
&
d i v e r s e
C o m m u n i t i e s
Room 1
G
149
Organized symposium
Building the program evaluation capacity of
families and family-support organizations
Cindy Crusto
Room 2
G
113
Roundtable
Sense of Community and Community
Psychology: Where do we go from here?
(Part II)
David Chavis
Meeting room
G
150
Workshop
Using Participatory Action Research with
Immigrant Populations
Joanna Ochocka
Room Tejo
M
151
Organized symposium
La Participación de los niños en entornos
urbanos y rurales
Anne Reid
Room Minho 3
M
152
Innovative Session
Mental Health Community Promotion: Using
Theatre and Psychodramaturgy as Tools for
Change
Walter Ferreira de
Oliveira
Room Avila
P
153
Workshop
Theoretical Model of Multiple Intelligence
for the Appraisal of Individuals in a
Community
Carlos R. Valcarcel
Miranda
Room Valmor
P
154
Innovative session
La Fotointervención como herramienta en el
trabajo comunitario
Leonor M. Cantera
Espinosa
Room Douro 2
M
155
Workshop
Taking Culture Seriously in Community
Mental Health: An Emerging Framework
Rich Janzen
Auditorium INR
I
156-160
Panel
Community Intervention & Youth
Eduardo Almeida
Acosta
Room Saldanha
P
161
Roundtable
Global Community Psychology. A discussion
on Transnational Community Practice and
Training
Luciano Berardi
12:15 - 13:30
Concurrent sessions
Place
Auditorium 2
Abstract ID Format
G
-
162-164
Thematic keynote
Title
Chair
Engaging Youth in Social Change: Insights
from Community Psychology
Shepherd Zeldin
Christopher Sonn
Panel presentations
Auditorium 3
G
165
Organized symposium
International manifestations of community
critical psychology II
David Fryer
Room 1
G
166
Roundtable
Community Psychology Education:
Prospects for Incorporating International
Perspectives
Mark S. Aber
Room 2
G
167
Innovative session
Co-Designing a Global Workstation:
Using Internet Tools to Give Community
Psychology Away Worldwide
Jerry Schultz
Room 3
G
168
Roundtable
International Community Psychology:
Exemplars for Research and Action
Partnerships
Roderick J. Watts
Meeting room
G
169
Innovative session
Photography, Knowledge and Psychology –
Work Methodology
Jaqueline Tittoni
Room Tejo
M
170
Organized symposium
Desarrollo Comunitario e intervención
psicosocial: aportes teóricos y
metodológicos desde la PC
Alba Zambrano
Room Douro 2
M
171
Organized symposium
Multicultural competencies in community
and health psychology
Carla Moleiro
Room Saldanha
P
172
Organized symposium
Discussing proposals of psychoeducational
intervention programs with low income
families
Maria Angela
Mattar Yunes
13
II
I n t e r n a t i o n a l
Room Avila
P
173
Room Minho 3
M
Auditorium INR
Room Valmor
C o n f e r e n c e
o n
C o m m u n i t y
P s y c h o l o g y
Innovative session
How new media and social networks can be
used for community consciousness-raising.
Blaine Teamer
174-178
Panel
Building community capacity
Jorge Mário Flores
I
179-183
Panel
Leadership Promotion
James Calvin
P
184
Roundtable
Strategies to Engage Low-Income Fathers:
Exploring the Global Possibilities
Derrick M. Gordon
13:30 - 14:30
Lunch
14:30 - 15:45
Concurrent sessions
Place
Abstract ID Format
Title
Chair
Auditorium 2
G
185
Organized symposium
Indicators of Immigrant Integration
Kien Lee
Auditorium 3
G
186
Organized symposium
The creation and re-creation of war-affected
communities
Andrew Rasmussen
Room 1
G
187
Organized symposium
Innovative Methodologies
Kerry Chamberlain
Room 2
G
188
Organized symposium
Teen dating violence prevention:
community psychology perspectives in
three countries
Francine Lavoie
Room 3
G
189
Roundtable
Building Strong Indigenous Communities The Many Faces of Social Capital
Diane Costello
Meeting room
G
190-194
Panel
Research and community psychology
Adrian Fisher
Posters Hall
G
P50-P93
Poster session
Room Tejo
M
195
Organized symposium
Health and Mental Health Care for Refugees
and Asylum Seekers
Dina Birman
Room Saldanha
M
196
Organized symposium
Building Blocks for Development in
Diverse Communities: Families, Peers, and
Neighborhoods
Dawn Witherspoon
Room Douro 2
M
197
Workshop
Co-Designing a Global Workstation:
Using Internet Tools to Give Community
Psychology Away Worldwide
Jerry Schultz
Room Minho 3
M
198
Workshop
Analyzing ethical issues in community
practice: A sequential approach
Alipio Sanchez-Vidal
Room Valmor
P
199
Roundtable
Understanding cultural dissonance related
to health constructions to prevent cervical
cancer
Josh Diem
Auditorium INR
I
200-205
Panel
Multicultural interventions
Ronelle Carolissen
Room Avila
P
206
Workshop
Orchestrating Efficient Meetings; Building
Effective Decisions
John Tropman
15:45 - 16:15
Coffee break
16:15 - 17:30
Concurrent sessions
Place
Abstract ID Format
Auditorium 2
G
207
Auditorium 3
G
-
Room 1
G
208-212
Title
Chair
Organized symposium
Community Psychology and Ethics: Thematic Alipio Sanchez-Vidal
and Methodological Issues
International Forum
Visioning Community Psychology in a
worldwide perspective
Maria João VargasMoniz
Panel
Community Building
Gary Harper
14
B u i l d i n g
P a r t i c i p a t i v e ,
E m p o w e r i n g
&
d i v e r s e
C o m m u n i t i e s
Room 2
G
213
Organized symposium
Psychological Sense of Community and
Voluntareeism
Maura Pozzi
Room 3
G
214
Workshop
Desarrollo Humano a Partir de un Modelo
Ecológico Dirigido a Niños, Familia, y
Comunidad
Camilo Madariaga
Orozco
Meeting room
G
215
Roundtable
La vida cotidiana: un enfoque teorico
metodologico para el analisis critico
Maricela Perera
Room Minho 3
M
216
Roundtable
Community Psychology in “developed”
societies: How to face renewed forms of
alienation and exclusion
Jorge S. López
Room Douro 2
M
217-222
Panel
Youth & Community Intervention
Christopher Sonn
Room Tejo
M
223
Organized symposium
The Meaning of Community in an Increasing
Globalized World
Donata Francescato
Auditorium INR
I
224-228
Panel
Arts, Leisure and community intervention
Maria de Fátima
Quintal de Freitas
Room Saldanha
P
229
Roundtable
Mental Health Community Promotion:
Perspectives in the Context of the Health
and Psychiatric Reform
Walter Ferreira de
Oliveira
Room Valmor
P
230
Workshop
Entre jerarquías y heterarquías: estrategias
de trabajo en redes sociaeles.
Clara Netto
Room Avila
P
231
Innovative session
Enabling socially created meanings Application of the Mmogo-method
Vera Roos
15
II
I n t e r n a t i o n a l
C o n f e r e n c e
o n
C o m m u n i t y
P s y c h o l o g y
Friday, June 6
09:00 - 17:30
Posters displayed
Place
Posters hall
Abstracts ID
G
P94-P136
09:00 - 10:20
Concurrent session
Place
Abstract ID Format
Title
Chair
Auditorium 2
G
232
Organized symposium
Cultural and Contextually-Relevant
Frameworks for Prevention
Jacob Tebes
Auditorium 3
G
233
Organized symposium
Homelessness in New Zealand
Ottilie Stolte
Room 1
G
234
Organized symposium
Evaluating Community and Organizational
Interventions: Understanding Diverse
Perspectives & Settings
Susan McMahon
Room 2
G
235
Organized symposium
Portuguese adolescents: health promotion
and wellbeing
Tânia Gaspar
Room 3
G
236
Workshop
What Sex Offenders Can Tell Us About
Prevention Planning
Keith L. Kaufman
Meeting Room
G
237
Workshop
Project Management - conceptualization
and conducting an Empowerment
Evaluation Project
Monika Bobzien
Room Douro 2
M
238
Organized symposium
Dialogues on Establishing Foundational and
Core Competencies in Graduate Education
Raymond Scott
Room Minho 3
M
239
Organized symposium
School based interventions for immigrants
& refugees
Dina Birman
Room Avila
P
240
Innovative session
You may say I'm a dreamer, but I'm not the
only one: Community Psychology students
and their ideas
Daniel Matias
Room Douro 3
M
241-246
Panel
Health and community
Francine Lavoie
Room Valmor
P
247
Innovative Session
Come dine with me: experiences of
participation and engagement with black
and minority ethnic communities
Iyabo Fatimilehin
Room Saldanha
P
248
Roundtable
School Intervention roundtable:
Participatory/action research with students,
parents, and educators
Susana Helm
Auditorium INR
I
249-253
Panel
Community Empowerment
Christopher Sonn
10:20 - 10:45
Coffee break
10:45 - 12:00
Concurrent sessions
Place
Title
Chair
Auditorium 2
G
Abstract ID Format
254
Organized symposium
Arriving, receiving and later generation
immigration challenges and adjustments (I)
Adrian Fisher
Auditorium 3
G
255
Organized symposium
An Uncommon Lens: Community
Psychology Approaches for Addressing
Mental Illness
Bret Kloos
Room 1
G
256
Organized symposium
Community Psychologists' Pursue of Social
Change Among Individuals with Disabilities
Fabricio Balcazar
16
B u i l d i n g
P a r t i c i p a t i v e ,
E m p o w e r i n g
&
d i v e r s e
C o m m u n i t i e s
Room 2
G
257
Organized symposium
Integrating Immigrants: Perspectives and
Experiences from the European Continent
and the U.S.
Kien Lee
Room 3
G
258
Roundtable
Creating Affirming Campus Communities
through Minimizing the evasiveness of
Heterosexism
Raymond Scott
Meeting room
G
259
Innovative session
Program Design, Documentation, and
Dissemination for Diversity: A Toolkit
Demonstration
Rebecca M.
Buchanan
Room Minho 3
M
260
Organized symposium
Reflections about Community Psychology in
Latin America: Praxis and perspectives
Maria de Fátima
Quintal de Freitas
Room Douro 3
M
261
Roundtable
Why global networking? UniversityCommunity Partnership for Social Action
Research Network UCP SARnet
Marek Wosinski
Room Valmor
P
262
Roundtable
Promoting Youth Development through
Arts-based Community Programs
Lorraine Gutierrez
Room Avila
P
263
Workshop
Outreach and Engagement for Latinos
from a Cultural Perspective and Video
Presentation
Luis M. Garcia
Auditorium INR
I
264-268
Panel
Community research and action
Jim Orford
Room Douro 2
M
269
Innovative Session
Games for participation and conscientisation Carolyn Kagan
Room Saldanha
P
270-274
Panel
Community empowerment
12:15 - 13:30
Concurrent sessions
Place
Wolfgang Stark
Abstract ID Format
Title
Chair
Auditorium 2
G
275
Organized symposium
Arriving, receiving and later generation
immigration challenges and adjustments (II)
Adrian Fisher
Auditorium 3
G
276
Organized symposium
East-West as well as North-South Dialogue:
prospects for community psychology in the
developing and transitioning world
Douglas Perkins
Room 1
G
277
Organized symposium
Community and Higher Education
Partnerships
Jacqui Akhurst
Room 2
G
278
Organized symposium
Formación en Psicología Comunitária
María Isabel Reyes
Espejo
Room 3
G
279
Innovative session
Shifting Gender Norms: Emerging
Community-Based Intervention Programs
Nicholas Kaufmann
Meeting room
G
280
Innovative session
Knowledge Mobilization through Theatre:
Cutting to the heart of research
Sarah Marsh
Room Douro 2
M
281-285
Panel
Collaborative research
David PérezJiménez
Room Minho 3
M
286-290
Panel
Community empowerment
Alba Zambrano
Room Douro 3
M
291-295
Panel
Community empowerment
Maritza Montero
Room Saldanha
P
296-300
Panel
Mutual help (on-line platforms)
Marek Wosinski
Auditorium INR
I
301-305
Panel
Sense of community
Alípio Sanchéz-Vidal
Room Avila
P
306
Innovative Session
Prevenção criativa da Violência Doméstica: A
mesma energia para coisas diferentes
Clara Teles
Room Valmor
P
307
Innovative Session
Practicas Transdisciplinarias: Aciertos y
desaciertos desde la psicología comunitaria
Dolores Miranda
17
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I n t e r n a t i o n a l
C o n f e r e n c e
o n
C o m m u n i t y
P s y c h o l o g y
13:30 - 14:30
Lunch
14:30 - 15:45
Concurrent sessions
Place
Auditorium 2
Abstract ID Format
G
Title
Chair
José Ornelas
-
Thematic keynote
The overuse of institucional care for young
children in europe
Kevin Browne
-
Thematic keynote
Community Psychology in Australia - An
overview
Heather Gridley
Auditorium 3
G
308
Organized symposium
Advances in the measure of sense of
community across contexts and cultures
David Chavis
Room 1
G
309
Organized symposium
Involvement and Empowerment in
Community-based Practices of Health
Promotion among Migrants and Ethnic
Minority Users (I)
Manuel GarciaRamirez
Room 2
G
310
Organized symposium
Towards a political community psychology:
Cross linkings between Brazil and Portugal
Isabel Menezes
Room 3
G
311-316
Panel
Homelessness studies
Paul Toro
Meeting Room
G
317
Workshop
Photovoice as a estrategy to community
psychology
Cristiane Paulin
Simon
Posters hall
G
P94-P136
Poster session
Room Minho 3
M
318-323
Panel
Sense of community
Bruna Zani
Room Saldanha
P
324
Innovative session
Empowerment in EQUAL projects
Carlos Ribeiro
Auditorium INR
I
325-329
Panel
Mental Health
Nicholas Carr
Room Valmor
P
330
Roundtable
Foros Ciudadanos: Promoviendo la
participación ciudadana en la gestión
pública
Blanca Ortiz-Torres
Room Avila
P
331
Workshop
Organizational Capitalism and Psychosocial
Risk in a Brazilian Psychiatric Hospital
Vanessa Soares
Room Douro 2
M
332
Organized symposium
Challenges and Solutions of Evaluation and
Research with Youth
Francine Lavoie
Room Douro 3
M
333
Workshop
Refugee Families in a Multicultural Setting
Eva Nyberg
15:45 - 16:15
Coffee break
16:15 - 17:30 am
Concurrent sessions
Place
Abstract ID Format
Auditorium 2
G
334
Auditorium 3
G
-
Room 1
G
335
Title
Chair
Organized symposium
Immigrant and Refugee Students in a School Dina Birman
Context
International forum
Visioning Community Psychology in a
worldwide perspective
David Chavis
Organized symposium
Involvement and Empowerment in
Community-based Practices of Health
Promotion among Migrants and Ethnic
Minority Users (II)
Manuel GarciaRamirez
18
B u i l d i n g
P a r t i c i p a t i v e ,
Room 3
G
336-340
Meeting room
G
Room Valmor
E m p o w e r i n g
&
d i v e r s e
C o m m u n i t i e s
Panel
Program evaluation
Irma-Serrano Garcia
341
Workshop
Participatory Democracy
Maria José Aleixo
P
342
Workshop
Youth in a Multicultural Setting
Tomas Bons
Room Saldanha
P
343
Innovative session
After the Conference: Leveraging the
Internet to Continue Global Dialogue
Gina Cardazone
Room Douro 2
M
344
Roundtable
Evaluation in Low-Trust-Environments.
Evaluating Development and Humanitarian
Intervention in Africa
Ulrich Schiefer
Room Avila
P
345
Workshop
Estructura Emocional y Participación Social
Juan Antonio
Colmenares Gil
Room Minho 3
M
346
Workshop
Trayectorias y dinámicas psicosociales de
las mujeres magrebíes, europeas del este y
subsaharianas
Nekane Otero
Auditorium INR
I
347
Workshop
Organizational capitalism in a Public
University through photographic
intervention
Vanessa Soares
Maurente
Room Douro 3
M
348-353
Panel
Community Empowerment
Issac Prilleltensky
17:30 - 18:00
Closing session
Place
Auditorium 2
Presenter
G
José Ornelas
Conference Chair
Christopher Sonn
Chair of the Scientific Committee
David Pérez-Jiménez
Representant of the I International Conference on Community Psychology
Representant of the III International Conference on Community Psychology
19
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C o n f e r e n c e
Abstracts
o n
C o m m u n i t y
P s y c h o l o g y
desde un enfoque Ambiental Comunitario, orientado ha la facilitación de procesos de gestión participativa en acciones de regeneración de espacios públicos, en un barrio semi rural de la periferia de Santiago de Chile. El Barrio ‘las Canteras’, es producto de
un poblamiento espontaneo de autoconstrucción de mediados
de los años 20, cuya habitantes se han dedicado históricamente
a la extracción de piedras de una cantera aledaña. La población
actual es de 1.550 habitantes, 331 viviendas y 388 familias. Desde
una posición transaccional, donde personas, procesos psicológicos, ambiente físico y cualidades temporales son fenómenos que
se estudian como una unidad (Werner, Brown y Altman, 2002) se
implementó un proceso de Investigación Acción Participativa coordinado por un equipo multidisciplinarío, que se complementó
con un diseño cartográfico del territorio, a través de la construcción de mapas de referenciación.
1
Citizen participation in environmental management and empowerment as its determinant
Yukio Hirose & Hiroe Maeda
Nagoya University
Japan
The purpose of our study is to clarify the effect of citizens’ expectation of empowerment on their intentions to participate in
the waste management program. Many citizens have become
to think citizen participation is essential for implementation of
environmental policies. A few cities began to introduce citizen
participatory methods to make a basic plan to set a goal of waste
reduction. But, citizen participation has not yet worked well. Although almost citizens admitted citizen participation, they did
not attend it. Consequently, we can not realize the social benefit
of citizen participatory project. This is a case of social dilemma.
We did a social survey to look for the facilitating and inhibiting
factors of citizen participation in Nisshin city which would make
their plan with citizen’s participation. We hypothesized that citizens evaluate citizen participatory project from the aspect of social benefit.
4
Community Psychology and Politics
Coordinated by Maritza Montero
Universidad Central de Venezuela
Venezuela
In Community Psychology praxis, those doing research and action along with community people and stakeholders, can have
the experience of seeing how, women and men in certain communities, go from shyness and self-deprecation to active engagement in community work. In doing so they acquire voice, becoming representatives of their groups. Some community leaders
go further, and become advocators for community projects and,
create inter-communities Associations to defend their rights and
protect their achievements. They learn through practice about
their rights and how to have them acknowledged and respected.
Thus developing citizenship (meaning they fulfill their duties and
exert their rights), as well as a knowledge of what it means to be
able to use the public space. Therefore, as politics is the participation of citizenry in the public sphere, the ways in which community psychology contributes to the development, organization and empowerment of communities can be a way to develop
a strong civil society. Those experiences show that community
psychology is an alternative mode of political action. One not
linked to the usual political actors and ways (parties, politicians,
governmental institutions), and not always reflected in the literature. The relations between communities and politics, as experienced in five countries from four Continents, will be presented in
this symposium.
Key words: Community psychology praxis. Politics. Citizenship.
Civil society. Social justice.
2
Society and Nuclear Waste: An examination of
Environmental Decision Making
Patricia Conway
Vanderbilt University
USA
With increasing concerns around global climate change, nuclear
generated power is being heralded as a low-carbon option for
global energy production. Many countries are investing in new
nuclear power plants to meet their energy demands, in what
some are coining a ‘nuclear renaissance’. When the entire cycle
of nuclear generated power is taken into consideration the end
result is high-level radioactive waste in need of disposal, adding
to the tens of thousands of tonnes already generated since the
1940’s and awaiting disposal around the globe. There is currently
no permanent site for the long-term disposal of this high-level
radioactive waste anywhere in the world. The USA, however, has
been researching a permanent facility for over 30 years, at a cost
of $9 billion to date. The proposed facility would be built within
Yucca Mountain, Nevada.
Making the psychological political – challenges for community psychology.
Mark Burton and Carolyn Kagan
Manchester Metropolitan University
United Kingdom
Community psychology deals with the life of groups of people
in context and is therefore inevitably concerned with their struggles, successes, projects and dreams. Sooner or later, because
these contexts are constructed economically, politically and historically, engagement with the political is inevitable as all social
groups encounter social and economic interests that differ from
3
Una experiencia de participación comunitaria de
regeneración de espacio público
Hector Berroeta Torres y Marcelo Rodriguez Mancilla
Universidad de Valparaíso
Spain
En este trabajo se reporta un proceso de investigación-acción,
20
B u i l d i n g
P a r t i c i p a t i v e ,
E m p o w e r i n g
their own. On a global scale these conflicts include competition
for resources, the dynamics of profit maximisation, and the use
of violence to maintain and extend economic and political hegemony. In Britain community orientated psychologists have become more aware of these political questions and at least some
are more ready than in the past to commit to political engagement both at the local level and on national and international
questions. Some of these developments will be traced, exploring some of the following questions: What are the connections
with other attempts to develop a politically engaged psychology? What are the prospects for such engagement and how best
can community psychologists contribute to wider struggles and
campaigns? Why is this engagement increasing now? What constraints are there to such action and do community psychologists
auto-constrain their political effectiveness? What does this mean
for the definition and focus of community and other related psychologies? In exploring these questions it will be assumed that
while professional ideology and practice has a historical specificity there is a universality of human needs and that this entails
the transformation of community psychology in response to new
challenges from global capital.
Key words: Community psychology. Political hegemony. Political
engagement. Ideology. Global capital.
&
d i v e r s e
C o m m u n i t i e s
Keywords: Refortalecimiento. Politics. Social change. Social community psychology
Community action in post-apartheid South Africa: critical reflections on advancing social justice in a new political climate
Tanya M. Swart
Department of Psychology
University of the Witwatersrand
South Africa
The intersection of community psychology with the socio-political context in which it is located has led to the development
of many different expressions of community psychology across
the world. Each of these expressions has fore grounded different values, theoretical approaches and ideological imperatives.
In South Africa, community psychology is a relatively new subdiscipline that only formally emerged in the 1980s. At this time, it
focussed predominantly on anti-apartheid activism and aligned
with social movements directed at transforming oppressive
socio-political conditions. However, South Africa’s transition to
democracy in 1994 has led to profound changes in the socio-political landscape which have in turn impacted on development
of community psychology in this context. This paper will examine the historical emergence and current state of community
psychology in South Africa, as well as the key issues at stake in
its future trajectory. In particular, the paper will examine the influence of a changing socio-political system and on community
psychology praxis. Using various case study examples, the paper
will examine the extent to which community psychology contributes to community development, empowerment and action
in disadvantaged communities in post-apartheid South Africa.
The paper will use case studies that highlight both successes and
failures in employing community action to advance social justice
in post-apartheid South Africa and present the salient features of
initiatives that have led to significant social change.
Key words: Community action. Social justice. Disadvantaged
communities.
Social Community Psychology: community political actions in a very political country.
Carlos Vázquez Rivera
University of Puerto Rico at Rio Piedras
Puerto Rico
Certainly, Social Community Psychology (SCP) is a way to make
politics, especially in a country that is the oldest colony of the
world. After 500 years under the Spain Empire and more than
100 years under the United States territorial clause, everything
that SCP makes is political. Understanding politics in its more
basic sense: as actions that the people need to exercise in order to participate in the development of betters’ ways to live in
communities, accomplish social justice, and guarantee a true
commonwealth for everybody. In Puerto Rico, SCP celebrates 33
years since this discipline was created as a formal graduate program at the University of Puerto Rico. As young as it is, since the
very beginning, this discipline focus in concepts; such as, social
construction of reality; key social problems, such as, impoverish
communities; certain types of interventions and research, such
as, community participatory research; and struggle with philosophical and epistemological dilemmas in a variety of its actions
because of its political outcomes. As a social science SCP emphasize in social change, a kind of change that challenge many traditional paradigms, because our works with the communities rely
on the people’s strengths, their power relationships, reciprocity
(resistance, alliances, strategies), promoting people’s freedom
practices, and encourage communities will to action. Through
this presentation I will review the experience of the Program of
Community Research and Refortalecimiento (CIReC, for its acronym in Spanish) participating in community base projects. From
a school and community base project design to improve the
quality of life of children with disabilities to a Leadership Academy which start as workshops for school principals an ended as
a legislative bill intended to change the public policy about how
public schools deal with special needs children in Puerto Rico.
Māori and Psychology: Claiming Our Space
Michelle Levy
University of Waikato
New Zealand-Aotearoa
In 1987 Abbott and Durie concluded that the applied psychology disciplines are probably the most monocultural in terms of
Māori representation, of all New Zealand professions. In 2007,
the Māori and Psychology Research Unit at the University of Waikato (Hamilton, Aotearoa/New Zealand) held the first National
Māori and Pacific Psychologies Symposium. The theme of the
symposium was “Claiming Spaces”, reflecting that the time had
come for Māori psychologies to move from the margins and
claim legitimate space within the discipline of psychology. This
theme highlighted that here in Aotearoa we have the potential
to be pioneers in the development of psychologies relevant and
applicable to Māori peoples, and to better understand what science, culture and practice means when indigenous and cultural
worldviews are prioritized. Just how have we moved from a position of marginalization to one in which we as Māori psychologists
are able to actively claim and utilize our own space? It has been
a complex and exciting journey in which community psycholo-
21
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o n
C o m m u n i t y
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between mainstream CP and critical CP and argue that social justice should be the overarching value critical CP. They articulate
key dimensions of a critical CP. In the second paper, Ora Prilleltensky discusses the connections between well-being, justice and
disability. She analyzes the connections between the social model of disability and the experiences of people with disability and
their implications for justice and well-being in the lives of people
with disabilities. In the third paper, Heather Gridley uses the
United Nations Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 3 on the
promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of women
to invite a critical assessment of CP’s contributions to global social justice for women. The presenters conclude by opening up a
dialogue with audience members about their experience.
gists feature prominently. However, possibly of more importance
is the extent to which the values of community psychology such
as social justice, empowerment, cultural awareness and biculturalism, social innovation, an ecological approach, and systems
perspective, have, for the community of Māori psychologists as a
whole, provided a basis for action. This presentation explores the
strategies employed by the community of Māori psychologists
over the past two decades which have contributed to the active
engagement, development, organization and empowerment of
Māori psychologists. There is a particular focus on the activities
which have emerged, and continue to emerge from within the
Psychology Department at the University of Waikato, as well as
commentary on the challenges remaining for our achievements
thus far to be protected and our ongoing development and realization of potential assured.
Keywords: Maori and psychology. Indigenous psychology. Engagement
Promoting Liberation and Well-being through Social Justice
Geoffrey Nelson & Isaac Prilleltensky
In this paper, we advocate for an expanded integration between
Community Psychology (CP) and Critical Psychology. In so doing,
we make a distinction between mainstream CP and critical CP
along the following dimensions: explanatory framework, place of
values and ethics, research approach, focus of intervention, and
the relationship between disadvantaged community members
and CP professionals. We then outline the broad contours of a
critical CP that is: (a) ecological in nature, recognizing the need
to concentrate simultaneously on individuals, relationships, and
communities, (b) characterized by a balanced approach to wellbeing that places equal attention to individuals, relationships,
and collectives, (c) value-driven, (d) guided by the central value
of social justice, and (e) praxis-oriented in its efforts to overcome
social injustice through social action undertaken in partnership
with disadvantaged people. We illustrate such an approach, as
well as discussing challenges in implementing critical CP.
Learning community participation from Politics; learning to do Politics from Community action.
Maritza Montero
Universidad Central de Venezuela.
Venezuela
It is almost a commonplace to say that community psychology
is oriented towards social change. But to reach such goal it is
necessary that community members and stakeholders have the
capacity and the possibility for decision-making, and control and
responsibility over their actions and their effects. Those conditions can be learnt, developed and also frustrated according to
the relations existing between communities, their needs and
intentions, and the political climate and system where they coexist. The psychosocial processes involved in these relations are
analyzed presenting through case studies covering thirty years
of community work experiences. Community groups and individuals go through learning processes that can be empowering
(fortalecedores); develop negotiating skills; learn how to express
their needs and wishes; how to discover and develop resources,
and how to find new ones. Learning from local politics some tricks
and how to deal with adverse conditions and still make some
profit. Those contacts help the organization of the communities,
developing their sense of belonging and caring. And from that
platform, later, communities create a space for their organizations and representatives in the local political arena, where they
act as citizens exerting their right. Democratic conditions foster
community development, whereas authoritarianism, populism
and paternalism halt communities’ transformation.
Key words: Community psychology. Politics. Community development. Citizenship.
Disability and Well-being: Challenges and Possibilities
Ora Prilleltensky
The fields of Community Psychology (CP) and Critical Psychology
are well positioned to advance the needs of people with disabilities. There is a significant parallel between the core values and
underlying assumptions of the aforementioned fields and those
of disability studies. Disability Studies is a new academic discipline whose value base is strongly aligned with the independent
living and disability rights movements. It is predicated on the belief that barriers to full inclusion and participation of people with
disabilities are largely rooted in unaccommodating structures
and social arrangements. A number of recent publications have
explored possible alliances between psychology and disability
studies and the potential for psychology to make a meaningful
contribution to the well-being of people with disabilities. However, as I contend in this paper, there is a potentially unhelpful
tendency in some critical perspectives to minimize or underemphasize the role of impairment effect and bodily struggles.
5
Advancing Social Justice in Community Psychology
“Better Life for our Daughters?” Advancing Global Justice for Women
Heather Gridley
The United Nations Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 3 focuses on the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of women. A series of “gender indicators” has been devel-
Coordinated by Geoffrey Nelson
Wilfrid Laurier University
Canada
In this set of papers, the presenters discuss ways that Community
Psychology (CP) can advance the value of social justice. In the first
paper, Geoffrey Nelson and Isaac Prilleltensky make a distinction
22
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P a r t i c i p a t i v e ,
E m p o w e r i n g
oped to track progress towards this global goal across sectors
and nations. The indicators span areas such as education, infrastructure, property rights, and employment. In this paper, I draw
on these indicators to invite a critical assessment of CP’s actual
and potential contributions to global social justice for women.
Key questions in any such assessment include: Whose needs are
being met? In what ways is power distributed and enacted in
particular contexts? Whose voices and priorities are privileged
and how are they author-ised? Can a human rights framework
be usefully applied at individual, relational and community levels
anywhere in the world?
&
d i v e r s e
C o m m u n i t i e s
amiento público, muestra diferencias en el autoreporte de conductas de abuso entre pares, en una muestra de 2000 estudiantes
de enseñanza secundaria del sur de Chile. La muestra la constituyen adolescentes de entre 13 y 19 años de edad, pertenecientes
a 17 establecimientos educacionales distribuidos en 5 ciudades
diferentes y con diversa modalidad de administración (pública,
privada con subvención pública y privada sin subvención); los
cuales responden un cuestionario de autoreporte de comportamiento adaptativo que incluye conductas de abuso entre
pares. Dentro de esta muestra se incluye un subgrupo de 400
estudiantes que además responden un cuestionario específico
de abuso de poder. Los resultados más relevantes muestran diferencias en las formas de abuso más frecuentes entre hombres y
mujeres de acuerdo a la edad de los estudiantes.
6
Construyamos juntos una comunidad educativa
libre de violencia
9
(Re)educação brasileira: humanizar para transformar
Sara Ruiz Vallejo, Maria Jose Garcia Oramas, Susana Ruiz
Pimentel
Facultad de Psicologia Xalapa Universidad Veracruzana
Mexico
Construyamos Juntos una Comunidad Educativa Libre de Violencia, es el lema de un proyecto, para trabajar con jóvenes hombres y mujeres de 14-18 años, estudiantes de telebachillerato
del estado de Veracruz, México; que está en marcha. El proyecto
tiene cuatro etapas: 1) Indagación, 2) Intervención con grupos, 3)
Elaboración de Materiales de Apoyo y 4) Formulación de Políticas
Públicas. En este trabajo se exponen los resultados de la violencia
en la comunidad.
Raquel Pondian Tizzei; Alexandre Luiz Rampim; Joel Fernando
BOrella
Uniararas
Brazil
Falar da educação brasileira sem considerar o contexto sóciohistórico em que ela se constitui é resumir e superficializar suas
possibilidades. Atualmente, vivemos um processo de caducidade
social, no qual, mecanismos de controle e poder mercantilizam e
coisificam o humano, tornando-o mero expectador de si mesmo,
posição essa que se revela enrijecedora para a sua autonomia.
No Brasil, de um modo geral, a educação reproduz esse processo,
privilegiando a simples transmissão de conteúdo, a idéia de homogeneidade em sala de aula, o poder e a autoridade punitiva
do professor, acreditando em uma libertação pelo controle, o
que, em verdade, lentifica qualquer transformação. Todavia, há
educadores que começam a se dar conta do quão obsoleta se
apresenta essa concepção e iniciam um movimento de (re)pensar novas práticas, em substituição às formas já desgastadas de
ação. Para gerar libertação, a escola precisa, antes, libertar-se.
7
Studying - Iran 10 year experiences regarding researching teacher plan in classrooms
Hossein Khanifar, PhD (University of Tehran) Seyed Mohammad Moghimi, PhD (University of Tehran) Seyed Ahmad Bayan
Memar, PhD (University of Qom) Mojdah Poor Hosseini, PhD
(Islamic Center Medical Study) Malihehossadat Rahmanzadah
Political Science Department (Azad Islamic University of Qom)
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
The aim of researching teacher plan is to encourage people to research and scientific approaches in solving school and classroom
problems in order to develop scientific vision and morale in pedagogy body. The main items of the plan include innovation, research orientation, self-reliance and growing teachers‘researches.
In this national plan designed by considering international experiences, researching teacher is someone who tries to research in
class and school in order to resolve mentioned problems by reinforcing and improving training perspectives.
10
Shooting at a moving target: A community
group’s efforts at systemic change in school reform
Myra Margolin
University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana
USA
Because a systems perspective requires looking at multiple levels
of analysis in order to understand a singular system, discerning
the most productive sites for intervention in a systems-change
effort can often seem like shooting at moving targets. This is, in
part, due to the shifting nature of the system itself as policies
change and key players rotate. Additionally, individual members of the change-effort bring their unique lenses to the issue
and focus on different aspects of the system. Building upon the
framework for understanding and changing organizational and
community systems proposed by Foster-Fishman, Nowell and
Yang (2007), this paper will examine the narratives of members
of one activist group engaged in a systems-change effort in order
8
Comunidades escolares y Bullying: caracterización de comportamientos abusivos en contextos diversos
Ricardo Pérez-Luco Arenas, Paula Alarcón Bañares, Aldo
Ramírez Fernández
Universidad de La Frontera
Chile
El estudio, enmarcado en un proyecto FONDECYT de financi-
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to map real-life complexity onto Foster-Fishman et al.’s relatively
clean framework.
o n
C o m m u n i t y
P s y c h o l o g y
mite fortalecer mejorar el servicio y las estrategias de avalúo académico e institucional. Los estudios mas recientes indican que el
estudiantado que se gradua recomendaría a otros la universidad,
se han mantenido las tasas de retención. Se proyecta adiestrar al
personal administrativo y promover mas sistemáticamente estilos de vida saludables.
11
Building learning communities in Centre for Education and Development D. Maria Pia, Casa Pia
de Lisboa
13
Cultural Community Psychology and Graduate
Education
José Morgado & Nuno Madeira
ISPA
Portugal
This paper intent to present part of the ongoing educational
work at Centro de Educação e Desenvolvimento D. Maria Pia, one
of the several institutions from Casa Pia de Lisboa. This one have
about 600 pupil, children and adolescents aged from 3 and mostly belonging to at-risk familiar environments. The whole Casa Pia
is engaged in a reform process and in this particular centre was
decided, first in a experimental approach and then in a generalization process, run models and educational practices in order
to promote the building of learning communities. Considering
the school dimension and the diversity of educational levels and
programs, the strategic option was to stimulate and allows the
raising of different projects and methodological approaches but
always under the same framework, building learning communities. Although we quote other projects, the main topic presented
is related to the “Anchor Project” which begun with 2º ciclo, 5th
grade, classes and is actually in a generalization stage.
Clifford R. O’Donnell
University of Hawaii
USA
In the last three years there has been much interest in the development of a cultural community psychology and in the internationalization of community psychology. These two complementary developments have important implications for graduate
education. This presentation traces the development of cultural
community psychology, how it contributes to international community psychology, and implications for the graduate education
of the next generation of community psychologists. In June 2005,
the Presidential Address at the Biennial Conference of the Society
for Community Research and Action (SCRA) was titled Beyond diversity: Toward a cultural community psychology. The theme was
that culture is the context of diversity. Implications of a cultural
community psychology for research, practice, and the discipline
of psychology were presented.
12
Hacia una universidad, más democrática: centrada en el estudiante
14
Construcción colectiva de un Curriculum innovador y pertinente en le área de agroecología con
la comunidad
Carlos Rubén Carrasquillo Ríos
Universidad de Puerto Rico en Humacao
Puerto Rico
Objetivo: Destacar algunos datos relevantes en una institución
tradicional y su relación con la retención estudiantil. La educación
superior del siglo XXI tiene que enfrentar desafios de una sociedad globalizada que amenaza las ideas y valores tales como la
igualdad, la libertad, la justicia y la solidaridad. Uno de los resultados de esta crisis se refleja en la marginación y la deserción o disidencia escolar. Necesitamos que sin disminuir la excelencia académica nuestras instituciones superiores subgraduadas logren
ser mas pertinentes a la realidad personal, laboral-económica y
social. Los estudios internos de la Universidad de Puerto Rico
en Humacao, Puerto Rico plantean que los estudiantes llegan
con grandes expectativas a la institución , la mayoría se dan de
baja de los cursos, por problemas asociados a la metodología de
enseñanza, presentando problemas en las mismas clases. Frente
a esto desde el 2004, se gestó el proyecto, hoy denominado Éxito
Estudiantil , con el objetivo de : fomentar la participación estudiantil en actividades educativas enriquecedoras, promover relaciones de apoyo entre todos los componentes de la comunidad
universitaria . Con el modelo de Aprender, Servir e Investigar (
ASI) a través del método de Situarse, Observar, Dialogar y Actuar
(SODA). Se ha comenzado a capacitar al profesorado en estrategias innovadoras de enseñanza mas cercana a las realidades del
estudiantado del siglo XXI. Se han celebrado congresos de liderato estudiantil, donde la avaluación y evaluación de estos per-
Maria Carolina Aguaje & Edsijual Mirabal
Universidad Simón Rodríguez
Venezuela
Esta experiencia de construcción colectiva con las comunidades
esta fundamentada en dos grandes convicciones que comparten
sus autoras, la primera esta vinculada a una concepción de la educación como proceso horizontal, liberador y emancipador, en ello
algunos de nuestros inspiradores son Freire y Racière. La segunda
convicción, tiene que ver con una concepción del desarrollo comunitario que parte de las potencialidades de la localidad, que
se construye de manera colectiva y en donde los protagonistas
de las acciones son sus pobladores. Para ello nos inspiramos en
autores que tiene que ver con el Constructivismo Social, con investigadores que transitan la Investigación-.Acción Participativa
y la Sistematización en Latinoamérica, además de los postulado
y principios del Modelo de Construcción Colectiva del Desarrollo
Comunitario del cual es coautora María Carolina Azuaje (una de
las ponentes). Las etapas de implementación del modelo son las
siguientes: Interacción e Integración con la Comunidad.
24
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living support or professional qualification. This perspective challenges intervention models to aim for individual but also social
change focusing on a community intervention perspective. The
papers in this symposium are an illustration of research and intervention that confronts these chronicle conditions as social and
political phenomena that involve rights, practices and advocate
the need for social transformation. Carolyn Kagan will be discussant. Carolyn Kagan is Professor of Community Social Psychology
at Manchester Metropolitan University where she is the Director
of the Research Institute for Health and Social Change. Her work
includes participatory evaluation research with those marginalised by the social system.
15
La Responsabilidad Social Universitaria desde el
paradigma de la Psicologia Comunitária
Nelly Ayala, María Constanza Del Portillo, Maria Victoria Neira
Universidad Católica de Colombia
Colombia
El presente trabajo, vincula el paradigma de la Psicología Comunitária de la construcción y transformación crítica, con el tema de la
Responsabilidad Social Universitaria RSU. A través del desarrollo
de las dimensiones: ontológica, epistemológica, política, metodológica, ética, Montero (2006), plantea los sustentos que orientan
las acciones de este campo programático de la Psicología en la
sociedad, buscando favorecer con las comunidades, la construcción de procesos de participación, autogestión, organización,
fortalecimiento, autonomía y conocimiento. Desde la perspectiva de RSU, se explicita que las instituciones de Educación Superior formarán ciudadanos responsables que orienten a largo
plazo objetivos y necesidades sociales respetando las culturas y
el medio ambiente, (UNESCO, 1998). La Constitución Apostólica
(1990), llama la atención, sobre el papel de la Universidad para
que contribuya a la dignidad de la vida humana, la promoción de
la justicia para todos, la calidad de vida personal y familiar.
Empowerment processes and results in disability – An organizational analysis from Portugal
Pedro M. Teixeira
Empowerment has been conceptualized as the capacity that individuals, organizations and communities have to take control
over events that occur in their lives (Zimmerman, 1995). The goal
of empowering individuals, organizations and communities has
been held in several community based interventions in different
contexts (e.g. health, education, work) with positive associations
between higher levels of individual empowerment and higher
levels of: motivation, performance, productivity, social cohesion,
resilience towards stigmatization, coping with disabilities, quality of life and community participation. Empowerment has also
been associated with lower re-hospitalization rates and negative
stress effects. The focus on empowerment goals has also been
emerging in disability policy documents, under the influence
of the European Union, however, little is know on how organizations in the community (e.g. advocacy groups, service providers, rehabilitation, …) have integrated empowerment values and
practices.
16
Experiencias colaborativas de movilización hacia la responsabilidad social universitaria
Teresita Castillo-León; Rebelín Echeverría-Echeverría; María
Luisa Rojas-Bolaños
Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán
Mexico
La realidad social contemporánea evidencia la necesidad de
continuar desarrollando propuestas teórico-metodológicas que
contribuyan a la solución de problemáticas sociales y la promoción del bienestar. Adicionalmente, en materia de educación se
evidencia la necesidad de contar con planes y programas que
verdaderamente promuevan la formación integral y la responsabilidad social, de tal manera que los nuevos profesionales funjan
como gestores, promotores y facilitadores del desarrollo social. En
este sentido, el papel de las universidades y, específicamente de
la labor de docencia-investigación-extensión requieren el desarrollo de estrategias concretas que favorezcan la formación integral, así como la responsabilidad social con los diferentes grupos
y comunidades, rurales y urbanas. Así, este trabajo tiene como
objetivo presentar y discutir una experiencia de trabajo colaborativo interdisciplinario con la participación de coordinadores de
las unidades universitarias de inserción social (UUIS).
The impact of social and political disability discourses on
the experience of physical disability
Ema Loja
Disability has co-existed with oppression through social stigmatization, discrimination, and the loss of political and economic
resources. Attitudinal handicaps are referred as more devastating
than structural handicaps or the physical condition’ experience
(Dalal, 2006; Huang & Brittain, 2006); in fact, ableism and economic disadvantages have been considered social keys factors
on lives of persons with disabilities (Vernon, 1999). However, the
material, socio-cultural, communicative and discursive oppression, felt by disabled people, are rarely consciously challenged
nor overtly discussed, with perceptions of people with disabilities
often focusing on their shortcomings, and are often internalized
by people with disabilities themselves. Debates about the shared
subjective experience of disablement/impairment have alerted
disability studies to the need to work with the psychosocial nature of impairment/ disability (Reeve, 2003), in order to theorise
and challenge conditions of disablement and exclusion.
17
Community intervention and disability
Coordinated by Pedro Teixeira
Faculdade Psicologia e Ciências da Educação – Universidade do
Porto
Portugal
In most chronicle conditions, either disability or disease, after initial medical intervention and biological stabilization, individual
needs that enhance quality of life and well-being are of social nature such as: mobility and access to social settings, independent
The impact of chronic illness’ associations in the life of
children and adolescents
Sofia C. Pais
Chronic illness is common and has a profound impact on the
educational, psychological and social life of the affected chil-
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dren (Shaw & McCabe, 2008; Telford et al, 2005). “The literature
is providing increasingly nuanced conceptualizations of adjustment, demonstrating that the experience of chronic disease
necessitates adaptation in multiple life domains” (Stanton et al,
2007: 565). In fact, assuming the financial constraints and changing ideologies have expanded parents’ roles to include the job of
problem solver, committee member, public educator, political activist and, most importantly, spokesperson for the needs of their
children (Minnes, Naschen & Woodford, 2003), the participation
in associations can be an important factor in supporting these
children/adolescents and families. The associative communities
might become relevant contexts where they can get to know
others which share the same difficulties and alternatives and, in
this sense, improve their lives (Queiroz, 2002).
o n
C o m m u n i t y
P s y c h o l o g y
This presentation describes quantitative results from the statewide evaluation of Connecticut’s MST program. Approximately
1850 youth were served by nearly 25 teams across the state during the evaluation period (January 1, 2003 to June 30, 2006). The
quantitative evaluation focused on three central evaluation questions: (1) how was MST implemented at the state level, and were
client or provider characteristics associated with implementation
fidelity; (2) what effects were observed regarding therapist ratings of MST-defined instrumental outcomes (e.g., improvements
in family functioning or youth behavior) and ultimate outcomes
(e.g., youth educational/vocational success, youth living at home,
and youth avoidance of subsequent criminal justice contact);
and (3) what effects were observed regarding official indicators
of recidivism (e.g., charges and adjudicated offenses) as well as
placement/detention across juvenile and adult systems during
and subsequent to involvement in MST.
18
Impact of statewide implementation of multisystemic therapy on youth outcomes
Stakeholder Perspectives on the Statewide Implementation of MST
Jacob Kraemer Tebes
Yale University School of Medicine
This presentation describes qualitative results from the statewide evaluation of Connecticut’s MST program. Interview and
focus group protocols were generated to identify stakeholder
perspectives on the adoption, implementation, service delivery,
and outcomes of Connecticut MST. A total of 33 focus groups and
interviews were conducted involving nearly 100 participants.
Grounded theory was used to code and analyze interview and
focus group responses. The results of this extensive qualitative
evaluation capture contextual and systemic factors that influenced the statewide implementation of MST and shaped considerations regarding its effectiveness. Factors associated with early
adoption differed across state agencies, as reflected in their divergent paths to implementation. Agency “champions” played a
central role in the adoption of MST as an EBP, but some strategies
employed by such champions led to subsequent skepticism that
dogged the program at various organizational levels.
Coordinated by Christian Connell
Yale University School of Medicine
USA
This symposium will present findings from a three-year, mixedmethods evaluation of a statewide implementation of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an evidence-based practice (EBP) designed
to prevent recidivism among juvenile offenders. Despite the vast
number of licensed MST programs implemented across the U.S.
and considerable research that has documented MST program
outcomes for youth, there have been few statewide implementations of MST and none that have been rigorously evaluated.
Three presentations will describe the context for implementation
as well as extensive quantitative and qualitative findings. In addition, the Discussant will place the findings in the context of other
statewide EBP initiatives.
The Context for Statewide Implementation of MST: One
State’s Experience
Robert P. Franks,
Director Connecticut Center for Effective Practice
Multisystemic Therapy (MST) is an intensive family- and community-based preventive intervention developed for youth with serious antisocial behaviors. The treatment targets known causes
and risk factors for antisocial behavior, works to strengthen positive family and social relationships, and focuses on promoting
sustained improvements in youth prosocial behavior and positive
peer experiences to reduce criminal or antisocial behavior and
prevent out-of-home placement in detention or other facilities.
MST was adopted by two separate state agencies in Connecticut [the Court Support Services Division of the Judicial Branch
(CSSD) and the Department of Children and Families (DCF)]. This
presentation will describe the context that set the stage for a
statewide implementation of MST and the significant differences
that emerged across the two state agencies in the adoption and
implementation phases of this initiative.
19
Understanding links between place-based psychological stress cancer outcomes
Erin Kobetz & Josh Diem
Uviversity of Miami School of Medicine
USA
When compared to other racial/ethnic minorities and immigrant
populations in Miami, Florida, Haitian women are more likely to
suffer disability and death from breast cancer, largely due to their
stage of disease at diagnosis. Haitian women are more often diagnosed with late-stage breast cancer, though research has not
fully examined why. Haitians represent a significant proportion
of the Black population living in Miami, and are historically the
city’s poorest racial/ethnic minority. Recent research has found
that neighborhood characteristics contribute to stage of breast
cancer at diagnosis. We are examining neighbourhood effects on
breast cancer stage of diagnosis among Haitian women. By doing
so, we aim to determine whether neighborhood characteristics
contribute to this group’s increased risk of being diagnosed with
late-stage disease. Our research takes place in “Little Haiti,” the
Impact of a Statewide Implementation of MST: Quantitative Findings
Christian M. Connell
Yale University School of Medicine
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area where the majority of Haitians live in Miami.
&
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relación con las enfermedades crónico degenerativas y emergentes. En esta intervención encontramos enfermedades comunes
a esta población que incluyen gripa, amigdalitis faringitis y tos;
que traían como consecuencia ausentismo escolar por periodos
hasta de 15 días y reincidencias continuas por 15 a 20 días, sin
resultados exitosos con el tratamiento del cuadro básico de medicamentos manejado por los servicios de salud y que incluyen
5 antibióticos.
20
Between the happiness and the discipline: conceptual dimensions of the well-being of people
with chronic illnesses
Teresa M. Torres López, Carolina Aranda Beltrán, Manuel
Pando Moreno, José Gpe. Salazar Estrada
Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud. Universidad de Guadalajara
Mexico
The study goal was to explore the well-being conceptual dimensions of people with chronic illness of Guadalajara city, Mexico.
Identify popular knowledge of the people with chronic sufferings
allows a health professionals approach of more quality. The final
purpose was to generate health educational programs. It was an
exploratory cross-sectional study. The sample was 40 diabetes
mellitus and arterial hypertension subjects selected by propositive sampling. They were collected of Health Centers support
groups. Semi-structured interviews were applied by free-listing
and pile sorts techniques. Well-being associated terms and conceptual dimension groupings were investigated. A consensual
analysis was applied by factorizing the major components as
well as a dimensional analysis with hierarchical conglomerates
and multidimensional scales. The main results show a holistic
vision of well-being concept. With three cultural dimensions:
the responsibility, the discipline and the happiness. The people
interviewed were it pointed out that the responsibility and the
discipline like a voluntary and personal decision, where the family and the community are not included. The third dimension is
about mental and social aspects, included to the happiness and
lives comfortable. It implies the practices of mental health care,
besides the spiritual and social life. It was found the association
of well-being with mental health concept. About educational intervention proposals is important to point out the integral attention. The point of view of people with chronic sufferings should
be considering. Like the respect or support of cultural beliefs,
emotional control, general cares, satisfaction of material needs,
besides the medical care.
Words key: well-being, chronic illness, cultural conceptions
22
Hemophilia: promoting health in children
María José Baqueiro Victorín &Nancy Marine Evia Alamilla
Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán
Mexico
One of the main goals in childhood is to be independent. It is
an ability normally developed by children when they have good
conditions. But, when children have a chronic illness such as hemophilia, they have affliction and experience stress especially
when they have to be in hospitals and have diagnosis and therapeutic processes that can be aggressive and painful. The reason
for this affliction is because they have not developed good coping strategies and, as they grow up, they get more conscious of
their illness, and it makes them feel uncertainty. So, children need
psychological and social support and it is also important to be
well informed about the illness. This paper describes the Participatory Action Research (PAR) done under the Health Psychology
perspective with four to twelve years old children with hemophilia or who have any relative with that illness. The PAR first phase
detected the principal needs, including the need for knowledge
about the hemophilia, and the need to promote healthy behaviors.
23
Exploring situational factors impacting HIV risk
episodes among HIV+ MSM
Patrick A. Wilson, Stephanie Cook, Jermel McGaskey, Matt
Rowe
Columbia University
USA
Background: HIV+ men who have sex with men (MSM) represent
the largest group of people living with HIV/AIDS in the U.S. In
order for interventions to be effective it is important to identify
predictors of sexual risk-taking behaviors that are linked to poor
health outcomes among these men and their sex partners. HIV
risk behavior models that focus solely on personal factors such as
intentions and perceived risk have been shown to be inadequate
in explaining risk. In order to fully understand sexual risk taking,
it is important to examining the factors linked to high-risk sexual
situations, and not solely the factors linked to potentially highrisk persons. Methods: An ethnically diverse sample of 100 HIV
+ MSM completed an 8-week structured sex diary that collected
detailed information on recent sexual encounters, include partner and setting characteristics, affective state, and sexual and
substance use activities engaged in. Information on over 250
sexual encounters was collected and analyzed.
21
Prevención de enfermedades crónicas degenerativas en niños
Sergio López Ramos, Irma Herrera Obregón, Gerardo Chapparro Aguilera, Arcelia Solis Flores
FES Iztacala UNAM
Mexico
Se realizó un trabajo de intervención comunitaria en el kinder
pimpinela, con una población de 53 niños que fluctuaban entre
los 3 a 5 años de edad, en el nivel preescolar, para prevenir el
desarrollo de enfermedades degenerativas entendiendo que estas son el resultado de un proceso de construcción corporal del
que forman parte la historia, la familia, la cultura, la alimentación,
la geografía y las emociones. La concepción del niño como un
microcosmos con una estrecha relación con el macrocosmos, en
donde los cambios que afectan al planeta tienen una estrecha
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P s y c h o l o g y
ing healthy behaviours (Ostazewski, Zimmerman, 2006; White,
Degenhardt, Breen, Bruno, Newman, Proudfoot, 2006; Eiserman,
Diamond, Schensul, 2005; ter Bogt, Engels, 2005; Mair,2006; Meringolo, Chiodini, 2005; Sweeting, West, 2003). Particular attention is paid to explore experiences in prevention of risky behaviours that happen frequently during events, as drug dealing and
use, car accidents, aggressive behaviours and clashing relationship with local communities.
24
Possibilities for and effects of health-promoting
work organization in nursing
Nicole Stab & Winfried Hacker
TU-Dresden
Germany
The characteristics of work organization have an essential impact on the quality of work life. Unfortunately there are only a
few studies in the impact of hospital and ward organization on
strain and well-being of nurses. Therefore the main question is,
whether there are different kinds of work organization in hospital
nursing? The main sample consists of 44 wards and 220 graduated nurses. The results show that it is possible to develop kinds
of work organization on the ward level and the individual level
of the nurses. Emotional exhaustion and perceived task-specific
strain differ in favour of the most favourably organized wards.
The organizational characteristics are discussed mainly with respect to primary prevention.
27
Harnessing Readiness and Capacity for Universal Prevention
Paul Flaspohler, Julie A. Platten, Dana E. Crawford, Jennifer
Dunn, & D.C.M. Meehan
Miami University
USA
School and community systems face challenges in implementing,
adapting, and sustaining evidence-based prevention programs
with quality and fidelity. Given the well-documented problems
in introducing new ideas to schools and sustaining innovative
practices, it is critical that attention be given to understanding
barriers and facilitators of the implementation of evidence-based
practices (Flaspohler, Anderson-Butcher, Paternite, Weist, & Wandersman, 2006). Successful implementation and sustainability of
prevention programs in schools hinges on interdisciplinary collaboration as well as meaningful across-systems partnerships
with families and communities. The primary purpose of this presentation is to describe technical assistance efforts aimed at capacity building for prevention programs. The Health Foundation
of Greater Cincinnati’s Evidence-Based Practices for School-Wide
Prevention Programs initiative is a six-year project designed to
establish, evaluate, and sustain evidence-based prevention programs.
25
Primary preventive training for teachers at vocational schools
Constance Winkelmann
Dresden University of Tehcnology
Germany
A consistently high quality of teaching and learning can be assured only when teachers are psychologically healthy. The aim
of this study consisted in the development of a practice-oriented
primary preventive program for beginning teachers and teachers who are fully employed at vocational schools. For this reason,
training resources, which are to prepare the participants for the
particularities (special demands) of working with socially deprived pupils, were developed. Within this training program, contents and techniques are taught in the form of exercises and role
plays which both contribute to the avoidance of conflicts and the
dealing with difficult situations. Sixty-eight students participated
in testing the modular training program at the Dresden University of Technology. This concerned a quasiexperimental, repeated
measuring design with a training group and a control group.
28
Family Transitions: The Couple with(out) Adult
Sons
Teixeira, A. & Duarte, C.
FPCE - UP
Portugal
The departure of adult sons from parent’s home has been studied by numerous authors. The results that have been found are
conflicting (Kahana & Kahana,1982; Rollins & Cannon, 1974; Ryff,
Lee, Essex & Schmutt, 1994), but it remains a negative view about
this event, which its proveed by the frequently used methaphor
“empty nest”, symbol of absence and negativity. Based on family
development and family life cycle theories (McGoldrick & Carter,
1982, 2003; Relvas, 1996) and using a qualitative methodology
– interviews to portuguese couples, an attempt was made to
understand how this normtaive transition of the family life cycle
was experienced in the socio-economical and cultural context,
highlighting the existence of individual and relational dimensions that may function as protective and/or facilitating variables
in this particular transition’s experience.
26
Risky Behaviours and Substance Use in Youth
Leisure Time
Meringolo, P (Faculty of Psychology University of Florence)
Chiodini, M. (Fac. Psychology University of Florence) Moscardi,
E. (Dpt. Psychology University of Florence, PhD Student) Morandi, A. (Dpt. Psychology University of Florence, PhD Student)
University of Florence
Itália
Introduction: This research is related to a wider program promoted in Italy by European Union, whose participants are Public
Institutions, No Profit Enterprises and Faculty of Psychology of
University of Florence. The program is aimed to improve health
promotion in young people leisure time by means of community
based interventions. Theoretical approaches come from studies
about risky behaviour, legal and illegal substances use, outreach
work in leisure situations (i.e. great musical events) for promot-
28
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children, regardless of gender and background. The presentation
will describe the programme, summarize past evaluation results
and present data from a new study of the effects of the French
Version of Zippy’s Friends in Quebec, Canada. Previous evaluation studies in different countries and cultures have shown that
Zippy’s Friends has clear benefits for children and teachers in
terms of improved coping behaviours and social skills, as well as
decreased problem behaviours. The World Health Organisation
and the World Federation for Mental Health have both recognised its positive effects. More than 60,000 children are currently
enrolled in Zippy’s Friends in 13 diverse countries, including Canada, Norway, India, Hong Kong Brazil and Poland.
29
Evaluar en experiencias de prevención de violencia en las familias
Mareelén Díaz Tenorio
Centro de Investigaciones Psicológicas y Sociológicas (CIPS)
Cuba
El trabajo aborda el tema de la evaluación en experiencias dirigidas a la transformación social. Se analiza qué, cómo y por qué
evaluar en este tipo de experiencia grupal, a partir de proyectos
de investigación participativa basados en la Educación Popular,
realizados por la autora en el contexto de las familias. Especialmente se hace referencia a la elaboración, aplicación y evaluación de una metodología dirigida a la intervención y prevención
de la violencia intrafamiliar, “Convivir en familias sin violencia”,
desplegada en contextos comunitarios de medio-alto y bajo
nivel de desarrollo socioeconómico de la realidad cubana. Esta
propuesta metodológica pretende contribuir a la construcción
de relaciones intrafamiliares que propendan a la integración de
la familia como grupo y evitar formas violentas de relación entre
sus miembros, particularmente, entre los adultos y los niños/as.
Se ofrecen los resultados de la investigación y una propuesta de
evaluación a través de indicadores de efectividad e indicadores
de cambio elaborados y reelaborados en la práctica social.
32
Capacity Building: Lessons From Integrating a
Research and Practice Agenda
Joanne Sobeck and Elizabeth Agius
Wayne State University
USA
Organizational capacity building has grown in the last decade
due to the attention of funders in the U.S. and internationally
(Packard Foundation, 2006; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2006, United Nations Development Fund) and its
promise as a way to enhance the effectiveness and sustainability
of nonprofits (Blumenthal, 2003; De Vita et al., 2001; Light, 2004).
However the models of practice and research on capacity building have yet to converge in ways to guide community practitioners and help funders make better decisions about what to invest
in. Over the course of four research studies and consulting with
five capacity building projects, the authors have accumulated
and integrated research findings with practice experience, which
serves as the basis of this presentation. This presentation reviews
several questions relevant in building capacity with urban nonprofits, particularly grassroots organizations.
30
The role of Leadership in Child Protection Teams
Ana Margarida Graça e Ana Passos
ISCTE
Portugal
Recent research shows that team’s reflexivity upon their objectives, strategies and processes enhances team effectiveness.
However, the role that leaders play in this process needs to be
clarified. The present study aims to investigate the mediation
role of leadership in the relationship between team reflexivity
and perceived performance in child protection teams. In Child
and Youth Protection Commissions (CPCJ), their presidents’ legal
competencies are defined in law, but not their specific leadership
competencies. CPCJ have functional autonomy to apply promotion and protection actions for children and young in danger,
which demands a manifest complexity and they can also have a
strong impact in child’s life projects. Participants consisted of 593
elements of 109 CPCJ teams, from the total of the 282 CPCJ existents in Continental Portugal and Islands. Members answered a
survey designed for this purpose. Individual survey answers were
aggregated to the team level for analyses.
33
‘Whose needs are being served?’: Dilemmas in
Child Protection
M. Leonor Rodrigues & M. Calheiros
ISCTE
Portugal
The Best Interests of the Child is the legal orientation that guides
the professional’s action within the field of child protection. Nonetheless, empirical studies have been showing that the meaning
of this expression, although taken as an universally understood
term (Fernandez, 1996), is actually undetermined for each child
(Holland,2001). Also, Britner and Mossler (2002) referred that less
than 16% of substantiated child abuse victims were removed
from their homes. Thus, literature has been suggesting that child
interests my not be the only ones relevant in child protection decisions (Mulvey & Britner, 1996). Like Besharov (1995) stated, professionals involved in cases of child protection are dealing with
dilemmas created by conflicting values and interests of multiple
parties: parents, child, professional and society (Davidson-Arad
et al, 2003). In this sense, the main goal of this study was to map
dilemmas and representations underlying reasoning in child protection.
31
Mental Health Promotion Programme Effects
with Young Children: Zippy’s Friends
Julie Denoncourt (University of Quebec at Montreal), Sarah
Dufour, Ph.D (Université de Montréal), Brian L. Mishara, Ph.D
(Université du Québec à Montréal)
Canada
Zippy’s Friends is a universal school-based program that helps
first-grade children to develop coping and social skills. It runs for
24 weekly sessions, is taught by specially trained class teachers
and promotes the mental health and emotional wellbeing of all
29
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mestic violence (e.g. assessing incidence) have focused on urban
locations rather than the patterning of domestic violence across
the rural landscape. This paper presents some empirical research
from a rural area in the UK and demonstrates that geographical
context, rural isolation and various aspects of marginalisation.
34
And who holds me now?
Ana Rita Vieira Neves Fontoura & Ana Margarida Passos
ISCTE
Portugal
Institutional care is one of the measures used by child protection
services. The application of this measure leads to a more or less
severe family separation with serious implications on child attachments, basis to the identification and lasting relationships.
However, there is a growing number of children that had several
life experiences marked by intrusion and painful absences; children who had experienced separations, losts, absences, neglects,
intermitence in family care, physical or sexual abuses. These are
the children who come to institutions, which makes the question
of care more delicate; given the characteristics of this group. This
question is in a broad field, articulated with work conditions and
family policies, public policy and with the diversity of actors, but
can also enhance the reference model and its application. Child
protection is a complex domain, not only for its conception, but
also by its practise.
37
Visioning Community Development
Dália Costa
ISCSP-UTL
Portugal
Building participative involvement in communities involves collaboration. But, what do we mean by collaboration? Which stakeholders are involved? Does collaboration enhances community
development through agencies or promotes citizen participation? The answers to these questions can be found by analysing
cases of networking intervention towards female victims of domestic violence in Portugal (in reply to the the call for a coordinated national strategy in each Council of Europe State-member
since 2002. There is a shift in focus to developing community
intervention strategies through inter-agency cooperation beginning on a local level, but knowledge and skills developed in such
local cooperation networks are not well knowned. In this area
what we see is that advocacy agencies were pioneers leading to
systems change although nowadays they are part of new forms
of service articulation characterised by institutional diversity.
35
Cultural Psychology and Communicity Development
Esma Figen Karaday
Maltepe University Science Letters Faculty Psychology
Turkey
Until recent years, when Cross-Cultural research revealed its
importance, culture has been considered secondary in analysis
of psychological processes. Marginality of culture goes back to
Wundt, to his division of Psychology into Experimental and Folk
Psychology. Psychology has proceeded its way on the experimental way and has negleged Folk Psychology. Russian SocioHistorical Psychologists, Vygotsky, Luria, Leon’tev, attempted to
combine the two Psychologies by bringing Cultural-Historical
approach to Psychology, in 1920’ies. Central thesis of this school
is that, the structure and development of human psychological
processes emerge in the process of humanity’s culturally mediated, historically developing, practical activity.
38
Hedonism or heart: Motivation in mutual help
groups
Coordinated by Brian Bishop
Curtin University
Australia
We present three studies in which the motivations of mutual help
members are examined. Three diverse settings are reported on
and the principles of self-help will be examined within each setting and across settings. The audience will be encouraged to extend the debate.
Will Generation Y kill the consumer movement? Young
people, hedonism and the self-help ethos
Ann Dadich
As community-based support and advocacy systems, Self-Help
Support Groups (SHSG) epitomise the consumer movement
(Chamberlin, 1978, 1996; Deegan, 1992). The SHSG model enables
individuals who are disenfranchised and experience difficulties
to transform their identity and experience improved wellbeing
(Bolzan, Smith, Mears, & Ansiewicz, 2001). This is partly attributed
to the helper-therapy principle, whereby peers are helped by giving help (Riessman, 1982). The helper-therapy principle has been
demonstrated in SHSGs that meet around mental illness and/or
substance use issues (Kercheval, 2005; Magura et al., 2003). Some
authors regard helper-therapy as critical in SHSGs, as it contributes to a drive towards recovery from mental health issues (Finn,
Bishop, & Sparrow, 2007). Given the prevalence of mental health
issues among young people (Kessler et al., 2007), opportunities
for recovery are perhaps most important in this age group.
36
Marginalisation and Rurality: Implications for
policy, practice and social change
Caroline Rouncefield
University of Cumbria
England
This paper adopts a ‘community psychology’ approach to the
study of domestic violence in an isolated rural community. It
suggests that such a perspective – of ‘the individual in context’
- provides important insights both into the character of the problem and into possibilities for social change. At the same time the
research provides an important opportunity for reflection on the
character and prospects for Community Psychology itself, particularly with regard to its impact on policy and practice for work
in marginalised communities. Relatively little is known about
the extent of domestic violence in rural areas and the particular
problems facing both workers and individuals. Most work on do-
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Awakening the heart: Motivation for mental health recovery in mutual-help groups for adults
Lisabeth Finn
‘Heart’ is a term singularly missing in mainstream psychology literature. Yet awakening of the heart is a concept widely endorsed
in Buddhist approaches to psychotherapy where the healing relationship is viewed as an intimate encounter awakening the heart
of both client (helpee) and therapist (helper) (Welwood, 2000;
1983). This paper examines the role of awakening the heart in
mental health recovery for adult members of mutual help groups
(MHGs). The ‘heart’ is seen as an overarching motivator for recovery in Finn’s (2005) study of mutual help groups run by GROW, the
Australia-wide community mental health organization. Awakening of the heart in GROW group members is described as a gradual process stemming from the mutual helping ethos whereby
MHG members as peers can be both helper and helpee. Finn’s
(2005) study investigated the impact of GROW MHGs on psychological wellbeing. The study employed triangulation of qualitative research methods including ethnographic, phenomenological and collaborative work.
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Proximal processes of human development and community action
Eduardo Almeida Acosta
This is the personal account of the challenges and perspectives of
the author as a contemporary community social psychologist. His
lifelong endeavor has been to contribute in the creation of a solidary humanity in a healthy world, of a sensible knowledge for a
decent life. Inspired by Bronfenbrenner’s work he has focused his
approach on the proximal processes of human development applied in community activities for the last 30 years. Reinforcement
processes have been implemented in actions loking for justice,
humility, respect for diversity, patience. Modeling processes have
been instrumental in joint learning and recreation. Attribution
processes have been present in developing trustworthiness and
self-esteem. Attachement processes have been the focus and the
root of reinventing intersubjectivity networks, communal spaces
of compassion and care. The main purpose has been the activation of the human biological potential by enacting the proximal
psychological processes.
Educational intervention for social work in poor communities
Mara Fuentes Avila
This presentation is part of a research program on educational
intervention developed and applied in Cuba. The program is addressed to provide groups, institutions and communities with a
system of knowledge and skills to produce change and to improve its functioning as social units. The presentation shows the
results of asocial intervention addressed to develop social skills
related to the performance of social and professional roles in
community settings. The intervention was carried out with the
group of people integrated to provide counseling and assistance
to the students of the University of Veracruz working in poor
communities in Veracruz, Mexico. The aim of the intervention,
which was organized as a secondary one, was to induce non-existing but necessary processes associated with the performance
of the role of social worker. The learning process was based on
the use of workshops and training groups. The research, a qualitative study, was conducted according to the participatory action
research model.
The power of disempowerment: The decline of rural mutual help
Peta Dzidic & Brian Bishop
The concept of mutual help groups are normally associated with
physical and mental health issues. Volunteerism and cooperative
groups are seen as characteristics of rural life, but there maybe
less substance to the myth. Lawrence (2005) has presented the
argument that voluntary rural community groups possess characteristics of mutual help groups. Two important aspects relate
to motivation of mutual helpers, altruism or self-interest. The reciprocal nature of these motivations are seen in the key notions
of helping oneself through helping others, and that the help that
a person may provide may well be to the next generation rather
than the current one. Historically group involvement has been
the life blood of rural communities. Paradoxically, the importance
of rural participatory groups has become more important as the
rural population and service provision have declined over time. In
Australia, there has been increased recognition of the economic
value of using volunteers.
Public citizenship initiative and community centered rehabilitation
Mario Carranza Aguilar
The Psychology Department of Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa collaborates since 2003 with PROJIMO (Programa de Rehabilitación Organizado por Jóvenes Incapacitados). The purpose
has been to reiforce this community rehabilitation experience by
developing strategies of psychological care, program evaluation
and internal conflicts management. The PROJIO model has become a national and international reference on rehabilitation services and integration of persons with differential capacities into
productive activities and social life. PROJIMO has been achieving
remarkable results for and with its memebers: Satisfaction of
physical and psychological needs; rehabilitation of neuromotor
troubles with family participation; actions oriented towards accident prevention; and society interest inpersons rehabilitation;
organizational structure reinforcements by mrdiational stratyegies of internal conflicts resolution.
39
Collaborative intervention community practices
Coordinated by Eduardo Almeida Acosta
Universidad Iberoamericana Puebla
Mexico
This symposium offers three different models of collaborative
intervention community practices. Are theoretical models useful
for interventions in settings unrelated to the ones in which they
were originated? Are intervention models created ina country
able to be implemented in settings from a different one? Are university programs helpful in reinforcing the actions of a succesful
NGO? Almeida’s paper summarizes his lifelong Bronfenbrenner
approach to community intervention. Fuentes’contribution describe an education intervention developed in Cuba and applied
to foster social skills in Veravcruz students. Carranza’s paper offer
the contribution of Sinaloa’s university psychologists to an internationally renowned rehabilitation program.
31
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o n
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from Community Councils highlight some of the factors associated with the characteristics of the community councils.
40
Family Violence in Portugal and the United
States: Exploring Collaborative Approaches to
Change
Community Coalition on Domestic Violence: The experience of Montijo – Portugal
Cardoso, R. & Ornelas, J.
ISPA
Over the past years community coalitions on domestic violence
have been created in order to provide a comprehensive approach,
a better collaboration between agencies and safer communities
to women survivors of violence. Prior research has shown us that
a community coalition is often used as a mechanism to improve
community resources in complex social issues that need broad
interventions such as the issue of domestic violence against
women. We analysed a community coalition on domestic violence in the region of Montijo. Our aim was to study the perceptions of success and efficiency of this coalition. We paid a special
attention to the coalition climate, namely, to decision making
process, to the mission and to leadership, as well as, to the perception of the coalition’s members on achieving their goals. The
study findings suggest that this community coalition is perceived
as efficient in achieving their goals, namely in those goals outside
the judicial system.
Coordinated by Nicole Allen
University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
USA
Family violence is a complex social issue that affects nations
around the globe. Rates of violence against women and children
are high: between 15% to 71% of women and girls around the
world have experienced violence (World Health Organization).
Collaborative approaches to addressing family violence, such
as through the development and implementation of councils,
task forces, and coalitions, are becoming increasingly common.
This symposium highlights preliminary work on collaborative
approaches to change in the response to family violence in the
United States and Portugal, and will invite discussion and reflection from people engaged in efforts to address family violence
around the world.
Examining Processes and Outcomes in the Family violence Coordinating Council Network in Illinois, US
Allen, N.E. & Javdani, S.
University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
Communities across the United States are focused on creating a
Coordinated Community Response (CCR) to family violence. Coordinating Councils, which include multiple stakeholders across
various agencies (e.g., law enforcement, prosecution, courts, domestic violence advocacy services) and community groups (e.g.,
faith-based settings, local businesses) are the most common vehicle for achieving a CCR. Though popular and theoretically appealing, there is emerging, but limited empirical support regarding
the extent to which Councils are successful in achieving desired
systems change (Allen, Watt, & Hess, in press). The current paper
employs a multi-method multi-site approach, examining council characteristics (e.g., council climate), intermediary processes
(e.g., shifts in council members’ knowledge) and outcomes (e.g.,
changes in organizational policy and practice) related to effectiveness across 21 Family Violence Coordinating Councils (FVCC)
in one Midwestern State in the US.
41
Training for Community Practice
Chair: Kelly Hazel
Metropolitan State University
USA
Authors: Kelly Hazel (Metropolitan State University), Greg
Meissen and Todd Shagott (student) (Wichita State University, José Ornelas (Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada),
Dolores Miranda (University of Puerto Rico), Darrin Hodgetts,
Dave Snell (student) and Amanda Young-Hauser (student)
(University of Waikato), Donata Francescato (Roma University), Heather Gridley, Adrian Fisher, Chris Sonn, Lyn O’Grady
(student) (Victoria University), Grace Pretty (Chair of the APS
College of Community Psychologists). Discussants: Maurice
Elias (SCRA President) and Tom Wolff (practitioner extraordinaire)
Part 1
This session is the first of two sessions focused on graduate education in community psychology and more specifically how to
train students for community practice in the 21st century. This
first session is focused on ways in which educational programs
transfer the knowledge and skills required for the practice of
Community Psychology to their students. Brief presentations
from faculty and students representing 6 graduate programs will
focus on 1) effective methods and strategies used to train their
students for practice (such as mentorship, apprenticeships, community integration, workshops, retreats, etc.); and 2) challenges
programs face in training students for practice. Discussion will focus on the implications of a shift in emphasis toward practice in
graduate education and issues that require attention by national
and international community psychology organizations. A feedback and brainstorming session (Part 2) will immediately follow.
Community Councils for the Protection of Children and
Youth: A Portuguese Preliminary Report
Vargas-Moniz, M.J, Guerreiro, T. & Henriques, M.
ISPA
Created by Law nº 98 (1999) each county in Portugal has been
mandated to develop a Community Council for the protection
of children & youth from abuse and neglect. These community
councils are focused on the community- based prevention of
child & youth abuse and neglect and have the mission of creating a Coordinated Community Response to concrete abuse and
neglect situations. These Councils include multiple organizations
and agencies (e.g., law enforcement, social welfare services, and
county social work departments) and other community groups
(e.g. non-governmental organizations) that are the most common agents with the responsibility to promote these services
and supports. The study in progress is inspired on the work developed by Allen (2005) that probes for characteristics of the
community councils, processes and outcomes. Data collected 10
Part 2
This roundtable is the second of two sessions focused on gradu-
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ate education in community psychology and more specifically
how to train students for community practice in the 21st century.
This session will provide an opportunity for people who are interested in developing a graduate training program focused on
community psychology practice, or in transitioning an already
established program to a stronger focus on practice to converse
with people who have experience in training graduate students
for practice. Together, participants will brainstorm innovative educational approaches for community psychology practice, problem solve around the challenges educational institutions and
programs face in adopting a practice focus for graduate education, and identify best practices for training community psychology practitioners for the 21st century.
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Construyendo desarrollo comunitario desde los servicios públicos de la Zona Norte de Barcelona
Carmona Monferrer, Moises; Di Masso Tarditti, Andres; Serrano Blasco Javier
Se trata de describir y reflexionar sobre el proceso de incorporación de los servicios públicos de la Zona Norte del Distrito de
Nou Barris (Barcelona/España) en dos procesos comunitarios integrales en los barrios de Trinitat Nova y Torre Baró. Sobre la creación
y consolidación de un espacio de la organización y participación
en el proceso comunitario, los problemas y oportunidades, y, los
momentos o fases por las que han pasado en su incorporación há
estos procesos. Se aportan los aprendizajes entorno a las principales dificultades y oportunidades de este nuevo espacio de funcionamiento ordinario de los servicios públicos de un territorio,
así como los principales retos para mejorar su funcionamiento.
Para ello se evalúa un periodo de tres años de implementación
del proceso comunitario, en ambas experiencias, a partir de la
evaluación externa y de la evolución de los propios participantes
de los diferentes servicios públicos.
42
Taller HADECNEC: Destrezas ciudadanas en espacios conversacionales distintos
Mota Botello, Graciela Aurora
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Mexico
La transición a las democracias modernas ha traído consigo la
desestructuración de la comunidad, a cambio de las grandes
urbanas comunicadas electrónicamente. ¿Cómo repensar la comunidad moderna? ¿Desde qué espacio puede manifestarse el
sentido colectivo de lo común? ¿Es factible un nuevo contrato
social?. Cultura, civilidad y política continúan representando el
anhelo donde la libertad florece en el ciudadano. Aquel que es
forjador de un mundo asentado en el reconocimiento de la diversidad, como condición para sedimentar un futuro compartido
como destino. El lugar de la civilización es el dialogo que le otorga sentido a la diversidad y al debate por la vía de la superación
de los conflictos a través de la palabra negociada, y también del
reconocimiento del diferente que hace del escenario de lo público, la premisa que trasciende el carácter de los microcosmos privados.
La práctica comunitaria en la implementación de política
pública: apropiación social de TIC* (Chile)
Silva Frías, Claudia
En el contexto de su misión, el Ministerio de Salud de Chile (MINSAL) ha asumido uno de los más importantes desafíos en materia
de incorporación de Tecnologías Digitales al Sector, la implementación de la estrategia “Sistema de Información para las Redes
Asistenciales” (Sistema). Propuesta que aborda la necesidad de
contar con sistemas de información interoperables, que provean
de herramientas de apoyo a la gestión de las Redes Asistenciales
de Salud[1] en sus distintos niveles. Para ello el MINSAL ha definido como uno de los pilares fundamentales de la implementación
de esta estrategia un Modelo de Apropiación Social y Gestión del
Cambio para el uso de las tecnologías basado en los princípios del
Modelo de intervención comunitaria. El objetivo es establecer las
condiciones para la óptima implementación del Sistema en los
Servicios de Salud de Chile. Velando por que sus componentes
sean, efectivamente, recursos tecnológicos pertinentes, contextualizados y con sentido para los equipos de salud y usuários.
43
Aportando desde el enfoque comunitário a la
política social y a los servicios públicos: experiencias y perspectivas”
Programa de Fortalecimiento de capacidades de atención a la infancia y juventud(Region de Araucanía)
Zambrano Constanzo, Alba; Pérez-Luco Arenas, Ricardo
Se expone acerca de una estrategia universitaria de colaboración
entre dos unidades académicas - Departamento de psicología
de la Universidad Frontera, Chile y Departamento de Psicoeducación y de Psicología de la Universidad de Québec en Outaouais, Canadá- orientada a incidir en la calidad de la atención de
la infancia y juventud en dificultades psicosociales. Se trata de
un programa multinivel de 5 años de duración que ha implicado
formación, investigación, trabajo en redes y asesoría a organismos de dependencia pública y privada. En este trabajo se reporta
específicamente el trabajo efectuado para incidir en la política
pública hacia este sector de la población desde el Servicio Nacional de Menores. Se reportan los principales descubrimientos, aprendizajes y desafíos, analizando las potencialidades del
enfoque comunitario en este ámbito, en un contexto de fuerte
centralismo como lo es el chileno.
Coordinated by Carmona Monferrer Moises
Universidad de Barcelona
Spain
En este simposium se presentan diferentes conclusiones y/o
aprendizajes extraídos sobre experiencias aplicadas de participación de servicios públicos o privados (que ofrecen servicios
públicos) en procesos comunitarios de diferentes países (España,
Chile y Canadá) y sobre diferentes temáticas, desde proyectos
comunitarios integrales hasta proyectos vinculados al ámbito de
l salud o con el grupo de jóvenes. El objetivo es compartir las reflexiones entorno a las oportunidades, dificultades y retos en los
que se enfrentan los servicios públicos para participar en procesos comunitarios.
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Social Indicators and Community Program Intervention Design
o n
C o m m u n i t y
P s y c h o l o g y
“Desenvolver a Sorrir” (Developing with a smile): A Parental Competency Program to Promote Positive
Zuzarte, M
Research demonstrates that positive early interaction between
infants and primary caregivers results in the child’s communication and symbolization capacity (Werner & Kaplan, in Slade,
1987). Children deprived of interactive contact reflect developmental delays and have been reported to be withdrawn, with no
interaction initiation (McVicker Hunt, 1991). This paper reports
the design, implementation and evaluation of a parental competency program which aims to develop positive interactions between primary caregiver and child, in teaching and recreational
play situations. This program was developed to respond to high
risk families with children up to age 3, referred in first and second level child protection services. The parental competency
program consists of individual organized sessions, carried out
mainly in the home environment, where interaction guidelines
and modelling are provided for the primary caregiver.
Coordinated by Manuela Calheiros
ISCTE
Portugal
This symposium integrates a set of presentations which bring together the issue of consistent/effective assessment and design of
intervention programs, applied to the developmental context of
at-risk children. The first presentation stresses the contribute of
social indicators both for the evaluation of the current social policies and intervention programs undertaken and for the definition
of guidelines for the design of new interventions. The second
presentation constitutes a theoretical ground/methodological
framework for program design and evaluation. Finally, presentation 3 reports the design, implementation and evaluation of a
parental competency program which focuses on positive interactions between the caregiver and the child.
Social Indicators as a Needs Assessment Method for Intervention Programs Design
Rodrigues, L.
The adequate knowledge of the way a social phenomenon (as
child abuse) occurs in a specific geographic and temporal context is essential in order to control its proliferation. Social indicators have been considered as a set of measures that allow for a
more objective study of a given context, in that they reflect, and
are a result of, social processes occurring in the context, which
in turns reflects the community values and attitudes (Kleinbaum
et al, 1982). Within an epidemiologic approach incidence and
prevalence are two indicators that contribute to the acquaintance of the phenomenon representation in a given community
and in a specific period of time, in terms of its quantification and
characterization (Zautra & Bachrach, 2000). More specifically, in
what concerns to the phenomenon quantification, analysing its
incidence and prevalence numbers over the years gives information about, respectively, the evolution and extension of the social
phenomenon.
45
Migration and children
Josh Diem & Etiony Aldarondo
University of Miami
USA
There are untold numbers of children from all over the world
entering the United States unaccompanied and without legal
documentation. Typically these children come to the United
States for reasons beyond their control. Some come to escape
poverty, persecution, abandonment and neglect at home. Others come seeking reunification with parents and loved ones who
had previously immigrated to the United States. Some children
come looking for sanctuary from violence or natural disasters. A
considerable number of these children are trafficked for sexual
exploitation and servitude. Once in the U.S. these youth often fall
victim to complex immigration laws and procedures and a system of care uncertain about how to deal with them and often
with limited knowledge and resources to effectively respond to
their psychological needs and promote their healthy development. Without intervention, the physical and mental well being
of these children is threatened.
Program Design and evaluation in a Community Setting
Calheiros, M.
The effects of risk family contexts of children have been largely
debated and reviewed (Bullock, Little, & Milham, 1993). Nevertheless, the fact that, at a national level, political decision-making
has delegated to second plan the necessary political decisions in
social intervention domain has led to the break of services and
to the lack of effective answers to the problem (Calheiros, 1996)
and to the absence of cost-benefit analysis of the implemented
programs. Further, in the majority of the cases, due to long-term
permanence within risk contexts, children suffer from several
developmental disorders. Thus, the purpose of this work is to
present an evaluation methodology for social intervention community programs, framed by a broader policy-scientific approach
(McLaughlin & Jordan, 2004). A logical model tool was used for
the assessment of the programs with different elements of analysis: program delivery (resources, activities, outputs), customers,
and results from the program.
46
The garbage in contemporaneous society: actors, environmental policies and associative
practices
Chair: Marília Machado
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Brazil
Authors: Marília Novais da Mata Machado (Psicologia Social
-Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais e Administração
- Faculdade Novos Horizontes); Valéria Heloisa Kemp (Psicologia - Universidade Federal de São João del Rei); Helena
Maria Tarchi Crivellari (Ciências da Informação - Universidade
Federal de Minas Gerais); Izabel Friche Passos (Psicologia
Social - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais)
The participants of this roundtable will deal with the precarious
conditions of life and the lack of social affiliation in which an in-
34
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creasing number of people live, due the successive economical
and political crises of the last decades. They inhabit streets and
garbage deposits in large cities, withdrawing their nourishment
from there. By recycling, they work in the urban cleanness, but
are invisible to the public power and to the population. Although
they decisively contribute to the environmental preservation,
generally do not receive the necessary support to realize their
activities. Most of them are subjected to physical and socially
inhuman exploitations in their every day work, getting from the
deposit owners derisive sums as payment for the extracted material. Besides that, their labour activity is frequently seen as a negative one: the collectors of recycling goods are considered by the
population and even by the public administration as dirtying the
city by revolving the garbage.
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Build a dialog between social workers and the
population they work with: which obstacles?
Audrey Gonin
Université Lyon2
France
In an action-research framework, we aim to develop the dialog
between social workers and the population living in a suburban
part of the Lyon’s city, which is both distinguished by its poverty
and the multiculturalism of its inhabitants. This kind of context
leads to specific questions, because the danger to confuse intercultural and socioeconomic aspects is considerable: the difficulties of inhabitants’ behaviour are often connected to the fact
that they, or their parents, have immigrated in France, rather than
connected to their social and economic condition. This confusion
exist in the social workers’ group, and it needs to be more clarified
by a dialog between them and the population, on this question
of locating the specific difficulties bound to intercultural situation and those bound to their living condition. In this perspective, the aim is to identify and co-construct how the inhabitants’
difficulties can be explained, and then, to promote a negotiation
about what could contribute to solve these difficulties, for those
bound to intercultural context (what can develop mutual understanding), and those bound to socioeconomic context (what
can help an improvement of their living conditions). This actionresearch started in 2005, firstly in a work with the social workers
that pointed out these questions, and we try, little by little, to create the conditions of a dialog between them and their clients:
we would like to report the first steps of this action-research, and
how we co-constructed an original method to promote this dialog.
47
Educational needs assessment of nurses work in
hospitals about life skills
Nasrin Salmani Barough
Faculty of Nursing &Midwifery,Tehran U.
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Background: One of the matters with increasing attention in today’s world is mental health. Life skills are part of mental health
science that knowing them is necessary to have a successful and
effective life. Life skills are abilities that able people to have a
healthy behavior and motivation. Teaching life skills able people
to actualize their potential knowledge, values and attitudes.
Which suggests the idea of educational needs assessment about
life skills. Objectives: Determination of educational needs of nurses about: Decision making -Problem solving – Creative thinking
-Emotions management -Critical thinking - Stress management
– Making effective communication ability. Material & Method:
This research is a descriptive analytical study .Data gathering tool
was a quantitative questionnaire, that consists of two parts ,the
first part includes 16 questions about demographic characteristics .the second part includes 30 Questions about life skills , the
sample size was 219 of employed
50
Determinants of members’ psychological wellbeing in child protection teams
Silvia Teixeira and Ana Margarida Passos
ISCTE
Portugal
Although multidisciplinary teams are an important unit in community intervention, research largely ignore the impact that this
specific work context has on team members’. This study aims
to test a model of the determinants of members’ psychological
well-being in child protection teams. The present model argues
that team composition trigger intragroup conflict that in turn reduces positive emotions within the team. A sample of 112 child
protection teams (593 technicians), from the two hundred and
seventy nine CPCJ that work in Portugal (continental and insular), participated in this study. The results of multiple regression
analysis revealed that team composition (team tenure and team
tenure diversity) and intragroup conflict account for a substantial
amount of the variance for members’ psychological well being.
Team tenure and team tenure diversity decreases team positive
emotions. Relationship conflict has also a significant negative impact on members’ psychological well-being.
48
Competencias profesionales en estudiantes de
psicologia
Susana Ruiz Pimentel; Maria Jose Garcia, Sara Ruiz Vallejo
Facultad de Psicologia Xalapa, Universidad Veracruzana
Mexico
Ante los cambios vertiginosos de nuestra era, sin duda las áreas
de conocimiento han tenido un mayor impacto y la carrera de
Psicología en México, aparece con un acelerado crecimiento
en cuanto a numero de facultades como de egresados, que se
enfrentan a las demandas mas complejas del contexto al incorporase en el ámbito laboral, y es en donde competencias como
el trabajo en equipo, la planeación, la organización, innovación,
flexibilidad, toma de decisiones, entre otras requieren de mayor
atención en su formación profesional.
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cies. These include: (1) The commitment of all governments since
1984 to neo-liberal, more-market, economic policies; (2) The disparity between highly liberal (emancipatory) social policies and
neo-liberal economic policies pursued by governments since the
mid 1980s; (3) The decline of social welfarism and the search by
successive governments for alternatives that are not funded from
taxation or wage increases (e.g. enhancing social capital, enhancing social cohesion of communities and families, ameliorating aspects of the working poor) despite very significant recent budget
surpluses; (4) The delegation of new powers to local government,
without any concomitant increase in their tax-base.
51
Dialogues on diversity, multicultural competencies and training
Carla Moleiro
ISCTE / CIS
Portugal
In a diverse world, practitioners prepare to work with patients
similar to and different from themselves. The present paper presents two studies on multicultural competencies with implications for training of professionals in community psychology. In
the counselling literature, multicultural competence (Sue, Arredondo & McDavis, 1992) has been defined three-dimensionally,
as the (1) awareness, (2) knowledge, and (3) skills necessary to
work effectively and ethically across cultural differences and diverse individuals (Arredondo et al, 1996). Particularly, (1) multicultural awareness has been defined as the way clinician’s attitudes,
beliefs, values, assumptions, and self-awareness affect how they
interact with those who are culturally different from themselves.
(2) Multicultural knowledge has related to the informed understanding of cultures that are different from one’s culture, their
histories, traditions, values and practices, including sociopolitical
influences, issues of immigration, powerlessness.
54
Autogestión comuntaria el caso del CDEC Chalma
Carolina Roseta Sánchez, Campos Huichán Ma. de los Ángeles
y Herrera Salas Fernando
FES Iztacala
Mexico
Presentamos la experiencia de autogestión de un grupo de madres que tienen hijos con necesidades educativas especiales
(nee) con y sin lesión orgánica, que viven en una comunidad
suburbana. El trabajo se realiza a través del programa “Asesoría
Psicológica en el Ámbito Comunitario” que tiene como objetivos:
a) Llevar a la propia Comunidad la atención de necesidades educativas especiales que se demanda, b) Aprovechar al máximo los
recursos materiales y humanos para estimular el desarrollo de los
niños, y c) Estimular las actividades de autogestión de las madres
para atender a las necesidades de sus hijos. Abordaremos los
siguientes aspectos: I) Contexto en el que se realiza el trabajo;
II) Etapas del trabajo, características y logros; III) Liderazgo y empoderamiento del grupo de mujeres; y IV) Reflexiones de cómo
este trabajo posibilito la inclusión educativa, emocional y social a
la comunidad en la que viven.
52
El Psicólogo Comunitario como coordinador de
un Grupo Operativo Gestor Multidisciplinario
Idalia Illescas Nájera (Autor) & Maria del Carmen Acosta Cervantes (Coautor)
Universidad Veracruzana
Mexico
La Psicología Comunitaria posee recursos teóricos, métodos de
investigación y técnicas de indagación dirigidas a constatar las
particularidades que asumen los seres humanos en sus diferentes
niveles de inserción social. Estos son los recursos que sirven como
base y referente permanente tanto para el diseño de programas
de investigación, intervención o abordaje, como le llaman algunos investigadores para la interpretación del hallazgo científico o
simplemente para la reflexión sobre el comportamiento individual y colectivo en la vida cotidiana con el objetivo de contribuir a
la mejora del funcionamiento de la sociedad y hacer más plena y
enriquecedora la inserción social de cada individuo. El psicólogo/
as comunitarios en el trabajo de las comunidades, sus culturas
y su desarrollo, ocupa un espacio muy importante y esta construido a nivel epistemológico sobre el alcance de la psicología
comunitária.
55
Shared learning and promotion of wellbeing:
Limpopo, South Africa
Wenche Dageid
University of Oslo
Norway
Background: The promotion of wellbeing at personal, organizational and community levels is a central goal in community
psychology. Organizations are often said to be the bridge connecting individuals and the community at large around matters of interest or concern. In this paper, I describe a partnership
between a university based research team and a rural community based organization concerning HIV/AIDS related care and
support. The process of shared learning and the steps taken to
promote well-being are discussed. Methods: The research took
place in the Limpopo province of South Africa during 2002-2005.
Participatory action research provided the framework. Imaginative, flexible methods such as photos, visual mappings, informal
conversations and immersion in local activities were used alongside the more traditional questionnaire, survey, observation and
interview techniques. A total of 15 health care workers and 250
HIV positive individuals were involved in the study.
53
Contextualizing community organizing: Assessing the ‘partnering state’in New Zealand
B. Curtis
The University of Auckland
New Zealand
This paper explores efforts by the Labour Government (1999
- to date) to become a ‘partnering state’. That is to enhance social cohesion through partnerships with communities and local government. Understanding and contextualizing this broad
programme requires an appreciation of crossing-cutting tenden36
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Racism, Coloniality and Representation: Examining Dynamics of Oppression and Liberation in
Community
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C o m m u n i t i e s
Claiming voice: Second Generation Muslim Women’s Stories of Resistance and Liberation
Lutfiye Ali
Although Muslims living in Australia is not a new phenomenon
their visibility has increased following the global events of September 11, Bali and the London bombings (Yasmeen, 2007). Muslims have been stigmatized with negative social representations
and as the unassimilable other, whilst the diversity of Muslim
identities has been ignored. The Muslim woman has been constructed as subservient and dressed differently where the Hijab
serves as a symbol of true Muslim womanhood representing all
Muslim females (Yasmeen, 2007; Zine, 2006). Despite the overall universal identity of Muslim there is a diverse level of Islamic
expressions and movements within groups (Khan, 2002; Küçükcan, 2004). Drawing on the psychological concept of the ‘dialogical self’ and discursive approaches Muslim identities are viewed
as subjective, relational, plural and flexible in nature shaped by
symbolic power unsettling the perceptions of Muslim females as
hegemonic and static.
Coordinated by Mariolga Reyes Cruz
Institute for Interdisciplinary Research
Universidad de Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
In this symposium we will examine the complex and situationally specific understandings of the ways liberation is fostered as
well as how oppression is maintained taking theorizing on the
coloniality of power, critical race theory, and anti-colonial writing as points of departure. Reyes Cruz reflects on the insidiousness of the coloniality of power and knowledge in efforts to reclaim public schools as a public good. Sonn examines the way
in which immigrants to Australia negotiate social identities and
belonging within the broader context of race relations. Ali draws
on discourse and the dialogical self as a theoretical framework to
explore the diversity of Australian Muslim women identity.
Standing against the coloniality of power: Claiming the
right to democratic participation in school
Mariolga Reyes Cruz
Public schools are spaces where multiple local and global social
struggles are played out. Racism and xenophobia, for instance,
are not simply manifestations of local hierarchies of oppression;
these are key elements of the coloniality of power, the living legacy of colonialism around the globe. This legacy is reproduced
and contested in the struggle for meaningful public education
for marginalized groups. The globalization of neoliberal education policies geared towards the decentralization of public school
systems has resulted in increased transfer of responsibility for the
administration and academic outcomes to marginalized school
communities while control over the content of education, the
power structure and funding remains out of their hands (Fine,
1993; Spring, 1993). It is in this context where thousands of disenfranchised communities strive to transform their public schools
reclaiming public education as a social right and a public good, a
place for alternative political and democratic socialization.
57
Community organizing in confronting disasters
in Mexico
Coordinated by María Eugenia Sánchez y Díaz de Rivera
Universidad Iberoamericana Puebla
Mexico
The purpose is to discuss approaches in facing disasters. Can disasters be prevented? What kind of support is needed? Sánchez
and coworkers present strategies developed along 18 years in an
indigenous region. Each disaster was different and unexpected:
A snowstorm in a tropical environment, fllods generated by prolonged rains, an hurricane that reached a mountainous region.
Cu’etara and Ramírez describe the strategies to prepare a college
brigade in giving social support in Chiapas communities affected
by the Stan Hurricane. The Carranza and Cárdenas experience in
Sinaloa refer to a permanent community intervention developed
by students in helping migrants living in floaded homes.
Disasters and social participation in a Mexican Nahuat
Community
María Eugenia Sánchez, Eduardo Almeida, Antonio Vázquez,
Luis Félix, Francisco Sánchez, Beatriz Acevedo
There are four sections in this presentation. The first introduces
to the topics of sisasters and community participation. The second narrates the main events of a participative paving project of
a rural community in confronting a disaster in December 1989.
A snowstorm destroyed the coffee plantations of the region affecting dramatically the population. It follows an analysis of the
relationship between vulnerability, resilience and community
participation. The third section is an account of the community
social participation facing intensive rains in October 1999 and
the beneficial effects of the joint action between community
people, teachers and university collaboration. The fourth section tells the dramatic events caused by the Dean hurricane in
August-September 2007. It stresses the importance of preventive
actions thanks to resilience and community participation.
Transforming Race Relations: Deconstructing Race, Ethnicity and Power
Christopher Sonn
Arguably Australia has moved from a policy that privileged whiteness to a more inclusive multiculturalism. However, Indigenous
disadvantage persists and different ethnic communities continue to be marginalized in terms of citizenship and belonging.
Our research and teaching is broadly in the area of race relations
including immigration, Indigenous issues, and whiteness and
reconciliation. The teaching and research is concerned with the
dual task of deconstructing racialised categories in the Australian context, and affirming the multiple ways in which individuals
and communities construct identities, negotiate belonging, and
claim agency to self determine. In this paper I outline conceptual
and epistemological resources that have informed the development of a liberation perspective for community psychology. This
includes anchoring research in the lived realities of communities,
recognizing histories of oppression, viewing relations as socially
constructed, and valuing different ways of knowing and being.
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abuse legitimating the protective role of the teachers and of the
school.
Educational processes and support networks in communities devastated by Stan
Covadonga Cuétara y Neptalí Ramírez
This presentation is the description of the experiences developed
by a solidarity support brigade working with Chiapas communities devastated by the Stan hurricane in December 2005. The
‘Tortugas’ brgade was integrated by a group of college students
trained by Universidad Iberoamericana Puebla scholars in response to the call of local organizations in the damaged region.
The presentation includes testimonial and academic aspects and
reproduces the spirit of the experience: collaboration between
academics and students in creating the strategic support approach. It offers the way it was created linking motivation and
abilities to knowledge building needed to confront unexpected
troubles. The experience has been the search for educational approaches that look for actual formation settings, building solidarity networks with social actors involved in facing social challenges.
59
Suicídio en Ninos y Adolescentes y su Relacion
con el Abuso Sexual
Eulalia Castrillon & Olga Velasco
Universidad del Cauca
Colombia
Estudios realizados por las autoras en Popayan, Colombia, demuestran la relación existente entre suicidio, intentos de suicidio en
niños y jóvenes con haber sido victimas de abuso sexual. Definido el abuso como todo acercamiento con claro contenido sexual
de parte de un adulto /a quien se aprovecha de su poder para sus
complacencias. Hecho que el niño(a), no comprende al quedar
atrapado por la invasión abusiva de su intimidad que le genera
el complejo fenómeno del “hechizo”, situación que se agrava por
la coacción que hace el abusador para mantener el secreto. La
victima queda involucrada en una relación de alienación donde
las fronteras individuales se esfuman generándose un traumático vínculo, que se torna más demoledor cuando el victimario
pertenece al núcleo familiar, sumiendo al niño (a) o adolescente
en grave depresión, ruta directa hacia el suicidio.
Social disasters and community intervention: Floaded
family homes in Sinaloa
Mario Carranza and Angélica Cárdenas
This presentation is a partial report of the project ‘Psychosocial
community intervention in Villa Juárez, Navolato, Sinaloa, México#, a research intervention that relates psychosocial processes,
sociocultural context and health programs. The target of the
action is a rural region with a resident population and a huge
amount of migrant labourers. The program ‘Natural disasters,
social emergency’ is a community intervention with the families
of 13 settlements that suffer the floading of their homes by the
overflowing of the irrigation channels and sewage. The program
is oriented to counteract the traumatic effects of the situation. A
diagnostic of personal, familial and social well-being is made. A
psychosocial strategy of working with families has been developed to improve domestic functioning and community action as
the way to confronting social emergencies
60
Representación social de los malos tratos infantiles en la família
Mª Teresa Vega Rodríguez & Lourdes Moro Gutiérrez
Universidad de Salamanca
Spain
En este estudio transversal cuantitativo se analiza la representación social de los malos tratos infantiles en una muestra de 261
sujetos. La muestra estaba formada por mujeres y hombres con
edades comprendidas entre los 16 y 89 años elegidas al azar a
las que se entrevistó individualmente. El objetivo fundamental
es conocer en qué medida la experiencia de haber sido o no
maltratado/a, de conocer a personas cercanas que lo hayan sido
y la diferencia de edad de los encuestados influyen en la gravedad que atribuyen a distintas conductas de interacción padreshijos (referidas a maltrato y a abandono físico y emocional) y a
la frecuencia con la que creen que estas situaciones ocurren en
la vida familiar. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que la diferencia de edad condiciona el concepto de maltrato infantil de
forma que las personas mayores identifican más el maltrato con
el maltrato físico mientras que los jóvenes lo hacen tanto con el
maltrato físico como con el emocional.
58
Disclosure of Sexual Abuse in School Environment: Intervention With Teachers
Angela Torma Pietro & Maria Angela Mattar Yunes
Fundação Universidade Federal do Rio Grande
Brazil
Teachers and professionals of education should be prepared to
identify and evaluate the signs of intra or extrafamilial violence.
The school environment might be a context where abused children and adolescents feel free to “break” the silence and ask for
help. This work aimed to investigate the effects of these situations in a public school located in Rio Grande/RS, Brazil. Seven
first school years teachers participated in this research and intervention project. The proposal was elaborated under the theoretical basis of the bioecology of human development. There methodology followed two steps: the first consisted of the diagnostic
of the school dynamics. The second moment consisted in the
application of the Intervention Program which was organized
by the presentations of themes based on the analyses of the diagnostic phase. The program focused on orientating the educators to build strategies to have an attitude of denouncing sexual
61
Child Maltreatment Prevention in African American and Latino Communities based in Chicago
Suzette Fromm Reed & Jose De Vincenzo
National-Louis University
USA
This presentation will explore contextually relevant child maltreatment prevention in African American and Latino communities based in Chicago. The results of a study that examined com38
B u i l d i n g
P a r t i c i p a t i v e ,
E m p o w e r i n g
munity processes related to child maltreatment in over 8,000
individuals in every community in Chicago will be described. A
focus will be placed on the finding that community processes
that buffered child maltreatment in African American communities tend to increase child maltreatment rates in Latino communities. Implications for contextually relevant prevention will be
highlighted.
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Hacia una universidad, más democrática: centrada en el estudiante
Carlos Rubén Carrasquillo Ríos
Universidad de Puerto Rico en Humacao
Puerto Rico
Objetivo: Destacar algunos datos relevantes en una institución
tradicional y su relación con la retención estudiantil. La educación
superior del siglo XXI tiene que enfrentar desafios de una sociedad globalizada que amenaza las ideas y valores tales como la
igualdad, la libertad, la justicia y la solidaridad. Uno de los resultados de esta crisis se refleja en la marginación y la deserción o disidencia escolar. Necesitamos que sin disminuir la excelencia académica nuestras instituciones superiores subgraduadas logren
ser mas pertinentes a la realidad personal, laboral-económica y
social. Los estudios internos de la Universidad de Puerto Rico
en Humacao, Puerto Rico plantean que los estudiantes llegan
con grandes expectativas a la institución , la mayoría se dan de
baja de los cursos, por problemas asociados a la metodología de
enseñanza, presentando problemas en las mismas clases. Frente
a esto desde el 2004, se gestó el proyecto, hoy denominado Éxito
Estudiantil , con el objetivo de : fomentar la participación estudiantil en actividades educativas enriquecedoras, promover relaciones de apoyo entre todos los componentes de la comunidad
universitaria . Con el modelo de Aprender, Servir e Investigar (
ASI) a través del método de Situarse, Observar, Dialogar y Actuar
(SODA). Se ha comenzado a capacitar al profesorado en estrategias innovadoras de enseñanza mas cercana a las realidades del
estudiantado del siglo XXI. Se han celebrado congresos de liderato estudiantil, donde la avaluación y evaluación de estos permite fortalecer mejorar el servicio y las estrategias de avalúo académico e institucional. Los estudios mas recientes indican que el
estudiantado que se gradua recomendaría a otros la universidad,
se han mantenido las tasas de retención. Se proyecta adiestrar al
personal administrativo y promover mas sistemáticamente estilos de vida saludables.
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The impact of a children sexual abuse prevention program
Susana Maria, José Ornelas
ISPA
Portugal
Our aim is to present a research in which the purpose is the analysis of the impact of a Children Abuse Prevention program developed in school, contexts involving: children, their relatives and
professionals within the school community (teachers). The goal is
to evaluate the impact that the development of this prevention
program might have in the participants to whom it is directed
in terms of their knowledge, attitudes, and competence towards
prevention and intervention in child sexual abuse. After the
implementation of the child abuse prevention program in the
school context, directed to teachers (and other school professional), parents (and other relatives) and children (from the first
to the fourth grade) we introduce the impact evaluations. The
instruments (questionnaires and interviews) have been created
to allow the analysis of the reported indicators: knowledge, attitudes and competences towards prevention and intervention
in child sexual abuse.
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La utopia del Siglo XXI: Comunidad, Patrimonio
e Interculturalidad
Graciela Mota, Aurora Botello
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Mexico
La configuración de nuevos relatos e interpretaciones acordes
con los cambios de la sociedad actual tornan distintos los sentidos la libertad y cultura democrática. Y como esto es un tema
que alude a la educación y a la construcción social de un sentido
diferente de las prácticas cotidianas de acción y participación
social, el pensamiento y la complejidad que requiere la revitalización de la comunidad y el patrimonio cultural heredado, están
relacionados directamente con la posibilidad de aprender a vivir
en torno a la autosuficiencia y el desarrollo sustentable, a favor
de transformar los horizontes cotidianos, en posibilidades de reorientación de las potencialidades aun pendientes de manifestar
un contenido público. Y como interpretar significa crear nuevas
formas de sentido. La educación cívica orientada al manejo de
conflictos, representa una experiencia de aprendizaje durante
toda la vida. Implica a la vez herencia y decisión de heredar, selección y decisión de escoger, propiedad y sentido de apropiación.
65
Developing and teaching cultural competency
training programmes
Waikaremoana Waitoki
The University of Waikato
New Zealand
Tertiary institutions in Aotearoa/NZ have significant difficulties
with the issue of incorporating cultural competency when working with Māori as the indigenous peoples in Aotearoa/New
Zealand (NZ), and non-Māori into the curriculum. The current approach in psychology training is to add ‘cultural’ skills and
knowledge on to core “psychological” skills, with the result that
cultural skills and knowledge become marginalised as less important. Problems with identifying the need for a specific focus
on Maori issues as opposed to the international idea of cultural
competencies continue to disrupt the gains made for Māori
thus far. Further problems arise when teachers attempt to develop valid and reliable cultural content without appropriate consultation. The author will describe the results of research conducted
with 35 experienced psychologists for the purpose of obtaining
training content for a cultural competency programme, and pro39
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vide two examples of how the training was delivered.
efectiva de la ley.
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Los estudiantes universitarios ante el cambio de
sistema educativo
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Organización Social y Territorio: Experiencias
Latinoamericanas
Maria Luz Márquez Barradas, Delia Namihira Guerrero
Universidad Veracruzana
Mexico
Se hizo una investigación acerca de las prácticas de autocuidado
de la salud en distintas comunidades de profesionistas en el campo de la salud. Mostramos aqui, el discurso y las prácticas personales en estos grupos, donde encontramos incongruencias entre
su discurso profesional y su práctica como individuoas. Planteamos una alternativa de atención donde la correspondensia sea el
eje central del trabajo de estos profesionales.
Coordinated by Francisco Javier Guevara Martinez
UPAEP
Mexico
Se presentaran diferentes experiencias investigativas en distintos
entornos Latinoamericanos, que aportan un gran conocimiento
al tema de la organización social, ya sea desde el ámbito urbano
o rural. Dicho tema tiene distintas maneras de estudiarse, por lo
tanto, las aportaciones investigativas de los mexicanos, chilenos
y brasileños serán un gran recurso científico para los demás expertos en psicología social y comunitaria. Las palabras claves que
encierran estas investigaciones son: Psicología de los Grupos, Psicología Comunitaria, Políticas Sociales, Psicología Socio-Ambiental, Desarrollo Social e Intervención Comunitaria.
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Building links between Community Psychology
and the Community
Las Asociaciones Voluntarias en el vecindario urbano
Francisco Javier Guevara Martínez, Roberto Yescas Sánchez
Se reporta un proceso de localización y clasificación de grupos
que operan a escala del vecindario. Se denominan Asociaciones
Voluntarias, grupos autogestionarios, autónomos y altruistas,
que dan cierta personalidad social al vecindario. Sus metas suelen estar orientadas al exterior del grupo, en dirección de su entorno residencial y cada una de ellas, por separado, se encarga de
la fiesta del barrio, del equipo deportivo, la evangelización, y de
todas aquellas tareas que hacen del barrio lo que es. Estos grupos
no siempre son visibles para quienes no son de ahí. El reporte
presenta el procedimiento de localización y clasificación básica.
Finalmente proyecta la dimensión numérica de estos grupos en
la ciudad.
Paul Duckett, Rebecca Lawthom
Manchester Metropolitan University
England
The authors report on a study which explored ways in which teaching, learning and the curriculum could be made more relevant to
the communities in which they were situated. Manchester Metropolitan University is a good example of the paradox of modern
Universities. It employs an explicit Widening participation agenda, mindful of the low uptake of Higher education in the region
(less than 1 in 5 young people take up University places). It wants
to extend the ‘campus’ out to communities which it serves. The
present study – Making Universities work for local communities is
funded by a large Higher Education Innovation Fund, which was
designed to demonstrate ways in which Higher Education Institutions can work effectively and participatively to effect change
within geographical regions. Making universities work for local
communities drew inspiration from two distinct drivers.
La Psicología Comunitaria y Ambiental en Latinoamérica
Germán Sergio Rozas Ossandón
La Psicología Comunitaria y la Psicología Ambiental han tenido
un significativo repunte. Por otro lado las urgentes necesidades
de la población, se intentan resolver a través de una mayor instalación de programas sociales, proyectos de intervención,
evaluaciones sociales. Ello mediante instituciones gubernamentales o no gubernamentales en ámbitos como pobreza, medio
ambiente, vivienda, microempresa, participación ciudadana, etc.
Dichos avances indican claramente la validación de la disciplina y
su consideración cada vez más sólida en las propuestas de Desarrollo Social. Interesa debatir y exponer sobre los nuevos campos
que surgen y particularmente por qué surgen y se expande el
campo de la Psicología Ambiental. En las sociedades modernas
de hoy adquiere importancia el tema del voluntariado y el Bernout.
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Formación del personal de centros privativos de
libertad para implementar la LRPA en Chile
Ricardo Pérez-Luco Arenas & Alba Zambrano Constanzo
Universidad de La Frontera
Chile
Se presenta un programa de formación formulado en conjunto
entre cuatro universidades y los equipos técnicos del Servicio
Público responsable de la implementación de la Ley de Responsabilidad Penal Adolescente (LRPA) en Chile; y ejecutado de manera simultánea a lo largo de todo el país y para todo el personal
contratado en los centros (18 unidades y 750 participantes) inmediatamente antes de la puesta en marcha de la ley y con un
seguimiento seis meses después, todo ello en el marco de la investigación-acción Se analiza el diseño del programa, supuestos,
objetivos, contenidos y metodologías de trabajo y se evalúa el
impacto sistémico de su realización, derivando las coherencias,
paradojas, fortalezas y debilidades sistémicas, así como los requerimientos de cambio necesarios para una implementación
Uma Experiência de Aplicação em Territórios Comunitários
Eda Terezinha de Oliveira Tassara, José Oswaldo Soares de
Oliveira
O LAPSI-IP/USP (Laboratório de Psicologia Socioambiental e
Intervenção do Instituto de Psicologia / Universidade de São
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Paulo) desenvolve laboratórios de pesquisa-ação em territórios
cujas populações vivenciam distintos estágios do processo de
urbanização; no estado de São Paulo, vem atuando junto às comunidades: a) da zona rural de Campos Novos, no município de
Cunha; b) do Vale do Paraíba, região polarizada pela calha urbanoindustrial Rio-São Paulo e c) da franja periférica norte da cidade
de São Paulo. Essas intervenções estruturam-se em três etapas:
1) os pesquisadores iniciam dinâmicas com agentes de influência local (professores, lideranças comunitárias, etc.), voltadas a
facilitar a explicitação de seus próprios pontos-de-vista sobre os
problemas da comunidade, suas expectativas e desejos de futuro
e a reflexão sobre as articulações entre a realidade vivenciada e
as problemáticas emergentes no mundo contemporâneo; (…)
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ties and social justice questions.
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Emerging Spaces for Community Psychology:
Providing Abortion Information and Counselling
Cecília Costa, Conceição Nogueira, Felix Lopez
IEP University of Minho
Portugal
The massive growth of internet in the last decade and the opportunity to have an easy access to this worldwide network offers many possibilities to feminist intervention in such important
issues as abortion rights. The emergence of websites like those
of Women on Waves and Women on Web with a worldwide visibility offers a series of new forms of intervention through virtual
communities in what concerns women’s sexual rights and health,
providing a wide-reaching source of scientific information and
counselling on abortion. These kinds of networks have a special
importance and relevance to women who live in countries where
access to safe abortion is restricted. In this situation internet
comes up as an extremely powerful resource in fields like the sexual and reproductive health and rights. These new spaces raise
the possibility of networking and using the internet resources to
build individual and community capacity in local, national and
transnational levels.
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‘Health’ checks in postvention partnerships: A
stakeholder analysis
Brian English - Edith Cowan University; Sharon Hillman Curtin University; Joanna Devereux - Edith Cowan University;
Josephine Hudson - Curtin University
Australia
This presentation reports on the evaluation of a partnership
formed to support the trial of an active postvention service in
metropolitan Perth, Western Australia known as ARBOR – Active
Response Bereavement Outreach. Postvention is the term used
to describe interventions that endeavour to support people bereaved by suicide. Active postvention services seek out this cohort as early as possible, in the present case they are contacted
within the first two weeks of a death by suicide. The evaluation is
‘theory-driven’ in that it is informed by research on collaborative
decision making in the inter-organisational domain. The question of ‘why’ evaluations are conducted has also been central. As
Owen and Rogers (1999) pointed out many years ago, settling on
the purpose of conducting an evaluation determines its general
orientation, e.g., clarification, improvement, justification.
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Salud y empoderamiento en mujeres mexicanas
Ericka Ileana Escalante Izeta, Ángeles Villanueva Maria, Ann
Di Girolamo, Bethania Cottrell
Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública
Mexico
En la comunidad semirural de Xoxocotla, México, se organizó un
programa para el fomento de la salud, bienestar integral y empoderamiento para mujeres. Doce participantes, quienes viven
en condiciones de pobreza, iniciaron con la detección de necesidades individuales y comunitarias a través de la técnica de foto
voz. Se les entregó una cámara fotográfica desechable, con la
cual plasmaron los principales problemas comunitarios: violencia doméstica, contaminación, pobreza, carência espiritual. Posteriormente, cada participante seleccionó dos fotografías y en
cada una redactó las causas, consecuencias y posibles soluciones
del problema percibido. Con las fotografías y sus redacciones se
montó una exposición fotográfica e impartieron conferencias sobre los problemas percibidos. Esta actividad la realizaron en su
propia comunidad y posteriormente en la sede de salud de su entidad federativa. También asistieron a un programa de radio con
el fin de promover que las mujeres tomen iniciativa en la solución
de sus problemas.
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Engaging critically with the Phelophepha primary health train project in South Africa
Anthony Naidoo, Bianca Joseph, Lorenza Williams, & Annamari Grundlingh
Stellenbosch University
South Africa
The Phelophepha Health Train is a unique primary health intervention providing much needed health, dentistry, eye care, and
psychological services to poor rural communities across South Africa aboard a specially equipped and resourced train. The health
train stops off at a rural town for a two week period before being
shunted to another rural town. University students from departments offering training in these health-related areas render services and interventions at stations and surrounding communities
where the train is temporarily located. Students from various universities typically do a two week rotation in the specific clinic on
the train. For psychology students working on the train provides
a unique opportunity to engage critically with several interfaces:
the mesh (and often misfit) of theory and practice, rural versus
urban realities, social class, language, cultural and racial dispari-
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Conselhos de Saúde no Brasil: a ambiguidade da
participação comunitária
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P s y c h o l o g y
Innovation in Measuring Access to and Utilization of
Community Assets in
Lori Francis (speaker) and Stephen Matthews
Several studies have examined neighborhood influences on
health outcomes. Using stress as an example, neighborhood
poverty level/income, safety, social disorder, violence or crime,
housing, and deviant behavior are neighbourhood stressors that
have been shown to be associated with poor physical and mental
health outcomes in adults and children. Without an understanding of the extent to which individuals utilize community assets
within their neighborhood boundaries, however, the processes
by which neighborhood factors influence health are unclear. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) has been used to collect
data on stress and stress coping mechanisms, mood and affect,
and eating disorders, to name a few applications. EMA measures
are collected using daily diary methods, personal digital assistants, home telephones, and more recently, cellular phones.
These methods have drastically improved researchers’ ability to
capture various processes as participants experience them across
contexts.
Cornelis Johannes van Stralen, Rafael Bacelar Prosdócimi
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Brazil
A longa transição, no Brasil, de um regime autoritária burocrática
para um regime democrática foi marcada pela crescente mobilização da sociedade civil em oposição ao governo militar. Na área
da saúde, esta mobilização expressou-se através do surgimento
de comissões de saúde no contexto de programas de saúde que,
por indução de organismos internacionais, tiveram como diretriz
a participação comunitária. Em alguns lugares, estas comissões
com participação de mulheres, estudantes e jovens profissionais
de saúde lograram o reconhecimento do poder público e na década de oitenta a criação de comissões de saúde tornou-se um
diretriz oficial. A Constituição Federal de 1988 consagrou a participação comunitária e em 1990 a lei 8142 dispôs sobre a criação
de conselhos de saúde com a incumbência de propor estratégias
e controlar a execução de políticas de saúde.
Community Psychology Revisits Community: Family Perceptions of Networks and Support
Emilie Smith (speaker), Lavona Gorham, Monique Faulk, and
Yetunde Shobo
The current paper proposes to follow in the rich, empowering
tradition of community psychology in exploring the positive
meaning of community for youth and families. Though interest
in community as an ecological setting has been pervasive and
multidisciplinary, a substantial amount of the research on communities uses structural data, often from archival sources such as
the census, to understand the influence of community. Though
poverty and unemployment are powerful community-level indicators, communities are still comprised of people who act and
interact with each other. Seminal research supports the premise
that collective efficacy, “cohesion, trust, and willingness to intervene on the behalf of others” can be a powerful influence, even
in disadvantaged communities, resulting in decreased crime and
disorder (Sampson, Raudenbush, and Earls, 1997). This study
seeks to better understand the ways in which perceived community networks might be beneficial.
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A Multidisciplinary Perspective of Community
Assets in Health and Behavior
Coordinator: Emilie Smith
The Pennsylvania State University
USA
This symposium explores the role of community contexts, both
structural and relational, in health and human development.
Multi-faceted protocols for assessing community are described
including perceived networks, relationships, and innovative technologies investigating the interactions between individuals and
their community settings. This work uncovers assets among samples including youth, adults, and families in urban and semi-rural
impoverished settings. Discussion will examine the strengths
and limitations of varying conceptualizations and assessments of
community. Lastly, and importantly, the symposium will consider
new directions for building relationships and infrastructure in
communities to promote health and human development.
The Sense of Community Scale: Differential Item Functioning by Race
Rhonda Belue
Perceived Sense of Community is a construct examining cohesion
and connectedness. Yet, racial and ethnic groups differ in culture,
history, beliefs, and possibly the experience of community. In order to conduct meaningful comparisons between racial/ethnic
groups, researchers must assure that instrument used to measure specific constructs exhibit measurement equivalence across
groups (Ramirez, et al., 2005). Differential Item Functioning (DIF)
can contribute to observed difference in outcome indicators that
are attributable to item non-invariance across groups as opposed
to true between group differences (Flieshman 2003). Specifically,
DIF refers to the situations in which the probability of endorsement of a particular item differs by subgroup characteristics after
adjusting for latent variables of interest (Cole 2006). DIF was used
to evaluate the Psychological Sense of Community (SOC) index.
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Investigating the impediments through the way
of cultural development (Economic, social, ...) in
Qom
Ahmad Bayan Memar
Azad Islamic University-Iran
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Goals: Investigating and distinguishing the impediments through
the way of cultural development based on the structure. Investigating and distinguishing the impediments through the way of
cultural development based on the setting. Investigating and
distinguishing the impediments through the way of cultural development based on the content Methodology In this survey the
methods is applied descriptive – measurement. The questionnaires and interviewing were used in this research. In this survey
the interviewees are selected from the university professors who
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teach in Qom Province. It was done in order to get the valid and
reliable results and in order to find the applicable solutions for
the cultural development in Qom Province. Predictable results: By
investigating and distinguishing the impediments through the
way of culture (in relation to the customs, traditions, viewpoints,
and the values which dominate the society), development of the
society will be done more fast and smoothly.
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relevancia para construcción de los diversos campos de intervención social desarrollado en Psicología (Psicología Comunitaria, Psicología de la Intervención Social, Intervención Psicosocial, Psicología Social Aplicada); La escasa literatura disponibles,
muestran la presencia de importantes grados de tensión y desencuentro entre las orientaciones técnicas y paradigmáticas de
las distintas especialidades de la Psicologia relacionadas, y los
estrategias de las políticas sociales; Los estudios disponibles utilizan básicamente perspectivas conceptuales “etic” o normativoexternas a estos desempeños. El Propósito del Estudio es investigar el campo técnico y el contexto situacional – institucional
que ha tenido la inserción de psicólogos en programas de intervención derivados de políticas sociales en três Servicios Sociales
Generales Españoles.
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The parallax effect of community intervention
and its relation to in-depth ecological perception
Marcos António Távora de Mendonça
Brazil
This presentation attempts to establish analogies between the
physical phenomenon named as Parallax Effect and the communities of intervention where the community psychologist develops his/her work. We begin by demonstrating that community
life is inherently paradoxal, as well as the importance of community analysis in its natural contexts, underlining the importance
for community psychologists of the Parallax Effect for communities of intervention. We propose that more effective results in
these communities would imply minimizing this Parallax Effect,
which would need a new paradigm - one of in-depth ecological
perception, which we will also be looking at in this presentation.
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ProSerEs: ¿Práxis del refortalecimiento comunitario?
Wanda I. Pacheco Bou
Universidad de Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
El Proyecto de Servicios Terapéuticos Integrados para Niños, Niñas y Jóvenes con Necesidades Especiales (ProSerEs) de CIReC ofrece servicios relacionados en el área de psicología, ocupacional,
habla y lenguaje y redes de apoyo social en dos comunidades
empobrecidas y marginadas de Puerto Rico. Una de ellas es considerada el residencial público más grande del Caribe llamado
Luís Lloréns Torres y la otra es un barrio rural llamado Sabana
Seca. Los perfiles de ambas comunidades comparten necesidades relacionadas a la situación actual de los sistemas públicos
de educación y de salud, sumada a los índices altos de elementos que no facilitan el bienestar de su población. Sin embargo,
estas características también se conjugan con recursos afectivos,
cognitivos e instrumentales que han permitido que los vecinos
y vecinas de estas comunidades hayan desarrollado destrezas
ejemplares para lidiar con las necesidades múltiples y cambiantes que enfrentan día a día en su entorno.
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La Residencia Universitaria Flora Tristán, un
proyecto de cambio social
Virginia Martínez Lozano Alfonso Blázquez Muñoz Juan
Blanco López
Universidad Pablo de Olavide
Spain
En esta presentación se pretende dar a conocer una iniciativa
nacida en el seno de la Universidad Pablo de Olavide por contribuir al cambio y a la transformación de una de las zonas más
deprimidas de la ciudad de Sevilla. La Residencia Universitaria Flora Tristán surge como un proyecto social que pretende ser parte
del motor de cambio de una comunidad. El edificio se ubica en
el Polígono Sur, barrio identificado como zona con necesidades
de transformación social. Entre los objetivos del proyecto está
modificar las autopercepciones de los propios vecinos del barrio,
insertando en él a una población diferente que hasta ahora no
había formado parte de él. Otro de los objetivos es colaborar en
el Plan Integral de transformación del barrio mediante la colaboración y el trabajo de los estudiantes en diferentes entidades y
asociaciones que trabajan en el barrio.
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Asociatividad y construcción de comunidades
participativas, empoderadas y saludables
Coordinated by Mariane Krause
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
Chile
En este simposio se presentan los principales conceptos involucrados en la facilitación de la asociatividad comunitaria. Desde
dos experiencias de intervención se analizan los puntos críticos
que favorecen o que amenazan las posibilidades de una coordinación entre organizaciones comunitarias, que sea realmente
representativa, participativa y efectiva. En la primera ponencia se
desarrollan los diferentes elementos teóricos que entran en juego
para lograr la asociatividad comunitaria, con coordinación tanto
horizontal como vertical. Las otras dos ponencias corresponden
a experiencias de intervención comunitaria, implementadas en
dos barrios caracterizados por altos índices de inseguridad ciudadana, pero con distintas historias de participación y empoderamiento.
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Prácticas de intervención social del Psicólogo en
Políticas Sociales
Jaime Alfaro Inzunza
Universidad de Valparaíso
Chile
Este estudio, en curso, tiene como antecedentes: La participación
de psicólogos en políticas sociales, es un hecho nuevo, de gran
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International perspectives on self-help/mutual
aid
Conceptos y elementos claves para la asociatividad comunitaria
Andrea Jaramillo
Se desarrolla una propuesta conceptual que plantea que la presencia de tráfico de drogas en los espacios públicos y la percepción de aumento de la delincuencia en el entorno, constituyen
factores que inciden en la disminución de la participación de
las personas al interior de sus comunidades, interfiriendo en
el funcionamiento de las redes sociales saludables existentes y
generando problemas al interior de la comunidad, tanto en sus
aspectos funcionales como estructurales. Como forma de contrarrestar estos efectos, se propone potenciar la participación y
el involucramiento de las personas en sus comunidades, consolidando y fortaleciendo las redes sociales e institucionales. De este
modo, el trabajo conjunto no sólo tendrá asociada la satisfacción
de necesidades de las personas y el posicionamiento en su entorno, sino también el logro de un cuerpo articulado de personas
y organizaciones, que aumentan de este modo su percepción de
seguridad.
Coordinator: Chris Barker
University College London
England
Overview: Self-help/mutual aid groups and organisations provide a forum for people with common psychological, social or
medical problems to join together in order to give and receive
information, advice or emotional support. The papers in this
symposium present perspectives on self-help/mutual-aid groups
and organisations which draw from experience gained within the
formal healthcare and voluntary systems of three different countries: England, Germany, and the United States. The papers utilise a variety of methodological approaches, from participatory
research to randomized trials.
Methodological issues in participatory and collaborative
research on self help organisations
Melanie Boyce
Background. Since the 1970s there has been a steady rise in selfhelp groups (SHGs) and more recently self-help organisations
(SHOs). SHGs and SHOs are run by and for peers who share the
same health or social condition. However, SHOs are formally constituted bodies funded to provide services. Their organisational
structures and practices attempt to provide solutions and/or
coping strategies for service users based on direct experiential
knowledge. Objectives: This paper will draw on the methodological issues faced during a participative study that explored the innovative role of mental health SHOs in the UK. Methodology. The
study was based on four SHOs and fitted within a multiple embedded case study design, where a range of qualitative methods
were used. The study was guided by a participatory approach to
ensure knowledge was jointly created and owned by participants
and researchers.
Desarrollo de asociatividad en la Población La Victoria
María Teresa Ramírez
Se presenta una intervención comunitaria llevada a cabo en
Chile, en la población La Victoria, entre los años 2002 y 2004. La
Victoria se constituyó en los años cincuenta a partir de una “toma
de terrenos” organizada por un movimiento de pobladores. La
intervención tenía por objetivo construir una comunidad más segura, enfrentando el problema de violencia y microtráfico de drogas desde una óptica multidimensional, involucrando a distintos
actores sociales. Fue solicitada por la misma comunidad, que se
mantuvo activa frente a la intervención y a la problemática de
inseguridad ciudadana. Se trabajó a partir de un diagnóstico participativo realizado durante parte del año 2002 (mediante grupos
de discusión, entrevistas semi-estructuradas a personas clave y
una encuesta aplicada por los mismos pobladores). Como resultado de ese diagnóstico se decidió trabajar con dos grupos de
la comunidad: las “delegadas de cuadra” (representantes electas
por cada calle de la población) y las organizaciones sociales.
The self help movement in Germany: a 30 year perspective
Juergen Matzat
This paper presents an overview of the self-help movement in
Germany during the last 30 years. Germany possesses a unique
system of widespread financial and professional support for selfhelp groups, unparalleled in Europe. The paper examines the following questions. What were the steps and specific conditions
in this country? How widespread is self-help in Germany today?
What sources of support are available? What forms of political
participation are taking place? It will give a brief overview of selfhelp research in Germany (including a recent study on self-help
groups and in-patients in rehabilitation clinics for psychosomatic
medicine and psychotherapy). The core of the presentation will
be a narrative of the development of a social movement, seen
through the eyes of an observing participant, activist, and professional supporter.
Mesa Barrial de la Población Yungay
Alex Torres
En la Población Yungay -barrio de 9.000 habitantes constituido
en los años setenta con pobladores de distintos sectores geográficos de Santiago- se desarrolló una intervención comunitaria que
instaló una Mesa Barrial, como instancia de promoción de asociatividad. Se trabajó durante 19 meses, con un promedio de 19
representantes de organizaciones e instituciones, realizándose
71 reuniones de coordinación, en las que se planificaron actividades centrales para la vida del barrio. Finalizada la intervención
la Mesa Barrial continuó sus actividades autónomamente. Entre
las condiciones que hicieron posible la instalación de la Mesa Barrial, se encuentran los tipos de actores convocados, la neutralidad
del lugar de reunión, el rol de los interventores y las instituciones,
y el establecimiento de confianzas.
Increases in Tolerance within Naturalistic, Intentional
Communities: A Randomized, Longitudinal Exam of Mutual-Help Groups
Brad Olson and Leonard A. Jason
Increasing tolerance within communities is a great challenge to
44
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E m p o w e r i n g
the field of community psychology, although such increases may
occur naturally in informal groups such as intentional communities. The presenters will discuss an examination of changes in tolerance among 150 participants discharged from inpatient treatment centers and randomly assigned to either a mutual-help,
communal living setting (i.e., Oxford House) or usual after-care.
Participants within the U.S. were interviewed every 6 months on
a measure of universality/diversity for a 24 month period. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was used to examine the effect
of condition (Therapeutic Communal Living versus Usual Care)
on wave trajectories of attitudes on tolerance (i.e., universality/
diversity scores).
&
d i v e r s e
C o m m u n i t i e s
ing experiences in New Zealand, investigate the role filial piety
plays in older Chinese immigrants’ ageing in place, and examine
how the practices of filial piety among older Chinese immigrants
change in the course of acculturation. New Zealand’s population
is rapidly ageing. In 2006, people aged 65 years and over comprised 12.3% of the national population. 3.2% of the older population were Asians, up from 1.8% in 2001. Chinese is the largest
ethnic group within New Zealand’s older Asian population. In
2006, there were 9,069 Chinese aged 65 years and over living
in New Zealand, an increase of 56% from 5,800 in 2001. In order
to promote the value and participation of older people in communities, the New Zealand Government commits to a positiveageing society where older people can age in place. It is therefore important to examine housing practices and needs within
the older Chinese immigrants population so that policies can be
developed.
83
Social Inclusion
Coordinator: Ottilie Stolte
University of Waikato
New Zealand
84
Safety planning for abused children: using a
multi-disciplinary approach
Child sex offenders re-entering communities following
imprisonment: Who is responsible?
Amanda Young-Hauser and Darrin Hodgetts
Sexual abuse of children is prevalent, it occurs at every socioeconomic level, and is one of the most detested crimes in Aotearoa /
New Zealand. The reintegration of child sex offenders, therefore,
is often met with resistance from some community stakeholders.
Interviews with ten imprisoned child sex offenders have been
conducted pre-release and six months post-release. This paper
examines social processes that can emerge when child sex offenders rejoin the community. A narrative approach is used to
explore participants’ experiences of tensions surrounding their
identities as offenders and other aspects of their lives. Attention
is paid to resources that foster or hamper successful re-entries
into community settings.
Thomas Carr
Thomas F. Carr & Associates Inc.
USA
Safety Plans are formal arrangements, most often drafted for
Child Abuse and Neglect Cases that are Court involved These
plans may enable contact (or perhaps even placement) of a child
with a parent who may have been found (or suspected) to have
perpetrated some form of abuse to the child, or may pose a risk
to the child for some other reason(s). In this presentation, we will
identify some of the safety issues and, using a multi disciplinary
approach, how to employ and implement these plans. We will
consider a variety of cases where the violence or trauma is of
known or unknown origin or merely suspected; including sexual
abuse, shaken baby syndrome and Munchausen’s syndrome by
proxy, and present a safety plan developed for a specific case.
Primary to the creation of such plans is • making sure that a child
is viable to a community and employing open communication
which may be done in a variety of ways a consideration of case
history • adoption of a philosophy in which the child is safe.
Heavy Metal as Communities of Practice: The Everyday
lives of Bogans
Dave Snell & Darrin Hodgetts
Whether driving in a car, eating at a restaurant or sitting at home,
music surrounds us. It is often part of our everyday routine and
can provide the ‘soundscape’ that we live in. The richness of music
in daily life has not been captured in psychological research. Research in Psychology tends to focus on textual analyses of violent
lyrics, chords and associated images from musical genres (e.g.
Heavy Metal). Attention is given to potential negative impacts of
such texts on ‘vulnerable groups’ such as youth. This presentation
moves beyond the focus on message transference to document
the media-related practices through which a Heavy Metal community is negotiated and woven into the fabric of everyday life
for a group of New Zealand Heavy Metal fans. Of particular interest is how aspects of Heavy Metal culture are appropriated by
research participants as embodied practices performed across a
range of social spaces (both online and offline.
85
Nuevas metodologías en investigación y prevención de la violencia en la pareja
Vanesa Gomero; Leonor Cantera
Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona
Spain
La psicología Social Comunitaria se ha distinguido siempre por
tratar de dar respuestas a las problemáticas sociales que afectan
a las comunidades y la sociedad en su totalidad. El presente trabajo aborda uno de los problemas que afecta a nivel mundial a
gran parte de la población, la violencia que tiene lugar en el seno
de la pareja. Este trabajo forma parte de una investigación desarrollada en seis países (España, Brasil, Puerto Rico, El Salvador,
Chile y México) “Violencia de Género. Nuevos desafíos para la investigación y la intervención”. Los instrumentos utilizados para
tal fin son un cuestionario, el IAT (Implicit Association Test) y la
Fotointervención que tratan de forma novedosa de aproximarse
Filial Piety at a Distance: Older Chinese Immigrants’ Ageing in Place
Wendy Wen Li
This research sets out to explore older Chinese immigrants’ hous-
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C o n f e r e n c e
a esta área de investigación, abordando los estereotipos sobre
la violencia que se da en el seno de la pareja tanto heterosexual
como homosexual. Estos instrumentos han sido creados ad hoc y
validados para dicho estudio demostrando como metodologías
innovadoras pueden ser aplicadas en nuevas áreas.
o n
C o m m u n i t y
P s y c h o l o g y
paper will use the GAP Media Project as a case study to examine
relevant issues and tensions around the process of participatory
media creation. Specifically, it will touch on three areas: 1) the
notion of “authentic voice” and the highly individualized process
through which project participants told their stories; 2) the tension between focusing on individual expression and socio-political (…).
86
Advocacy and youth-produced media: A
strengths-based approach with adolescent girls
Voices from the GAP media project: A Screening of digital stories
(Video screening)
This portion of the symposium will be devoted to the screening
of the youth-produced media from the GAP Media Project. The
voices, perspectives and experiences of girls themselves are completely absent from the literature on girls involved in the juvenile
justice system. The dominant narrative about these teens is that
they are victims of difficult life experiences on the one hand yet
criminals on the other (e.g., Abbas, 2007). This conceptualization
has strong implications for problem definition and the formation
of intervention strategies (Chesney-Lind & Shelden, 2004). For instance, most interventions in the literature are geared towards
“fixing” the girls rather than acknowledging the problems of the
systems in which they are involved. The GAP Media project employed participatory video techniques to give systems-involved
young women the opportunity to express themselves through
the creation of digital stories. These documents contribute to the
local and national discourses about systems-involved.
Coordinators: Shabnam Javdani and Myra Margolin
University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana
USA
Advocacy and Youth-Produced Media: A Strengths-based Approach with Adolescent Girls Internationally, rates of arrest for
women and girls have been increasing. Moreover, there has been
a surge in arrests for adolescent girls, who often continue to have
long-term system-involvement even though the majority of their
offenses are characterized by non-violent status offenses. To
date, however, few community-based interventions have been
developed to address the particular needs of female youth with
a history of justice system involvement. In this symposium, we
present two major components of a strengths-based and girldriven community-based advocacy intervention and screen digital stories created by project participants.
The Girls Advocacy Project: Development and Preliminary Results
Shabnam Javdani
The Girls’ Advocacy Project (GAP) was recently developed and
implemented in one community in the United States in an effort
to address a gap in the community-based response to juvenile
justice system-involved girls. GAP is based on successful advocacy models implemented with survivors of domestic violence
(see Sullivan & Bybee, 1999) and in the context of diverting youth
from the juvenile justice system (see Davidson & Rapp, 1976).
In developing GAP, however, attention was taken to center the
model around needs of female adolescent youth in particular,
and includes two primary components: girl-centered strengthsbased advocacy, and a youth-driven media project. This paper
will present the GAP model and includes preliminary findings
from the implementation of the pilot project. The promises and
challenges associated with the program will be highlighted, and
possibilities for implementation of advocacy across diverse communities will be presented.
87
Sexual education of child and teenager from the
point of view of Islam and psychological studies
Ali Naghi Faghihi
Qom University
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Sexual education is one of important matters in upbringing, and
has important role in forming of human personality, and it is effective in his thoughts, affections and behaviors. Nonetheless, especially in our country is not systematic and proper educational
programs in this regard, and teenagers often give knowledge
and information from improper sources and in improper ways,
and have not enough information about this matter. In western
countries, also seems that most of
teenagers have not necessary information about this matter.
This article’s aim is the investigation of aims, principle, contents,
methods and benefits of correct sexual educations in Islamic
culture and psychological research. In this article by investigating the Islamic texts and psychological studies’ background, the
importance and necessity of sexual educations, methods and its
proper resources, and prophylaxis against sexual deviations is
discussed.
Is my voice my own? An individualized approach to the
creation of youth-produced media
Myra Margolin
This process-oriented case study serves as an example of the potential of participatory video (PV) to work as both a strengthsbased practice and a vehicle to challenge dominant problem definitions. Participatory video is the practice of training members
of a community to produce media in order to explore communal
narratives, shape social problem definitions, identify indigenous
solutions to community issues, and/or actively work towards
change. Although PV has community-based empowerment and
social change at its core (White, 2003), its potential as a useful
tool for community psychologists has not been explored. This
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E m p o w e r i n g
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management, decision making and evaluation of processes,
learn to solve problems, develop the component of research and
intervention); Teachers (support, guidance and promotion with
students in the stages of the work); Professionals (follow the development of the Area Project). For the implementation of the
program was carried out an initial and a final evaluation. The programme addressed, in weekly sessions, three modules: interpersonal communication, conflict resolution, and assertiveness. The
program consisted of the implementation of 15+1 sessions.
88
From “youth gangs” to social support groups: an
experience of Participatory - Action - Research
Barbara Scandroglio, Jorge S. López, Cristián Soto, Saray
Garcia
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Spain
In recent times, youngsters risk behaviour prevention has been
approached from a new perspective, in which positive features of
peer group influence are empowered. Within this framework, this
works presents the background, development and preliminary
results of a Participatory Action Research experience carried out
with young Latin American immigrants in Madrid (Spain) which
were strongly linked to latin-gangs subculture and previously involved in conflictive behaviours. Main objectives of group intervention were: 1) Reducing inter and intra-group violent behaviours, 2) Promoting group normalization and integration within
community social networks, 3) Empowering positive social support within the group, 4) Increasing integration of members
within their primary socialization settings.
91
Young urban mothers’ efforts to cope with neighborhood violence
Mark Aber (Department of Psychology University of Illinois),
Andrew Rasmussen Bellevue (NYU Program for Survivors
of Torture NYU School of Medicine), Amy Lewin, Stephanie
Mitchell, and Jill Joseph (Center for Clinical and Community
Research Children’s National Medical Center)
USA
Neighborhood violence is a persistent source of danger and distress for urban youth. Discovering how these youth cope with
neighborhood stressors has important implications for designing interventions aimed at their well-being. Rasmussen, Aber, &
Bhana. (2004) found that youths from Chicago neighborhoods
with widely varying crime rates reported similar rates of exposure to violence but very different patterns of coping, and that
association between coping style and perceptions of safety were
moderated by gender, ethnicity, and neighborhood. The current
study presents data from a study of African-American teenage
mothers from the Washington, DC area. A total of 2,349 women
were screened of whom 262 were eligible and 227 successfully
interviewed. Data were obtained by maternal report, collected in
home-based interviews conducted by carefully trained RAs.
89
Ecological influences on patterns of adolescent
alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use
Christian M. Connell (Yale University School of Medicine), Tamika D. Gilreath (Yale University School of Medicine), Jane A.
Ungemack (University of Connecticut Health Center), Matthew
J. Cook (University of Connecticut Health Center)
USA
This presentation uses statewide (Connecticut, US) epidemiological data to identify adolescent ATOD use patterns within and
across school and community settings. Over 9000 adolescents,
in grades 7-10, from 21 school districts completed an extensive
survey including information on lifetime history and past month
frequency of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, other illicit drugs, and
inhalant use and a range of hypothesized risk and protective
factors. This data was then merged with archival data reflecting broader school and community contexts. A social-ecological
framework (e.g., Flay & Petraitis, 1994; Hawkins, Catalano, & Miller,
1992) guided identification of risk and protective factors within
the adolescent’s proximal (i.e., individual, family, and peer) and
distal (i.e., school and community) environments hypothesized
to influence ATOD use patterns.
92
Pedagogical researches in facing with local and
international challenges
Hossein Khanifar
University of Tehran
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Pedagogical researches in facing with local and international
challenges Hossein Khanifar, PhD (University of Tehran) Seyed
Mohammad Moghimi, PhD (University of Tehran) Seyed Ahmad
Bayan Memar, PhD (University of Qom) Mojdah Poor Hosseini,
PhD (Islamic Center Medical Study) Malihehossadat Rahmanzadah Political Science Department (Azad Islamic University of
Qom) Abstract According to Aristotle, —unresearched life has
no worth to live.“ Since old times, by selecting analysis methods,
human tried to recognize nature, behaviors, activities, processes,
principles and rules. One of the main issues studied by human is
education and educational systems. Today, many countries and
systems are studying various items (human, contents, equipments, facilities, spaces, assessments and training budgets).
However, such researches are facing with local and international
challenges.
90
Preventing violence through community engagement
Susana Carvalhosa, Ana Domingos, Cátia Sequeira
GerAcções Project
Portugal
The intervention programme aimed the prevention of violence
and the promotion of health and had as main objectives: School
(involvement of the entire community education; establishment
of good relations between the various institutions of the project,
families and the community); Students (participation of students
in the development and implementation of projects, developing social skills, such as communication, the teamwork, conflict
47
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P s y c h o l o g y
Practices and Atention to Families, School and Community –
ECOFAM, from the Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo.
It took place at a Public School, situated in a low income neighbourhood, and it included two 4th. grade teachers, two pedagogical coordinators (PC) and the research team. Its objective
was to understand the process teaching reading and writing
abilities to illiterate 4th. grade children, following the ideas of
B.Charlot, U.Bronfenbrenner e D.Thin. The method of the research
followed the Participant Action Research proposal, based on the
work of Paulo Freire, Irma Serrano-Garcia and Carlos R. Brandão.
The intervention activities included procedures of continuous
following up of the teachers by the PCs, fortnight meetings of
the teachers and one of the PCs with the research team and an
encounter with all the families to publicize the results.
93
Trabajo emocional con estudiantes de secundaria: una forma de prevención de enfermedades
Margarita Rivera Mendoza, Norma Delia Duran Amavisca,
Oliva López Sanchez, Sergio López Ramos
FES Iztacala UNAM
Mexico
En nuestro país la incidencia de enfermedades crónicas degenerativas derivadas de procesos donde intervine la emoción de
tristeza y abandono corporal se vincula con sentimientos de
incomprensión y abandono manifestado por los jóvenes. Esto
se confirma con resultados de una investigación realizada con
pacientes diagnosticados con varios padecimientos a los cuales
se les aplico una entrevista profunda, en ella se encuentra que
los padecimientos predominantes son de vias respiratorias y colon originadas en la emoción de tristeza experimentada desde
la adolescencia. De lo anterior se desprende que la emoción y
lo orgánico se conjugan en la construcción de un padecimiento
que puede iniciar desde edades tempranas y persistir a lo largo
de la vida si no es tratado de manera adecuada y oportuna. Una
forma de trabajo para prevenir la aparición de estos procesos
emocionales es la aplicación de talleres de Contacto Corporal con
jóvenes de la Escuela Secundaria Técnica No. 136.
96
Teacher’s organizational background: An Analysis of Phenomenon’s Dimensionality
Simone Catalano, Floriana Romano, Gioacchino Lavanco &
Antonino Miragliotta
University of Palermo
Italy
The growing necessity of understanding, which are the main dimensions of the organizational reality, at the school, had caused
us to seek new interpretative models. This study reports and
evaluates the scholastic environment and its capability to promote a teachers’ well-being. The central theme of our research,
running throughout, is the school is an instrument of the social
community, and it’s also an organization. Understanding why
many aspects of the scholastic climate are inter-related and how
such relations influence subsequent scholastic functioning, is of
great importance to comprehend organizational problems. The
research is orientated towards the determination of personal factors and environmental aspects which provide an explanation of
the dimensionality of the construct. For these reasons, we administered a test battery, taking aim to analyze: Scholastic Situation
through 28 items (Santinello & Bertarelli, 2002).
94
Pupil-caused impediments during lessons - A
study about teacher’s strains at technical colleges
Constance Winkelmann
Dresden University of Technology
Germany
The psychic health of teachers is the focus of the present teacher
research. Investigations show that early retirements are characteristic of the teaching profession. Often, work-caused psychic
illnesses are the reason for it. In particular, teachers at technical
colleges suffer above-average more often from psychosomatic
strains than teachers of other school types. In this context, the
confrontation with difficult pupils is seen as especially burdensome. The aim of the pilot study was to objectively ascertain the
teacher - pupil interaction as well as to evaluate the interaction
from both the perspective of the teacher and not least of the pupil. We meant to deduce recommendations towards a successful
teacher-pupil interaction and thus to pre-emptively contribute to
warranting a lasting teaching process that avoids overstraining
pupils. Following the “RHIA-Unterricht” procedure, we conducted
observations of the teacher-pupil interaction in 30 lessons at two
technical colleges.
97
Intergenertional understanding and community
cohesion
Anne-Marie Micallef (Manchester Metropolitan University),
Asiya Sidiquee (MMU), Iyabo Fatimilehin(Building Bridges),
Amira Hassan (Building Briges), Raheela Ali (MMU),Carla
deSantis(MMU), Tunde Zack Williams (UCLAN), Geoff Bunn
(MMU)
England
This paper will draw on two projects that have focused on the
development of intergenerational understanding. The first used
narrative workshops with Somali and Yemeni fathers and sons living in Liverpool, UK, as part of a wider project on parenting. The
second involved older volunteers working in a variety of ways
in schools in Greater Manchester. We will report the findings of
evaluations of the two projects and identify the benefits of intergenerational work in terms of bridging and linking social capital
and both hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing.
95
Teaching and Learning: a successful experience
with low income students
Heloisa Szymanski, Márcia M. C. Gianvechio Gianini, Edna
de Oliveira Telles,Margarida Pompéia Gioielli,Teresa Palleta
Lomar
Pontif Univers Católica de São Paulo
Brazil
The study reported here was part of a Program of Psychoeducational Support developed by a research Group on Educational
48
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&
d i v e r s e
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pacio público, a través de incorporar a las comunidades en el diseño y gestión de sus espacios colectivos, se ha abierto un campo
de acción en el que confluyen diversas disciplinas y por ende distintas lógicas. Lo que conlleva el riesgo de reduccionismos unidimensonales o ingenuidades totalizantes, que pueden simplificar,
subvalorar o sobrevalorar determinadas dimensiones por sobre
otras. En la presente comunicación nos planteamos reflexionar
desde una aproximación Ambiental - Comunitaria, acerca de las
características e implicancias que las dinámicas socioespaciales
de los procesos de intervención urbana sobre el espacio publico
presentan en comunidades de barrio, proponiendo un analisis
transversal sobre el diseño urbano, los fenómenos psicoambientales y las dinámicas comunitarias que en este tipo de acciones
se articulan.
98
The Construction of a Portuguese On-line Forum
for Mutual Help
Marta Pita
APAV
Portugal
The objective of this study is to comprehend the dynamics in
group relationships while the group is developing a project. The
Internet and the computer mediated communication are factors that are affecting the social relationships and it should in a
responsible way so that everyone can benefit from it. The participants of this study are members of the Empowerment And
Mutual Help Centre (CEAM) of the Association for the Psychosocial Study and Integration (AEIPS). The method used is a qualitative participatory action-research (collaborative research) which
employed, formal and informal meetings, (e.g. working groups, a
focus group) camp diary and narrative analysis It was interest to
see how leaders dealt with this new project, how teamwork was
organized and the growing dynamics form around an objective.
Another information is the difficulties that appeared and how
they are surpassed, and how peoples capabilities were used.
101
Age and Intergenerational Relationships at Work
Contexts
Celia Soares, Paula Castro, Ana Passos, Sandra Carvalho
Portugal
The topic of age associated to work and career may turn into
a sensitive issue in the future. For the current transformations
which are occurring at the societal and organizational level, intergenerational relations may be viewed as a source of instability,
insecurity, and sometimes conflict, among different contexts of
activity. In order to analyze representations, discourses and arguments construed around this topic, narrative-episodic interviews and group interviews were conducted. Participants were
selected according to three different age groups, balanced by
sex, level of education and sector of activity. Results show three
main emerging dimensions that structure the individual discourses and group discussions: denying the importance of age,
expressed through several types of arguments, all of which avoid
direct attribution of differences to age; experience versus innovation, an extremely central dimension which presents convergence among participants.
99
Intergenerational practice in the community: A
preventative mental health intervention
Charlotte Alcock, Camden and Islington Mental Health and
Social Care Trust (author) (presenter), Paul Camic, Canterbury
Christchurch University (Co-author), Chris Barker, University
College London (Co-author)
England
An innovative community-based intergenerational intervention
was designed to change negative age-group stereotypes and
promote sense of community amongst older and younger persons. Eighteen young people and 12 older adults participated in
the intervention, which was based on contact theory and adapted ‘photovoice’ methods. An applied ethnographic approach was
adopted. Pre- and post-intervention focus groups were carried
out with each generation separately. Transcripts and field notes
were analysed using thematic analysis. Credibility checks were
carried out by respondent validation and audit by two experienced researchers. Pre-intervention, both generations presented
age-group stereotypes and neither had a strong sense of community; post-intervention, both generations felt that intergenerational contact reduced age-group stereotypes and enhanced
recognition of intergenerational similarity, and sense of community also strengthened. The ‘photovoice’ method helped to facilitate change.
102
Hombres y mujeres inmigrantes: contextos laborales de latinoamericanos y europeos del Este
Pilar Moreno Jiménez, M Luisa Ríos Rodríguez
Universidad de Málaga
Spain
Analizamos las características sociolaborales de inmigrantes en
la provincia de Málaga diferenciando entre hombres y mujeres
y entre latinoamericanos y europeos del Este. Se plantean como
objetivos específicos: a) Describir las características y condiciones
de trabajo en inmigrantes latinoamericanos y europeos del Este,
b) Analizar las diferencias en las condiciones familiares, sociales
y laborales entre hombres y mujeres y según procedencia, y c)
Conocer los discursos de los inmigrantes sobre su realidad laboral
en España. Se combina metodologia cualitativa (4 grupos focales:
2 de mujeres y 2 de hombres) y cuantitativa (Escala General de
Satisfacción Laboral, de Warr, Cook y Wall, 1979). Los resultados
muestran diferencias en varios aspectos laborales entre hombres
y mujeres, y en función del lugar de procedencia. Sin embargo,
100
El diseño de espacios publicos como oportunidad para la potenciación de comunidades
Hector Berroeta Torres, Tomeu Vidal Moranta, Andres Di maso
Tarditti
Universidad de Barcelona
Spain
En el escenario actual de un nuevo urbanismo, que busca recuperar valores tradicionales de comunidad, vecindad, barrio y es-
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no se hallan diferencias estadísticamente significativas, entre
sexos, en la Satisfacción laboral.
o n
C o m m u n i t y
P s y c h o l o g y
que utilizan metodologías grupales. Cada una enfatiza un aspecto
de la dinámica grupal: el informativo, el emocional, la acción. En
nuestro planteamiento desde la higiene mental basada en la autorregulación los objetivos generales de una intervención son: -la
sensibilización hacia las actitudes caracteriales defensivas y sus
limitaciones, su comprensión y alternativas -La conexión entre la
vida personal y la social –El fortalecimiento de la comunicación y
las redes sociales -La experimentación para asumir la dirección de
la propia vida personal y colectiva. Para lograrlos evaluar los tres
aspectos: informativo, caracterial y de acción permite una visión
más completa y un diseño metodológico que combine los tres en
la proporción y secuencia más adecuada a las necesidades.
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Implicaciones Éticas del Adiestramiento en Investigación en la Atención Comunitaria
María de los Ángeles Campos Huichán, Carolina Rosete Sánchez, Virginia Rocha Romero, Fernando Herrera Salas
FES Iztacala UNAM
Mexico
Este trabajo presenta el análisis de las implicaciones éticas de un
proyecto de investigación interdisciplinario, orientado a la construcción de un modelo de enseñanza basado en competencias
clínicas y su evaluación a través de listas de cotejo, en escenarios
de intervención. Forma parte de un proyecto más general de que
tiene como objetivo la elaboración de una normatividad para las
prácticas clínicas en escenarios clínicos en las carreras de Medicina, Optometría y Odontología, auspiciado por el Programa
de Apoyo a Programas Institucionales para el Mejoramiento de
la Enseñanza (PAPIME). Aquí mostramos sólo el análisis de las
implicaciones éticas del trabajo con los odontólogos. Reflexionamos sobre los fundamentos de la ética profesional en general y
particularmente en la psicología, en la atención odontológica
a la comunidad y en la investigación educativa. Utilizamos una
metodología cualitativa a través de registros etnográficos y videograbaciones.
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People-place relations: Exploring the relation
between place and community variables
Susana Batel e P. Castro
ISCTE
Portugal
Along the last years, it has been pointed out by environmental
psychology literature the lack of conceptual and empirical clearness regarding the distinction between the concepts aiming to
understand people-environment/community relations (e.g, Duarte & Lima, 2005; Knez, 2005). This lack of conceptual precision
began to be diagnosed in the early 90’s, due to the proliferation of
specific concepts concerning that relation, such as Place Attachment (Bonaiuto, Fornara, & Bonnes, 2003), Sense of Place (Stedman, 2002), Sense of Community (McMillan & Chavis, 1986), Place
Identity (Proshansky, Fabian & Kaminoff, 1983), among others.
The question asked about this proliferation is if we should search
for consensus among these concepts or instead maintain their
diversity (Patterson & Williams, 2007). It is therefore important to
empirically access place constructs aiming to validate their differentiation and their relation with specific communities.
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Global Climate change: Moving beyond individual solutions to collective problems
Patricia Conway and Courte Voorhees
Vanderbilt University
USA
The importance of tackling global climate change (GCC) has
been accepted across the globe. The future is green and it is fast
becoming ‘good’ to be green. The problem is green is costly in
multiple ways. As a result, the ability to engage in green behaviours is influenced by class-based factors, such as the availability
of individual or collective resources, our socio-economic standing or our community location. This disparate ability to ‘act green’’
(and therefore be good) is developing a “class-based virtue” in our
responses to GCC. This paper will discuss the emergence of this
phenomenon and the limitations it places on our ability to respond to GCC adequately and collectively as societies. The paper
also considers the unintended consequences of this rise in “class–
based virtue”, in building resistance to the individual and collective changes needed to address GCC.
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Policy and community-based responses to the
HIV epidemic among Black MSM in the U.S.
Patrick A. Wilson & Terrance Moore
Columbia.University
USA
Issues: Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS in the U.S. Data from a recent national study of MSM in five urban areas showed that almost half of
BMSM who were tested were HIV-positive. Interventions targeted
toward BMSM are greatly needed in order to effectively combat
the epidemic. Description: The National Alliance of State & Territorial AIDS Directors (NASTAD) conducted interviews with state
& local AIDS Directors, health department (HD) staff, and leaders of community-based organizations (CBOs) in order to gauge
resources and document prevention activities directed toward
BMSM. Over 70 interviews were conducted with participants in
14 jurisdictions across the U.S. Interviews were transcribed and
coded using qualitative data analysis software. Key themes related to barriers, facilitators, funding, HD-CBO relationships and
unique issues within BMSM communities were extrapolated.
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Emoción, Información y Acción en las Intervenciones Comunitarias
Juan Antonio Colmenares Gil
Ayuntamiento de Getafe
Spain
Esquema teórico. La pedagogía de adultos, la investigación participativa, el desarrollo comunitario son formas de intervención
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working these concepts with children, a good option is playing with them since it is one of the ten more important rights
they have to develop affective, cognitive and social aspects in
their lives. To play and to participate in different social situations
contribute children to learn to cooperate and solve problems, to
know others perspectives, make decisions and develop social
abilities. This paper aims to analyze and discuss a psychoeducational game designed as an option to facilitate, through critical
analysis and reflectivity, the construction of knowledge and attitudes that promote human rights, gender equity, healthy sexuality and a life free of violence.
108
Rol de la comunidad en la prevención de los femicidios
Hector Alejandro Abarca Diaz
U. Católica de la Santísima Concepción
Chile
Femicide is the extreme manifestation of gender violence and it
is an act of violation against human rights and dignity, in spite of
the social and legal conventions that condemn it. In order to understand femicide, we must remember that violence in couples
is a situation that still exists despite various public and private
efforts to eliminate it. ‘Intimate femicide” (the killing of women by
men who the victim had an intimate, family and cohabitation or
other related relationship with) is the cause of death of 70 women per year in Chile, and the toll over the last three years is over
200 women. These killings show certain characteristics, such as
the fact that most of the victims asked for help from some organisation. Thus, the situations were known and these deaths could
have been prevented. In addition, the murderers show an amazing degree of cruelty as well as a high level of premeditation in
their crimes. The above make community responses for the prevention of Femicide of utmost importance.
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Prosocial Communities in Cultural Context
Coordinator: Wade Pickren
Ryerson University
Canada
In prosocial communities, members work together for the wellbeing of each member of the community. Understanding and facilitating the development of such communities requires consideration of individuals and their psychological and sociocultural
environments. Attention must be paid to the particular cultural
contexts that such communities exist within. In this symposium,
we present a theoretical framework for prosocial communities,
then two specific projects are presented, one in Jordan with
young Arab males and one in Canada with recent immigrants,
to illustrate the challenges of fostering prosocial communities in
specific cultural contexts.
109
Poverty reduction polices and Gender in Brazil:
the maintenance of an Inequality
Thais Franca da Silva
University of Coimbra – WOPP
Brazil
From a gender perspective, women and men experience poverty differently, as a result of the different roles they play at the
society. Due to the predominant male culture, women have less
access to education and productive resources (land, capital and
credits), therefore they are more affected and more vulnerable
to poverty than men. The present paper objects to reflect and
discuss critically on the relation between Brazilian public polices
to reduce poverty and gender inequality. Methodologically, a literature review was carried out on the following topics: gender
(Ridegway, Correl, Okin), poverty (Arriagada, Canclini, Davis),
and Brazilian public polices to reduce poverty (United Nations
Development Programme’s and Economic Commission for Latin
America and the Caribbean’s report on poverty in Brazil and the
Brazilian government’s official reports on poverty reduction polices and programmes, Betto and Ianni).
A Prosocial Community Framework
Forrest B. Tyler
I define a prosocial community as one in which its members are
committed to working together for their own and others’ wellbeing and that of the community. That definition provides a basis
for integrating the complex nature of people, their psychosocial
environments, and the relationships between them in ways that
are responsive to each other and mutually facilitative. It also supports peoples’ acceptance of each others as active agents whose
perspectives are valid in their respective contexts (Ethnically Valid). The creation and development of prosocial communities is
based on transcending these differences by involving their members in three interrelated levels of activities in mutually facilitative ways. Local Action is the individual and common actions that
people take to solve problems and promote their own psychosocial competence, the quality of their lives, and the well-being of
their community and those in it.
110
Gender equity and rights: let’s play “El Gran Rally
de la Vida”
Youth in the Arab World
Curtis N. Rhodes, Jr.
Youth in the Arabic-speaking world live in the youngest population on the globe. Approximately 60% of Arab society is under
the age of 25, with social and economic hurdles to overcome that
will affect their lives and the societies in which they live. Rapid urbanization coupled with paradigm change from tradition to modernity as a social norm highlight the importance of capturing
the energy of youth as positive agents in their communities and
in building environments that foster inclusive, supportive, and
creative qualities. The Transcultural Ethnic Validity Model (TEVM)
Rebelín Echeverría, Teresita Castillo, León María, José De Lille,
Quintal Marissa, Lorena Gambôa, Ancona Lourdes, Cortés
Ayala
Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán
Mexico
Sexuality, human rights, gender equity and a life free of violence
are social phenomena that today require of global and local actions that contribute to positive relationships and the reduction
of social problems associated to them. More specifically, when
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recognizes that individuals are socialized and develop their characteristic styles of living and functioning within a sociocultural
environment. An unsupportive, antagonistic environment is likely therefore to result in a high degree of alienation in its youth.
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formation that informs critical action. Critical pedagogy utilizes
problem-posing methods and is concerned with teacher-student
collaboration in learning. Problem-posing education bases itself
on creativity and stimulates true reflection and action upon reality. In problem-posing education, “people develop their power to
perceive critically the way they exist in the world” (Freire, 1993,
p. 83).
Narratives and health:
Fostering prosocial communities among recent immigrants to Toronto
Wade E. Pickren
Our community-based exploratory research was designed to
describe, understand and emphasize the strengths inherent in
cultural health beliefs and practices of recent immigrants. As part
of a pilot study, we used narrative interviews to explore the perception and understanding of health beliefs and practices of 10
recent immigrants who were participating in a local community
center for immigrants in downtown Toronto. We analyzed transcripts of our interviews to identify common themes (Consensual
Qualitative Research technique). Our results were in agreement
with other findings that health care, both access and utilization,
is a major issue with recent immigrant populations in Canada. We
found that recent immigrants were likely to underutilize health
care. Our results indicated that many immigrants continue to use
health care approaches rooted in their home culture, even after
several years in Canada. Yet, they also use biomedical care.
Student Engagement & Connecting the Global & the Local as Key Principles for Teaching & Learning
Geoff Nelson
In this paper, I describe the pedagogical principles of student
engagement and connecting the global and the local. The first
principle, engagement, refers to students’ active participation in
the classroom and the community. Bell hooks (1994) describes
engaged pedagogy in the classroom as teaching practice that
“necessarily values student expression” (p. 20). By structuring
classroom experiences that allow for student expression, we create a challenging and supportive environment for student learning; and by facilitating student engagement in the community,
we go beyond the confines of the classroom to give students opportunities to have meaningful service-learning experiences that
help them learn more about themselves, the course material, and
the world. The second principle, connecting the global and the
local, entails two key points. The first is to understand how CP is
understood and practiced in other parts of the world and how
that is similar to and different from CP practice locally.
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Critical Perspectives on Teaching and Learning
Community Psychology
Service-Learning in Service of Teaching and Learning
Community
Colleen Loomis
In this paper, I present various models of community servicelearning and discuss which models are well-suited as tools for
integrating theory, research, and action in teaching and learning community psychology. This process of integration is similar
to what has been termed oscillation – “a deliberate movement
between theory ‘in the clouds’ and empirical materials ‘on the
ground’” (Deleuze, 1992, as cited in Weis & Fine, 2004, p. xvi).
However, rather than moving back and forth between only two
elements, I present service-learning as a strategy for moving
among three elements as well as pulling these elements more
closely together. Using service-learning supports a community
psychology value to promote action with research. In addition,
this approach can provide opportunities for students to see theory in action, realizing Kurt Lewin’s dictum that there is “nothing so
practical as a good theory” (Greenwood & Levin, 1998, p. 19).
Coordinator: Scot Evans
Wilfrid Laurier University
Canada
Drawing upon their experiences at both the undergraduate and
graduate levels at Wilfrid Laurier University in Canada, the participants in this symposium discuss principles, strategies, and
challenges for teaching and learning Community Psychology
(CP). In the first paper, Scot Evans reviews critical theoretical perspectives on teaching and learning and discusses the fundamental principle of power-sharing and its implications for teaching
and learning CP. Next, Geoffrey Nelson discusses the pedagogical
principles of promoting student engagement in the classroom
and the community and connecting the global and the local. Finally, based on her experiences with community service-learning,
Colleen Loomis discusses the principle of integrating theory and
practice in teaching and learning CP. The presenters conclude by
opening up a dialogue with audience members about their experiences in teaching and learning CP.
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Sense of Community and Community Psychology: Where do we go from here? Part I and II
Critical Pedagogy in Action in the Community Psychology Classroom
Scot D. Evans
In this paper, I discuss critical theoretical perspectives on teaching and learning in community psychology (CP) and the fundamental principle of power-sharing. Reflecting on critical theoretical perspectives on teaching and learning can help illuminate
relevant fundamental learning objectives for teaching as well as
the specific pedagogical approaches that can help us get there.
From a critical standpoint, the central aim of education in CP is
not the acquisition of information, but rather perspective trans-
Facilitator: David Chavis
ASDC
USA
Authors: David Chavis (ASDC - Association for the Study and Development of Community, USA), Caterina Arcidiacono (University
Federico II of Naples - Italia), Anne Brodsky (University of Maryland-USA), Mariane Krause (Catholic Unversity of Chile - Chile),
Kiern Lee (ASDC - USA), Grace Pretty (University of Southern
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E m p o w e r i n g
Queensland - Australia), Chris Sonn (Curtain University of Technology - Australia), Alpio Sanchez Vidal (University of Barcelona
- Spain), Douglas Perkins (Vanderbilt University - USA)
Research and practice related to a sense of community is the central concept in international community psychology. This conference is a rare opportunity to promote international cooperation to
advance our understanding and application of this human experience. We are proposing a two session roundtable to look at how
international cooperation can advance the theory, research, and
practice related to a sense of community. The roundtable will be
organized around the following questions: 1. Is there a core experience of SOC across culture and contexts?, 2. How does culture,
context, and geography affect SOC?, 3. How is the sense of community different, if at all, in virtual communities? 4. What is the
relationship between SOC and the power for changing communities and other systems? 5. How is SOC related to network trust
and bridging concepts in social capital? 6. How do we advance
the understanding of SOC in this new climate of globalization?
7. What are the effects and dynamics of having SOC in multiple
settings or nested with a setting? 8. What would the practice of
community psychology be like if was based on fostering SOC for
purposes of change? 9. Can community psychology contribute to
the building PSOC that is not exclusive to out groups (i.e. uniting
feature rather than a divisive one?) 10. How do we advance the
international development of SOC theory, research, and practice
within community psychology? Audience participation will be
encouraged. Participants will also explore how this discussion
can be published and advanced in other ways.
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Breaking the Silence around HIV/AIDS in Kenya:
Youth-Focused Prevention
Gary W. Harper, Leah C. Neubauer, Alexandra G. Murphy,
Jessica L. Gehle, Andrew Riplinger, Audrey K. Bangi, Matthew
Mburu, Peter Mwangi, Eileen O’Callahan, & Elizabeth Wanjiku
DePaul University
USA
Youth and young adults in sub-Saharan Africa experience the
highest rates of HIV/AIDS in the world; culturally-specific prevention efforts are needed to thwart the spread of the virus. In many
African countries severely impacted by HIV/AIDS, like Kenya, cultural myths about transmission and social taboos impede open
discussions about HIV/AIDS and sexuality among youth continuing to fuel the pandemic. This presentation details the development and dissemination of an HIV prevention intervention for
youth in Kenya, which was developed by a collaborative multidisciplinary team from Kenya and the United States. The program,
Communicating about HIV and AIDS Together (CHAT), is based in
a holistic health framework and incorporates training in interpersonal communication skills to facilitate participants’ enactment
of preventive practices and dissemination of HIV-related knowledge to others.
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Propuestas para prevención de conductas sexuales de riesgo en HSH
Martín, M.J.; Martínez, J.M.; Rojas, D.; Remor, E. y Del Romero,
J.
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Spain
El colectivo “Hombres que practican sexo con otros hombres”
(HSH) es uno de los sectores más afectados por el VIH/SIDA en Europa Occidental; asimismo se viene observando un aumento de
la incidencia de ITS y prácticas sexuales de riesgo en este colectivo. Tomando como referencia los resultados alcanzados en la
investigación realizada por nuestro equipo, particularmente las
variables que aparecen asociadas directa o indirectamente con la
conducta sexual de riesgo, mediante la aplicación de doble metodología cuantitativa y cualitativa, y complementando dichos
resultados con los obtenidos en otras investigaciones centradas
en programas preventivos dirigidos a HSH, se proponen algunas
consideraciones para el desarrollo, aplicación y evaluación de investigaciones aplicadas o intervenciones preventivas. El presente
estudio se fundamenta en la Teoría del Comportamiento Planificado (Ajzen, 1991).
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Caracterización de comportamiento pro-social y
antisocial auto-reportado por adolescentes chilenos
Paula Alarcón Bañares & Ricardo Pérez-Luco Paula Alarcón
Bañares
Universidad de la Frontera
Chile
Se muestra una caracterización del autoreporte de comportamiento pro-social y antisocial de una muestra de 2056 adolescentes del sur de Chile, (993 varones y 1063 mujeres), asisten a
secundaria desde 14 a 19 años, se utiliza el cuestionario CACSA
y se diferencian los resultados en base a sexo, edad y sucesos de
vida significativos (SVS). Los resultados más relevantes muestran
diferencias significativas de comportamientos antisociales por
tramo de edad, son más frecuentes las transgresiones leves y la
conducta violenta hacia pares después de los 16 años, sin embargo, las conductas tipificadas como delito no muestran diferencias
significativas según tramo de edad. Los comportamientos prosociales se reportan com alta frecuencia en todos los tramos de
edad. Las conductas violentas y trangresoras hacia las personas
se reportan con mayor frecuencia y tolerancia que las conductas
de robo, el 20 % de los adolescentes reportan más de 5 comportamientos transgresores.
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Overcoming the stigma associated to HIV/AIDS:
a call for collaboration with community Psychology
Carlos Roberto de Castro-Silva
Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul
Brazil
After more than 20 years of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is noticed
an intense connection with different forms of discrimination.
The evolution of the epidemic has revealed that it stressed other
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forms of prejudice related to sexual orientation, to gender, race
and social class. In Brazil, where the social inequality is very severe, the social exclusion is even a more important feature,
once it exposes a bigger number of people to the infection by
the virus and other sexual transmitted diseases. This situation
generates an intense suffering, inhibiting emancipatory actions
to face the stigma for a better quality of life of people who live
with HIV/AIDS. By the practice of the Community Psychology at
Cruzeiro do Sul University, in a Non-Governmental Organization
(NGO), with poor communities in the periphery of São Paulo, it
was intended to strengthen the psychological aspects of these
people as an instrument for constructing more active citizens in
the communities.
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Promoting resilience in families and adolescents
in contexts of risks
Maria Angela Mattar Yunes
Fundação Universidade Federal Rio Grande
Brazil
The issue concerning risks conditions whose interaction with
protective mechanisms result in behaviors and processes of individual or group resilience have been receiving scientific attention recently. Its implications for political programs of education,
health and well being of those who experience social and environmental adversities are indeniable. This symposium presents
experiences of investigations and interventions with people at
risk conditions: Portuguese adolescents in school, Brazilian adolescents in the streets and/or institutions and Brazilian families
in poverty. All proposals aim to discuss and present strategies to
promote resilience and empowerment for these groups.
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Impact of a hip-hop intervention on the well-being of underprivileged adolescents
Resilience promoting factors in school setting in an atrisk group of portuguese adolescents
Mariana Abreu and Maria Raúl Lobo Xavier
FEP-UCP, Portugal
The bioecological perspective assumes that human development
is a function of interactional processes between individuals and
contexts and happens with progressively complexity in different
contexts during significant periods of time or even across the life
time. Adolescents develop at school with their relationships with
peers, teachers and all actors involved in the educative community. Resilience is a phenomenon that involves a well succeeded
adaptation to the contexts in spite of serious threats to development (Masten, 1994). According to Fergus and Zimmerman
(2005) resilience is not a quality or a trait of personality which is
always present in adolescent’s lives but it is expressed across the
lives depending on the contexts people move in. We discuss and
try to understand the resilience phenomenon in a population of
at-risk adolescents who have gone through several stressful life
events (risk factors).
Julie Beaulac, Elizabeth Kristjansson, Melissa Calhoun
University of Ottawa
Canada
Youth from low socio-economic, minority, and other underprivileged groups tend to be less physically active and to have poorer
health than other youth. With this in mind, a community-academic partnership was formed to respond to the need for more
physical activity programming for youth in a multicultural, underprivileged community in Ottawa. After consulting parents and
youth living in the target community, funding was received from
United Way Ottawa to implement girls-only and co-ed classes of
the new hip-hop dance intervention. This study sought to assess
the extent to which the new intervention resulted in improved
psychological, social, and physical well-being. We investigated
this by comparing pretest and postest values using a repeatedmeasures 2 x 2 mixed model ANOVA [time (pre, post), & family
affluence (low, med, high)], controlling for number of classes attended. In addition, impact was assessed through qualitative interviews with fourteen participants. Interviews were transcribed
verbatim and analyzed using a grounded theory approach with
two independent raters. Quantitatively, significant or close to significant improvements were found for hip-hop dance skills and
prosocial behaviours. Qualitative findings were more positive.
Youth described improvements across eight main areas, including dancing and other related skills, behaviours (e.g., physical
activity, watching television), overall health, physical well-being,
psychological well-being, relationships, respect, and school performance. Overall, findings suggested a promising program for
the promotion of youth well-being. During this session, we will
share findings as well as lessons learned from this experience.
For instance, youth highlighted important program elements
that led to the reported benefits. These lessons will be useful for
other prevention and promotion programs targeting urban underprivileged communities. In addition, a significant implication
of this study is the importance of considering environmental factors when planning and implementing interventions to increase
participation in physical activity.
Risk and resilience in adolescents that live in contexts of
social vulnerability in Brazil
Débora Dalbosco Dell’Aglio
UFRGS, Brasil
This work aims to present research results developed at the Center for Studies and Research in Adolescence, at the Universidade
Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with adolescents who live in
situations of social vulnerability. Risk and protection factors are
discussed in the case of adolescents who live in the streets and/
or institucionalized. They live away from their families for reasons
of violence or abandonment. The theoretical basis was the bioecology of human development and positive psychology. The
methodologies are mainly qualitative and propose the ecological engagement of the researchers in different contexts. Several
instruments have been used to data collection: diary of observations in contexts, interviews, drawing, posters building, among
others. These instruments have been adapted to the needs of a
cronological approach study which investigates the past, present
and future of the adolescents, searching to detect time changes
and its influence along their life cycle.
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pants prioritised the provision of ‘traditional’ government services over social services. When asked directly about the provision
of services aimed at reducing poverty, results were mixed.
Strategies to promote resilience in families of low income
facing social and environmental risks
Maria Angela Mattar Yunes
FURG, Brazil
The investigations of processes and possibilities of resilience in
families who live poverty is an issue related to the Positive Psychology movement. This discussion is important because it helps
to question ideological concepts and build a new professional
approach more oriented to healthy aspects of human development rather than the pathological ones. The framework of the key
processes for family resilience considers that families can emerge
stronger and more resourceful in coping successfully with challenges. The present work aims to propose strategies to promote
the development of resilience in families at risk based on the improvement of the relational quality of the professional’s services
who deal with families. Qualitative studies on the discourses of
Brazilian social agents showed that their patterns of interactions
with families at risk are focused on pessimistic “implicit theories”
about the characteristics of these groups.
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Social exclusion paradox in Poland
Przemyslaw Piotrowski; Gorzata Wysocka-Pleczyk Piotr Passowicz
Jagiellonian University
Poland
The process of social exclusion can be described from two points
of view: stigmatizing society and the group which is being excluded. The paper explores the paradox of football hooligans
in Poland as the excluded group. The Authors argue, that social
exclusion is not necessarily connected with the reduced level of
quality of life. The sense of belonging to a hooligan group becomes the essential source of support and the base for shaping
identity at the same time. Accepting the pattern of ‘aggressive
masculinity’ helps to build self esteem on the one hand, and provides a satisfying position in the group on the other. The group
values and standards are perceived as an alternative to the principles inculcated at school and by the mass-media, which are
regarded as unclear and ineffective in satisfying the needs. The
sense of being rooted into the local community and identification with a group of soccer fans is accompanied by a sense of
increasing alienation and inability to function in the wider social
context.
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Gufasha Umuryango: Rural Associations, Social
Capital and Empowerment in Rwanda
James Zahniser
Greenville College
USA
We will present a collaborative research mini-expedition, in
which multiple methods and concepts from multiple disciplines
helped us understand the roles of Rwandan rural associations in
creating social capital and facilitating members’ empowerment.
An “expedition” of several months duration may represent an
oxymoron, given the fact that collaborative community-based
research usually takes several years to unfold (Kelly, 2006), but
we show that using community psychology research principles
can be effective, even in a shorter time period. This collaborative
effort between academic researchers, an NGO, and rural associations increased understanding of association-level processes and
individual empowerment and produced new tools for collaboration with community-based associations in Rwanda.
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Community psychology under the pressure
Hilde Eileen Nafstad Rolv Mikkel Blakar Albert Botchway Erik
Carlquist Kim
Rand-Hendriksen Salman Türken
University of Oslo
Norway
Conceiving of globalization as an ideology, as a system of ideas
circulating in the public realm influencing societies, communities and individuals worldwide, thereby producing effects and
changes, both at the individual and local level, we will analyze
the character and influence of globalization in three societies:
Ghana, Turkey and Norway. Our study will analyze the impact of
the currently globalized neo liberalist ideology with regard to the
solidarity contract (concerning rights and duties) between the
individual citizen and society/community and the value of social
equality. We will demonstrate how ideological readjustments
are taking place so that core values for community psychology
in Ghana and Turkey as well as in Norway increasingly have to
be understood from the horizon of globalized neo liberalist free
market ideology. It is by means of language that communities
and individuals internalize ideological assumptions and values.
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Public perceptions of poverty and the role of local government
Cate Curtis (Waikato University) & Bruce Curtis (University of
Auckland)
New Zealand
Cate Curtis, Waikato University & Bruce Curtis, the University of
Auckland New Zealand has been extensively documented in the
past two decades as a testing ground for social and economic
policy reform. This presentation will offer a modest but empirically-grounded contribution to the debates around neoliberalism,
social exclusion and poverty. It reports on the results of a survey
of 1039 New Zealanders on their opinions of the level of poverty
in their communities, and the appropriateness of efforts by local
government councils to address poverty and related issues. More
than 85 percent of participants considered poverty to have been
a problem in their community in the last year. However, partici-
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fessionals, in pairs, in hospital contexts, underlining the intervention process, pointing difficulties and challenges to the formation
of professionals in that field. In the following paper are presented
difficulties experienced by a musical professional as well when
he/she intends to develop communitarian works with popular
sections. In the third paper are presented psychosocial aspects
relative to subjective dimensions present in a musical professional education as a jazz professional. Finally, it is searched an analysis on the aspects - internal and external ones, characteristically
found in the interaction between music professionals and their
community - which are present in the insertion and participation
of those professionals’ in the communitarian projects, standing
out psychosocial dimensions related to the dis-naturalization of
daily life. It is aimed in here to identify those dimensions necessary to the musician’s formation which contribute to turn them
into social change agents inside communitarian projects, starting at the perspective of the Latin-American Social Community
Psychology.
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Formando en Educación Comunitaria a Mujeres
Cesantes y Pobres en Chile
Domingo Godoy Ojeda & Caroline Guardiola Ramírez.
Corporación SEDEJ
Chile
El espacio de formación y capacitación a educadoras comunitarias nace como una iniciativa gubernamental del Ministerio del
Trabajo para incrementar el número de personas con habilidades
o competencias para desarrollar trabajos en la comunidad, en el
área de paradocencia en colegios municipalizados usados en su
mayoría por familias en situación de pobreza y extrema pobreza.
Se prioriza a mujeres dueñas de casa, cesantes y que pertenecen
a las dos comunas más pobres de Santiago. El psicólogo comunitario opta por los lineamientos técnicos de este proceso formativo y se basa en generar más que respuestas preguntas y con ello
despertar la curiosidad por investigar aquello que las lleve a una
superación personal (empoderamiento) en tanto sean capaces
de meditar los conocimientos y llevarlos a la práctica en el diario
vivir (producción de saberes y conocimientos).
The musical intervention in Portuguese hospital contexts: approaches driven to community psychology.
Ana Paula Branco de Góis
Superior Applied Psychology Institute- ISPA, Lisbon, Portugal
The music professionals’ performance in Portuguese hospital
context has become more systematic since 2005 with the accomplishment of “Musicians’ Formation in the Hospital” Course, which
had intense participation of the Hospital Portuguese Musicians
Association. The present essay is characterized by aspects such
as: a) it happens (2008) in ten hospital contexts (pediatrics, intensive therapy, and others) and health contexts (old people shelters), in Lisbon and its surroundings; b) it is developed with pairs
of musicians and there should be the users and/or professionals’ acceptance in their ambiance; c) the musical performances
gather musical repertoires familiar to the cultural, ethnical and
family contexts of the users/patients; d) it is searched a construction of an ambiance and relationships that are less impersonal,
more harmonics and emotionally positive; e) it is a kind of performance that has brought effects of larger emotional closeness/
boldness in the users/patients; f ) it collaborates so that the hospital context is noticed in a more positive way; g) it constitutes
a kind of practice that also brought repercussions into the staff.
In spite of those impacts, the musicians come across difficulties and challenges that interfere in their performance such as:
estrangements and/or prejudice linked to the condition of the
user’s health-disease; difficulties of relationship and approach in
the situation; accomplishment of observations and appropriate
registrations about human relationships; detection of indications
for acceptance (resistance) to the entrance/permanence in the
ambiance; how to verify effects from the accomplished performance; and indicators and criteria for the work evaluation and
continuity. Those aspects should be contemplated in the formation process, to contribute for the invigoration of the communitarian networks, inside and outside of the hospital contexts.
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O sonho – a comprehensive intervention building on poverty fighting
Aguiar, J.; Cardoso, F.; Paz, P.; Martins, A.; Lopes, B.
O Sonho
Portugal
“O Sonho” (The dream) is a portuguese NGO that works in Setúbal – a city 45 Km from Lisbon. Since 2005 “O Sonho” has been
expanding its participation in community settings. In October
2007 “O Sonho” made a protocol with the Portuguese Social Security System, to work for a national poverty ending program –
Rendimento Social de Inserção (Social Integration Income), aiming to promote labour, social and community integration of low
income population. This program intends to build with families
new tracks for their development, on employment, education,
housing, health and civil rights and duties. Intending to build a
comprehensive intervention, we have been growing in the areas
of microcrédit – building a coalition to give credit to promote selfemployment; training – doing and promoting training on health
promotion and prevention; food supplies and clothes – building
coalitions in order to address serious hunger and poverty situations; and housing – promoting and developing mutualist solutions with families.
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Community intervention and music: contributions to community projects in the perspective
of latin-american social communitarian psychology
Cooordinator: Maria de Fatima Quintal de Freitas
Federal University of Paraná
Brazil
The present work is divided in four papers and intends to analyze
possible relationships among communitarian projects and music
participation into them as a form of psychosocial intervention. In
the first paper it is described the work developed by music pro56
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taining the coherence between political proposals and assumed
commitments. It will be analyzed approaches and estrangements
that are able to be between communitarian practices and political projects, implicit in the communitarian programmes that also
gather music professionals. It will be identified, as well, the psychosocial repercussions that those practices produce on different
agents (professionals and community). It will be analyzed the effects on the relationship Music, Communitarian Intervention and
reached results, in terms of social transformation and obtained
communitarian participation. It is aimed to indicate important
aspects to be implemented in these professionals’ formation in
order to able them to act in the communitarian field.
What happens with music in community projects? –
points and problems from a musical educator’s perspective.
Renate Lizana Weiland
Universidade Federal do Paraná, Brasil
This text discusses the presence of music in social community
projects, proposing a reflexion on the uses and possible contributions possible in such a context. It also points out problems,
specifically concerning the diversity of the use of music in projects of this nature. The text also makes reference to situations
encountered by musical educators in the field, and uses these as
a starting point for discussions concerning problems that exist in
such projects. It suggests dialogue between the areas of musical
education and communitarian social psychology.
Key words: music, community projects, education and work of
musical educators.
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Get people in need help?
Mike Seckinger, Eric van Santen
Deutsches Jugendinstitut
Germany
Since the Study of Dohrenwend and Dohrenwend in 1969 different analysis show that people in need not always have access
to the welfare system and supporting institutions. In 1971 Hart
postulated the “Inverse Care Law“ which says that people in need
have less access to help than people who are not so much in
need. In most of the European countries we can observe a cutback of the welfare system in the last decade. Therefore in this
symposium we want to discuss on empirical basis whether the
“Inverse Care Law“ still applies today.
Historias de vida y discurso musical. Una interpretación
desde los jazzistas en Cuernavaca Morelos
Juan Carlos Ariza
Universidad de Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca. México.
El presente trabajo es un primer acercamiento a la comprensión
de los elementos que construyen el ser jazzista. Con ello pretendo explicar cómo a través del discurso Musical (improvisación)
en el jazzista emerge la subjetividad (emocionalidad) en donde
se traza y sintetiza su historia de vida y su proyecto reflejado en
los sentidos musicales. El soporte teórico de la investigación es
la psicología cultural. A través de ella podemos dar cuenta de
los significados que se construyen colectivamente dentro de la
cultura y cómo ésta determina a las personas en sus historias de
vida y por lo tanto en su discurso. La forma de llegar a ello fue por
medio de historias de vida donde se recolectaron las narraciones
en tres etapas: ¿Qué situaciones lo llevaron a ser jazzista? ¿De qué
forma interpreta el jazzista su forma de improvisar? Y ¿cómo se
ve a futuro?
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Developing an integrated community-based
model of social welfare system
Hamid Sepehr
Yazd University
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
The paper reports on the process and outcomes of an action research project aiming to develop an integrated and communitybased model of welfare system. The experience has been based
on a study carried-out in communities within a medium-sized
province with the purpose of providing a national strategic model. The project followed a conversational and community-based
approach to system design and development. We used recording
and review of the process-data as the key methodology. The process included two levels of activity; (a) the local community as the
basic social unit, and (b) the welfare system level. The outcomes
revealed existing system deficits and fragmentations as well as
integrating and empowering strategies and structures.
Community and external agents: challenges and paradoxes in the latin-american social community psychology perspective.
Maria de Fátima Quintal de Freitas
Federal University of Paraná (UFPR), Brazil
In the last years, the number of professionals/institutions/projects committed to the resolution of social problems has increased. Besides that, that has performed a growing reality which
makes more visible works and communitarian interventions, and
it is verified that the challenges and dilemmas of the professional
practice have been maintained. Nowadays there is a big incentive
to voluntary participation, independently of the way practices
are accomplished and of assumed political-social commitments.
This emphasis on voluntary works can generate undesired-psychosocial-sub-products such as: the belief on the ‘stretched charitable hand’ as a social solution; conformism face to population’s
incapacity and/or motionless, so legitimating that people should
‘receive’ some help; sensation of ‘relief’ when doing something;
the idea of being collaborating and because of that controlling
the society destinations; and legitimating a logic that ‘psychologizes’ the population’s unsuccessful destiny. It will be done a
discussion about Community Social Psychology contributions
on communitarian interventions, focusing on the relationship of
Community and Musical Intervention and the possibility of main-
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Urban Community Support Programme (UCSP)/
Programa de Desenvolvimento Comunitário Urbano K’CIDADE
Ana Bandeira
Aga Khan Foundation
Portugal
Helping marginalised communities to identify their needs and to
find solutions for their own development process has been one
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great concern of the Aga Khan Development Network Agencies
(AKDN) around the world. With a wide experience on Community Development Programmes in many countries, the Aga Khan
Foundation, one of the Aga Khan Development Network Agencies, choose Portugal to setle the first urban community development Programme (UCSP) The Programme started in the beginning of 2004 and has a long-term commitment of at east 10 years
With the vision that communities can stand as active agents of
their own sustainable development, the UCSP’s mission is to empower vulnerable urban communities in order to improve their
livelihoods. Greater Lisbon was chosen as a pilot intervention
area, seeking the implementation of projects for community development and currently, the three target neighbourhoods are
Alta de Lisboa, Mira Sintra and Ameixoeira covering a total target
population of 20,300.
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er child traumatic stress issues. It is an outpatient, time-limited,
manualized treatment that has been used across the U.S. in a variety of community-based setttings. The Learning Collaborative
Methdology is being used to simultaneously train six sites a year
in TF-CBT for a three year period (18 sites total).
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CASPAE: A Project with projects
Maria Emilia Bigotte de Almeida
CASPAE
Portugal
The Centro de Apoio Social de Pais e Amigos da Escola nº10 (CASPAE 10),is a private institution of social solidarity, was created in
May of 2000 as a result of a citizens group’s expressed will to help
schools to carry out strategies and to develop projects and concrete measures of intervention, within a relation of systems between all the educational agents (parents, teachers, community).
Along these 8 years of existence the Institution has carried out
an active social intervention in the municipality, giving answers
in a social and economical development perspective to problems that affect families, assuring special protection to the most
vulnerable groups. Nevertheless, the constant changes made in
the Portuguese educational system at the primary schools functioning level, have obliged the Institution to permanently adapt
in order to be capable of continuing its work and consequently
sustain its workers.
130
Envisioning the future in poor communities: Implicatios for community resilience
Ahmed,R., Mosavel, M., Simon, C., Van Stade, D.
University of the Western Cape
South Africa
A sense of hopelessness has been associated with a range of risky
behaviours in youth. While the post-apartheid period has been associated with increased hope and change for the historically oppressed, the condition of many youth in low- income contexts remains unchanged.This paper examines the perceptions of youth
in post-apartheid South Africa, the challenges they face, and the
changes required at the community level for young people to
envision a better future. Specifically, what are the perceived risks
and resources in their communities that impact on their well being and their future,. We used a phenomenological approach to
explore the perceptions of high school students in Grades eight
through ten in a low-income community outside of Cape Town,
South Africa. We conducted 14 focus groups with girls and boys
(N=112) and we used a thematic approach to analyze the data.
The magnitude of risk as reflected in their descriptions of the adversity and harsh conditions facing them daily was striking.
133
Judicial environment and poor families: risk or
protection for relationships?
Simone de Biazzi Ávila Batista Silveira & Maria Angela Mattar
Yunes, FURG - Fundação Universidade Federal de Rio Grande
Brazil
The quality of family relations has an expressive role over the
human existence and may constitute a context for processes of
development and learning of competencies. It also contributes
to the improvement of social structures. The bioecological approach of human development puts forward the importance of
those and other interactions. This study aims to investigate the
relational processes and mechanisms operating in the judiciary
environment that attend poor families involved in judicial conflicts. The objectives are: to analyze the form of interactions established in the reception of families and to investigate factors
which may decrease or increase familiar conflicts, turning into
risk or protection conditions. The ecological engagement method was employed. Data collection instruments were: field book
with in loco observations and interviews with district attorneys,
judges, public defenders, social workers and members of the
families in judicial conflict.
131
Disseminating Evidence-based Practice within a
System of Care: The Learning Collaborative Approach
Robert P. Franks
Connecticut Center for Effective Practic
USA
Dr. Robert Franks, Director of the Connecticut Center for Effective Practice and Assistant Clinical Professor at the Yale University Child Study Center will present the Learning Collaborative
Methodology currently being used in the State of Connecticut
in the United States to disseminate an evidence-based practice,
trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT). The Center for Effective Practice is an innovative patnerships between
state agencies, private foundations and academic institutions
dedicated to raising the standard of child mental healthcare. TFCBT is a highly supported effective treatment for children who
are suffering from post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and oth58
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tives, promoted amongst different communities in a regeneration area of Liverpool, through a process of participative action
research. This area has a high proportion of Black and African minority groups, including asylum seekers, refugees and long time
settled communities and there are strains in terms of community
cohesion between and within communities. The project, in partnership with Building Bridges, a community-based psychology
team in Liverpool, aims at providing community based opportunities for fathers and sons to come together in ‘new’ settings,
promoting dialogue and intergenerational understanding of the
impact of living between two cultures. It seeks to improve on
participants’ family communication strained by migration and to
bridge the bi-cultural identity gap between fathers and sons. The
impact these interventions have on other family members and
stakeholders within community networks is also evaluated.
134
Attitudes towards same-sex marriage and adoption: a comparative study
Henrique Pereira
University of Beira Interior
Portugal
Societal attitudes towards homosexuality and bisexuality in general, and same-sex marriage and child adoption by homosexual
couples specifically, vary greatly in different cultures, and can
have several implications in terms of social sanctioning of samesex love, same-sex sexuality, and alternative family formation. The
latest research in the European Union regarding this issue shows
that the majority of Europeans are opposed to homosexual marriages and to child adoption by homosexual couples; nevertheless, public opinion tends to be somewhat more tolerant regarding homosexual marriages then adoption by same-sex couples.
Portugal has been seen as a conservative country in this matter
(29% feel that same-sex marriage should be allowed throughout
Europe, and only 19% think that adoption of children by homosexual couples should be authorized throughout Europe, Eurobarometer 66), but no studies have been made to compare if differences exist between homosexual, bisexual and heterosexual
people to this topic.
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Parent Education Programs: (Co)construction
with Parents
Costa, A.D., Ferreira, L.C., Narciso, I., Mendes, G. (NÓS-CAFAP/
FPCEUL), Encarnação, P.S., Navalho, P., Cabrita, A.P., Nogueira, J. (NÓS-CAFAP), Agapito, N. (NÓS-CAFAP/ISPA)
Portugal
The parent education/ training programs that have been developed for the last two years at the Family Support and Parental
Counseling Centre of NÓS were conceived for and with parents
of children and youth at risk as a strategy to prevent and reduce
child abuse and neglect. The weekly multi focused 3 hours sessions specifically target the parent’s response to the child or
youth’s needs evaluated previously according to the Framework
Assessment of Children in Need and their Families (Department
of Health, 2000). As so, each program is unique and its duration
depends on the group’s characteristics. Parents chose several
themes like “Child Development and Discipline”, “Family-School
Relationship”, “Children Protection and Safety” and “Children and
Domestic Violence”, which are developed with a multidisciplinary
team that includes psychologists, a social worker, an attorney and
a social-cultural animator. Through a developmental perspective
and a strong ecological and systems approach, this collaborative
programs are designed to respond to the participants needs, fathers and mothers, aiming to enhance their knowledge, skills, resources and strategies, promoting a safe and stimulating healthy
environment for the children and youth, through positive parenting practices. The strategies of intervention and preliminary
qualitative data about the programs are discussed, as well as the
future orientations.
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Formación Participativa de Madres de Niños con
Necesidades Educativas Especiales
Guadalupe Aguilera Castro, José René Alcaraz Gonzales, Felicitas Salinas Anaya, Jesús Lara Vargas y Juana Ávila Aguilar.
FES Iztacala
Mexico
La educación especial en México se orienta hacia la integración
Educativa, sin embargo ha encontrado múltiples obstáculos
dada la falta de recursos materiales y humanos, pero sobre todo
por la escasa sensibilización de la población atendida hacia sus
propias problemáticas. La carrera de Psicología de la Facultad de
Estudios Superiores Iztacala ofrece a la comunidad un servicio
de Educación Especial en la Clínica Universitaria de Salud Integral (CUSI), en la que pasantes de Psicología atienden casos de
necesidades educativas especiales. En este espacio formativo,
desde hace una década, un grupo de profesores hemos venido
implementando una estrategia de atención comunitaria que incluye talleres, cursos, psicoterapia grupal, talleres de expresión
artística y psicocorporal para optimizar los recursos humanos y
materiales disponibles. Los efectos de esta estrategia se reflejan
favorablemente en el desarrollo psicoafectivo de los niños y sus
madres, quienes son un valioso recurso en la educación de sus
hijos.
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Examining a collaborative effort to change
school climate
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Active Parenting-Community based Interventions with BME families in Liverpool
Leslie Collins and Maury Nation
Vanderbilt University
USA
Research has suggested that school climate is correlated to student behavior, academic performance, relational and psychological well-being for students. However, few studies have systematically examined how to promote climate change. This issue has
Anne-Marie Micallef & Carolyn Kagan
Manchester Metropolitan University
England
The project is a qualitative evaluation of positive fathering initia-
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become even more pressing as changes in funding have necessitated that schools partner with community based organizations
and social service agencies in order to find resources to address
student needs and to promote positive youth development..
In this presentation, we describe one district’s approach to using school-community collaboration to promote school climate
change. Alignment Enhanced Services (AES) aims to expand the
positive impact of the school social environment on student behavior. Rather than focusing on individual programs, one of the
initiative’s major foci has been the development of a school intervention plan (SIP).
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The Nuts & Bolts of It: Scaling up of school-based
interventions in urban school settings
Nadia L. Ward & Tamika Gilreath
Yale University School of Medicine
USA
The ‘scaling up’ of successful social, emotional and behavioural
interventions in educational settings is often hampered by a
myriad of implementation snafu’s and failures. These challenges
are the result of insufficient attention paid to structural and contextual features of the school setting, inadequate assessment of
intervention fidelity, recruitment of well-intentioned but inappropriate staff, limited opportunities for training and supervision
of program staff, and poorly developed mechanisms for ongoing
monitoring of program efforts. This presentation will highlight
the Maximizing Adolescent Academic eXcellence (The MAAX)
program, a comprehensive school-based intervention that has
been successfully implemented in 27 middle schools in two lowincome public school districts in New England with the support
of university partnerships. The MAAX program is a culturally
relevant, classroom tested model that utilizes a developmental
assets approach to support the social, emotional, and academic
learning needs.
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Violent Family Environments: Types and Correlates
Sarah Dufour, Marie-Ève Clément, Diane Dubeau
Université de Montréal
Canada
Defining family typologies has proven to be a valuable tool in
assessment and intervention for families identified within the
population in general. However, very few studies to date have
specifically defined family environments according to violent
types of behaviour. A cross section of 3,148 mothers responded
to a telephone interview focused in part on their attitude towards
corporal punishment, their awareness of the effects of violence
inflicted on children, the presence of domestic violence and disciplinary practices adopted by one adult in the household for the
children living with them. Analysing the data made it possible
to define four types of family environments. The “violent family
environment” represents 227 families having reported at least
one form of serious physical abuse of a child within the past year.
This group also presents the highest rate of domestic violence,
psychological abuse and minor child abuse.
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As concepções dos pais de alunos de 2.º e 3.º
ciclo
Isaura Pedro
ISPA
Portugal
No processo de interacção da família, no exercício da sua parentalidade, com outros parceiros educativos, identificam-se diferentes estilos de coordenação. A família mediatiza de diferentes
modos, as possíveis influências dos outros actores envolvidos
no processo educativo. Na compreensão das decisões dos pais
quanto ao seu envolvimento na escolaridade dos filhos, adquirem relevância, entre outros factores, o entendimento que
têm do seu papel na escolaridade e as crenças sobre o processo
educativo. Com o objectivo de captar as representações de pais
de alunos de 2 e 3º ciclo da escolaridade, sobre a partilha de responsabilidade com a escola no desenvolvimento do processo
de escolarização dos filhos, construímos e aplicámos um questionário junto de 370 participantes. Apresentamos a informação
referente à construção do questionário bem como os resultados
da sua aplicação. Na análise dos resultados, exploramos as diferenças de representações entre mães e pais face ao desempenho
dos seus papéis.
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The Parents Association Movement: an active
and democratic participation in school
Maria Emilia Bigotte de Almeida e Ana Cristina Baptista
ISEC
Portugal
In Portugal, from the educational system’s law to the autonomy
and management schools’ law, the existent legislation sees school
as a learning place within society. Its autonomy is demonstrated
in a true participation of teachers, students, workers, parents and
surrounding community representatives in the school life. So,
by constituting itself as an educational community, school recognizes the parents’ right and duty to participate in school life,
which includes the encouragement of work and helping relations
in order to built an education shared by all the educative agents
in the construction of a free and democratic society. This is a new
associative model one intends to implement, that obliges to a
new school paradigm, which enters in rupture with dominant
conceptions. However, this model requires the sharing of power
and this power is exerted in order to make decisions that are not
always consensual or do not have the same importance to all the
parts involved.
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Ceding power and using community based participatory research in Little Haiti
Josh Diem; Erin Kobetz
University of Miami
USA
Patne en Akyson (Partners in Action) is a campus-community
partnership between academic investigators from the University
of Miami and community leaders from Little Haiti, the predomi60
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nately Haitian neighborhood in Miami, Florida. The partnership
utilizes Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) practices to understand the excess cancer mortality experienced by residents of Little Haiti and to identify culturally acceptable means of
intervention. As is consistent with the tenets of this methodology,
the focus and scope of research reflects the collective expertise
of academic and community members alike. Patne en Aksyon
currently supports five research initiatives, which are all in different phases of implementation and subject to unique challenges.
This presentation will examine these challenges and discuss the
strategies that Patne’s stakeholders employ to overcome them.
Flexibility, primarily on the part of academic partners, is essential
for success.
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funding, and is transforming its philanthropic program to target
community priorities arrived at through a participatory community planning process. This workshop will present a case study as
a guide to similar strategies in other cities/countries, and explore
its implications for organizational development, strategic philanthropy, community capacity building and empowerment, civil
society and participation in community development.
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From Blair to Brown - discourses of ‘community’
in a changing New Labour
Jenny Fisher and Claire Worley
Manchester Metropolitan University
United Kingdom
Since 1997 the discourse of community has been central to New
Labour policy and ideology (Levitas, 2000). This use of community is consistent with the ideology of the third way and ideas
of building social capital in a changing global landscape. Whilst
always an ambiguous concept (Crow and Allen, 1994), “community” as used under New Labour has come to mean everything
yet nothing; both something real and imagined, local yet global,
relating to both place and interest, alongside a reinvention of
traditional ideals and values (see for example Fremeaux, 2005).
Thus the use of “community” can be seen spanning across a wide
range of policy areas,from health to crime to regeneration (Imrie and Raco, 2003). This has led to a plethora of initiatives which
seek to engage, inform, involve and encourage community participation both in the policy process and wider civic / civil society
(see for example, Bochel et al. forthcoming).
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Community capacity-building through strategic
philanthropy & training
Yoel Camayd-Freixas, Gerald Karush, Melissa L. Nemon and
Richard Koenig
Applied Research Center - School of Community Economic Development - Southern New Hampshire University
USA
In the United States, United Way has traditionally been an intermediary community chest linking donors to nonprofits. Its annual
funding came from donations elicited via workplace campaigns.
Yet over the last decade, United Ways have faced increasing competition from single-issue philanthropies, resulting in decreased
donations from its base (i.e., United Way national workplace campaigns fell from US$4 billion in 2001 to US$3.6 billion in 2003)
and nontraditional sources (e.g., corporate foundations, government grants). The need to successfully compete in this changing
environment lead United Way to adopt a business world model,
seeking to show that its programs directly impact the communities served --a strategy difficult to implement. To this end, Heritage United Way (HUW) in Greater Manchester, New Hampshire,
partnered with the Applied Research Center (ARC) at the School
of Community Economic Development in Southern New Hampshire University, to develop a participatory community impact
and performance measurement system to show added value
results directly attributable to its donations. ARC examined regional social and economic indicators and published baselines in
Public Education, Health, and Affordable Housing --HUW’s areas
of emphasis-- as an online information repository designed to
guide applicants for funding. HUW convened community leaders
and stakeholders using a Search Conference sampling model to
achieve broad representation; ARC presented the baselines, elicited data-driven discussion of community needs and priorities;
and HUW used resulting strategies to reshape its philanthropic
program. In its second year, HUW continued to evolve its emerging role as an activist philanthropy convening community discussions and enabling problem-solving planning in its three areas.
Meanwhile, ARC trained all HUW member agencies in Logic Models and performance measurement, and designed a simple MIS
to share performance outcomes. Agencies are learning to link
programs to strategic performance outcomes and accountability,
which allows them to strengthen their funding base by pursuing
US government funding opportunities. HUW created new strategic grants, contracted with municipalities to manage community
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Voting behaviours in primary elections: a pathway for citizens’ empowerment?
Bianca Gelli, Terri Mannarini, Cosimo Talò, Monica Legittimo
University of Salento, Lecce
Italy
Primary elections represent in Italy a new channel through which
citizens can take part to in the political sphere. In the Italian version primaries – so far all promoted by the democratic coalition
– involve not only militants and people affiliated to a party, but
all those citizens who want to express their voice and contribute
to the decision about the candidates who are going to be their
representatives, in local or national political institutions. Since
the beginning primaries have been very successful, standing out
as an effective instrument for reducing the gap between politics
and citizens and empowering local communities. Based on the
findings of three studies carried out on a variety of voters, this
paper intends to highlight that primaries are able to mobilise
citizens and to give them some power on the decision-making
processes.
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Psychology of the oppressed: encounters with community psychology in Palestine
Ibrahim Makkawi
Birzeit University, Palestine
In this presentation I explore and discuss the importance and relevance of community psychology as a paradigm in understanding the dialectics of oppression and mental health in occupied
Palestine, specifically in the occupied West Bank and Gaza. The
fundamental necessity for community psychology, rather than
traditional psychological and mental health practices in occupied
Palestine, is derived from the assumption that the individual’s
psychological well being is to a large extent an outcome of the
ongoing occupation, oppression, repression, and exploitation. It
is essential that we examine how the ongoing occupation, military violence, colonialist separation wall, checkpoint, economical
embargo, the rise of poverty, imprisonment and torture, assassination and killing, school closures, and the systematic destruction of Palestinian infrastructure; how they play a significant role
in the severity of people’s mental health and the expansion risk
factors.
Alan Tomkins, Elizabeth Neeley, Mitchell Herian, Tarik AbdelMonem, Stacia Halada Jorgensen
University of Nebraska
USA
This presentation describes a novel approach to determining priorities for a city’s $150 million budget. Using principles of community psychology rooted in constructs of voice, fairness, and
increasing trust in government, a two part procedure was created. First a survey of over 500 residents identified the public’s
spending priorities. Second, public discussions were convened.
These discussions allowed residents of the community to guide
governmental officials in their policymaking, expanding on the
perspectives obtained from the survey. We will present the findings from the public’s input and discuss the possibilities and limitations of public participation in a complex policy task such as
budget setting. Finally, we will discuss some of the strategies we
used to broaden the research foundation for this action research
project.
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International manifestations of community critical psychology I
Depression and globalisation: The personal representation of a political problem
Carl Walker
University of Brighton, England
The rebirth of the new right in the 1970’s championed economic liberalism and, while the changes were felt most profoundly
in the UK and the US, these countries were far from unique in
their exposure to this newly rampant liberalism. In country upon
country, markets were deregulated, state planning and power
dismantled, welfare cut and/or criminalized and full employment
policies abandoned. In this presentation I focus on the way that
these political, economic and social changes in the neo-liberal
era have fashioned a ‘depression industry’ that is responsive to
certain material interests. Acknowledging that depression can
be a life-wrecking, hideously painful experience for sufferers and
their families, this presentation focuses on the way that economic discourses of globalisation shape the way that we understand,
represent and treat depression in the western world. We have
focused too much on individualistic factors and neglected the
social and political context within which we all operate.
Coordinator: David Fryer
University of Stirling
Scotland
Community psychology is increasingly academically and professionally established but increasingly endangered as a critical
alternative to mainstream disciplinary ideology, theory, procedure and practice. The position of those people whose lives are
most characterized by social injustice and the most psychologically oppressed in our societies is deteriorating as a result of this
transformation. However, the transformation is not universal or
inevitable and can be reversed by community psychology taking
a critical turn. Examples of community critical psychology from
England, Palestine, Portugal, Scotland and South Africa which
have taken this critical turn are presented.
Community critical psychology in theory and praxis: disabling practices
David Fryer
University of Scotland, Scotland
I start by clarifying what working from a critical standpoint means
for me. I then describe a version of community psychology which
I believe is consistent with that critical standpoint, which differs
in a number of respects from orthodox northern hemisphere
community psychology and is closer to critical and community
psychology as developed in South America and South Africa. Like
Rose (1998: 10) I am interested from both explanatory and practical perspectives in “a complex of apparatuses, practices, machinations, and assemblages within which human being has been
fabricated.” A preoccupation with understanding and changing that ‘complex’ underlies the whole project. From my critical
standpoint, the notion of research is problematic in a number of
ways. I explain why and explicate my preferred choice of engagement: praxis, which for me, fundamentally, involves simultaneous
emancipatory knowledge construction, ideologically progressive
social action and continuous critical reflexivity regarding whose
interests.
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Building the Program Evaluation Capacity of
Families and Family-Support
Coordinator: Cindy Crusto
Yale University School of Medicine
USA
Discussant: Jacob Tebes
Yale University School of Medicine
USA
Evaluators are often called on to conduct evaluations that involve
the guidance, input, and perspectives of various program, organizational, and/or community stakeholders. An important stakeholder group includes individuals participating in and receiving
services and supports and their families. While several research
and evaluation theories underscore the benefits of including representatives of the groups that programs are designed to serve,
less is known about how to meaningfully include and sustain
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consumer participation. This session will focus on the steps taken
to incorporate parents and families of children receiving services
and supports from federally-funded initiates into evaluation efforts.
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sults yielded information that was vital for service improvement
in this community. The second assessment was completed by a
university-based evaluator and included 9 focus groups comprised of parents, providers and policy makers.
Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Build
Capacity in Family Support Organizations
James R. Cook and Ryan P. Kilmer
Growing evidence indicates that family support programs can
have positive effects on family functioning and parenting behaviors, as well as the cognitive and social/emotional development
and safety of youth (see Layzer et al, 2001). However, these programs vary in their impact, with findings of minimal or no effects
reported for many. Programs operated by paraprofessionals, including family members, are less likely to be rigorously evaluated,
and less likely to demonstrate positive outcomes. Family support
organizations, particularly those driven by family members, can
benefit from partnerships with university researchers who can
help develop an evidence base that can inform, guide, and, importantly, help sustain their efforts. This presentation describes
the development of a community-university partnership, using a
community-based participatory research model to design evaluation strategies for a family support organization.
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Using Participatory Action Research with Immigrant Populations
Joanna Ochocka and Rich Janzen
Centre for Community Based Research
Canada
Welcome to the new world of cultural diversity. Nations struggle
to respond to this new diversity and research struggles to understand cultural meanings and to suggest appropriate solutions.
Social, health and community issues that immigrants and societies face are complex, as are the solutions of building more responsive and supportive communities. In contrast to traditional
models of social research in which researchers and professionals
generate ideas as to what research questions to ask and what
services community members need, participatory approaches to
research are characterized by the active participation of community members, practitioners and other stakeholders in the planning, implementation and evaluation of research. In participatory action research (PAR) community members, practitioners and
other stakeholders play a vital role in shaping research questions,
producing knowledge and using knowledge to solve problems
and improve the lives of community members.
Facilitating Family Member Involvement in the Evaluation of a Children’s Mental Health Initiative
Cindy A. Crusto
The Rhode Island Positive Educational Partnership, and The Rhode
Island Parent Support Network
This paper will present the evaluation plan of a support group
that is one intervention associated with a system of care initiative
for children 11 years and younger with severe social, emotional,
and behavioral health challenges and their families. The initiative
is funded by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services
Administration of the United States Department of Health and
Human Services. A guiding principle of systems of care focuses
on family-driven practices and includes the participation and
perspectives of family members at all levels of the initiative’s development, implementation, and evaluation. The child and family components of the support group were developed and are
implemented by a statewide organization of families supporting
families with children, youth, and young adults who experience
or are at risk for serious behavioral, emotional, and/or mental
health challenges.
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La participación de los niños en entornos urbanos y rurales (Children´s participation in urban
and rural settings).
Coordinator: Anne Reid
Universidad Autònoma Metropolitana
Mexico
Este simposio reflexiona sobre la niñez y la comunidad. Investigaciones realizadas en París, la cuidad de México y la costa de Oaxaca
documentan la naturaleza cambiante de las comunidades, tanto
en las ciudades como en el campo, así como la vida cotidiana de
los niños y las niñas en distintos entornos socioambientales. A su
vez se tiene que sensibilizar acerca de la variedad de formas en
las que el niño ha sido y es constituido hoy en día, permitiendo el
desarrollo de métodos novedosos para dar voz y también facilitar
la participación de los niñ@s en proyectos comunitarios.
Tell it to Me Straight: The Benefits (and Struggles) of a
Consumer-Driven Assessment Process
Joy S. Kaufman
This paper will compare a consumer-led needs assessment that
was conducted in an urban community with an evaluator-led
needs assessment that occurred in the same community. The
consumer-driven assessment was conducted in an urban community at the request of two federally-funded initiatives. The assessment was planned after each initiative learned that some of
the service slots they purchased were being under-utilized. Six
parents of children receiving services in the community were
trained in all aspects of focus group assessment including protocol development, facilitation, data coding and analysis and data
feedback. A total of five focus groups were conducted and the re-
Experiencias urbanas de la niñez contemporánea
Angélica Hernández, Mayra Anzures y Anne Reid ; UAM &
UNAM
Los niños, según investigaciones realizadas durante las últimas
dos décadas en varias ciudades europeas, en Estados Unidos y
Australia. desaparecen cada vez más de los espacios públicos del
entorno urbano y pasan más tiempo en ambientes interiores y
virtuales que en la calle. En el área metropolitana de la ciudad
de México documentamos cambios radicales en la libertad y la
movilidad independiente de los niños urbanos, debido a distintos factores culturales, económicos, urbanos y tecnológicos, que
limitan las oportunidades para las niñas y los niños de habitar
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libremente la ciudad. El conocimiento de su barrio es escaso por
pasar muy poço tiempo fuera de sus casas. Además, los lugares
que ellos visitan dentro del barrio tienen que ver con un consumo
comercial en restaurantes de comida rápida, centros comerciales
y cines, lo cual es un fenómeno que se repite con respecto a lo
que conocen de la ciudad.
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grounds, and provoking discussion among and between different peoples with various kinds of interest. The use of role playing,
dramatization and theatre techniques provide an excellent opportunity for exercising expression, for body action, and to play
a variety of games, therefore, for enhancing the ability to socially
relate and to mediate social relationships. The author has developed a system for the use of such techniques, named Psychodramaturgy, which incorporates, among others, the theoretical and
practical approaches brought about in the works of Moreno, the
creator of Psychodrama, Paulo Freire, author of the Pedagogy of
the Opressed, Roland Toro, creator of the Biodance system, and
Augusto Boal.
Trayectorias infantiles en un barrio popular de Paris
Juan Carlos Gonzalez Prieto;Universidad Paris 8, Saint Denis
Al margen de las grandes avenidas del Este parisino se encuentra la famosa Goutte d’Or, uno de los barrios más cosmopolitas y
también, desde 1886, uno de los más pobres de Paris. Este barrio,
localizado en el 18e arrondissement, herencia de flujos migratorios, es conocido por su diversidad multicultural y su tradición
en acoger diversas formas de cultura. Bajo este entorno se situa
justamente la presente investigación. El hilo conductor de este
trabajo, a través del punto de vista de los actores asociativos (y
no desde un punto de vista de los niños vistos por ellos mismos),
resalta la forma en que implica ser niño y crecer en un contexto
social como el de la Gota de Oro, cuyas lógicas, dinámicas e interacciones cotidianas resultan ser muy particulares. Así, ligadas a la
especificidades de este entorno, la forma de ser ‘niño’ dependerá
de muchos factores: social, familiar, cultural, legal, educativo. No
hay únicamente una manera de vivir la infancia en dicho barrio,
sino varias.
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Theoretical Model of Multiple Intelligence for
the Appraisal of Individuals in a Community
Carlos R. Valcarcel Miranda
Universidad Interamericana de PR
Puerto Rico
The theoretical model of Multiple Intelligence was founded by
Howard Gardner of the University of Boston. This model categorizes the intelligence of an individual in 7 dimensions: Linguistics, Spatial, Mathematical Logic, Kinetic, Musical, Interpersonal
and Intrapersonal. Dr. Carlos Valcarcel Miranda (2002) of the
InterAmerican University of Puerto Rico, following Gardner’s
Theoretical Model of Intelligence and the Theoretical Model of
Assessment Development of Lashey, Anstey and others, developing the Inventory to classify multiple intelligence in individuals of
low academic achievement. The instrument has been validated
and statistically reliable with a significant population in Puerto
Rico. The inventory is capable of providing a hierarchy of intelligence of the individual. Each one of the 7 categories has been
correlated with different vocations and occupations. The instrument has been utilized in common groups of adolescents and
young adults with low academic achievements so they can know
the hierarchy of the individual’s intelligence with the purpose to
indicate to them their abilities to attain employment. Many of
these people knowing there areas of intelligence have shown initiative to start small individual businesses in communities and for
the community. The purpose to participate in this Congress is to
present the Inventory of Multiple Intelligence that has been created, following the Theoretical Model of Howard Gardner which
counts on validity, reliability and statistical norms in Puerto Rico
as an instrument of measurement for other professionals that
have interest can translate it to normalize it with their respective
population norms and can utilize it with their communities. In
the workshop we will include one copy of the Inventory for any
participants.
La participación comunitaria de los niños en talleres socioambientales
Anne Reid; UAM
¿Qué entendemos por comunidad hoy en día? Cuando analizamos a las comunidades en términos territoriales encontramos
dinámicas distintas en el médio urbano y rural. Mientras que
las grandes ciudades, con una vida cotidiana contagiada por el
miedo e imaginarios de la inseguridad, se caracterizan por una
reducción en la apropiación del espacio público, las comunidades rurales se extienden debido a la migración y las nuevas
tecnologías. El desafío es identificar oportunidades para promover nuevos espacios de participación y facilitar la apropiación del
entorno socioambiental. Trabajamos con niños y jóvenes de comunidades rurales (en la costa de Oaxaca) y urbanas en proyectos elaborados por alumnos universitarios a través de métodos
lúdicos y visuales dentro de un marco de investigación-acción
participativa (IAP). Se organizan talleres socioambientales para
niños de tres a doce años de edad que pretenden abrir espacios
alternos que les permitan explorar y experimentar distintas modos de relación entre ellos.
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Mental Health Community Promotion: Using Theatre and Psychodramaturgy as Tools for Change
Walter Ferreira de Oliveira
Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Brazil
Mental health community promotion is part of the new propositions for paradigm change in the practice of mental health.
The use of role playing and dramatization, on the other hand,
has been widely diffused, lately, as a form of working with diverse groups, integrating persons of different professional back-
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El uso de la imagen en el trabajo comunitário
Leonor M. Cantera Espinosa & Jose Manuel Ramirez Navas
Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona
Spain
En el mundo globalizado contemporáneo, fenómenos como la
pobreza, la desigualdad o la violencia cotidianas son percibidos
a menudo como realidades naturales ante las que no cabe otra
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opción realista que la de asumirlas como parte del paisaje social
naturalizado. La psicología social comunitaria tiene como objetivo principal remover el velo que impide ver el origen social de
tales realidades, cuestionarlas (problematizarlas) y transformarlas.
En una era en que la palabra está cediendo parte de su protagonismo a la imagen, la fotografía aparece como un útil instrumento de trabajo para la toma de conciencia de realidades sociales
problemáticas y de la necesidad de afrontarlas activamente para
cambiarlas. La fotointervención es una técnica de análisis y de acción psicosocial que articula la fotografía como medio de visibilización de realidades sociales problemáticas com los principios de
investigación e intervención de la psicología social comunitária
comprometida con el cambio de estas realidades.
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en general, los jóvenes de Guadalajara muestran un cierto acuerdo con el conjunto de los ítems que componen la Escala de Racismo Moderno, situándose la puntuación media de la muestra en
45, es decir por encima de la puntuación media de la escala (cuya
puntuación total oscila entre 10 y 70).
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Programa de Atención Integral Para Padres y Adolescentes
María del Rocío Guzmán Benavente & Rebeca Treviño Montemayor Guzmán
Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango
Mexico
Se plantea un trabajo de intervención psicológica desde la psicologia comunitaria, a partir del Programa de Atención Integral
para Padres y Adolescentes que se llevó a cabo de acuerdo a una
perspectiva cualitativa, aplicando un modelo de corte Etnometodológico y de Investigación Acción Participativa para promuever un sistema continuo y permanente de autogestión de la realidad de los participantes, mediante talleres vivenciales y técnicas
grupales enfocadas a la orientación y reflexión de la comunidad.
Los resultados alcanzados hasta ahora con los grupos en intervención nos permiten reconocer la existencia de una cohesión
grupal, el autoconocimiento de sus características resilientes,
sobre todo en las madres de familia, un mejor conocimiento de
emociones y afectos, así como la concientización de los riesgo y
la toma de conciencia de la realidad vivida.
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Taking Culture Seriously in Community Mental
Health: An Emerging Framework
Rich Janzen and Joanna Ochocka
Centre for Community Based Research
Canada
Mental health services in western countries are struggling to respond to growing cultural and racial diversity. As a consequence,
many cultural-linguistic minority groups lack access to appropriate mental health supports. The purpose of this workshop will be
to describe an emerging framework detailing how communitybased mental health services and supports can be effective for
people from culturally diverse backgrounds. This framework was
developed by the “Taking Culture Seriously” partnership based in
Ontario, Canada. This 5-year (2005-2009) study is funded by the
Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada and
the Ontario Trillium Foundation. The study brings together over
40 university and community partners in the Toronto and Waterloo regions of Ontario (www.takingcultureseriouslyCURA.ca).
The study uses a participatory action research approach within a
multi-method design.
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Propuestas para prevención de la violencia grupal juvenil
Martín, M.J.; Martínez, J.M.; Scandroglio, B. y López, J.
Dpto. de Psicología Social y Metodología
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Muestra: jóvenes de 15-25 años residentes en Madrid; todos ellos, durante el último año, han agredido físicamente, en dos o
más ocasiones y en tanto que miembros de un grupo, a una o
más personas pertenecientes a otros grupos. Técnica: entrevista
individual semiestructurada; cada informante fue entrevistado
en dos ocasiones Los resultados obtenidos en esta investigación
permiten inferir pautas que orienten el desarrollo de programas
psicosociales dirigidos a reducir la violencia grupal juvenil. Se
postula que el principal objetivo y denominador común de estos programas debe ser promover identidades personal y social
positivas mediante la realización de conductas valoradas socialmente. Tal objetivo puede contemplarse principalmente como
una respuesta educativa y socializadora (prevención primaria y
promoción de la salud) y reeducativa y resocializadora (prevención secundaria y terciaria).
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Prejuicio hacia los inmigrantes entre los jóvenes
de Guadalajara (España)
José Juan Vázquez, Ana Isabel Díaz-Aberaturi y Sonia Panadero
Universidad de Alcalá
Spain
En el trabajo se analizan las diferencias en actitudes racistas entre
los jóvenes de Guadalajara, evaluadas mediante la “Escala de racismo moderno” (Navas, 1998; García, Navas, Cuadrado y Molero,
2003). Sobre una población de 16.744 jóvenes de entre 14 y 30
años censados en la ciudad de Guadalajara se realizó un muestreo aleatorio estratificado por sexo, edad y área de residencia.
A fin de reducir el error de muestreo hasta 0,03, se estableció el
tamaño muestral en 1.044 jóvenes. La muestra final se compone
por 541 varones (51,8%) y 503 mujeres (48,2%), siendo la media
de edad de 22,7 años. De los datos obtenidos se desprende que,
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The Psychology of Resilience among Palestinian
Female Students
Ibrahim Makkawi
Birzeit University
Palestine
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Formal educational systems in diverse societies are structured
and conducted in manners which hinder the opportunities for
academic success and achievement among ethnic minority
students, students from the working class and female students.
Nonetheless, there are many examples of “at risk students” who
are considered “success stories” despite the odds working against
them. This trend in educational and psychological literature is
known as the paradigm of “student resilience” (Jarret, 1997) Palestinian women under occupation experience multiple levels
of oppression where patriarchy, sexism, colonialism and class
exploitation are in continuous dialectical interaction with each
other producing unbearable degree of adversity and environmental “risk factors” (Makkawi & Jaramillo, 2006). Consequently,
Palestinian female students are exposed to a series of “risk factors” embedded in their educational environment throughout all
levels of their education.
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laborations are few. Also, there is a lack of examples of how
community psychologists trained in the US and Europe practice
in countries where community psychology is not a main area of
study nor practice. What are the cultural challenges? What are the
main areas of work? How do we become international researchers and consultants? Perhaps it is more feasible to work on the
immediate needs of each particular country. There is consensus
however, proven by efforts to create an international conference,
that there is much to be learned from international collaborations.
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Quality of Life and Social Support among lesbian, gay and bisexual Portuguese youth
Henrique Pereira
University of Beira Interior
Portugal
Lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) youth can experience adverse life
conditions associated with their sexual minority status. It is not
always easy for them to obtain the necessary social support to
cope with these challenges. Research has suggested that lack of
social support can have long-term and debilitating effects upon
young people, including aspects of well being and quality of life.
In Portugal, there is a shortage of research in this area, therefore,
a research to assess the levels of quality of life (QOL) as well as social support (SS), and to better understand the relations between
those two constructs was developed. Participants in this study
were 420 self identified LGB youngsters. 45,6% were female (192)
and 54,4 were male (229); 89% of them were single and 74,3%
showed high or moderate levels of self acceptance of their sexuality. The instruments utilized consisted of the following: the
SF-12 Health Survey (Ware et al., 1996) and a modified version of
ENRICHD Social Support Instrument.
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Integrating Community Resilience in Prevention
Initiatives for South African Youth
Rashid Ahmed
University of the Western Cape
South Africa
South African youth remain at risk for a range of negative outcomes. While there has recently been an interest in resilience in
South African youth, incorporating community resilience into
current prevention initiatives is a relatively unexplored area. The
main aim of this paper is to explore how an expanded conceptualization of community resilience could be helpful in developing
interventions for South African youth at risk. Current conceptualizations of community resilience identify relatively similar dimensions such as community structures and leadership, neighbourhood cohesion and community hope. Recent work locating these
dimensionS within an eco-systemic framework and incorporating
‘cultural’ dimensions have considerably expanded the framework
for community resilience. It is suggested that in addition to these
dimensions, an exploration of the sociopolitical dimension, collective identity and spirituality could considerably facilitate work
with youth.
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Program “Agente Jovem” (Young Agents)
Fernanda Mello, Silvia Patricia Coutinho
Spain
Communication plays a major role in modern society and to use
it as a tool for the development of citizens is a way to encourage
the creation and social role. Taking as target audience the adolescents of lower-classes, which are part of the Program “Agente
Jovem” (Young Agents), we developed a project of communication, focusing on education. The result of the work is the newspaper “Jornal Agente Notícias” (Young Agents’ Newspaper), produced entirely by young people, with the aim of disclosing the
actions undertaken within the program, attracting more youth
population and informing the community about the work that is
carry out on the project. Besides contributing to the educational
process, from the search and interpretation of social facts, production of texts and communication, we have seen that young
people went through a process of renovation, parting from being
victims of society to being social agents, developing in them the
juvenile role.
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Transnational Community Practice and Training
Coordinator: Luciano Berardi
DePaul University
USA
Authors: Luciano Berardi (DePaul University), Yarí Colón (VA Caribbean Healthcare System), Fabricio Balcazar (University of Illinois at Chicago), Manuel García Ramírez (Universidad de Sevilla),
Cesareo Fernandez Gomez (University of Kansas) Caterina Arcidiacono (Immacolata Di Napoli Università degli Studi di Napoli
Federico II)
This roundtable takes a novel and much needed approach to
exploring the paths toward becoming a successful international
researcher and consultant. Community Psychology has had a
presence in various countries for the past thirty years (Martin
Gonzalez & Lopez Martinez, 1998) however it appears that attempts at teaching how to create successful transnational col66
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sented. It is proposed that, in addition to classical relevant criteria aimed to attribute the qualification of critical, analysis should
integrate (a) innovation as a prerequisite, as well as an added
value, to both theoretical and practical exercises; (b) implications
for community intervention as its ultimate focus. Social sciences – psychology included, although not playing a front role (its
double function of epistemological tool and of symptom of its
object of study only make the task more difficult) – have been
underlining a unique socialization process occurring in Western
contemporary societies in rupture with tradition: individualization and personalization. Among the main consequences of
such a dramatic transformation, an increasing sense of community deficit and a risk-oriented culture have been evolving. Both
trends entail important implications for community psychology
theory and intervention.
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Envisioning the voice of Homeless Youth: A Photovoice Project
Bart Miles
Wayne State University
USA
This paper explores the lived experience of homeless and runaway youth ages 16-24 through the use of photographic images,
and participant’s interpretations of pictures. In this study homeless and runaway youth identified the everyday elements, both
risks and protective features, of their lives. This study enabled
participants to identify, record, and reflect on their strengths and
needs. This study created a consciousness raising dialogue about
the issues homeless youth face. Further this study allowed the
youth’s voices to be heard by service providers and policy makers. This project looked at homeless and runaway youth ages
16-24 through the use of a photovoice methods. Photovoice is
a process by which people can identify, represent, and enhance
their community through a specific photographic technique. It
entrusts cameras to the hands of people to enable them to act as
recorders, and potential catalysts for social action and change, in
their own communities.
The politics of community psychology in practice
Paul Duckett & Ilana Mountian (Manchester Metropolitan
University, England)
This paper will critically consider a number of key community psychological concepts (including well-being, participation, qualitative research, action research, subjectivity and valuing diversity)
and consider how these become problematic when the politics
of putting them into practice is considered. We will ground our
reflections in our work at Manchester Metropolitan University in
England where the both of us work across two established research and teaching groups of community psychologists and
critical psychologists. Working in the space between community
and critical psychology it becomes important to further reflect
on some of these core assumptions in community psychology.
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International manifestations of community critical psychology II
Coordinator: David Fryer
University of Stirling
Scotland
Community psychology is increasingly academically and professionally established but increasingly endangered as a critical
alternative to mainstream disciplinary ideology, theory, procedure and practice. The position of those people whose lives are
most characterized by social injustice and the most psychologically oppressed in our societies is deteriorating as a result of this
transformation. However, the transformation is not universal or
inevitable and can be reversed by community psychology taking
a critical turn. Examples of community critical psychology from
England, Palestine, Portugal, Scotland and South Africa which
have taken this critical turn are presented.
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Community Psychology Education: Prospects for
Incorporating International Perspectives
Coordinator: Mark Aber
University of Illinois Urbana-Champain
USA
Authors: Mark S. Aber (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,
USA), Holly Angelique (Associate Professor, USA), Elvira Cicognani
(Universita di Bologna, Italy), Kelly Hazel (Metropolitan State University, USA), Susan D. McMahon (Associate Professor Psychology,
USA), José H. Ornelas (Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada,
Portugal, Wolfgang Stark (Universitat Duisburg Essen, Germany)
The goal of this ECPA / SCRA sponsored roundtable is to facilitate
discussion about how community psychology programs might
incorporate international perspectives and issues into their educational missions and practices. Each participant on this international panel will share experiences and lessons learned from
their own programs and settings. Panelists will highlight – as they
see fit – successes, opportunities, challenges and aspirations for
building educational programs that aim to prepare students to
join the international community of community research and
action. Panelists will be encouraged to reflect on the ways that
their own national contexts might shape the goals and foci of
internationally focused educational efforts. We anticipate that issues of student and faculty recruitment, program structure, curriculum, opportunities for practica/internship, funding, etc. will
be discussed.
20 years of community psychology in South Africa: a critical discussion
Mohamed Seedat, South Africa
This presentation will focus on the work over the last twenty
years of the South African Institute for Social and Health Sciences
in community psychology with a view to critically discussing the
roles and functions that community minded psychologists associated with the Institute have forged. A critical review the roles
raises questions about the function of public intellectuals in society and the design and structure of community psychology
programmes.
Society of individuals or community strength: Community psychology at risk in at risk societies?
Joaquim Coimbra & Isabel Menezes (Porto University, Portugal)
A critical perspective on community psychology will be pre-
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Co-Designing a Global Workstation: Using Internet Tools to Give Community Psychology Away
Worldwide
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Photography, Knowledge and Psychology – Work
Methodology
Jaqueline Tittoni, Cleci Maraschin, Vanessa Maurente, Rafael
Diehl, Ângelo Brandelli Costa
UFRGS
Brazil
This Innovative Session is based in a four year experience using
photography as a scientific research tool in community psychology. It is part of the “Work, Ethics and Aesthetic” research group at
Instituto de Psicologia of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande
do Sul, Brazil. The methodology considers Foucault’s conception
of modes of subjectification and relations of power as central, as
well Flusser’s discussion on photography, and its relation with scientific knowledge suggest by Foncuberta. In the four-year period, workshops called processes of photographical interventions
were done, mainly with community groups of informal workers.
It was also proposed workshops with students and workers, seeking their sensibilization toward the city and its contemporary configuration and, with groups of women, with violence as theme.
The porpoise of this Innovative Session is the use of photography
workshops as a methodology where participants are invited to
produce photographies having in mind a predetermined theme.
Jerry Schultz, Cesareo Fernandez, Vince Francisco, Tom Wolff,
Stephen Fawcett, Bill Berkowitz, Christina Holt
Work Group for Comm Health & Development
USA
The Internet and new communication technologies create spaces
for easy access to information, social interaction, and collaborative work. Increased knowledge, broader and denser networks,
and working together across distance and time can help make
the work of building healthy communities easier and more successful. Emerging web-based platforms such as Basecamp, Icohere, and Sharepoint provide some tools that help create online
collaborative spaces. The Community Tool Box, http://ctb.ku.edu,
has developed a web-based, customizable, collaborative workspace, the CTB Workstation, that integrates many of these features. The CTB Workstation can be used to support the work of
building healthy communities. The CTB Workstation has many
useful features including a document sharing library and check
out system, contacts and photo gallery, instant messaging, project management, event registration, calendar, wiki, blog, RSS
feed, web-based conferencing system, newsletter, technical assistance request system, survey (...).
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Desarrollo Comunitario e intervención psicosocial: aportes teóricos y metodológicos desde la
PC
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International Community Psychology: Exemplars for Research and Action Partnerships
Coordinator: Alba Zambrano
Universidad de La Frontera
Chile
Se analizan críticamente los aportes que puede efectuar la psicología comunitaria en el campo del desarrollo comunitario.
Para ello, se delimita conceptualmente el desarrollo comunitario
como también la intervención psicosocial comunitaria considerando tanto las nuevas “cuestiones sociales” surgidas en las sociedades contemporáneas como las actuales tendencias en la intervención social. Aplicando los diferentes modelos y categorías
analíticas propuestos en psicología comunitaria, se abordan los
énfasis variados que puede adoptar la intervención psicosocial
comunitaria. Finalmente, se analizan las derivaciones epistemológicas y metodológicas de las relaciones de poder en el trabajo comunitario.
Chair: Roderick Watts
Georgia State University
USA
Authors: Anthony Naidoo (South Africa) Stephanie Reich (USA)
Irma Serrano-García (Puerto Rico) Kelly D. Taylor (USA) Roderick
J. Watts (USA—chair)
The Internationalization Committee of the Society of Community
Research in Action in the USA organized this roundtable discussion as a way to promote an international consciousness and
a sense of global citizenship among its members that respects
cultural differences, honours human rights, seeks out and incorporates contributions from all corners of the world, and is not
dominated by any one nation or group. Two themes will guide
the discussion in this roundtable session: (1) An exploration of
similarities and differences community psychology theory, research and action around the world as they arise in the discussion
of specific exemplars, and (2) principles and practices that foster
egalitarian international partnerships for research and action. As
noted, the two themes will be addressed through a discussion
of exemplars—stories of community psychology research and
action that involved people from two or more nations that were
successful or otherwise.
Desarrollo comunitario e intervención psicosocial comunitaria: énfasis, criterios y posibilidades
Alba Zambrano Constanzo
En la presentación se delimita conceptualmente desarrollo comunitario e intervención comunitaria, efectuándose una breve
revisión de la evolución de la intervención comunitaria en el ámbito de la intervención social. Desde el paradigma del desarrollo
endógeno, teorías vinculadas a las democracias participativas y
a la psicología comunitaria latinoamericana, se derivan los principales objetivos de la intervención comunitaria y los elementos
que la distinguen de otras formas de intervención social. Finalmente se analizan los aportes específicos de la teoría y práctica
psicosocial comunitaria en la promoción del desarrollo comunitário.
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Modelos en psicología comunitaria: compresiones y estratégias en torno al desarrollo comunitario
Jaime Alfaro Inzunza
En la presentación se analizan los posibles alcances de las categorías analíticas que propone la psicología comunitaria para
ubicar los grandes énfasis de la intervención psicosocial comunitaria. El carácter diverso que muestra hoy la Psicología Comunitaria al definir y delimitar sus categorías de análisis y campo de
trabajo, permite hablar de una pluralidad de Psicologías Comunitarias más que de una sola en particular, se propone sobre la
base de esta diversidad que tanto el problema a abordar como
las respuestas o estrategias de intervención varían en base a
los supuestos que cada modelo sustenta. Así, a partir de delimitaciones conceptuales y operativas de los modelos, enfoques y
conceptos empleados actualmente: Psicología Social Comunitaria Latinoamericana, Ecología Social, Intervención en Redes y
Modelo de Desarrollo de Competencias, se derivan formas de
comprender el desarrollo comunitario, destinatarios y estrategias específicas deintervención diferentes que son abordadas en
la presentación.
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Health Beliefs among Ethnic Minorities
Ana de Sousa Martins & Carla Moleiro
Health Psychology Models have highlighted the role of health
beliefs and their impact in the way individuals experience their
well-being and health. Beliefs about health may also contribute
to the promotion of health protecting behaviours, as well as the
reduction of behaviours which endanger one’s health and wellbeing. Among other contributors such as family and intra-personal variables, the health beliefs are influenced by the culture of
the individuals. In particular during pregnancy, cultural health beliefs may influence the way pregnant women make use of health
services and adhere to health protecting behaviours, such as
medical care during pregnancy. The exploration of health beliefs
among ethnic minority women in Portugal, especially from Cape
Verde, was the focus of the present study. In order to achieve this
goal, a qualitative methodology – focus groups – was utilized in
order to obtain information on health beliefs during pregnancy
from a group of Cape Verde women.
Multicultural competencies of professionals in residential care for children and youth
Susana Marques & Carla Moleiro
Recent literature has increasingly addressed the issue of multicultural competence in a variety of intervention areas for practitioners. A tri-dimensional model has been proposed in the definition
of such Multicultural Competencies (Sue, Arredondo & McDavis,
1992), in which the following dimensions are considered: (1)
awareness, (2) knowledge, and (3) skills necessary to work effectively and ethically across cultural differences and diverse individuals. In this paper, we sought to assess these three identified
dimensions among professionals in residential care for children
and youth in Portugal. The choice of this professional group was
due to the fact that little recent has focused on the study of their
competencies in diversity (as opposed to counsellors) and since
the population of institutionalized children and youth in Portugal
is, in fact, very diverse in their cultural background.
Refortalecimiento: Derivaciones epistemológicas y metodológicas en el trabajo comunitario
Carlos Vázquez Rivera
No hemos visto ni analizado lo suficiente los diversos aspectos
que están relacionados a las relaciones de poder en el trabajo
comunitario que hacemos. Usualmente es un tema marginal en
nuestras intervenciones, aún cuando entendemos que partimos
de cierto modelo de poder, o de relaciones de poder, a nivel personal o teórico, a nivel organizacional o comunitario o como eje
del cambio social que tratamos de promover. Lo cierto es que
no sólo no profundizamos mucho sobre este tema, si no que,
cuando lo hacemos parece crear más problemas de los que resuelve. Desde la perspectiva del refortalecimiento propongo un
acercamiento diferente a noción de poder, no como relaciones
económicas, no como relaciones de violencia, no como relaciones de comunicación, no como relaciones de confrontación,
sino como relaciones de poder.
Understanding Female Genital Mutilation among Muslim Women in Portugal
Sandra Piedade & Carla Moleiro
Female genital mutilation involves procedures to partially or totally remove female genitalia for cultural reasons, in the absence
of therapeutic motives (WHO, 1997). Over 100 million women and
children have been subjected to this practice, and the number
seems to rise 2 million per year (Amnisty International, 2007). The
WHO has indicated that Portugal is a country at risk for the occurrence of this practice due to the immigration of persons from
countries where the practice is very prevalent. For this reason, it
seems important to understand the culture, the beliefs and the
sequelae associated with this practice, as well as how our health
services can be better prepared to help the needs of these children and women. The present paper aims to explore the beliefs
and further understanding on the practice and context of female
genital mutilation among Muslim women in Portugal. A qualitative approach was chosen. Focus groups were utilized in order to
obtain information directly from small groups of women.
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Multicultural competencies in community and
health psychology
Coordinator: Carla Moleiro
ISCTE / CIS
Portugal
The present symposium aims to explore the role of multicultural
diversity in different areas and themes of community intervention. These include health services, child protection and children/
youth care, and community interventions. Training of practitioners and development of intervention programs are in need to
be able to address the greater cultural diversity of our clients. To
do so implies the awareness of needs and characteristics of cultural minority groups, and the recognition of their participation
and input, empowering these communities. Effectiveness of the
interventions may not be possible otherwise.
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the ideas of Paulo Freire, U. Bronfenbrenner, C. Montandon, B. Lahire, D. Thin and B. Charlot. The method followed the Participant
Action Research proposal, based on the work of Paulo Freire, Irma
Serrano-Garcia and Carlos R. Brandão. There were six meetings, in
the period of three months, in order to plan an assembly with all
parents of the 4th.
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Discussing proposals of psychoeducational intervention programs with low income families
Coordinator: Maria Angela Mattar Yunes
Fundação Universidade Federal Rio Grande
Brazil
The multiplicity of risk situations composing everyday life of
Brazilian and Portuguese poor families can bring out cloudy
predictions for communities that struggle to overcome the complexities of social, cultural and economic changes. The studies on
processes and possibilities of psycho-educational interventions
with emphasis in the well being of low income families have special importance mostly to help different sorts of professionals to
build empowering social interactional practices. Those practices
should focus on learning and human development. The present
proposal aims to raise the discussion to the elaboration of programs that improve the quality of the services for at risk population.
Family Risk Profiles – A Ground for Evidence-Based Interventions
Ana Almeida e José Cunha Machado
Universidade do Minho, Braga, Portugal
This paper presents the data of an evaluation study on psychosocial risk with families, who were attended in family and social
support units at public or NGO’s services in the North of Portugal. Within an ecological-systemic approach, this study aims at
determining the different risk levels subsumed in the complex interplay of risk and protective factors, particularly considering the
modulating effect of protective mechanisms upon adverse influences. Under this frame of reference, psychosocial risk evaluation
is considered as an essential procedure for valid and reliable riskassessments and a helpful advice for supporting technical decisions on behalf of child protection. Participants were 204 families
selected from family files created by the social and family units
during the past year precedent to the beginning of the study. As
previously mentioned, the different family typologies included
nuclear, remarried and single-parent families.
A Program of Support and Attention to Families who live
Socio Environmental Vulnerabilities
Maria Angela Mattar Yunes, André Lemes da Silva, Narjara
Mendes Garcia, Camila Dorneles de Vargas, FURG, Rio Grande
do Sul, Brazil
This program has its origin in the partnership of the Center for
Studies of At-Risk Populations (CEP-RUA) and the Center for Children and Adolescents’Attention (CAIC) of the Fundação Universidade Federal do Rio Grande. Both centers joined efforts to potentialize actions towards interventions in order to better understand
and assist families who live poverty in the surround areas of the
University. The program has been developing psychoeducational
and social activities aiming to attend children, adolescents and
their families as well as the social agents who work for the services in the social support network such as, teachers, community
health agents, social youth counselors and community leaders of
the neighborhoods. The families receive attention through different resources planned to assist either individuals or groups:
organized and systematic meetings with health and educational
professionals; projects to qualify individuals’ abilities to types of
work that improve family income.
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How new media and social networks can be used
for community consciousness-raising
Blaine Teamer & Dyana Valentine
Creative Collaboration & I’m In On It
USA
Our session addresses how new media and social networks can be
used for community consciousness-raising. The session is based
on the work of community psychologist and co-presenter Blaine
Teamer, who created a new genre of film that integrated citizen
participation, social support and peer-to-peer problem solving.
He and his community of African-American artists in Los Angeles,
frustrated about limited opportunities to make films and mass
media’s role in creating social myths, decided to harness their
various talents, skills and resources to make their first short film,
addressing infidelity, entitled TRUE GRIT(S). The filmmaking and
screenings were socially empowering for the artists. Conversations sparked by the film after its release led to a documentary
composed of interviews responding to the social issue. These
conversations led to a deeper understanding of what infidelity
means to community members, both personally and culturally.
Bringing Together Families and School Staff in a Low Income Neighbourhood
Heloisa Szymanski, Edna Telles, Margarida Pompeia Gioielli,
Teresa Paletta Lomar, Maria Lúcia Spadini and Shirley Pires da
Cruz - Pontifícia
Universidade Católica de São Paulo, Escola Municipal de Ensino
Fundamental Prof. Ernani S. Bruno and Associação Educacional
Labor, São Paulo
Brazil
This study was part of a Program of Psychoeducational Attention
developed by a research Group on Educational Practices and Attention to Families, School and Community – ECOFAM, from the
Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo. It took place in a
Public School, situated in a low income neighborhood. Its objective was to understand the meaning of parents’ participation during the process of planning and organizing an activity proposed
by the school, in a team including two teachers, a pedagogical
coordinator and the researchers. This research aimed to contribute to the understanding of family-school relationship, based on
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The Educational principles of wife & Husband relations from koranic and narrations perspective
Ali Naghi Faghihi
Qom University
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
The attitude including the similarity of sexual instinct between
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human and animal and the lack of having a religious insight
about it in today’s society are considered as the main pathological factors in human relations spoiling the basis of the family and endangering the man’s psychotic health. Being aware of
the educational principles of wife & husband relations from the
religious viewpoint. Can make a path toward human spirituality
and promotion of moral values in society and among families.
Sexual desires, aesthetic motivation, tendency to spirituality and
moral virtues, tendency to affection are among the most important principles which can be extract from some educational principles. This article is to explain the natural basis and discovered
principles through koranic verses and narration. Harmonistic approach and interpretation of koranic verses and Shia Imams narrations were used in this article.
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the parents. These models also imply the need for a strict cooperation and leveling of relationships between parents and professionals.
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The power of empowerment: the teachings of
Family Wellbeing
Arlene Laliberté, Komla Tsey, Melissa Haswell-Elkin
Norht Queensland Health Promotion Unit
Australia
How to assess the theory of a generic mental health promotion
/ risk prevention program? What to do when the program outcome objectives are flexible, the target population is not specified and the delivery format is adaptable? Why has this program
proven positive results time and again? These are the challenging
question this presentation aims to answer. The Family Wellbeing
empowerment program is a five stages strengths based experiential learning program that has been successfully delivered with
Aboriginal men and women in diverse communities of Australia,
to prevent family violence, substance abuse, suicide, and to enhance coping skills and wellbeing. Developed in 1993 by members of the “Stolen Generation”, the Family Wellbeing empowerment program is based on the qualities and skills these resilient
Australian Aboriginal men and women used to survive as a people and as individuals facing ongoing trauma, oppression, as well
as everyday stressful situations.
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Breaking the plot of silence: contributions from
Community Psychology for intervention
Gonçalves, R.J.; Moré,C.L.O.O.; Santos, A.C.W.;Crepaldi, M.A
Federal University of Santa Catarina
Brazil
This study reports an experiment realized by faculty from the Integrated Residence Program in Family Health from the Federal
University of Santa Catarina, Brazil in the scope of professional
preparation in primary health care services. The objective of this
study was to respond to the demand among residents who practice within community contexts involving an elevated level of
violence as a daily part of these communities, generating a significant level of anxiety and impotence resulting from their work
relationships. The emerging necessity, brought to the attention
of the group of residents composed of psychologists, nurses, nutritionists, physicians, social workers, pharmacists, and orthodontists, led to the elaboration of a continuing education workshop.
The meetings took place with residents, tutors, and preceptors
involved with service education, coordinated by psychology faculty and a Master’s student.
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Building Bridges: Community Participation and
Development with BME People in Liverpool
Iyabo Fatimilehin & Amira Hassan
Royal Liverpool Childrens Trust/BB
United Kingdom
Black and minority ethnic (BME) people are over-represented
amongst those who suffer the worst social and economic deprivation in the United Kingdom. Their experiences in terms of social
exclusion are well-documented. This roundtable discussion will
focus on approaches to social inclusion through collaboration
and community participation in order to address the psychological and mental well-being of BME people.
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Parent Education as a community response to
child protection
Mónica Henriques
Community Psychologist
Portugal
This action-research study focuses on parent education as a community response to both prevent and intervene on child abuse
and neglect. This still ongoing project is the collective work of
individuals and public and private organizations (e.g. social welfare services, local health services, city hall, schools, parents associations, non-governmental organizations). It is founded on the
ecological and systemic perspectives and assumes the families as
the target for intervention (as opposed to merely the children), as
well as effective partners. In Portugal the introduction and implementation of family centered models has been slowly occurring
and only recently have parents been included in the intervention
process as true partners. Their empowerment necessarily means
more competence, more responsibility and also more power for
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Adaptive and engaging Leadership with Purpose
in a Shifting World
James R. Calvin
Johns Hopkins University
USA
The uncertainty of changing changing times will lead to new local
realities for all communities around the world. during the present
era and globalization journey that will continue as will the shifting and changing of national leaders, human crises, the ups and
downs of commerce and innovation, and community and public desires for solutions and outcomes that are both found and
missed as time comes and time moves forward. In this vein there
is the daily reality of survival due to the rapid and far reaching
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influence of world events as evidenced by informal and formal
gatherings such as the world economic forum, United nations
activities, and European Union activities. as such, the current
times provides context and background for several coexisting
trends that are impacting everybody living on the planet directly
through the advent of raging human crises, sovereign wealth
funds, food sustainability, and community centered economic
livelihood and sustainability.
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Climbing Up and Background Project
Petra Viegas and Sandra Paulos
Association of Women Against Violence
Portugal
The Association of Women Against Violence is a NGO that works
in the field of violence against Women, Children and Young People. One of AMCV principles and concerns is the advocacy and
protection of women and children rights. One of strategies to
promote and advocate the women’s rights is the implementation
of projects, in order to fulfil the needs of women and children
survivors. The Climbing Up and Background projects are two
examples that are being implemented and allow the share of
experiences and expertise, as well as advocacy for the needs of
women survivors especially at educational level. During the period of three years AMCV implemented the project Climbing Up,
supported by the SOCRATES Programme – initiative Grundtvig 1,
which main goal was the support and strengthening women survivors of violence from within an informal learning perspective.
The project was implemented in six European countries, giving
the opportunity to women survivors of violence to participate in
the training courses.
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Analysing competences: A methodological proposal to select community leaders
Teresita Castillo; Irene Cauich; Nancy Evia
Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán
Mexico
The community program Solares Escolares y Comunitarios
(PSEyC) works in management and conservation of natural resources using agroecological thecniques as a way to contribute
to social and health development in six rural communities in Yucatán, México. Community leaders are key actors as they have to
promote the program using different strategies. This paper aims
to present a methodological proposal to define and select community leaders considering the competences related to this kind
of job. This paper belongs to a project done under the Participatory Action Research perspective. 100 people from the six rural
communities participated in the first phase of the research. We
used different techniques as workshops, document analysis and
interviews to define the main competences that community leaders need in management and conservation of natural resources
programs to work efficiently.
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Empowerment Evaluation on Participation and
Leadership of People with Experience of Mental
Illness in a Community Organization
Fátima Jorge-Monteiro
ISPA/AEIPS
Portugal
This presentation discusses the empowerment and leadership
process of users with mental illness through an empowerment
evaluation perspective. The implementation of organizational
change in a non-profit organization (AEIPS) supporting people
with mental illness intend to promote both user control and influence in the service delivery and in the community. Currently,
the leadership program is on a full scale of implementation and
of progressive goals achievement. Aiming to systematise and
demonstrate the effectiveness and impact of the program itself
throughout the last years of execution, the group of leaders participates in the evaluation plan and in the establishment of investigation guiding lines.
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To be on the TRAIL: Training for Leadership
Roberta Mineo, Vanila Perricone
UNIMORE
Italy
The work represents the systematization of a model for analysis
and training, aimed at the development of leadership and specific related skills: it is the result of the research and the organizational interventions run in several annual events of the so-called
‘Rotary Youth Leadership Award’. Rylas take place worldwide, but
we have worked in the Mediterranean district: primary task of the
training week is to involve young people in the search for innovative solutions that can promote their region. The training model,
we proposed since 2001, is based on Leicester Conferences of
residential training, with strong group analytic contamination
and a systemic framework: it is built around a dual register, both
cognitive and psychodynamic, alternating theoretical lectures
and experiential group sessions. The theme that unites the five
editions, in which the model was developed, is leadership being
confronted with contexts and topics of current interest, such as
globalization and ethics.
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Strategies to Engage Low-Income Fathers: Exploring the Global Possibilities
Derrick M. Gordon and Anthony Judkins
The Consultation Center, Yale University
USA
Written and oral history of fatherhood provides evidence to support the importance of the role of men in raising children and
in the development of families (Dowd, 2000; Marsiglio, Amato,
Day & Lamb, 2000; Coley, 2001). Traditional conceptualizations
of fathers ask that they be married to their female partners, live
with their partner and children, and provide financial support
(Coley, 2001). Fathers are viewed as positive role models for their
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children as they portray and pass on the traditional construct of
the male role to their sons and daughters (Marsiglio, Amato, Day,
Lamb, 2000). Historical conceptualizations of fatherhood have
primarily focused on a man’s economic/breadwinning potential
and ability to provide authority and leadership to his family and
children (Dowd, 2000). Although this context is important in the
understanding of father involvement and fatherhood, narrow
definitions of a man’s role in child development limits his involvement and the roles available to him.
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pacto de los inmigrantes en la economía y en la demografía española ha sido muy positivo. Desde el punto de vista económico, las
cuentas de la Seguridad Social pasaron de tener un saldo negativo a un saldo positivo y desde el punto de vista demográfico, se
produjo un crecimiento de la población sin precedentes en la historia española. Ahora bien, la acelerada llegada de inmigrantes
al territorio español dificultó la elaboración de una política inmigratoria integral, que incluya una integración de los inmigrantes
y de sus familias.
The role of oppressive conditions in the integration of
Moroccan immigrants in Southern Spain
Sonia Hernández-Plaza, Manuel García-Ramírez, Virginia
Paloma, Fátima Almorabiti, Vicente Manzano, Carlos Camacho, María Jesús Albar, Isabel Herrera, Jose Manuel Sevillano
& Manuel de la Mata
Universidad de Almeria, Spain
Immigrants’ integration has been widely analyzed from the perspective of cross-cultural psychology. Taking an approach focused on the individual, research in this field has emphasized the
behavioral and attitudinal changes that take place as a result of
cultural contact, in terms of maintenance of immigrants’ cultural
identity and customs, and contact with the recipient society (Berry, 2005). This mainstream perspective has failed to take into account the unequal conditions that immigrants must face in most
western societies, often characterized by precarious employment
and housing, unstable legal situation, unequal access to education, community and health services, lack of political power and
scarce opportunities to achieve well-being. In the present paper,
we propose a predictive model of immigrants’ integration that
emphasizes the role of the local context in terms of opportunities
and barriers for integration, asymmetrical intergroup relations
and unequal power.
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Indicators of Immigrant Integration
Coordinator: Kien Lee
ASDC
USA
We are just learning about what integration means and what are
most appropriate measures of immigrant integration. Some host
countries would like immigrants to become more like their native citizens; however, this process of becoming more like the native citizens is fraught will all kinds of inequities, challenges, and
negative implications. This symposium examines what are the acceptable and appropriate indicators of integration in a contemporary global context.
Immigrant Integration: The Role of Health
Sónia Dias
International Health Department, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina
Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal
Migration is getting increasing attention in research and policy
level as an ongoing transformation to multicultural and multiethnic communities. Understanding the issues related with migrants’ health and their use of health care services is challenging.
Although, we can consider that people who migrate are often
healthy, migrants are usually exposed to several health risks
factors and so, the vulnerability associated with moving to an
unfamiliar environment makes prevention and access to health
care services a major component of the health response of host
societies. Access to health care services, good health outcomes
and health care policies related with migrants have become essential indicators of integration and integration policies in the
host country. How the process of migration can best be made a
healthy and socially productive process will depend on different
countries’ respond. I will discuss findings from recent and ongoing projects that study migrants’ health needs, access to health
care services.
Using participatory action research to mobilize diverse
stakeholders towards immigrant employment
Rich Janzen and Joanna Ochocka
Centre for Community Based Research, Canada
This presentation will describe and critically reflect on a series
of participatory action research (PAR) projects that were used
as a strategy for broad-based community engagement in one
Canadian community. The presentation will feature the development and implementation of the Waterloo Region Immigrant
Employment Network (WRIEN). This comprehensive community
initiative was designed as a local strategy to help ensure that the
skills of immigrants were more optimally used (www.wrien.com).
This objective was achieved by facilitating diverse stakeholders
(immigrants, business, government, community-based organizations, educational institutions and non-governmental funders)
to equitably work together in new ways. The presentation will
begin with an overview of PAR and its potential as a community
mobilizing tool. PAR will be defined as a research approach that
actively involves the participation of stakeholders whose lives are
affected by the issue being studied, for the purpose of making
positive social change.
Los inmigrantes en España: Análisis crítica de los programas de integración
Rosa Maria Verdugo Mates
Departamento de Economia Aplicada de la Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Según las estadísticas oficiales, en la actualidad España es el estado de la Comunidad Europea que más inmigrantes recibe. En el
año 1991, residían menos de 300 mil extranjeros en el territorio
español, en el año 2001 se supera la barrera del millón, en el año
2004 hay más de dos millones y se finaliza el año 2007 con casi
cuatro millones de residentes extranjeros. Diferentes estudios
realizados por investigadores españoles demuestran que el im-
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Metaestereotipos, choque cultural y estratagias de integración de diferentes colectivos de inmigrant
José Juan Vázquez, Sonia Panadero y Ana Isabel Díaz-Aberaturi
Universidad de Alcalá, Spain
Se presentan los datos preliminares de un trabajo realizado en
la ciudad de Guadalajara (España) sobre una muestra de inmigrantes procedentes de países com bajos niveles de desarrollo. El
trabajo pretende profundizar en los metaestereotipos, el choque
cultural y las estrategias de integración de los grupos de inmigrantes más numerosos en la ciudad de Guadalajara, concretamente grupos de origen latinoamericano, de Europa del Este y
África. Como criterios de inclusión muestral se consideró ser de
origen extranjero, proceder de un país con un menor nivel de
desarrollo que España, tener más de 14 años y llevar menos de
10 años de estancia en España. La muestra inicial se encuentra
compuesta por 100 personas inmigrantes procedentes de Latinoamérica (55,4%), Europa del Este (23,8%) y África (20,8%). La
muestra presenta una media de edad de 32,02 años y una media
de estancia en España de 4,5 años.
community in Chadian camps.
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The creation and re-creation of war-affected
communities
War, Disaster, and Daily Stressors’ Contribution to Sri
Lankan Youths’ Psychosocial Status
Kenneth E. Miller
This presentation presents findings from a recent survey examining factors affecting the psychosocial wellbeing of adolescents
in eastern Sri Lanka, an area devastated by war and natural disaster. In December of 2004, a tsunami hit the island nation, killing 40,000 people and displacing thousands more into makeshift
refugee camps. Although most studies of war and disaster have
focused narrowly on Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and its relation to prior trauma exposure (i.e., war and disaster), recent studies suggest the value of an ecological framework that considers
the impact of ongoing daily stressors in children’s environments.
This study utilized a combination of emic (culturally grounded)
and etic (Western) measures to examine the relative contribution
to mental health and psychosocial functioning of war and disaster-related traumatic stress, and other environmental (“daily”)
stressors such as family violence, material deprivation, and sexual
abuse in a sample of 706 Sri Lankan children.
The Reintegration of Youth Associated with Fighting
Forces in Northern Uganda: In Their Own Voices
Jeannie Annan
This study examines the process of return and reintegration for
youth associated with fighting forces in northern Uganda, where
the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) has been abducting adolescent
boys and girls as their main source of recruitment for more than
a decade. This study draws on a representative survey of over a
thousand male and female youth affected by the conflict in this
region as well as in-depth qualitative interviews with a sub-sample of youth and their families and friends. The study found that
the majority of youth returning from the LRA are accepted into
their families and communities upon return. However, there is a
significant minority who encounter problems with reintegration,
including insults, blame, and physical aggression from family
or community members. The author will present individual and
family-level risk and protective factors related to the process of
reintegration, examining specific abduction experiences, age,
education level, family size and household assets.
Coordinator: Andrew Rasmussen
New York University School of Medicine
USA
War often results in the creation of new and altered communities.
Residents’ interact with these settings, being influenced by and in
turn influencing them through structural, interpersonal, and psychological factors. Authors present qualitative and quantitative
examples from three post-conflict communities: in eastern Chad,
Darfuri refugees have been settled in the entirely new communities of the refugee camps; in northern Uganda, abducted child
soldiers have been returning to their families following their deployment; and in Sri Lanka, children from a variety of war-affected communities have been changed by the surrounding conflict.
Discussion will focus on informing humanitarian interventions
using community-level perspectives.
Darfuris communities in Chad: Structural components of
distress in refugee camps
Andrew Rasmussen
Recent work (Miller et al., in press; Rasmussen et al., under review) has argued that psychological distress among refugees
and other war-affected populations may have more to do with
individuals’ day-to-day challenges presented by their immediate surroundings than with the severity of their exposure to war.
These challenges may vary by individual or some larger unit of
analysis. Which level of analysis better predicts distress has direct implications for how psychosocial interventions should be
structured. The Darfur conflict has produced over two million displaced persons, 230,000 of whom have fled across the border to
Chad. Eastern Chad is an isolated and unforgiving environment in
which to place a this many new individuals, and thus the United
Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is faced with
the most challenging humanitarian relief mission in the world.
And yet Darfuris and the UNHCR have recreated some semblance
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Towards innovation and enrichment of research
methodology
Coordinator: Kerry Chamberlain
Massey University
New Zealand
The symposium theme is innovative research methodologies,
and contains three presentations that are focussed on different
perspectives for achieving innovation in research in community
psychology.
Everyday worlds, material things, and innovation in research.
Kerry Chamberlain & Darrin Hodgetts,
Massey University & Waikato University, New Zealand
Many of the issues of interest to community psychologists in
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their research occur within the social relations and interactions
that are located in the mundane everyday social practices of
daily life. In this paper we discuss notions of everyday life, and
argue that we need to give greater consideration to daily life in
our research. However, this raises the problematic of how we can
reveal and access the mundane and ordinary issues of everyday
living, and not overlook how these inevitably contain the unexpected or the occasional within the common or the routine. We
need research methods that can render the familiar as unfamiliar,
the ordinary as extraordinary, and that can take account of the
variability of communal practices over time and space. We argue
that one useful way in which this can be achieved is by attending
to the materiality of the everyday, and by involving objects and
spaces in our research.
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volved in teen dating violence prevention are facing important
challenges. After documenting the problem and advocating for
resources, many undertook the development of programs. Adaptation to cultural context or particular population, identification of theoretical models, and selection of specific content or
activities are some of the challenges. We will try to understand
the choices made and the relations to social factors in Portugal,
Hawaii (U.S.A.) and Quebec (Canada). The role of research in this
undertaking will also be underlined.
Prevention of teen dating violence in Québec, Canada
Francine Lavoie, Ph. D., Université Laval,
The prevention of violence is a priority in many countries. The
province of Quebec (Canada) has been at the forefront in many
initiatives about teen dating violence. The objective of this presentation is to document the inter influences, over a period of 15
years, between a social system and two research-based schools
programs. Two prevention programs developed by my research
group will form the anchor points of this discussion. The first, for
14 years old students, was published in 1994 and is still in use;
in 2004, another targeting the 16-17 years old was made available. An ecological model will inform the contextual and historical analysis. First are considered the macro level factors such as
the provincial governmental policies and important efforts at social marketing on violence, the reform of curriculum. The choices
made in the two programs about themes, values, objectives and
skills are used to illustrate the meso and micro levels.
Using the arts in community psychology
Michael Murray
Keele University, U.K.
There is increasing interest in the use of the arts within community psychology. In all their forms from visual arts, through dramatic performances to musical and written forms the arts provides a
means to engage marginalised communities. The purpose of this
paper is to consider the debate regarding the ameliorative versus
the resistant nature of community arts. In this period of consumer capitalism there is the prospect of community arts being subsumed as yet another means of restraining community action.
Community psychology is concerned with challenging dominant
forms of knowledge and of promoting community confidence to
promote change. Community arts can help reveal the conflicting
social representations and to explore ways of challenging those
that oppress certain communities. In itself community arts can
raise questions but it is necessary to connect with other social
forces to promote social change.
Combining Micro-Perspectives on a Community Issue:
Homelessness and Health
Uwe Flick, Alice Salomon
University, Berlin, Germany
Homelessness has become a problem of increasing relevance
for relatively rich countries, too. Being homeless is an individual
experience, which affects most areas of everyday life. Homelessness in specific groups produces challenges on several levels of
community psychology. Analysing this phenomenon from different angles can reveal mismatches of perspectives like institutions
that do not meet the expectations and needs of potential clients
or people with problems not utilising available services. Using
several qualitative approaches to study such relations can reveal
the different perspectives of the (individual and institutional) actors involved. In this presentation, the example of homeless adolescents with chronic illness is taken as a starting point.
Community psychology perspective on teen dating violence in the Pacific
Susana Helm, University of Hawaii at Manoa
Our community recognizes that teen dating violence (TDV) is a
problem. Prior research showed that Native Hawaiian, Samoan,
and Filipino youth consistently were overrepresented in the juvenile justice system for violence-related crimes. Youth from these
ethnocultural groups also reported high rates of TDV in schoolbased surveys. However, our community needed contextually
relevant information to design prevention with potential to benefit Pacific youth. Therefore, the Tula`i Project conducted a blended methods study. We collaborated with Asian/Pacific Islander
Youth Violence Prevention Center, public high schools on O`ahu,
and community organizations in Honolulu. Methods: Participating schools were located in communities with large proportions
of Native Hawaiian, Samoan, Filipino, and other API ethnocultural groups. High school students (N=51) participated in focus
group interviews in which they shared perceptions of TDV in their
schools, neighborhoods, families, and peer groups.
Prevention of teen dating violence: the portuguese situation
Carla Machado, University of Minho & Rosa Saavedra
The social and scientific attention to the problem of dating violence in Portugal is very recent. The available data indicate, however, that nearly 18.1% of the adolescents involved in dating relationships have performed at least one act of physical violence
toward their partners and that 22.6% have been emotionally abusive (Machado, Caridade, & Martins, in press). Attitudinal studies
conducted with youngsters also show that, although global levels of intimate violence acceptance are low, many adolescents
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Teen dating violence prevention: community
psychology perspectives in three countries
Coordinator: Francine Lavoie
École de psychologie, Université Laval
Canada
Teen dating violence prevention: community psychology perspectives in three countries. Communities and researchers in-
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endorse myths that legitimize violence, such as the idea that jealousy is a synonym of love, that a certain degree of control is normal in a relationship, that “minor” acts of violence are not serious
and should be excused and that sexual violence is rare and often
provoked by the victim behaviour (Caridade, & Machado, 2008).
Such results stimulated a heightened interest for the implementation of preventive efforts in Portugal.
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Visual Research Methodologies: Creative Interpretations
Ryan Woolrych (Manchester Metropolitan University), Anne
Kellock (MIRIAD), Amanda Kilroy (MIRIAD)
England
This paper will explore the important and enlightening role creative methodologies can play in enhancing data gathering, analytical engagement and participatory ways of working within a
diverse range of research projects. Specifically the paper looks
at the impact of creative methodologies in enhancing: • The research process • Information gathering • Participation • Perceptions of well being • Engagement • Communication • Capacity for
change, personal growth or well being • Analysis of the value of
using creative methodologies within research will derive from
three diverse research projects: 1. Documentary film making: Elucidating local resident understandings of the notion of well being
in the context of urban regeneration. This project explores the
conceptualisations of well-being amongst local residents within
a deprived community undergoing extensive regeneration. The
creative use of video technology was used to explore local residents own everyday experiential understandings of ‘well-being’.
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Building Strong Indigenous Communities - The
Many Faces of Social Capital
Chair: Diane Costello
Curtin University of Technology
Australia
Authors: Richard Chenhall, Diane Costello, Kate Senior, Brian
Bishop
Government policies in Australia rely heavily on local communities developing their social capital networks to solve complex
social, economic and environmental problems. This seminar will
share experiences of Indigenous communities addressing social
and economic issues and invite discussions on the factors related
to successes and failures of community interventions. The first is
an ethnographic analysis of petrol sniffing among Australian Aboriginal youth in a remote Aboriginal community in the Northern
Territory. It is argued that contextualizing sniffing within the community is essential to understanding petrol sniffing, and hence to
providing appropriate health interventions. The research found
that a number of factors and occurrences within the community
combined with the effects of the intervention were associated
with a significant decrease in petrol sniffing. The second research
examines how two Indigenous communities utilise social capital
networks to deal with alcohol addiction and youth issues.
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Voice and visual method: a useful method in
community psychology work?
Kellock, A; Lawthom, R., Duggan, K.; Sixsmith, J., Hawkins,
J.,Howarth,J., Siddiquee,A., Worley, C., Griffiths, J., Brown, D,
Purcell, C.
Manchester Metropolitan University
England
Methods used in Community Psychology are diverse and at times
fit for purpose and or related to different parts of the globe. A
shared underlying principle of Community Psychology is perhaps
the notion of working participatively with those who may be oppressed or marginalised by the system. Method choice when
working collaboratively seems fundamental. Increased awareness and usage of qualitative approaches in community psychology is accepted. A further development within the qualitative
field is the use of visual methodology (photo elicitation, photovoice and photo therapy are used to present data and possibly
‘give voice’.) A group of researchers who worked together within
a University funded Social Change and Well Being Research centre undertook a project using visual methodology and an experiential sampling method (Howarth, 2007). The context for the participatory project was to explore the use of visual methodology
in relation to well being.
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Challenges of Researching with adolescents:
Photovoice as an empowering method
Lynette O’Grady, Adrian Fisher
Victoria University
Australia
Developing a research project to engage adolescents in order
to enhance understanding of their life experiences and explore
what is meaningful to them has traditionally been problematic.
These difficulties are compounded when considering adolescents with an intellectual disability, resulting in a tendency to
exclude them from research projects. This paper will explain the
process of engaging 10 adolescents from two schools, a specialist school for students with a mild intellectual disability and a
mainstream school, in an urban locality in eastern Australia. Initial attempts using questionnaires resulted in a lack of interest
and limited data. Redeveloping the methodology to incorporate
the use of Photovoice, an ethnographic research method which
uses photographs generated by the research participants as the
primary data source, was much more successful.
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El uso de la imagen en el trabajo comunitário
Leonor M. Cantera & Carmen Rodrigues Tatsh
Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona
Spain
Seguir principios inherentes a la Psicología Comunitaria como
el dar respuestas a los problemas sociales o facilitar el proceso
de toma de conciencia y acciones encaminadas a la resolución
o prevención de determinadas problemáticas; no es fácil y rep-
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resenta una gran responsabilidad. Para ello, son muchas las personas que en el día a día tratan de buscar y utilizar métodos que
lo faciliten. En nuestro trabajo hemos encontrado en el uso de la
imagen una herramienta para facilitar procesos relacionados con
las problemáticas y/o necesidades expresadas o detectadas en
determinadas comunidades, ya sea en la toma de conciencia de
aquello que le afecta y sus diferentes interrelaciones como en la
construcción de diversas acciones dirigidas a su resolución. Presentamos dos formas de uso de la imagen en el trabajo comunitario que tienen puntos de encuentros.
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Assessing and meeting the health and social care needs
of older refugees
Eleni Hatzidimitriadou
European Centre for the Study of Migration and Social Care, University of Kent
Migration is a phenomenon usually associated with younger
people, so issues of older migrants attract less attention in research, policy making and welfare service provision. On the
whole, older refugees are frequently put ‘at the back of the queue’
and overlooked by aid programmes due to assumptions that
their needs are of less importance than those of other vulnerable
forced migrant groups such as children. To date, there has been
little research on health and social care experiences of this group
despite the fact that even settled older migrants are considered
among the most deprived and socially excluded groups living in
developed countries. In this paper, I will present findings from a
UK small-scale qualitative study exploring the health and social
care needs and expectations of older refugees (aged 50 and over)
living in London. Service providers were also interviewed regarding welfare provision and awareness of the specific needs of this
group.
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My Neighbourhood, My Voice: Photovoice as a
catalyst
Elizabeth Kristjansson, Abid Jan, Mitchell Kutney, Naheed
Kurji, Richard Landis, Melissa Calhoun, Anne Musiol
University of Ottawa
Canada
“Photovoice” is a participatory action research methodology
based on the understanding that people are experts in their own
lives (Wang et al, 2004, p. 911). People create and discuss photographs to catalyze personal and community change (Wang et al,
1998, p. 98). Photovoice is an important tool to give ordinary citizens an active and constructive role in assessment, neighbourhood level planning ,and local actions. In this paper, we report
results from a pilot photovoice project in Ottawa, Canada. Seventeen young people and two adults from lower income, multicultural neighbourhoods participated in this community-university
collaborative project, designed to give community a voice and an
outlet for creativity. We held photography workshops run by two
experienced photographers. Each of four groups of participants
were given two shared digital cameras to document life in their
neighbourhood. They focused on positive aspects of their neighbourhood, as well as aspects they would like changed.
Accessing health experiences of Somali and Iraqi asylum
seeker and refugees in the UK
Lawthom, R.; Mountian, I.;.Sixsmith, J. and Whittle, N.
Manchester Metropolitan University
In this paper we analyse the ways in which a worldwide perspective on community psychology needs to engage with postcolonial theory and knowledge. A funded project exploring the
health care experiences of refugees and asylum seekers (Iraqi
and Somali populations) provided some key issues. The literature
on health and refugees/asylum seekers is rather a literature on ill
health. In non-refugee (and non-asylum seeker) populations, the
notion of health (at times well being) is presented as a commodity or lifestyle choice afforded to citizens. When health is related
to refugees or asylum seekers the focus is on ill health, normally
the construal of poor mental health. Here, global north labels
of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, depression, mental illness are
routinely applied to refugee/asylum seeker subjectivities. Key
aspects such as gender, race, class, age, and social, political and
cultural contextual differences are central to ways in which we
understand and work with asylum seekers and refugees.
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Health and Mental Health Care for Refugees and
Asylum Seekers
Coordinator: Dina Birman
University of Illinois at Chicago
USA
Refugees and asylum seekers flee war and persecution in their
native countries and turn to Western countries for protection. The
literature on this population has suggested that they may need
mental health services as a result of traumatic experiences prior
to or during migration, and stresses of acculturation and adjustment in resettlement. However refugees represent an underserved population, as few culturally competent and accessible
mental health services exist in countries of resettlement. This is
particularly true for the most vulnerable among the refugee populations, such as the elderly, asylum seekers, and children. The
papers in this symposium present approaches to conceptualizing and providing mental health services to refugees and asylum
seekers in the UK and the US. The papers include critiques of the
existing health and mental health care systems, as well as offer a
description of a mental health program that attempts to customize its services for diverse refugee children.
A Community-based Comprehensive Services Model for
Refugee Children in Resettlement
Dina Birman & Sarah Beehler
University of Illinois at Chicago
Although it has been documented that refugee children have
lived through multiple traumas and may need mental health
services, few specialized programs have been created to address
their needs. The challenges of addressing the needs of such a
multicultural and multilingual population are daunting, and services must not only address symptoms of mental disorder, but
must also provide ongoing support during the process of acculturation. Further, while the emphasis in the U.S. in recent years
has been on insisting that mental health programs limit their
services to providing only “evidence-based practices” validated
through randomized clinical trials, no such practices have been
identified for refugees. As a result, mental health agencies attempting to serve these populations are marginalized, while the
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field is not learning from them about how to work with these
populations. In this presentation we describe our approach to
gathering “practice-based evidence” from existing mental health
services for refugees.
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provide opportunities for adolescents to form bonds - strong or
weak - that can influence the adoption of healthy or risky behaviors, such as alcohol use.
Beyond the Family: Building on Neighborhood Strengths
to Deter Depressive and Deviant Behavior
Dawn Witherspoon
Researchers have documented a youth violence epidemic; youth
are exposed to and engaged in severe and chronic violent acts.
Therefore, youth violence has become a public health concern.
In 2001, the US Surgeon General’s report highlighted the scope
and prevalence of the problem as well as possible prevention/intervention strategies. For example, exposure to violence (ETV) is
positively related to depressive symptoms and deviant behavior
but the family system may buffer youth’s exposure to violence.
Additionally, parenting practices are inversely related to ETV
for poor urban youth and good family functioning helps youth
maintain positive trajectories despite increased levels of ETV. The
direct relationships between ETV and adolescent maladaptive
behavior are known, but little is known about positive neighborhood characteristics that may reduce or compensate for urban
youths’ exposure to violence.
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Building Blocks for Development in Diverse Communities: Families, Peers, and Neighborhoods
Coordinator: Dawn Witherspoon
UNC-CH Center for Developmental Science
USA
Research shows that multiple contexts exacerbate adolescent
deviant behaviors; yet, these contexts may be potential building
blocks in diverse communities. This symposium explores family,
peer, and neighborhood influences on maladaptive behaviors
among adolescents. Paper one examines how pubertal timing influences cigarette use in various family environments. Paper two
investigates the gradient effects of parental and peer influences
on adolescent alcohol use. Using an ethnically diverse sample,
paper three explores how neighborhoods and families protect
youth from deviant behavior involvement. Together, these presentations will elucidate the factors associated with adolescent
maladaptive behavior and elicit discussion regarding implications for prevention/intervention and policy.
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Co-Designing a Global Workstation: Using Internet Tools to Give Community Psychology Away
Worldwide
Building Healthy Family Relationships to Delay Adolescent Cigarette Use Behaviors
Summer Robbins
Cigarette use presents a number of developmental, academic,
and physical difficulties to adolescents such as depression, low
school performance, and increased prevalence of psychosomatic
disorders (Steuber & Danner, 2003; Tucker, Ellickson, & Klein, 2003;
Swaim, Henry, & Kelly, 2006; Newcomb & Bentler, 1989). Further,
there is evidence supporting important links between adolescent
smoking behaviors (such as age of onset and past thirty day use)
with both biological and psychosocial risk and protective factors such as pubertal timing, gender, parental cigarette use, and
parenting behaviors. For example, adolescents who experience
puberty earlier are more likely to engage in smoking behaviors,
while parenting behaviors such as communication often act as a
buffer against adolescent smoking behaviors (Brooks-Gunn, Petersen, & Eichorn, 1985; Otten, Engels, van de Ven, & Bricker, 2007;
Gutschoven & Van den Bulk, 2005; Castrucci & Gerlach, 2006).
Chair: Jerry Schultz
Work Group for Community Health & Development
USA
Authors: Cesareo Fernandez (University of Kansas) Jerry Schultz
(University of Kansas), Vincent Francisco (University of North
Carolina Greensboro) Tom Wolff (Tom Wolff & Asscociates), Bill
Berkowitz (University of Massachusetts, Lowell), Stephen Fawcett
(University of Kansas) and Christina Holt (University of Kansas)
In every country people work to create better conditions for
health and development in their communities. Use of the Community Tool Box (CTB) http://ctb.ku.edu for facilitating capacity
development and collaborative research among geographicallydispersed partners is increasing rapidly. Over 30% of the hundreds of thousands of users of the CTB are from outside of the
U.S. The CTB has become one of the premier websites for building capacity for community health and development worldwide.
Known for its rich content, it also features a web-based Ask an
Advisor system for providing technical assistance, offers supports
for online documentation and participatory evaluation, and a
customizable online collaborative workspace (Workstation).
With prompting from the Pan American Health Organization and
other global organizations, the partners in Peru, Venezuela, Costa
Rica, Puerto Rico, and emerging partners in Lebanon and Kenya
are actively translating and culturally adapting the 7,000 pages
of the CTB.
Where Parents Leave Off, Peers Pick Up
Dorene MacKinnon
Peers and family provide contexts for the development of adolescent alcohol use. Two contextual dimensions are important:
alcohol behaviors exhibited by context members and attachment between the adolescent and context members. Research
indicates that both dimensions in multiple contexts are rarely
examined in a single study. African American youths’ alcohol use
is not as extensively researched as White youths’ use. Using primary socialization theory (PST), this project uses the Context of
Adolescent Substance Use Study (Context Study) data to explore
the influence of the gradient effects of parental and peers’ context on African American adolescents’ alcohol consumption. PST
and social learning theory suggest that familial and peer contexts
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(p<.05) main effect on perceived emotional suffering, responsibility taking and closeness between Britain and Kenya, such that
shame produced higher values than guilt. Identity salience and
emotion did not have significant interaction effects on those
variables. Study 2 was conducted in Britain using 62 British participants and there were three emotion conditions (guilt, shame
and pride). Emotion had a significant (p<.05) effect on Britain’s
perceived emotional suffering, the expectation of forgiveness
of Britain by ex-colonies, and closeness between Britain and excolonies.
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Analyzing ethical issues in community practice:
A sequential approach
Alipio Sanchez-Vidal
University of Barcelona
Spain
This workshop’s aim is to outline and illustrate in practice a method for approaching ethical questions in community practice.
Starting from a social (not a mere extension of clinical deontology) and practical view of community ethics, relevant questions
of current community practice are listed and guiding values (beneficence, no maleficence, human development, trusting and
cooperation, empowerment, social justice, social solidarity and
efficacy) are made explicit. Then, the steps of the procedure are
explained: (1) identifying specific ethical questions; (2) selecting relevant actors and their main values (both explicit and implicit); (3) identifying main existing options or choices and their
(foreseen or actual) consequences; (4) choosing the best option
available on the bases of both initial values and ensuing consequences for the different actors. That implies combining two
complementary types of approaches to evaluating the issues and
making practical decisions.
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Perceived social support and acculturation
across life domains
Manetti M,. Migliorini L., Frattini L.
University of Genova
Italy
Over past three decades, social support has been one of the major topics for community psychological investigation and viewed
as “one of the basic building blocks of social, psychological and
biological integrity” (Pierce et al.,1996). Migration process gives
several implications with reference to the support to reception;
the support structure, given to adolescents, is considered as an
efficient protecting factor in front of many problematic aspects
of the life of subjects belonging to ethnic minorities (Zimmermann et al., 2000). Self-esteem is commonly considered as an
index of well-being and of psychological adjustment of adolescents (Benjet, Hermandez-Guzman, 2001; Phinney, 1991). The
concept of acculturation is related to interethnic contacts and
describes the psychological and cultural changes that occur as a
result of continual contacts among peoples belonging to different cultural or ethnic groups (Gibson, 2001). The present study
examines the relationships among self esteem, social support,
and acculturation.
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Understanding cultural dissonance related to
health constructions to prevent cervical cancer
Josh Diem; Erin Kobetz
University of Miami
USA
Haitian women residing in Little Haiti, the predominately Haitian
neighborhood in Miami, Florida, USA, experience an increased
risk of developing and dying from cervical cancer. This disparity
likely ensues from the interplay of multiple factors, most notably
underutilization of Pap smear screening. Previous efforts led by
well-intentioned academic researchers have failed to improve
routine screening in Little Haiti. While these efforts may be labeled as unsuccessful by any standard, there is limited empirical data to explain why. As part of an ongoing Community Based
Participatory Research (CBPR) initiative in Little Haiti known as
Patne en Akyson (Partners in Action), we conducted a series of
key informant interviews (n=20) to explore community leaders’
perspectives on the futility of past efforts. Our findings implicate
the discrepancy between Haitian and Western Medicine’s psychological constructions of disease prevention, racism, and disenfranchisement from the formal economy.
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México/USA Borders… el otro lado
Gustavo Alonso Félix López and María Gabriela Nachón
García
University Veracruzana
Mexico
This is a documentary work which is largely motivated by aspects
of my own life. It deals with the many problems that are facing
the people on both sides of the México and United States borders, but also deals with the great strength the border people
have shown in overcoming difficulties and creating a multicultural world, full of vibrant colours, new sounds, poetry, and powerful economic processes, political and ecological challenges.
The México/USA Borders presentation concludes that there are
no borders in terms of disease, crime, illegal immigration and
pollution. We need to think about constructing new ways of perceiving the expanded world by incorporating the new men and
women who are emerging in the border cities and beyond the
border cities in our daily lives. There are many people participating in the hybrid border culture.
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Responses to Collective Expressions of Guilt vs.
Shame
Caroline Kamau (Southampton Solent University, England),
Roger Giner-Sorolla (University of Kent, England), Sven Zebel
(University of Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Two between-subjects experiments were conducted to explore
Kenyans’ and Britons’ evaluations of hypothetical emotive statements expressed by Britain for colonialism. In study 1, emotion
(guilt vs. shame) and identity salience (salient vs. not salient) were
manipulated and 82 Kenyans took part. Emotion had a significant
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are realised in practice by using the case example of South African
community psychology and its identities. We provide discussion
of the literature on identity and community psychology in South
Africa and argue that even the microcosm of South African community psychology has had difficulty escaping a racialised, gendered and classed history reflected in the broader South African
society. This paper particularly examines community psychology
within the context of the university as an organisation. The implications of the apparent disjuncture between assumptions and
praxis of community psychology in South Africa are discussed in
a context of both South African and international community.
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The relationship between system justifying beliefs and attitudes toward honour
Nuray Sakall
Middle East Technical University
Turkey
The present study aims at exploring the relationship between system justifying tendencies and attitudes toward and perception of
‘honor’ in Turkey. It is hypothesized that participants who have
higher system justifying tendencies will (1) associate honor with
virginity and women’s sexuality; (2) maintain that women’s honor
should be protected by women’s families and male relatives; and
(3) hold more positive attitudes toward violence against women
executed in order to protect honor than those who have low system justifying tendencies. For this purpose 350 undergraduate
university students -175 men and 175 women- will participate in
the study. Participants will fill out Economic System Justification
Scale (Jost & Thompson, 2000), System Justification in Gender
Context Scale (Jost & Kay, 2005) and Attitudes toward and Perceptions of Honor Scale developed by the authors. The present
research is to be completed by the end of April 2008.
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Orchestrating Efficient Meetings; Building Effective Decisions
John Tropman
University of Michigan
USA
This session draws from the Decision Masters REsearch Project at
the University of Michigna. Data from 400+’masters’ of meeting
and decision processes are distelled into a 2-part presentation
which provides hands on concepts, tactactics and techniques to
oechestrate smoother meetings and building more effective decisions. Part 1 provides principles and rules for meeting organization. Part 2 begins by looking at awful discussions (Group Think,
Boiled Frog, etc) and looks at the ways in which the problems
generating such poor outcomes can be avoided.
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Mixed families, Immigration, Policy change, Social support, Management of cultural differences
María Isabel Hombrados Mendieta & Gianluigi Moscato
University of Málaga
Spain
“Mixed couples and immigration: social support, management of
cultural difference and marital satisfaction”. The study sought to
determine whether a positive relationship existed between the
available social support, the strategies for managing cultural difference and marital satisfaction. Analysis was based on the results
of a structured questionnaire completed by 102 foreigners married to (or living with) a Spanish partner and resident in Spain.
The foreigners comprised 3 geographical groups (Europe, Latin
America and the rest of the world) reflecting different levels of
cultural distance within the couple and were analysed according
to the following variables: social demographics, social support,
institutional support, management of cultural difference and
marital satisfaction. Regression analysis found that emotional
support, and satisfaction with it, had a direct influence on marital
satisfaction.
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Community psychology and ethics: Thematic
and methodological issues
Coordinator: Alípio Sanchez-Vidal
University of Barcelona
Spain
This symposium examines three basic substantive issues on community ethics from different socio-cultural perspectives: (1) how
the tension between “is” (descriptive level) and the “ought” (ideal
level) implicated in ethical analysis can be bridged using psychology and values; (2) the relationship between research and action
in a community practice committed to social change from the
standpoint of both methodological demands and psychosocial
processes in daily practice; (3) describe a method to analyse and
help solving ethical issues and problems on community practice
on the basis of the central ingredients of any social ethics: actors,
values, options/choices, and consequences.
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Voices from the African South: a critical discussion of identity and community psychology in
South Africa
What Values and psychology can do for the is-ought conundrum
Isaac Prilleltensky
University of Miami
USA
This paper examines the relationship between the “is” and the
“ought” and the role values and psychology can play in clarifying
that relationship. The authors will examine arguments against
and in favor of a coherent relationship between the “is” and the
“ought.” One opinion holds that the ought cannot be derived
from is, because the current state of affairs may not be desirable,
Ronelle Carolissen, Leslie Swartz
University of Stellenbosch
South Africa
The fact that human diversity is a core value to which community
psychology and by implication, community psychologists ascribe,
is well documented in the literature. The value of human diversity
is furthermore structurally inscribed in community psychology in
a number of ways. This paper examines how well these principles
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or the only possible one. An opposing position holds that ought
can be derived from is because if I know about current state of
affairs, I can discern whether it’s good, bad, or indifferent, and
make recommendations for the future. The nest question is how
do I know that current state of affairs is desirable or undesirable?
To answer that question we need criteria in the form of values.
Again, here we face two opposing views: Values can critique the
is and inform the ought because we have the ability to develop
criteria to evaluate situations, and distinguish between conditions that either enhance or diminish well-being.
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postulados de la Psicología Comunitaria, especialmente, las propuestas de la Psicología Social Comunitaria Latinoamericana y
los planteamientos feministas, en particular las propuestas referentes a la ética feminista. Se ha documentado que la Psicología
Comunitaria ha obliterado la perspectiva de género, al menos
en sus planteamientos explícitos. Se complementa esta presentación con datos de dos investigaciones realizadas en Chile
(Proyectos FONDECYT nº 1050009 y nº 1080528) que confirman
la ausencia de una perspectiva de género en las propuestas explícitas de acciones comunitarias. Se discute las implicancias de
estos resultados, así como también las contribuciones que implican la perspectiva de género y las teorías feministas a la acción
comunitaria.
(Un)Meetings between communitarian intervention and
research?
Maria de Fatima Quintal de Freitas
Federal University of Parana (FUPR)
Brazil
The following work analyses the relation between the investigation process and the intervention on the Communitarian field,
bringing up two main questions: A] If the research should conduct the action, also compromised with the reality and social
transformation; and B] If the intervention’s process in community
could generate knowledge socially relevant. For that a reflection
will be made on two aspects: the level of coherence between the
psycho-social “to do” and the existing philosophical conceptions;
and the relations inherent to the community working team. This
reflection results in a psycho-social analysis on the ethic dilemmas
and challenges present in the communitarian practices, such as:
A] Those related to the methodological demands and the knowledge production: the criteria to choose subjects and instruments
x level of communitarian significance x social commitment; B]
Those connected with the “daily and historical sensibility”.
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In their Shoes
Marika Podda Connor
Middlesex University
UK
This paper is based on a participatory qualitative research study
with a group of refugees in Malta. The study sought to explore
the bio-psychosocial impact of forced migration. The researcher’s
concern prior to the study was how the participants make sense
out of their lives following forced migration whilst encompassing complex challenges affecting their health (physically and
psychologically) and their social well-being. The involvement
and training of ‘insiders’ as research assistants throughout the research process proved to be important for this study as it enabled
participants to express themselves in their own language and expressions. They described how the excessively long time spent in
detention contributed to feelings of helplessness, psychological
distress and suicidal urges. The results illustrate how assessing
and meeting the needs of vulnerable individuals such as refugees
represent a challenge for health and social care professionals.
Moreover, whilst mainstream facilities should be a basic component of the refugee experience in a resettlement country, culturally sensitive programmes may facilitate integration and access
to health services. Cultural competence training for professionals who touch the lives of these people is crucial and should be
implemented in the curricula of educational programmes if the
needs of refugees are to be addressed holistically.
A method for analyzing ethical questions in community
practice: Actors, values, options and consequences
Alipio Sánchez Vidal
University of Barcelona
Spain
I pose here a method to analyze—and help solving—ethical
questions in community intervention based on the four ingredients of social ethics: actors, values, options and consequences. I
assume a community ethics both social (i.e., taking into account
complexity and uncertainty of community life) and feasible (not
merely rhetoric); an ethics that is grounded on psychosocial science and technique but that it also takes into account power and
interest (as implicit values). Ethical evaluation is based on two
complementary criteria: ideal values of community groups and
actual consequences of the actions realized. And it will consist
of four steps: (1) identifying salient ethical questions; (2) selecting relevant actors and their main values (both explicit and implicit); (3) identifying main existing options or choices and their
(foreseeable) consequences for the different actors; (4) choosing
the best option available on the basis of both values at stake and
anticipated (or actual) consequences.
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The different patterns of relation to work: Younger and older generations in the labout market
Sandra Carvalho, Célia Soares, Ana Passos, Paula Castro
CIS/ISCTE
Portugal
If during the eighties and nineties, the way to deal with the young
generations’ unemployment was to facilitate or even encourage
the anticipation of retirement, currently the employment policies
are changing. The employment of older workers has started to be
seen as an important variable, for instance, in the sustainability
of Social Security. At the legislative level, the Resolution of the
Ministry Council nº141/2006 stating that it is an objective “to reinforce the incentives to active ageing through a new national
strategy for active ageing and adopting flexible mechanisms
Género y ética en Psicología Comunitária: Aportes feministas
M. Inês Winkler
University of Santiago de Chile
Chile
En este trabajo se revisa las similitudes y diferencias entre los
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for the retirement age (65 years)” is one of the main tools for the
implementation of the government’s age-related employment
policies. On the other hand, in the recent Proposal for the Reform
of the Active Employment Policies of August 2007, one of the
considered fundamental lines is “to increase employment and
combat unemployment of older workers” in accordance with the
National Strategy for Active Ageing (ENEA).
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Promoting Health and Well-Being among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth
Gary W. Harper, Shira Benhorin, Douglas Bruce, Marco Hidalgo, Omar Jamil, Sebastian Torres, & April Timmons
DePaul University
USA
Much of the existing health-related literature on lesbian, gay, and
bisexual (LGB) youth has focused on increased rates of negative
physical and mental health outcomes, and has not adequately
explored resiliency and well-being among this population. In order to develop resiliency-focused prevention interventions that
promote the health and well-being of LGB youth, more research
is needed on factors that support the healthy growth and development of these young people. This presentation will report
findings from two qualitative studies conducted with LGB youth
(N = 63; N = 19), along with data from a critical analysis of multidisciplinary LGB literature. Qualitative interviews were conducted with African American, Latino and White youth (ages 14-23)
recruited from LGB organizations and diverse community venues
in two U.S. cities. The development of the interview guides and
the thematic analyses were guided by phenomenological and
critical constructivists theoretical frameworks.
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An ecological approach to community intervention: GerAcções (Generate Actions)
Susana Carvalhosa, Ana Domingos, Cátia Sequeira
GerAcções Project
Portugal
Mission of GerAcções project: involve the people who leave or
work in Belém (town), as the key members in promoting their interests and solve their problems in order to build a healthy community. Objectives: Involving children and young people, families, and older people in their own development process; and
involving the community and social network of partners for an
integrated intervention in the process of building a healthy community. Methodology: Implementation of the ecological perspective (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) in the community intervention,
in which the community consists of a series of ecological systems,
such as individuals, families, schools, neighbourhood, policies.
Actions: In order to promote the empowerment of children and
young people, families and older people it was made several
focus group for the lifting of interests and needs and strategies
for resolving them, as well as the establishment of the Advisory
Council of the whole project, with people from the community.
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Psychological sense of community and volunteerism
Coordinator: Maura Pozzi
Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore
Italy
Psychological sense of community and volunteerism: Conceptual
dimensions and connections to prosocial action. This symposium
focuses on Psychological sense of community (PSoC) and its role
in volunteerism. Traditionally, community has been conceptualized as a specific geographical location involving interpersonal
relationships. Evidence suggests that when people feel a PSoC
regarding a community, volunteerism increases. The symposium
will discuss the concept of community with the aim of providing an in-depth understanding of people’s views toward different types of community (i.e., physical community, psychological/
relational community)–and the link between these views and
people’s commitment to the community itself. Moreover, the
symposium examines the antecedents of PSOC and the effect of
it on voluntary actions in three different countries.
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El conocimiento como criterio. Una exploración
en el universo de los valores de jóvenes de Palermo
Barbara Zammitti, Giuseppe Mannino, Antonio Lumia, Anna
Rosalia Colnago
LUMSA - Libera Università Maria Santissima Assunta
Italy
Entre las temáticas de la II Conferencia Internacional de Psicologia Comunitaria, la intervención conducida por nuestro grupo se
ubica en el ámbito de la prevención. Desde hace un año, conducimos un estudio-intervención sobre el tema de los valores
presentes en menores de edad entre 9 y 12 años de Palermo,
para evidenciar sus valores. El estudio de los valores presentes en
una comunidad es importante para determinar la cultura de origen y para hipotizar la cultura futura. El método utilizado ha sido
el CQR-Investigación Cualitativa Consensual- (Hill et al., 2005).
A través de este método han sido relevadas variables cualitativas y cuantitativas y ha sido posible un estudio científico sobre
el fenómeno objeto de la intervención. La investigación consta
de fases: 1-Estudio del fenómeno de los valores; 2-elección de la
muestra 92 menores; 3-elección de los indicadores; 4-realización
y suministración de un cuestionario; 5-evaluación de los cuestionarios y elaboración de los resultados (…).
Psychological sense of community: Contributions toward
a new understanding
Clelia Anna Mannino and Mark Snyder
University of Minnesota
Current and past research has examined psychological sense
of community, a feeling of belonging to and dependence on a
larger community. However, community has often been defined
by physical or geographical boundaries (i.e., as a specific place
or geographic location). To expand and broaden the conceptualization of community, we advance a psychological conception
of community, as a feeling of belonging and connection with a
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group of people who have shared concerns. Based on this theorizing, we have examined physical and psychological conceptions of community, and their involvement in pro-social action.
For a majority of participants in our research (N=111 university
students), physical communities were more salient than psychological ones. However, participants could readily identify the psychological communities to which they belonged when prompted
with a definition of psychological community.
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Desarrollo humano a partir de un modelo
ecológico dirigido a niños, familia, y comunidad
Camilo Alberto Madariaga Orozco
Universidad del Norte
Colombia
Co-Autores: Jose Amar Amar, Jorge Palacio Sañudo, Eloisa Sierra,
Mario Mosquera y Diana Quintero
Se trata de un proyecto de intervencio psicosocial para desarrollar un Programa Integral de Desarrollo Humano con metodología
de participación comunitária que cubra aspectos de salud, nutrición, desarrollo psicoafectivo, generación de ingreso y desarrollo social que incluya a los niños, y sus familias de hogares que
actualmente viven de la pesca, para hacer frente a la problemática socio ambiental presente en el corregimiento Eduardo Santos
por la contaminación de la Ciénaga de Mallorquín. Se obtuvieron
con una metodología novedosa, los siguientes resultados: La
consolidación del programa de Psicoafectividad “Familias Unidas
Para el Cambio” con la participación de padres, madres y niños
y niñas de la comunidad, forjando el cambio de actitudes en los
padres asistentes sobre la forma de crianza de los niños y niñas
teniendo en cuenta el diálogo como opción alterna al maltrato.
Volunteers who remain for a long period of time and volunteers who quit during the first year
Fernando Chacon and Marisa Vecina
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Volunteerism is a specific form of social action that is volunteers
seek to address problems of society by engaging in organizations. They give time and work for the good or welfare of others
without expectation of compensation or reward (Omoto, 2005).
In addition to this volunteerism has four salient attributes: longevity, planfulness, nonobligatory helping, and an organizational
context (Omoto & Snyder, 2002; Penner, 2002). So, sustained behaviour without obligation is one of the most important characteristics to be explained. In others words: What are the essential
ingredients to make people persist working for the common good
in spite of difficulties, problems, deceptions, and so on?. One way
to study this key question is to compare two groups: those who
quit in their first year and those who remain after many years. So,
in this study we analysed the differences and similarities (ANOVA
one factor) between a group of 110 volunteers who quit the organization during the first year.
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La vida cotidiana: un enfoque teorico metodologico para el analisis critico
Maricela Perera
Centro de Investigaciones Psicologicas y Sociologicas
Cuba
La propuesta analiza el enfoque para la critica de la vida cotidiana
com fines de diagnostico y transformacion. Valida para cientistas
sociales en general, ha sido utilizada durante mas de 12 años en
la docencia y la investigacion. La presentacion comparte ademas
resultados de investigaciones empíricas.
Elderly volunteers reaching out to their community. How
does PSoC contribute to volunteer involvement?
Maura Pozzi (Università Cattolica di Milano, Elena Marta
(Università Cattolica di Milano) and Daniele Pirrotta (FIVOL Fondazione Italiana per il Volontariato)
Nowadays, world is said to be older and older because of the increase of the age of its inhabitants. Politicians are trying to find
new activities for elderly that are considered one of the greatest resources for communities, especially when doing something
for their society such as volunteerism. Usually people stereotype
elderly people as incompetent and warm, following from perceptions of them as useless for society (Cuddy, Norton & Fiske, 2005).
On the contrary, elderly are often involved in volunteer activities,
and this involvement during late adulthood have been globally
recognized for its high percentage and for the effects both on elderly health and life satisfaction (Harlow & Cantor, 1996; Piliavin,
2005) and their community of belonging. In fact, elderly engage
in direct helping “seemed to drive greater rewards from volunteering … than other elders engaged in more indirect or less
formally ‘helping’ roles” (Wheeler, Gorey, and Greenblatt, 1998, p.
75).
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Community Psychology in “developed” societies: How to face renewed forms of alienation and
exclusion
Jorge S. López Antonio Martín Jose M. Martínez Barbara Scandroglio Maria J. Martín
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Spain
Community psychology faces new challenges in westerns countries. The so-called welfare societies have failed, even in their own
internal scope, in attempts to reduce social exclusion, maintaining a series of now chronically marginalized sectors and adding
to these new groups of excluded people, such as those of thinlypopulated rural areas, immigrants working in the black economy
and neglected older people, in an atomized social context. Furthermore, our societies have contributed to creating large sectors of the population which are actually in a genuine state of
alienation, given their alarming ignorance of the structural and
political dynamics that define their lifestyle and their feelings of
apathy and impotence with regard to civil participation. In this
context, we might well ask ourselves whether or not many of the
practices typical in the area of psychosocial intervention in the
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Western world are actually genuine examples of “type 1 change”–
changing something so that everything stays the same.
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prevalence of consumption was alcohol, with 57, 9% of adolescents reporting the use of this substance in the last 30 days, and
29.2% reporting drunkenness at least once in the past year. Distilled drinks were the most consumed in the last 30 days, 26, 2%
of adolescents reported the use of tobacco in the past 30 days,
and for marijuana the levels of use are considerable lowers with
12, 2% of adolescents reporting the use of this substance at least
once in life,
8.1% in the last 12 months, and 4.5% in the last 30 days. Significant gender differences were found in the levels of substance
use. Boys reported a higher level of alcohol and marijuana use
and girls reported higher levels of tobacco use.
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Mejoramiento de la calidad de la atención a la infancia y juventud en dificultades
Marina Alarcón Espinoza, Alba Zambrano Constanzo
Universidad de La Frontera Temuco
Chile
Aportando al mejoramiento de la calidad de la atención a la infancia y juventud en dificultades psicosociales en la región de la
Araucanía: evaluación a la incorporación del enfoque psicoeducativo en 5 proyectos pilotos. La presentación tiene por propósito
exponer los principales resultados y reflexiones derivadas de una
experiencia de innovación en 5 programas de atención a la infancia y juventud en dificultades psicosociales en la región de la
Araucanía, Chile. Específicamente se da cuenta de los resultados
de una investigación financiada por la Dirección de Investigación
y Desarrollo de la Universidad de La Frontera que buscó identificar y analizar los principales factores asociados a la incorporación
de algunos elementos del enfoque psicoeducativo en estos programas.
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Youths and their community: sense of belonging, identification and involvement
Elvira Cicognani, Bruna Zani, Cinzia Albanesi
University of Bologna
Italy
Within the adolescent literature there is consensus on the important role of neighbourhoods and community contexts on
positive developmental outcomes and health. Existing research
evidence confirms the beneficial effects of Sense of Community
on adolescents’ well being and social involvement (Pretty et al.,
1986; Pretty, 2002; Evans, 2007; Albanesi, Cicognani & Zani, 2007).
This presentation aims at illustrating and discussing the results
of a programme of investigation on Sense of Community among
adolescents and young adults involving Italian samples. Among
the themes to be considered are the following: the conceptual
meaning of community and Sense of Community for young people and its relationships with theoretical models (e.g. McMillan &
Chavis, 1986); the relationships between the different constructs
capturing young people’s relationship with the community contexts (e.g. community identity, place identity, place attachment;
etc.); most appropriate measurement approaches (qualitative,
quantitative); (…).
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Personal indicators of quality of life in Portuguese adolescents
António Borges da Silva, Margarida Gaspar de Matos, José
Alves Dinis
FMH/ULT; CMDT/UNL
Portugal
The adolescents of Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children
sample (HBSC 2006) manifests, in the general, a high perception
of quality of life, associated to high levels of emotional and cognitive well-being, life satisfaction and perception of happiness.
The sample included 4877 adolescents, mean age of 14 year-old,
49,6% of the masculine gender and 50,4% of the feminine gender. The gender, the nationality, the socio-economic status and
the academic degree of the parents, affects the quality of life perception of the Portuguese adolescents. The increase of the age
and instruction are associated with lower perception of quality
of life. The number of physical symptoms increases with the age;
the same relation exists between psychological symptoms and
age. Physical and psychological symptoms are related and adolescents whose present those symptoms presented low perception of quality of life.
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“Who can I count upon?”: Adolescents’ Perceived
Social Support in Residential Care Context
Martins, A.; Calheiros, M.
ISCTE
Portugal
According to the literature, child development may become
impaired in residential care settings, especially when institutionalization occurs for long periods of time (Bullock et al,
1993;Valle,1998). The absence of supportive close relationships is
an important risk factor that hinders these adolescents’ interpersonal and self identity development. Moreover, it has been identified that adolescents’ perceived social support is an important
resource for positive adjustment (Compas et al, 1995; Sandler
& Twohey, 1998). But who can these adolescents count upon?
Hence, this study aims to analyse adolescents’ perceived social
support (e.g.,affection, intimacy, instrumental aid) and negative
interactions (e.g.,conflict, criticism) within their network of relationships (father, mother, brother/sister, best friend and caregiver). Additionally, a comparison will be made between this group
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Drug use and other risk behaviors in adolescence: Risk and protective factors
Valentina Chitas
Faculty of Psychology
Portugal
This study was developed with a sample of 1042 adolescents,
from elementary and high schools of Lisbon’s suburban area and
provides a local epidemiological data on drug use (Tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and other illegal drugs), antisocial behavior and
sexual behavior. The results reveal that the substance with higher
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and a group of adolescents living with their biological families.
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Musical groups in the community: enlarging the
perspectives of educational, cultural and social
processes
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Youth aging out of foster care in 5 nations
Paul A. Toro, Malgorzata Szarzynska, Martin Goyette, José
Ornelas, Didier Drieu
The problems of youth making the transition from state-sponsored care to independent living as young adults have been
increasingly recognized by service providers, policy-makers,
and researchers in many of the world’s developed nations. Such
youth are often victims of child abuse or neglect, removed from
their homes by authorities, or abandoned by their parents. Their
troubled background already puts them at risk for homelessness
and other poor outcomes in adulthood. Then, around age 18 in
most nations, they are forced to leave orphanages, mental health
facilities, and various types of foster care, typically with little or
no ongoing support from the state as they make the transition
to adulthood. Important strides are now being made in understanding the problems of such “aging-out” youth in several nations, including France, Canada, Portugal, Poland, and the USA.
The three presenters will each present on one or two of the five
nations currently collaborating to conduct follow-up studies.
Ilza Zenker Leme Joly
Federal University of São Carlos
Brazil
The submission of this work aims at describing and analyzing the
social practices and the educational processes of a vocal group
starting from the conductor’s view. The group’s social practice
constituted of regular encounters, on which they went out together, ate, talked and strengthened a friendship that lasted
since their youth. The objectives were divided into: 1. Objectives
aiming to develop musical knowledge through singing, building a repertoire to recover significant songs for each one of the
people. The affectionate memory of each one of the people related to the music was considered for the choice of the repertoire
to be developed by the group. Songs they had sung when they
were young, songs the group had shared in significant moments,
songs that had played at the time of one or another participant.
2. Objectives aiming human development of the group, thinking
about building a project that joined people in weekly encounters
that could enlarge even more the human growth possibilities
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The meaning of community in an increasing globalized world
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Community arts and empowerment in a western
Australian town
Coordinator: Donata Francescato
University La Sapienza,Rome
Italy
Participants: Stephanie Reich (University of California, USA), Mariane Krause, (University Catolica de Chile, Chile)
This symposium will address a very timely issue, what is the
meaning of community in our increasing globalized world? In
the past, Community Psychology proposed a concept of community linked to the territory, in the sense of geographic location. Now, the territory of communities has vanished, since there
is an increasing development of social networks and groups that
do not share a geographic location, even more, there are people
belonging to the same communities who haven’t even met each
other “face to face”. How is the life of resident of local community
affected by globalization? Do people feel more citizens of their
local community, of their nation, of greater international entities
like Europe or South America, or do they thinks of themselves
more as citizens of the world? What is the role of mass media,
especially the internet in promoting multiple communal identities? With increases in international collaboration, innovations
in communication and the ease and frequency of travel, community definitions and the controversy around trying to define
groups are further complicated. In addressing the issue of what
does community mean in a globalized world, the symposium will
also discuss a) a collaborative international book on community
psychology and online social networking sites b) the results of
a study of the meaning of sense of community at the local, national, regional and international levels.
Pilar Kasat
Community Arts Network (WA)
Australia
Community Arts Network Western Australia (CANWA) is a member-based organisation that exists to facilitate and support
community-determined arts and culture activities that express
local culture and identity. This presentation seeks to highlight
the role of CAN WA and its approach to Community Cultural Development in strengthening and building community capacity
especially with those who are marginalized. This will include reflection upon the different philosophical and methodological resources that we have developed over time. We will also overview
the work of CAN WA over the last four years in establishing an
Indigenous Arts and Cultural Development Program in a remote
region in WA. There we have specifically been working on issues
impacting upon the Indigenous communities of the region. Low
income and literacy levels, poor health outcomes, over representation in the criminal justice and racism are some of huge barriers
preventing Indigenous self-determination.
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Leisure, information needs and social participation of outskirts young people in Murcia (Spain)
Vera, Juan J.; Lopez-Pina, J. A.; Martin, M. Pilar (Faculty Of
Psychology, Univ. Murcia) & Navarro, Gabriel (Youth Depart.,
Murcia City Council)
Spain
A representative stratified sample (age mean=22.7 years; sex:
50,8% males, 49,2% females) of 626 young people was randomly
selected in a group of suburbs and minor rural localities (ped85
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associados à sexualidade - Desenvolvimento pessoal e social Promoção de comportamentos saudáveis - Promoção de redes
de aconselhamento e encaminhamento em saúde sexual e reprodutiva.
anías) of Murcia borough (Spain). The outskirts young were interviewed and responded a wide questionnaire including among
others a set of items already verified in conventional youth studies. Means comparisons, factorial analysis and logistic regression
(SPSS v. 14) summarize compile data. The aims of study were
to explore practices and opinions about weekly and weekend
leisure, information needs and problems and opportunities for
social participation, in order to improve the action of a Youth Information Centre (InformaJoven). Various and numerous are national studies on youth in Spain. A diversity of facets of the young
people behaviour and opinion were described in specific literature, but a small number are about non-urban settings and much
less information has been compiled on young people in suburbs
and rural populations.
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Mental health community promotion: perspectives in the context of the health and psychiatric
reform
Walter Ferreira de Oliveira & Luciana Vilela Tagliari
Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Brazil
The new Brazilian health system, SUS, calls for profound conceptual and political changes, including in terms of professional
roles. A main proposal is the substitution of the traditional hospital-centered model for a promotional, community centered
one. The related literature has mainly focused on the evolution of
policy and reorganization of services. The advance of the Health
Reform, which includes the Psychiatiic Reform, has not created a
strong theoretical body focusing on the promotional communitary approach or on the psychosocial therapeutic model. To fill
this gap requires problematization regarding these and other
related issues. One question relates to the construction of a communitarian mental health philosophy, different from the existent
preventive community mental health tradition. A change in focus
needed, from the disease to health, from the diagnosis to the person, from the hospitals to the primary care health centers and to
the community as a potential health provider in itself.
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Prácticas sociales y equipamiento para el tiempo
libre en el Barrio del Parral
Francisco Javier Guevara Martínez. Co-Autor: Roberto Yescas
Sánchez
UPAEP
Mexico
El Centro Histórico de la ciudad de Puebla posee una serie de
espacios públicos de diferente jerarquía y área de influencia. Algunos de ellos, como el Paseo Bravo, tienen un rango de influencia a nivel de toda la ciudad así como una oferta de actividades
múltiples que permiten un uso intenso y diverso a lo largo del
año. Sin embargo, los espacios públicos dentro de los Barrios
son limitados tanto cualitativa como cuantitativamente, lo que
actualmente provoca que los habitantes realicen actividades de
tiempo libre en zonas inadecuadas y peligrosas. La investigación
se realizará en el Barrio del Parral, en el centro histórico. El centro
histórico ha sido asociado, precisamente en algunos de sus barrios, a delitos como pandillerismo y narcomenudeo. La perspectiva de un tiempo libre sano y de espacios adecuados puede dar
un sentido de pertenencia al lugar, así que la preocupación que
subyace a la investigación es la formulación de programas.
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Entre jerarquías y heterarquías: estrategias de
trabajo en redes sociales
Clara Netto
Facultad de Psicologia UDELAR
Uruguay
El objetivo del taller es poder analizar las estrategias de trabajo
en red vinculadas con el tema del poder y la toma de decisiones.
Al hablar de las redes como estructuras heterárquicas se olvida
muchas veces la coexistencia de vários niveles de organización
desde y con los cuales debe trabajar el Psicólogo Comunitario. A
partir de un caso que se presenta a los participantes, se propondrá mediante técnicas psicodramáticas las posibles resoluciones
del mismo desde una estrategia de networking.
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Quinta dos sentidos: Reflexões sobre um projecto de intervenção comunitária
Sara Moreira, Tânia Ponte, Nuno Nodin
Sentidos e Sensações
Portugal
Em Novembro de 2006 a Sentidos e Sensações iniciou um projecto de intervenção na área da promoção da saúde sexual e reprodutiva no Bairro do Quinta do Cabrinha em colaboração com
a CML com financiamento do Programa Urban II. Nesse âmbito,
foram desenvolvidas diversas actividades, entre as quais formação de professores, adolescentes, assistentes de acção educativa
e outros técnicos a trabalhar no terreno. Foram também criados
materiais dirigidos à população jovem da área geográfica de intervenção do projecto. O projecto Quinta dos Sentidos pretendeu proporcionar uma intervenção integrada, direccionada em
particular para as necessidades ao nível da saúde sexual e reprodutiva e do bem-estar psicossocial e emocional dos jovens. O
projecto pretendeu contribuir para: - Desmistificar mitos e tabus
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Enabling socially created meanings - Application
of the Mmogo-method
Vera Roos
North-West University
South Africa
Changes in social contexts are part of everyday life. The socially
created meanings in any context inform community processes
and interactions. As such, these can contribute to or limit the adaptation of people in various unpredictable ways. A better understanding of the processes and functions involved in the creation of socially constructed meanings could sensitise facilitators
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and participants to better deal with changes and to co-construct
more competent contexts. According to the socio-ecological
model, there is a dynamic interplay between individuals and
their social contexts. Human behaviour is integrated in a dynamic
and complex network of intrapersonal factors, interpersonal processes, institutional, community factors and public policy. This article explores the socially created meanings that emerged within
a community of learners who displayed adaptive behaviour in
changing social contexts. An inductive qualitative approach was
followed, using the Mmogo-method and focus groups to gain
insight.
organizations vested in youth substance use prevention. This
five-year NIDA-funded project is implemented in stages, with
each stage shaping the next. Focus group interviews completed
during the first stage of the study yielded a number of scenarios
in which middle school Indigenous Hawaiian youth were offered drugs. Findings show how girls and boys negotiate these
situations using personal, familial, peer, community, cultural, and
other assets. In the next stage of the study (Fall 2008) youth who
attend participating middle schools will be surveyed to determine the extent to which they are exposed to these drug offer
scenarios, and to assess how difficult youth think these types of
situations are to negotiate.
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Cultural and contextually-relevant framework
for prevention
From the Voices of Students and Family Members: Factors for Student Success in an Alternative School
Cheryl M. Ramos
This presentation summarizes the qualitative results of a 6-year
program evaluation conducted for the Lanakila Learning Center
(LLC), an alternative learning center for high school students in
Hilo, Hawaii. Alternative schools are specialized educational environments that provide academic instruction to students who
have not experienced success in the traditional school environment. The LLC serves a predominantly Native Hawaiian and Asian
student population. From 2000-2006, the program received
funding through the Family and Community Violence Prevention program of the Office of Minority Health, U.S. Department
of Health and Human Services. Quantitative measures included
students’ academic performance, school bonding, and student
responses to the classroom environment scale. Qualitative data
also was collected through student focus groups, focus groups
with family members, student letter writing, and student end-ofyear written evaluations.
Cordinator: Jacob Tebes
Yale University - School of Medicine
USA
For preventive interventions to be effective, they must consider
culture and local contexts, such as development, place, and setting. Barriers to incorporating culture and context include: 1) the
lack of research on culture, relevant contexts, and their interaction, and 2) design complications that emerge when these issues
are considered. This symposium illustrates the importance of
culture and context in prevention. Three presentations involving Asian and Pacific Islander adolescents illustrate how culture
and local contexts can be considered for their relevance to prevention. In addition, remarks by the Chair/Discussant provide a
framework for their consideration in preventive interventions
and prevention science.
Culturally-Specific and Developmental Processes for
Substance Use among Asian Pacific Islander Youth
Nghi D. Thai and Jacob K. Tebes
The risk and protective factor approach is the leading research
paradigm guiding substance abuse prevention intervention research (Bry, McKeon, & Pandina, 1982; Hawkins, Catalano, & Miller,
1992). However, data on risk and protective factors for substance
use among Asian Pacific Islander (API) communities remains limited. To date, there is no published comprehensive research focusing on culturally-specific risk and protective factors for APIs.
In addition, for numerous Asian subgroups, the information on
risk and protective factors associated with substance use is even
more incomplete (Harachi, Catalano, Kim & Choi, 2001). In the
absence of etiological research in this area, community-based
preventive interventions for API communities have been designed and implemented without incorporating relevant cultural
knowledge associated with substance use behaviour (Harachi et
al., 2001). This presentation will discuss the need to identify both
general and culturally-specific risk and protective processes.
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Homelessness
Coordinator: Ottilie Stolte
University of Waikato
New Zealand
Homeless people’s experiences of medical services
Anna Scanlen and the Waikato Homeless Group
Homeless people have higher rates of morbidity, mortality and
health risk than the general population, and health services often
fail to meet their needs. In this presentation, we discuss homeless people’s experiences of a medical service provided by a
community-based volunteer clinic in New Zealand. This service
is accessed voluntarily by homeless people who may not attend
regular GP practices servicing the needs of more general populations. We explore the experiences of service users of this service,
and their health histories, understandings and practices. Attention is also given to decision-making processes around access to
the service and the perspectives of staff involved in service delivery. The presentation will emphasize the importance of user and
provider relationships, trust, and the impact of locating such a
clinic within the premises of an NGO with a long history of supporting homeless people in Auckland.
Place-based and Culturally Informed Drug Prevention
with Indigenous Hawaiian Youth
Susana Helm and Scott Okamato
The Promoting Social Competence and Resilience among Native
Hawaiian Youth research project, conducted on the Big Island of
Hawai`I, is a collaborative effort between Hawai`i Pacific University, University of Hawai`i, public middle schools, and community
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intervention work. Additionally, generalizing evaluation findings
above and beyond one single culture has been touted as an effective strategy in order to further validate the effectiveness of
intervention programs. Moreover, to the extent that the linkage
between culture and community has been of keen interest to the
field even before Swampscott, serious discussion on the culturecommunity interface is sorely needed and timely. Anthropologists and sociologists persuasively champion substantive and
meaningful influences (often-defined as a categorical entity such
as race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, and class/poverty)
as a basis for studying cultures in itself.
News media constructions of homeless people in New
Zealand
Sally Mueller and the Waikato Homeless Group
Homeless people are a persistent feature of news media content globally. Members of the housed public often learn about
homelessness, its causes, consequences and possible solutions
from media portrayals. This paper considers the role of media
characterisations in supporting and/or undermining inter-group
relations surrounding homelessness in New Zealand. The paper
presents analysis on 10 years television and print media coverage.
Particular attention is given to the trends in characterisations of
homeless people, the places they are depicted in, and the social
interactions with both housed and homeless citizens. The role of
the media in setting symbolic limits on the community involvement of homeless people will also be discussed.
School Environment, Inclusion and Academic Achievement Among Urban Youth with Diverse Abilities
Susan D. McMahon., Christopher B. Keys, Luciano Berardi,
Michele Morgan
DePaul University, USA
In the United States, there has been increasing recognition that
students with disabilities benefit from being integrated and
included into educational settings with general education students. This trend has coincided with movements in some urban
areas to close low-performing schools. These trends led to the
closure of a school that primarily served African American and
Latino youth with disabilities in Chicago, Illinois. Based on parent and school district concerns, we developed a collaborative
evaluation of the transition of 200 youth, most with disabilities,
into 30 Chicago Public Schools. We interviewed and surveyed
teachers and principals to assess the extent to which schools
engage in inclusive best practices. We also obtained school
records to assess student academic outcomes across time. We
will discuss the variability across schools and across teacher
and principal perspectives in terms of inclusiveness of students
with disabilities, as well as the relation of inclusion and school
environment.
Homelessness and Maori mental health services
Diana Johnson and the Waikato Homeless Group
Homelessness is a public health concern for Maori in New Zealand today. Mental Health professionals frequently encounter difficulties in providing a quality service for this client group. Semistructured interviews were conducted with six homeless people
and six Mental Health professionals. Analysis explores service
related practices that support better mental health outcomes
for Maori. Of core importance are possibilities for linking mental
health services with efforts to address the broader needs of clients such as poverty and marginalisation.
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Evaluating Community and Organizational Interventions: Understanding Diverse Perspectives &
Settings
Coordinator: Susan McMahon
DePaul University
USA
We highlight cultural and contextual realities in understanding
community and organizational settings. We evaluate efforts to
improve settings that discriminate against marginalized populations, with a focus on race/ethnicity, gender, and ability. In this
international symposium, we describe three studies in which
interventions were implemented and evaluated with diverse
populations. We describe a theoretical framework to engage in
cross-cultural work and findings based on multiple methods and
perspectives. Taken together, these yield a comprehensive understanding of processes and interventions conducted in schools
and work organizations. We illustrate methodological challenges
and share recommendations based on key findings from our
evaluation studies.
Building Participative, Empowering & Diverse Organizations: Challenges in Documenting Change
Meg A. Bond
University of Massachusetts Lowell, USA
An ecological approach suggests that helping an organization become more participative and empowering for diverse members
requires a synergistic mix of strategies. However, this complexity
also makes it difficult to ascertain how deeply an initiative has affected an organization over time. This presentation will describe
evaluation dilemmas that emerged in a multi-faceted, multi-year
workplace intervention in the United States. The goals were both
to increase the racial/ethnic and gender diversity among employees and to foster an organizational climate to support the
increasingly diverse workforce. The 8- year collaborative change
effort was evaluated at multiple junctures using multiple methods. These included tracking demographic patterns, in-depth interviews, and survey assessments of attitudes and supports for
diversity at year 1 and year 7. The assessment process made apparent how challenging it is to capture changes in a system that
is in constant motion.
“Culture” and “Community” in Evaluating Communitybased Interventions across Cultures
Toshi Sasao
Institute for Research on Race and Public Policy University of Illinois
at Chicago, USA & University of Tokyo, Japan
A widespread assumption in evaluating community interventions is that research and evaluation should influence the making of public policy. More recently, this idea has generated
more interest and rigor in Asia in the design and evaluation of
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Objective: The present study aims to explore the association between parental control, communications and consume of substances on Portuguese Adolescents. The sample consisting of
the participant in the study carried through in Continental Portugal, that integrates European survey HBSC - Health Behaviour in
School-aged Children. Method: The sample used in this study is
constituted by adolescents in the Portuguese Survey 2006 (Portugal Continental), integrant part of European study HBSC.
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Portuguese adolescents: health promotion and
wellbeing
Coordinator: Tânia Gaspar
Faculdade de Motricidade Humana
Portugal
School, Family and leisure time are a good starter point to crosscultural and inter culture health promotion. It urges to create
alternatives to life coping (social exclusion, stress, feeling depressed or low, irritable our nervous, lack of interpersonal relationships) and look for well-being and pleasure. Adolescents, parents, school, peers group and community must be together and
involved in the process, in order to promote personal and social
skills adequate to their needs. Final aims are promoting well-being, competence, autonomy, and personal sense of responsibility, personal achievement, social participation and commitment.
Health Behaviour School-Aged Children (HBSC) Portuguese survey www.hbsc.org; www.aventurasocial.com; www.fmh.utl.pt/
aventurasocial.
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What sex offenders can tell us about prevention
planning
Keith L. Kaufman, Ph.D.
Portland State University
USA
A long standing commitment to participatory and collaborative
models of research underscores efforts in the field of Community Psychology. In particular, there has been encouragement to
provide a voice to groups lacking in “power” (Rappaport, 1990;
Trickett & Espino, 2004) as well as to adopt the perspectives of
those most directly impacted by a problem (Rappaport, 1977).
These sentiments have led to suggestions that prevention programs should be designed in collaboration with “targeted”
groups (Capaldi et al., 1997). In the area of child sexual abuse, a
long standing criticism has been levied at both researchers and
practitioners for ignoring the valuable input that offenders could
provide in directing prevention efforts. In fact, almost 20 years
ago Repucci & Haugaard (1989) suggested that prevention programs should be developed “…based on assessing what actually
happens in abusive situations and the techniques that abusers
use to engage their victims.”
Loneliness and health related behaviours during adolescence
Gina Tomé (Faculdade de Motricidade Humana/Projecto
Aventura Social, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa); Margarida
Gaspar Matos (Faculdade de Motricidade Humana/Fundação
para a Ciência e a Tecnologia); Inês Camacho (Faculdade de
Motricidade Humana/Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia/
Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical/UNL), Mafalda Ferreira (Faculdade de Motricidade Humana)
Objective: With aim to explore the association between loneliness and health of the adolescents, through a sample consisting
of the participant in the study carried through in Continental Portugal, that integrates European survey HBSC – Health Behaviour
in School-aged Children. Method: Was used the questionnaire of
the HBSC.
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Project Management - conceptualization and
conducting an Empowerment Evaluation Project
Risk and resilience in the adolescents with special educational needs (SEN)
Mafalda Ferreira (Faculdade de Motricidade Humana), Celeste
Simões (Faculdade Motricidade Humana), Gina Tomé (Faculdade de Motricidade Humana/Projecto Aventura Social,
Universidade Técnica de Lisboa), Margarida Gaspar Matos
(Faculdade de Motricidade Humana/Fundação para a Ciência
e a Tecnologia)
Objective: The Project “Risk and resilience in the adolescents with
special educational needs (SEN)” intends to contribute for the
knowledge of the behaviours and life styles of the adolescents
with SEN in some contexts of its life. Method: To get a representative sample, 143 Portuguese public schools of regular education had been selected randomly, for each school had been sent
three questionnaires: Risk and Resilience Questionnaire, destined
to the young with SEN; HBSC/OMS Questionnaire, destined to the
adolescents who frequented 6th, 8th and 10th grades.
Monika Bobzien
Psychologist/organizational consultant
Germany
Workshop - Project Management Empowerment in managing
evaluation projects means creating an environment in which
people have an impact on decisions and actions that affect the
outcome of the project. Empowerment is not a tool, as practiced
in many organizations for employee involvement. Rather it is a
management and leadership philosophy about how people are
most enabled to contribute in the sense of participation. Issues
that will be addressed in the Workshop: -Introduction to concept
of empowerment as a framework for Project Management -Example of empowerment evaluation project conducted recently
in Hamburg (Germany)with hospitals and patient organizations
to strengthen the idea of patient’s participation through quality
standards in medical treatment and care (format: presentation,
groupwork, discussion).
Family: Factor of Protection in Consume of Substances
Inês Camacho (Faculdade de Motricidade Humana/Fundação
para a Ciência e a Tecnologia), Margarida Gaspar Matos (Faculdade de Motricidade Humana/Fundação para a Ciência e a
Tecnologia), Gina Tomé (Faculdade de Motricidade Humana/
Projecto Aventura Social, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa),
Mafalda Ferreira (Faculdade de Motricidade Humana/UTL)
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Dialogues on Establishing Foundational and
Core Competencies in Graduate Education
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Re-thinking Competencies of the Social-Community Psychology Endeavor
Dolores S. Miranda
Society has become complex and there have been significant
political, economical and cultural changes in the planet, which
proposes new paradigms and realities. It is because of these experiences and events among others, that we have to engage in
critical reflection of our endeavor as science and profession. Typically, theory and practice is located or is initiated from within an
academic context. At this time our rethinking of the discipline is
proposed from the thirty years experience and assuming a broad
project in which we coincide with other disciplines and communities. With this in mind, during the past four years I have been
working with a joint effort University of Puerto Rico and the surrounding urban area know as Rio Piedras. This is a transdisciplinarian effort geared towards the revitalization of this part of the
city. We have worked on building a
transdisciplinarian team which includes various disciplines and
communities. In this effort, we have reflected critically on the
competencies proposed
Coordinator: Raymond Scott
University of La Verne
USA
This session will focus on the implications of a paradigm shift
toward increased instruction and pedagogy in preparing students to practice community psychology and the adoption of
competencies established by national and international community psychology organizations and educational institutions.
During the first session six brief presentations will be presented
by faculty members from three countries that focus on (1) the
similarities and differences in the competencies that educational
programs should inculcate in its students and (2) the distinctions
between foundational and core competencies in terms of their
knowledge components and their demonstration in “real world”
performance-based settings.
Toward the Development of Foundational and Core Competencies in Community Psychology Education
Raymond L. Scott
Over time, the practical nature of community psychology has
changed in terms of models, modalities, emphases, and, for
some, philosophy of science. The field has developed widely
disparate models of improving community life ranging from
prescriptive and formulaic sets of interventions to postmodern
philosophies that value change in the dynamic process affecting
the setting over specific outcomes. This plethora of approaches
has led to a dilemma in educating community psychologists,
particularly given the ever-changing concept of community. This
dilemma is exacerbated by the absence of a set of foundational
and core competencies that are taught in a consistent manner
across graduate programs. The adoption of a competency-based
educational approach for community psychology will emphasize
the practitioner’s ability to apply knowledge and skills in the real
world.
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School based interventions for immigrants &
refugees
Dina Birman
University of Illinois at Chicago
USA
Immigrants and children of immigrants make up 20% of students
in U.S. schools, and struggle with a number of difficulties in adjustment stemming from migration, acculturative, and traumatic
stress. Yet the majority of children who have mental health needs
do not to make their way into mental health services. Schools provide a promising context within which to support these children
in their adjustment, and offer mental health services to those that
need them. In this presentation we will describe studies of mental health problems faced by newly arrived refugee children, and
the effectiveness of programs designed to help them.
Core Competencies: New Zealand
Darrin Hodgetts
These are the competencies a student would be expected to have
achieved by the end of the diploma program. That is, to grant a
pass in the final oral examination, the panel needs to be satisfied
that the intern has demonstrated each of these during the internship and/or during earlier years in the program. The competencies are grouped under 3 headings. • Foundational competencies
relate to key principles and values of community psychology and
to the ethical practice of community psychology. Interns are expected to have accomplished every competency in this group.
The intern will be expected to have demonstrated them either
during the internship (including relevant participation in community activities and organizations) and/or in the examination
process. • Practitioner competencies relate to generic technical
skills. Like foundational competencies, interns are expected to
have accomplished every competency in this group.
No Somali Bantu Child Left Behind: the Adjustment of
Refugee Students in a US School
Dina Birman & Nellie Tran
This presentation will describe the experiences of newly arrived
Somali Bantu children and teachers working with them in a U.S.
public school based on an ethnographic study conducted by the
presenters. The main research questions involve understanding
the kinds of challenges that the students face in adjusting to
the school and what kinds of mental health interventions may
be designed to assist them in their adjustment. The majority of
the refugee children involved in the study had been born in refugee camps, and had no experience with school or literacy prior
to arrival in the US. The authors and a large team of university
students spent several years conducting participant observation
in the school, collecting approximately 600 hours of observations
in various classrooms and settings within the school, as well as interviews with teachers, other school personnel, and the children’s
families.
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this area means to him/her, by means of presenting an item that
symbolizes Community Psychology to him/her.
Hibbard Intervention Model
Winnie Chan, Sarah Beehler & Traci Weinstein
In this presentation, we will describe an intervention model that
we have adapted to use with refugee children and discuss the
preliminary findings. In collaboration with an elementary school
and a community clinic that serves refugee families in Chicago,
we have currently adapted the Conjoint Behavioral Consultation
Model (Sheridan, Kratochwill & Bergan, 1996) to provide schoolbased mental health services to refugee children. The model includes mental health practitioners, teachers, and parents. It is important to have a team approach because a child’s mental health
is affected by adults from multiple life domains. Further, teachers and parents are important resources to clinician. The goals of
the Conjoint Behavioral Consultation Model are 1) to strengthen
home-school partnerships, 2) to develop positive relationships
between clinician and teachers, and 3) to provide more comprehensive intervention for client.
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Building healthy empowering societies - the salutogenic framework for positive health
Monica Eriksson
Folkhalsan Research Centre
Finland
Research evidence from community health psychologists shows
that the organisation and structure of a society influences
people’s health. Research on the determinants of the health of
populations goes a step beyond and claims societal or collective
self-esteem (habitus) can emerge. What are the characteristics
of a healthy society? Our suggestion is a society where individuals and groups are able to increase control over, and improve
their physical, mental, social and spiritual health. This could be
reached in societies characterised of clear structures and empowering environments where people see themselves as active
participating subjects able to identify and use their resources,
to perceive meaningfulness and to cope in a health promoting
manner, i.e. a salutogenic society. The presentation reports findings from an ongoing extensive worldwide synthesis (published
in 2007) of the salutogenic research based on about 500 scientific
papers. The focus is on the salutogenic framework such as Aaron
Antonovsky
CATS: A Model of School-Based Mental Health Services
for Immigrant Children
Sarah Beehler & Ruth Campbell
The final presentation will describe a model of school-based
mental health services for immigrant children and adolescents in
New Jersey. Cultural Adjustment and Trauma Services (CATS) is a
comprehensive school-based mental health service program of
the International Institute of New Jersey (IINJ). CATS targets first
and second-generation immigrant children with significant trauma exposure and/or cultural adjustment needs. The CATS staff is
comprised of clinicians who provide a range of clinical services
directly to the children and their families, and “culture brokers”
who are ethnic paraprofessionals primarily responsible for the
outreach activities of the program. CATS team members spend
time in the schools developing formal and informal relationships
with the teachers, administrators, students, and staff, and, as a
result, the majority of clinical and outreach services are provided
within the schools CATS serves.
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Patients’ Expectations and Satisfaction with their
Health Providers
Azizeh Afkhamebrahimi (Iran University of Medical Sciences/
Tehran Psychiatric Institute, Mental Health Research Centre),
Mehdi Nasr Esfahani (Iran University of Medical Sciences/Tehran Psychiatric Institute, Mental Health Research Centre/Iran
Rasoul Akram Hospital)
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
The aim of this study is to investigate the expectations and degree of satisfaction of the patients with their treating physicians
and health services Method: 375 outpatients who were attended different day clinics of a general hospital were recruited and
completed an adapted version of “ Patients’ Request Form” which
measures three different expectations of explanation, emotional
support and investigation and treatment. The patients also completed a satisfaction questionnaire which addressed their compliance to medical advices and prescriptions and their general
level of satisfaction with their health providers. The findings of
two questionnaires then transferred to SPSS. Results: The results
which were upon four hypothesis showed significant differences
between the expectations of the patients of different clinics , a
high correlation between patients’ satisfaction and explanation
request , a positive and significant relationship between satisfaction and adherence to medical prescriptions and a negative
relationship between satisfaction and a tendency to change the
treating physician Conclusion: Physicians knowledge of their patients’ expectations and the factors affecting their satisfaction
improve the patient-doctor relationship and the quality of health
care. Medical training should address the psychological needs of
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You may say I’m a dreamer, but I’m not the only
one: Community Psychology students and their
ideas
Daniel Matias, Marta Pita, Adriana Nunes, Marcos Mendonça
ISPA
Portugal
Generally, the first think that goes through a person’s mind when
it hears about Community Psychology, is “What is it?”, “What exactly do you do?” Community Psychology is itself a site of diversity and paradox. Different countries necessarily imply different
contexts which in turn reflect on the need for different types of
and strategies regarding community interventions. Reflecting on
these aspects, we will attempt to uncover the different perceptions and definitions of Community Psychology that students in
this area have throughout the world. We will be looking for not
only the similarities in practice, definition of terms and perceived
sense of what Community Psychology is about, but also (and,
perhaps, especially) the differences that might not prove necessarily threatening but, rather, empowering to the very structures
of the field. Each participant will be invited to think about what
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the patients and increase the communication skills of the young
physicians.
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Community psychology in the Brazilian primary
health care context
Moré, C.L.O.O.; Gonçalves, J.R.; Crepaldi, M.A.; Verdi, M.; Ross,
M.D.; Lacerda, J.T.; Carcereri, D.; Machado, V.N.; Farias, M.;
Diehl,E.; Martini,.G.; Miotto,R.; Pedro,F.L.; Nieweglowski, V. H
Federal University of Santa Catarina
Brazil
The present paper is a result of nine years of work in the primary
health care area. It aims to present a proposal for professional
training in the interdisciplinary community work in the context
of the new Brazilian Health Care Policies for primary health care
attention. The Multidisciplinary Residency in Family Care, developed at the Federal University of Santa Catarina has seven different specialties: Psychologists, Physicians, Nurses, Pharmacists,
Nutritionists, Dentists and Social Workers. The training process of
these professionals should be developed regarding epistemological propositions and fresh look under the light of the contexts
where interventions take place. The objective of this proposition
is to develop actions of health promotion, disease prevention
and health rehabilitation of individuals, family and community
regarding the local health planning developed by the community members and by the health care staff.
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Cambio Organizacional para Disminución del Estrés en Profesionales de Enfermeria Hospitalaria
Albar Marín, Mª Jesús; Morano Báez, Rocío
Hoapital Universitario Virgen Macarena
Spain
El estrés ocupacional se presenta mayoritariamente en profesiones que se desarrollan en contacto con personas (i.e. enfermería). Numerosos estudios han mostrado las consecuencias
negativas que éste tiene sobre el trabajador y la organización,
primando en su explicación la aproximación transaccional, que
lo vincula con los factores psicosociales del lugar de trabajo. La
mayoría de intervenciones han supuesto el desarrollo de acciones
para mejorar la resistência del trabajador al estrés, conduciendo
a soluciones parciales, al no modificar las políticas, prácticas de
trabajo y cultura de la organización. Además, se han puesto en
marcha desde el paradigma de Investigación Intervención Preventiva, que no adapta las intervenciones a las particularidades
de los contextos de intervención. Con el propósito de superar
estas limitaciones, en este trabajo presentamos el desarrollo de
una buena práctica comunitaria guiada por los principios de la
Psicologia Comunitaria y la metodología de Investigación Acción
Participativa.
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Health consumer and Patient Groups as Participants in Health Systems Development
Alf Trojan
Institute of Medical Sociology
Germany
Health Consumer and Patient Groups as Actors in Social Change:
The Contribution of Civil Society in Health Policy Making in
Germany Author: Alf Trojan Background: The role of patients or
“health care consumers” is changing. Will they be able to influence
what is often claimed to be a health care reform “in the interests
of the patient”? Or is “dominance of professions” the pattern to be
continued in the future? Methods: The aim of my paper is to look
at the situation in Germany as a starting point for a more general
discussion on the development of patient participation. The paper is based on a) a review of the mostly “grey” literature, b) some
informal interviews of activists for more patient participation and
c) on a preliminary survey of 322 national self-help organisations
(response rate: 48%). Content and hypothesis: The importance of
patients as actors in the health care system has grown continuously during the past few years.
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Health-Related Quality of Life Promotion in Children and Adolescents
Tânia Gaspar (Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa), José Luís Pais Ribeiro (Centro de
Malária e outras Doenças Tropicais/Instituto de Higiene e
Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa), Margarida
Gaspar Matos (Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa); Isabel Leal (Instituto Superior de
Psicologia Aplicada)
Objective: The present study aims to identify and to characterize the strategies used in order to promote Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) with children and adolescents, according to
children and adolescents’ perspectives, Parents’ perspectives and
professionals’ perspectives were also analysed and discussed.
Method A qualitative method was used in order to collect data.
A “focus group” or discussion groups based in specific issue was
used to collect information and to contextualize, to highlight and
to interpret the knowledge obtained through literature. Sixteen
focus groups were carried out: six groups with children and adolescents; four groups with parents and six groups with education
professionals. Participants speeches were analysed by using a
content analyse procedure. Results: The results highlighted from
one side the need of alternative activities to spend leisure time
inside and outside school.
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Come dine with me: experiences of participation
and engagement with black and minority ethnic
communities
Iyabo Fatimilehin, Amira Hassan
Royal Liverpool Childrens Trust/BB
United Kingdom
This session will draw on the work that Building Bridges has undertaken with black and minority ethnic (BME) communities in
Liverpool. One of the aims of the service is to address the psychological and emotional well-being of BME people through
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community participation and development. Food is essential for
human survival but it is also a key focus of social interaction and
social intervention. Food is also a cultural resource. In this innovative session we will explore food, its preparation, and sharing as
a metaphor for community participation and collaboration. We
will address issues of social inclusion and empowerment through
preparing and eating a meal together.
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Self-management, education and community
empowerment
João Caramelo
CIIE/FPCE da Universidade do Porto
Portugal
The social and political struggle process in direction of self-management that is developing since 1995, in a sugar plant in the
Brazilian Northeast, is the starting point for the discussion of the
articulation between individual and collective change in the processes of communitarian development and empowerment. The
presentation gives particular relevance to the catalytic role of the
educative processes and to the historical and cultural resistances
that confront the process of individual and collective transformation, equating it from the tension that is established between an
instituted totality and an innovative dynamics, between the principle of reality and the principle of desire.
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School Intervention roundtable: Participatory/
action research with students, parents, and educators
Susana Helm, Paul Flaspohler
University of Hawaii at Manoa
USA
The School Intervention Interest Group (SIIG) proposes to continue its dialog on participatory/action research (PAR) with students
and schools. We initiated this dialog in a roundtable discussion
at the Society for Community Research and Action conference in
Pasadena last year by focusing on the intersection of ethnocultural diversity, social justice, and PAR (Helm, Bishop, Flay, 2007).
Roundtable participants identified a number of issues that appeared germane to working with youth in a public education
system. A leading issue was negotiating a PAR paradigm with the
potentially competing paradigm of public education systems.
For the present roundtable, we would like to continue to collaboratively identify concepts, principles of practice, challenges,
and stories of success. We invite academic and community-based
researchers, students, parents, educators, and community members to contribute their wisdom to this ongoing dialog.
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When barter rhymes with sustainable development, responsible consumption and group empowerment
Maude Léonard and Véronique Castonguay
Université du Québec à Montréal
Canada
«Troc-tes-Trucs» or as we can roughly translate in English by
«Share-your-stuff» is a non profit organization determined to
promote and encourage sustainable development and responsible consumption in diverse communities. “Share-you-Stuff” aims
to empower families and promote responsible consumption
through sponsorship of barter and gathering activities. Specifically, families belonging to a same community come together in
the same place and moment to trade clothing, toys, small appliances, furniture and all kinds of other “stuff” that could meet the
needs of another participating family. During this time, members
are invited to participate in a workshop on different themes concerning sustainable development and responsible consumption
(eg.: residual material management, fare trade, impact of publicity in our lives, recycled art, etc.). Designed as a way to break
isolation of young families, to raise consciousness about responsible consumption and to transmit this new way of life to our
children.
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Trayectorias organizacionales asociadas al empoderamiento comunitário
Alba Zambrano Constanzo, Gonzalo Bustamante Rivera
Universidad de La Frontera Temuco
Chile
Trayectorias organizacionales vinculadas al empoderamiento
comunitario:un análisis de interfaz en dos localidades de la región
de la Araucanía. Se realiza el reporte de los principales resultados
producidos en una investigación financiada por la Dirección de
Investigación y Desarrollo de la Universidad de La Frontera. Esta
investigación indagó acerca de las variables psicosocioculturales
presentes en la interfaz entre organizaciones comunitarias de
base y agentes públicos, identificándose en las trayectorias de las
organizaciones comunitarias de Puerto Saavedra y Quillem, los
factores endógenos y exógenos que actúan como facilitadores o
inhibidores de procesos de empoderamiento organizacional. Se
analiza la vinculación de estos factores con el posible fortalecimiento comunitario.
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Woman in the ‘quilombola’ community of Curiaú in Amapá: Participation, empowerment and
leadership
Marcos Antônio Távora de Mendonça
Brazil
In a perspective of comprehending power relations and of contributing towards a reflexive process about the issues of participation, empowerment and leadership of women in the ‘Quilombola’
commnunity of Curiaú in Amapá – northern region of Brazil -this
study was developed: ‘Woman in the ‘quilombola’ community of
Curiaú in Amapá: Participation, empowerment and leadership’.
Quilombos are lands of slave people that escaped abuse, hiding
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in unknown places which were difficult to reach. Quilombola is
the designation that one gives the person that is a descendant
from the original population of Quilombo. It is a qualitative empirical study, non-experimental, situated in the field of Community Psychology, endeavoring to create collaborative relationships
in the community investigation.
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intergroup relationships (Berry, 1989). From this perspective, we
might begin to understand the complex interactions between individual factors, the individual’s belonging to a group, and interand intra-group dynamics. Discursive, semi-structured interviews
we conducted with 15 residents in one area of Naples with a high
representation of Muslim and other immigrants. 5 had children
integrated into an educational system; 5 were engaged in associations present in the area; and 5 who don’t participate in any
spontaneous or institutional local groups. Participants were selected on the basis of a theoretical sampling.
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Multicultural approach to improve access to
health services for Roma communities
Australian-Muslim Adolescent Identity
Tymur Hussein & Adrian Fisher
Victoria University, Australia
Australian-Muslim adolescents are at times required, particularly
so post 9/11, to explain who they are to inquisitive researchers,
probing reporters, and wary members of the public. Authority
figures, such as community elders or politicians, have often answered on their behalf, despite adolescents being quiet capable.
Accordingly, the purpose of this research was to understand Australian-Muslim adolescent identity from their perspective. Semistructured group interviews exploring self-identification and
concept; positive and negative attitudes towards one’s own and
other ethnic groups; ethnic involvement/social participation; and
cultural practices were conducted with 37 (14 female, 23 male)
Year 9 students from two Islamic colleges. Emergent themes and
patterns were identified Australian-Muslim identity to be a multidimensional concept. Divergent identity patterns, involving differences in: identity components and the configuration of those
components; the existence and nature of identity conflict.
Marcinkova, D., Majdan, M., Pekarcikova, J., Gergelova,
P.,Rusnak, M.
Trnava University
Slovakia
With growing concerns about racial and ethnic disparities in
health, there is a need to focused on multicultural health services provision facilitated through health mediators and health
care providers. Situation of marginalized groups has multiple
and interrelated caused which reinforce each other. The improvement of their situation calls for sector-wide policies as well as
for specific interventions. Culture, as an important part of social
community characteristics, we can include into socio-economic
determinants of health. Socio-economic determinants of health
are major determinants of health and association between worse
socioeconomic conditions and health is well known and proved.
Socioeconomic status has been considered the most influential single contributor to premature mortality and morbidity by
many public health researchers. We can promote Roma health
and health of other socially deprived communities taking into
account multicultural approach and consecutively improve their
access to health care.
Immigrant psychological well-being in oppressive local
conditions
Manuel Garcia-Ramirez, Violeta Luque-Ribelles, Sonia
Hernández-Plaza & Virginia Paloma*
Universidad de Sevilla & *Universidad de Almería,Spain
Integrative acculturation strategies among newcomers enables
their access to resources needed for well-being while they are accepted like members in the new society, learning new cultural
skills, setting-up relationships with hosts, and acquiring a new
identity (Berry, 2005; Pennix, Berger & Kraal, 2006). This process
is based on characteristics of ethnic groups such as short-term
migration history, cultural characteristics, ethnic identity and
position in the host country (Nazroo, 1998). Attention is required
to analyze how these mechanisms operate via determinants
such as life-style, physical and social environment, psycho-social
stress and use of community services among others (Stronks et
al., 1999). These determinants could be the root causes of particular problems of specific migrant groups living in oppressive
local conditions (Sonn & Fisher, 2005). So, an separation strategy
can be a source of intangible goods like pride, dignity and selfexpression through connections with other peers.
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Arriving, receiving and later generation immigration challenges and adjustments (I)
Coordinator: Adrian Fisher
Victoria University
Australia
Adjustment to immigration requires a series of processes from
the arrival groups, the receiving communities, and even subsequent generations. Particular difficulties may arise where there
are significant cultural, racial, religious differences and/or historical antipathies. This is a proposal for 2 linked symposia exploring
issues from each perspective in order to understand from arriving,
receiving and later generation communities the challenges and
how these can be met. Studies are from Spain and Italy (historically emigrant countries) and Australia (traditionally a recipient
country). The first papers deal with Muslim immigration to these
countries, and the later papers with broader immigrant issues.
Local Oppressive conditions in immigrant experiences
Caterina Arcidiacono, Fortuna Procentese & Anna Bocchino
University Federico II of Naples, Italy
Acculturation strategies provide the best results in immigrants’
adjustment to a new context -- in terms of well-being. Acculturation increases social cohesion, avoids the development of racist
attitudes in the receiving population and promotes symmetrical
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An Uncommon Lens: Community Psychology
Approaches for Addressing Mental Illness
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Empowerment in Public Mental Health Services: A Fourdimensional Approach
Rachel Smolowitz
Public mental health services throughout the world serve the
“seriously mentally ill” in long term care. Though many services
officially aim to empower their consumers, many service systems
appear to struggle to balance their commitment to promote empowerment with their obligations to provide safety. We argue
that empowerment is frequently disregarded because of the priority of safety and because of the perceived difficulty of implementing empowerment-oriented services. This paper presents a
four-dimensional framework for understanding empowerment
in mental health services. These dimensions of empowerment
are based on an international review of theoretical and empirical research. The four proposed dimensions are a) control and
choice, b) critical consciousness of one’s situation, c) increasing
well-being, and d) interpersonal connections. We argue that each
of these dimensions is integral to the empowerment of consumers of mental health services.
Coordinator: Bret Kloos
University of South Carolina
USA
Finding supportive community environments is a persistent
challenge for many persons with “serious mental illness”. This
symposium features work from a longitudinal, mixed-methods
study investigating environmental factors that promote adaptive functioning and recovery in community settings for persons
with “SMI”. Three related presentations use data and theoretical
advances to begin a discussion of how mental health services
could be transformed to be more empowerment focused in the
promotion of recovery and community integration. Discussants
will critique this framework and comment on challenges of using community psychology principles to push for transformation
of mental health systems from Australian, Portuguese, and U.S.
perspectives.
Housing environments, recovery from mental illness,
and participation in community life
Bret Kloos
Based upon social ecological models, we developed an approach
to studying the potential impact of housing and neighborhood
environments on adaptive functioning, recovery, and community integration of persons with “serious mental illness” (“SMI”).
. Implementation of this research agenda required the development of new measures to assess neighborhood and housing environments. The Housing Environment Survey has seven scales
with adequate psychometric properties and three inventories of
important housing features. Housing environments are conceptualized has having (a) physical, (b) social, and (c) interpersonal
dimensions related to the physical dwelling and the neighborhood. The Housing and Adaptive Functioning research project
was a statewide study (n = 533 persons, 99 housing sites, 17
mental health centers) located in the U. S. Southeast with data
collection at two points 12 months apart.
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Community Psychologists’ Pursue of Social
Change Among Individuals with Disabilities
Coordinator: Fabricio Balcazar
University of Illinois at Chicago
USA
The presentations illustrate some of the ideological and practical
issues confronted by community psychologists engaged in intervention research with individuals with disabilities and/or the
agencies that serve them. The symposium will first examine some
of the ideological pitfalls of the research, followed by the results
of an intervention with individuals recovering from substance
abuse, and a review of an intervention aimed at promoting organizational change through cultural competence training. Presenters will discuss the implications of their work for community
psychologists.
Diversity, Subjectivity and Social Action in Disability
Studies: a caution against anti-positivism?
Paul Duckett, Manchester Metropolitan University
In this paper I examine the ontological and epistemological
stance adopted by some researchers in Disability Studies that
is intended to serve the Social Model of Disability and achieve
social justice for disabled people. This stance involves researchers positioning themselves (either implicitly or explicitly) against
Logical Positivism and embracing Post Structuralist and Social
Constructionist theory. I consider the socio-economic context in
which such work has mostly occurred, namely capitalist consumerism, and argue that this context provides both a explanation
for the successes achieved by Disability Studies in challenging
the hegemony of Logical Positivism and the Medical Model and a
cautionary note for disability researchers that their resulting cultural positioning may actually stifle their pursuit for social justice
for disabled people.
Examining the psychological sense of community for
persons with SMI
Greg Townley
The psychological sense of community is an important aspect of
community life. However, it remains largely unexamined among
individuals with serious mental illness (“SMI”). This presentation
examines sense of community (SOC) for individuals with “SMI”
by assessing the relationships between neighbourhood factors,
sense of community, and important well-being outcomes. Participants were 403 persons from the larger study addressed above.
We used qualitative thematic analysis, hierarchical regression,
and logistic regression to assess the importance of SOC for this
population and investigate which components of community life
can predict SOC. In total, 214 persons (53%) reported that it was
very important for them to feel a strong sense of community in
their neighborhoods. Neighbor relations, neighborhood safety,
neighborhood satisfaction, neighborhood tolerance for “SMI”,
and housing type emerged as significant predictors of SOC.
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stitute the space where cultural and communitarian belongings
are organized and they play an interventive role in integration
politics, in the safeguard of human rights, and in promoting equitable conditions for migrants. In this first decade of the XXI Century, the subject of migration raises new concepts and new paradigms, including a set of factors, situations, and conditions that
interfere in a positive or negative way in the migratory process. A
lot of different issues, from economic to psychological, also affect
the process. Integration today has to be understood in its multidimensional aspects. The new models of contemporary migrations cannot be limited to the idea of a single spatial movement
or the idea that migration is simply a voluntary or forced choice.
In truth, there is a complex “continuum,” extending between coercion and freedom to migrate.
Residents in Self-Help Recovery Homes Become Community Involved
Bradley D. Olson, Northwestern University;
Leonard A. Jason, DePaul University;
Dan Schober, University of Kansas
We investigated the process of change among a group of individuals recovering from substance abuse problems. The individuals
were current or past members of Oxford Houses, which are democratically operated recovery homes that have no professional
staff and where there is no limit on length of stay. Findings reveal
a significant positive relationship between the length of time
living in an Oxford House and level of participant involvement
in the community. Participants reported multiple factors that increased their community involvement and reported the type of
impact that their involvement had on their neighborhoods.
Gender, Community Activism and Integration: The experience of AMAL, a Moroccan Women Organization
Virginia Paloma, Manuel García-Ramírez & Manuel de la Mata
(Universidad de Sevilla) & Touria El Jebari (AMAL), Seville, Spain
Moroccan women suffer multiple forms of marginalization which
prevent their integration in Andalusia, the most southern area of
Spain. Structural oppressive conditions often erode their life settings; create experiences of poverty, stress, isolation; limit their social opportunities; and provoke hopelessness and powerlessness.
To confront these conditions and to effect social change, Moroccan women need to build relational structures that strengthen
their ability to identify their needs, define actions to overcome
their challenges, establish networks and alliances to amplify their
voices, and attain resources. To do this, community activism and
partnership among women is essential. The development of
community leaders and community commitment among women, and the establishment of an organization capable of influencing collective decision-making is a complex process with all sorts
of barriers. The authors will present the experience of a Moroccan
women’s group that has created a community-based organization.
Cultural Competence Training Impacts on Organizations
Serving Individuals with Severe Disabilities
Fabricio Balcazar, University of Illinois at Chicago and Christopher Keys, DePaul University
Community researchers from the Center on Capacity Building
on Minorities with Disabilities Research have been conducting
cultural competence (CC) trainings with staff members from organizations serving individuals with mental health, physical and
developmental disabilities over the last 3 years. Training participants are encouraged to set goals in order to generate organizational change and Center staff provides follow-up and technical
assistance for up to 6-months after the training. We will present
the outcome data collected to date from 60 agencies that have
participated in the trainings. The implications of this work for
community intervention research will be discussed.
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Integrating Immigrants: Perspectives and Experiences from the European Continent and the
U.S.
Coordinator: Kien Lee
ASDC
USA
Three presenters from Portugal, Spain, and the United States will
describe different and practical approaches to integrating immigrants and the role of various institutions in the integration process. One presenter also will summarize the meaning of immigrant integration, based on interviews with over 100 community
residents, including immigrants and host community members.
The discussant, Dr. Elvio Raffaello Martini who has been working
with various community organizations and local government in
Italy to address immigrant integration issues, will talk about how
immigrant integration fits into a community development framework that ultimately promotes equity for marginalized groups of
people in developed nations.
Immigrant Integration: Readiness, Fit, and Reciprocity
Kien Lee
Association for the Study and Development of Community, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA
Immigrant integration is an evolving and complex process. It
has a different meaning to immigrants and to host community
members. Three conditions have to be present for successful
immigrant integration: readiness, fit, and reciprocity. Readiness
has to be present on both sides—the receiving community and
the immigrant community—in order to initiate and sustain the
process. Fit is important because both communities must have
similar or complementary values, or must be able to transform
their differences into such values in order to see the benefit of
sharing a sense of community. Finally, reciprocity means that
both communities are willing to exchange favors and privileges
to make the community a better place for everyone. There are
different strategies for helping receiving communities and im-
Migrant Associativism, Integration, and the New Challenges for the XXI Century
Lígia Évora Ferreira
Center for the Study of Migrations and Intercultural Relations,
Lisboa, Portugal
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migrant communities become ready, be fitting, and to practice
reciprocity. This presentation will begin with an examination of
the meaning of immigrant integration, based on interviews with
over 100 people, both immigrants.
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Reflections about community psychology in Latin America: Praxis and prespectives
Coordinator: Maria de Fátima Quintal de Freitas
Federal University of Paraná
Brazil
This symposium is performed by three works about theoreticalpolitical implications of practices from a field that it is actually
known as Community Social Psychology. The first work analyzes
the construction of Community Psychology using three theoretical and practical references that limit the influences for the appearance of Community Psychology, which are: the psychological practices in the health field and the entrance of those works in
the university, which starts to analyze and to contemplate them
in their contents; and accomplishment of communitarian works
committed to social movements inside Latin-American context.
The second work focuses on the process of constructing a Community Clinical Psychology Degree course at a Catholic university
in Venezuela. There is emphasis on the relevance and necessity
of the creation of a practical discipline with the involved community, and not for that community and not either into that (as
a passive receiver). This proposal is based on the conception
of regarding the human being as a builder of his/her own life
and so as a social and health agent. The last work proposes an
analysis on the differences and intersections between the social
communitarian psychology practices and other fields. It identifies conceptual categories used by professionals from all fields,
although they are about different contents and meanings. The
epistemological and ontological aspects are emphasized, which
show dimensions that give particularity for Latin-American Social
Community Psychology works.
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Creating affirming campus communities through
minimizing the ervasiveness of heterosexism
Chair: Raymond Scott
University of La Verne
USA
Authors: Raymond Scott, Lauren Marlotte, Ian Carpenter, Daniela
Bryce, Natalya Godes, Maricela Gambia, Elyse Hammond
Given the mounting evidence that all variants of sexism interact
with other forms of structural violence such as racism and classism in producing oppressive environments, this session will focus attention on oppression and privilege that give rise to specific forms of prejudice, discrimination, and violence. During this
session, faculty and students will present briefly on (1) qualitative
and quantitative data aimed at improving instrumentation to
conduct theoretically informed and replicable research on eliminating harassment, discrimination, and violence that result from
the ubiquity of heterosexism within college and university communities and (2) academic discourse and counter-hegemonic
pedagogy aimed at reducing sexism, prejudice, and discrimination against LGBTQ individuals in college and university communities. Overall, Moos and Lemke’s (1983) theoretical framework of
social ecological settings serves as the foundation of this symposium.
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Program design, documentation, and dissemination for diversity: a toolkit demonstration
Community Psychology: three practices / three conceptions
Jorge Mário Osório Flores
Universidade de Cuernavaca
México
The paper analyzes community psychology from three concerning theoretical and practical, first as an extension of the individual
attention in the health field, second in the academic-institutional
vision that appoints from its inception in the university setting,
and the third as actual practice done in Latin America without
a conceptual definition, but located across the hegemonic discourse and committed to the liberation movements in developed
countries such as Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Colombia. In that regard, we analyze on the one hand the vision neocolonial (USA) on the other, and built from the academy with visions criticizes and those who work from and for the oppressed /
excluded with a transformative vision. To analyze store references
epistemological who are at the base of each of the trends under
consideration concerning his theoretical concept is determining
factor for the positioning of each of the concepts and practices
relating psicocomunitarias.
Rebecca M. Buchanan, Ph.D. Melissa Gutierrez Barrett, M.P.H.
Sean P. Flanagan
Westat
USA
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, the range of physical, mental,
behavioral, and learning disabilities caused by prenatal alcohol
exposure, affects one in 100 births in the USA. Our challenge
was to develop a prevention program that would be effective
for diverse communities. Specifically, we will discuss the program design, documentation, and dissemination strategies that
comprise the Partnership to Prevent FASD toolkit. We’ll begin
by describing how the Partnership’s design addressed diversity.
We combined federal resources to support research, planning,
and materials development, with the strengths of a communitybased approach. To realize these advantages, including local and
cultural relevance, we created the program in collaboration with
four diverse pilot communities. Together, we engaged in research
to understand the social context in which women drink during
pregnancy.
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Why global networking? University-Community
Partnership for Social Action Research Network
Community Clinical Psychology in Venezuela: Looking
ahead
Maritza Montero and Maribel Gonçalves de Freitas
Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV) and Universidad Católica
“Andrés Bello” (UCAB)
In this paper it is described how at the beginning of this century
a project to create a graduate course in Community Clinical Psychology started at UCAB, with the community psychology area
directed by the first author. The initial errors, subsequent corrections and achievements so far produced are analyzed. And
the central focus is put on aiming to construct a sub-discipline
not for the community or in it, carried out in the usual ways of
doing clinical psychology; but a clinical-community psychology
taking place within the community, with its participation. The
bases sustaining this project are rooted on an integral and situated conception of health; an active and dynamic conception of
human beings as daily constructors of their lives, and a conception of the community as an agent of health. The initial and the
current objectives are analyzed, as well as the achievements so
far obtained, looking ahead for a better future, while developing
today the roots for a better future.
Chair: Marek Wosinski
Arizona State University
USA
Authors: Marek Wosinski, Joanna Ochocka, Rich Janzen,
Caterina Arcidiacono & Mena Tuccillo, Anna Bokszczanin, Liz
Cummingham, Katarzyna Winkowska-Nowak
The question of how to effectively organize multicultural and interdisciplinary collaboration, connecting local community issues
within the larger global perspective, has become a focal point
of discussion at numerous national and international gatherings. The idea of a web-based networking platform was born at
the First International Conference on Community Psychology in
Puerto Rico in June 2006. Subsequently, an emerging and growing international partnership began to develop plans for a dynamic, global and multicultural-focused web platform to address
local and global issues. These plans were shaped through the input of over 30 multi-disciplinary international advisors, academic
researchers at the 6th European Community Psychology Conference in October of 2006 and after at the 11th Biennial Conference
of Society for Community Research and Action (June 2007) and
2nd European Community Psychology Association Seminar in
Sevilla (September 2007).
Resistance-Statement and Praxis of the Latin-American
Social Community Psychology
Maria de Fátima Quintal de Freitas
Federal University of Paraná (UFPR)
Brazil
In the last years, the psychosocial intervention works done in
community have been enlarged in countries from North and
South Hemispheres and also the epistemological-methodological discussion of that practice has been strengthened. Inquiries
on their similarities, differences, approaches and at a distance
regard become relevant, having in mind that that focuses the
debate on the specificities of the field denominated Social Communitarian Psychology (PSC). When some aspects related to the
communitarian interventions are analyzed - as the type of practice applied and the reasons for its beginning, the commitments
assumed by the professionals and their reached results - intersections and differences among them are identified. As for the first
dimension, it is verified that some conceptual categories have
been privileged for the analysis of the communitarian phenomenon. As the most recurring it’s possible to mention: feeling and
sense of belonging to a community; communitarian networks
and psychosocial support; identity processes; participation and
awareness processes; communitarian intervention, invigoration
or empowerment, combat strategies and resilience. In relation
to the second dimension - differences among the practices - it
can be said that some aspects are present in Latin-American PSC
works, such as: a) epistemological and ontological conception
about the communitarian phenomenon; b) historical-dialectical
comprehension about the communitarian dynamics and the psychosocial construction of daily participative networks; c) type of
communitarian implemented praxis, maintaining the coherence
with the assumed political-scientific commitments. It is aimed to
analyze some aspects that contribute so that the PSC practices
strengthen resistance-statement dimensions in the daily of the
communities, in the direction of a collective participation, politically committed with the human emancipation.
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Promoting Youth Development through Artsbased Community Programs
Lorraine Gutierrez, Michael Spencer, Rick Sperling
University of Michigan
USA
Urban youth can experience adversities that can limit their
chances for successful transition into adulthood. Despite living
in high-risk contexts, there is a great deal of positive adjustment
and resiliency among these young people; they can overcome
adversity, adapt to challenges and threatening situations even
though their environment is not ideally supportive, and experience healthy development. A number of protective factors can
account for the resiliency of youth in difficult environments, such
as a strong belief in self, motivation, supportive families, effective
schools, positive adult relationships, network of high achieving
peers, challenging learning environments, social connectedness
and belonging, and safe neighborhoods. Effective arts-based
community-based programs are settings where youth can find
the environmental supports that promote protective qualities
in youth promote positive youth development. Evidence reveals
the power of the arts in the lives of young people.
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Outreach and Engagement for Latinos from a
Cultural Perspective and Video Presentation
Luis Garcia
Pacific Clinics
USA
The learning objectives of this presentation is to introduce the
Spanish video ‘Familias Unidas Saben’ as an educational tool for
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providers and for families. We will talk about early prevention, intervention and awareness with mental illness in the Latino community. The video was designed to educate monolingual Spanish speaking families and clients, teaching them about mental
illness, and how to seek out help for their loved ones.
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Using participatory action research to teach
community in an interdisciplinary space
Ronelle Carolissen (University of Stellenbosch, South Africa),
Leslie Swartz (University of Stellenbosch, South Africa), Poul
Rohleder (Anglia RuskinUniversity, United Kingdom), Vivienne
Bozalek (University of Western Cape, South Africa), Lindsey
Nicholls (University of Western Cape, South Africa), Brenda
Leibowitz (University of Stellenbosch, South Africa)
There have been few practical examples of work in community
psychology that incorporates participatory action research as a
teaching tool in collaboration with other disciplines in the human
service professions. The current paper describes the Community,
Self and Identity Project which is an interdisciplinary teaching
and research project conducted across a historically white and
historically black university in South Africa. The course aims to
allow a multiply diverse community of fourth year psychology,
social work and occupational therapy students to interrogate notions of community across boundaries of race, gender, class, institution and profession. In this project students are divided into
small groups where all professions are represented. They engage
with each other on a face to face basis in workshops and continue
the engagement in the context of structured tasks in a virtual (elearning) space.
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Sparking Social Innovation through Research:
From Values to Action
Joanna Ochocka
Centre for Community Based Research
Canada
Conventional methodologies within community psychology research have historically proven their worth. However in this new
millennium, the growing empowerment of communities indicates that new methods are needed in terms of influencing social change, relationship building, engaging diversity and sparking social innovation and action. Participatory Action Research
(PAR) represents a collaborative approach to community-based
research, whereby mutually satisfying and productive results can
be generated to spur social innovation and create demonstration
projects. In this paper, PAR values will be presented and critically
discussed through the example of a Community University Research Alliance (CURA) currently underway in the Waterloo and
Toronto regions of Ontario, Canada that includes over 40 partners. This alliance has been using research to creatively develop
new and more effective services and supports for multicultural
Canada.
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Spatial inequality: studies of place, opportunity
and health in Britain
Jim Orford
The University of Birmingham
England
There has long been evidence that indices of health vary markedly from place to place. Multi-level statistical analyses have suggested that this reflects a real effect of place on health. Ethnographic and qualitative studies are helping us understand how
place might affect health, using concepts such as conservation
of resources, opportunity structures, social capital and sense of
community. Work on Government urban regeneration schemes
has also contributed to this growing body of knowledge. This
presentation will draw on relevant quantitative and qualitative
work carried out in Britain, including work carried out by the
present author and colleagues, and will summarise that work in
the form of a model of place, opportunity and health.
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Compromisso Social e Gênero: a pesquisa-participante como instrumento de organização comunitária
Aline Domício, Conceição Nogueira, Lielton Maia Silva, Carla
Lorena Queiroz Saraiva, Maria Claudemira Moura
Universidade do Minho
Portugal
O trabalho proposto apresenta os resultados da pesquisa participante que realizamos nos anos 2006 e 2007, na comunidade do
Sossego, localizada no sertão central do nordeste brasileiro. O
problema pesquisado diz respeito aos aspectos do compromisso
social das mulheres que participam do Projeto Missionário Vida
e Paz existente na comunidade. O trabalho de inserção comunitária teve início com o fortalecimento do grupo de mulheres,
que se questionava de que modo a participação da população
nas ações do Projeto poderia modificar o cenário de opressão existente na comunidade. Daí surgiu a idéia de realização de uma
pesquisa para a comprovação das hipóteses formuladas pelo
próprio grupo. Em relação ao material e métodos empregados,
iniciamos com a realização do diagnóstico-ação para definir os
principais problemas e necessidades dos moradores, passando
pela observação-participante e semi-estruturação de entrevistas
que foram realizadas através de visitas domiciliares.
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Reflexiones sobre la investigación colaborativa y
el investigador local
Rafael Hernández Espinosa
CESAS DF
México
Este trabajo reflexiona sobre las posibilidades en la investigación
social desde un punto de vista comunitario. Se plantea que dichas
posibilidades están se configuran diferencialmente dependiendo
de la posición y origen del investigador, es decir si es externo, “investigación colaborativa”, o interno a la comunidad, es decir un
“investigador local”. Con base en dos investigaciones empíricas,
en México, se muestran argumentos de esas diferencias y las po-
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sibilidades de construir una investigación social con fines comunitarios. Un aspecto de central interés lo constituye el tema de la
ética, principalmente en términos de su dimensión política. Finalmente, se subraya la importancia de la doble reflexividad que implica el ejercicio de la investigación social comunitaria: el aspecto
crítico-político y la comprensión fenomenológica.
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several aspects associated to it, as empowerment and sense of
community. The empowerment concept mostly associated with
the community member’s ability to participate and gain control
over their current life situation, resources and conditions among
their designated community. Sense of community refers to the
degree in which each member of the community identifies and
recognises that particular physical and emotional space as their
own and as a part of the whole it constitutes. To understand and
in some way measure or analyse each of these social concepts
we need to analyse the community mechanisms behind these
elements, such as community centres and solidarity institutions
know in Portugal as IPSS’s (Social Solidarity Particular Institutions). With this present study the main objective is analyse the
participants perceptions related to their community centres, in
which way may these physical spaces through their interventions
and procedures.
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Games for participation and conscientisation
Carolyn Kagan and Karen Duggan
Manchester Metropolitan University
England
Information sharing and group processes are dominated by
words – spoken and written words. This session will explore how
different kinds of games can be used to stimulate ideas, encourage participation and discussion and lead to awareness. We will
offer session participants the opportunity to take part in two
games and share experiences about their strengths and weaknesses for community engagement and conscientisation. Each
game has been developed by the community psychology team
at Manchester Metropolitan University from collaborative projects on community cohesion and health inequalities. The games
can be played by 4-10 players. They are not simulations and will
not require role playing, although they will be fun and participative! These creative techniques are intended to initially raise
awareness with a view to moving towards a shared understanding for working in collaboration.
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Empowering community settings: Findings from
the analysis of a community movement
Angela Fedi
University of Turin
Italy
Empowering community settings can exist in many community
domains. One domain includes groups and organizations that
empower historically oppressed citizens to resist and challenge
societal culture and institutions, and take action to change them,
such as community groups. To be considered empowering, a
community setting must have both an empowering process (e.g.,
participatory involvement), and lead to an empowered outcome
(e.g., enhanced sense of control over one’s life and environment).
Our study tried to answer the following two questions: Can a locality-based community movement be regarded as an example
of an empowering community setting? What are the advantages
and disadvantages of employing the empowering setting framework to understand community movements? To address these
questions, analysis of data from a case study of a community
movement was performed, the Susa Valley (Italy) protest against
the construction of a new High Speed Railway.
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Independent living and empowerment
Asghar Dadkhah
University of Welfare and Rehab
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Psychologists have contributed to programs that are helping
people change their feelings, emotions, and behavior instead
of just suppressing symptoms. There have been lots of improvements in psychological interventions working with people with
disability and serious mental disorders. In particular, a number
of treatment programs are drawing on the work of psychologists
and their method encourages people to learn about their own
body and mind and demonstrate social skills that allow them
to function in a community. Psychological rehabilitation is the
application of psychological knowledge and understanding on
behalf of individuals with disabilities and society through such
activities as research, clinical practice, teaching, public education,
development of social policy and advocacy. Although the process of rehabilitation has traditionally been viewed as ‘physical’ in
nature, it is now considered a multi-faceted process.
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Empowerment as the determinants of citizenparticipation for environmental management
plan
Hiroe Maeda and Yukio Hirose
Tokai Gakuen University
Japan
The present study explored the determinants of general attitude
and behavioral intention of citizen participation (C.P.) for making
basic environment plan. The results of our previous study indicate that through the commitment, environmental volunteers
enhanced their empowerment expectation and behavioural intention of C.P. for making the environmental plan. The purpose
of this study is to examine whether the ordinary citizens would
participate in making the environmental plan when they could
expect to get empowerment through their participation. A random sampling survey was conducted on 1500 residents in Tsu-
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Psychological empowerment and sense of community in the community space
Barreto, M. & Gonçalves, C.M.
Faculty of Psychology Education, Porto
Portugal
The study of community and its processes involves focusing in
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shima city, which began to make a basic plan for environmental
management by citizen participation. Main results of the survey
were as follows. Firstly, expectation of social benefit (efficacy to
change the administration by C.P.; e.g. “C.P. makes administration adopt environmental policies”) was the main determinant of
general attitude of C.P.
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movements assuming an anti-immigrant stance, and to the sharing of such a stance on the part of public opinion. This research
aims at analysing the expression of overt and covert forms of xenophobia in native citizens’ discourse, with special emphasis on
the relations between cognitive processes, discourse structures
and the representations about ethnic groups. In particular, we
are interested in examining the role exerted in concrete social
contexts by cognitive mechanisms (e.g. implicit and explicit illusory correlations, confirmation biases and positive control strategies, analogical thinking, fallacious logical schemata) in shaping
the inner “logic” of xenophobic discourse. The school can be regarded as a privileged context where interethnic relations take
place and where xenophobic ideas can be legitimated.
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Process: promoting cooperatives and entrepreneurship through south-south approach
Roberta Mineo
UNIMORE
Italy
The project presented has aimed to build a network that promotes social enterprise models in the regions of Central and
South America. The countries identified are characterized by an
unbalanced level of growth of the social system capacity. In the
region, after having experienced successes but also difficulties of
development programmes over the past decades, the main issue was to confront the existing social problems specific to Latin
America by implementing appropriate, efficient and sustainable
processes. The creation of social enterprises has shown very effective results because of the mix of personal involvement, exposition to social reality, but also learning from experience that
this kind of process brings to its local actors. General objective
was to promote the social development of countries, through the
creation of social enterprises as innovative tools of emancipation
from poverty and unemployment, but also as means of participatory intervention on the needs and services required by the
communities.
Social cohesion, perceived safety and immigration in a
rundown district in
Reggio Emilia, Dino Giovannini, Barbara Ferrari, Andrea Pintus & Loris Vezzali
RIMI Lab Research Center (Research and Intervention in Interethnic
Multicultural Relations and Immigration) – University of Modena
and Reggio Emilia, Italy
The aim of this study was to analyze the representations and perceptions of people living in Reggio Emilia, District 6, in terms of
perceived safety and specific problems linked to the immigration
process and intergroup relations. Particularly, we put our attention: 1) on the role and the effect of the Conflict Mediation Centre
in the District 6, in terms of attitudes expressed by people living
and/or working there as well as others involved actors: Italian
and foreigner immigrants, shopkeepers, public administrators,
police force, cultural associations, labour union representatives,
civic committees, voluntary associations, religious groups; 2) on
the specific problems of both Italian and immigrant residents; 3)
on the existent intercultural and intergroup dynamics; 4) on the
quality of the relationships between Italian and foreigners; 5) on
the solutions put forward.
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Arriving, receiving and later generation immigration challenges and adjustments (II)
Migrants’ social perception of immigration and immigrants in three community scenarios
Christina Martínes-Taboada, Ainara Arnoso, Edurne Elgorriaga & Nekane Otero
Dpto. Psicología Social y Metodología de las CCC Universidad del
País Vasco, Spain
This paper introduces the study of “Psychosocial shock in immigration: psychosocial facts and future actions” One interesting issue about immigration is the heterogeneity of the records. Hence,
we have chosen three different community scenarios graded by
the degree in social dependency. High degree were people staying through Hold up Social Services (n=100), Medium degree
with people in Empowering Employment processes as well in
Social Services reliance (n=100), and finally, Social Autonomous
people (n=82). We applied both quantitative research (psychosocial profile by culture and social scenario) and qualitative methodology to the data. We asked participants to associate words
to Immigration and Immigrants. Each answer and category was
submitted by three blind judges. We analyzed both individual
and social differences through factorial Correspondence analysis
and hierarchical analysis. On one hand we have found out some
interesting outcomes.
Coordinator: Adrian Fisher
Victoria University
Australia
Adjustment to immigration requires a series of processes from
the arrival groups, the receiving communities, and even subsequent generations. Particular difficulties may arise where there
are significant cultural, racial, religious differences and/or historical antipathies. This is a proposal for 2 linked symposia exploring
issues from each perspective in order to understand from arriving,
receiving and later generation communities the challenges and
how these can be met. Studies are from Spain and Italy (historically emigrant countries) and Australia (traditionally a recipient
country). The first papers deal with Muslim immigration to these
countries, and the later papers with broader immigrant issues.
There is foreign and ‘foreign’: Xenophobic reasoning and
anti-immigration discourse
Monica Colombo, Paolo Cherubini, Lorenzo Montali & Laura
Marando
Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Italy
The spread of certain forms of xenophobia - either explicit or
implicit - is being more and more documented in international
research studies, in relation both to the emergence of political
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East-West as well as North-South Dialogue: Prospects for community psychology in the developing and transitioning world.
The author will review both barriers and portals for community
psychology in this region, as well as the need for critical and applied academic disciplines.
Coordinator: Douglas Perkins
Vanderbilt University. Ctr. for Community Studies
USA
The theme of this symposium is ‘East-West as well as North-South
Dialogue: Prospects for community psychology in the developing and transitioning world.’ There are large, global and national
systemic factors that greatly dictate individual and community
wellbeing in ANY country, but that may be especially important
in less developed as well as post-Communist countries, where
the severity of the problems are the worst and the political, economic, and historical contexts may all make solutions more difficult, if not impossible. In that sense, one may argue that community psychology is most needed in less developed countries
[and that is a major motivation for this session], but at the same
time, community psychology perspectives and methods, including empowerment and participation, may be hardest to practice
and have an impact under those same systems. It is no accident
that community psychology is historically identified more with
Western democracies. The speakers will present papers exploring
why that may
A vision for a future of Community Psychology in Latin
America and the Caribbean
Blanca Ortiz-Torres
Univ. of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico
Recently, Montero and Varas (2007) reflected about the development, implications and challenges of Community Psychology
(CP) in Latin America and observed that new forms of practice
have been created in that may contradict some of the core values
and goals of the discipline. They ended their reflection calling for
a CP with an “emancipatory and empowering role… in the development of citizenry engaged in social transformation”. In several
countries the emancipatory role of the discipline is being transformed by dramatic political changes, in others the (neoliberal)
state has co-opted this role. More recent developments point to
an increasing tendency to transdisciplinary research and action,
greater involvement/interest in public policy processes, and the
creation of new academic programs in several countries such as
Peru and Argentina. . This presentation will explore future prospects for the discipline in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Prospects for Community Psychology in the People’s Republic of China
Douglas D. Perkins
Vanderbilt University, Nashville, USA
Based on observations and experience during a summer Field
School in Inter-cultural Education and Research in Southern China, and a review of academic literature, I will address the question
of whether Community Psychology (CP) has a future in China?
The 2007 Vanderbilt Field School in Guangxi, China, consisted
of 12 students and 1 community psychologist from the U.S. engaged with a group of Chinese faculty and students in social sciences, public administration, public health, and foreign language
education in 4 small, short-term collaborative community-based
action-research demonstration projects. The projects, and especially the status of psychology in China and the role of government and academic bureaucracy, say as much about the challenges to doing independent applied social research in China as
they do about how CP might translate to the Chinese context.
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Community and Higher Education Partnerships
Coordinator: Jacqui Akhurst
York St John University
England
This symposium will introduce a variety of engagements in the
UK and elsewhere, between Higher Education students and communities. It will explore a variety of ongoing partnerships which
contribute to both development within a community and its
members and to the learning of students. The symposium will
challenge ideas of charity implicit in previous manifestations of
service learning, and will discuss ways of promoting sustainable
collaboration. It will examine associated ethical, practical and
research-related issues.
A community based mental health expressive arts project
Emma Scott-Smith and David Fryer
This presentation will describe an ongoing Scottish partnership
of 12 years between the University of Stirling and a community
based mental health expressive arts project. The partnership has
taken a number of forms over the years: for example the support
of project members in ‘community artivism’ which contests stigma and oppression in relation to mental health; project members
have run radicalising workshops for hundreds of psychology students and co-presented at national and international meetings.
The latest manifestation of the partnership is a critical pedagogy
/ popular education project in relation to mental health involving
project members and students in mutual deideologisation and
education.
The Potential for Community Psychology in the former
Soviet Union
Jill Robinson
Vanderbilt University, Nashville, USA
Many disciplines which make up the social sciences historically
have struggled to develop in the former Soviet Union, although
they are gaining popularity since the era of glasnost and perestoika and the subsequent fall of the Soviet empire. Critical social
science was especially suspect under the communist regime because of potential philosophical challenges to Communist Party
ideology. Since the fall, many former Soviet republics are independently redeveloping their curriculum in higher education
removed from the gaze of Moscow. What does this mean for the
prospect of critical social sciences, such as community psychology, to develop into officially sanctioned academic disciplines?
The development of the Sizabantwana project in KwaZulu Natal
Carol Mitchell and Jacqui Akhurst
This project started ten years ago when two teachers turned
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for help to psychologists at a local university. The result was the
launch of Sizabantwana, a support group for teachers. The group
has engaged in training, for example counselling-skills training,
bereavement-counselling training and a programme on combating gender violence. However the focus is to assist teachers
to assist pupils, whether in relation to academic underachievement or a child who is starving. While the ultimate beneficiaries
of the Sizabantwana support group are the children, the teachers
involved in the group have benefited in more ways than they initially expected through the problem-solving collaboration which
has been established. These developments paved the way for a
community-based learning component to be introduced, which
gives final year psychology students an opportunity to work in
communities as part of their academic programme.
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su campo, en torno al estudio de una ciencia popularizada, en
este estudio se accedió a los significados socialmente compartidos acerca de la profesión de psicólogo/a y la dimensión ética
presente en su ejercicio a través de la construcción de un cuestionario ad-hoc aplicado a muestra de 80 habitantes de diferentes
comunas de Santiago y a la observación sistematizada de dos
medios de comunicación de masas en Chile, durante los meses
de marzo y abril del año 2007. Entre los principales resultados fue
posible identificar una clara correspondencia con actuaciones en
el campo clínico, aspecto que puede ser observado a partir del
mayoritario reconocimiento de aportes en las esferas de trabajo
individual en detrimento de su trabajo en los âmbitos sociales y
comunitarios.
La angustia de lo posible en PSC: ¿Podemos generar experiencias de formación que exedan el campo
Horacio Salgado Fernández
La formación en Psicología Social Comunitaria se ha intensificado
en Chile durante la última década tal vez como réplica al interés
que los gobiernos de la Concertación fueron manifestando por
un lenguaje que parecía ajustarse a los lineamientos políticos
de reconstrucción democrática. Esta adecuación, sin embargo,
ha establecido despiadada y certeramente sus limitaciones en
el ejercicio de políticas públicas impregnadas de un discurso
comunitario que se desploma en contextos elusivos a su puesta
en práctica. Tal escenario de cooptación debe ser examinado y
repensado desde frentes diversos. Una perspectiva útil la representa la revisión de acciones que operan en la frontera del Estado.
Un estudio de sitio sobre una intervención comunitaria llevada a
cabo por 10 profesionales del programa Servicio País durante 5
años proporciona algunos elementos que resultan instructivos
para afrontar una reflexión sobre la formación disciplinar que se
rebase a sí misma.
Community involvement in student research
Annie Mitchell
Folk.us is a UK Department of Health research programme which
has been running in Devon since 2000 and has recently been refunded for a further two years to contribute to partnership building between local communities and university based research.
The aim of Folk.us is to “support and develop patient, service user
and carer involvement in health and social care research activities to ensure that those who use services and those who care for
those who use services inform and guide research at all stages”.
In this presentation we will consider: whether student research
can be informed by community members’ concerns and priorities; whether student research can directly serve the interests of
service users and carers and the ethical, procedural and practical
issues involved in community partnership in students’ research.
278
Formación en Psicología Comunitária
Tensiones constituyentes del complejo proceso de formación en PSC, en el Chile actual
Joan Calventus i Salvador
Actualmente en Chile, la formación en psicología comunitária
enfrenta una serie de tensiones que deben analizarse sobre el supuesto de que se trata de una ciencia irremediablemente política
y, por tanto, ideológica (Ibáñez, 1993). Con este antecedente,
su práctica pedagógica está permanentemente tensionada por
una serie de polaridades que la constituyen como expresión de
complejidad que en este trabajo se abordan críticamente: (1)
Individualidad-Colectividad de su objeto de estudio y práctica
interventiva. (2) Asistencialismo-Fortalecimiento como objetivos
hacia un paciente (dependiente) o actor (empoderado). (3) Adaptación-Cambio Social, en un contexto político e institucional que
se autodefine como democrático, pero que muestra injustas contradicciones socio-económicas. (4) Objetividad (cuantitativa)Subjetividad (cualitativa), de una práctica condicionada por el
compromiso del método científico. (5) Seguridad (control) – Riesgo (incertidumbre), como consecuencia emocional e ideológica.
Coordinator: María Isabel Reyes Espejo
Universidad Santo Tomás
Chile
Versiones sobre la Formación en Psicologia Social Comunitária en
Contextos Contradictorios/Realistas. La enseñanza de Psicología
Social Comunitária desde la realidad chilena, nos interpela a
abordar algunos desafíos que, a nuestro juicio, emergen de sus
propias características; en tanto, desde la década de los noventa,
se constituye en un campo y práctica profesional que ha tendido
hacia una fuerte institucionalización (Krause, 1999). Este simposio aborda el proceso de enseñanza formación de la psicología
comunitaria en Chile desde 3 perspectivas diferentes; en primer
lugar, se expone resultados de un estudio que indagó en la imagen pública de los psicólogos en Chile, evidenciando el escaso
conocimiento de una praxis que se vincula con el campo social
y un marcado anclaje de la representación de la profesión den el
campo individual-clínico. En segundo lugar, desde un estudio de
sitio sobre una intervención comunitaria llevada a cabo por 10
profesionales del programa Servicio País durante 5 años pro
La imagen pública de los/as psicólogos/as en Chile:
aportes para la formación de profesionales
María Isabel Reyes Espejo
Desde una visión constructiva-interpretativa y atendiendo al
estudio de las representaciones sociales como herramienta y, a
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lems who have been, or are, at risk of being excluded from the
labour market. It is a job retention project for people with mental health problems and provides support and advice to people
with mental health problems and their employers. This study was
a piece of participatory action research with staff and service
users from the Retain service. A steering group was created to
guide the project and every stage of the project was carried out
in consultation with the steering group. This included, as far as
possible, the analysis and conclusions drawn from the data and
dissemination.
279
Shifting Gender Norms: Emerging CommunityBased Intervention Programs
Nicholas Kaufmann
University of Illinois at Chicago
USA
Individuals construct gender norms and social identities at the
community level. Specifically, peer group and kinship networks
are among the strongest influences on the formation of genderrelated attitudes. Gender norms are recognized to have a impact
on health outcomes. For example, young men who support ‘traditional’ versions of manhood are more likely to use drugs, be violent, practice unsafe sex (WHO, 2000). Whilst many intervention
programs aim to prevent health risk behaviors at the individual
level, it is equally important that interventions be implemented
at the community level. A number of intervention programs have
recently emerged, both in the US and internationally, which make
use of multiple levels of intervention to promote gender equality.
This session will provide a brief overview of these intervention
programs with a view to generate discussion on their applicability in different contexts and with different populations.
282
Simbolismo do corpo e intervenção comunitária:
contribuições feministas para a investigaçãoação
Aline Domício, Conceição Nogueira
Universidade do Minho, Braga
Portugal
O presente trabalho é resultado da atuação em comunidades no
município de Banabuiu, localizado no sertão central do nordeste
brasileiro, com a participação das mulheres vítimas de violência
doméstica, sob o ponto de vista da intersecção entre a psicologia
social crítica e as metodologias feministas, a partir da investigação-ação com ênfase na simbologia do corpo. O objetivo principal é demonstrar a compreensão da tessitura social a partir de
um sistema de significados corporais, que se constrói nas narrativas sobre a violência no cotidiano das mulheres vitimadas, proveniente da ação conjunta com o poder público sob o ponto de
vista da investigação-ação. Assumindo o interesse feminista na
psicologia social crítica, utilizamos metodologias que privilegiam
o fortalecimento dos grupos comunitários, a partir da compreensão da corporeidade humana e socialização da experiência corporal como fenômeno social e cultural.
280
Knowledge Mobilization through Theatre: Cutting to the heart of research
Sarah Marsh, Dr. Joanna Ochocka, Multicultural Theatre (MT)
Space
Centre for Community Based Research
Canada
Research dissemination is a critical part of any research project. If
research exists to bring a change, then research must be shared
in ways that inspire and mobilize people to action. In addition
to traditional ways of disseminating research results and learnings, more creative and innovative communication strategies
are used. These strategies privilege the voice of marginalized
groups while motivating all stakeholders to take needed action.
In this presentation particular attention will be drawn to the use
of community theatre as a significant, appropriate and powerful method of knowledge mobilization, community engagement
and participant empowerment (e,g, Augusto Boal). Theatre is an
especially powerful tool when researching sensitive issues and
communicating emotional research topics to multicultural audiences speaking different languages. This presentation will be
interactive.
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Working together at the margins: research collaboration to break the cycle of homelessness
Liz Cunningham
University of Brighton
England
This paper examines a piece of research collaboration between a
university department and a community partner on the issue of
the experience of homeless people’s engagement with services.
The study was carried out because there was anecdotal evidence
that a core group of service users was unable to break the cycle
of homelessness and as a result were being excluded or banned
from support for a period of time. The service provider and university met over several months and developed a research strategy and proposal, which ultimately, the service provider
carried out with support from the university. This paper will reflect on the process of supporting our partner to carry out their
own research; the boundaries agreed; the role we attempted to
maintain and difficulties experienced; and the different types of
support we developed within the research process. We will reflect
on the choices made and how this has influenced our practice.
281
A service user led analysis of work and mental
health
Carl Walker
Brighton University
United Kingdom
In the UK in 2006 there were nearly 1 million recipients of incapacity benefit as a result of mental health difficulties. This is nearly half of the total incapacity benefit paid out by the government
and is an urgent public health issue. The Retain service is a UK
charity providing rehabilitation, training, work experience and
support into employment for people with mental health prob-
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for agrarian reform. These settlements have been regarded as
a potential space for the development of alternatives that can
generate employment and improve the living conditions of rural workers. They have also been receiving increasing investment
from the Brazilian government and have become an area of dispute between state and different society sectors interested in the
implementation of social and economic development projects.
Cooperativism has been viewed as an organizational formula to
address the chronic problems of small rural production. Considering that cooperation and cooperativism are two distinct social
processes, I discuss the factors that created a movement towards
the institutionalization of cooperatives along with the decline of
traditional forms of cooperation developed in the Brazilian rural
world.
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Training community researchers for effective engagement within a PAR framework
Jo Hobbs
Research Institute for Health and Social Change
England
Service user involvement is recognised as an integral part in
health research and as an activity that has positive outcomes for
individuals, research and service provision. Providing research
training is fundamental and a key principle of successful involvement to ensure that the people who are brought on board as
community researchers are encouraged and supported to gain
the specific skills, knowledge and understanding that will enable
them to be actively involved and to work effectively within the
Participatory Action Research (PAR) process. Primarily this paper seeks to assess the effectiveness and suitability of using approaches like Participatory Action Research as a methodological
tool for mapping service change and to facilitate empowerment
for community researchers. In addition to gauging the effectiveness of Participatory Action Research as a methodological tool
this paper seeks to contribute to the wider remit around engaging service user researchers who live with long term neurological conditions (henceforth referred to as community researchers)
within health and social care services by focusing on detailing the
delivery of high quality context specific as well as broad based
training for a group of community researchers recruited by Manchester Metropolitan University.
287
Criterios y componentes en estrategias de empoderamiento comunitário
Alba Zambrano Constanzo
Universidad de La Frontera
Chile
Se reportan los principales resultados de una investigación
cualitativa cuyo propósito fue analizar los componentes de las
prácticas interventivas que configuran estrategias de empoderamiento y desarrollo comunitario Chile y España. Mediante la
técnica de entrevista en profundidad se accedió al discurso de
profesionales que trabajaban al momento de la investigación en
diferentes experiencias de desarrollo comunitario en ambos países. También fueron consultados informantes expertos como una
forma de triangular y obtener información de segundo orden
para enriquecer los datos aportados por los operadores sociales.
Además se efectuó un análisis documental de sistematizaciones
escritas de los procesos desarrollados en las distintas iniciativas
en que participaban los operadores sociales entrevistados y que
constituyen el contexto programático en que ellos insertan sus
intervenciones. El análisis de los datos producidos siguió la lógica
de la teoría fundamentada apoyándose en el sofware Atlas-ti.
285
The Times They Are a-Changin: Portuguese feminist men and their narratives
Daniel Matias
ISPA
Portugal
To change the current system of inequality between women and
men, there is an increasing body of literature that presents the
idea of men joining the feminist movement and fighting side by
side with women for change. This study is based on the narratives of portuguese feminist men and its goal is to analyze tensions, contradictions, paradoxes, and above all, the capacities for
change. We present an analysis of how these men’s narratives differentiate from the mainstream narratives about men, and how
these men’s narratives can prove to be a site of dissent of the actual gender order. Ideas for the creation of new settings where
men can explore creative ways of fighting for gender equality will
also be explored, namely what can be the contributions of Community Psychology towards this change.
288
Empowerment – a relational challenge
João Aguiar
ISPA
Portugal
Empowerment promotion is a major challenge for community
psychology. Practitioners’ understanding of change processes
and relationship building capacity are crucial elements for this.
We reflect on some methodological and theoretical frames. We
consider that the naturalistic paradigm and method can be applied to empowerment promotion, particularly if it is focused
on creating change based on people’s voice, participation and
actions (Aguiar & Moniz, 2006). Besides, it helps to understand
elements, boundaries and timings of change process. So, it can
be a very useful method for action research. We believe that empowerment promotion is a relational challenge and that community development paths are based on relationship building,
from the group to the community levels. It is a major challenge
to promote empowerment, because to listen to voices of people,
286
Cooperation: fundamental values in organizational process in Brazilians rural settlements
Rosemeire Aparecida Scopinho
Federal University of San Carlos
Brazil
The present paper discusses the meaning of cooperation and cooperativism in the organizational process of rural settlements in
Brazil, which were recently created as a result of social struggles
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to understand their strengths, and to work with them in a cooperative way implies from the practitioners an understanding of
empowering aspects of change.
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focus on the way in which a participatory research approach was
employed to facilitate change and empower a community in relation to the community members’ ways of coping with HIV&AIDS.
Besides gaining insight into the manner in which one South African community is coping with a contemporary challenge, this
example may inform future capacity building initiatives and community-based responses to social challenges. Based on an intervention (focus groups in combination with workshops) with ten
educators of the selected community, interviews, observation, a
field journal and visual data collection techniques that were employed, it will be argued that communities with limited resources
might be guided towards the belief that they are able to cope
with challenges (…).
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Social Capital Production in a Post-Communist
Context
Jill Robinson
Vanderbilt University
USA
Social capital has been suggested as an important influence
on social change, particularly for communities which lack other
forms of capital. For community psychologists, social capital has
important practical and theoretical implications in the areas of
empowerment, sense of community and neighboring. But in the
former Soviet Union, for example, a lack of trust is an important
barrier to the production of social capital. This presentation will
define social capital applicable for post-communist states; it will
explain how it can be used for community engagement; and it
will suggest future areas of research pertinent to utilizing social
capital as an instrument of social change in this specific context.
Illustrations will be drawn from the former Soviet Union, China
and Cuba.
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Social and job insertion of HIV affected people
in Spain
A. Agirrezabal - CESIDA, Madrid, Spain; M.J. Fuster - UNED,
Madrid, Spain & E. Sansinenea - UPV/EHU, Donostia, Spain
Background: AIDS as a social phenomenon has traditionally been
explained from multiple models. Social constructionist theories
provide theoretical and methodological tools to cope with different social and community issues as the factors that determine
job insertion of HIV positive people. The present study focuses on
this topic. Methods: 40 HIV affected people (50% men and 50%
women) employed and unemployed (50% in both cases) from
different NGOs were contacted to collect data (through in depth
interviews). The interview topics are: sociodemographic data,
well being/quality of life, medical and vocational histories, social
support and specific question related to access to work (barriers,
needs, factors, and abilities). Data were content analysed. Results:
results showed different questions: 40% have different handicap
levels; 90% of the sample was employed at the time of diagnosis; both objective and subjective health status was satisfactory
(55.3%).
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Social capital and mental health in Greek rural
‘communities’
Anastasia Zissi, Petros Skapinakis, Machi Tseloni
University of the Aegean
Greece
The present cross-sectional socio-psychological epidemiological study examines the mental health state of rural residents
on the region of the North Aegean Sea in relation to their social life through the concept of social capital. Both quantitative
and qualitative techniques were employed while all the small
(< 2,000) rural settlements of the region were examined across
the five islands. The sample size was 428 residents with the mean
age of 43 years. The epidemiological results based on the Clinical
Interview Schedule showed significant differences between the
sexes; women were more likely to report psychiatric morbidity.
Moreover, 14% of the sample faced clinically significant mental
health difficulties. The social capital findings indicated a ‘peculiar’
picture of social life; on the one hand, rural residents were found
to have deeply internalized norms of mutual aid, especially in
times of crises.
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The production of desire into community process
Tatiana Gomes da Rocha
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Brazil
In the tradition of psychology, the concept of desire is derived
from the clinical setting and it is limited to the individual’s internal psychological processes. This study aims to reformulate
the problem of desire by placing it into social processes that go
beyond individuals’ personal experiences. Due to this purpose,
we work with the notion of production of desire, as proposed by
Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari. According to them, desire cannot be reduced to the relation between an individual subject and
a missing object. Desire is always revolutionary and collective, it
produces a plan of immanence that dissents from the established
structures and where new landscapes are possible. This plan is
socially shared by individuals, where desire brings a reconfiguration of the present moment by recreating the ways in which
people connect themselves to each other and to the world. This
perspective of desire deepens our comprehension of life in communities.
291
Taking agency and feeling empowered to cope
with HIV&AIDS
Ronel Ferreira
University of Pretoria
South Africa
During this presentation a qualitative study will be discussed,
which investigated the manner in which a South African informal
settlement community is coping with HIV&AIDS, by relying on
existing assets and local resources. The discussion will primarily
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England, for women receiving treatment for gynecological cancer. It is designed to help patients benefit from the opportunity
to talk about their concerns and worries with another woman
who has completed treatment. The study aimed to investigate
the processes and outcomes of peer support. It used a qualitative
approach to examine the experiences of patients and peer supporters participating in Women Helping Women. Semi-structured
interviews were conducted with both patients and peer supporters; transcripts were analyzed using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Both patients and peer supporters reported positive
experiences of peer support.
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Including the gay experience into the social capital concept – implications for policy
John E. Goldring
Manchester Metropolitan Universtiy
United Kingdom
In the UK context, interest in social capital arose in part out of
government’s community and regeneration policies promoting
social cohesion. Part of the attraction of social capital was the
desire to address social inequalities that persisted within the UK.
By understanding social capital, it was hoped, would help reduce
the gap between the advantaged and disadvantaged and begin
to include those socially excluded members of UK society (Babb
2005). A measure of social capital is now on the General Household Survey conducted by the Office of National Statistics (ONS).
In developing this measure, the ONS identified five key dimensions they considered underpinned social capital. These were
civic participation, social networks and support; social participation; trust and reciprocity; and views about the area (Babb 2005).
The difficulty here is how social capital has been problematised
from a heterosexual perspective.
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La Virtud de lo Virtual: Comunidades virtuales y
sentido de comunidad
Elda Velásquez & Andrea Jaramillo
Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile
Chile
La masificación de Internet, desde los 90, ha significado el
surgimiento de variados grupos y estudios acerca de sus efectos especialmente en el bienestar psicosocial (beneficios de la
participación en comunidades virtuales, depresión, habilidades
sociales, apoyo social, identidad), siendo importante conocer si
las comunidades virtuales tienen una homologación con las comunidades tradicionales en este sentido. Al respecto, algunas
investigaciones han dado cuenta de la presencia de apoyo social
en algunos grupos, potenciación del capital social, soporte social
y sentido de comunidad son algunos efectos que pudiesen tener,
así como la mantención de las normas sociales no verbales en los
ambientes virtuales. Si se asume que este el fenómeno se presenta de manera similar tanto en las comunidades cara a cara, como
en las comunidades virtuales, solo algunos grupos en Internet
representarían ser reales comunidades virtuales. Éstos podrían
estar caracterizados por la presencia de sentido de comunidad.
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Engagement in Community Organizing: Analyses from a Longitudinal Study
Brian Christens, Paul Speer, & Chad Overby
Vanderbilt University
USA
Engagement in community life is increasingly understood as a
critical component of a properly functioning society - and has
been tied to outcomes such as economic development, health,
psychological wellness, and empowerment. Among the various
mechanisms for community engagement, social action community organizing is differentiated by its sophisticated approach to
building sustainable power through relationships among participants. This presentation builds on existing understandings of
participation in community organizing by analyzing data from a
longitudinal study of individual engagement in community organizing in the United States. Rates of participation are studied
over time in relation to aspects of participatory contexts, such
as meeting types and sizes, overlapping attendance with other
participants, and neighborhood demographic composition. The
processes of data collection, management, and analysis are explained, along with preliminary results.
298
Desde la intervención social comunitaria a la apropiación social de TIC: el camino de la psicología
comunitaria como aporte a la informática comunitaria.
Alejandra Villarroel
Psicóloga Comunitaria
Chile
La promesa de desarrollo y disminución de brecha digital ronda
la incorporación de Tecnología de Información y Comunicación
(TIC), la que ha sido impulsada desde el estado, empresa privada
y organizaciones no gubernamentales, quienes han puesto a
disposición de las comunidades: equipamiento tecnológico y capacitación básica; visualizándose en algunas de estas iniciativas
la necesidad de incorporar proceso que apoyen el uso y apropiación de las TIC instaladas, con la proyección de dar sustentabilidad económica y social a ellas. En este contexto la Psicología
Comunitaria ha resultado ser un aporte, puesto que ha podido
construir una respuesta profesional concreta frente a la necesidad de estrategias que vinculen sujetos, sus entornos, necesidades y potencialidades con las TIC.
296
Women Helping Women: peer support in gynecological cancer
Nancy Pistrang, Chris Barker, Zara Jay
University College London
England
This paper reports on a peer support program, based on community health psychology principles. Peer support programs
– including one-to-one support self-help groups, and online
forums – are growing in popularity, but there has been little research on their process and outcome. “Women Helping Women”
is a telephone-based peer support program, based in London,
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two different territorial areas in Milano characterised by a high
versus low presence of foreign immigrants. The main goal of the
study is to analyse the still unexplored relations between sense
of community and both subtle and blatant prejudice (Pettigrew
& Meertens, 1995; 2002). We set up a study to test a model including the following constructs: the psychological sense of community referred to the neighbourhood which includes 4 dimensions
(membership, integration/fulfilment of needs, influence, shared
emotional connection), subtle and blatant prejudice towards foreign immigrants and acculturation strategies (HCSA, Host Community Acculturation Scale; Bourhis, & Bougie,1998).
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Cambios en los sistemas de apoyo social: ¿Qué
sabemos de las comunidades virtuales de autoayuda?
Agnès Vayreda, Mariona Estrada, Santi Tomás
Universitat Oberta de Catalunya
Spain
Esta comunicación se centrará en los sistemas de apoyo social
que están emergiendo en nuestras sociedades fuertemente tecnologizadas. En esta línea, uno de los fenómenos más interesante
i controvertido es el desarrollo de las llamadas comunidades virtuales de apoyo social o, también, grupos virtuales de autoayuda
en las que se comparten informaciones y se intercambia apoyo
social sobre una determinada problemática mediante mensajes
electrónicos gracias a Internet. Se presentarán y se examinarán
los resultados de un estudio de caso concreto de una web y espacio de debate electrónico diseñados con el objetivo de proporcionar apoyo social a personas afectadas por el llamado trastorno
bipolar. Se trata de un grupo de autoayuda, sin presencia de profesionales, totalmente virtual, en lengua española y creado por
una enferma y en el que participan personas no sólo desde España sino desde varios países de América latina.
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Sentido de comunidad y bienestar en usuarios
de asociaciones sociales
Maria Teresa Vega; Angel Sánchez-Anguita
Universidad de Salamanca
Spain
Las asociaciones sociales son contextos comunitarios que contribuyen al bienestar de sus usuarios através de los procesos de
influencia social que desarrollan. El objetivo de este estudio es
analizar en qué medida las asociaciones, al formar parte de la
red de apoyo de los usuarios, contribuye al desarrollo de un sentido de comunidad en sus miembros y éste, a través de procesos
sociocognitivos determina el bienestar psicológico. La muestra
está formada por 152 sujetos, entre afectados y familiares, com
una edad comprendida entre los 13 y 80 años y que recibían servicios de 22 asociaciones sociales y de salud. Se realizó un diseño de investigación cuasi-experimental de tipo transversal. La
información se recabó a través de entrevista personal. Se midieron tres tipos de variables: de integración social (apoyo social
percibido, sentido de comunidad), de potenciación psicológica
(autoeficacia de afrontamiento) y de bienestar psicológico (estrés
psicosocial y satisfacción vital).
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Does seeking love and sex online affect offline
relationships?
Nuno Nodin (ISPA, Lisboa; HIV Center for Clinical and Behavioral Studies, New York), Isabel Leal (ISPA, Lisboa), Alex
Carballo-Diéguez (HIV Center for Clinical and Behavioral Studies, New York)
The Internet has become a major venue for people to communicate and network with others. Many seek new friends, as well
as love and sex online. Men who have sex with men (MSM) have
been shown to be frequent users of this medium to meet sexual
and relationship partners, which may be partially due to the anonymity this media allows. Using a sample of MSM recruited online,
we investigated several issues of their experience of using the Internet to meet others. This paper focuses on the effects they describe that experience has had on their offline relationships and
socialization processes. This is an exploratory qualitative study.
Thirty six Portuguese MSM (age: m=34.5; sd=8.5), most of which
had an university level education, were interviewed face-to-face
about their use of the internet to meet sexual partners. These interviews were audio recorded with the participants’ agreement
and later transcribed.
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Sizabantwana: a visual portrayal
Carol Mitchell
University of KwaZulu Natal
South Africa
This presentation will focus on a community development intervention aimed at developing educators’ capacity to deal with
psycho-social issues in their schools. The Sizabantwana (Helping
Children) Project is a support and development group for educators from approximately 15 schools based in South African ‘townships’. This project celebrated its tenth year of existence last year
and has evolved from its origins as a fairly dependent new initiative (where a high degree of involvement from the psychologist was required) to an interdependent initiative which is based
on more of partnership model between the educators and the
School of Psychology. Over the years the initial project has expanded and developed new initiatives, in particular a mentoring
programme involving volunteer mentors (undergraduate psychology students) and a widow’s support group. The presentation will use the photovoice technique to firstly present visual
images captured by the educators representing the challenges
they encounter.
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Sense of community and subtle/blatant forms of
prejudice toward foreign immigrant
Lorenzo Montali, Federica Castellini, Sabrina Mallimaci,
Monica Colombo
University of Milano-Bicocca
Italy
The Sense of Community construct (SoC, Mc Millan& Chavis,
1986) draws a growing interest also in social psychology for its
heuristic power in the study of the perceived quality of interindividual and intergroup relations. This research is conducted in
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volve directamente com o nosso corpo, colocando órgãos e capacidades, sentimentos e ideias de volta ao interior das pessoas
e as pessoas de volta ao mundo (Grainger, 1996). Deste modo,
a orientação para as soluções aliada aos próprios recursos e alternativas que a expressão artística permite no mundo humano,
formam a base da estratégia de prevenção do projecto “Unidades
de Apoio Psicológico”. Manifestam-se na planificação e produção
de ficção (literária ou audiovisual) cujo enredo fornece alternativas objectivas para situações de risco, além de activar recursos e
competências dos indivíduos na comunidade.
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Shifting borders - Exploring the relationship between women’s mobility and place belonging
Barbara Iuliano
Federico II University of Naples
Italy
The complex relationship between homeland and host-society
reveals new forms of belonging and self-representation, which
are related to migrant’s uncertain conditions of existence and
multiple interconnections (Iuliano, 2007). The present work
aims to explore the dynamics of place attachment and identity
redefinition among foreign skilled women in Italy. The research
has been carried out combining complementary methods: documentary research, observation, in-depth interviews and narrative
accounts. The main part of the fieldwork took place in Naples,
Italy – by means of interviews with women from Latin-America,
Eastern-Europe, Balkans and Africa. As revealed by content and
discourse analysis of the verbatim transcripts, variables such as
time of permanence in the site and geo-cultural context of origin,
connote in different ways the emerging of a transitional space of
belonging and of an ‘in-between identity’ (Bhabha, 1994).
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Practicas Transdisciplinarias: Aciertos y desaciertos desde la psicología comunitaria
Dolores Miranda; Maria de Lourdes Lara; Ruth Nina
Universidad de Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Se propone una presentación partiendo de una situación tipo
preformativa utilizando la estrategia dramática de Augusto Boal
del Teatro Popular. El performance sirve de punto de partida para
presentar visuales y dramatizar una situación de las tensiones y
conflictos que viven migrantes en la ciudad de Río Piedras. Puerto Rico ha sido una sociedad de emigrantes. Durante los últimos
30 años ha aumentado de manera significativa la llegada de inmigrantes de diversos puntos del Caribe, Centro y Sur América
por lo que le plantea una realidad de inmigrantes con los conflictos, desaciertos e intolerancia que enfrenta. Se hará una dramatización con silla abierta para ser ocupada por personas del público que quieran participar del performance. La discusión se dirige
hacia plantear la complejidad del problema de la migración y la
imposibilidad de entenderlo y resolver desde una disciplina. De
este modo, se abre la discusión hacia un debate en torno a las
transdisciplinariedad.
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Staying together. Value, sense of community, organizational efficacy in a cooperative enterprise
Bruna Zani & Elvira Cicognani
University of Bologna
Italy
Today individuals are increasingly looking for sense of meaning,
identity and support in their workplace, besides the neighbourhood and local community. In fact, this is where they spend most
of their time. Moreover, some organisations are providing their
employees benefits and services traditionally offered by the local
community. The central relationship of work to individual identity
and well being lead to an increasing attention to the workplace
community. The concept of Sense of Community has been proposed to describe the relationship that individuals establish with
different entities, including work organisations. Employees with
a Sense of community recognise that the organisation meets
their needs and the needs of their families, provides them with
enhanced quality of life, and expects them to be responsible citizens in the organisation as well as in the larger society. Few studies have examined a theory-based framework of factors related
to psychological sense of community in the workplace.
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Advances in the Measure of Sense of Community
across Contexts and Cultures
Coordinator: David Chavis
ASDC
USA
Advances in the Measure of Sense of Community across Contexts
and Culture David M. Chavis Symposium Facilitator There are limited measures for a sense of community. For the first 20 years of
discussion, measurement issues focused on the core concepts
and definition. It then moved to a debate regarding whether
qualitative or quantitative measure were most appropriate.
There is some consensus around the definition and recognition
that both quantitative and qualitative methods are appropriate
either together or separately under specific circumstances. This
symposium presents three examples of how the evolution of the
measurement of sense of community has evolved. The first paper
demonstrates how sense of community can be measured in the
context of community settings for persons with serious mental
illnesses. The second paper presents how the most used measure
of sense of Community, the Sense of Community Index, has been
redesigned and tested to address past concerns. The final paper
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Prevenção criativa da Violência Doméstica: A
mesma energia para coisas diferentes
Clara Teles
FPCE-UL
Portugal
A TBOS (De Shazer et al., 1986) pressupõe que a intervenção
deve abrir caminho para a solução, elicitando e ampliando nas
pessoas os comportamentos que operam quando o problema
não se verifica - excepções. Outra ideia importante é a de que a
matéria-prima dos eventos recorrentes da expressão artística é a
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related sense of community to a key concept of community.
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Community trust result as an exciting construct which appraise
expectations toward one’s own community based on the sense
and value that citizens attribute to it.
Investigating sense of community for individuals with
serious mental illness: Testing a measure
Greg Townley & Bret Kloos, University of South Carolina, USA
While the psychological sense of community is one of the most
commonly investigated constructs in community psychology, it
has rarely been studied among persons with serious mental illness (SMI). However, sense of community may be particularly important for individuals with SMI because they often face societal
barriers to participation in community life, including stigma and
discrimination. To date, no published studies have investigated
the psychometric qualities of sense of community measures
among individuals with SMI. Community psychology has a tradition of engaging the perspectives of persons who have been
marginalized. People who are marginalized due to disability status likely have concerns about participation in neighborhood and
community life that are not captured by current sense of community scales. This presentation reports on the development and
psychometric qualities of a sense of community measure aimed
at understanding and capturing the community living experiences of persons with serious mental illness.
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Involvement and Empowerment in Communitybased Practices of Health Promotion among Migrants and Ethnic Minority Users (I)
Coordinator: Manuel Garcia-Ramirez
Universidad de Sevilla
Spain
Health care for migrants and ethnic minorities faces serious challenges. One of the most important is to assure users’ involvement
in health promotion activities. User involvement requires active
participation in the process of taking decisions, concerning issues such as a) how target groups want to be defined, b) how
they want to define their requirements, c) in which way and when
they want to confront them; c) what kind of services they want
to receive and from whom, and d) what they want to define as a
successful or failed outcome. Involving ethnic minority users has
to overcome that the most reluctant users to take an active participation in their own health promotion care are precisely the
most powerless ones. For this reason, a call has been made to
increase the attention on health promotion community-based
practices (…).
The Sense of Community Index Revised: The Reliability
and the Validity of the SCI-2
David M. Chavis & Kien Lee
The Sense of Community Index (SCI) is the most frequently used
quantitative measure of sense of community in the social sciences and has been used in a variety of cultures, countries (e.g.,
North America, Europe, Asia, and Middle East) and contexts (e.g.
urban, tribal, workplaces, schools). The SCI is based on a theory
of sense of community (McMillan and Chavis, 1986) that stated
it is a perception with four elements: membership, influence,
meeting needs, and a shared emotional connection. Results of
prior studies have demonstrated that the overall 12 item scale
has been a strong predicator of behaviors (e.g., participation)
and a valid and reliable measurement instrument. However, the
four subscales’ reliability were inconsistent and generally low, the
true-false response set limited variability and concerned critics,
and there concerns about the adequacy of the SCI as a cross cultural measure. In response to these concerns, the research team
created a 24 item Sense of Community Index version 2 (SCI-2).
Primary Health Workshop and the Pakistani Women’s
Union
Arild Aambö &, Claire Mock-Muñoz de Luna
This project that was developed by the Pakistani Women’s Union,
one of the results from Primary Health Workshops investment in
the Pakistani community in Oslo, - at this point in collaboration
with the Norwegian Centre for Minority Health Research. The
project explores the topic of violence in the Pakistani community: the definition of violence, types of violence, causes leading
to violence, and how to change the dominant attitudes to violence. As this abstract will show, in the Norwegian context, the
inner-city project entitled Primary Health Workshop, and its various initiatives, clearly illustrate the value and relevance of community-based critical consciousness raising, as a tool to promote
health and empowerment of a community. Within the Pakistani
Women’s Union, 10-12 women self-organised and developed
the idea of the project on violence in the Pakistani community.
The women led the project by deciding which organisations to
involve and on what terms.
Sense of Community and Orientation towards Community in the Campania Region
Arcidiacono Caterina, Di Napoli Immacolata, Zampatti
Emanuela
McMillan and Chavis (1986) sense of community, and community
identity of Puddifoot (1995), while on the one hand exploring the
emotional aspects underlying the link among people and their
community, on the other hand do not provide adequate information on how the individual acts in their context of belonging. Our
research (Arcidiacono, Procentese, & Di Napoli, 2007) in a specific
territorial context attempt therefore to establish the link between
the feeling of belonging and planning perspectives at both the
personal and collective level in the life context. Findings indicate
dimension of trust, as independent factor of community identity
(Arcidiacono, Di Napoli, & Sarnacchiaro, 2007) and as key element
in interventions directed towards building up the community.
Cultural Competence and Empowerment: A New Way of
Seeing
Lai Fong Chiu
In medicine, culture has influenced our way of thinking about
how people respond to health and illness (Kleinman, Iserberg &
Good, 1978; Helman, 1994). Recent movements of people within
Europe have prompted the World Health Organisation to pay
specific attention to the issue of migrants’ health (Amsterdam
Declaration, 2003). Cultural competence with a palette of strategies ranging from providing interpreting services, through staff
training, to organisational accommodations (Brash & Fraserirector, 2000) is seen as central to resolving cultural conflicts arising
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in the context of healthcare. Although practical and necessary
on one level, these strategies often assume an isomorphic relationship between ethnic group and culture. Thus, long-term responses to difference are entrapped by paradoxes generated by
multiculturalism, universalism, absolutism and essentialism.
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power emerges as a struggle against different ways of oppression
that demand a critical consciousness. Through their daily common experience, where reflection and critical comprehension
developed by this social movement come to being, as awareness
and organized action, members of the MST develop a broader
understanding of their own role in History and overcome their
condition as “the oppressed”.
Community Participation in the Prevention of Child Mortality in Honduras ¿What works?
Fabricio E. Balcazar
This presentation discusses the concept of community participation in child survival growth monitoring programs in the
context of developing countries. Our experience in the evaluation of the AIN project (Atención Integral al Niño or Integrated
Child Attention) in Honduras is used to propose a framework of
key components of community participation at the community
level, institutional level, mothers and volunteers’ behaviour, and
environmental levels. I exemplify various components of the
proposed model through a case study of one particular community. The model identifies a number of preconditions that set
the stage for the development of child growth promotion at the
community and institutional levels. The advantages and limitations of community participation in health promotion efforts in
developing countries will be discussed.
Youths’ daily participation: subsidies of the latin american social communitarian psychology
Maria de Fátima Quintal de Freitas (Universidade Federal do
Paraná) Brazil
In the last years, the communitarian interventions have been valued by public politics due to the fact that they subsidize politicalmethodological trainings committed to the concrete social problems and they contribute in order to allow people/community to
take part/struggle for a worthier and fairer existence for themselves. Considering that, the Latin-American Social Communitarian Psychology works show that the participation and awareness
processes are fundamental to analyze: existent communitarian
networks, daily survival strategies, solidarity and cooperation
forms, and the presence (or not) of indignation feeling face to
injustice. Considering the protagonists of that environment, children, young and marginalized sections became important ones
to the invigoration of solidarity networks, collective participation
and processes of awareness politicization. It was also noticed
in 178 press conferences and questionnaires applied to young
people from city skirts and universities, their values, types, participation contexts and coexistence network that they possess,
and who they depend on to help them with their problems and
life projects as well. The city skirt youths are characterized by: belonging to underemployed/unemployed families; believing that
‘all have to suffer to get something in life’; daily coexistence with
drugs, violence, deaths/murders, which leads them to the wish
of keeping alive (not being murdered) to reach old age; and their
future dreams are related to reach the right to life, peace and a
stable family. In relation to graduation students we have: direct
contact/experience with alcoholism, drugs, violence, adolescent
pregnancy; fear for aging alone; and they hope to find partners
for their lifeline and projects. The content analysis revealed daily
tension networks which have different meanings for the participation depending on: the net of built relationships; beliefs and
values in relation to ‘do it’ and the confidence degree on their own
bravery capacity; evaluation about competition and prejudice
forms; possibility of individual and/or collective actions. Finally,
a psychosocial analysis is searched for, one that understands why
youths get involved, concerned and take part in different manners, finding different results and like that it affects the awareness
processes and the coexistence networks.
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Towards a political community psychology: cross
linkings between brazil and portugal
Coordinators: Isabel Menezes (FPCEUP-Portugal) and Fátima
Quintal de Freitas (UParaná-Brazil)
Discussants: Conceição Nogueira and João Francisco de Souza
The papers in this symposium address a variety of civic and political experiences in Portugal and Brazil and debates whether these
experiences can foster identity, empowerment and the construction of new psychological and social meanings. The authors share
Martin-Baró’s belief that (community) psychology mush be politicized and take sides in favour of the oppressed, not as an object
or social category but as actors of their own right. This is why the
analysis of engagement in organized social movements as an
opportunity to re-define their own role and to re-emerge with a
critical and more complex reading of their own oppression and
the routes to liberation and empowerment.
“Primeiro estranha-se, depois entranha-se”: incursions
on brazil’s landless workers movement
Mara C. Bicas, José H. Ornelas (ISPA) & Isabel Menezes (FPCEUP), Portugal
This presentation is based on an experience of a in loco research
in Brazil’s MST (Landless Workers Movement), in the Northwest
Pernambuco, and considers how participation in a social movement can foster processes of concientization and empowerment.
This analysis is based on a participant observation of different
contexts of action of the MST, in camping and settling areas of
the agrarian reform, where we conducted a series of interviews to
various actors. The strong socialization and politicized processes
of MST were the basis for an understanding of the role of empowerment and critical consciousness as components of social
change. In this context, the fight for agrarian reform in its goal
of transforming the structures that involve the big landowners’
Community participation and youth violence prevention
Andreia Cerqueira & Maria Vargas-Moniz (ISPA), Portugal
The most current approach to youth violence prevention is associated with the threat of punishment and other control strategies, and community participation tends to be less explored
as a preventive option (Zeldin, 2000). The general opinion that
youth is a troubled period is still visible in youth public policies
and community-based programs. However, there are renovated
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perspectives about youth as cause’s advocates, as creative renovators of social contexts (Zeldin, 2005; Checoway, 2001). In this
symposium we shall present the results of a comparative study of
contexts that value the youth engagement a give voice, opportunity to influence and develop a partnership with professional,
and some impacts on youth perceptions of successful involvement.
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of violent situations in partnership with group participants. In
turn, this work includes the collection of information about the
community, social equipments, forms of social organization and
ways of life promoting the participation of the community in
the discussion of local problems with an effect in reinforcing the
women’s group activities. Results show the importance of understanding the daily experiences of domestic violence through the
view of women that denounce forms of oppression not limited to
economic conditions and suggest that change depends on collective action.
E assim se fazem as mulheres? [this is how women are
constructed?]
João Francisco de Souza (Universidade Federal de Pernambuco), Brazil
Research and debates on the conceptions and practices of the
construction of feminine subjectivities have emphasised the participation of women in organizational processes in the periphery
of big cities, such as São Paulo and Mexico, but a similar phenomena was observed with women from rural areas and housewives.
In a comparative research on popular social movements in Brazil
and Mexico, we found how women value their engagement in
these processes, which represent, besides a genuine liberation,
the construction of their feminine identities, the social transcendence of their lives and other forms of relationship with men.
Through their involvement, they discover themselves as capable
individuals, both cognitively and socially, constructing other
gender social relationships and leading other social relationships. They advance on their own intellectual and social autonomy and, furthermore, they discover themselves and capable of
contributing to the social processes of other women and of facing authorities in their protests. These constructions result from
confronting their knowledge, feminist knowledge and political
knowledge – a confrontation that enables a broader understanding of life and relationships, but also have an empowering effect
in ethics, in aesthetics, in politics and in action by their families
and their communities. This painful process that corresponds to
new psychological and social dynamics implies a major reorganization of themselves and their lives that represents not only an
identity but also a challenge that results from meeting, studying
and making decisions with other women.
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Homeless and community-less: an action-research
Gioacchino Lavanco, Floriana Romano, Carolina Messina,
Susanna Messina
University of Palermo
Italy
The major reasons and causes for homelessness as documented
by many reports and studies include: Lack of affordable housing;
Substance abuse and lack of needed services; Mental illness and
lack of needed services; Domestic violence; Poverty, caused by
many factors; Prison release and re-entry into society; Lack of affordable healthcare; Natural Disaster . The project “La strada non
è sola via” (The street aren’t the only way) realized one comprehensive system to manage the services for the homeless, their
benefits, and their reintegration in to society. We recommend
move towards a fully integrated system which would make delivering benefits and getting people off the streets more cost effective. It has been reported that the types of assistance homeless
adults felt they needed most were help finding a job, help finding affordable housing, and help paying for housing. However,
the main types of assistance they usually received were clothing,
transportation and help with public benefits.
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Making a home: Homelessness in New Zealand
Body symbolism and community intervention: feminist
contributions for action-research
Aline Maria Barbosa Domício & Conceição Nogueira.(IEP,
UMinho), Portugal
The present work results from acting in communities in Banabuiu, in Northern Brazil, with the participation of women victims
of domestic violence, assuming an intersection between critical
social psychology and feminist methodologies and using actionresearch with and emphasis on body symbolism. The main goal
is to demonstrate the understanding of the social fabric based on
a system of bodily meanings that is constructed in the narratives
about violence in the daily experiences of victimized women
that emerge from joint action with public power using actionresearch. Assuming the feminist interest in critical social psychology, we used methodologies that privilege the empowerment of
community groups through the understanding of bodily experiences as a social and cultural phenomena. By recognizing the importance that social actors and actresses themselves understand
the historical dimension of psychosocial phenomena, the feminist look allows for developing the process of action-research
Shiloh Groot, Darrin Hodgetts, Kerry Chamberlain, Alan Radley, Linda Nikora, Ottillie Stolte, and Eci Nabalarua.
University of Waikato
New Zealand
Homelessness is a pressing and increasingly visible concern in
New Zealand. Many people sleeping rough are male and of Maori
or Pacific descent. This research focuses on understanding the
nature of resilience through the lived experiences of homeless
people. To gain insights into cultures of homelessness, a case
study research design was used to engage six homeless people
who took part in a series of interviews and photo-production exercises. Participants are of Maori, Pacific Island, and Pakeha ethnic
backgrounds. It therefore may become important to document
how homeless people see themselves in relation to their communities of origin and the wider public. Understanding how
homeless people live their lives will not prevent individuals from
drifting into this situation. However, it can help scholars, policy
makers and service providers conceptualise an action frame to
interpret how these people survive, make decisions regarding
their lives, their degree of engagement with street culture.
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– “The Public’s Perspective on Homelessness: Portugal Survey”was applied by telephone to a randomly selected sample of the
Portuguese population, composed by a total of 200 people who
owned landline telephones. It was evident the influence of some
demographic characteristics of the respondents on the attitudes
factors: Gender was a significant effect on General Compassion
and Limit Public Rights; Age on Trustworthy; Education Degree
on Trustworthy and Social Isolation; and Income add effect on
Social Isolation. The estimate of the lifetime homelessness prevalence disclosed a global prevalence of 6.5% and a literal prevalence of 2%.
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Considering domiciled accounts of homelessness
Ottilie Stolte, Darrin Hodgetts, Kerry Chamberlain, Alan
Radley, Linda Nikora, Shiloh Groot, Chez Leggatt-Cook and Eci
Nabalarua
University of Waikato
New Zealand
In New Zealand, as in many other developed nations, homeless
people are a somewhat disturbing reminder that not everyone
experiences the home comforts that many take for granted. Public reactions to seeing homeless people frequently reveal a sense
of discomfort, a sense of futility in doing something to help, and
a desire to look the other way. The media also plays a role in relaying public discussions on homelessness, and perpetuating particular interpretations or understandings of what leads a person
into a homeless life. For many domiciled people and people who
have little direct experience of poverty or deprivation, it can be
difficult to comprehend why a person would sleep on a piece of
cardboard in the cold and rain. A common statement in the media and in public debates is that homeless people ‘choose’ this
way of life, over a standard domiciled existence.
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The public opinion on Homelessness: Personal
reports on homelessness
Joana Albino; Maria Vargas-Moniz
ISPA
Portugal
This study results from a collaboration between the Community
Psychology Department at ISPA (Instituto Superior de Psicologia
Aplicada, Lisboa, Portugal) and the Research Group on Homelessness and Poverty (Wayne State University, Detroit, EUA). It is
included in a transnational research work concerning the public
opinion about the homelessness and also the opinion of people
that have already been in this situation during their lifetime,
coordinated by Professor Paul Toro. “The Public perspective on
homelessness: Portugal Survey”, which is a questionnaire, translated and adapted from Toro and McDonnell (1992), and Link
et al. (1994-1995) was implemented by landline telephone to a
sample randomly collected from the Portuguese population. In
this presentation we emphasize the qualitative study based on
real stories of people, that in any period of their life, were in a
situation of homeless.
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Prevalence of and public opinion on homelessness in 9 nations
Paul Toro, Anna Bokszczanin (Wayne State University, USA)
Jose Ornelas (ISPA, Portugal)
Random samples of 200-523 adults were interviewed by telephone in 9 different nations (N=3,352 to date): Belgium, Canada,
France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, the United Kingdom
(UK), and the United States (US). The interview included questions on respondent attitudes, knowledge, and opinions regarding homelessness; respondents’ own personal experiences with
homelessness and homeless people; and demographic characteristics of the respondents. The highest rates for lifetime literal
homelessness were found in Canada (8.6%), the UK (7.6%), and
the US (6.1%), with the lowest rates in Portugal (2.1%), France
(2.2%), and Germany (2.4%). Intermediate rates were found in Poland (4.3%), Italy (4.0%), and Belgium (3.4%). Less compassionate
attitudes towards the homeless were also found on many dimensions in Canada, the US, and the UK. Possible explanations for
these findings, drawn from various theoretical perspectives, and
policy implications will provided.
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Photovoice as a estrategy to community psychology
Cristiane Paulin Simon Rosalina Carvalho da Silva Maira
Touso
Universidade Fed. do Triângulo Mineiro
Brazil
We intend with this workshop to present and difuse the “photovoice” methodology as a valuable strategy for comunity psychology actions aiming the “empowerment” of populations under social vulnerability. This methodology was developed by Caroline
Wang and collaborators in 1994. Such method is a participatory
action research in which people take and discuss about photographs taken by themselves “focusing” their concerns and community resources in order to present their vision for the policy
makers regarding to the issues risen by the community. Thus, the
participants can propose communitary and personal changes.
This methodology has been used for very distinguishable issues
in public health such as cancer, cronic pain, AIDS and also, with
different social groups and communities including chinese women, homelesses, urban young people.
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Homelessness Lifetime Prevalence and Attitudes
to Homeless in Portugal
Marta Miguel; José Ornelas; Maria Vargas-Moniz
ISPA
Portugal
The present study intended to estimate the prevalence of population that already was in situation of homeless at some moment
of its life, and to accede to one specific dimension of public opinion, identifying which characteristics can distinguish the population with different attitudes face to the homeless. The instrument
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communities, to give them a sense of belonging? How effective
are they? This paper will closely examine two different models.
The first is a local school, set in a multi-ethnic neighborhood in
the heart of the city. The Dewson Public School focuses much of
its policy on active integration for its constituent communities.
School welcome bulletins are published in nearly a dozen languages (Mandarin, Urdu, Portuguese, Spanish, Italian, Tagalog,
Tamil, etc.) Teachers and assistant teachers are hired from various
visible minority communities.
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Community and place identity: a discursive approach to local participation
Norma De Piccoli, Katiuscia Greganti, Chiara Rollero, Raffaella
Gonella
Università degli Studi di Torino
Italy
The application of prevention and wellness promotion programmes has become more and more common over the last few
years. This has made possible also thanks to the introduction of
new Italian lows. Such interventions are, as a rule, set up in real life
contexts, like the neighbourhood. An important feature is the understanding of how the context affects people and how people,
in turn, affect the context, also by the different forms their participation takes. This study is aimed at an in-depth examination
of participation to identify the different psychosocial processes
set in motion by the various form of participation (i.e. top-down
versus bottom-up). Although literature reports participation as
a resource for both individuals and the community (Botta, 1994;
Chavis & Wandersman, 1990; Davidson & Cotter, 1989, 1997), little
attention has been paid to the conflict that this may trigger.
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Community-based Fire Preparedness Practice in
High Density Area
Istiqomah Wibowo
University of Indonesia
Indonesia
Fire is one of the common disaster in Indonesia specially in many
big cities including capital city of Indonesia, Jakarta. Although it is
considered as human error factor and happened incidentally but
fire has become a disaster because its effect to many aspect of
community life. It also usually happens in high density area with
low social-economic status. Thus, this intervention intends to empower vulnerable community against fire hazard. This research
focus at the aspect of preparedness based on social-cognitive
model (Paton, 2006). It is used to elaborate the factors of intention to prepare including critical awareness, sense of community,
action coping, and outcome expectancy of the community as the
basic to design an intervention in order to develop a proper form
of risk communication that match with local community need.
Then, vulnerability and capacity assessment technique is used to
obtain the whole picture about community’s vulnerabilities and
capacities.
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Sense of Community and Predictors of Psychological Well-Being of IDP Women of Tsunami in
Aceh, Indonesia
Dicky Pelupessy and Budi Hartono
University of Indonesia
Indonesia
This research explores relationships between sense of community and socio demographic variables and psychological wellbeing of IDP (Internally Displaced People) women of tsunami in
Aceh, Indonesia. This research also tries to describe psychological
well-being and sense of community in two different contexts of
settlement of tsunami survivors: barrack (temporary settlement)
and relocation (permanent re-settlement). The results show a
pattern of psychological well-being of those living in relocation
is higher than those living in barrack in each dimension, however,
only on dimension of autonomy (one out of six dimensions of
Ryff’s psychological well-being theory) that significantly different. The result on sense of community unveils a similar pattern
and it is on dimension of shared emotional connection (one out
of four dimensions of McMillan & Chavis’s sense of community
theory).
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Lugares de medo e bem-querer: risco sísmico e
vulcânico percepcionado por açoreanos
Isabel Estrela Rego, Ana Moura Arroz, Ana Cristina Palos
Universidade dos Açores
Portugal
Sismos e erupções vulcânicas têm sido fenómenos recorrentes
nos quase 6 séculos de história do arquipélago dos Açores. Ainda
que já exista uma produção de conhecimento considerável ao
nível da avaliação pericial destes riscos não se tem observado um
investimento equivalente no estudo das suas vertentes sócioculturais. Uma investigação decorre actualmente no âmbito da
percepção dos riscos associados a desastres naturais, visando
traçar cosmografias sociais do perigo (Topoi METUS) sísmico e
vulcânico a partir de entrevistas em profundidade a residentes
em cinco ilhas (Santa Maria, S. Miguel, Terceira, Faial, Flores). Esta
comunicação centra-se nos dados produzidos, caracterizando: os
perfis dos riscos de sismos e de erupções vulcânicas; a vulnerabilidade patrimonial e económica a esses riscos; e a sua gestão
(i.e. a informação e práticas nas situações de pré, durante e póscatástrofe).
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Engendering a Sense of Belonging: Varieties of
approach in the ‘Toronto Model’
Heike Baumann-Conford, Wade E. Pickren
Ryerson University
Canada
Canada is an immigrant nation: 18.4% of the nation is foreignborn. Toronto is far more of an immigrant city: according to the
2001 census, 43.7% of Toronto residents are foreign-born, from
nearly every ethnic and racial background, making it among the
most diverse cities in the world. What are the ways in which Canada, and particularly Toronto, strives to integrate these diverse
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actions face to face between professionals and patients is one of
the essential factors that can help us to understand the process
of patients’ recovery in these sceneries. The description includes
very wide aspects as the special – temporal context, the verbal
exchange, the emotional charge, the professional evaluation of
the interaction, etc.
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The Problem of Attendance in the Area of Mental
Health in the Afro-Mozambican Context
Artur Paulino Langa
Ministry of Health
Mozambique
Mozambique is a country of the southern area of Africa, located
in the oriental coast of the continent. With a total area esteemed
in 799 380 km2, it possesses, in agreement with the data of the
population sense of 2007, a population of 20 530 714 inhabitants.
Official data indicate that about 30% of the Mozambican population was directly affected by the war. Besides the several calamities provoked by the Man, Mozambique is, on the other hand, one
of the countries of Africa that more serious and frequently they
are affected by the impact of the natural calamities, such as hurricanes, floods and droughts. Without doubts, vast it is the fan of
disasters that lacerate Africa and the Africans. The Mozambican
Minister of the Health referred that, in that year, the infections
and deaths for HIV/AIDS in our country were of 16%.
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Supportive Houses for persons diagnosed with
serious mental disorders as sociocultural sceneries
Javier Saavedra
Universidad de Sevilla
Spain
Supportive houses for persons diagnosed with mental serious
disorders are essential for a system based on the community
mental health. Nevertheless, beyond the recognition of the patients’ life quality improve who live in these supportive houses; it
has seldom paid attention to influence of these sceneries in the
recovery’s process of the residents. In this sense, it’s especially
important the possibility of constructing alternative identities to
the ‘patient’ role in these scenery. It’s necessary to define these
sceneries in a complex way in order to start investigating how
social environments can help to reconstruct the identity of the
persons diagnosed with mental serious disorders and contribute
to their recovery. The methodological and theoretical contributions of sociocultural psychology can help us in this task.
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Empowerment in Equal projects
Carlos Ribeiro
Rede Mais Poder
Portugal
Five representatives of Selected Equal projects and a periodist
organise an innovative session about the practices and experiences. In EQUAL, the principle of empowerment is a cornerstone
principle of innovation and citizenship. It underlies innovation
because the more beneficiaries and users are involved in the
design of solutions being tested, the more those solutions are
suited to their culture and address their specific problems and
needs. Interventions are more effective and of a higher standard.
The added value, in comparison with conventional responses,
brought by the practice of empowerment, has been the key to
the success of many “EQUAL solutions” – solutions that promoted
autonomy and responsibility-taking among users and final beneficiaries, that developed new skills and new ways of learning, and
that incorporated a range of input from different partners, players, beneficiaries and other stakeholders. It underlies citizenship
because empowerment is about people’s active participation in
change processes (whether their own or their community’s), and
about the rights (and duties) of citizens.
327
Organizational Issues in a Collaborative, Participatory Mental Health Service Program
Cheri Hoffman
Vanderbilt University
USA
It has been said that merging two organizations together can
be like mating two elephants and hoping to produce a gazelle.
Blending organizational cultures is a hurdle that must be navigated for a successful collaborative effort. This study of the merger
of a traditional mental health service provider and a nonprofit
advocacy/empowerment group into one organization focused
on improving services for children with emotional/behavioral
disorders (EBD). The idea is to create a system of care to help children with EBD succeed at home, in school, and in the community.
A team, including formal and informal supports (case managers,
teachers, doctors, therapists, neighbors), wraps available services
around the young person. The resulting collaborative organization provides the family with a Community Liaison (CL) originating from the mental health agency to assist with building formal
supports, and a Family Support Provider (FSP) originating from
the advocacy organization to assist with informal supports.
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Interactive Patterns between professional and
Patient in supportive houses for serious mental
ill
Javier Saavedra
Universidad de Sevilla
Spain
This study belongs to a research in progress about changes in
life narratives of persons diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. These persons live in supportive houses in Andalusia which
belong to a Public Foundation. In the present study the more
important interactions between professionals and patients are
described. It was carried out ten semistructured interviews to expert professionals who work in the supportive houses. The inter-
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participativas en las que los ciudadano/as tengan una mayor injerencia en la gestión pública. En Puerto Rico, una organización
no-gubernamental (ONG) adaptó el modelo de Foros Ciudadanos que coinciden con algunos de los principios y valores de la
Psicología Comunitaria. Esta organización colaboró con una iniciativa de uno de los principales medios de comunicación del país
(EL NUEVO DIA) para diseñar y llevar a cabo 7 Foros Ciudadanos
en los que participaron 1,023 personas presentando alrededor
de 3000 propuestas resumidas en una Agenda Ciudadana que
fue presentada a todos los partidos políticos del país. La Agenda
Ciudadana se presenta también en un sitio web interactivo en
el que los ciudadanos/as pueden continuar sometiendo propuestas y discutiendo las existentes.Se presentaron propuestas
en las áreas de educación, salud, seguridad, ambiente, familia
y desarrollo económico. Las propuestas se destacan por la capacidad propositiva e inclusiva que tienen los ciudadanos/as de
pensar al país e insertarse en todo el quehacer social y político.
La mesa redonda consistirá en la presentación de un análisis del
proceso, sus implicaciones en términos del desarrollo de competencias ciudadanas, su potencial de transformación del proceso
de formulación de política pública y el eventual impacto en los
procesos democráticos del país. Finalmente, se presentará una
reflexión sobre el carácter inclusivo de la experiencia que puede
constituir un modelo de intervención para fortalecer las prácticas
de promoción de la participación ciudadana y proponer nuevas
formas de trabajo transdisciplinario.
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Primer Encuentro de Centros Comunitarios de
Salud Mental de Santiago 2007
Caroline Guardiola Ramírez. Co-Autor: Domingo Godoy Ojeda
Universidad Bolivariana
Chile
“Una reflexión acerca de las prácticas profesionales en el marco
de la reforma de salud” Las afecciones de salud mental en Chile
constituyen un problema de salud pública. Tres a cuatro personas
de cada diez han tenido una enfermedad mental alguna vez en
la vida; y dos a tres de cada diez chilenos mayores de 15 años
que viven en zonas urbanas. Han presentado alguna enfermedad
mental en los últimos seis meses. ¿Cómo enfrentar esta realidad?
Hay dos formas esenciales: La primera consiste en reconocer y
aplicar la evidencia científica y clínica disponible. Esta demuestra que los mejores resultados se obtienen superando la mirada
hospitalocéntrica, la que es sustituida por una mirada integral en
lo que lo comunitario constituye la piedra angular de un modelo
de atención de salud mental. Es decir, la evidencia demuestra la
fortaleza de los modelos comunitarios en el tratamiento integral
de personas con trastornos mentales.
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Promoting and Assessing Recovery-Oriented
Services: organizational climate factors and
practices
Teresa Duarte
AEIPS/ISPA
Portugal
In the last years, recovery has emerged as a new paradigm in the
mental health field. Based in the narratives of people with experience of mental illness and in several research studies, recovery
has proved to be a more common experience than what was traditionally expected and a real possibility for people with mental
illness. The recovery concept was also introduced as the guiding
vision for mental health services design and provision and for the
system reform. This paper explores some strategies that mental
health services should adopt and integrate in order to develop
more recovery oriented practices. It also presents the findings
of a collaborative evaluation focus on the organizational climate
factors and practices that supports and influences recovery of a
community organization, assessed from multiple perspectives:
people in recovery, family members and services providers and
the stakeholders recommendations to organizational change
and program improvement.
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Organizational Capitalism and Psychosocial Risk
in a Brazilian Psychiatric Hospital
Vanessa Soares Maurente; Josep Maria Blanch; Cleci Maraschin
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Brazil
This study aims to understand the transformations in labor within
a large public psychiatric hospital in Porto Alegre, Brazil (São Pedro Psychiatric Hospital) brought about by organizational capitalism – i.e., a model of labor organization designed and managed
according to the logic of market economy and politics, which
has invaded public institutions such as hospitals and universities
around the globe. For this means, this study is linked to an international project – Organizational Capitalism as a Psychosocial
Risk Factor (Spain, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela). Considering that this model of management impacts the quality of life of
workers and the services provided by organizations as whole, we
will seek to understand what kind of effects organizational capitalism has brought about at São Pedro Psychiatric Hospital. The
methodology is based in quantitative and qualitative assessment
and consists in structured and semistructured interviews with
subjects working in the hospital.
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Foros Ciudadanos: Promoviendo la participación
ciudadana en la gestión pública
Blanca Ortiz-Torres, María de Lourdes Lara
University of Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
La Psicología Comunitaria reconoce y promueve la participación
ciudadana como una de los vehículos centrales para la transformación social y el empowerment individual y colectivo. A través
de una efectiva participación ciudadana se intenta transformar
las tradicionales democracias representativas en democracias
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Challenges and Solutions of Evaluation and Research with Youth
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Refugee Families in a Multicultural Setting
Eva Nyberg and Tomas Bons
FoU-Södertörn, Research & Dev. Unit
Sweden
In spite of a political ambition of integration about 60% of the
children with roots in other cultures than the Swedish live in
multicultural areas. Childrens´ life in the area with non-Swedish
neighbours is special in many ways. The ideas about their situation are diverse and normative. The multicultural suburb is seen
as problematic from a growing up perspective, but, on the other
hand, sometimes idealized from the same perspective. From a lot
of studies it seems as real life for these children is as the ideas
– diverse. A few examples of minor studies that illustrates “the
multiticultural life” for the immigrant child in Sweden today: In a
minor study we focused children´s (6-9 years old) choices of playmates in the multicultural area. The study was motivated by two
different opinions about small immigrant children´s everyday
life. One opinion is that the children are not allowed to choose
their own playmates at all. The other is that immigrant parents
allow their children stay out to play without looking after them
at all. The school and the home were chosen for contrasting the
childrens´ social patterns in two important arenas. Another study
was an evaluation of a parent training program for an international group of mothers with newborn children, in a child health
care center. The Swedish nurses thought that mothers from different countries cannot form a group together. But they, as well as
their babies, can. In this case the young women saw themselves
as a collective with closely-related ideas about child care, quite
different from those of the Swedish nurse. A third study focused
young immigrant womens´ marriage and choice of husband.
Newly married women talked about the role of their parents in
this important decision. Their stories were an interesting collection of different ways out of old agreements of marriage between
their own and another family.
Coordinator: Francine Lavoie
Université Laval
Canada
Program evaluation and research with youth and community
groups involve several issues: empowerment, consent, participants’ and parental rights, confidentiality, research designs and
dissemination. The first three papers use case studies and a literature review to provide examples and suggest propositions
for resolving research and evaluation challenges. In the fourth
segment, audience members’ questions, comments, and suggestions provide the framework for discussion. This session should
be of interest to those working with sensitive topics, vulnerable
populations, or facing issues about how to conduct systematic
research and evaluation. Dissemination issues in the country of
origin and in other countries will be discussed.
Prevention programs in high schools: Evaluation and dissemination issues
Francine Lavoie
There are many prevention programs available for adolescents
but evaluation studies are still scarce, in particular regarding the
prevention of dating violence. Our objective is to describe challenges met in the evaluation of two short research-based prevention programs on dating violence and in their dissemination. The
first program (for 14 -15 year olds) centered exclusively on dating
relationships and considered themes of control and emotional,
physical, and sexual abuse. The second program (for 16 -17 year
olds) included topics such as control and violence in dating, sexual abuse in peer and dating relations and sexual harassment at
work or school. Five evaluation issues will be discussed: implementation, measurement, design, confidentiality and empowerment vs. fidelity. Dissemination issues in the country of origin
and in other countries will be mentioned with some propositions
about facilitating factors.
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Immigrant and Refugee Students in a School
Context
Using Internet and Community Partnerships to Collect
Youth Data: Hearing our children’s voices
Marie-Hélène Gagné
Conducting psychosocial research with minors has become increasingly challenging especially for research on sensitive topics
such as family relations and interpersonal conflicts and violence.
This type of research raises many ethical and legal issues that
must be addressed to minimize risk for young research participants and to respect both children’s and parents’ rights. In many
states, provinces, and countries ethical boards have responded
to this situation by imposing very strict rules regarding parental
consent. For instance, requesting both parents’ signed written
consent is becoming the norm. This constraint has been associated with a dramatic decrease in participation rates, jeopardizing
sample size and diversity, raising important questions for community psychologists: are we silencing our children and adolescents in order to protect them? Moreover, are we especially
silencing the most vulnerable among them, for instance children
from separated or conflictual families?
Coordinator: Dina Birman
University of Illinois at Chicago
USA
Immigration has changed the ethnic compositions of schools
around the world. While the children and adolescents are struggling to adjust to the schools, the teachers are also adjusting to
the increasingly diverse student body. The presentations in this
symposium describe different issues arising from the contact between immigrant students and schools, including the expectations that U.S. teachers have for Somali-Bantu refugee children
in their classrooms, the impact of student perceptions of school
climate on the well-being of students in Italy, and the barriers created by the a Portuguese school’s assumptions about Cape Verdian students.
Scope and Dynamic Nature of Teacher Expectations for
Somali Bantu Students: A Qualitative Inquiry
Nellie Tran & Dina Birman, University of Illinois at Chicago
This study will consider the dynamic nature of teacher expecta-
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tions with special emphasis on the scope of expectations and
factors that influence the change in teacher’s expectations. The
study concentrated on teachers’ expectations for Somali-Bantu
refugees in a U.S. public elementary school. We employed interactive interviewing techniques with English as a Second Language
(ESL) and Grouned Theory Analysis. Prior research on teacher expectations and the self-fulfilling prophecy suggest that children
who are susceptible to low teacher expectations are academically disadvantaged, and children are most successful when teachers hold high academic expectations coupled with a nurturing
classroom environment. Refugee children are susceptible to low
expectations due to their membership in minority and low English proficient (LEP) groups. The Somali-Bantu have an additional
disadvantage of not having prior educational experiences.
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in health promotion activities. User involvement requires active
participation in the process of taking decisions, concerning issues such as a) how target groups want to be defined, b) how
they want to define their requirements, c) in which way and when
they want to confront them; c) what kind of services they want to
receive and from whom, and d) what they want to define as a successful or failed outcome (Soon y Fisher, 2005). Involving ethnic
minority users has to overcome that the most reluctant users to
take an active participation in their own health promotion care
are precisely the most powerless ones.
Community Activism, Empowerment and User Involvement of Turkish Migrant Women in London
Eleni Hatzidimitriadou
In western societies, community self help and mutual aid for mental health problems are usually seen as a form of ‘lay’ therapy and
social support or as part of the service user movement. Evidence
suggests that ‘these pockets of collective power’ provide one of
the primary resources for the prevention and management of
mental distress. Their empowering and broadly therapeutic value is particularly relevant for vulnerable groups such as migrants
who are likely to be significantly distressed and disempowered
due to social adversity and exclusion. Nonetheless, the impact
of such activities is hardly examined in relation to migrants, and
more particularly in relation to women. In this paper, I will discuss
findings from a study on community self help of Turkish speaking
women who live in London. Focus groups were conducted with
a small number of self-help/mutual aid groups run by Turkish
speaking migrant women. The groups were selected according
to group’s socio-political ideology and focus of change.
Barriers to educational success for children of Cape Verdian origin
Lígia Évora Ferreira, CEMRI (Centro de Estudos das Migrações
e das Relações Interculturais), Universidade Aberta
This presentation sets out to analyse the difficult barriers to
school success which face Cape-Verdian children in Portuguese
schools. It will start with a general characterisation of this community in Portugal in terms of migration patterns, integration
in Portuguese society and the difficulties faced by the younger
generations in the educational system. The school’s deterministic views are considered to be related to the problem of school
failures among Cape Verdian children. From this starting point,
we will try to deconstruct and theorise a complex process
involving many variables, in which – despite good intentions
all round – implicit views and assumptions about Cape Verdian
children lead to the legitimisation of unequal opportunities and
create barriers to school success for these children.
Mobilizing Community for Health Promotion in an African American and Latino Community in the U.S.
Cesáreo Fernández & J. Schultz
Due to longstanding health disparities in multiple minority populations, there is a deep need for innovative strategies and models
that change community conditions and promote health equity.
This paper reviews the implementation of a community-based
comprehensive Health for All model, a promising pilot-tested
intervention to change community conditions to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes risk factors in the AfricanAmerican and Latino community in Kansas City, Missouri in the
U.S. Using community-based participatory research methods,
the project promoted community participation in developing,
implementing and evaluating interventions focused on reducing
health disparities. This project started in 2001 and a long-term
relationship between the Work Group for Community Health and
Development, at the University of Kansas, and the Kansas City –
Chronic Disease Coalition was developed.
School climate perception and adolescent adjustment
MiglioriniL., Manetti M., Rania N. , Università di Genova
According to theoretical framework of developmental contextualism (Goossens, 2006) school context play an important role in
the development of adolescent: the variability in adolescent outcomes may be explained by the interaction between contextual
factors and adolescent individual differences. Most studies have
focused on how perceptions of school climate shape adolescent
adjustment; in particular researchers evidence that the interpersonal, organizational and instructional climate of school influences students’ adjustment across multiple domains (Way, Reddy,
Rhodes, 2007; Brand et alt., 2008). School climate is a complex
and multidimensional construct encompassing the atmosphere,
culture, values, resources, social network, and organizational, instructional, interpersonal dimensions (Loukas, Murphy, 2007).
Health promotion and empowerment among refugees in
Uppsala
Manuel Fernandez
Since the 90th the migration to Sweden is nearly exclusive due to
refugees from Middle-East, Bosnia and Kosovo, who suffer traumatic experiences of war, persecution and torture. More than 50%
of these groups have a high degree of mental health disorders,
including the posttraumatic stress syndrome. Because mental
health disorders are perceived as a stigmatization among these
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Involvement and Empowerment in Communitybased Practices of Health Promotion among Migrants and Ethnic Minority Users (II)
Coordinator: Manuel Garcia-Ramirez
Universidad de Sevilla
Spain
Health care for migrants and ethnic minorities faces serious challenges. One of the most important is to assure users’ involvement
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ethnic groups, they consult only general practitioners, receiving
treatment according to the somatic symptoms, but preventing
the effective treatment of the psychiatric and psychological nature of disorders. As a consequence, they become big consumers
of health care and their acculturation process is seriously affected, preventing them from learning Swedish;, the inclusion into
the labour market, and they are seen as problematic by the local
population. Finally, they end up as welfare recipients and turning
in a heavy charge for the society. This contribution presents three
initiatives carried out in Uppsala between 2002 and 2008.
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Evaluation of a workplace smoking policy in an
Italian factory
R. Molinar, C. Piccinelli, L. Giordano, C. Senore
CPO Piemonte
Italy
In the workplace, employees need to be protected from the
health threats of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. On
1 January 2006, a smoking policy was introduced in a big factory
located in the North-West of Italy. The smoking policy included a
total ban on smoking in the factory, the removal of designated
areas and a smoking cessation program using group-therapy. The
evaluation relied on a combination of quantitative and qualitative
methods, including a full staff pre- and post-questionnaire and
post focus groups with staff representatives and key members of
the implementation process. The pre-questionnaire consisted of
questions about smoking status and habits, smoking in the workplace and socio-demographic data. The post-questionnaire consisted of questions about smoking status and habits, knowledge
of the existence of the workplace policy, attitude toward the policy, smoking in the workplace and socio-demographic data.
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Project’s Evaluation: relations between local development and formal and non-formal education
Manuela Terrasêca
FPCE-Universidade do Porto
Portugal
With this paper we intend to reflect on the articulation between
educational intervention and local development processes. This
reflection is based in three evaluations of intervention projects
developed by the authors. Therefore we’ll: i) discuss the articulation between formal and non-formal educational strategies and
local development; ii) characterise sociocultural methodologies
of community intervention; iii) appreciate how educational intervention can contribute to emphasize local development strategies. The presentation and discussion of these dimensions will
allow to argue about the importance of an educational intervention that articulating formal and non-formal educative strategies
may promote local and community development dynamics.
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Fostering Participation through Evaluation: Potentials and Pitfalls in ‘Real Life’
David Vossebrecher; Karin Jeschke
University of Cologne
Germany
Evaluation approaches like responsive evaluation, empowerment evaluation etc. aim to foster participation as result of the
evaluation process. However, in many evaluations it is difficult to
use these approaches without restriction. Instead, participative
elements play only more or less important roles among other
methods. The presentation reflects on an evaluation the authors
conducted on the implementation of a (cannabis misuse intervention) program which incorporates community-psychological
elements. The program follows a partially participatory approach.
That is, staff members (counsellors) were appreciated as highly
qualified professionals, several meetings were held to exchange
views on the implementation process, and a collaborative quality
monitoring was introduced. At the same time, however, practitioners’ participation was limited by a lack of possibility to contribute to concept development, a lack of ownership, and a tight
intervention curriculum.
The evaluation aimed at promoting participation by exclusive
use of qualitative methods – qualitative interviews, focus groups
– at enabling communication, and intended to capitalise on the
evaluation process (“process use”). We reflect on how successful
the evaluation was in the attempt to foster participation and empowerment, and why. We analyse how the “partial participation”
in the program raises practitioners’ motivation and expectations
without then involving them seriously and allowing for profit on
both sides. This leads to questions on the different ways the idea
of participation is used by the stakeholders in the program. In
connection with these questions we discuss the role of power relations in allowing or constraining participation. In addition, we
look at the concept of participation, as it is currently used in (german and us-) literature on program evaluation, and its limits in
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Evaluación de necesidades y recursos para la
implementación de una estrategia de formación
y acompañamiento de lideres interesados en la
prevención comunitária de la drogodependencia
Alba Zambrano Line LeBlanc
Universidad de La Frontera
Chile
“Evaluación de necesidades y recursos para la implementación de
una estrategia de formación y acompañamiento de lideres interesados en la prevención comunitaria de la drogodependencia”.
Hay numerosas evidencias que respaldan que la organización
comunitaria es una de las estrategias más eficaces en la prevención del consumo de drogas en la adolescencia. Sin embargo, en
el contexto chileno hay poça experiencia sistemática e investigación en este nivel a pesar de su valoración como un recurso
para la prevención de las drogodependencias. En la región de la
Araucanía en Chile, se ha venido implementando y evaluando
una estrategia de formación de lideres comunitarios involucrados o interesados en la prevención y el trabajo comunitario, con
la participación de la UFRO (Chile) y UQO (Canadá), los programas Previene dependiente de los municipios de Padres las Casas
y Temuco, con la colaboración del CONACE.
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“real life”, i.e. the reality of many programs.
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majority they presented strategies how to handle this situation.
One possibility is when education is regarded as a way of selfrealisation or as a mean to make it possible to move on to a life in
another country. On the other hand they presented a strategy of
starting an own company as an opposition to the Swedish society.
This in order to create an own controlled unit within the society. I
will also give a practical example how a Social Service-project in
a multicultural suburb can tackle the problem with youths who
neither attend school and nor work. A situation that is connected
to their lack of integration in the majority society.
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Evaluating Participatory Action Research for
building community resilience to Suicide
Guilfoyle, A., Fisher, C., & O’Connor, M.
Edith Cowan University
Australia
The ‘Southwest Suicide Prevention Project: Understanding and
Building Resilience’ (Costello, Johns, Scott & Guilfoyle, 2006) developed a participative Action Research methodology including
400 community members and service providers in West Australian regional towns. The outcome was community initiated Roadmaps to help build resilience against suicide. Common themes for
action were inclusion of excluded groups, promoting belonging
and connection and removing barriers to these, factors affecting
help seeking behavior, identifying and addressing support service gaps, the role of community in addressing its own issues,
building community trust and safety and sustaining initiatives.
Phase 2 transferred these Roadmaps into action possibilities for
community interventions in training, promotion, advocacy, lobbying, and building partnerships through local working groups.
This paper describes the evaluation methods used to set up a
critical reflection on how we can capture the success of such potentially rich community.
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After the Conference: Leveraging the Internet to
Continue Global Dialogue
Gina Cardazone
University of Hawaii, Manoa/ NetSquared
USA
The 2nd International Conference on Community Psychology will
certainly strengthen relationships and generate insights into the
possibilities for global collaboration among community psychologists. How can we leverage emerging social web technology to
maximize the potential impact of this unique gathering? This innovative session will provide an opportunity for broad discussion
about the possibilities for global knowledge sharing and collaboration in an increasingly networked world. Simultaneously, it will
afford a hands-on practicum, as a handful of social web tools will
be used during the session as a live experiment in online/offline
interaction. Individuals not physically present at the conference
will be invited to participate in the discussion online, while highlights from the discussion will be published in a format that allows for collaborative editing and updating. By using these tools,
we will enable a richer and more inclusive discussion, while also
providing a forum for newly generated ideas.
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Participatory Democracy
Maria José Aleixo
Project Officer/INDUCAR
Portugal
Ideas frequently circulated through expressions like “the failure
of the democratic system” or “the distance between politics and
citizens” or even “the over dominance of parties’ interests in the
political arena”, they seem to us limited in its interest and utility.
The demand of citizens for spaces of effective participation is a
clear proof of social maturity, which is, nevertheless, dificult to
integrate within the rigid structures of representative democracy.
Participatory democracy opens the room for effective participation of citizens, beyond information and consultation, providing
spaces for decision making processes that give back to citizens
the power previously “owned” by their representatives. Citizens
and decision makers frequently ignore the existence of mechanisms that enhance their own participation in decision making
processes.
344
Evaluation in Low-Trust-Environments. Evaluating Development and Humanitarian Intervention in Africa
Ulrich Schiefer, Cristina Udelsman Rodrigues, João Milando
ISCTE
Portugal
Evaluation in Low-Trust-Environments Rethinking Evaluation of
Development and Humanitarian Intervention in Adverse Conditions in Africa The expansion of intervention programmes (cooperation, development, investment, humanitarian, security, etc.)
from high trust societies into other societies raises theoretical,
methodological and practical problems. Evaluation rides on the
back of these programmes as it becomes more and more a condition for spending money in this kind of programmes and projects.
Sub-Saharan Africa has in the last decades seen a multiplicity of
external intervention of all kinds, most of them not coordinated,
short-termed, based on extremely diverse philosophies, strategies and intervention methodologies. Multiple intervention has
not produced the desired outcomes but rather in its cumulative
non-intended consequences contributed to scenario of the collapse of African societies with all that implies, breakdown of infrastructure, war, civil unrest, collapse of productivity (…).
342
Youth in a Multicultural Setting
Tomas Bons, Eva Nyberg
FoU-Södertörn
Sweden
The following is a presentation of how young people (age 17-20)
perceive and interpret their position in society according to their
immigrant background in the Swedish majority society, subjective integration. From the conclusions of a Master thesis where
many of the youths expressed a sense of not belonging to the
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by the progressive implantation of an organizational model managed according to the logic of market economics and politics. In
the present study, we will seek to understand the impact of organizational capitalism in labor in the specific case of public universities through a methodological proposal based on the production of photographs by research subjects. This methodology
consists in demanding six professors at the Universitat Autónoma
de Barcelona (Spain) to answer, in ten photographs, what they
think has changed in their work in the last ten years. After that,
photographs will be taken to discussion with their authors.
345
Estructura Emocional y Participación Social
Juan Antonio Colmenares Gil
Escuela Española de Terapia Reichiana
Spain
El siglo XX es el de la irrupción de las masas en la escena social.
En él se han intentado sociedades mas justas, buscando el acceso
de la ciudadanía al poder, planteándose la necesidad de un Hombre Nuevo para un Mundo Nuevo, pero también han sido creadas
formas sofisticadas de manipulación. Wilhelm Reich, médico
psiquiatra, plantea que la neurosis no es algo casual y puntual,
sino que constituye una auténtica epidemia; su causa está en la
estructura autoritaria de las instituciones sociales, comenzando
por la familia e incluso por las formas mecánicas de nacimiento.
El ser humano imposibilitado de satisfacer sus necesidades y
para no sufrir, elabora lo que denominó coraza caracteromuscular, sumatoria de actitudes defensivas y compensatorias crónicas.
En consecuencia pierde la posibilidad de percibir sus auténticas
necesidades vitales y de gestionar su satisfacción, adquiriendo
una actitud sumiso-autoritaria que le facilita la adaptación al orden social y contamina los proyectos de liberación.
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Project SER MULHER
Mónica Araújo de Albuquerque
Association Women Against Violence
Portugal
The Programme for Inclusion and Development Progride was
created by the Ministry of Social Security, Family and Child. The
programme has as priority objectives the promotion of social
inclusion in marginalized areas (…)and the intervention near
marginalized groups, persistent poverty situations and exclusion. (Diário da República II Série, nº 1 – 3 de Janeiro de 2005).
The Project Progride “Ser Mulher” (Be a Woman) appears from
de reflection about the needs of girls and women survivors of
domestic violence, upon which subject AMCV had made a diagnostic. The “Ser Mulher” project has the objective, until 2010, to
promote the empowerment of 200 girls and women survivors
of domestic violence. We would like that these citizens develop:
quality of life, social and professional inclusion, the improving
of their autonomy and strength through supported and shared
life projects in the extent of the implementation of an innovative
educational product.
346
Trayectorias y dinámicas psicosociales de las
mujeres magrebíes, europeas del este y subsaharianas
Otero, N; Martinez-Taboada, C; Luquín, E; Arnoso, A; Elgorriaga, E; Gómez, M; Izaguirre, L.
Cruz Roja Guipuzcoa
Spain
El estudio analiza las trayectorias y dinámicas psicosociales de las
mujeres magrebíes, europeas del Este y subsaharianas. Su finalidad es estructurar perfiles que permiten conocer la dinámica de
la personalidad en el proceso de acompañmiento sociolaboral de
las mujeres inmigrantes. La muestra está compuesta por 120 mujeres que hace uso del servicio integral de empleo de Cruz Roja
Guipúzcoa a través del Programa Red [email protected] Se han realizado tres grupos diferenciados en función de tres Comunidades
Culturales; Comunidad del Magreb, Comunidad de Europa del
Este y la Comunidad Subsahariana. Respecto a los instrumentos
de medida, se há utilizado un protocolo con indicadores sociodemográficos, itinerarios laborales, estrategias de aculturación,
apoyo y contacto social y de salud,y, se há complementado con
la Prueba de Valores de Robert S. Hartman (PVH), que muestra la
psicodinámica de las mujeres.
349
Reflecting on white privilege builds more diverse
and participative communities
Heather Hamerton
Bay of Plenty Polytechnic
New Zealand
The practice of community psychology in Aotearoa New Zealand
necessarily requires critical reflection on relationships between
Mäori (indigenous peoples) and Pakeha groups. For Pakeha
(white New Zealanders of mostly British descent) this critical reflection must include interrogation of how colonisation has bestowed privilege on Pakeha – the dominant cultural group – in
ways that continue to render our culture invisible. This presentation will report on my recent experience of attempting to disrupt
institutional practices that “normalise”, and therefore privilege,
Pakeha cultural practices in a tertiary educational institution. Action research, with its cycles of reflection and action, can assist in
achieving effective social change. Through the keeping of a regular journal, I have recorded my critical reflections on a number
of very specific examples of cultural blindness and institutional
racism specific to the institution in which I work.
347
Organizational capitalism in a Public University
through photographic intervention
Vanessa Soares Maurente, Josep Maria Blanch Ribas, Jaquelin
Tittoni
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Brazil
This study is part of an international project known as Organizational Capitalism as a Psychosocial Risk Factor (Spain, Brazil, Chile,
Colombia and Venezuela), which deals with the transformations
in labor within hospitals and public universities, brought about
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Discussing the concept of community in psychology beyond identity perspective
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tised and related to the theme of strengthening relationships. The
argument is made that, in South Africa, the contribution of psychologists to practical interventions (with the exception of curative interventions) aimed at improving mental health has become
amorphous and indistinguishable from the contribution of other
service disciplines, such a social work. Some possible reasons are
presented. A possible resolution is offered by supporting the construction of the interactions between psychologist and the other
systems involved as being similar to the psychotherapeutic relationship.
Tatiana Gomes da Rocha
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Brazil
This paper intends to discuss the conception of community in the
scope of community psychology. In Latin American reality, the
communities where psychologists take action are mostly set in
peripheral urban areas, menaced by poverty and the denial of opportunities and social equal rights. In the theory that sustains the
professional practice area, we observe the influence of traditional
sociology in the definition of community. Community is considered as a collective form of life which was lost in the development
of society, build by fragmenting relations and disconnecting individuals. Therefore, community is described as a geographically
delimited area where there is a natural and intimate association
among its members and a strong bond between people and environment (sense of belonging). It is a place that attaches linguistic signs, beliefs, rules, values and aims equally shared by people,
what affirms a unique community identity. Identity configures
community as an organic and coherent unit.
353
Anti-poverty community strategies: A preliminary discussion
Roni Strier
Haifa University
Israel
Although communities are a recurring theme in poverty research
and an essential component in anti-poverty strategies, the conceptualization of the link between communities and anti-poverty
strategies has not been adequately addressed. The paper argues
that this inadequacy reflects the complexity of the construct. The
difficulty in elaborating a more adequate conceptualization of
the link between the “community” concept and the “anti-poverty
strategy” construct derives from the general lack of agreement on
the goals of anti-poverty strategies, the theoretical elusiveness
of the “community” concept, the ideological nature of poverty
theories, and the influence of competing community discourses
and community practice models. As a result, the concept “community anti-poverty strategy” remains underdeveloped and
subject to multiple understandings. The paper offers a definition
of the term and seeks to present a conceptual framework for a
critical discussion of community anti-poverty strategies. We suggest a conceptualization according to strategy goals, community
representation, discourse analysis, poverty theory, and models of
community practice. Implications for interventions in community
settings are discussed.
351
Inmigración y diversidad cultural en la promoción de nuevos escenarios comunitarios
Arnoso, A., Martínez-Taboada, C., Elgorriaga, E. y Otero, N.
Universidad del País Vasco
Spain
Debido a persecuciones políticas y religiosas, y a la falta de recursos económicos y sociales, millones de personas dejan sus países
en busca de mejores modos de vida tanto para ellas como para
sus familias. En muchas ciudades europeas, como consecuencia
de la inmigración, está incrementándose la diversidad cultural en
la composición demográfica de muchos municipios y barrios. De
acuerdo a esta realidad, uno de los principales retos es considerar
la dimensión cultural en los estudios e intervenciones sociales y
comunitarias. En el presente trabajo, se analizan los perfiles sociales y culturales de la población inmigrante que acude a los
servicios sociales y comunitarios en el País Vasco. Se propone
avanzar en el estudio de las identidades y dinámicas representacionales de la inmigración y las minorías culturales en una muestra representada por diferentes grupos culturales (Magreb, Latinoamérica y Europa del Este) y su contraste con las percepciones
de la población autóctona.
352
Psychology’ in Community: Understanding and
managing psychodynamic relationship processes?
Joseph, B; Williams, L. & Petty, C.R.
Dept. Psychology,Stellenbosch University
South Africa
The proposed presentation is structured in 3 parts and aims to
further the debate as to what particular value psychology as a
discipline adds to the practice of community psychology. The first
part sets out a theoretical position in which the issue of what exactly makes Community Psychology “psychological” is problema-
All abstract information was taken from the Conference Review
System and then formatted to match that of the Conference
Program.
We apologise for any errors or oversigth in the production of
this document.
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Poster abstracts
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P3
Parents’ school: the development of a community-based parent training programe for high-risk
families’
Milheiriço, A., Benavente, R., Santos, A. Manuel, T. & Luz, V.
Parents’ School Project
Portugal
The main goal of this poster presentation is to describe the development of a community-based parent training programme
for high-risk families’. The Parents’ School Project is financed by
Fundação Callouste Gulbenkian and will start in March 2008 and
end in December 2010. The conception of the Parents’ School
Project was as a result of the multi-agency cooperation and community work with high-risk families’. The main activities of the
Project will be: home-visiting, attachment-based video interventions, group discussions and parental training and guidance.
The intervention and project evaluation and supervision will be
based on community partnerships involving several services.
P1
Meanings associated with the impact of a HIVaids prevention program in Portuguese schools
Norberto Ribeiro; Carmo Cabral; e Isabel Menezes
FPCE Porto University
Portugal
The National Coordination for HIV/AIDS Infection promoted the
exhibition “Learning how to prevent HIV/AIDS infection” which
was implemented from April to December 2007 in schools from
grades 5 to 12. The main goal of the evaluation project is to provide the National Coordination for HIV/AIDS Infection valid data
concerning the impact of the exhibition and its activities on students and teachers, and mainly on the schools’ involvement in
this domain. The paper outlines and discusses these results. The
evaluation design used a mixed methodology approach, including both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and with
both process and outcome evaluation goals. Process evaluation
includes analysis of implementation reports, in-situ participant
observation, and interviews with responsible teachers. Participant observation with detailed accounts of the activities and its
surrounding atmosphere and dynamics took place in some of the
schools (approximately 10).
P4
Schizophrenia prejudice prevention education
by video watching
Takehiko Ito (Wako University), Tomoe Kodaira (Seirei Christopher University), Nobutake Matsugami (Wako University),
Takayo Inoue (Meiji Gakuin University)
Japan
The traditional Japanese culture often stigmatizes schizophrenia
patients and their families. Reduction of general people's prejudice toward schizophrenia is an important factor for the patients
who try to live in the local community with sufficient quality of
life. Reduction of the prejudice can be achieved by a short educational session. The present study measured effects of a one-hour
video education session to totally 198 undergraduate university
students. The experimental conditions were randomly assigned:
Group A: Patient narration video listening condition, Group B:
Psychiatrist explanation video listening condition, and Group
C: Urakawa-Bethel-House Video listening condition. The effects
were measured by Attitude toward Mental Disorder Scale (AMD:
Higashiguchi et al. 1997/2003) at the pre-test and the post-test.
The Social Distance Scale of AMD, which measures behavioral
component of prejudice, was mildly improved in ever Group.
P2
Evaluación de una intervención dirigida a la prevención del VIH/SIDA
Alberto L Hernandez-Hernandez, David Pérez Jímenez
Universidad de Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Planteamiento del problema: La evaluación de programas se utiliza para identificar las fortalezas y áreas a mejorar de los mismos
y para identificar las actividades que funcionan mejor que otras.
En este trabajo nos proponemos describir las opiniones de un
grupo de parejas VIH discordantes sobre la logística y el contenido de una intervención dirigida a la prevención del VIH/SIDA. El
objetivo es mejorar la intervención y aplicar las mejores prácticas
en futuras intervenciones. Método: Llevamos a cabo 4 sesiones
psicoeducativas, finalizado cada una realizamos una evaluación
oral. Un mes después de finalizada la intervención realizamos
10 entrevistas cualitativas a los/las participantes. Transcribimos
las entrevistas y realizamos análisis de contenido. Resultados:
La mayoría de los/las participantes señalaron que todas las actividades le gustaron y que era probable que continuaran participando de otras sesiones.
P5
A European network of early preventive community interventions
Saias, Thomas De Falco, Simona Doyle, Orla
EPS Maison-Blanche
France
Parenting programs aimed at preventing childhood mental
health problems are the result of an increasing development
of community-oriented actions, supplementing mental health
public systems. In France, Ireland and Italy, health systems are
different, but the needs of 'at-risk' populations are quite similar.
Consequently, a European network of early preventive community interventions has developed, to sustain the development of
these programs and the training of these new community mental health professionals. The aim of this presentation is to under123
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line the benefits and challenges associated with implementing
these programs. In Paris (France) the 'CAPEDP' program has been
taking place since 2006, and aims at 'medium-risk' populations
(young primiparous women with psychosocial vulnerabilities),
that are often at the margin of the public health system. CAPEDP
is a randomized controlled trial.
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P8
HIV prevention among African immigrant populations: challenge for community psychology
Ana Gama & Sónia Dias
Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical
Portugal
Immigrant populations are considered particularly vulnerable to
HIV/AIDS. Studies indicate that this vulnerability can be potentiated by underutilisation of HIV health services for information,
prevention and diagnosis among these communities. Knowledge on factors related to access and utilisation of HIV health
services will contribute to develop adequate HIV prevention
strategies. This study aimed to describe the utilisation of HIV
health services among African immigrants and identify factors
related to its access and use. A questionnaire was applied to 522
African immigrants at National Immigration Support Centre. Fifty
three percent were male and 54% had less than 9 years of school
education. Overall, 70.3% were employed, 33.1% reported being undocumented and 41.6% were residents for 3-8 years. The
questionnaire included socio-demographic variables and those
related to utilisation of HIV health services. Associations between
variables were analysed using Chi-Square tests.
P6
Transmitting the pro-environmental norm to the
next generation: comparing Germany and Japan
Kaori Ando, Kayo Yorifuji, Ellen Matthies, Sebastian Selge,
Susumu Ohnuma, Junkichi Sugiura, Junko Usui
Nara Women's University
Japan
We say “children grow up observing the back of their parents” in
Japan. One of the largest sources of influence for children is to
observe the parents’ behaviors, according to social learning theory (Bandura, 1977). We examined the universality of the effect of
parents’ pro-environmental behaviors on children’s behaviors in
Germany and Japan. We were also interested in comparing the
role of subjective norm and personal norm, and in comparing
the children’s and adults’ behavioral model across cultures. We
distributed questionnaires to children of 8 to 11 years old in elementary schools in Japan at classrooms. Children and one of the
parents answered questionnaire independently at home. In Germany children of the same age group and their parents answered
the questionnaires. In total 365 pairs of responses in Japan and
221 pairs in Germany were used for the analysis. The results of
the regression analysis showed that parents’ behaviors affected
the subjective norm perceived by children.
P9
Evaluating collaborative prevention program for
teacher burnout in Japan
Mitsuru Ikeda, Kotoe Okazaki
International Christian University, Tokyo
Japan
Amid a rapid change in educational environment, school teachers in Japan have suffered from serious mental health problems
for past a decade. As Japanese Ministry of Education noted, more
than 0.45% of all public school teachers are placed in sick leave
because of mental illness, who are the 59.5% of total number of
teachers in sick leave (Japanese MEXT Report, 2006). Whereas
political administration has been dealing with this issue, most of
cases have resulted in individual-based clinical treatment, and
few studies and practices stand on the community-based prevention intervention have conducted. The present study is one of
the first community-based relatively large-scale trials of teachers;
burnout prevention program. The program was conducted for
about 300 teachers, who are the all teachers in a suburban city of
16 elementary and middle public schools in Japan.
P7
A prevention school - program implemented in
Greece
Chiou V., Zissi, A., Xanthacou Y., Andreadakis N., Kaila M.
University of the Aegean
Greece
A two years preventive program, called I Can Problem Solve, was
implemented in greek kindergarten schools. This program, designed by Shure (2000), intents to enhance interpersonal cognitive problem solving ability and prevent both internalizing and
externalizing behavior problems in children. An experimental
pre-post research design was employed with 81 treatment subjects and 70 controls. A series of methodological instruments
were used for assessing interpersonal problem solving ability, social skills and behavior problems: Preschool Interpersonal Problem Solving Test (Shure, 1990), What Happens Next Game Test
(Shure 1990) and Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales
(Merrell, 2002). Empirical data for greek research, indicating the
positive effects of I Can Problem Solve Program on treatment
subjects compared to controls, are also presented.
P10
“Scommettiamo sui giovani”: an early preventive community intervention in northern Italy
S. de Falco, A. Di Nicola, U. Gatti, E. Savona, & P. Venuti
University of Trento
Italy
The aim of this presentation is to introduce “Scommettiamo sui
giovani”, a research project aimed at evaluating the efficacy of a
parenting program for the prevention of childhood mental health
problems. The project is funded by the Autonomous Province of
Trento and coordinated by Transcrime, Joint Research Centre on
Transnational Crime, University of Trento/Catholic University of
Milan in cooperation with the Faculty of Cognitive Sciences of
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the University of Trento. The project is directed by prof. Richard
E. Tremblay and by prof. Uberto Gatti. The project will involve
mothers with psychosocial risk factors (younger then 26 years
old, primiparous, low education) living in Trentino, a region of
northern Italy. We expect to recruit a sample of 100 mothers with
these characteristics. We will use a randomized clinical control
trial. Both a target and a control group will receive information
and facilitated access to public health and social services from
pregnancy to 24 months of age of the child.
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P13
Portuguese version of the International Study
and Discrimination and Stigma
Inês Rego and Maria João Vargas Moniz
ISPA
Portugal
Stigma and discrimination, associated to mental illness, are barriers to recovery, integration and social participation of people in
the community. Based on these notions the International Study
of Discrimination and Stigma Outcomes (INDIGO) was design
with the aim of collecting international data on how stigma and
discrimination affect the lives of people with mental illness experience from their own point of view. The presented study consisted in the application of the INDIGO Study to the Portuguese
reality probing to understand precisely which are the areas of the
everyday life and the social participation that are more affected
by stigma and discrimination. For that, we interview 25 individuals with mental illness experience members of the Association for
the Study and Psychosocial Integration. The data collection instrument was translate and adapted from the Discrimination and
Stigma Scale (Thornicroft, Rose & Startorius, 2005), that resulted
in the compilation of two scales, allowing the use a multi-method
procedure combining quantitative and qualitative information.
P11
Not a victim, yet powerless to stop workplace
bullying
Adam Lyons and Romana Morda
Victoria University
Australia
In comparison to European countries there is limited research
that has explored workplace bullying within an Australian context. Workplace bullying may take different forms, such as the
use of threats, harassment and abuse of power. Abuses of power
may reflect an individual’s hierarchical position, or the power engendered by an individual’s age, gender or race (Hoel, Faragher
& Cooper, 2004). Although many organisations have acknowledged the cost of workplace bullying on employee well-being,
they find it difficult to implement effective strategies to deal with
bullying. This study examined the experiences of six employees
who had witnessed bullying, rather than direct targets, as relatively little is known about the social, psychological, and behavioural repercussions of witnessing bullying incidents (Hoel et al.).
The employees were interviewed about their perspectives on
workplace bullying, and the effectiveness of anti-bullying organisational strategies.
P14
‘Soft border’
ShinIchiroh Hayashi
Wako University
Japan
‘Soft border’ is a framework implying an optimum state of human
relations. This term was derivative from the Kashmir issue after
the Pakistan Earthquake 2005. I interpreted the word ‘soft border’
into a psychological state lying on the medium between ‘hard
border’ and ‘no border’. Hard border means high barriers or separation. No border is a synonym for borderless or adhesion. Neither of them is proper for good human relations. Soft border is an
adaptable boundary and an ideal human relation. This construct
is also extracted from the idea of what Wako university education
ought to be. The idea is `the community of free studies’, advocated by Umene Satoru, the first president of Wako university. I
applied that framework to the university support system for both
students and other stakeholders. The system is including student
counseling, assistance for various physically challenged students,
supply of important information to stakeholders and other support for campus life. These supports aim at soft border.
P12
A forgotten population: an examination of rural
African American adolescents and cigarette use
Dorene MacKinnon, & Susan Ennett
Center for Child and Family Policy
USA
Using data from the Context of Adolescent Substance Use, the
current study investigated how the peer contexts of youth influence Black adolescent cigarette use behaviorxx, while considering the moderating influences of family. Primary socialization
theory guided the research which suggests that the peer context
is primary in the transmission of pro-social and deviant norms for
the adolescent, but that peer influences can be moderated by
family influences. The two most important contextual influences
identified by the theory are behavioral norms and the strength of
the bonds with others in the context. A specific study aim was to
investigate whether the latent growth trajectories of Black adolescent cigarette use behavior were moderated by the adolescent’s attachment to peers and mother, respectively. Consistent
with prior studies of adolescent substance use behaviors, findings support the importance of the familial role for Black youth in
predictors of problem cigarette use.
P15
Children and youth protective commissions:
Building strategies to protect children and youth
at risk
Renata Benavente
Faculty of Psychology and Education
Portugal
The main goal of this presentation is to highlight the importance
of the Children and Youth Protective Commissions (Law 147/99, of
1st. September) in the context of the Portuguese Child Protective
System. These organizations were created to promote communi125
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ty participation in child/youth abuse detection, assessment and
protective decisions. The Children and Youth Protective Commissions pursue multidisciplinary and multi-agency work principles
as well as preventive and interventive goals. Since 1999 several
legal changes have contributed to the implementation of different procedures in risk assessment/investigation and case decision. Through the analysis of statistical data collected between
2004 and 2007 we will emphasize the development of community participative strategies and family empowering procedures
promoted by these commissions. In terms of the development
of children and youth protection policies the Children and Youth
Protective Commissions have had a major contribution at the local and national levels.
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P18
«Prise 2 d’eux»: A program designed in a women’s shelter for children exposed to conjugal violence
Maude Léonard
Université du Québec à Montréal
Canada
In situations of conjugal violence, the majority of children witness
several acts of aggression towards their mother. The exposition
of children to conjugal violence is a very complex phenomenon
characterized by an instable environment and multiple distressing events that comes with simultaneous significant changes. In
an attempt to respond to the development of many problems associated with the exposition of children to conjugal violence, «La
Dauphinelle», a women’s shelter in Montreal, Canada, has taken
the challenge to design a program specifically for the youngest
amongst all, the 0 to 5 years old. They decided to concentrate
their effort on those little ones because of the prominent lack of
resources for this vulnerable population. This poster presentation
will depict how this innovative program uses simultaneously the
ecological approach, the feminist approach and the attachment
theory to effectively intervene with children exposed to conjugal
violence.
P16
Assessment of Education/Schooling Process of
Sexual Discrimination (Sexism) in which 6 years
old Students who continue the Pre Education Institutions Have Taken Place
Gulcin Karadeniz
T.C. Maltepe University
Turkey
In spite of the fact that the sensitivity felt towards human rights
has increased, and of all legal and administrative arrangements,
“discriminative” implementations are seen as an important issue.
In this study, question of discrimination have been handled sexuality's viewpoint. Taking shape of the sex role is actually children’s
acquisition of values, motives and behaviours/attitude unique to
culture, as female and male. Expected sex role is loaded onto a
baby long before s/he is born. As the sex (of the baby) becomes
definite prior to the birth, parents choose pink things for their
baby girls and blue for their baby boys. Even each name selected
for kids can be accepted as an indicator concerning the role of
sex. While names such as Gül, Ece, and Kibar are chosen for girls,
baby boys are given names such as Mert, Kaya,
P19
Effects of the project “Scuola Aperta” on teacher
connectedness trajectories
Cristini Francesca, Santinello Massimo, Altoè Gianmarco, Bottignolo Elena, Scacchi Luca
University of Valle D'Aosta
Italy
Connectedness to school during early adolescence and adolescence has merged as a key area for building protective factors
for positive academic outcomes and attitudes and lower rates of
health-risk behaviors (Resnick, 2000; Henry, Slater, 2007; Libbey,
2004; Bond et al., 2007). Research focusing on connectedness
to school remarks the importance of the social relationships in
school on engagement in learning, and on health and well-being
(Osterman, 2000; Russel, 2002). Notably, teacher connectedness
has been shown to be a protective factor against many problem
behaviors (McNeely, 2003; Voisin et al., 2005). This study assessed
the effects of a school-based prevention program to improve
teacher-student relationships. The 3-year preventive intervention was a multicomponent package of training for teachers in
classroom management, and a service of counselling for teachers
inside school to help teachers dealing with problems related with
a single students or an entire class.
P17 - Policy and legal changes in the Portuguese
children and youth protective system
Renata Benavente, João Moreira & João Justo
FPCE-UL
Portugal
In this poster presentation we will review the most recent policy
and legal changes in the Portuguese Children and Youth Protective System. The role of the Children and Youth Protective Commissions is based on the Law 147/99, of 1st September and the
latest Decreto-Lei nº 12/2008 of 17th January. The Law 147/99, of
1st September represents policy and legal transformations and
has had a significant impact on: 1) child abuse and neglect assessment procedures; 2) case decisions, 3) treatment/case management of abusive or neglectful families and 4) case closure. The
new Decreto-Lei nº 12/2008 of 17th. January is the most recent
framework not only for Child Protective Services but also for
community services that intervene to improve vulnerable families’ competences and to prevent/treat children or youth abuse
or neglect. Several changes in child protective services practices
are expected as a result of this new legal tool.
P20
Primary headache in Italian early adolescents:
the role of perceived teacher unfairness and
classmate
Massimo Santinello, Alessio Vieno, & Roberto De Vogli
Department of Developmental and Social Psychology
Italy
The impact of perceived teacher unfairness on headache inci-
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dence has previously been insufficiently investigated. The aims of
the study are to analyse the prevalence of headache among Italian early adolescents as well as to examine the role of perceived
teacher unfairness and classmate social support in predicting
this health outcome. Data were taken from the “Health Behaviour
in School Aged Children” (HBSC), a cross-sectional survey investigating health behaviours among early adolescents in selected
European countries. Headache, perceived teacher unfairness and
classmate social support were measured through a self-administered questionnaire filled out by a representative sample of 4,386
(48.4% males) Italian students (11, 13 and 15 years old). Covariates included demographic characteristics (age, gender) and socioeconomic status (parental educational attainment), and other
confounding psychological factors (e.g. family empowerment,
bullying).
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a beacon of the efficiency of social resources (Bassani, 2007). The
results of the current study show a significant relation between
physical exercise and the bonds between family and friends.
P23
Developing inclusive communities against bullying: An elementary school community-building
project
Eleni Andreou, Anastasia Vlachou, Eleni Didaskalou & Maria
Loumakou
University of Thessaly
Greece
A growing body of research confirms the benefits of building a
sense of community in school. Students in schools with a strong
sense of community are more likely to be academically motivated, to act ethically and altruistically, to develop social and
emotional competencies and to avoid a number of problem behaviors, including violence. The present study reports the shortand long-term effects of an inclusive anti-bullying intervention,
based on a particular set of curriculum activities that aimed to
create classroom opportunities for strengthening students’ sense
of community by awareness raising, self-reflection and problem
solving situations relevant to bullying. The core of the intervention was a four-week period during which a series of activities
were organized in each individual class. An experimental pretest/post-test design with a control group was used.
P21
Community social capital in Lisbon 12th grade
students
Author: Carina Silveira Co-Author: Tiago Paraíso
ISPA
Portugal
The current study intends to analyze the social capital of 12th
grade students in Lisbon city (N=145), in its various dimensions
(Onyx & Bullen, 1998): confidence; pro-activity; participation;
bonds with family and friends; value of life; tolerance with diversity; relationship with neighborhood, relationship with school.
Many studies on social capital of youths are one-dimensional,
showing serious limitations both in comprehension and analysis
(Bassani, 2007). This research is focused on youth’s social capital
in a multi-dimensional perspective, approaching several groups
where the youths belong to: school, family and friends, and
neighborhood. It is about a line of work, within a recent research
on social capital, which reformulates the Theory of Proximity
(Coleman, 1990), and regards the youths as having an active role
in producing social capital and not just as mere recipients of social capital generated by adults (Bassani, 2007; Holland, Reynolds
& Weller, 2007; Morrow, 2005; Offer, 2007;).
P24
GerAcções project – Communitarian intervention with young people
Susana Carvalhosa ,Ana Domingos, Cátia Filipa Narciso
Sequeira
J. Freguesia Stª Mª de Belém & ISPA
Portugal
The purpose of this poster is to share GerAcções project intervention as a good practice with young. The GerAcções project
which emerges from a partnership between Santa Maria de
Belém Council and the Higher Institute of Applied Psychology,
through his Department of Permanent Training, has as mission:
involve individuals of Santa Maria de Belém community as actors
in the promotion of their own interests and problems resolution
to build a healthy community. In that way, the goals of this project is to involve children, young people, families and elderly in
their own process of development. The poster focus the results
of necessities identification among the young people in the community and respective strategies to achieve this results, namely,
implementation of a focus group and promotion of a Consultive
Council with young people representation. Also approach specific strategies and actions delined and implemented to answer
effectively to all necessities and interests.
P22 - Social closure physical activity and social
capital in Lisbon youth
Author:Carina Silveira Co-Author: Tiago Paraíso
ISPA
Portugal
This research intended to study the relation between physical
activity and the various dimensions of social capital, appraised
through the questionnaire proposed by Onyx and Bullen (1988)
to 12th grade students in Lisbon city, Portugal (N=145). Sport
has been elected as one of the most important factors in the
prevention of innumerous diseases and in the promotion of the
wellbeing of individuals. Since it is a behavior molded by social
environment that occurs within the boundaries of family and
neighborhood (Li et al., 2005), it has been recently associated
with social capital (eg. Addy et al., 2004; McNeill et al., 2006; Lindstrom et al., 2001; Stahl et al., 2001). Coleman (1987, 1988, 1990)
emphasized the importance of group proximity, with stronger
ties among members. The idea of proximity is central, since it is
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Despite these concerns, parents and staff felt that youth experienced physiological, psychological, and social benefits as a result
of their participation. Findings for girls-only and co-ed programs
were similar. This program’s strengths and weaknesses will be
discussed in terms of suggestions for improving the potential impact and sustainability of this intervention and others targeting
underprivileged youth.
P25
Atividades no Tempo Livre de Adolescentes de
Baixo Nível Sócio económico
Jorge Castellá Sarriera, Luciana Fernandes Marques, Ângela
Carina Paradiso, Júlia Schneider Hermel
UFRGS
Brazil
Esta é uma pesquisa sobre as atividades no tempo livre de adolescentes de classe popular de Porto Alegre, Brasil. Considerando o contexto desses jovens e seus relacionamentos, o tempo
livre pode ser abordado como uma oportunidade de promoção
de saúde e de prevenção de comportamentos de risco. Participaram 159 adolescentes entre 12 e 18 anos, sendo 84 do sexo
feminino e 75 do masculino, estudantes de escolas públicas em
bairros de baixo nível socioeconômico. Foram adotados todos os
procedimentos éticos necessários conforme a legislação brasileira vigente para pesquisa com seres humanos. Os instrumentos
utilizados: 1. Questionário Sóciodemográfico e 2. Tabela de uso
do tempo livre durante uma semana típica. As análises da distribuição de freqüências e percentuais e do teste de Qui-quadrado foram realizadas a fim de avaliar as variáveis investigadas. Os
principais resultados mostram que assistir à televisão é a principal atividade de tempo livre ao longo de toda a semana.
P27
Community Social Capital, Participation and
Self-rated Health: a Study with over 3000 Internet Users
Paraíso, T. Co-Author: Silveira, C.
ISPA
Portugal
Through a sample of 3115 adults, Internet users, we intended
to analyze the community social capital, the participation and
self-rated health and well-being, appealing to the more used
questionnaire of community social capital (Ferguson, 2006), developed by Onyx and Bullen, in 2000, and measured through the
dimensions: confidence; pro-activity; participation; family and
friends connections; value of life; tolerance of diversity; connections in the neighborhood and work connections. This study approaches the Social Capital theme in a community perspective,
understanding the social capital like a quality of the groups, of
the institutional, community and societal social networks. This
perspective emphasizes the collective nature of the phenomenon (Perkins, 2002). Given that the social capital is typically described like an attribute of the communities and organizations
and that it makes easy the mutual cooperation, many studies
have been showing a strong association between social capital,
participation and health.
P26
Implementation findings from a hip-hop dance
program for underprivileged adolescents
Julie Beaulac, Elizabeth Kristjansson, Marcela Olavarria &
Stephanie Leclair
University of Ottawa
Canada
Participation in physical activity is one protective factor for the
positive development and well-being of youth. A partnership
was formed between two not-for-profit community organizations, the City of Ottawa, and the University of Ottawa. Our goal
was to respond to an identified need for an accessible physical
activity program for adolescents in an underprivileged community in Ottawa. After a planning study that invited input from
youth and parents in the target community, a new hip-hop
dance intervention was implemented, offering a girls-only and
co-ed class over two 3-month sessions. This study investigated
the consistency and quality of the implementation of a new hiphop dance intervention from the perspective of the youth participants, parents, staff, and researchers. In addition, the perceived
benefits of the program were assessed from the perspective of
staff and parents. Multiple methods were used including observation, questionnaire, focus groups, and telephone interviews.
Implementation evaluations are particularly important for new
programs as they can help in understanding what factors lead
to the success or failure of the program. Overall, the consistency
and quality of program implementation were good in the first
session, and better for the second session. However, important
concerns related to program implementation were noted and
findings suggested that this program was only partially delivered
as planned. For instance, staff and transportation inconsistencies
were significant problems during session one, while consistency
of program duration, high attrition, and unclear protocols and
execution of discipline were central issues across both sessions.
P28
Child and Adolescent Maltreatment: a focus
group in the Community
Maria Orquídea Vinhas Gomes & Cidália Duarte
FPCEUP
Portugal
We present a qualitative and exploratory study, which has the
aim to have a deeper knowledge in the field of child and adolescent maltreatment. This study has the participation of significant
community people of a village of the North of Portugal. The approach of this study is based on the developmental-ecological
model, which recognizes the multiple influences that human activity gets, and this action is only understandable in the context
in which it occurs (Menezes, 2002).The main purpose is to assess
the need for preventive intervention, which will be made through
a focus group, which script has built based in an updated literature review. The community will indicate their perception of their
needs and will be involved in a process of empowerment. The
study will be a preventive and selective intervention, in order to
empower the direct participants, and indirectly, the community
to which they belong. The results will be discussed in order to
promote the community empowerment and prevent violence
against children and adolescents.
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experience. This paper presents findings from interviews with
15 South American immigrants in Melbourne – with particular
emphasis placed on the experiences they faced as women. Key
findings reflected the challenges faced by those with lower education, little English language and lack of family support structures. Family roles followed traditional gender expectations. The
women felt consigned to lower paying factory and cleaning jobs
– which compounded the problems. As they work long hours,
and were expected to run the households and look after the children they did not have time or conditions to undertake English
language classes.
P29
The effects of job satisfaction in police officers
response to domestic violence situations
Ana Sampaio; António Sousa; Cidália Duarte
FPCEUP
Portugal
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of job
satisfaction in the officers response to domestic violence situations. Frequently, the police officers are the professionals who establish the first contact to domestic violence victims, that’s why
they are an important focus of intervention in a research under
secondary victimization prevention. The instruments used in this
quantitative study were Work opinion survey (Wilson, 1991) and
Domestic violence myth acceptance scale (Peters, 2003) which
were applied to a sample of 300 north police officers in order to
measure job satisfaction and domestic violence beliefs, so that
the results could be crossed, analysed and discussed. It is hoped
that this research provides new information to increase an effective work of police officers on helping domestic violence victims,
and also enlarge their empowerment so that their intervention
could be more successful.
P32
The childhood in autobiographies written in the
Tokugawa Era
Motoko Ohta
Department of Psychology and Education Wako University
Japan
The childhood in autobiographies written in the Tokugawa Era:
Diversity and decline of human building in community in Japan.
The author investigates into seventeen autobiographies and five
reminiscences that were written deliberately but not so systematic as autobiographies. People who were born from the 17th
century to the first half of the19th century wrote those. Then the
author tried to demonstrate the characteristics of the memories
of childhood in the Tokugawa Era. In those collections, which we
think were written in the communities where close relationship
existed, we can see descriptions how the children were grown up
and episodes of childhood. In the middle of 19th century, however, such external descriptions by neighbours disappeared and
internal and fragmentary recollections by themselves often appeared instead. This change might be caused by emergence of
people who reflected their own hearts and minds.
P30
Does the “broken window” theory work? How incivilities affect sense of insecurity in Italian universe
Luca Scacchi, Mariagrazia Monaci, Ennio Cavedon
Università della Valle d'Aosta
Italy
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of incivilities
on sense of insecurity in Italy. The “broken window” thesis claims
that by reducing signs of disorder, police can make lasting reductions in crime (Wilson & Kelling, 1982). Other studies argue that
changes in level of physical decay and social disorder do not lead
decreased crime rates (Taylor, 2001). However, all these studies,
as well as several others, link disorder to insecurity: people who
perceive incivilities more are more fearful (Lagrange et al., 1992;
Santinello et al., 1997). Moreover, past works have stressed the
multidimensional constructs underlying psychological reactions
to crime: personal fear of crime, social concern of crime, and perceived risk of crime have different predictors (Freudenberg, 1971;
Van der Wuff, 1986; Amerio & Roccato, 2005). The present study
examined the correlates of distinct dimensions of insecurity in
a sample of 240 university students in two different social contexts.
P33
The social recognition of immigrants
Chiara Rollero, Luana Ceccarini, Anna Miglietta, Silvia Gattino
University of Turin
Italy
The phenomenon of immigration is nowadays one of the challenges that European societies have to face, together with the
changes involving political and economical domains. Immigration, the “human side” of globalisation, challenges, among others, the systems of norms and values that form the framework
of references of the receiving societies, and bring into play the
problem of recognition of immigrants, both in its juridical and
social form. Specifically, to socially recognise an individual means
to accord to him some degree of esteem and respect. Recognition issue leads to the notion of Alter that, by itself, refers to a collectivity to which social recognition is denied, even if the juridical
one is acknowledged. As a matter of fact, for receiving society
members foreigners immigrants are a tricky social category: they
are culturally and often physically different from majority but, at
the same time they share the same environmental space with natives.
P31
Wouldn’t go back: Latin American women in Australia
Romina Iebra Aizpurúa Adrian T. Fisher
Victoria University
Australia
Latin American immigration to Australia has come in several
waves since World War II, often reflecting political and economic
changes in home countries – with strong growth in the 1960s,
70s and 80s. While general patterns have been studied, little work
has focussed on the gendered and class nature of the immigrant
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estudio son comprender las razones de esta reserva e individuar
-si existe- la relación entre dicha reserva y el significado que el
País atribuye al concepto de “identidad cultural”. El derecho a la
identidad tiene en Argentina especiales connotaciones. Dicha
connotacion, es probable, que se relacione a una de las siguientes
variables o a ambas: el trauma histórico de la última dictadura
militar (1976-1983), periodo en el cual se verificó la apropriación
de niños, los que ahora se recuerdan como “los niños de Plaza
de Mayo”y el recuerdo historico de las corrientes inmigratorias,
con la creacion, al principio del fenomeno de doble pertenencia
y, sucesivamente, de la remocion de la pertenencia.
P34
Construction of ethnic identity Cas of children
Roma origin brought up in institution in Bugaria
Krasimira Marinova
University of Quebec in Abitibi Temiscam
Canada
We depart from Pierre Tap’s concept according to which identity
is an articulation of resemblances and differences. In cases when
the families carry a minority’s culture, the culture is transmitted
to the child spontaneously through adopting the lifestyle of its
parents and identifying itself with them. It is only after having
adopted the identity of its parents that the child discovers the
broader culture of the society and adopts it, all through guarding
and enriching the identity already constructed in the family. The
major question of our research is to understand the process of
identity construction for children from Roma origin, brought up
in institutions (orphanages), i.e., when the family carrying the minority’s culture is absent or dysfunctional. Seeking to reconstruct
its life story and to singularize its case, the child or adolescent
confronts the reality of its origin.
P37
Religión y prejuicios: el caso cristiano y el musulmán
Máximo Núñez Alarcón Mª del Pilar Moreno Jiménez Félix
Moral Toranzo
Universidad de Málaga
Spain
Los objetivos del estudio son: a) Validar algunas medidas de
prejuicio en muestras cristiana y musulmana; b) Analizar las relaciones entre las creencias-prácticas religiosas y los prejuicios hacia un exogrupo (de diferente religión); c) Conocer el impacto de
la discriminación y las motivaciones en el prejuicio. La muestra
está formada por 200 musulmanes y 200 cristianos. Se evalúan,
respecto al prejuicio, las dimensiones afectivas (emoción, favorabilidad y expectativas para la interacción con miembros del
exogrupo) y cognitivas del prejuicio (estereotipos, creencias y
juicios), así como la discriminación y las motivaciones internas y
externas del prejuicio. Respecto a la religión, se evalúa el grado,
el tipo de creencia y la práctica religiosa que realiza. Los resultados indican que las diferentes medidas del prejuicio correlacionan entre sí; los niveles de prejuicio son moderados en ambas
poblaciones; las personas que han padecido discriminación son
más prejuiciosas, excepto en emociones negativas; los sujetos
que puntúan alto en tradición religiosa son más prejuiciosos; el
fervor religioso correlaciona con las medidas del prejuicio y la discriminación; las personas que puntúan alto en motivaciones internas para responder sin prejuicio son menos prejuiciosos; en la
población musulmana existe una correlación significativa y positiva entre el fervor religioso y las diferentes medidas del prejuicio.
Estos resultados son de utilidad en futuras intervenciones comunitarias cuyos objetivos sean reducir el prejuicio entre individuos
de distinta cultura y religión. Pensamos que conocer estas relaciones de algunos aspectos de la religiosidad con los prejuicios
supone el primer paso para una sensibilización interreligiosa.
P35
La población autóctona que ha sido emigrante,
¿percibe de diferente modo a las minorías culturales?
Edurne Elgorriaga, Cristina Martínez-Taboada, Ainara Arnoso
y Nekane Otero.
Facultad de Psicología (UPV/EHU)
Spain
La inmigración relaciona a personas procedentes de diferentes
países con aquellas de la sociedad de origen. La diversidad cultural fruto de esta unión puede verse como una oportunidad de
enriquecimiento para la sociedad, sin embargo en ocasiones, el
contacto intercultural se traduce en actitudes prejuiciosas y comportamientos discriminatorios hacia la población inmigrante.
Adoptar la perspectiva de los otros grupos, ayuda a valorar su
situación y a comprender mejor los acontecimientos de su vida.
En este sentido, pensamos que las personas del País Vasco que
han emigrado alguna vez o que proceden de otras comunidades,
entenderán mejor a las minorías culturales y que manifestarán
menos actitudes prejuiciosas. A partir de una muestra de 300
personas que contestan sobre el grupo magrebí, latinoaméricano y europeo del Este, se presenta el prejuicio sutil y manifiesto
(Pettigrew y Meerteens) que la sociedad vasca mantiene hacia la
población inmigrante.
P36
Adopciones internacionales: identidad memoria
histórica en Argentina
P38
Health status and health inequalities of Gypsy
population in Slovak republic as base for creating intervention strategies
B. Zammitti, G. Mannino
LUMSA
Italy
Esta presentación se propone de compartir los resultados obtenidos de un trabajo de investigación explorativa sobre el Instituto
de la Adopción en Argentina, país que al momento de ratificar la
Convención de los Derechos del Niño hace lo propio formulando
reserva a la adopción internacional. Objetivos prioritarios del
Bošák, L., Marcinková, D.
Trnava University. Faculty of health and social care.
Department of Public Health
Slovakia
A health status of the Gypsy population is less known than in
the majority of Slovak Republic (SR). Slovak and foreign studies
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confirmed that the health status of Gypsies is worse - lower a life
expectancy, a high incidence of obesity, diabetes, diseases of a
cardiovascular system, cancers, and a high percent age of a social
exclusion. The health status of the Gypsy population is not satisfactory and it constitutes a serious public health problem. We
have only very few information about it, therefore high quality
and valid data on the Gypsy population in SR are necessary. The
aims are to describe a health, health consciousness, and determinants of a health and to detect and describe health inequalities
in the Roma population in Slovak republic. Data from Ministry of
Health in Slovak republic was used and analysed - 800 completed
questionnaires, which were receive from project „Assessment
effective’s education on health administration field health assistants“. All respondents in age 15 - 65, were about 2% from Gypsies (about 35 thousand), which live in habitation where working assistants. An average age of the studied Gypsy population
was 32.6 (SD ± 10.52). A part of Gypsies older than age 60 was
only 0.4%. The sex ratio in the Roma population changed during
25 years (y. 1980 - 1 man: 0.97 woman, y. 2006 – 1 woman : 0.53
man). In this study we found the low level of an education in the
Gypsy population, a very low employment (14.7%) and an insufficient accessible of high quality drinking water (43.6%). In Roma
population the consummation of meat predominated (60%) over
the consummation of vegetables and fruits (52%). The prevalence
of smoking was very high (58%). The average age of the first sex
was 16.2 (SD ± 1.49) and the average age of the first child born
was 17.8 (SD ± 2.1). 20.9 % of Gypsies used a sex protection and
80.3% felt health (a subjective evaluation). We detected health inequalities in the Roma population in Slovak republic. By advance
a social gradient gives out positive changes.
Key words: Roma population, health status, determinants of
health, health inequalities.
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P40
Mental illness, stigma and media
Tânia Madeira and Fátima Jorge-Monteiro
ISPA/AEIPS
Portugal
The images of psychiatric disorder that are presented to public
audiences shape their attitudes and influence their behaviour.
When those images are unfavourable and inaccurate, as they
often are, they contribute to the stigma and discrimination that
represent barriers to treatment and recovery (Wahl, 2003). Being stigma a real barrier to people with mental illness well-being
(Corrigan, 2005) it is necessary look more carefully in what is
given people to know about mental illness. It is also crucial to attend the media professionals’s social regards, at a practical level,
concerning these issues. This study it intended to know all these
aspects under the perspective of a media professionals group of
one Portuguese written press. For moreover, this study it equally
intended to clarify ideias about mental illness and pointing out
strategies to reduce stigma, supported by theoretical dimensions.
Key Words: Stigma of Mental Illness, Press, Attitudes, Media Professionals, Community Integration.
P41
Government versus the people: public attitudes
towards gambling in Britain
Jim Orford
The University of Birmingham
United Kingdom
Laws governing the promotion of gambling have been liberalised in many countries in recent years. At the same time the
gambing industry has developed new forms of gambling to add
to those that already exist. In Britain, in order to support liberalisation, the Government has made use of the discourse of the free
market and citizen freedom to engage in an entertainment like
any other. It has assumed that public attitudes towards gambling
are now positive and supportive of liberalisation, but public attitudes were not assessed and there was little public consultation
before the new Gambling Act 2005. The author took the initiative to press for the inclusion of gambling attitude questions in
the second British Gambling Prevalence Survey, carried out in
2006/07, which involved a representative sample of 9,000 adults.
The results showed that, although the majority were against totally prohibiting gambling, attitudes were on balance negative
towards gambling and its influence on family and community
life.
P39
Atribuciones de la pobreza en los estados menos
desarrollados, ideología y acción política
Sonia Panadero y José Juan Vázquez
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Spain
El trabajo analiza las diferencias en las atribuciones causales
sobre la pobreza en los estados menos desarrollados de 294
estudiantes universitarios de psicología -159 estudiantes nicaragüenses de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua
en León y 135 estudiantes españoles de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid- en función de aspectos como su ideología
política, su acción política convencional (participación electoral
y pertenencia a partidos o grupos políticos), su acción política
no convencional y su pertenencia a organizaciones no gubernamentales. La información se recogió mediante un cuestionario
de carácter autoaplicado. Los resultados muestran que, entre los
estudiantes españoles y nicaragüenses, existen diferencias en las
atribuciones sobre las causas de la pobreza en los estados menos desarrollados en función de las variables señaladas, si bien
estas atribuciones varían en ambos colectivos en función de su
condición de actores (habitantes en un estado poco desarrollado) u observadores.
P42
Lupus in women and the discursive construction
of the disease
Nadia Lima
Universidade Federal de Alagoas – UFAL
Brazil
The research about Lupus in women appeared, initially, as a
work in the clinic psychotherapy (Multidisciplinary Clinic for
Lupus), where the first yarn fabrics an investigative around the
sick female. Considering the premise of the complexity, where
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to become sick is perceived as an event bio-psycho-social, this
process was governed by a cross look, whose device theoretical
and methodological implied a link between the following fields
of knowledge: Social Psychology, Psychoanalysis, Psychosomatic,
Theory of Speech and Analysis of Studies of Gender. Following
the trail of the challenge of the questions - Why the significant
impact of Lupus in women? There will be a relationship between
that and the incidence of female subjectivity? -- The search consisted of two stages: a first, the collection of data through the instrumental of interview focused on individual (trajectory personnel, emergence of the disease, perception of themselves and of
the disease); a second, the formation of a group psychotherapy
support.
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P45
Attitude towards money among Macedonian
and Serbian
Elisaveta Sardžoska (University “Ss. Cyril and Methodius”, Faculty of Philosophy-Institute for Psychology, Macedonia; Zorica
Markovi (University in Niš, Faculty of Philosophy-Department
of Psychology Niš, Serbia)
The subject of this study is the relationship towards money and
its components: affective, behavioral and cognitive one between
two nations that lived together in the near past but now are separated in two countries. The samples are suitable and consist of
100 employees in private and public sector from each country.
Control variables are age which ranges from 23 to 63 years and
mean age of 41 years, and education which is distributed as 84
graduated high-school, 59 college and 57 university. The attitude towards money is measured with 58 item Money Ethic Scale
(Tang, 1999) accompanied by 5 degree Lickert scale of agreement. Significantly higher results are found in Macedonia than
into Serbia among: attitude towards money (t=-2.772 p<0.006
df=198); affective component (t=-4.078 p<0.000 df=198) and behavioral component (t=-2.797 p<0.006 df=198). The results are
discussed as the consequence of the society transition impact on
the tendency towards market economy and financial remuneration of work performance.
P43
Perceived discrimination in working contexts:
the case of immigrants in Italy
C. Serino, F.M. Marzano, G. Susca
University of Bari
Italy
Organizational contexts, just like other fields of the social life,
hold an important role in creating an effective sense of community and social cohesion. Working contexts, in fact, may promote
ethnic minority groups' integration in our society, or may also be
a elected field for the developing of acts of discrimination and
perpetration of inequalities and group conflicts. From this point
of view, our research was conducted within a research Project,
namely “Ethnic discrimination in public and private work: monitoring the phenomenon and effectiveness of protections” (in collaboration with “UNAR”, the Association “SAROWIWA”, University
of Bari, University of Lecce, the “CESTIM” of Verona). In particular,
we aimed at investigating the subjective components of discrimination reported by participants interviewed by means of a
questionnaire.
P46
Vietnamese conceptualizations of children’s
mental health problems
Victoria K. Ngo, Hoang Dang Minh, Tran Van Cong, Nguyen
Cao Minh, Bahr Weiss
UCLA
USA
As the first step in setting a research agenda in Vietnam our
team has developed and conducted a series of focus groups on
Vietnamese perception of mental health problems. This study
interviewed parents, teachers, and professionals of children and
adolescents across three cities in Vietnam to ascertain their perspective on children’s problematic behavior. Problems identified
ranged from academics, behavioral, emotional, developmental,
relational, and moral issues, with behavior problems representing the most salient concern across parents, teachers, and professionals for both children and adolescents. Most concerns were
related to general academic achievement thought to impact
career and financial potential. Rather than reflecting delays, concerns regarding development were related to fears around puberty and change, acting adult-like, and adolescent challenges
to hierarchy or gaining independence in a rapidly changing and
urbanizing society.
P44
Constructing ‘NT Syndrome’: Impairments of being non-autistic
Charlotte Brownlow and Lindsay O'Dell
London Metropolitan University
England
Professional discourse plays an important role in shaping our
understandings of autism. However, the powerful position of
professional discourse has been challenged by some people
with autism. This paper seeks to present research conducted that
employed the use of internet technologies in investigating representations of autism. Through this work frequent postings were
made to online discussion lists by people with autism which present sophisticated challenges to expert knowledge bases. One
way of presenting this challenge was through the creation of ‘NT
Syndrome’. In discussing NT syndrome an inverted construction
of diagnosis is drawn upon, positioning autism as a difference
rather than a deficit. Through such discussions complex reflections are posed concerning the position of people with autism
in relation to non-autistic/neurologically typical (NT) individuals,
with autism often portrayed more positively than NT in light of
this.
P47
Sentidos e percepções dos adolescentes acerca
do tempo livre
Jorge Castellá Sarriera, Gabriella Pérez Howes,Tiago Zanatta
Calza, Nathaniel Pires Raymundo, Daniela Balthazar de Lemos
UFRGS
Brazil
Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa descritiva
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de cunho qualitativo sobre os significados atribuídos ao tempo
livre por adolescentes de escolas públicas da periferia de Porto
Alegre, Brasil. O tempo livre é um espaço temporal no qual o indivíduo realiza determinadas atividades e não outras, e estas refletem no desenvolvimento pessoal, seja promovendo hábitos saudáveis seja aumentando a probabilidade de envolvimento com
violência e condutas de risco. Entre os objetivos deste estudo,
está a compreensão do papel do tempo livre na prevenção de
comportamentos de risco. Participaram do estudo 120 adolescentes de ambos sexos, entre 12 e 18 anos. A coleta de dados foi
realizada através de 15 grupos focais, sendo que em 8 grupos a
faixa etária era de 12 a 14 anos e em 7 era de 15 a 18 anos. Para a
análise dos dados, as verbalizações foram gravadas e transcritas,
o que possibilitou a categorização em uma matriz compreensiva
que contém os diversos significados acerca do tempo livre.
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cluded that there is a significant difference when men or women
are asked about the concrete causes of homelessness, men tend
to identify individual causes and women social causes.
P50
How do people with Gender identity disorder
cope with difficulty in their life stages
Nagasaka Noboru
Wako University
Japan
How do people with Gender identity disorder cope with difficulty
in their life stages?: Four FTMs’ narratives and time perspective.
Gender identity disorder (GID) or transsexualism is defined by
strong, persistent feelings of identification with the opposite
gender and discomfort with one’s own assigned sex. The study
of gender identity disorders in Japan has neglected psychological aspects of the clients’ development. People with gender identity disorder must undergo several physical and social changes,
such as hormone treatment, sex reassignment surgery (SRS) and
name change. In order to reorganize their identity and social adaptation, counselling process, as well as physical treatments, is
necessary to improve Quality of Life of people with GID. The aim
of present study is to reveal problems and difficulties of life of
GID people, especially those whose physical sex were female and
gender identity have been male (Female-To-Male: FTM).
P48
The public opinion on homelessness: Regional
variation
Maria Ana Costa Lima
ISPA
Portugal
The present study results of the collaboration with the department of community psychology, of Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada (ISPA), with the Research Group on Homelessness &
Poverty (Wayne State University, Detroit, U.S.A.) on a transitional
research about the public opinion on the homelessness and to
assess the attitudes and opinions regarding homelessness. With
this research we want to know the Littoral and Interior opinion
public, their attitudes and knowledge concerning homelessness;
verify who is more responsible on the help of homelessness; and
research if Portuguese population assist personally homelessness. This study was administered by telephone, the numbers
were chosen randomly, to represent Portuguese public opinion.
Our sample is composed by 100 people, 50 are Littoral resident
on and other 50 are resident at Interior of country.
P51
Building the pipeline for students of color: A
promising initiative
Milton A. Fuentes, Cigdem Talgar, Ashleigh Cream
Montclair State University
USA
By the year 2025 it is estimated that racial/ethnic minorities will
account for more than 40% of the United States population. In
light of these projections and the current troubling utilization patterns of ethnic minorities in the mental health system, the need
for racial/ethnic minority psychologists will continue to increase
considerably over the next two decades. However, the retention
of ethnic minority students in higher education continue to be
of concern. While there is a steady increase of ethnic minorities
amongst the country’s population, the completion rates of ethnic
minorities in higher education remain low. The American Council
on Education (2002) noted that a significant percentage of ethnic
minority undergraduate students enrolled in four-year colleges
or universities will not complete their bachelor’s degree. In addition, 26% of African American and Latino students go beyond
five years to complete their bachelor’s degree in comparison to
their Caucasian counterparts.
P49
The public opinion on Homelessness: Variations
according to gender
Cátia Teresa, Maria Vargas-Moniz
ISPA
Portugal
This poster is integrated in a transnational study developed by the
Research Group on Homelessness (Wayne State University, Detroit, E.U.A), on the prevalence and the public opinion concerning
homelessness. The instrument used, “The Public Perspective on
Homelessness: Portuguese Survey” for 164 item, was adapted on
the basis of questionnaires already developed by Toro and McDonnell (1992) and Link et al (1994, 1995) e (Tompsett, et al.2006)
and translated for Portuguese. This study pretends to perceive if
in the perspective of the Portuguese population significant differences exist, between gender, concerning the homeless people in a randomized sample of 90 participants (45 men and 45
women). We concluded that, in the majority of the topics women
and men have similar opinions regarding, however we have con-
P52
Predicting the social integration of immigrants
Marjorie Nemes
ASDC
USA
The study was conducted in Milan, Italy, a country whose rates
of emigration outstripped those of immigration until the mid
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1970s (Ruspini 2005; Colombo & Sciortino 2004; Boca & Venturini
2003). Participants in the study resided in Milan and originated
from South America. Migrants from Latin America are one of the
newer waves of migrants to enter Italy (Pellegrino 2004; Ruspini
2005). The ability to predict the social integration of immigrants
by measuring attitude toward integration, perceived social support, discrimination, coping strategies, and identity to predict
social integration of immigrants was examined. These psychosocial variables were selected based on findings in acculturation
research and research on well-being. The concept of social integration in the current study is seen as a dimension of immigrant
integration. Social integration as conceived in this study involves
participation in various social and civic settings as well as contact
between newcomer and long-time/native residents.
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perceived level of comfort during this communication, and their
own experiences with sex and relationships.
P55
An impact of the 2007 Issue of Japan: How KAISHA NINGEN <workplace-orientated workaholic
males> can be settle themselves down to and for
their local community?
Yohji Iwamoto
Wako University
Japan
This paper has the following objectives: 1. To identify the “2007
Issue” of Japan, mass retirement of the post WWII baby boomers,
and its implications with reference to the expansion of post war
housing development especially around Tokyo with obvious destruction of green open spaces. Long distance commuting made
the commuters lack of sense of their belonging to the dwelling
community rather than loyalty to their firms, now there identified their potential family and/or personal risk. 2. To provide as
a background information the legal system for adult and community education as a part of the post WWII reform 1946-1952
and its limits.
P53
The scholars program: Fostering the development of ethnic minority students
Jennifer L. Gaskins (University of Connecticut) Brian Yankouski, Milton A. Fuentes, Toyin Adekoje (Montclair State
University)
USA
By the year 2025 it is estimated that racial/ethnic minorities will
account for more than 40% of the United States population. In
light of these projections, the need for racial/ethnic minority
psychologists will increase considerably in the next two decades.
However, only 7% of psychologists nationwide are racial/ethnic
minorities (APA, 2004). This is especially disconcerting since only
19% of graduate students completing doctoral programs in psychology are racial/ethnic minorities. As indicated by the research,
the presence of racial /ethnic minority psychologists is beneficial
to the field of psychology because it encourages the exploration
and development of diverse worldviews and related treatment
approaches (Hayes, 1999). Relatedly, research indicates mentoring has been found to improve academic performance and persistence (Tierney, Grossman, & Resch, 1995).
P56
Community-based Mental Support for Mental
Disorders in Japan (1)
Juri Ichikawa, Eriko Sugiyama.,Yu Abe,Ryozo Shimizu
Meiji Gakuin University
Japan
Community-based Mental Support for Mental Disorders in Japan
(1): A Study of the Psychological Needs of Mental Health Volunteers Objectives: In Japan, community-based support for mental disorders has mainly been discussed from the perspective
of medical service, public health, and social welfare, with little
discussion from the psychological perspective. We proposed a
community-based mental support model ,(Ichikawa et al 2006)
and assessed and refined the model based on the research on
the psychological needs of mental disorders.(Ichikawa et al 2007)
Geographical, economical, and cultural characteristics of the
community are important factors to support mental disorders,
and it is significant to consider potential needs for them in community .(Shimizu et al 2006, Sugiyama et al 2007) In this study, we
researched the psychological needs of mental health volunteers.
The objects of our research were: To investigate effective psychological supports for community residents who work as mental
health volunteers.
P54
Converging and diverging: Mothers’ and daughters’ accounts of sexual communication
Amie Ashcraft
Center for AIDS Prevention Studies
USA
African American girls in urban public housing communities in
the United States are at particularly high risk for HIV/AIDS and
other STIs. An understanding of the ways in which the mother/
child relationship influences sexual decision-making may be a
key factor in designing more effective interventions. The present
study focused on mothers and their daughters in one particular
low-wealth public housing community in a city in the southeastern United States. Seventeen African American adolescent girls
(ages 11-14) and fifteen mothers (ages 25-57) participated in
semi-structured interviews regarding their perceptions of their
communication sex and relationships. Mothers and daughters
were interviewed separately, and responded to questions about
the quality of their relationship, their perceptions of their communication about issues related to sex and relationships, their
P57
Community-based mental support for mental
disorders in Japan (2)
Eriko Sugiyama, Juri Ichikawa, Ryozo SHimizu, Yu Abe
Meiji Gakuin University
Japan
Community-based Mental Support for Mental disorders in Japan
(2): A Trial Program to Activate Community-Based Support System
and its Effects Objective: Our prior research, (Ichikawa 2006,2007,
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This congress(1), Shimizu 2006, Sugiyama 2006) indicated that focusing on community needs and recognizing the value of mutual
support are significant to build a community-based mental support system for the mental disorders. In this study, we develop
and implement a training program to activate community-based
support systems, and discuss its effectiveness. This study aims to
examine how our study outcomes function to build communitybased mental support system for mental disorders, and assess
the validity of our research. Methods: In early November 2007,
we held a workshop for mental disorders, their families, community residents, and mental health professionals in Health & Welfare A-Zone in Japan. (population: c.130,000; area 400&#13218;).
A questionnaire was conducted during the workshop.
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P60
Preventing hospital admissions: evaluation of
the Manchester partnerships for older people
projects
Alison McNulty, Judith Sixsmith
Manchester Metropolitan University
United Kingdom
Background: Responding to a gap in low level preventative services, the Department of Heath funded 29 local authority – led Partnerships for Older People Projects (POPP) to increase, amongst
other aims, partnership working, and preventative services. Manchester POPP comprises of 3 workstreams; one of which funded
47 projects in line with POPP objectives and included projects
providing exercise, advocacy, and creative skills. Early national
findings reported that around each £1 spent on POPP is £1 saved
in emergency bed-day use, however this paper presents health
and well-being outcomes for Manchester POPP, providing a person-centred context from which to interpret cost-effectiveness.
Methods In addition to National Evaluation Questionnaires collecting health and well-being data, Manchester POPP evaluation
applied a case study approach collecting qualitative data including observations of all services, service user (n15) and stakeholder interviews (n15).
P58
The support of parents in the success of young
people in the transition to university
Dayse Neri de Souza Maria Ângela Mattar Yunes Carlos Fernandes da Silva
University of Aveiro
Portugal
The failure of pupils on entry to university has been the aim of
several studies. One study has been on homesickness, caused
by the important ecological transition from home to University.
Although this transition is normal, it may appear as a stressor factor and lead students to face difficulties adapting to academic
and social life. This work is aimed at presenting the perception of
parents of young people at entrance to the University of Aveiro
in the academic year 2006/2007. It considers how help in encouraging implementations of the academic activities, new responsibilities, personal social and emotional factor in overcoming the
challenges of transition. The young people were also consulted
about their feelings of support from parents. This work is theoretical and draws methodological support from movements in
Positive Psychology, because its concepts help to understand the
possibilities of parents to guide and support their young people
in facing these problems.
P61
Análisis de necesidades de adiestramiento de un
centro de servicios comunitários
Alberto L. Hernández-Hernández, Sandra Díaz Menéndez,
Emarely Rosa Dávila, Jazmin Ocasio Díaz.
Universidad de Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Planteamiento del problema/Objetivos: Los adiestramientos son
utilizados para facilitar el aprendizaje y la capacitación de las personas y para mantener servicios de alta calidad en las organizaciones. El análisis de necesidades nos permite diagnosticar qué
tipo de destrezas y conocimientos deben desarrollarse y quienes
necesitan desarrollarlas. El objetivo de este estudio es identificar
las necesidades de adiestramiento de los/as participantes de un
centro dirigido a ofrecer servicios de salud mental a niños/as y
adolescentes con Disturbio Emocional Severo. Método: Seleccionamos por disponibilidad a 16 participantes y 4 empleados
del centro(n= 20). Administramos un cuestionario de análisis de
necesidades de adiestramiento a los/as participantes y entrevistamos a los/as empleados/as. Utilizamos estadísticas descriptivas
para analizar los datos cuantitativos y análisis de contenido para
describir los cualitativos.
P59
Autocuidado de la salud: del dicho al hecho...
Maria Luz Márquez Barradas Lourdes Pérez Rosiles Geronimo
Reyes Hernández
Universidad Veracruzana
Mexico
Se hizo una investigación acerca de la evaluación que la comunidad universitaria tiene respecto de un modelo educativo recien
implementado en la universidad. Ya que este modelo exige del
estudiante habilidades no practicadas antes, se concidero en
esta evaluación su percepción y emoción respecto del modelo.
Encontramos que los alumnos tienen estrategias para enfrentar
estas exigencias, mas eso no significa que ponderen los atributos
de este modelo.
P62
Housing formats and community integration for
people with SMI
Rachel Smolowitz, Gregory Townley, Bret Kloos
University of South Carolina
USA
Independent housing for people with Serious Mental Illness (SMI)
is a strong indicator of functional recovery from illness. Certain
types of housing can be restricting settings that do not provide
adequate opportunities for people with SMI to take calculated
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risks and interact with people outside of the residential setting.
This study examined community integration of people with SMI
in four housing settings (n = 150): (a) community residential care
facilities, (b) living with family members, (c) living alone, and (d)
supported housing. Multiple indicators of community integration were used, including neighbourhood sense of community,
amount of home-based and community-based activities, and social role functioning. The results showed that those living in community residential care facilities had the lowest ratings of neighbourhood sense of community and those living independently
had significantly higher ratings.
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P65
Using innovative methods to understand community integration for persons with SMI
Bret Kloos, Greg Townley, Patricia A. Wright
University of South Carolina
USA
Community integration research explores community contexts
and factors that can encourage or hinder individuals with serious
mental illness (SMI) from actively participating in community life
(e.g., Tsemberis, Stefancic, & Greenwood, 2007; Wong & Solomon,
2002). This research agenda can be advanced by using a broader
range of methods that better document the relationships between contextual factors and individual experience. Two such
methods are presented as models from a qualitative study of 40
adults with SMI living in independent housing sites in the Southeastern United States. Participants’ contextualized experiences
of community integration were measured by applying innovative participatory mapping and Geographic Information Systems
(GIS) mapping techniques. Specifically, participants engaged in
an empowering process of drawing maps of their communities
and highlighting locations where they spend time and considered to be important.
P63
Inclusión social de la población en situación
calle
Del Portillo María Constanza, Casas Maritza, Fiallo Natalia,
Páez Ângela María, Pardo Oscar, Reyes Liliana.
Universidad Católica de Colombia
Colombia
La socialización de estos Posters presentan los avances alcanzados por el área de PC, a través del desarrollo de la línea y el
semillero de investigación en Inclusión Social con población en
situación de calle. El Poster 1 denominado la Inclusión Social de
la Población en Situación de Calle: una responsabilidad interdisciplinaria de la Universidad, con perspectiva comunitaria, asume
la Inclusión Social, como responsabilidad ciudadana, fundamentada en la interacción y relación de acciones colectivas que resalten la solidaridad y el compromiso de la comunidad académica
inmersa en los entornos más próximos a esta realidad. En este
sentido la Inclusión Social se refiere al desarrollo de procesos de
fortalecimiento de las personas en exclusión, que favorecen el
acceso a espacios de participación que les reporta ganancias en
aspectos emocionales, económicos, políticos, culturales, intelectuales y sociales entre otros.
P66
Teachers’ sense of community in relation to selected interventions for behaviour problems
Andreou, Eleni; Rapti, Apostolia; Loumakou, Maria & Symeonidou Georgia
University of Thessaly
Greece
The main purpose of this research was to investigate the predictive value of both teachers’ sense of community and causal attributions for behaviour problems for selected interventions and
forms of co-operation preferred in order to get help for students’
problem behavior. The role that teaching experience plays in
teachers’ sense of community, causal attributions for behavioural
problems and forms of intervention used in the classroom, was
also examined. Our findings with a sample of 249 primary school
teachers, revealed that negative interventions can be predicted
by teachers’ weak sense of community combined with family-related attributions for behavior problems, whereas high degree of
disagreement that family-based factors might cause behaviour
problems and strong sense of community were found to predict
the use of individualized techniques with the children. Teachers
were more likely to ask for the co-operation of the school director or their colleagues’ help when they had strong sense of community.
P64
The community psychology service of Covilhã –
Portugal
Cidália Rabasquinho & Henrique Pereira
University of Beira Interior
Portugal
The Community Psychology Service of Covilhã – Portugal (Núcleo de Apoio Psicológico e Comunitário da Covilhã) has opend
its doors on June 6th, 2007 through the celebration of a protocol between the Municipality of Covilhã and the Psychology and
Education Department of University of Beira Interior. The dynamics of this service is aimed to give community counselling to
municipal residents – individuals (children, adolescents, adults,
elderly people), couples, and families, interveining on emotional and social distresses. Knowing that for many people seeking
psychological help in psychiatric setting may be a disadvantage,
the service was implemented in the city hall building. Poverty,
unemployment, low education are common to Covilhã citizens,
and the service is an alternative to break isolation and to promote
social support. In seven months of functioning the service has
given 237 appointments, and has the collaboration of two psychologists and two psychology interns.
P67
A pathway in psychosocial rehabilitation
Suzete Frias, Benita Chaves, Pilar Mota, Lúcia Rodrigues, Lúcia
Arruda, Gil Sousa, Paula Paiva
ARRISCA
Portugal
ARRISCA (Regional Association of Social Rehabilitation and Integration of Azores) is a Non-Governmental Organization, created
in January 2007, in St. Michael’s Island, Azores – Portugal. The
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main goals are: to promote the mental health and prevent the
risk behaviours in general community; to promote the psychosocial rehabilitation in social exclusion; to promote the technical
and scientific improvement of psychosocial rehabilitation professionals. This paper presents the organization of the ARRISCA Psychosocial Evaluation and Follow-up Centre. It helps clients with
psychiatric disorders, deportees from USA and Canada, homeless,
alcohol and drug addicted clients and prison inmates (or under
other juridical circumstances). Psychosocial rehabilitation model,
following the empowerment and recovery principals, contextualizes our practice.
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stability.
P70
The landscape of metropolitan homeless services in Detroit
Bart W. Miles (Wayne State University) Stephen J. Sills (University of North Carolina, Greensboro)
USA
As part of a long-term mixed-methodology research program
studying homelessness in the Detroit Metropolitan area, this
paper represents a comprehensive spatial survey of homeless
service providers and the populations they serve. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology to overlay service
provision and population characteristics, a number of questions
regarding homelessness may be satisfied. For example: • Within
the Detroit metro area which communities are most heavily impacted by homelessness? • What services are being provided to
meet the needs of this population? • How far are these services
from the populations they serve? • How accessible are these services? Moreover, GIS maps created from this survey will provide
an easily accessible tool for a broad audience of researchers, public policy makers, and non-profit organizations to use for implementing of social programs in the region.
P68
The process of researchers and vice-principals
collaboration in Japanese schools
Kotoe Okazaki, Mitsuru Ikeda, Ayako Ito
Ochanomizu University
Japan
A good number of psychological studies and practices have suggested the values and the process to develop the collaborative
relationship with community members in participatory community research, whereas few cases have been seen in Japan. The
purpose of this presentation is to depict the developmental process collaborative relationship between researchers and an educational organization in the context of Japanese cultural and educational system, through a community-based project that aims
to prevent teachers’ work stress. In detail, we will discuss how we
developed a collaborative partnership between the researchers
and the association of vice-principals, key members of the community to be intervened, through planning, implementing and
evaluating a teachers’ burnout prevention program. The association of vice-principals consists of 17 vice-principals, who are
from every elementary and middle school in a municipal school
district.
P71
GerAcções Project – Intervention with elderly
Ana Margarida Rosa Domingos, Susana Carvalhosa and Cátia
Sequeira
Junta de Freguesia de Sta Maria de Belém
Portugal
The purpose of this poster is to share GerAcções project intervention as a good practice with elderly. The GerAcções project
which emerges from a partnership between Santa Maria de
Belém Council and the Higher Institute of Applied Psychology,
through his Department of Permanent Training, has as mission:
involve individuals of Santa Maria de Belém community as actors
in the promotion of their own interests and problems resolution
to build a healthy community. In that way, the goals of this project is to involve children, young people, families and elderly in
their own process of development. The poster focus the results
of necessities identification in elderly community and respective
strategies to achieve this results as the construction of a play in
accordance with his preoccupations; strategies and actions delined and implemented to answer effectively, as the establishment of partnerships with institutions of the Council; impact and
results of this intervention with elderly in Santa Maria de Belém
community.
P69
Aging out of foster care: caseworker engagement
Patrick J. Fowler, KimLoan Tran, Bart W. Miles, Paul A. Toro
Wayne State University
USA
Adolescents comprise nearly 40% of the 530,000 youths in U.S.
foster care. Many aged-out youth exhibit a number of socioeconomic and emotional problems in the few years after leaving foster care. Foster care services provide an opportunity to ameliorate
the negative effects on emotional and behavioural well-being associated with adverse family and environmental circumstances.
The present study compared Child Welfare workers’ perceptions
of foster youths at time of placement to functioning after leaving the system. Analyses aimed to identify aspects of the removal
process to intervene and prevent negative outcomes for youths.
The present analyses examined 140 of these youths who entered
the foster care system at the age of 14 or older. Removal workers’
notes from the time of separation from the family were systematically coded to identify workers’ perceptions of youths. Outcome
measures included assessment of current mental health, substance abuse/dependence, conduct problems, as well as housing
P72
Sexual and gender minority youth need a continuum of services
Krystal Kellington; Colleen Loomis
Wilfrid Laurier University
Canada
Supports for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (LGBTQ) youth exist in many forms. Supportive peers, fami-
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lies, school groups, and counsellors, are all beneficial factors in
LGBTQ youth well-being. In a qualitative study in south western
Ontario, Canada, 45 individuals (21 students, ages 15 – 18 and 24
adult service providers) discussed in interviews and focus groups
their needs and experiences of social support and service delivery. Findings suggest that a spectrum of services ranging from informal to formal services provides s a continuum of needed care.
Research findings have implications for program development
and policy recommendations.
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P75
Possibilities for and effects of health-promoting
work organization in nursing
Nicole Stab & Winfried Hacker
TU-Dresden
Germany
The characteristics of work organization have an essential impact on the quality of work life. Unfortunately there are only a
few studies in the impact of hospital and ward organization on
strain and well-being of nurses. Therefore the main question is,
whether there are different kinds of work organization in hospital
nursing? The main sample consists of 44 wards and 220 graduated nurses. The results show that it is possible to develop kinds
of work organization on the ward level and the individual level
of the nurses. Emotional exhaustion and perceived task-specific
strain differ in favour of the most favourably organized wards.
The organizational characteristics are discussed mainly with respect to primary prevention.
P73
Importance of the community organizing on the
process of the implantation of the Lago Piratuba
Biological Reserve Council of Management
Patrícia Ribeiro Salgado Pinha and Ana Lilliam Costa de
Oliveira
IBAMA/ICMBio
Brazil
In the Brazilian Units of Conservation is necessary the implantation of councils of management, that are spaces for social participation, composed of representatives of the social groups.
During the process of implantation of the Lago Piratuba Biological Reserve Council of Management were achieved community
organizing workshops involving twelve communities around the
unit of conservation. The work had as main purpose to become
the groups more prepared to participate effectively in the discussions and in finding solutions to the environment.
P76
Supported employment and community integration of people with mental illness
Liliana Filipe & Vera Coelho
AEIPS - Association for the Study and Psychosocial Integration
Portugal
AEIPS is a non profit organization that outlined a community intervention program whose mission relied on the promotion of recovery and social inclusion of people with a mental illness experience, by enhancing users’ self-determination, choice and control
over their own lives and providing support to facilitate people
access and social participation in community’s natural contexts,
in terms of housing, education and employment. AEIPS promotes
a supported employment program that helps people with an experience of mental illness to have access to increasingly qualified jobs and opportunities to advance in their careers. Having
that goal in mind, we develop an array of services based on two
fundamental strategies: increasing the levels of education in
public/private schools in the community (supported education)
and professional training and qualification adapted to people’s
needs and interest (job site training). This service encompasses
individualized work at the level of choice and definition of the
project, its’ fulfilment and permanent maintenance. This poster
intends to present the results of evaluation of the Supported Employment Program.
P74
Promoting the inclusion of persons with disability in Egypt: A community-based approach
Iman el Bayadi, Salma el Sayeh, Karima Elibrachy, Laila
Lashin, Shorouk Nafie, Nikolaos Padiotis, Hebatallah Rifaat,
Sarah Salama, Zeina Sallam, Hana Shahin, Farah Shash, and
Mariham Wahba. Advisor: Elizabeth Coker
The American University in Cairo
Egypt
This poster presentation will illustrate the results of an innovative
community psychology service learning project aimed at promoting the acceptance and inclusion of persons with disability
in Egyptian society. Working closely with local and international
NGOs, as well as persons with disabilities, the authors, all students
at the American University in Cairo, developed a comprehensive
model program including the following elements: A survey of attitudes toward disability (as a baseline measure and as a measure
of change); a short documentary film promoting the inclusion
of persons with disability (complete with focus-group testing); a
model program of supported employment that included placement, follow-up, and education and awareness-raising for coworkers; a survey of terms used to refer to disability in the print
media; and a media guide for the appropriate use of language to
refer to persons with disability in the print media.
P77
The Nautilus Project: Employer return on social
responsibility
Teresa Duarte (AEIPS/APEA); Tânia Mesquita Madeira (AEIPS);
Augusto Sousa (Rumo/APEA), Carla Benites (SDLONPC/APEA);
Carlos Relha (ACMJ/APEA); Mónica Albuquerque (AMCV/
APEA); Stephen Beyer (Welsh Center Learning Disabilities,
Cardiff University)
Portugal
The poster reports the results of the Nautilus EQUAL project,
which tracked the social benefits to Portuguese employers of
employing people disadvantaged in the labour market using
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Supported Employment. People placed included people with
disabilities, mental health problems, Roma, migrants and their
descendents, and people from a women’s project. Employers
were asked to rate their satisfaction with the employee, suggest
what the employee had contributed to their company in wider
ways, including socially, and to rate the impact of employing
the person using a set of Likert type scales. Workers were also
asked their satisfaction with their jobs, their inclusion, and used
a similar scale to identify any wider impacts on them and their
family. This study brings together these results to describe positive outcomes for employee and employer, expressing the social
benefit to employers of having an inclusive and socially responsible approach to including people with a disadvantage in their
workforce. The study suggests how the benefits of supported
employment can be identified in terms employers relate to, and
in ways that encourage more to recruit with confidence from this
under-utilised group of workers.
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that neighborhoods are places that have strengths to sustain and
cultivate positive youth development. Studies that incorporate
neighborhood perceptions rely on parents’ reports of neighborhood risks rather than strengths and rarely use youth’s voices to
investigate neighborhood processes. The few studies that include
parents’ and adolescents’ perceptions find weak correspondence
in neighborhood risk perceptions.
P80
An action research with adults in a condition of
social exclusion
Daniela Marzana, Sara Alfieri, Paolo Guiddi, Maura Pozzi,
Elena Marta
Università Cattolica del sacro Cuore
Italy
The serious problem of adult exclusion (with particular reference
to the homelessness) has been widely recognized in many developed nations and research on this topic have increased, there is
still a considerable lack of data on possible causes of this condition (Toro et al., 1992). In fact, empirical results indicate that the
lack of a home is often related to a series of other issues, ranging
from lack of social support to the relational additional resources
that allow individuals to live well in society (Toro et al. 2006). Situations of severe poverty, social isolation, breaking of family ties
and social deterioration of staff and lack of a place where satisfy
the primary need of safe “shelter” (Gonzalez et al., 2000) are common features of these people. With the support of the association
“Psychologists without Frontiers Italy”, an action research with
the aim of providing psychological support to users of a service
which operates in serious exclusion has been carried out.
P78
Community intervention project with spousal
caregivers of multiple sclerosis patients
Mota, A. I. Gonçalves, C.
FPCE-UP
Portugal
About 5000 Portuguese people present Multiple Sclerosis (MS),
a chronic neurodegenerative disease, featuring several symptoms. In fact, MS is responsible or multiple impairments, both
motor and cognitive. When one member of dyad is ill, typically
the healthy spouse becomes the caregiver. These caregivers present a high rate of depression, distress, lack of understanding the
spouse’s disease, social isolation, impaired quality of life, burden,
etc. It is, therefore important to design a community intervention
project for these caregiver’s, in order to increase individual and
community empowerment. Keeping in mind the relevance of
such intervention, we present a project which main goal is to increase perception of competence and to become less vulnerable
to burden. This intervention project, presents a systemic, ecological and developmental approach as we propose an intervention
in spousal/family system in order to increase spousal’s empowerment and the creation of a social network within project participants.
P81
Concept mapping effects on nursing students’
learning and retention
Zohreh Parsa Yekta
Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Introduction: new approaches of teaching methods are attractive for every university teachers. Objective: determination of
concept mapping’s effects on nursing students learning retention. Material&Methods: a convenient sampling (n=205) for a
quasi-experimental research by a random allocation in groups:
experimental(n=106) and control(n=99) was designed. The lecture method for case and concept mapping for control group
was applied. The data were collected by a 100-items questionnaire (teacher made criterion referenced test). Results: The
scores of the case group was considerably higher than the control group (p<0.005).There was a significant statistical difference (p<0.05) between the mean score of cumulative post-test
(case=73.29/100 & control=68.69/100) as well as scores of retention test (case=72.40/100 & control53.30/100). Conclusion: The
concept mapping as a teaching method has significant effects on
nursing student learning.
P79
Letting a village raise a child: adolescents’ and
mothers’ perceptions of neighborhoods
Dawn Witherspoon & Susan Ennett
UNC-CH Center for Developmental Science
USA
There is growing interest in understanding how youths’ residential neighborhoods influence development. Using deficit models, researchers focus on impoverished urban neighborhoods
and aggregate measures of neighborhood disadvantage from
the U.S. Census. To date, few studies embrace strengths-based
models which focus on positive neighborhood characteristics as
distinct from neighbourhood disadvantage. Pluralistic neighborhood theory emphasizes the importance of individual’s neighborhood perceptions and their influence on wellness suggesting
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1987; 1990; 1994), of a value-based rationale for this discipline
(e.g., Nelson & Prilleltensky, 2005), of its ecological perspective
(e.g., Trickett, Kelly, & Vincent, 1985), and of the non-integration
between community theory and practice (e.g., Chavis, Stucky, &
Wandersman, 1983; Hess, 2005; Price & Behrens, 2003). The second part is exclusively dedicated to collaborative research, and
initially tries to find a research paradigm that accommodates the
concept of collaboration in the community research processes.
P82
Teacher’s organizational background: An analysis of phenomenon’s dimensionality
Miragliotta Antonino & Catalano Simone
University of Palermo
Italy
Effective leaders take all forms and shapes. But characteristic of
all of them is a high degree of what psychologists call emotional
intelligence, the ability to use your emotions, feelings, moods and those of others - as a source of information to help you navigate through life more effectively. There is now an abundance of
research indicating that emotional intelligence is more important than technical skills, or traditional cognitive skills, in shaping our leadership effectiveness. Furthermore, there is mounting
evidence that an organization’s success is directly related to the
emotional intelligence level of its leaders. As the business environment continues to change, emotional intelligence skills will
become increasingly important in determining who succeeds
and who fails. This paper outlines the development of a new
emotional intelligence measure which was designed specifically to profile the emotional intelligence of individuals in work
teams.
P85
Relationship.com - A group program for prison
staff skills development
Daniel Rijo (Universidade de Coimbra), Filipe Fernandes
(Cáritas da Ilha Terceira), Benita Chaves (ARRISCA), Pilar
Mota (ARRISCA), Ana Albergaria (Kairós), Elisa Alves (Kairós),
Sónia Malaquias (APPJ), Maria do Natal Sousa (DGRS), Celina
Vicente (Associação Alternativa) & Suzete Frias (ARRISCA)
Portugal
Prison relational environments are typically characterized by a
high rate of interpersonal conflicts (horizontal conflicts between
offenders and vertical conflicts between offenders by one hand
and correctional officers, technicians and wardens by the other).
Many authors point out that prison tends to replicate and reinforce the offender’s dysfunctional relational styles. Recurrently,
tacit colligations between offenders and authorities tend to
maintain dysfunctional visions of the other and subsequently of
the self. These relational dysfunctions will certainly account for
major difficulties in relationships and social reintegration after
release, contributing to a possible bias on the prison’s rehabilitation purposes. This paper presents the Relationship.com, a cognitive-interpersonal group based 12 sessions program, which tries
to overcome relational skills deficits of every rehabilitation agent
working with socially excluded individuals.
P83
Community service for clinical psychology graduates
Charles Malcolm (Department of Psychology, University of the
Western Cape); Ereshia Benjamin (Department of Psychiatry,
University of Cape Town)
South Africa
In 2004 the Department of Health introduced a mandatory period of 12 months of community service for clinical psychology
graduates. This service period is a pre-requisite to gaining full
professional licensing registration as a clinical psychologist with
the Professional Board for Psychology of the Health Professions
Council of South Africa. The community service placements are
predominantly in professionally under-serviced and rural areas of
the country. The intent is to provide professional services in areas that would not otherwise attract professional psychologists.
Twenty five clinical psychologists who completed community
placements were individually interviewed. The semi-structured
interview protocol focused on the nature of the ethical challenges and dilemmas encountered during community service
placement.
P86
Adoption and adaptation of mentoring program
in Japan
Kayoko Watanabe (Aichi Shukutoku Univ), Naotaka
Watanabe(Keio Univ), Osamu Saito(Waseda Univ), Kaoru
Nakajima(TIE)
Japan
Various types of mentoring program are currently implemented
in social, educational, and business contexts in Japan. Although
the idea of formal mentoring program originated from Western
countries was first introduced in 1980s, Japan did not accept it
as it is, rather was indifferent and/or questioned its effectiveness.
One of the plausible reasons is that it had long tradition that elder
people “naturally” take care of younger people to socialize them
to the society. The mentoring program, therefore, regarded as
unnecessary and mentoring had been commonly existed within
natural developmental relationship between elder and younger
people in Japanese society. After entering into the 21st century,
mentoring program has become receiving attention in Japan.
The reason is that, due to urbanization, especially the popularization of information technology, Japanese societies’ natural developmental relationship between the elder and the young has
become eroded.
P84
Collaboration in community psychology: The
particular case of collaborative research
Andreia Gouveia and José Ornelas
ISPA
Portugal
This presentation constitutes a theoretical synthesis about the
necessity and possibility of collaboration in community psychology (CP) and, more specifically, in its research processes.
Consequently, in the first part, this necessity is justified through
the description of the origin and conceptualization of CP (Duffy
& Wong, 1996), of its empowerment concept (Rappaport, 1981;
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lieving that these can set up itself like as one of the most promising contexts of innovation and of deep changes in the communities, this study tries to approach the coalitions’ sustainability as
a mechanism of increasing their effectiveness. The perspective
here presented is focused in the conception that the construction of coalitions is not itself an end to reach, but rather a process
that must aim long term changes, that is to unchain other community initiatives, taking advantage of its energies and resources
in improving the communities’ quality of life.
P87 - Story of the period of training in communitarian psychology and the health: a vision on
the autismo
Célia Mendes de Souza
Psicóloga
Brazil
Some authors concentrated its interests in the contribution of the
environment of a person to its psychological development: the
health of the individual depends on a satisfactory environment.
The understanding of these factors justifies the development of
the work. Objectives: - to know aspects related to the health and
promotion of health in an institution for people with autism; - to
know the level of familiar anxiety of the front to the conditions
of the autistic people and to intervene next to the parents, being
searched to take care of to its necessities front to the problems
of the children; - to verify the type of assistance, information and
aid given to the family. Methodology: Comments, open and half
interviews structuralized and meetings with parents and professionals of the institution. One concluded that the mothers of autistas tend to present “autistas behaviors”: avoidance of contact
with the other, what it hinders a work in group and speech with
other people on its feelings.
P90 - Estágio em Psicologia: contribuições para a
criação de uma rede de apoio
Cristina Pinho e Raquel Tizzei
UNIARARAS
Brazil
Este trabalho pretende apresentar os estágios supervisionados
obrigatórios na área da Educação, que são desenvolvidos em um
Centro Universitário no interior do Estado de São Paulo – Brasil.
Dos oito Programas Integrados em Educação e Comunidade, daremos destaque a cinco, que incluem o trabalho na rede regular
de ensino (em diferentes níveis), em um abrigo e no Conselho Tutelar. Nosso objetivo é formar o profissional que compreenda essas realidades de forma crítica e possa estar preparado para compreender a multiplicidade de ações necessárias para a criação de
uma rede de apoio e enfrentar as dificuldades advindas de uma
realidade política e social em dissonância com esta proposta. O
abarcamento de escolas de Ensino Fundamental I e II, Ensino Médio e Ensino de Jovens e Adultos, todas da rede pública estadual
de ensino, do trabalho em um abrigo de crianças e adolescentes
e do contato com o órgão por zelar os direitos infanto-juvenis
nos permite uma visão mais ampla da dimensão da fragilidade
de uma suposta rede.
P88
How we can reconstruct functions of communal
youth & child training-system
Yasuteru Okudaira
Wako University
Japan
Traditional Japanese communities had a system of companionship and training for the youth or the child, such as Wakashugumi (Communal Organized Group of Youth & Child). In the area
and the home, where children lived daily, labored and played
together, they were able to be forged, and to get a position of
themselves in the community. In 1960s, with modernization of
labor and life, the system had died away. As the system had kept
antidemocratic relationship and carried patriarchal relations of
community, its vanishing had not been minded in educational
practice and theory. However, we have found that it is very difficult for teachers and parents to train children if there is not communal life for them. It is an indispensable condition for the human being to live together or that a place of the position is given
in the community to live. It is an important condition to live for
the youth who does not yet establish enough self in particular.
We find a meaning to live in being together and sharing.
P91
Pre-marital education: potentialities and challenges for Portugal
Ana Lídia Pego and Cidália Duarte
FPCE-UP
Portugal
The aim of this study is to draw attention to the benefits of a particular domain of preventive relationship education, Pre-Marital
Education (PME), pointing out its potentialities in the prevention
of conflict, marital distress and divorce and in the promotion of
healthy couple relationships, as well as the challenges that lie
ahead, at a community level. It presents an analysis of the contemporary state of marriage, the pertinence of the PME proposal
and the studies already developed and published worldwide.
Many of these have found significant differences with regard to
the couples’ dissolution rates, relationship satisfaction, and positive and negative communication behaviour between couples
that attended scientifically developed PME programs and those
who didn’t participate in any or attended traditional counselling
and programs, normally developed by religious agents. A characterization of the Portuguese reality regarding PME is also made,
with data collected through document analysis and interviews.
P89
Creating Sustainable Community Coalitions: An
ecological approach to the Coalitions’ effectiveness
Cristina Severiano
ISPA
Portugal
The present research intends to reflect about the factors/elements that contribute to the
sustainability of the community coalitions, by the light of the
community development and community change purposes. Be-
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P92
Predicting human creativity: an exploratory
study of TCT-DP in a Portuguese adult sample
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by President V. Putin and the leftist opposition (the Communist
Party of Russian Federation etc.). The so-named “political stabilization” has come to end and consequently the protesting state of
mind would be demanded. Our abstracts are devoted to the “Psychology of social protest” or the political orientations of the leftist
opposition in Russia. The leftist activists usually prefer the social
issues to the economical ones. The right-minded politicians in
their speeches usually pronounce the word “state”, but their leftminded colleagues prefer to pronounce the word “people”.
Leonor Almeida & Sara Ibérico Nogueira
Universidade Lusófona
Portugal
Predicting Human Creativity: an Exploratory Study of TCT-DP in a
Portuguese Adult Sample Leonor Almeida [email protected] Sara Ibérico Nogueira [email protected] Faculdade de Psicologia Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades
e Tecnologias Abstract We intend to analyze the psychometric
properties of Urban and Yellen’s (1996) TCT-DP in an adult Portuguese sample and also to discuss the implications of these
results on creativity evaluation across different cultures. The
study of TCT-DP factorial structure revealed a 4-dimension one.
Although the divergence between ours and original structure a
good sample adequacy (KMO=.642) was obtained and internal
consistency varies between .54 and .78 showing a reliable level
of consistency. In addiction, and contrary to the German sample,
no reliable differences were obtained between form A and form B
punctuations for both total and items scores. Another purpose of
the study was to identify general creativity levels predictors.
P95
Empoderamiento como estrategia de seguridad
ciudadana: experiencia en un barrio de Santiago,
Chile
Elda Velásquez
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
Chile
Se presenta una intervención desarrollada en la Población Yungay en Santiago de Chile, por un Equipo de la Escuela de Psicología de la Universidad Católica, entre los años 2005 y 2007. El
objetivo fue desarrollar los factores preventivos y protectores de
la comunidad y sus integrantes, para hacer frente a la violencia
y el temor. En el póster se exponen los fundamentos y componentes de la intervención realizada, destacándose las principales
actividades y su evaluación. La premisa que orientó el trabajo fue
que la violencia y el temor, generados por el tráfico de drogas y la
delincuencia, conllevan un repliegue de la participación y la organización comunitaria, constituyendo un círculo vicioso, ya que
la ruptura de los lazos sociales aumenta la sensación subjetiva de
amenaza y, a la vez, en la práctica deja el territorio más vulnerable para el aumento de la delincuencia, la violencia y el tráfico
de drogas.
P93
Photovoice as a strategy to empower people to
face their reality
Cristiane Paulin Simon Carla Danielle Lopes Carvalho Giselle
Souza De Santi Lucia Helena Gonçalves Araújo João Nolberto
de Oliveira Rosalina Carvalho da Silva
UFTM - Depto. Medicina Social
Brazil
One of the fields of the comunitary psychology is the public
health as a facet of health promotion which has, as pivotal strategy, the strenghtening of community participation looking for
the improvement of people`s life. Our goal is to describe the use
of the “photovoice” methodology as a tool to perform a project
in the Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro (UFTM) called
“portraits of health” held in August through December 2007, with
residents of a urban setlement in the state of Minas Gerais , Brazil.
The aim was to trigger the reflection about their life conditions
and necessities through photographs that documentate the reality of their community. Took part in the project ten undergraduate students which coordinated three groups in a total of 46
people (adults and teenagers) from the community. They were
supervised by three psychologists. The participants attended
all stages of photovoice (photography training, posing an initial
theme, discussion about the photos and presentation to policy
makers).
P96
Examining power in human service organizations
Leslie Collins
Vanderbilt University
USA
Community based health and human service organizations are
highly resourced members of the community. The agencies’ drive
and mission to serve community members by providing access
to basic needs makes these organizations opportune agents for
the transformations of community conditions. This is an examination of how power operates within health and human service
organizations. Using data from a project focused on organizational change, this is an analysis of how power manifests itself in
organizations and the impact of this manifestation on attempts
to institute change. This presentation will accomplish two goals.
First it will reflect on lessons learned from a larger research project for future work with organizations focused on transformative
practices. Second, it offers a framework for analyzing power relations, which incorporates more traditional theories of operational
power such as Lukes, Dahl and as well as alternative understandings of power relations.
P94
The psychology of social protest: political orientations of the leftist opposition in Russia
Ilya Lotkin
Omsk State University of Railroads
Russian Federation
The contemporary political situation in Russia is characterized by
the struggle between the right-conservative government leading
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butions through their involvement as citizens in their neighborhoods and in religious, community and civic organizations. Using
a semi-structured qualitative interview we explored Puerto Rican
psychologists’ citizen participation. Content analyses revealed
that psychologists participate in a variety of community organizations and maintain active roles within various committees. In
general, psychologists participated due to an altruistic sense of
civic duty and a personal orientation toward social change. Tasks
varied from community organizing to volunteer work.
P97
Determinants of co-operative behavior in relation to community policy
Toshiaki Aoki and Hiroyuki Hikichi
Tohoku Institute of Technology
Japan
This study analyzes the process of cooperative behavior in community organizational endeavors, particularly meetings related
to community policy. Conventional studies propose that people
do not commit to and cooperate with undertakings designed to
improve their community due to anticipated loss of time and energy, and the high opportunity costs associated with their participation in such meetings. However, according to fairness theory,
people do not cooperate because of the anticipation of unfair
management. Hence, we set up following six hypotheses regarding cooperative behavior; 1) people are not naturally inclined to
make a commitment to community work, as they view the anticipated costs as higher than the benefits, 2) the bigger the social
impact of the work, the higher the degree of commitment, 3) if
people expect a fair process in a work, their commitment will increase.
P100
Youth and media: civic and political participation through the internet
Ana Bela Ribeiro & Isabel Menezes
FPCEUP (University of Porto)
Portugal
Civic and political engagement is in crisis, both because traditional forms of participation are declining and new ways are emerging, particularly with the growth of new ICT such as the Internet.
In fact, the Internet has various devices for participation, including blogs, e-mail, chat rooms, online communities or petitions. In
this poster we explore young people civic and political participation through the internet in Portugal. Our point of departure is
the three waves of the European Social Survey (ESS) that allows
us to explore the rapid and intense evolutions of internet use
since 2002. The ESS data will be the basis for a focus-group discussion with a group of young people (ages from 16 to 18 years
old) in which their relationship wit media will be explored as well
as the meaning they attribute to the Internet as a forum for citizen’s engagement and expression. Moreover, their experiences
and citizens in action in through the Internet (in blogs, …) will de
discussed in terms of the issues at stake.
P98
Psychology student as public policy advocate
Freddy Junior Kankou
University of Bangui
Central African Republic
This poster presentation describes a technique used to teach
psychology students about the role of psychological research in
the formation of public policy. Controversies over social policy
dominate public discussion in many nations. Psychological research has contributed to our understanding of many issues in
fields as diverse as education, criminal justice, mental health and
intergroup conflict. Students of psychology, however, are often
unaware of the contribution that psychology can make to these
policy debates. This class assignment has been effective in encouraging students to see themselves as developing scientists
with the ability and the responsibility to make a contribution to
policy formation. Students are asked to select a policy question
relevant to the field of psychology, evaluate the psychological
research on that issue, write a position paper incorporating pertinent references, and present it to the appropriate government
official.
P101
Action Research to Identify Strategies and Techniques for Multicultural Community Practice
Lorraine M. Gutiérrez, University of Michigan Ann Rosegrant
Alvarez, University of Hawai’i
The ability to work within and across racial, gender, and ethnic
differences is a significant skill for community practitioners. As
our societies becomes increasingly diverse, it will become increasingly important for community workers to learn the skills
and perspectives needed to work effectively with people of
widely varied backgrounds and experiences. However, only recently have we begun to understand and study the implications
of multiculturalism for community organization practice. In an effort to learn more about the work of those engaged in multicultural community practice, the authors engaged in participatory
action research with community organizers and workers in Detroit. A sample of multicultural community organizers was generated through collaboration with an advisory board of individuals
active in their community. Members of the advisory board were
also invited to assist in the analysis of data and the subsequent
development of training and training materials associated with
the project.
P99
Puerto Rican psychologists citizen participation
Eduardo A. Lugo-Hernández, Irma Serrano-García, Ángel W.
Colón-Rivera & Emarely Rosa-Dávila
University of Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
For decades, psychologists in Puerto Rico have debated the legitimacy of their participation in public policy (PP). Research reveals
that although in the past 20 years Puerto Rican psychologists have
increased their awareness about the importance participating in
PP, participation rates have decreased. However, these rates may
be deceiving and could be influenced by psychologists’ definitions of PP. Hence, psychologists neglect to consider their contri-
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elderly population calls for changes that are currently occurring
in social sciences and also, the creation of new settings, values,
approaches, that should permeate new perspectives regarding
the elderly.
P102
Semillero de investigación en psicología comunitaria inclusión social de la población en situación de calle
María Constanza Del Portillo Obando*, Casas Maritza, Páez
Angela María
Universidad Católica de Colombia
Colombia
La socialización de estos Posters presentan los avances alcanzados por el área de PC, a través del desarrollo de la línea y el
semillero de investigación en Inclusión Social con población en
situación de calle.
El Poster 1 denominado la Inclusión Social de la Población en
Situación de Calle: una responsabilidad interdisciplinaria de la
Universidad, con perspectiva comunitaria, asume la Inclusión
Social, como responsabilidad ciudadana, fundamentada en la
interacción y relación de acciones colectivas que resalten la solidaridad y el compromiso de la comunidad académica inmersa
en los entornos más próximos a esta realidad. En este sentido la
Inclusión Social se refiere al desarrollo de procesos de fortalecimiento de las personas en exclusión, que favorecen el acceso a
espacios de participación que les reporta ganancias en aspectos
emocionales, económicos, políticos, culturales, intelectuales y sociales entre otros.
El Poster 2 titulado La inclusión social un reto comunitario proyecto que se enmarca dentro de los lineamientos de la Metodología
Cualitativa y plantea como línea de investigación los procesos de
Inclusión Social de las mujeres en situación de calle. Se desarrolla
un trabajo de investigación en Psicología Comunitaria desde una
perspectiva de género, que concibe el estatus de las mujeres, en
tanto actores políticos, al interior de la sociedad como un asunto
de derechos humanos y de justicia social, razón por la cual se
realiza un abordaje haciendo énfasis en el desarrollo de sus procesos socio- afectivos y de dependencia. El trabajo se ubica en
localidad de Chapinero de Bogotá, D.C., considerada un trayecto
importante que comunica el sur con el norte de la ciudad y que
se caracteriza por ser uno de los principales sectores comerciales,
constituyéndose así en un espacio urbano que muestra la realidad social de las mujeres en situación de calle y el vinculo que
establecen con la dinámica comunitaria del entorno.
P104
Empowerment and Mutual-Help Center (CEAM)
Maria João Neves, Maria Adelaide Leite Cruz, Orlando Silva,
José António Coimbra, Maria de Fátima Freitas
AEIPS
Portugal
We present our project according to the dictums of empowering
self-representation groups: 1) Our Mission: We aim to increase
participation, influence, leadership and advocacy of people with
mental health problems in the community and individually. The
Empowerment and Mutual-Help Center has exclusive leadership
and membership of people with mental health problems; 2) Liaising Abroad: Our Center liaises with national and international
networks of people with mental health issues to uphold their full
integration in the community; 3) Anti-Stigma Campaign: We develop various learning campaigns within the framework of preventing and fighting stigma against people with mental health
problems in the community.Our teaching activities include induction programmes on informing, preventing and tackling social exclusion in schools, universities and conferences. 4) MutualHelp Groups: Our group is based upon peer support, and meets
weekly for at least 20 years ago; 5) Women’s Group: Our group
is also based on a peer support programme with emphasis on
upholding people with mental health issues like woman’s rights
and dealing with the double stigma. The group meets weekly
and started in March 2002; 6) Periodical: It is an annual periodical containing national and international articles about recovery,
empowerment, rights’ campaigning and addresses people with
mental health problems and their difficulties in integrating the
community.
P105
Participatory action research - a narrative approach
Anne-Marie Micallef, Carolyn Kagan
Manchester Metropolitan University
England
The project is an qualitative evaluation of positive fathering initiatives, promoted amongst different communities in a regeneration area of Liverpool, through a process of participative action
research. This area has a high proportion of Black and African minority groups, including asylum seekers, refugees and long time
settled communities and there are strains in terms of community
cohesion between and within communities. The project, in partnership with Building Bridges, a community-based psychology
team in Liverpool, aims at providing community based opportunities for fathers and sons to come together in ‘new’ settings,
promoting dialogue and intergenerational understanding of the
impact of living between two cultures. It seeks to improve on
participants’ family communication strained by migration and to
bridge the bi-cultural identity gap between fathers and sons. The
impact these interventions have on other family members and
stakeholders within community networks is also evaluated.
P103
Levels of community participation and empowerment strategies of elderly people
Adriana Nunes, Daniel Matias, Marta Pita
Portugal
The objective of the present work is to study the high level of
Community Participation and Empowerment strategies of a
group seniors that inhabit in a community residence for the elderly. This investigation is a study of narratives, where we intend
to understand and to explain the current situation of the elderly.
We collected the data through a narrative analysis that was presented by a group of 20 elderly, who responded to an interview
based on open-ended questions. This study reveals itself as a
challenge since there is a shortage of investigations in Portugal,
namely in the field of Community Psychology that address the
active, dynamic and leading role that the elderly have in their
communities. With the average life expectancy increasing, an
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unique challenges. In Hawai’i cancer survivor studies, cultural
groups of interest include Hawaiian, Japanese, Filipino, Chinese,
and Caucasian. Portuguese cancer survivors are classified as Caucasian in the Hawai’i tumor registry and therefore are unidentifiable as a separate cultural group in cancer survivor studies.
P106
Herstories: The strength of new contexts of advocacy
Marta Pita, Daniel Matias & Adriana Nunes
Portugal
The objective of this study is to analyze and report the narratives
in a Portuguese feminist blog (http://colectivofeminista.blogspot.
com/) for a period of 3 months; namely, we wish to understand
how such contexts allow for a greater understanding of genderrelated issues and what are the potentialities of these new contexts. Drawing on the idea that the Internet is changing social
image and is fast becoming the foremost way to make change at
a social, cultural and political arena, we would like to understand
how this new tool allows for greater development in an area that
is close to Community Psychology, women’s empowerment. The
method used is a qualitative collaborative research which employed narrative analysis (e.g., of writings, movies, pictures). Keywords: Feminism; Collaborative Research; Narratives.
P109
Integrating residents perspectives and needs
into the planing of local health and development
Alf Trojan, Ingmar Schaefer
Institute of Medical Sociology
Germany
Integrating residents’ perspectives and needs into the planning
of local health and development: prerequisite for sustainable
social change Alf Trojan, Prof., Dr.; I. Schafer, Dipl. Soz. Universitatsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany Background: Residents of a socially deprived quarter in Hamburg
were interviewed to gather primary data for the planning of local health and development. Around 60% of the 3,000 residents
are migrants. More than 30% of them are younger than 18 years,
around 40% depend on social welfare. The project aims to evaluate a health prevention program for children and their parents,
which is conducted currently in this quarter. The survey is part
of the involvement of the local community. Aims: The study has
three main aims: (1) to increase the knowledge and acceptance
of the health promotion activities, (2) to identify the residents’
unmet needs as well as barriers and restrictions for the access to
health care services, (3) to identify social determinants.
P107
Well-being: theoretical structure predictive capacity to study social capital
Darío Díaz & Amalio Blanco
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Spain
Though a great variety of studies have been realized separately
concerning the structure of subjective well-being, psychological
well-being, and social well-being, there are not studies that had
investigated the relationship between these three constructs.
The first aim of this empirical studies was to analyze the structure
of well-being by means of an analysis of the inter-relationship
between subjective well-being, psychological well-being and
social well-being. Correlational analysis showed that subjetived
well-being and psychological well-being are more conceptually
related than social well-being. To analize well-being structure, using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis different models
were tested. The model called Bifactorial Model of Well-being,
composed by two oblique factors called personal well-being
(which encompasses subjective well-being and psychological
well-being) and social well-being showed the best fit with the
data.
P110
Nivel de desarrollo, sucesos vitales estresantes y
comportamiento suicida en Latinoamérica
Sonia Panadero y José Juan Vázquez
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Spain
El trabajo describe un estudio realizado con 709 estudiantes universitários hispanoamericanos de cuatro países con diferentes
niveles de desarrollo (Nicaragua, El Salvador, Chile y España). El
propósito del trabajo es valorar las diferencias en el padecimiento de sucesos vitales estresantes en función del nivel de desarrollo del país de residencia de los entrevistados, confirmar la relación establecida en la literatura entre sucesos vitales estresantes
y conducta suicida y conocer los sucesos vitales estresantes que
en mayor medida predicen la conducta suicida en estos estudiantes. La información se recogió mediante un cuestionario
autoaplicado. Los resultados señalan una mayor presencia de
sucesos vitales estresantes entre quienes habitan en los países
con menores niveles de desarrollo y entre quienes han intentado
suicidarse.
P108
Before & after cancer: quality of life in rural Hawaii’s
Cheryl M. Ramos
University of Hawai’i at Hilo
USA
Cancer survivorship is on the rise worldwide. As cancer survivorship increases, so too does concern about the quality of life
of cancer survivors and the role of risk factors (e.g. stressful life
events) and protective factors (e.g. social support) in the cancersurvivor experience. Cross-national cancer survivor research
(United States, Portugal, Japan) and studies conducted in Hawai’i
indicate that cultural differences exist in quality of life of cancer
survivors. Additionally, cancer survivors in rural communities face
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total population of 55,000 people. A study in Covilhã municipality with 1256 individuals was conducted in order to assess their
needs for community support. Of all participants, 57,7% were
female, and the average age was 30,83 years. The majority of
subjects were married (58,1%). A 75-item Likert type questionnaire was utilized to assess the needs for community support,
and internal consistency was good (alpha = 0,78). Factor analysis
(KMO=0,90) determined five main dimensions: health and discrimination, general support, social integration, academic/professional success, and social reinsertion.
P111
El bienestar psicológico, subjetivo y social y el fatalismo yel trauma en desplazdos por violencia
Autor: Camilo Madariaga, Co-autores: Maria Amaris, Amalio
Blanco, Kissy Manrique, Marina Martínez, Yamile Turizo
Universidad del Norte
Colombia
La presente investigación ha pretendido correlacionar el Bienestar Psicológico, Subjetivo y Social, con el Fatalismo, Trauma y
Cogniciones Irracionales Postraumáticas, en personas adultas
desplazadas por la violencia sociopolítica, radicadas en la ciudad
de Barranquilla, Colombia. En lo referente a las variables de Bienestar, se aplicaron las adaptaciones al español (Díaz et al, 2006)
de las escalas de: Bienestar Psicológico de Ryff, Bienestar Subjetivo de Diener, Ítem Único de Satisfacción con la Vida de Cantril,
Inventario de Afecto Positivo y Negativo (PANAS) de Watson,
Clark y Tellegen (1988), y Bienestar Social de Keyes, a 200 adultos
en situación de desplazamiento. Asimismo, se les aplicó las escalas de Fatalismo de Blanco y Díaz (2007), la Escala de Trauma de
Davidson (1996) y el Inventario de Cogniciones Postraumáticas
de Foa et al (1999).
P114
El empowering leadership: para la promoción
del autoestima en ámbito escolástico
António Lumia, Giuseppe Mannino, Cristina Scimemi
Dottorando di ricerca
Università Lumsa Palermo
Italy
El empowering leadership representa una nueva modalidad de
gestión del leadership, en el ámbito grupal-organizativo, finalizado a la promoción del empowerment. El empowering leader
(E.L.) no se limita a proponer intervenciones definidas, sino que
promociona en los destinatarios la expresión de la subjetividad,
incluyendo los elementos de ambigüedad, incertidumbre y desorden que caracterizan la existencia humana. En un trabajo experimental conducido con adolescentes, hemos verificado, en el
grupo, un incremento del interés, de la responsabilidad y de la
acción. La investigación y la formación constan de estas fases: 1.
análisis de las necesidades y de las expectativas. El leader utiliza
el método “top down”, según el cual su poder es descentrado y
asignado a los participantes, responsabilizándolos; 2. Asunción
de la responsabilidad. El leader estimula, en los participantes, la
imaginación, la creatividad y la asunción de la responsabilidad,
con el fin de alcanzar los cambios deseados.
P112
Diagnostico de malnutrición en el adulto mayor
de el espinal, naolinco, Veracruz
Idalia Illescas Nájera, Catalina Cervantes Ortega (Autores)
Yaneth G. Jimenez V. (Coautora)
Universidad Veracruzana
Mexico
Resumen Los psicólogos comunitarios en Latinoamérica expresan una clara preocupación por los problemas sociales que surgen en sus países y su conocimiento lo encauzan al servicio de
solucionar problemáticas y necesidades que aquejan a las comunidades. México, es un país que ocupa actualmente el séptimo
lugar entre los países con envejecimiento acelerado, con un 7%
de su población de 60 años y más. El estado de Veracruz según
estadísticas proporcionadas por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística Geografía e Informática (INEGI, 2005) ocupa el tercer lugar
nacional en población adulta mayor de 60 años, con un porcentaje sobre su población del 8.08%, lo que representa a 556,000
Adultos Mayores. La escala Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA),
desarrollada por Vellaz y Guigoz, tiene como objetivo determinar
el riesgo de malnutrición en el adulto mayor y así permitir una
precoz intervención nutricional. Los antecedentes muestran que
se ha aplicado en hospitales y casa de cuidado diario.
P115
The role of informal support in needs assessment: the case of Latin-Americans in Southern
Spain
Sonia Hernández-Plaza Carmen Pozo María José Martos Carmen Salvador Enrique Alonso
University of Almería
Spain
In the present paper, an application of the “Needs and Social Resources Assessment Model in Community Contexts” (HernándezPlaza, Pozo & Alonso, 2004) is presented, focused on the evaluation of needs and social support resources in a population of
Latin-American immigrants in the south of Spain. Most needs assessment models have been exclusively focused on the analysis
of formal resources available in the community as possible solutions for existing problems, assuming that formal services are the
primary source of support for individuals in need. However, psychosocial research has widely shown that the main source of help
and support when facing a problem is not formal organizations
but people’s own informal social networks. Taking this perspective, our model analyzes both formal and informal social support,
P113
Assessing the needs for Community Support: a
study in Covilhã, Portugal
Cidália Rabasquinho & Henrique Pereira
University of Beira Interior
Portugal
A community support assessment enables collaborative partners
to gather information about the strengths, concerns, and conditions of members of a given community, thus helping to focus on
multiple perspectives for intervention. Covilhã is a medium size
municipality in the interior of central mainland Portugal with a
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networks. Successful relationships are basic to successful living:
interpersonal networks are argued to mediate between various
forms of social stress and health (Wilkinson et al., 1998). It has
long been acknowledged that the quality of friendly and parental support can have an important effect on adolescents’ psychological adjustment (Baumrind, 1991; Rigby et al, 2007). Selfesteem has been found to be positively related to mental health
and well-being (Cheng et al., 2004; Sedikides et al 2004; Wilburn
et al., 2005). School represents an important environment where
teachers and classmates are likely to be significant others for pupils. They can provide both academic and emotional support,
bolstering real and perceived learning confidence among pupils
and enhancing their self-esteem.
P116
First-time mothers’ empowerment through a
free program
Nathalie Coulon, Julie Dewaele, René Demerval
University of Lille 3
France
The program “Being Mum or Dad for the first-time” is an attempt
to enhance and improve social support currently delivered
through health and social free services. It has been implemented since December 2004 in 3 pilot sites in the north of France.
The main objective of the program is to promote new parents
and children’s physical, mental and social health. This program
is based on socio-ecological theory and action research strategy
was chosen. With a staff of health professionals and social workers, we designed interventions and educational material (comic
strips). The strategy chosen is supposed to lead to family’s empowerment by developing problem-solving skills to cope with
main common stressful situations new parents can meet, and by
seeking social support. Our aim is to carry out a first assessment
of the support provided through the program and to investigate
the mothers’ needs when their first baby is 9 months old.
P119
Back from the war: Readjustment issues facing
returning OEF/OIF veterans
Marc B. Goldstein, James Malley, and Steven Southwick
Central Connecticut State University
USA
Introduction: There is evidence (e.g., Hogue, Auchterlonie & Milliken, 2006) that American veterans returning from Afghanistan
(Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)) and Iraq (Operation Iraqi
Freedom (OIF)) deployments face considerable adjustment issues. This poster presentation will describe the results of a needs
assessment process focused on identifying: (1) the salient medical, psychosocial, and economic needs of these returning veterans, (2) the barriers preventing these needs from being met, and
(3) specific policy changes that could facilitate the chances for
optimal readjustment to civilian life. Sample: With the assistance
of the Connecticut Dept of Veterans’ Affairs, 2050 recent OEF/OIF
veterans were mailed a survey asking about various needs and
concerns pertinent to this group upon their return to civilian life.
This survey, conducted in two waves during the summer and fall
of 2007, elicited a total of 557 responses (27%).
P117
An ecological model to better understand suicide among Aboriginals of Canada
Arlene Laliberté
NQHEPU, University of Queensland
Australia
The suicide rate in some First Nations communities of Canada
reaches alarming proportions. In certain Quebec Native community health clinics, the number of people requiring treatment
following a suicide attempt is so great, that the nurses do not record them officially, for lack of time. The need to understand the
specific factors involved in this problem to better prevent it was
the motivation for a retrospective, exploratory case study of completed suicides among Aboriginal people residing in Quebec.
This presentation proposes the use of Bronfenbrenner’s (1989)
ecological model to better understand the high prevalence of
suicide in these communities. The analysis of suicide within an
ecological perspective makes it possible to consider, in the same
dynamic model, the multiple factors involved in the suicide of individuals. Indeed, this makes it possible to integrate the events
lived during childhood which had an important impact on the
life trajectory of the cases.
P120
Group identity among people living with HIV: a
qualitative research
A. Agirrezabal (CESIDA, Madrid); M.J. Fuster & F. Molero
(UNED, Madrid)
Spain
Background: The aim of this study is to analyze the role that identification with the in-group may play on the strategies used by
PLWH (people living with Hiv) to cope with HIV related stigma.
Previous research shows that one of the strategies to cope with
the stigma is to identify with the stigmatised in-group, however,
there are not research about the role of identification among
PLWH. In this study we will use the model proposed by Cameron that specifies three components in the group identity: (a)
centrality, (cognitive prominence of the in-group), (b) in-group
ties (perceived belongingness and bond with other group members), and (c) in-group affect, (positivity of feelings derived from
group membership). Methods: In-depth interviews to 40 PLWH
who was selected according to their active (or not) participation
in NGO. Results: Among non activists group, there were often
strong in-group ties.
P118
Adolescents’ relationships: an analysis of social
support and psychosocial adjustment
Elena Zini, Paola Cardinali, Laura Frattini
University of Genoa
Italy
Adolescence is a phase of life during which the acquisition of social skills is essential to the task of establishing supportive social
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is played by general context services, which provide access to the
system of community resources. Theoretical approaches come
from studies about social support, social networks and health
promotion based on community and psychological empowerment strategies (McMahon, Felix, Parnes, Morgan, Henry, Schoeny, 2007; McManus, Lantry, Flynn, 2007; Edgar, Meert, 2005; Johnson, Whitbeck, Hoyt, 2005; Robert, Pauze, Fournier, 2005; Rew,
Horner, 2003; Atkinson, 2002; Ballet, 2001; Zimmerman, 2000).
Aim: The aim of the research is to obtain qualitative data about
subjective meanings on homeless’s needs.
P121
La influencia del contrato laboral sobre el nivel
de satisfacción
Lúcia Ingenio and Antonio Lumia
LUMSA Libera Università Maria Santíssima
Italy
A partir de numerosas investigaciones conducidas en el ámbito
de la satisfacción laboral, se ha evidenciado que encontrar un
trabajo no siempre es un recurso de prevención de posibles efectos negativos. Esto es, mayormente verdadero, en situaciones de
contratos “atípicos”. Los objetivos de nuestra investigación están
centrados sobre el análisis de la influencia que el tipo de contrato, que el trabajador firma, ejerce sobre su nivel de satisfacción
laboral. La satisfacción se define como el placer que deriva de la
actividad y del contexto que contiene dicha actividad. Descripción de la investigación explorativa: - Muestra: 300 trabajadores
(inpdap, Mc Donald’s) de los cuales 162 de sexo masculino (54%)
y 138 de sexo femenino (46%) de Palermo. -Tipos de contratos
estudiados: el contrato por tiempo indeterminado, de formación
y trabajo interinal - Método: suministración del QSO (Questionario di Soddisfazione Organizzativa- Cuestionario de satisfacción
Organizativa).
P124
Efectividad de dos intervenciones con madres
adolescentes de comunidades pobres
Marcela Aracena, Paula Bedregal, Carola Pérez, Mariane
Krause, Consuelo Undurraga, Maribel Gálvez, Gabriela Luengo, Amparo Gonzalez, Loreto Leiva
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
Chile
Se comparan dos intervenciones realizadas con madres adolescentes, cuya finalidad fue la prevención de retraso en el desarrollo de los niños y la promoción de la salud mental de las madres.
Las intervenciones fueron realizadas por monitoras comunitarias,
a través de la modalidad de visitas domiciliaras, durante 15 meses
consecutivos. Ambas intervenciones fueron realizadas en comunas pobres de la ciudad de Santiago, caracterizadas por elevadas
tasas de embarazo adolescente. La primera intervención (1) fue
diseñada y coordinada por un equipo de la Escuela de Psicologia de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, en colaboración
con dos centros de salud estatales. La segunda intervención (2)
fue diseñada y coordinada por la Vicaría de Pastoral Social y de
los Trabajadores. En ambas intervenciones se trabajó con material educativo para las madres y de apoyo para las monitoras, focalizándose las intervenciones en el ejercicio de la maternidad y
el desarrollo del niño.
P122
Psychological empowerment and professional
wellbeing among Spanish nurses
María Jesús Albar Marín
Servicio Andaluz de Salud
Spain
While the current role of hospital nurses requires a greater autonomy in exercise of their functions in opposition to the traditional
dependency of doctors, little empirical research exists analyze
the role of psychological empowerment among nurses in hospital contexts. This poster presents a predictive model of psychological wellbeing in a sample of 272 nurses in three public general
hospitals in Seville (Spain). From a Community Psychology perspective the role of psychological empowerment between sociostructural determinants and workers’ psychological well-being is
explored. Hypotheses related with the direct and indirect effects
of psychological empowerment on psychological wellbeing are
established. To asses organizational variables the Organizational
Characteristics Scale by Spreitzer (1995) were used, based on the
socio-structural determinants that Lawler (1992) considers having empowering potential at work.
P125
Needs evaluation in elderly persons with schizophrenia living in a sheltered residence
Marta Ferraz
Univ. of Valencia-ADEIT
Portugal
Recently in Portugal the provision of mental health services has
undergone an assessment in order to make it more efficient and
increase its quality. Given the population’s gradual ageing and
subsequent increase in the prevalence of people with chronic
disabling illness (Jeste et al, 1999), it seems relevant to study
an often overlooked, but growingly concerning, subject within
the field of mental health - the needs of the elderly with chronic
mental illness and the services provided in response. As life expectancy of the general population increases, an increase in the
population of elderly people with schizophrenia is also expected
(Cohen & Talavera, 2000). Schizophrenia in the elderly is a special
case of SMI that has peculiarities associated not only with the disease but also with the age factor. The consideration of specific
needs, as well as participation of the main “stakeholders”, seems
of utmost importance for better service provision.
P123
Understanding homelessness: helping relationship and different needs
Morandi, A., Paulesu, N., Meringolo, P.
Dpt. Psychology University of Florence
Italy
Introduction: People who live the condition of homeless need articulated and personalized intervention. The promotion of social
inclusion is also based on the understanding of subjective meanings related to helping relationship, resources and peer networking and they may be also an important factor to the knowledge
of the impact of the interventions. In addition, an important role
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profit organizations staffed by mental health consumers. Peer
support services run by consumers outnumber traditional services for people with mental illness when peer run mental health
self-help groups are included. CROs provide access to experiential knowledge that allows members to take a participatory role
in the recovery process, which appears to be related to a variety
of positive outcomes. Despite their prevalence and positive outcomes, little is known about the characteristics of CRO members.
The present study examines member characteristics across four
dimensions including (1) service utilization, (2) patterns of social
interaction related to CRO relationships, (3) member involvement, and (4) demographics.
P126
Housing preferences and support needs of people with mental illness
Inês Almas
AEIPS/ISPA
Portugal
This study discusses both the preferences and perceived needs
related with housing among people with mental illness and their
satisfaction with their current housing situation. Housing is a very
important issue for families as well as for people with mental illness, whose main concerns are about costs, accessibility, safety,
available support, among others. Also, people with mental illness
frequently are in disempowering situations like unemployment,
institutionalization or homelessness and therefore are inhibited
of making decisions about their life. For this study the Consumer
Housing Preference Survey (Ridgway, 1986) was translated and
adapted. Intending to support housing program development
according to the recovery and inclusive perspective, a group of
people with mental illness problems attending a community
mental health support program from a non governmental organization participated in this study.
P129
A research on the relationship between marital
self-disclosure with the age and time elapsed
since.
Fatemeh Noughani
Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
A research on the relationship between marital Self-disclosure
with the age and time elapsed since the marriage of the couple.
Introduction: There are numerous factors affecting the couple’s
health. Among those, marital satisfaction is of critical significance. Furthermore some medially variables can be threatening
or strengthening couple health. Marital Self-disclosure has a great
role in marital satisfaction. This is due to the fact that marital Self
– disclosure can develop relationships, bring intimacy, trust, and
reduce tension. So the aim of this study is to measure the rate of
the relationship between marital Self-disclosure with the ages of
the couple and the time elapsed since their marriage.
P127
The adaptation of elderly people in Serbia to
homes for the aged relative to socio-demographic
Vesna Andjelkovic, Snežana Vidanovi
Faculty of Philosophy, Psychology
Serbia and Montenegro
Taking into consideration the fact that the adaptation abilities of
elderly people decrease with age, and that depression and this
time of life are closely entwined, the aim of our research was to
examine whether certain socio-demographic parameters have
any influence on the levels of depression and adaptation to the
conditions in a gerontological center. Our research was based on
a sample of 80 subjects, aged 60 to 82, all of whom were residents
of the Gerontological centre in Niš, Serbia. We used the Geriatric
Depression Scale – short form (Yesavage), the Social Adaptation
Self-evaluation Scale. The social-demographic parameters included the following: gender, level of education, and whether the
subject originated from the city or the country. Our results have
shown that if we take the overall extent of the adaptation and
the level of depression into consideration, we can conclude that
the subjects in our research belong to the group of the partially
adjusted with a tendency towards depression.
P130
Coping with events on the emergency front
Cinzia Novara and Gioacchino Lavanco
University of Palermo
Italy
Introduction: The study analyzes the relationship between the
coping capacity of subjects working in emergency contests and
social support. The studies revealing a positive correlation between coping and social support on work among police officers,
clearly refer to the theory of buffering hypothesis (Patterson,
2003). Purpose: Verify, if and how, the different styles of coping
on related to social support and, particularly, where it derives
from, comparing three emergency professions. Instruments CISS, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (Pedrabissi, Santinello, 1994); - MSPSS, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (Prezza, Principato, 2002); - index-card pointing out
socio-demographic variables. Sample: It consists of 183 subjects
distinguished into three professional categories operating in
dangerous contests: Militaries enrolled in the Italian army with at
least a mission abroad; Frontier polices with airport experiences;
Fire men.
P128
Member characteristics of consumer run organizations and service utilization patterns
Todd Shagott, Chi Vu, Crystal Reinhart, Scott Wituk, & Greg
Meissen
Wichita State University – CCSR
USA
Grounded in peer support, consumer run organizations (CROs)
demonstrate the possibilities of community based mutual support groups by not only functioning as “drop-in” centers, but also
most typically working in the capacity of fully functioning non149
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C o n f e r e n c e
P131 - The recent development of community
psychology in France: Perspectives for the coming years
o n
C o m m u n i t y
P s y c h o l o g y
had access to the questionnaire trough the internet. Attitudes towards date rape were assessed using the College Date Rape Attitudes Survey (CDRAS; Lanier & Green, 2006). The CDRAS includes
17 items measuring attitudes related to date rape in the context
of heterosexual college dating. All items of the instrument were
scored on a four-point Likert type scale ranging from (4) strongly
agree to (1) strongly disagree. The results showed that In general
there are high levels of disagreement to the problem which indicate that attitudes towards date rape are very negative. Nevertheless, were statistically significant differences between sexes
which indicate that men have lower levels of disagreement when
compared to women. Finally, a questionnaire assessing the prevalence of date rape was also construed and utilized. Prevalence
of Date Rape in this sample was: 3.7 % (37 College students). The
majority of victims were female. In conclusion the prevalence of
Date Rape in Portuguese College Students is significantly low
comparing to other countries. This may be related with the fact
that in Portugal the students are not confined to a restricted area.
In Portugal there is not many College Campuses, therefore students are integrated in the city contexts. Even so, are necessary
construct intervention and prevention programs to minimise the
potential effects of exposure to date rape, specifically for men
and women.
Thomas Saias, Rebecca Shankland, Nicolas Daumerie,
French Ass. of Community Psychology
France
Community Psychology only has a very recent history in France.
Although there are numerous actions and projects which are
based on community values, Community Psychology as such
remains confidential. The French Association of Community Psychology (Association Française de Psychologie Communautaire)
was created in 2006 with the aim of federating these psychologists which appeared to lack specific intervention and theoretical models, and felt illegitimate in their field work, because their
profession is historically closely linked to psychoanalysis and
clinical psychology. The political basis which structure the organisation of health care services in France are inspired by the
community model and mainly originated by Bonnafé, Basaglia,
and Goffmann. However, this organisation remained only structural, without any functional applications. Thus, the profession of
community psychologist does not exist as such, and no specific
curriculum is proposed for psychology students.
P132
Imagining a worldly community psychology
publication
P134
Community psychology: an answer to the new
fields of psychopedagogy work
Serdar M. Degirmencioglu
Independent Researcher/activist
Turkey
Globalization pushes the public to hear more about other countries and the media coverage is often very biased. There is also
a clear North/South gap in the coverage and the quality of the
news. There have been attempts recently to establish lines of dialogue in community psychology, particularly through sections in
newsletters devoted to international issues and conference sessions focused on cross-border linkages. However, the thrust and
impact of these efforts have been not very consonant with community psychology. Particularly lacking are well-informed strategies to deal with explosive issues, such as religious bigotry, ethnic violence, war, etc. that are impacting multiple countries and
regions. In the absence of a reasonably quick dissemination of
opinion and suggestions along community psychology lines of
communication, community psychologists are left at the mercy
of the media which is known to be very biased.
María Paula Juárez
Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona
Spain
This work begins with the initiative to know the field of the Community Psychology with the purpose to elaborate a pedagogy
unit inside Social Psychology subject from the career Licenciate
as a Psychopedagogy of UNRC. Our objective is to show the partial results of the bibliographic research, and, at the same time,
make a reflexion that allow us to connect this discipline with Psychopedagogy. We consider that the contributions of the Community Psychology in its conceptual and empiric development must
be known and recreated by the students, without disregard the
particularity of the study object: the man in learning situation.
We pretend to go deep into the knowledge of the Community
Psychology, like that of town Psychology, that deal with the Community and it is made with it and for it. To develop the proposal
we utilize a qualitative methodology of analysis and interpretation based on the comprehension of the texts and the research
coming from the Community Psychology. We try to recover the
contributions of this discipline from Latin American and argentine authors, about their pertinence to the present context of
our countries. For the established the communication must be
organized in three sections: Introduction to Community Psychology, contributions of itself to the Psychopedagogy task and final
thoughts about the treatment of thematic.
P133
Date rape: A study among Portuguese college
students
Mariana Ornelas; Henrique Pereira
Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada
Portugal
Although public awareness of rape has grown, date rape remains
underrecognized and understudied in Portugal. The purpose of
this study is to assess prevalence of date rape among Portuguese
students as well as to assess attitudes towards this phenomenon
and eventual differences between sexes. Participants in this study
were 1000 college students from Portuguese Universities who
150
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P a r t i c i p a t i v e ,
E m p o w e r i n g
&
d i v e r s e
C o m m u n i t i e s
P135
Preventing hospital admissions: Evaluation of
the Manchester Partnerships for Older People
Projects
Alison McNulty, Judith Sixsmith
Manchester Metropolitan University
United Kingdom
Background: Responding to a gap in low level preventative services, the Department of Heath funded 29 local authority – led Partnerships for Older People Projects (POPP) to increase, amongst
other aims, partnership working, and preventative services. Manchester POPP comprises of 3 workstreams; one of which funded
47 projects in line with POPP objectives and included projects
providing exercise, advocacy, and creative skills. Early national
findings reported that around each £1 spent on POPP is £1 saved
in emergency bed-day use, however this paper presents health
and well-being outcomes for Manchester POPP, providing a person-centred context from which to interpret cost-effectiveness.
Methods In addition to National Evaluation Questionnaires collecting health and well-being data, Manchester POPP evaluation
applied a case study approach collecting qualitative data including observations of all services, service user (n15) and stakeholder interviews (n15).
P136
Different Congregations, Different Spirituality
and Different Well-being
Eddie C. W. Ng; Adrian Fisher
Victoria University
Australia
Although literature demonstrates that the relationship between
religion and wellbeing is generally positive, information about
the religiously based context are rarely explored in detail. Drawing on multidimensional perspectives of spirituality, the present
study regards spirituality as an integral dimension of a person’s religious beliefs, practice and experience within a spiritually based
context, while the manifestation of spirituality can be viewed
from personal, interpersonal and social dimensions. 324 Chinese
from four Protestant communities, representing four major kinds
of Protestant spirituality, and one social center in Hong Kong
were recruited and MANOVA analysis shows that different religious context exhibit different kinds of spirituality and well-being
dimensions, manifested in life satisfaction, social trust and civic
participation. Results also suggest that the sense of community
within a congregation has significant role in affecting wellbeing
outcome.
All abstract information was taken from the Conference Review
System and then formatted to match that of the Conference
Program.
We apologise for any errors or oversigth in the production of
this document.
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C o n f e r e n c e
o n
C o m m u n i t y
P s y c h o l o g y
Doctoral, Masters, & Undergraduate Degrees in
• Clinical-Community Psychology
(APA accredited PsyD program)
• Marriage & Family Therapy (MS)
• College Counseling & Student Services (MS)
• Psychology (BA)
Diverse Student Body
Individualized Faculty
Attention
Smaller, Dynamic
Class Sizes
Nationally Recognized
University In A Great
Southern California
Location
Small, Private
University
Environment
Over 115 Years of Tradition in Quality Education
909.593.3511, Ext. 4179
http://www.ulv.edu/psychology/
The University of La Verne, located in La Verne CA and founded in 1891, is accredited by the Western Association of
Schools and Colleges. Graduates meet the educational requirements for Psychology and MFT licensure in California.
Knowledge • Service • Vision
152

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