MESH Vocabulary and Comprehension Strategy Handbook

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MESH Vocabulary and Comprehension Strategy Handbook
MESH
Vocabulary and Comprehension
World Languages
Strategy Handbook
SCHOOL BOARD OF BREVARD COUNTY
Educational Services Facility
2700 Judge Fran Jamieson Way
Viera, Florida 32940-6601
SCHOOL BOARD MEMBERS
Dr. Barbara A. Murray – Chairman
Dr. Amy Kneessy – Vice Chairman
Dr. Michael Krupp
Karen Henderson
Andy Ziegler
SUPERINTENDENT
Brian T. Binggeli, Ed.D
DIVISION OF CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION
ASSOCIATE SUPERINTENDENT
Cindy Van Meter
OFFICE OF SECONDARY PROGRAMS
DIRECTOR
Dr. Walter Christy
2011
Preface
The MESH Comprehension and Vocabulary Guide was written to provide tools and strategies
for you to use in your specific content area. In fact, the examples provided illustrate your subject
area content. The information contained in this guide serves several purposes:
∗ Staff development in reading strategies
∗ Ideas for your Individual Professional Development Plan (IPDP)
∗ A differentiation “road-map”, and
∗ Tier 2 and 3 Response to Intervention (RtI) strategies
This guide will be invaluable as you work to support all students in your classroom. Developing
a common language as instructors and providing common strategies for students to use
throughout their day will maximize student learning and achievement.
This guide was created during the Spring 2011 with the help of:
Patricia Adams – Secondary Literacy Facilitator
Alexandra Stewart – Graduate Intern (UCF, Spring 2011)
Linda Markley – World Languages Resource Teacher
Lisa Rogers, ESE Resourcce Teacher
Beverly Austin, Johnson Middle School
Lucy Casey, Satellite High School, DeLaura Middle School
Annette Gutches, Merritt Island High School
Diana Pittenger, Southwest Middle School
Ann Rafferty, Madison Middle School
Aretta Raines, Palm Bay High School
Tina Rice, DeLaura Middle School
Donna Spooner, Space Coast Jr./Sr. High School
Many thanks to them and the previous Literacy Coaches and Teachers who worked on similar
projects for their hard work, expertise and dedication to the students of Brevard Public Schools.
Table of Contents
Preface
Table of Contents
RtI Flow Chart
RtI Middle School reading Programs
RtI High School reading Programs
Florida Reading Model: Based on Educational Need
Differentiation Continuum
Lexile FAQ & Scale
Scaffolding FAQ & DI
Supporting Students in Comprehension (Good readers do)
Teacher directed lesson classroom routine (example)
When and Why to use the strategies (checklist)
Important notes before you begin.
1
2
4
6
7
9
12
14
20
21
22
Strategies
ABC Chart
Admit/Exit Slips
Affinity
Anticipation Guide
Back to Your Roots
List of Spanish Cognates
List of Spanish Homonyms and Homophones
Capsule Vocabulary
Concept Definition Map
Frayer Model
Graphic Organizer
Jigsaw
KWL
Possible Sentences
QAR
Quick Writes
RAFT
Read-Aloud
Text Connections
Text Map
THIEVES
Think-Pair-Share
UNRAVEL
VIPER W?
Vocabulary Grid
Vocabulary Menu
What Happened? So What? What Next?
Word/Flower Walls
X Marks the Spot
23
27
31
33
37
41
61
64
66
70
74
78
80
84
88
92
95
99
102
107
111
117
123
126
130
133
138
142
146
Resources
Web Resources
100 Reading Terms to Know
148
150
Appendix A – Response to Intervention Flow Chart
OVERVIEW OF RESPONSE TO
INTERVENTION
TIER 1
• Research-based core curriculum
• Includes all students
• Universal Screening 3 times yearly
If < 80% are at or near benchmark; RTI
Team reviews and evaluates
effectiveness of core curriculum and
fidelity of instructional practices. If >
80%, proceed to review of individual atrisk students.
If student at or
near
benchmarks
continue with
Tier 1
instruction.
If student falling
short of grade
level benchmarks,
RTI Team meets
to conduct a
comprehensive
review.
TIER 2
TIER 3
• Strategic interventions
• Research based supplemental
curriculum in addition to core
• Additional small group instruction
• Targeted to skill deficits
• Progress monitoring two times each
month (every other week)
• Ongoing parent communication
regarding progress
•
•
•
•
RTI Team reviews
progress data. If
adequate
progress towards
meeting
benchmarks, RTI
Team may decide
to continue
interventions or to
discontinue Tier 2.
RTI Team
reviews
progress data. If
adequate
progress
towards meeting
benchmarks,
RTI Team may
decide to
continue
interventions or
to discontinue
Tier 3.
RTI Team
considers the need
for Strategic Tier 2
interventions
RTI Team reviews
progress data. If
rate of learning is
slow or
inadequate to
reach
benchmarks, RTI
Team may decide
to add Tier 3
interventions.
RTI Team
includes
Specialists and/or
ESOL Staff
Notify parent in
writing and
include RTI
brochure.
Teacher
completes
Communication
Screening
Checklist
1
Intensive interventions
Increased time and/or intensity
Adjusted group sizes
Individually designed program based
on results of Tier 2 monitoring
• Weekly progress monitoring
• Ongoing parent communication
regarding progress
RTI Team
reviews progress
data. If available
interventions are
unsuccessful (i.e.,
student will not
meet benchmark
at present rate of
learning) OR
Intensity of
instruction cannot
be sustained
indefinitely;
consider referral
to Child Study
Team.
Child Study Team
will consider ESE
referral.
RESPONSE TO INTERVENTION DELIVERY SYSTEM
MIDDLE SCHOOLS – READING PROGRAMS
Classroom Assignments/
Curricular Options
Undifferentiated Classroom
Assignment
Content Area Program(s)
implementing Reading
Strategies
Classroom Assignment by
Educational Need
Developmental Reading
Program and Targeted
Supplemental
(1 period)
Intensive Intervention
Reading Program
(2 periods)
Instructional Intervention
Support Continuum
SBRR
Best Practices
Differentiated
Small Group
Instruction
Targeted Small
Group
Instruction
Individual
Accommodations/
Modifications
Intensive
Intervention
Strategies
(Tier 1)
(Tiers 1 and 2)
(Tier 2)
(Tiers 2 and 3)
(Tier 3)
2
3
RESPONSE TO INTERVENTION DELIVERY SYSTEM
HIGH SCHOOLS – READING PROGRAMS
Classroom Assignments/
Curricular Options
Undifferentiated Classroom
Assignment
Content Area Program(s)
implementing Reading
Strategies
Classroom Assignment by
Educational Need
Intensive Intervention
Program
(2 periods)
Intensive Reading
Program
(1 period)
Instructional Intervention
Support Continuum
SBRR
Best Practices
Differentiated
Small Group
Instruction
Targeted Small
Group
Instruction
Individual
Accommodations/
Modifications
Intensive
Intervention
Strategies
(Tier 1)
(Tiers 1 and 2)
(Tier 2)
(Tiers 2 and 3)
(Tier 3)
4
Three to Four Screenings per
Year to Monitor Student Progress
FAIR, CBA
5
6
Differentiation Continuum
Not Differentiated
Fully Differentiated
Comprehension assessment is at the end
A single form of assessment is used
Teacher directs student behavior
Comprehension instruction is whole class
Comprehension assessment is ongoing
Diagnostic comprehension assessment is used
Teacher scaffolds self-reliant learning
Flexible grouping is practiced
Materials are varied
Multiple forms of intelligence are valued
Assignments offer multiple options
Time is flexible in terms of student needs
Teacher facilitates student problem solving
Grading is determined by learning goals
Coverage of texts and curriculum drive curriculum instruction
Intelligence is viewed narrowly
Single option assignments
Time is inflexible
Teacher solves problems
Grading is based on teacher-set, inflexible objectives
Formal definition of differentiation: A teacher recognizes those academic differences and modifies classroom instruction in order to
help each student reach his or her academic potential.
Informal definition of differentiation: Classroom practice that looks eyeball to eyeball with the reality that students differ and with
the most effective teachers doing whatever it takes to hook the whole range of students on learning.
“Differentiating is first and foremost good instruction. Many current understandings about learning provide strong support for
classrooms that recognize, honor and cultivate individuality.” – Carol Ann Tomlinson
Adapted from Carol Tomlinson, 1999 and FLaRE’s K-12 Reading Endorsement Differentiation Course
7
Principles of Differentiation
• Students differ in experiences, readiness, interest, intelligences, language, culture, gender, and mode of learning.
• Educators must meet each student at his or her starting point and ensure substantial growth during each school term.
• Classrooms that ignore student differences are unlikely to maximize potential in any student who differs significantly from the
“norm”.
• Teachers need to make modifications for students rather than assume students must modify themselves to fit the curriculum.
• Classroom practices should always keep in mind that human brains learn best when curriculum is highly interesting and highly
relevant.
Adapted from Tomlinson, 1999
Adapted from FLaRE’s K-12 Reading Endorsement Differentiation Course
8
Brevard Public Schools
The Lexile Framework for Reading
An informational page for all teachers
Q: What is the Lexile Framework for Reading?
A: The Lexile Framework measures both text difficulty and the current reading ability of
students. Since Lexiles measure students and text on the same scale, they can be used to match
your students to appropriate text inside the classroom, at the library, and at home.
Q. Why is this important to me as an elementary teacher? A secondary content area
teacher?
A: Your students are likely to read more if they are able to read books that match their current
reading level. You will help students achieve a higher level of comprehension if you match
Lexiled texts to student Lexile measures. If a passage must be used that is higher than most
students’ Lexile measures, significant scaffolding must take place before, during, and after the
lesson.
Q: How can I easily find an individual student’s Lexile measure?
A: All students who take the Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI) will receive a Lexile measure
from 200L (developing reader) to 1700L (advanced, highly proficient reader). Beginning in
September 2007, all students in grades 2-10+ will have documented Lexile measures.
Q: How can I easily find the Lexile level of a text or find articles that are Lexiled?
A: For databases of Lexiled books and articles, as well as other tools to help match your
students to Lexiled texts, link to the MetaMetrics website at the following address:
http://www/lexiles.com
Q: How does the Lexile Framework for Reading Work?
A: Your students can be appropriately matched with books that can be both engaging and
challenging. Implementation of Lexiles will be useful in managing instructional programs and
resources for individual student success.
Lexile Scale: A developmental
scale for reading that ranges from
200L for beginning readers to
above 1700L for advanced texts.
Lexile Measure: A numeric
representation of a reader’s
ability and of a text’s difficulty;
both followed by an ‘L’ (for
Lexile Scale) i.e. 850L.
=
Lexile Range: The suggested
range of Lexiled texts that a reader
should be reading.
Instructional: +50L to 150L
Independent: +50L to -100L
The optimal level of reading comprehension is not a “one-size-fits-all notion.”
This optimal level is also dependent on the characteristics of the reader (such
as prior knowledge), the motivation of the reader, (how interesting the subject
is to the reader), and the characteristics of the text (such as structure and
illustrations).
9
6/26/09
When reader and text are appropriately matched, a reader can enjoy a comprehension rate of
about 75%-85%. The 75 percent comprehension level corresponds to that balance of skill and
difficulty that allows reading to be both a positive and a challenging experience-a combination
that encourages the reader to grow in proficiency and motivation.
10
6/26/09
Typical Text Demand
Lexile Ranges of Text by Grade
(from Lexile Research & Map)
Grade in School
Typical Text Demand
1st Grade
2nd Grade
3rd Grade
4th Grade
5th Grade
6th Grade
7th Grade
8th Grade
9th Grade
10th Grade
11th and 12th Grade
200L to 400L
300L to 500L
500L to 700L
650L to 850L
750L to 950L
850L to 1050L
950L to 1075L
1000L to 1100L
1050L to 1150L
1100L to 1200L
1100L to 1300L
Beyond High School Average Text Demand
(from Lexile Research)
Military (training/field manuals)
Citizenship (newspapers, voting, jury)
Workplace (workplace study materials)
Postsecondary - first two yrs (textbooks)
1180L
1230L
1260L
1355L
Note: See Lexile Map and Book Database (www.lexile.com) for specific text measures
11
What is Scaffolding?
Scaffolding is an instructional technique whereby the teacher models the desired learning
strategy or task, then gradually shifts responsibility to the students.
What is its purpose?
Scaffolding essentially means modifying some of the work for the student who isn’t quite ready
to accomplish a task independently. Like the supports that construction workers use on buildings,
scaffolding is intended to be temporary. It is there to aid the completion of a task and it is
eventually removed. Think of how children learn to swim (or ride a bike). You support them
through the learning process, arms ready to keep them from sinking (or falling). As they gain
ability and confidence, they can swim further with less support from you. Eventually you aren’t
needed at all and children try more difficult strokes, swimming in the deep end and even jumping
off the high dive.
Scaffolding in the classroom is analogous to teaching swimming. Provide students with much
support during initial instruction, give assistance during guided practice, and encourage
independence in applying the strategies in a variety of situations, but be ready to help if they start
sinking. Just as learning to swim takes a long time with a great deal of teaching, modeling and
coaching, learning to successfully apply comprehension strategies takes many lessons and the
learning curve will vary from student to student.
Some guidelines for scaffolding include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Give assistance before, during and after reading.
Make invisible cognitive skills visible (think aloud).
Remember that support is needed and given on a continuum, with the greatest need and
support occurring during initial instruction.
Understand that to help students become more proficient, many lessons and guided
practice experiences will be needed.
Encourage students to consider how they know what they know.
Pair advanced learners with developing ones.
Engage students in cooperative learning. In this type of environment students help
students in small group settings but still have some teacher assistance. This can serve as a
step in the process of decreasing the scaffolds provided by the educator and needed by
students.
Use an apprenticeship model whereby an expert models an activity, provides the learner
with advice and examples guides the student in practice and then tapers off support until
the
student
can
do
the
task
alone.
12
Assessment & Evaluation Considerations:
•
•
•
Teacher observation - includes anecdotal notes, class records, and classroom circulation
Student self-assessment - students rate their own behavior and the behavior of their peers
using a rubric
Graphic Organizers - A graphic organizer is a specific type of scaffolding tool. It is a way
to visually represent an idea—to use a drawing to organize one’s thinking. Graphic
organizers include cycles, webs (e.g., cluster, network, org chart, family tree, chain of
events), maps (e.g., spider, fishbone, concept), continua (e.g., timelines, degree scales),
matrices (e.g., compare/contrast, storyboard), Venn diagrams, and charts (e.g., flow,
KWL, SQ3R).
Teacher Resource:
•
Scaffolding for Success by James MacKenzie
13
Supporting Students in Comprehension
Before Reading:
Assess prior knowledge
Preview text
Set purpose for reading
Predict and anticipate (frontload)
During Reading:
Monitor comprehension
Think about and connect with the text
Question text, author and self
Note important details and summarize
Predict and infer
Revise and confirm predictions and inferences
After Reading:
Review and evaluate text and information learned
Apply ideas learned
Share content in various ways and formats
(e.g., discussions, visual representations, group project, lab report, chart or diagram,
Thinking Map, other graphic organizers)
Other:
Model, model, model and scaffold support
Provide appropriate initial instruction and practice
Provide a variety of text for guided practice
Provide opportunities to discuss and write about content
Adapted from FLaRE’s K-12 Reading Endorsement Differentiation Course
14
What Proficient Readers do before, during and after Reading
Before Reading
During Reading
Good readers…
Good readers…
Access prior knowledge and experiences Access prior knowledge and experiences
• Think about what they already
• Combine text information with
know about the topic
background information to learn
new information
• Think about what ideas and words
might appear in the text
• Use schema to enhance
understanding and to store
• Relate text to their world
information in long-term memory
knowledge, text knowledge and
personal experiences
Determine importance in text
Determine importance in text
• Set a purpose for reading
• Identify main ideas or theme
• Make decisions based on the genre
• Use text features to determine
of the text:
importance (bold or italicized print,
o Is it a story? How should I
figures, photographs, heading,
read it?
insets)
o Is it science? How should I
read it?
o Is it an article? How should
I read it?
o Is it directions? How should
I read it?
Draw inferences
Utilize text structure to determine
importance
• Make initial prediction using title,
cover, illustrations, knowledge of
• Recognize cause and effect
topic, or preview of the text and
• Compare and contrast information
illustrations
• Recognize story structure
• Anticipate what the story may be
• Recognize chronological order
about
• Recognize problem/solution
• Form an initial hypothesis or an
opinion about the text.
15
After Reading
Good readers…
Synthesize information
• Connect ideas from several
different sources
o Text-to-text
o Text-to-self
o Text-to-world
• Sequence ideas and story events
• Summarize information
• Draw logical conclusions based on
text and other knowledge
• Make generalizations
• Form and support opinions
• Classify and categorize information
• Sort and prioritize information in
long-term memory
• Retell events or key facts
• Consider author’s viewpoint,
purpose and style
• Create personal interpretations
Draw inferences
• Make confirm and alter predictions
• Form and support opinions
• Create personal interpretations
Ask questions to confirm
understandings
• Question to clarify meaning (words
& ideas)
• Question the author and the key
theme
Use sensory images
• Create or use images from all
senses
• Visualize information from text,
illustrations and diagrams, etc.
• Adapt images based on others’
responses and incorporate new
information while reading
16
Prompting Questions to Help Students become Better Learners
Before Reading Questions
During Reading Questions
These questions help students prepare their
minds for learning.
These questions help students understand
what they are reading at the level of the
word, sentence, section and whole text.
Why are you reading?
• For enjoyment?
• To get information?
Where will you pause to think about
what you have read?
• Pause at the end of the sentence,
paragraph, or section to see which
helps you to remember what you
have read.
• If you lose the meaning of what
you are reading, go back and
reread.
How do you figure out a new word?
• Listen to yourself read in your
mind as though you were reading
aloud.
• Use punctuation and text clues to
work out the meaning of a
sentence.
If you have to get information, what will
you be expected to do with it?
• Answer comprehension questions?
• Note the main points and/or
summarize?
What is the text about?
• Use titles, headings, subheadings,
or skim the first few pages to help
find out what the text will be about.
Do you form mind pictures as you read?
• The picture can change with new
information.
• It helps to describe the picture to
17
After Reading Questions
It’s important for students to check how
much they understand and remember.
Encourage students to think about which
questions help them learn. Encourage them
to use them again and/or try other ones.
What did you learn?
• What new information did you
discover?
• What was the story about?
• How will you use this information?
• How has this information changed
you?
How did the author help make reading
easier?
• How were the facts presented to
you to help you learn?
• How was the text organized? Did it
help you learn?
• What was the author’s background?
Was he/she biased? Persuasive?
• What clues in the story helped you
understand the plot?
What reading strategies helped you
learn?
• Visualizing?
• Summarizing?
•
others.
Make a prediction about what you
think the text is about.
Adapted from FLaRE’s K-12 Reading Endorsement Differentiation Course
What do you already know about the
Do you imagine yourself in the story or
topic?
using the information you are reading
about?
• It helps to add new information to
what is already known.
• Ask yourself how you would feel
or what you would see and do.
• It is like adding flesh to a skeleton.
The skeleton is made up of all the
• Imagine yourself using the
bits of information you pull from
information you are reading about.
memory. The flesh is the new
information you get from reading.
How will you go about reading?
Do you ask questions while reading?
• Listen to yourself read and make a
• What will happen next?
picture of the information in your
• What has told me this?
mind.
• How could this information be
• Change the mind picture as you
used?
read and learn more information.
• How does this new information
• Try to work out the meaning of
change what I already knew about
new words or guess and read on.
this topic?
• Reread sections that do not make
sense.
Do you remind yourself why you are
reading and how you are reading?
• This helps you focus when you lose
concentration
18
•
•
Predicting and confirming?
What others?
Did you learn anything new or unusual?
Why did the author write this material?
• To entertain you?
• To inform you?
• To persuade you?
How will you remember this
information? Try these memory
strategies:
• Describe the main ideas briefly.
• Connect new information to what
you already know.
• Draw a picture of the ideas.
• Think about when the ideas could
be used.
• What new words were found in the
•
•
Adapted from FLaRE’s K-12 Reading Endorsement Differentiation Course
19
text?
When might you use the new words
in the future?
What words did you find hard to
read?
Teacher Directed Lesson
Classroom Routine
Activity
Purpose
Recommended
Time
5 minutes
1. Student Triads
Groups are collecting homework, forms, organizing
materials and books.
Question: As the teacher, what could you be doing
during this student-led time?
2. Content Review/
Summary
Teacher-led or student-led discussion/activity of
prior content covered.
Question: What types of activities could you utilize
for prior knowledge review?
5 minutes
3. New Content
New information is taught
Question: What strategies can you use to introduce
new concepts/content? What would the model; “I do
it, we do it, you do it” look like in your content area?
20 minutes
4. Self-evaluation
Students have opportunities to check their own
understanding of the new content/concept. You
know who understands and what content needs
reframing.
Question: Brainstorm and list strategies that can be
used in your content area. Will the strategies listed
ensure 100% of students self-evaluating their own
learning?
5. Clarification/
Wrap-up
Teacher provides additional information to correct
misinformation generated by students selfevaluation.
Question: What resources do you have in your
classroom to support student learning?
Students are responsible for helping their group with
homework, test, materials organization.
Question: What could you be doing during this
time?
Developed by Lisa Rogers, Brevard Public Schools 2008
6. Student Triads/
Exit Slips
20
5 minutes
5 minutes
5 minutes
Vocabulary
X
X
Comprehension
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Strategy
ABC Chart
Admit/Exit Slips
Affinity
Anticipation
Guides
Back to Your Roots
Concept Definition
Map
Frayer Model
Graphic Organizers
Jigsaw
KWL Chart
Possible Sentences
QAR/Levels of
Questions
Quick Writes
RAFT
Read Aloud
Text Connections
THIEVES
Think-Pair-Share
UNRAVEL
VIPERW
Vocabulary Menu
Capsule
Vocabulary
What Happens, So
What
World/Plant Wall
X Marks the Spot
21
Before
X
X
During
After
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
****Note: All examples are from Prentice Hall: Realidades Series. Pages mentioned in the example
are from the student edition Copyright 2008, approved by Brevard County for Spanish instruction
unless otherwise stated in each example.
Reference List for Examples:
2010 The College Board (www.collegeboard.com) Spanish Language exam sample questions
¡Avancemos! Level 1 – McDougal Littell; retrieved from:
http://www.classzone.com/cz/books/avancemos_1/book_home.htm
El RatoncitoPérez y The Tooth Fairy by Jane Cadwallader & Gustavo Mazali
Falsos Amigos – False Spanish to English cognates:
http://www.elearnspanishlanguage.com/vocabulary/falsosamigos.html
Realidades (Florida) Level 1 – Prentice Hall, 2008
Realidades (Florida) Level 3 – Prentice Hall, 2008
Simón Bolívar reading passage. Retrieved from:
http://teacherlink.ed.usu.edu/tlresources/units/champions/simonbolivar.pdf
Note to instructors:
All strategies in this book can be used with any level student in any World Languages classroom.
While some activities may need to be partially or wholly in English at first the same activities can be
moved into the target language within Level 1 or 2 with short or one word answers. By Level 3 all
activities can be done in the target language. Whenever possible we have included different level
activities as an example for instructors. Please see “My Notes and Ideas” in each section for specific
considerations within each strategy.
Some example text is in Spanish and translations were made whenever possible, most long text is in
English for ease of reading in different language classrooms.
22
Strategy Name: ABC Chart
Strategy Explanation: ABC Chart is a brainstorming activity used to activate prior knowledge using
each letter of the alphabet. Students fill in the chart with terms or words that relate to the topic under
the appropriate letter (every letter may not be used).
RtI Target Tier: Tier 1
Materials: Paper, chart paper, markers, pencils, blackline master
Estimated Time for Strategy: 10 – 15 minutes
Steps for Strategy:
I do…
•
•
•
Selected topic
Create or pass out blackline (see appendix)
Explain activity
We do…
•
Model one alphabet letter (if needed)
You do…
•
Students complete chart individually, pairs or small groups
23
Support and Extension: ABC
Support: To differentiate for struggling learners, teacher:
•
•
•
•
Assigns work with partner or team
Allows verbal responses
Proves one or two answers
Allows picture representation
Extension: To challenge students, teacher
• Requires students to generate more words
• Allows students to compete to see who writes the most words
My Notes and Ideas: This strategy can be used with one or two word answers in English or the target
language for Level 1 students. It can be wholly in the target language by Level 2.
How can this apply to my classroom?
24
Name: ____________________________________
Topic: ____________________________________
ABC Brainstorm Activity
A
G
M
S
B
H
N
T
C
I
O
U
D
J
P
V
E
K
Q
W
F
L
R
XYZ
25
Example/Ejemplo
Name/Nombre: ____________________________________
Topic/Tema: __La Casa (Realidades 1, Tema 6, pg. 298)____________
ABC Brainstorm Activity
A
G
garaje
M
mesa
S
sala
B
baño
H
N
T
C
comedor
cocina
I
O
U
D
J
P
Patio
Primer piso
V
E
escalera
K
Q
W
F
L
R
XYZ
26
Strategy Name: Admit/Exit Slip
Strategy Explanation: Admit/Exit slips are written student responses to questions posed – for admit
slips, prior class; for exit slips, at the end of class. It is an effective way to informally assess student
understanding of new and old concepts. They are also useful in stimulating critical thinking and can be
used as springboard for new learning.
RtI Target Tier: Tier 1
Materials: Copy slips (blackline master) or index cards, pens/pencils
Estimated Time for Strategy: 5 – 10 minutes
Steps for Strategy:
I do…
•
Pose a pre-lesson or post-lesson question for the students to
respond
•
Students respond on index cards or printed slips
We do…
You do…
27
Support and Extension: Admit/Exit Slips
Support: To differentiate for struggling learners, teacher
• Provides more modeling
• Assigns peer partners
• Allows verbal responses
• Allows picture representation
Extension: To challenge students, teacher
• Can use admit slips as a warm-up/bell ringer
• Use exit slips as a homework assignment
My Notes and Ideas: While this strategy can be used at the higher language levels with full
sentences, it can be used successfully in a Level 1 or 2 classes with one-word answers or short phrases.
The use of sentence stems for the beginner classes would help greatly in bringing out the students ideas
while provided scaffolded approach to a subject.
How can this apply to my classroom?
28
Name: _________________________________
Date: _______________
Exit Slip
Briefly summarize what you learned today:
During today’s lesson I did not understand:
One question that I have about today’s lesson is:
29
Admit/Exit Slip Example:
Admit Slips
1. Write one (or more) things that you already know about ________. (Useful to begin a unit or
lesson)
2. Write one question that you still have about the activity that we did yesterday.
3. Write an explanation of the process you used to solve one problem you did for homework last
night.
Exit Slips
1. One thing I learned today is ……
2. One thing I am not sure about today’s lesson is ……
3. I can use this knowledge or process again when I ……
(All examples are related to Realidades 1, Tema 6 starting on pg. 298)
Example/Ejemplo 1 (admit)
Escribe algo que ya sabes sobre la arquitectura Espanola en el frente de la tarjeta. Escribe una pregunta
que tengas sobre cómo y porque la arquitectura Española diseña las casa en la manera típica en la parte
de atrás de la tarjeta.
Write one thing you already know about Spanish architecture on the front of your card. Write one
question you have about why typical Spanish homes are built the way they are on the back of your
card.
Example/Ejemplo 2 (admit/exit)
¿Qué te confunde sobre los nombre de los cuartos o las actividades comunes en una casa Española?
What confuses you about the names of rooms or activities related to the Spanish household?
Example/Ejemplo 3 (exit)
¿Qué sobre esta unidad compartirías con un amigo/a que no está en esta clase? Escribe porque esa
información es tan importante o interesante.
What about today’s lesson would you share with someone not in your class? Write why that piece of
information is important and/or interesting.
Example/Ejemplo 4 (exit)
Termina esta frase: “Yo no sabía que…”
Write: “I didn’t know that ……” and briefly describe what it is.
30
Strategy Name: Affinity
Strategy Explanation: Affinity, (finding similarities) is one way to help students organize their
reading. Students find main ideas and details and then categorize them in according to their
similarities. Skills used as a result of the affinity strategy include brainstorming, piggybacking,
presenting, referencing text for proof, or categorizing. All learning modalities are addressed.
RtI Target Tier: Tier 1
Materials: Chart paper, sticky notes, markers
Estimated Time for Strategy: 40-50 minutes
Steps for Strategy:
I do…
•
•
•
Assign text selection for 3-4 teams of students to read
Assign one fluent reader in each team to read the selection aloud
Teacher facilitates groups during their independent work
We do…
•
Tell students that they will be recording details on sticky notes, one
detailed phrase per note; then place note on chart paper
You do…
•
Students silently go to chart, read notes, and organize notes for
similarities until all have been grouped together
Students validate their placement of the notes
Once consensus is reached students write category titles at the top
of each group
After teacher feedback, students share their chart with class
•
•
•
31
Support and Extension: Affinity
Support: To differentiate for struggling learners, teacher
• Assign peer partner(s)
Extension: To challenge students, teacher
• Maybe have students create a PowerPoint presentation as an end product
My Notes and Ideas:
This activity can be used as a review activity and is designed for one word or short phrase answers. It
is ideal for all levels of language acquisition. As a further note, an Affinity diagram may be used
instead of a pop-quiz
How can this apply to my classroom?
32
Strategy Name: Anticipation Guide (Smith, 1978)
Strategy Explanation: Anticipation guides are used to effectively build background knowledge,
clarify students’ thinking, identify misconceptions, and provoke curiosity through the use of statements
related to a topic and upcoming lesson.
RtI Target Tier: Tier 1
Materials: Whiteboard, overhead projector/document camera, blackline master, or chart paper
Estimated Time for Strategy: 5 – 10 minutes
Steps for Strategy:
I do…
•
•
Identify key ideas and concepts in the text that students will be
reading
Create statements that students can answer without having read the
text
Develop three to six statements that challenge or modify students
pre-existing knowledge
Statements should elicit student opinion and motivate discussion
We do…
•
Model one statement (if needed)
You do…
•
•
Students should be prepared to defend their opinion
Have students read the text and revisit the anticipation guide to see
if their opinions have changed or stayed the same
•
•
33
Support and Extension: Anticipation Guide
Support: To differentiate for struggling learners, teacher
• Provides more modeling
• Assign peer partner(s)
• Limit the number of statements
Extension: To challenge students, teacher
• Has students explain why they agree or disagree
• Requires students to support their statements with examples from the text
My Notes and Ideas: This strategy can be used with answers in English for the Level 1 students, or
with a short answer or single word answers for Level 1 and 2 students. This activity is also a good way
to bring out cultural and prior knowledge for the students. In this example we will read a book that
deals with a subject we are all familiar with across the world (loosing baby teeth and what happens to
them after we go to sleep). You can use a topic (holidays, birthdays, death, etc.) and use this
anticipatory guide as a way to engage the students in meaningful conversation before and after the
reading regarding these universal subjects.
How can this apply to my classroom?
34
Name: ________________________________________
Topic/Tema: ________________________________________
Anticipation Guide
Directions:
Response Before/Respuesta antes
Statement/Frase
35
Response After/Respuesta despues
Name: ________________________________________
Book/Libro/Tema: El Ratoncito Pérez y The Tooth Fairy by Jane Cadwallader & Gustavo Mazali
Anticipation Guide
Directions: Before we read the book, read the statements to yourself. If you believe the statement is
true, write the word “true” to the left of it in the “Response Before” column. If you believe the
statement is false, put the word “false” to the left of it in the “Response Before” column. (Be ready to
explain your answers) Then we will read El Ratoncito Perez and see if the responses were correct.
Response Before/Respuesta
antes
Statement/Frase
1. El Ratón Pérez es un personaje
de niños.
2. El Ratón Pérez le trae dinero a
los niños que pierden un diente.
3. El Ratón Pérez tiene el mismo
trabajo que The Tooth Fairy.
4. El Ratón Pérez llegan a un
acuerdo con la Tooth Fairy.
36
Response After/Respuesta
despues
Strategy Name: Back to Roots
Strategy Explanation: Back to Our Roots build an awareness of Greek/Latin word roots to help
students understand the origin of words, especially math and science vocabulary. Students use of
Greek or Latin root words lists to create a map. Students can access words through knowledge of these
roots.
RtI Target Tier: Tier 1
Materials: A word root list, web blackline master, thesaurus, dictionaries, sample word web, notebook
paper, chart paper, overhead/document camera or whiteboard, pens/pencils, text and/or textbook.
Estimated Time for Strategy: Time varies
Steps for Strategy:
I do…
•
•
•
Model word web using Greek/Latin root
Divide class into groups of 4-6 students
Pass out Greek/Latin word list
We do…
•
•
Within each group, each student chooses 2 different word roots
Direct students to use their text, dictionaries and other resources to
find 4 words that contain their chosen word root
You do…
•
Students create a word web for each word within a minimum of 4
outer rays with related words and their meanings
Students share their web with the class
•
37
Support and Extension: Back to Your Roots
Support: To differentiate for struggling learners, teacher
• Provides more modeling
• Allows work with partner or team
• Allows verbal responses
• Assigns more basic roots
• Provides one or two answers
• Allows picture representation
Extension: To challenge students, teacher
• Requires students to generate more words
• Has students compete to see who makes the most words
• Has students create morpheme word wall with examples
• Has students self select roots
• Challenges students to create another organizer for the word part (ie graph is the root which
would be in original organizer, geo could be used in another organizer)
• Asks students to analyze other word parts like prefixes and suffixes
My Notes and Ideas: This activity can be adjusted so that instead of roots we can use homonyms for
words between English and your target language. This is also a great activity for helping students
across subject areas, as this is a reading skill that applies to all subjects.
How can this apply to my classroom?
38
Back to Your Roots
Word/Topic – Palabra/Tema
Word
Word Root
Word
Word
39
Back to Your Roots
(Modified)
Desplegar
(To unfold)
DES
Desdecirse
(to go back on
one’s word)
Descubrir
(to discover)
40
List of Spanish to English Cognates
Quick reference guide from SpanishBZ.com http://www.spanish.bz/cognates.htm
*Notes: the first word is in Spanish and the second is in English. This notes is made as some words are
spelled the same in Spanish and English.
http://www.elearnspanishlanguage.com/vocabulary/falsosamigos.html
Updated falsos amigos
Discusión vs Discussion
Discusión can be a simple discussion, but more commonly it refers to something more
intense, like a debate, dispute, or argument.
Discussion is equivalent to discusión or deliberaciones.
Equivocado vs Equivocal
Equivocado means wrong.
Equivocal is equívoco or ambiguo.
Nudo vs Nude
Nudo is a noun: knot, node, joint.
Nude is a noun or adjective: desnudo.
41
Pie vs Pie
Pie = foot.
Pie = pastel.
Tabla vs Table
Tabla can refer to a board, plank, sheet (of metal), table top, or stage.
Table is una mesa.
Previous falsos amigos
Absoluto vs Absolute(ly)
Absoluto is a rather interesting word. Alone, it means absolute, utter, complete. When
preceded by en, it means not at all, by no means, no way.
Absolute = absoluto. Absolutely = absolutamente, completamente, totalmente.
Actual vs Actual
Actual means current or present: El presidente actual vive en Madrid - The current
president lives in Madrid. Actualmente means currently, at present, or now.
Actual means verdadero or efectivo. Actually can be translated by realmente, en
realidad, or en efecto.
Advertencia vs Advertisement
Advertencia is a warning, piece of advice, reminder, or preface.
Advertisement = un anuncio.
Agonía vs Agony
Agonía = death throes, dying moments.
Agony refers to terrible physical or mental pain: dolor agudo, angustia.
Alterado vs Altered
Alterado can mean changed or altered as well as angry or upset.
Altered = modificado, cambiado, alterado.
42
Americano vs American
Americano usually refers to anyone from North or South America.
American = estaounidense (adjective of Estados Unidos - United States)
Aplicar vs Apply
Aplicar means to apply something, like a theory, paint, or sanctions.
Apply = aplicar when it is a transitive verb. As an intransitive verb, it has many
translations: apply for a job - solicitar or presentar; to apply oneself to - dirigirse a uno;
to apply in the sense of be applicable - ser aplicable or interesar.
Apología vs Apology
Apología refers to defense or a eulogy.
Apology = una disculpa or excusa.
Aprobar vs Approve
Aprobar means to approve (of), consent to, or endorse, as well as to pass a test or class.
Approve = aprobar.
Arena vs Arena
Arena means sand.
Arena = anfiteatro, redondel, plaza.
Argumento vs Argument
Argumento means argument in the sense of reasoning (as in a courtroom).
Argument in the sense of disagreement translates as una discusión, pelea, disputa, or
polémica.
Asesino vs Assassin
Asesino can refer to an assassin as well as non-political murderer or killer. It's also an
adjective: murderous.
Assassin = asesino.
Asistencia vs Assistance
Asistencia usually means attendance, though it can also mean assistance.
Assistance is most commonly translated by ayuda or auxilio.
Asistir vs Assist
Asistir means to attend.
Assist translates as ayudar.
43
Atender vs Attend
Atender can mean to attend in Latin America, but in Spain it means to pay attention to,
to heed, or to care for.
Attend = asistir.
Autor vs Author
Autor can refer to an author or writer as well as the creator of something (e.g., a
painting) or the perpetrator of a crime.
Author nearly indicates a writer: un autor, una autora.
Bachillerato vs Bachelor
Bachillerato is the equivalent of a high school diploma in the US or A-levels in the UK.
Bachelor refers to an unmarried man: un soltero. A bachelor's degree is una
licenciatura.
Billón vs Billion
Billón is kind of a semi-false cognate. It indicates a trillion in US, billion in UK.
Billion, as spoken by an American, = mil millones. When a Brit says billion, s/he means
billón.
Bizarro vs Bizarre
Bizarro has two categories of meaning: 1) valient, gallant, brave, or 2) generous.
Bizarre means extraño or raro (see raro vs rare, below).
Blanco vs Blank
Blanco is a semi-false cognate. It is usually the Spanish word for the color white but can
in some instances be translated by blank: una página blanca - a blank sheet of paper.
Blank is an adjective meaning en blanco, liso, or sin adorno.
Blindar vs Blind
Blindar means to armor-plate or to shield, and its adjective blindado means armorplated, shielded, or bullet-proof.
Blind = ciego as an adjective, and cegar or deslumbrar as a verb.
Bufete vs Buffet
Bufete is a desk or a lawyer's office.
Buffet refers to una cantina, un buffet libre, or una comida buffet.
44
Cámara vs Camera
Cámara can mean a camera, a camera operator, or a chamber.
Camera usually refers to a still camera: una cámara, una máquina fotográfica.
Campo vs Camp
Campo means country(side), field, or farm.
Camp refers to un campamento.
Cargo vs Cargo
Cargo refers to a post or position as well as a charge in all senses: hacerse cargo de - to
take charge, sin cargo - free of charge, retirar los cargos contra - to drop the charges
against.
Cargo = cargamento, carga.
Carpeta vs Carpet
Carpeta = folder, file, portfolio, briefcase, or table cloth.
Carpet is una alfombra or una moqueta.
Carrera vs Career
Carrera can refer to any of the following: running, race; a row or line; a beam, girder,
or joist; route, ride, journey, course; avenue; career; or university studies.
Career indicates una carrera profesional or una profesión.
Carta vs Cart/Card
Carta refers to a (postal) letter, document, deed, charter, map, or menu.
Cart is un carro, una carreta, un carretón, or una carretilla. A card is usually una
tarjeta.
Chocar vs Choke
Chocar normally means to shock or startle, but can also mean to clink (glasses) or to
shake (hands).
Choke = sofocarse or atragantarse.
Colegio vs College
Colegio refers to a high school, usually private.
College can be translated by colegio only when it refers to "colleges" as in divisions of a
school. Otherwise, college = universidad or escuela superior.
45
Colorado vs Colored
Colorado means red or reddish.
Colored = de color.
Complexión vs Complexion
Complexión refers to one's constitution, make-up, temperament, or physical build.
Complexion = la tez, el cutiz, or la piel.
Compromiso vs Compromise
Compromiso is an obligation, commitment, promise, or agreement.
Compromise as a noun can be expressed as una transacción, una avenencia, unas
concesiones recíprocas, el término medio, or la solución intermedia. The verb is
comprometer or transigir.
Conductor vs Conductor
Conductor equals conductor when referring to science: un conductor de electricidad conductor of electricity. It can also mean a driver or a TV or radio presenter.
Conductor of an orchestra is un(a) director(a), and train conductor is un(a) revisor(a).
Conexión vs Connection
Conexión is a physical or logical connection.
Connection when referring to human/emotional connections is una relación.
Conferencia vs Conference
Conferencia can mean conference, meeting, lecture, speech, or phone call.
Conference = una conferencia, una reunión, una asamblea, or un congreso.
Constipación vs Constipation
Constipación and its synonym constipado both refer to a cold or catarrh.
Constipation = el estreñimiento.
Contestar vs Contest
Contestar means to answer or reply.
Contest as a verb means impugnar, atacar, disputar, or contender.
Conveniente vs Convenient
Conveniente means suitable, fitting, proper, useful, or advantageous.
Convenient means cómodo, práctico, útil, or accesible.
46
Copa vs Cup
Copa = a glass or goblet, an alcoholic drink, a trophy (la Copa del Mundo - World
Cup).
Cup = una taza.
Copia vs Copy
Copia is a photopcopy or other duplicate.
Copy can also mean un ejemplar (of a book) or un número (of a magazine).
Coraje vs Courage
Coraje can mean courage as well as anger.
Courage can be translated by el coraje as well as el valor, la valentía, los ánimos, and
las fuerzas.
Corresponder vs Correspond
Corresponder means things like to correspond, tally, fit in, match, or belong.
Correspond translates to corresponder only in the sense of agreeing with or matching
(e.g., this corresponds with our thoughts). When referring to a correspondence by mail,
the Spanish translation is escribirse or estar en correspondencia con.
Cuestión vs Question
Cuestión is a matter/issue/question to be resolved.
Question is translated by cuestión when referring to an issue, or una pregunta when
asking a question.
Culto vs Cult
Culto can refer to a religious sect or to a religious service. As an adjective, it means
cultured or refined.
Cult = una secta.
Damnificado vs Damned
Damnificado = victim, from the verb damnificar - to injure, harm, damage.
Damned means condenado or maldito.
Decepción/Decepcionar vs Deception/Deceive
Decepción = disappointment. Decepcionar = to disappoint.
Deception = un engaño, un fraude. To deceive = engañar, defraudar.
47
Defraudar vs Defraud
Defraudar can mean to defraud or cheat as well as to disappoint or let down.
Defraud means estafar or defraudar.
Delito vs Delight
Delito refers to a crime, offence, or misdeed.
Delight = el placer, el deleite, el encanto, or la delicia. To delight = encantar or
deleitar.
Departamento vs Department
Departamento means department, section; office; compartment; province; or
apartment.
Department = departamento, sección, ministerio.
Desgracia vs Disgrace
Desgracia means misfortune, mishap, accident, setback, or bad luck.
Disgrace refers to la deshonra or ignominia.
Deshonesto vs Dishonest
Deshonesto means indecent or lewd. It means dishonest only in the sense of
untrustworthy, not in the sense of not telling the truth.
Dishonest = poco honrado, fraudulento.
Despertar vs Desperate
Despertar means to wake up, both figuratively and literally, and requires a direct object.
To say "I'm waking up" in the sense of getting out of bed, you need to use the reflexive
form, despertarse.
Desperate = desesperado.
Destituido vs Destitute
Destituido means devoid of or lacking.
Destitute = indigente, desamparado, necesitado, or en la miseria.
Disco vs Disco
Disco is a semi-false cognate. Aside from disco, it has numerous translations: disk,
discus, traffic-light, or (audio) record.
Disco = disco, discoteca, or sala de baile.
48
Discutir vs Discuss
Discutir is stronger than discuss; more like debate or argue.
Discuss = hablar de, tratar de, comentar.
Disgusto vs Disgust
Disgusto is not as strong as disgust; it means annoyance, displeasure, grief, or trouble.
Disgust refers to repugnancia or aversión.
Echar vs Echo
Echar has numerous meanings, including to throw, to put, to pour, to give, to cut, and to
push.
Echo means resonar, repetir, or hacer eco.
Editor vs Editor
Editor is an adjective: publishing, and a noun: publisher or editor.
Editor can be translated by editor, director, or redactor.
Educación vs Education
Educación has a broader meaning than education. The Spanish word's best translation is
upbringing, which includes both school education as well as what a child learns at
home.
Education is best translated by formación or enseñanza.
Educado vs Educated
Educado means well-mannered, polite, or cultivated, from the verb educar - to raise,
bring up, rear.
Educated is from the verb to educate: formar or instruir.
Efectivo vs Effective
Efectivo means real or actual. En efectivo means in cash. Efectivos are military forces
or (police) officers.
Effective = eficaz.
Elevador vs Elevator
Elevador means elevator only in Mexico, though un elevador de granos is a grain
elevator anywhere.
Elevator = un ascensor.
49
Embarazada vs Embarrassed
Embarazada means pregnant. It can also be a noun: una embarazada = a pregnant
woman, an expectant mother.
Embarrassed is avergonzado, molesto, or incómodo.
(anecdote about embarazada)
Emocionante vs Emotional
Emocionante means exciting, thrilling, or moving.
Emotional indicates something that is afectivo, emocional, or emotivo, or someone that
is sentimental.
Eventual vs Eventual
Eventual means fortuitous, possible, or temporary.
Eventual = final, definitivo, consiguiente.
Excitar vs Excite
Excitar means to excite sexually.
Excite when talking about something you're looking forward to is entusiasmar or
provocar.
Éxito vs Exit
Éxito means success: a gran éxito - very successful.
Exit is una salida.
Fábrica vs Fabric
Fábrica is a factory, plant, or mill.
Fabric is el tejido or la tela.
Factoría vs Factory
Factoría can mean a factory (in some Spanish-speaking countries), but is more
commonly a trading post.
Factory = una fábrica.
Facultad vs Faculty
Facultad refers to mental faculty, power or ability, or a university department.
Faculty in reference to a group of teachers is el profesorado.
50
Falta vs Fault
Falta is a lack, want, need, absence, shortage, failure, or shortcoming.
A fault (imperfection) is un defecto, un desperfecto, or una imperfección. Fault (blame)
is la culpa.
Familiar vs Familiar
Familiar as an adjective means family, familiar, domestic, informal, plain, or
colloquial. As a noun it refers to a relative or close friend.
Familiar is only an adjective: familiar, conocido, común, familiarizado, íntimo.
Fastidioso vs Fastidious
Fastidioso means annoying or boring. It can mean fastidious in Latin America.
Fastidious means escrupuloso.
Firma vs Firm
Firma can refer to a firm, but more commonly means a signature.
Firm as an adjective means firme, sólido, duro, seguro. As a noun, it can be translated
by una firma or una empresa.
Fiscal vs Fiscal
Fiscal means fiscal or tax-related as an adjective. As a noun, however, it refers to a
district attorney or public prosecutor.
Fiscal = fiscal.
Formal vs Formal
Formal means reliable, dependable, responsible, or serious.
Formal means solemne, correcto, oficial, or, when referring to clothing, de etiqueta.
Fracaso vs Fracas
Fracaso is a failure or disaster.
Fracas is une gresca or una reyerta.
Fútbol vs Football
Fútbol refers to soccer (in American English).
Football = el fútbol americano.
Fútil vs Futile
Fútil means trivial, while
Futile means inútil, vano, or infructuoso.
51
Grabar vs Grab
Grabar is to engrave, record, or impress.
Grab means asir, coger, or arrebatar.
Gracioso vs Gracious
Gracioso means funny or cute.
Gracious = gentil, cortés, or refinado.
Grosería vs Grocery Store
Grosería seems to follow the -ía pattern on most Spanish words for stores, but in fact it
refers only to rudeness, crudeness, or vulgarity.
Grocery Store = tienda de abarrotes/comestibles, bodega, or abacería, depending on
what country you're in.
Honesto vs Honest
Honesto means sincere, honorable, or decent.
Honest = sincero, franco, or honrado.
Humor vs Humor
Humor means mood or humor.
Humor refers to gracia or humor. Sense of humor = sentido del humor.
Idioma vs Idiom
Idioma refers to a language.
Idiom = idiotosmo, modismo, or lenguaje.
Ignorar vs Ignore
Ignorar means to not know or to be unaware of.
Ignore means no hacer caso de, desatender, or dejar a un lado.
Insulto vs Insult
Insulto means insult in most places, but in Mexico it can also refer to indigestion or a
stomachache.
Insult = insulto.
52
Introducir vs Introduce
Introducir is a semi-false cognate. It means to introduce only in the context of
introducing a topic.
Introduce can mean to introduce a topic or a person. The latter is translated by
presentar in Spanish.
Jubilación vs Jubilation
Jubilación refers to retirement: both the act of retiring and a pension.
Jubilation = júbilo.
Labor vs Labor
Labor can mean any kind of work: paid work, chores, needlework, etc.
Labor refers to trabajo (the actual work) or la mano de obra (the workers).
Largo vs Large
Largo means long, generous, or abundant.
Large = grande or importante.
Lectura vs Lecture
Lectura refers to the act of reading or reading material.
Lecture = una conferencia, una explicación, or un sermoneo.
Letra vs Letter
Letra refers only to a letter of the alphabet.
Letter is un letra (of the alphabet) or una carta (that you write to a friend).
Librería/Librero vs Library
Librería is a bookstore, while librero refers to a bookseller or bookcase.
Library refers to una biblioteca.
Lujuria vs Luxury
Lujuria = lust, lewdness, excess.
Luxury = el lujo.
Mama vs Mama
Mama refers to a breast.
Mama = mamá (see how important an accent can be?)
53
Mango vs Mango
Mango can mean mango the fruit as well as a handle (as of a knife).
Mango = mango.
Marca/Marco vs Mark
Marca is a mark (as in a spot or line) as well as a brand, make, or label. In sports, una
marca is a record or best time. Un marco is a (picture) frame, goal, setting, or
framework.
Mark can be translated by una mancha or una señal.
Masa vs Mass
Masa can mean mass (in terms of people and volume), as well as dough.
Mass in reference to church is la misa.
Matar vs Mate
Matar means to kill.
Mate = as a noun is un macho / una hembra for animals, un compañero / una
compañera for people. To mate means aparear or unir.
Mayor vs Mayor
Mayor as an adjective means main, major, larger, older. As a noun is means chief,
boss, superior, adult, or ancestor.
Mayor = el alcalde or la alcadesa.
Minorista vs Minority
Minorista is a Caribbean and South American word for retail or retail seller.
Minority = la minoría or, as an adjective, minoritario.
Molestar vs Molest
Molestar means to annoy or bother.
Molest = acosar sexualmente.
Motivo vs Motive
Motivo isn't necessarily the same thing as motive (which tends to have a negative
connotation, like "motive for the murder"); it's more like reason or cause.
Motive = móvil, motivos, or intención.
54
Natural vs Natural
Natural as an adjective means natural, fresh (with fruit), and illegimate (with children).
As a noun it means nature or native.
Natural can be translated by natural, normal, innato, or biológico (with family
members).
Negocio vs Negotiation
Negocio refers to a business, deal, or transaction.
Negotiation is una negociación
Nombre vs Number
Nombre means name or noun.
Number is un número.
Noticia vs Notice
Noticia is a news item or piece of news. Noticias means news or information.
Ocasión vs Occasion
Ocasión is usually a chance or opportunity. It can also mean cause or reason, and in
Latin American it refers to a bargain.
Occasion refers to una vez, una oportunidad, un acontecimiento, una razón, or un
motivo.
Oculto vs Occult
Oculto can mean hidden, concealed, or secret, as well as occult.
Occult = oculto or misterioso.
Oficial vs Official
Oficial as an adjective is the same as in English. As a noun, it refers to a military officer
or a skilled worker.
Official as a noun is un funcionario.
Oficio vs Office
Oficio = trade or function, religious service/mass, or an official letter.
Office is una oficina, un despacho.
Once vs Once
Once is eleven in Spanish.
Once = una vez.
55
Ordinario vs Ordinary
Ordinario can mean ordinary as well as common or coarse (in reference to a person)
and fine or ok, in answer to ¿Cómo estás?
Ordinary = normal or corriente.
Pan vs Pan
Pan = bread
Pan is una cazuela, cacerola, olla, or sartén.
Papa/Papá vs Papa
Papa means potato when it's feminine and Pope when it's masculine. Papá is equivalent
to papa or dad in English.
Papa = papá.
Pariente vs Parent
Pariente is any relative
Parent = el padre or la madre only.
Patrón vs Patron
Patrón can indicate a boss or owner as well as a pattern or standard.
Patron = patrocinador or cliente.
Plagio vs Plague
Plagio is plagiarism.
Plague refers to la peste, la plaga, or el fastidio.
Prácticamente vs Practically
Prácticamente should not be used to mean almost; it means practically in the sense of
"in a practical way" or "in practical terms."
Practically = casi.
Preciso vs Precise
Preciso can mean precise, correct, or necessary.
Precise = preciso or exacto.
Presente vs Present
Presente = present when talking about time or presence.
Present meaning "gift" is un regalo.
56
Preservativo vs Preservative
Preservativo indicates a condom.
Preservative is un conservador.
Pretender vs Pretend
Pretender means to claim: Ella pretende ser rica - She claims to be rich.
Pretend is translated by fingir or simular.
Privado vs Private
Privado means private as in exclusive (such as a school or club).
Private is fairly general - it's basically the opposite of public and can be translated by
privado, personal, secreto, íntimo, or particular.
Procurar vs Procure
Procurar rarely means to procure; the more common translations by far are to try and
to manage (to do something).
Procure = obtener, conseguir.
Quitar vs Quit
Quitar means to take away, remove, or get rid of.
Quit = dejar, abandonar, salir de. To quit one's job: abandonar su puesto, dimitir.
Raro vs Rare
Raro can mean rare, but more commonly means odd or strange.
Rare = poco común or excepcional.
Real vs Real
Real can mean real as well as royal.
Real means verdadero, auténtico, or legítimo.
Realizar vs Realize
Realizar means to realize only in the sense of to make real, to attain, or to fulfill.
Realize can mean realizar as well as darse cuenta de, comprender, and reconocer.
Receta vs Receipt
Receta = recipe or prescription.
Receipt = un recibo.
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Recolección vs Recollection
Recolección is a collection, harvest, or summary.
Recollection is el recuerdo or la memoria.
Recordar vs Record
Recordar means to remember, recall, or remind.
Record is equivalent to registrar, inscribir, or grabar.
Red vs Red
Red refers to a network.
Red is the color rojo.
Relativo vs Relative
Relativo has the same meaning as an adjective, but as a noun it is used only in
linguistics.
Relative as a noun = pariente or familiar.
Restar vs Rest
Rester means to take away or subtract, to not give much, to remain or be left or, in
sports, to return.
Rest as a verb = descansar or apoyar.
Revolver vs Revolver
Revolver is a verb: to move around, turn over, revolve, or disturb.
Revolver is a noun: un revólver (that accent is important!)
Ropa vs Rope
Ropa means clothing.
Rope = una cuerda or una soga.
Salario vs Salary
Salario refers to hourly wages, while
Salary indicates fixed earnings per month or year: el sueldo.
Sano vs Sane
Sano = healthy, fit, or intact.
Sane means cuerdo, sensato, or de juicio sano.
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Sensible vs Sensible
Sensible = sensitive or regrettable.
Sensible means juicioso, sensato, or prudente.
Simple vs Simple
Simple can nearly always be translated by simple: when it means foolish, not
compound, etc.
Simple, however, is translated as sencillo when it means unadorned or uncomplicated.
Sobre vs Sober
Sobre is either a noun: envelope or a preposition: on, above, over.
Sober means sobrio or sereno.
Sopa vs Soap
Sopa refers to soup or, informally, a hangover, while
Soap is jabón.
Soportar vs Support
Soportar means to bear, carry, support, hold up, or withstand.
Support as a verb is usually translated by apoyar, sostener, or mantener.
Suceder vs Succeed
Suceder means to happen or to follow, come next.
Succeed = tener éxito, triunfar.
Suceso vs Success
Suceso is an event, incident, happening, or outcome.
Success refers to un éxito or triunfo.
Tipo vs Type
Tipo means type/kind as well as guy or bloke.
Type = tipo or clase. To type = escribir a máquina.
Trampa vs Tramp
Trampa indicates a trap.
Tramp is a un vagabundo or una zorra.
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Tratar vs Treat
Tratar means to treat or handle; to deal with, be about, have to do with; or to address.
Treat as a verb means tratar, invitar, curar, or discutir.
Tuna vs Tuna
Tuna has a range of meanings: prickly pear, a student music group, the life of a rogue,
and, in Central America, drunkenness.
Tuna = el atún.
Últimamente vs Ultimately
Últimamente means lastly, finally, as a last resort, or lately.
Ultimately = por último, al final, a la larga, en el fondo.
Último vs Ultimate
Último means final or last.
Ultimate has several meanings: the best - definitivo, the most important/essential fundamental, esencial; the latest - último grito.
Vaso vs Vase
Vaso is a glass or tumbler.
Vase indicates un florero or jarrón.
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List of Spanish Homonyms and Homophones
Here are most of the common homonyms and homophones of Spanish, as well as some of the
uncommon ones, each with a common definition. The definitions given are not the only ones possible.
Note: An asterisk before a word pair indicates that the words sound alike in some regions but are
distinguished from each other elsewhere. [About.com:
http://spanish.about.com/od/writtenspanish/a/homophones.htm ]
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a (first letter of the alphabet), a (to), ha (conjugated form of haber)
ama, amo (owner, master/mistress), ama, amo (conjugated forms of amar, to love)
• * arrollo (conjugated form of arrollar, to roll up), arroyo (stream)
• * asar (to roast), azar (chance, fate)
• * Asia (Asia), hacia (toward)
asta (mast), hasta (until)
barón (baron), varón (man)
baile (dance), baile (type of judge)
basta (enough), basta (coarse), vasta (vast)
basto (coarse), vasto (vast)
bazar (bazaar), vasar (kitchen shelf)
be (phonetic spelling of the letter b), ve (phonetic spelling of the letter v)
bello (beautiful), vello (bird down)
bienes (property), vienes (conjugated form of venir, to come)
bis (encore), vis (force)
calle (street), calle (conjugated form of callar, to silence)
• * calló (conjugated form of callar, to silence), cayó (conjugated form of caer, to fall)
• * casa (house), caza (conjugated form of cazar, to hunt)
• * cazo (saucepan), cazo (conjugated form of cazar, to hunt)
• * ce (phonetic spelling of the letter c), se (reflexive pronoun), sé (conjugated form of saber, to
know)
• * cebo (bait), sebo (fat)
• * cegar (to blind), segar (to cut off)
• * cepa (vine), sepa (conjugated form of saber, to know)
• * cerrar (to close), serrar (to saw)
• * cesión (cession), sesión (meeting)
• * cesto (basket), sexto (sixth)
• * cien (hundred), sien (temple of the head)
• * ciento (hundred), siento (conjugated form of sentir, to feel)
• * cima (summit), sima (chasm)
• * cocer (to cook), coser (to sew)
copa (cup), copa (conjugated form of copar, to win)
de (of from), de (phonetic spelling of the letter d), dé (conjugated form of dar, to give)
el (the), él (he, him, it)
errar (to make a mistake), herrar (to put horseshoes on)
ese (that), ese (phonetic spelling of the letter s), ése (that)
flamenco (Flemish, a dance), flamenco (flamingo)
fui, fuiste, fue, etc. (conjugated forms of ser, to be), fui, fuiste, fue, etc. (conjugated forms of ir, to
go)
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grabar (to record), gravar (to worsen)
• * halla (conjugated form of hallar, to find), haya (conjugated form of haber, to have)
• * has (conjugated form of haber, to have), haz (conjugated form of hacer, to do)
hierba or yerba (herb), hierva (conjugated form of hervir, to boil)
hierro (iron), yerro (mistake)
hojear (to leaf through), ojear (to look at)
honda (deep), honda (sling), onda (wave)
hola (hello), ola (wave)
hora (hour), ora (conjugated form of orar, to pray), ora (correlative conjunction usually translated
as “now”)
• * hoya (hole in ground), olla (cooking pot)
• * hozar (to move dirt around with one’s snout), osar (to dare)
huno (Hunnish), uno (one)
huso (spindle), uso (utilization)
la (the, her, it), la (note of the musical scale)
• * lisa (smooth), liza (battle)
mal (bad), mall (shopping mall)
mas (but), más (more)
• * masa (mass), maza (club used as weapon)
• * mesa (table), meza (conjugated form of mecer, to rock)
mi (my), mi (note of the musical scale), mí (me)
mora (Moorish), mora (blackberry)
o (letter of the alphabet), o (or)
oro (gold), oro (conjugated form of orar, to pray)
papa (potato), Papa (pope)
• * pollo (chicken), poyo (stone bench)
polo (pole as of a magnet or planet), polo (polo)
• * poso (sediment), pozo (well, shaft)
puya (goad), puya (puya, a type of plant found primarily in the Andes)
que (who, that), qué (what, how)
• * rasa (conjugated form of rasar, to skim), raza (race or ethnicity)
rebelarse (to rebel), revelarse (to reveal oneself)
recabar (to ask for), recavar (to dig again)
• * rallar (to grate), rayar (to make lines on)
sabia (wise female), savia (vitality)
sol (sun, unit of Peruvian currency), sol (note of the musical scale)
solo (alone), sólo (only)
si (if), sí (yes)
• * sumo (supreme), zumo (juice)
• * tasa (rate), taza (cup)
te (you), te (phonetic spelling of the letter t), té (tea)
ti (you), ti (note of the musical scale)
tu (your), tú (you)
tubo (pipe), tuvo (conjugated form of tener, to have)
vino (wine), vino (conjugated form of venir, to come)
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Spanish Prefix
• ante- (before): antemano (beforehand), anteayer (day before yesterday), antebrazo (forearm),
anteponer (to put something before something else)
• anti- (against): anticuerpo (antibody), antimateria (antimatter), anticoncepción (contraception)
• auto- (self): autodisciplina (self-discipline), autogestión (self-management), automóvil
(automobile)
• bi-, bis-, biz- (two): bicicleta (bicycle), bilingüe (bilingual), bisemenal (twice a week)
• cent- (hundred): centímetro (centimeter), centenar (group of 100)
• contra- (against): contraataque (counterattack), contrapeso (counterweight), ir contrareloj (to
work against the clock)
• con- (with): convivir (to live together), conjuntar (to coordinate), complot (conspiracy)
• des- (undo, diminish): desplegar (to unfold), desdecirse (to go back on one’s word), descubrir (to
discover or uncover)
• entre-, (between, among): entremeter (to place among), entrecruzar (to interweave), entreabierto
(half-open)
• ex- (former, outside): excombatiente (military veteran), exportar (to export), exprimiar (to squeeze
or sqeeze out)
• homo- (same): homónimo (homonym), homólogo (equivalent), homogeneizar (to homogenize)
• im-, in- (opposite): incapaz (incapable), inaudible (inaudible), inconformista (nonconformist)
• inter- (between, among): interacción (interaction), interrumpir (to interrupt), interponer (to
interpose)
• mal- (bad): maltratar (to abuse or mistreat), malpensado (malicious), malvivir (to live badly)
• mono- (one): monótono (monotonous), monopolio (monopoly), monocarril (monorail)
• para- (together, with, for): paramédico (paramedic), paraguas (umbrella), parachoques (vehicle
bumper)
• poli- (many): poligloto (multilingual person), politeísta (polytheistic), poligamia (polygamy)
• pre- (before): prefijo (prefix), predestinación (predestination), prehistoria (prehistory)
• pro- (in favor of): proponer (to propose), pronombre (pronoun), prometer (to promise)
• re- (again, with intensity): repaso (review), renacer (to be reborn), renegar (to strongly deny)
• semi- (medium, half): semidifunto (half-dead), semifinalista (semifinalist), semicírculo (semicircle)
• seudo- (false): seudónimo (pseudonym), seudociencia (pseudoscience)
• sobre- (excessive, extraordinary): sobrevivir (to survive), sobredosis (overdose), sobrecargar (to
overload)
• sub- (under): subsuelo (subsoil), subyacer (to underlie), subsector (subsection)
• super- (superior): supermercado (supermarket), superhombre (superman), supercarburante (highgrade fuel)
• tele- (at a distance): teléfono (telephone), telecontrol (remote control), telescopio (telescope)
• uni- (one): unificación (unification), unilateral (one-sided), unisexo (unisex)
63
Strategy Name: Capsule Vocabulary (Crist, 1975; Irvin, 1990)
Strategy Explanation: Capsule Vocabulary is a strategy in which students are given key concept
words with definitions (less than 10) from an upcoming topic, article, chapter or unit of study. It is
used to generate student discussion and lead to a written paragraph incorporating these vocabulary
words.
RtI Target Tier: Tier 1
Materials: Chart paper, white board, overhead/document camera, blackline master, key concept
vocabulary, pens/pencils, paper
Estimated Time for Strategy: 5 – 10 minutes
Steps for Strategy:
I do…
•
Select key concept words
We do…
•
•
Teacher provides definition of word
Class discusses experiences they have had with the word (where
they have seen it, heard it, context they have heard it in,
connections to the world…)
You do…
•
Partners hold a conversation focused on using the key concept
words in context
Students individually write a summary or a brief paper on the topic
using each of the vocabulary words
•
64
Support and Extension: Capsule Vocabulary
Support: To differentiate for struggling learners, teacher
• Allows students to work in pairs or small groups to write summaries
• Provides students with a paragraph frame or story starter
• Allows picture representation
• Allows verbal response
Extension: To challenge students, teacher
• Has students self-select words that are central to the theme prior to the assignment
• Allows students to choose their own article
My own Notes and Ideas: This strategy is good as a pre-reading and a pre-thinking strategy for any of
the units in any world language, and how it relates to current topics (through articles) and fiction/nonfiction in the native language.
How can this apply to my classroom?
65
Strategy Name: Concept Definition Mapping (Schwartz, 1988)
Strategy Explanation: Concept definition mapping is a graphic organizer used to teach the meaning
of key concepts. Students describe what the concept is and isn’t by giving examples.
RtI Target Tier: Tier 1
Materials: Flip chart, overhead transparency, document camera, markers, blackline master,
pencils/pens
Estimated Time for Strategy: 10 -15 minutes
Steps for Strategy:
I do…
•
•
Display example
Discuss questions:
- What is it? (broader category/classification)
- What is it like? (important characteristics, qualities that make it
different)
- Example/non-example
We do…
•
Model by choosing a familiar vocabulary word and map its
features (if needed)
You do…
•
Students work in pairs to complete a map (encourage students to
use their background knowledge prior to a glossary or dictionary)
After map is complete, students write a definition using the map
Students will revisit their map through out the unit to add or
change their map as new information is presented
•
•
66
Support and Extension: Concept Definition Mapping
Support: To differentiate for struggling learners, teacher
• Discusses students’ prior knowledge concerning the subject/topic to be mapped
• Determines if students can make connections with information they have already covered in the
class
Extension: To challenge students, teacher
• Assigns higher level vocabulary words and/or concepts to the students, who will have more
complex maps and end product
My Notes and Ideas: This strategy can be used at any level. If the student is not proficient enough to
write a full sentence for an example, a single word or even a picture can be substituted. This is a great
way to get students to think of alternative ways to describe a word or a concept to each other
(circumlocution) so as to own the information for ease of recall in future situations.
How can this apply to my classroom?
67
Concept of Definition Map
Name ________________________________________
Date _________________
What is it? (Definition)
What is it like? (Characteristics)
What are some examples?
Word/term
What does it look like?
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Concept of Definition Map
Example/Ejemplo: Tema 1a ¿Qué te gusta hacer?
Name ___ ________________________________________
Date _________________
Directions: Complete each section for the vocabulary term or phrase.
What is it? / ¿Qué es esto? (Definition/Definición)
What is it like? /Descripción
Characteristics/Características
What are some examples?
Ejemplos
Actividades físicas
Nadar
Word/Palabra o Tema
Correr
Deportes
Esquiar
What does it look like? / ¿A
que se parece?
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Strategy Name: Frayer Model (Frayer, Frederick, & Klausmeier, 1969)
Strategy Explanation: Frayer Model allows students to categorize words, using definitions,
characteristics, examples and non-examples in their own words.
RtI Target Tier: Tier 1
Materials: Whiteboard, overhead projector/document camera, blackline master, or chart paper
Estimated Time for Strategy: 5 -10minutes
Steps for Strategy:
•
explain Frayer Model using blackline master
•
using an easy word, complete a model with the class
•
students work in pairs to complete their Frayer Model with their
assigned word/concept
have students share their words with others
I do…
We do…
You do…
•
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Support & Extensions: Frayer Model
Support: To differentiate for struggling learners, teacher
• models several class-developed Frayer examples. These can be collected into notebooks for
each student.
Extension: To challenge students, teacher
• has students create word games with the vocabulary words (word search, create word wall,
crossword puzzle, taboo cards, BINGO, etc.)
My Notes and Ideas: In cases where students are not yet proficient, pictures can be substituted for
answers. Also a good strategy to use for subject/theme reviews.
How can this apply to my classroom?
71
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Frayer Model
Name: _________________________________
Definition/Definición: (Use your own words/
usando tus propias palabras)
Date: ____________
Pd.:_________
Characteristic/Características: (Define it’s
essential characteristics/Define las
características esenciales)
Claro
Oscuro
Examples/Ejemplos
COLOR
Azul, verde, rojo, morado, lila
Non-Example/Mal Ejemplo
Tigre, pasto, invierno
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Strategy Name: Graphic Organizers
Strategy Explanation: Graphic Organizers instill active comprehension and dynamic discussion by
having students visually connect concepts and information from a variety of sources. Information is
condensed and classified to assist students in organizing important details.
RtI Target Tier: All
Materials: Text selection, graphic organizer blackline master example (can be from TE), document
camera/overhead
Estimated Time for Strategy: 10-45 minutes (warm-up to whole class period)
Steps for Strategy:
I do…
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Introduce concept for graphic organizer
Introduce specific organizer and set-up
Introduce the reading selection
Display graphic organizer example
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Begin completing the graphic organizer as a
whole class
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Read text to gather information
Complete graphic organizer
We do…
You do…
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Support and Extension: Graphic Organizer
Support: To differentiate for struggling learners, teacher
• has students work in pairs or small groups to complete graphic organizers
• provides a prompt or starter for each box in the graphic organizer
Extension: To challenge students, teacher
• assigns a graphic organizer as a starting point for a writing assignment or research project
• has students come up with their own individual design for a graphic organizer on a different
skill or concept
Examples of different types of Graphic Organizers:
Thinking Maps
Venn Diagram
Semantic
Mapping
ABC Chart
Brainstorming
Web
Semantic Feature
Analysis
Two Column
Notes
Somebody…
Wanted… But…
So strategy
Concept
Definition Map
KWL
Frayer Model
My Notes and Ideas: All of these graphic organizers can be adjusted to the students’ level of mastery
in the target language. If it’s a Level 1 student the answer could be one word or even a picture. The
higher-level students can do complex sentences, and it can be used for brainstorming for analysis and
summary essays.
How can this apply to my classroom?
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Drawing Conclusions, Making Inferences
STATED FACTS/ SE SABE QUE…
INFERENCES/ SE DEDUCE QUE…
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Drawing Conclusions, Making Inferences
Realidades 1, Tema 2B, pg. 116 ¿Cómo es la escula?
STATED FACTS/ SE SABE QUE…
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Estudiantes en países donde se habla
español duran más horas al día en el
colegio. (Tabla en pg. 116)
INFERENCES/ SE DEDUCE QUE…
La escuela tiene una prioridad más lata en
países donde se habla español.
School takes a higher priority of children’s
time in Spanish-speaking countries
Students in many Spanish-speaking
countries spend more time in school
than the US schools do. (See chart on
pg 116 for representation)
La profesora/El profesor puede llamar a En muchos países del mundo hispano hay
mucho más respeto entre los estudiantes y los
los estudiantes por su apellido.
profesores. Este respeto se siente por todo el
colegio.
The teacher may call the student by
their last name.
In many Spanish-speaking countries there is a
shared sense of respect between teachers and
students; as well as there being a higher level
En muchos colegios cuando el
of respect in school as a whole.
profesor/la profesora entra los
estudiantes se paran.
•
In many schools, when the teacher
enters the classroom the students stand.
•
¿Cuáles son las diferencias en actitud
entre los colegios en el mundo hispano
y los Estados Unidos?
•
How are the attitudes different between
US and Spanish-speaking schools?
Hay una diferencia entre como los estudiantes
en los Estados Unidos tratan a los profesores y
el colegio cuando se comparan con los
estudiantes en países hispanos.
There is a difference in how US students and
teachers approach school in comparison to the
schools in Spanish-speaking countries.
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Strategy Name: Jigsaw (Aronson, 1971)
Strategy Explanation: Jigsaw is a cooperative learning technique that covers a large section of text
interactively through group participation and sharing.
RtI Target Tier: All
Materials: paper, pen/pencils, text
Estimated Time for Strategy: varies
Steps for Strategy:
I do…
•
•
•
•
•
students are divided into small groups of 5-6 students
assign one student from each group as the leader
divide the day’s assignment into 5-6 sections
assign each student to learn one section, making sure students
have direct access only to their own section
bring the students back into their original groups (after expert
groups are finished)
•
no modeling
•
students read over their section at least twice and become
familiar with it
form temporary “expert groups” by having one student from
each original group join other students assigned to the same
section
give students in these expert groups time to discuss the main
points of their section and to rehearse the presentations they will
make to their original group
ask each student to present her or his section to the group
encourage others in the group to ask questions for clarification
We do…
•
You do…
•
•
•
78
Support & Extensions: Jigsaw
Support: To differentiate for struggling learners, teacher
• assigns a leveled, lexiled text on the topic to jigsaw
• assigns supplemental material that goes with your adopted text in many instances
Extension: To challenge students, teacher
• can have students represent their assigned parts in maps, charts or graphs and share with the
class
My Notes and Ideas: All of these graphic organizers can be adjusted to the students’ level of mastery
in the target language. If it’s a Level 1 student the answer could be one word or even a picture. The
higher-level students can do complex sentences, and it can be used for brainstorming for analysis and
summary essays.
How can this apply to my classroom?
79
Strategy Name: KWL (What I know; Want to Learn; Learned) (Ogle, 1986)
Strategy Explanation: KWL can be used to assist students with making predictions, crtitical thinking,
and reflection that can become the students’ study guide. KWL begins prior to reading and extends
through post reading of topic.
RtI Target Tier: All
Materials: whiteboard, overhead projector/document camera, blackline master, or chart paper,
informational text, markers, pen/pencils
Estimated Time for Strategy: varies with topic
Steps for Strategy:
I do…
We do…
•
choose reading selection from class
materials
•
ask students to contribute what they think
they know about the topic
record their ideas under the “K” column
•
•
•
You do…
•
students generate questions they would like
answered concerning the topic under the
“W” column
students read selection and look for answers
to their questions
after reading, students discuss/write what
they learned in the “L” column
80
Support & Extensions: KWL
Support: To differentiate for struggling learners, teacher
• should fill in part of the chart to start the discussion
• encourages students to work in pairs or small groups if the KWL is not done as a whole
group.
Extension: To challenge students, teacher
• can Google® K-W-L to locate subject-specific examples of K-W-L charts
My Notes and Ideas: All of these graphic organizers can be adjusted to the students’ level of mastery
in the target language. If it’s a Level 1 student the answer could be one word or even a picture. The
higher-level students can do complex sentences, and it can be used for brainstorming for analysis and
summary essays.
How can this apply to my classroom?
81
KWL Chart
What you KNOW?/ Lo que
ya sabes
What do you think you
WILL learn?/ Lo que
quieres saber
82
What did you LEARN? /
¿Qué aprendiste?
KWL Chart
Example/Ejemplo: La Semana Santa from ¡Avancemos! Level 1 Cultural Interactions online at:
http://www.classzone.com/cz/books/avancemos_1/resources/applications/interactiva/ML1/ML_1_Sem
ana_santa/ml_1_semana_santa.html
What you KNOW?/ Lo que
sabes
Semana Santa (Holy Week) is
the week of Easter in Spanishspeaking countries.
Most traditions are based on
those in Spain.
Most businesses and schools
are closed for 4 or more days.
What do you think you
WILL learn?/ Lo que
quieres saber
What is traditional in each
region/country?
How is it different from US
celebrations?
Are there local celebrations in
the Hispanic/Latino
community near by that keep
those traditions alive in the
US?
Note:
What did you LEARN? / ¿
Qué Aprendiste?
Each country and/or region
has their own traditions which
include: parades, flower
decorations, saints, church
services, etc.
Some locations through out
the US celebrate Semana
Santa traditions that have been
transported here either by their
Catholic churches and schools
or by the large concentration
of one Hispanic groups (LA,
Miami, NY, etc.)
Even though this example is in English, there is no reason a student cannot do this activity in
the target language. For beginning students it may be necessary to use English at first, but they can
soon move into the target language. This is a great tool for prior activation of knowledge regarding a
theme or a concept, and is common enough that students should be familiar with the structure of the
activity. The KWL chart can also be done as a whole class activity and for unit/chapter summarization
before a quiz/test.
83
Strategy Name: Possible Sentences
Strategy Explanation: Possible Sentences is a strategy to help students make predictions about a text
by using key concepts and vocabulary. Students write sentences they think will appear in the text.
RtI Target Tier: Tier 1
Materials: passage, whiteboard, overhead/doc cam, notebook paper, chart paper
Estimated Time for Strategy: 20 – 30 minutes
Steps for Strategy:
I do…
•
•
select 10-15 key concepts and/or vocabulary words from the passage
(a mix of familiar/unfamiliar)
provide definition and explanations for new vocabulary and
concepts
.
•
model creating possible sentences with the familiar words and
concepts using two key concepts/vocabulary words per sentence
•
students work individually or in pairs to create sentences that may
possibly occur in the text
students must use two key concepts/vocabulary words per sentence
after reading the passage, students should revisit their possible
sentences and check them for accuracy and revise if necessary
We do…
You do…
•
•
84
Strategy Name: Possible Sentences
Support: To differentiate for struggling learners, teacher
• asks for one key concept/vocabulary word per sentence
• does this activity as a whole class/groups of 3 – 4 students
Extension: To challenge students, teacher
• asks for paragraphs using as many concepts/vocabulary words as possible
• asks that sentences include part of the definition (creating context clues)
My Notes and Ideas: All of these graphic organizers can be adjusted to the students’ level of mastery
in the target language. If it’s a Level 1 student the answer could be one word or even a picture. The
higher-level students can do complex sentences, and it can be used for brainstorming for analysis and
summary essays.
This strategy can also be used with a theme, to expand upon prior knowledge and to explain a theme to
a whole group. This can is a great strategy for themed vocabulary to tie in all the words in a unit of
study!
How can this apply to my classroom?
85
Possible Sentences For
Name of Topic
Word Box
_____ 1. __________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_____ 2. __________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_____ 3. __________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_____ 4. __________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_____ 5. __________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
86
Possible Sentences For
Name of Topic/ Nombre del Tema:
Word Box/ Palabras
Comemos
Beber
La ensalada
El cereal
El desayuno
El almuerzo
La cena
Compartimos
_____ 1. Los estudiantes beben soda durante el almuerzo.
__X__ 2. El cereal es una parte importante de la cena.
_____ 3. Nosotros comemos tacos una vez a la semana.
_____ 4. __________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_____ 5. __________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
87
Strategy Name: QAR (Question-Answer-Relationships) (Raphael, 1982; 1986)
Strategy Explanation: QAR is a strategy used to clarify the questioning process with a common
language for discussing types of questions. QAR allows students to understand the type of answer
necessary based on the type of question. Students should be able to generate their own QAR questions
as an end result.
RtI Target Tier: Tier 1
Materials: short passage or text, QAR blackline guide
Estimated Time for Strategy: varies
Steps for Strategy:
I do…
We do…
•
introduce the strategy by describing the different
question/answer relationships (use guide sheet)
•
students read passage/text and as they finish, teacher asks 1
question from each QAR category
repeat as necessary
•
•
•
You do…
•
assign another short passage with questions and answers and
students determine which QAR category they belong to
assign longer passage/text, assign more questions (more than
one from each category), students answer questions and
determine QAR category *continue as needed for practice
eventually, passages are assigned in which students generate
QAR questions of their own
88
Support & Extensions: QAR
Support: To differentiate for struggling learners, teacher
• provides additional QAR examples for students to classify with modeling, partner work,
groups, etc.
Extension: To challenge students, teacher
• has students write their own QAR questions for classmates to determine what kind they are
• can also use student generated questions for tests
My Notes and Ideas: This is a great strategy to substitute for just answering the questions at the back
of each chapter or after a short reading. It can be easily done as a whole group for the lower levels in
English or the target language, or as a think-pare-share activity. The higher levels can have more
complex/critical questions that can be answered in a short or long essay format.
This activity promotes critical thinking skills and is a good example of how to model question analysis
for FCAT and in the future for Common Core Standards.
How can this apply to my classroom?
89
Question Answer Relationship – 4 Types of Questions
In the Book QAR’s
RIGHT THERE
The answer is in the text, usually easy to find. The words use to make up the question and words used
to answer the questions are RIGHT THERE in the same sentence.
THINK and SEARCH (Putting it Together)
The answer is in the selection, but you need to put together different pieces of information to find it.
Words for the question and words for the answer are not found in the same sentence. They come from
different places in the selection.
In your head QAR’s
AUTHOR and YOU
The answer is NOT in the story. You need to think about what you already know, what the author tells
you and in the text and how it fits together.
ON MY OWN
The answer is not in the selection. You can even answer the question without reading the selection.
You need to use your own experience. Teachers ask this type of question to bring out your prior
knowledge.
90
QAR Examples for World Languages – Spanish
Book/Libro: The Tooth Fairy meets El Ratón Pérez by Rene Colato Lainez
Right There Questions/ Preguntas del texto:
¿A cuales de los niños le da dinero el Ratoncito Pérez?
¿A cuales de los niños le da dinero la Tooth Fairy?
¿Comó se llama la niña que perdió el diente?
English:
To what children does the Rantoncito Pérez bring money?
To what children does the Tooth Fairy bring money?
What is the name of the little girl in the story?
Think and Search Questions/ Busca y piensa:
¿Que deciden el Ratoncito Pérez y la Tooth Fairy en el caso de Nadia?
¿A quién le pregunta la Tooth Fairy sobre la identidad del ratón?
English:
What do the Rantoncito Pérez and the Tooth Fairy do in Nadia’s case?
Who does the Tooth Fairy identity of the mouse?
Author and You/ El autor y tu:
Basado en el cuento, que estrategia(s) usan los personajes para identificarse y para comunicar si usan
diferentes idiomas.
¿Habrá otras leyendas en otras culturas sobre lo que pasa cuando un niño pierde sus dientes?
English:
Based on the story, what strategy(s) do the two characters use to identify and communicate with each
other when they do not speak the same language?
Do you think there are other legends out there regarding what happens to children’s teeth when they
loose them?
On My Own/ Pensando solo:
Describe como este libro puede ayudar a niños que viven en diferentes culturas.
¿Hay estudiantes en tu escuela/clase a los cuales este libro puede ayudar?
English:
How can this story help children who live in different cultures?
Are there any students in your school or classroom that this story could help?
91
Strategy Name: Quick Writes (Moore, Moore, Cunningham & Cunningham, 1998; also called Write
Now by Rillero, Zambo, Cleland, & Ryan, 1996 )
Strategy Explanation: Quick Writes involve a short written response to a portion of text that causes a
reaction in the reader. Quick Writes allow the student to create a framework for writing and thinking
critically about a topic, develop writing fluency, and help build confidence as a reader.
RtI Target Tier: Tier 1
Materials: Text selection, notebook paper/journal, pens/pencils, timer
Estimated Time for Strategy: 5-10 minutes
Steps for Strategy:
I do…
•
•
•
•
•
teacher models how to write a response to a borrowed line or
thought related to the text
•
•
listen to teacher’s response
student writes their response focused on text-to-text, text-toself, and text-to world connections (see text connection
strategy)
share responses with a partner
if time allows, allow students to volunteer to share whole
class
We do…
You do…
select text (poem, quote, or short story)
read the text aloud to students
provide 2-3 minutes of uninterrupted free writing time
(should not be a prompt)
after free writing, teacher should model written response with
whole class
•
•
92
Support & Extensions: Quick Writes
Support: To differentiate for struggling learners, teacher
• provides a sentence starter prompt for the responses
• discusses text, reads the text a second time, and then allows 2-3 minutes for either verbal or
written responses
Extension: To challenge students, teacher
• increases writing time from 2-3 minutes to 5-6 minutes
• extends previously written Quick Write into formal writing
My Notes and Ideas: This is a great strategy for students to summarize what they have read. In the
lower levels where full sentences in the target language may be difficult, a picture or a short response
done in a think-pair-share group may be appropriate. This is also a great activity to help with bell-tobell instruction.
How can this apply to my classroom?
93
Strategy: Quick Write
Example/Ejemplo: Realidades 1, 164, Unidad 3B, “Think about it!”
Prompt/ Piensa sobre esto…:
En muchos países donde se habla español la medicina natural (hierbas, tés, etc.) han sido aceptadas por
siglos. ¿Piensas que las hierbas medicinales pueden ayudar o curar algunas enfermedades? ¿Por qué?
In many Spanish-speaking cultures, herbal remedies have been accepted for centuries. Do you think
that medicinal herbs can provide relief and cures? Why or Why not?
OR/ O…
En muchos países donde se habla español la medicina natural (hierbas, tés, etc.) han sido aceptadas por
siglos. ¿Que otras culturas usan hierbas como medicinas? ¿Tienen lugar en la medicina dentro de los
Estados Unidos?
In many Spanish-speaking cultures, herbal remedies have been accepted for centuries. What other
cultures can you think of that also use herbal remedies? How do all these remedies fit into the U.S.
medical system?
NOTE: Both of these prompts can be done in a short or long essay format answers in the target
language.
94
Strategy Name: RAFT (Role/Audience/Format/Topic) (Santa, 1988)
Strategy Explanation: RAFT is used with informational text. Students show understanding through
creative writing and it forces students to process the information rather than simply answering
questions.
R: Role of the writer: What’s the writer’s role?
A: Audience: Who is going to be reading the writing?
F: Format: What is the best layout for this writing? (letter, article, poem, etc)
T: Topic: Who or what is the subject of this writing?
RtI Target Tier: Tier 1
Materials: informational material, textbook, paper, pencil
Estimated Time for Strategy: varies
Steps for Strategy:
I do…
•
•
We do…
decide what your major focus or idea is that you want students
to understand
this becomes their topic for writing
• brainstorm possible roles students could assume
• decide on the audience
• determine format
• model (if needed)
**once students become comfortable with this strategy, allow them
to come up with their own roles, audience and format
•
students write their RAFT paper
You do…
95
Support & Extensions: RAFT
Support: To differentiate for struggling learners, teacher
• assigns roles, audience, format and topic to students
• gives paragraph frames for students to use for RAFT paper
• gives students a written model for an example to follow
Extension: To challenge students, teacher
• gradually releases the RAFT components for students to come up with their own RAFT
papers based on the text students are working with
My Notes and Ideas:
How can this apply to my classroom?
96
RAFT Pre-writing Chart
Role/ Posicion
Audience/ Publico
Format/ Formato
97
Topic/ Tema
RAFT Pre-writing Chart
Subject: Geography - Latin American History and Government
(Taken from the Social Studies MESH guide)
Role/ Posicion
Audience/ Publico
Format/ Formato
Topic/ Tema
Maya Priest
Other Mayans
Glyphs (inform)
Astronomical
Observations
Caudillo (dictator)
Military
Speech (persuade)
To gain allegiance
from or with…
Fancois ToussaintLouverture
Enslaved Haitians
Song (encourage)
Sons about revolting
against the French
Aztec Parent
Aztec children
Fable or Story
(illustrate)
Aztec class system
Historian
College students
Article (critique)
Spanish conquistadors
and the destruction of
the Inca Empire
98
Strategy Name: Read Aloud (Trelease, 1982)
Strategy Explanation: Read Aloud is a strategy that promotes engaged listening, increases
vocabulary, and assists comprehension through modeled fluent reading of a particular topic, genre or
author.
RtI Target Tier: All
Materials: Teacher chosen text selection related to the topic.
Estimated Time for Strategy: 5-10 minutes
Steps for Strategy:
I do…
•
•
•
select high-interest text to be read to spark interest in a topic
or build background knowledge
read aloud text selection using modeled prosody (inflection)
and fluency
allow time for student discussion of text (optional)
.
•
students listen quietly as teacher reads aloud the text
•
discuss text with partner or in group (optional)
We do…
You do…
99
Support & Extensions: Read Aloud
Support: To differentiate for struggling learners, teacher
• provides a copy for students to follow along while you read aloud (which then makes this
strategy “shared reading”)
• provides pictures to create a visual
• allows students to draw as they listen which assists with comprehension and focus
Extension: To challenge students, teacher
• has students write a new ending for the read aloud story
• has students use critical thinking skills to make interpretations of the story to discuss later
• asks students to draw illustrations to show comprehension of the story
My Notes and Ideas: This is a great activity for increasing fluency in reading within your target
language classroom. Popcorn reading can be helpful in the second half of Level 1 classroom, choral
reading can be a great way to get all students involved with a low stress level (as everyone will be
reading so it’s not just their voice), and clozed reading can be used for text that is a bit above the
student’s reading level but is none the less important for content. (Please see 100 Reading Terms to
know for definition of highlighted terms)
How can this apply to my classroom?
100
Retrieved from: http://teacherlink.ed.usu.edu/tlresources/units/champions/simonbolivar.pdf
Simón Bolívar - (1783-1830)
“The Liberator”
“The George Washington of South America”
Simón Bolívar was one of South America’s greatest generals. Because of his great work, he was able to
liberate six Central and South American countries including Bolivia, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
and Venezuela. Bolivar continues to capture the gratitude of a continent.
Bolívar was born July 24, 1783 in Caracas, Venezuela. His parents died when he was a young boy of
nine years and he was raised by his uncle. At the age of fifteen he was sent to Spain to continue his
education. While in Spain, he met and married a young woman named Maria Teresa. They returned to
Venezuela a few years later and Maria died of yellow fever. Shortly after her death, Bolivar decided to
go back to Spain. It was during this time that he witnessed several events that influenced him to never
rest until America was free from the Spaniards. He again returned to Venezuela and went to war with
Spain. He took command and later Valencia, Venezuela declared its independence.
After many battles, including the “Battle of Boyaca,” which resulted in a great victory, Bolívar created
the Angostura Congress that founded Gran Colombia (a federation of present-day Venezuela,
Colombia, Panama and Ecuador). Bolívar was named president. Later, all of South America was
liberated and the last remnants of the Spanish army were destroyed, taking all of Spain’s presence out
of South America.
Bolívar helped enact laws to protect the environment, wild life and the native population
of Central and South America. He also freed South American slaves 40 years before the U.S. Civil
War.
This is truly a fascinating story of one of the most remarkable freedom fighters in all of history. Bolivar
will be remembered for all he did in fighting for the freedom of America.
101
Strategy Name: Text Connections (Keene & Zimmerman, 1997).
Strategy Explanation: Text Connections (text-to-text, text-to-self, and text-to-world) encourages
students to connect current reading to prior knowledge and experiences.
RtI Target Tier: All
Materials: fiction or informational text, blackline master, overhead/doc cam
Estimated Time for Strategy: Varies
Steps for Strategy:
I do…
•
•
•
.
select text to use
explain the 3 types of connections
read a text aloud and model making connections
•
work with students to generate connections, possibly focusing
on a prior unit of study or current event
•
students read a text and make connections using blackline
master
We do…
You do…
102
Strategy Name: Text Connections
Support: To differentiate for struggling learners, teacher
• provides background knowledge prior to reading so that students can make connections with
the text you are about to introduce
Extension: To challenge students, teacher
• encourages connections that are less obvious and have a deeper personal/conceptual
meaning
• ask students to explain how they made their connection
My Notes and Ideas: This strategy is great for all levels (not just the advance students)! The Level 1
students can use single word or short phrases in the target language to answer in each column. They
just need to summarize the main idea of each column. For the higher-level students, complex sentences
in the target language are to be expected.
This strategy can also be used with a theme (example provided) instead of a reading.
Additionally this is a good strategy to show students how to connect themes and topics (even readings)
throughout their courses. This connection can aid with reading comprehension, strategic thinking
skills, and in schools where cooperative learning groups are trying to incorporate the same subject in all
course areas this is a great way to tie it all together and to get that same level of incorporation from a
world languages classroom.
How can this apply to my classroom?
103
Text Connections
Text-to-self connections are highly personal connections that a reader makes between a piece of
reading material and the reader’s own experiences or life. An example of a text-to-self connection
might be, "This story reminds me of a vacation we took to my grandfather’s farm."
Sometimes when reading, readers are reminded of other things that they have read, other books by the
same author, stories from a similar genre, or perhaps on the same topic. These types of connections are
text-to-text connections. Readers gain insight during reading by thinking about how the information
they are reading connects to other familiar text. “This character has the same problem that I read about
in a story last year,” would be an example of a text-to-text connection.
Text-to-world connections are the larger connections that a reader brings to a reading situation. We all
have ideas about how the world works that goes far beyond our own personal experiences. We learn
about things through television, movies, magazines, and newspapers. Often it is the text-to-world
connections that teachers are trying to enhance when they teach lessons in science, social studies, and
literature. An example of a text-to-world connection would be when a reader says, "I saw a program on
television that talked about things described in this article."
Below are some examples of connecting statements to use as prompts...
This part reminds me of....
I felt like...(character) when I....
If that happened to me I would....
This book reminds me of...(another text) because....
I can relate to...(part of text) because one time....
Something similar happened to me when....
Below are some examples of questions that can be used to facilitate connections:
Text-to-self:
What does this remind me of in my life?
What is this similar to in my life?
How is this different from my life?
Has something like this ever happened to me?
How does this relate to my life?
What were my feelings when I read this?
Text-to-text:
What does this remind me of in another book I’ve read?
How is this text similar to other things I’ve read?
How is this different from other books I’ve read?
Have I read about something like this before?
Text-to-world:
What does this remind me of in the real world?
How is this text similar to things that happen in the real world?
How is this different from things that happen in the real world?
How did that part relate to the world around me?
Adapted from FORF-PD's Reading Strategy of the Month, Making Connections October
2004 http://forpd.ucf.edu/strategies/stratText.html
104
How Connecting Helps Comprehension
Text Summary/
La Lectura,
Texto o Tema
Reminds me
of…/ Mis
experiencias (yo)
Helps me
understand…/
Mi mundo
Type of
connection/
Conexiones
Connecting to
other classes/
Conexiones a
otras clases
Adapted from Harvey and Goudvis, 2000
105
How Connecting Helps Comprehension
Theme/Tema: Birthday/Cumpleanos
Text Summary/
La Lectura,
Texto o Tema
Cumpleaños
Birthday
Reminds me
of…/ Mis
experiencias (yo)
Helps me
understand…/
Mi mundo
Mi último
Me ayuda a
cumpleaños y la
entender que todos
fiesta en el parque. celebramos
ocasiones
My last birthday
importantes, no
and the party we
importa el idioma
had at the park.
de la persona.
Helps me see that
we all celebrate
important
occasions, no
matter what
language it’s in.
Type of
connection/
Conexiones
Conexión al
mundo y a otros.
Connection to the
world and to
others.
Connecting to
other classes/
Conexiones a
otras clases
Hay temas que se
discuten en una
clase que tienen
importancia en
varias clases.
Celebraciones
culturales afectan
la historia y la
literatura.
There are themes
thatn run cross
every class, and
that have
importance in
other subject
matters. Cultural
celebrations affect
history and
literature.
Adapted from Harvey and Goudvis, 2000
106
Strategy Name: Text Map
Strategy Explanation: Text Map encourages students to summarize current text. Text Map also
encourages students to make connections between the reading, priori knowledge and other subject areas
in and out of school.
RtI Target Tier: All
Materials: Paper, pencil/pen, highlighters
Estimated Time for Strategy: 10 – 20 minutes
Steps for Strategy:
I do…
•
•
Select the text to use
Model filling out Text Map
•
With simpler (initial) text model a complete Text Map as a class
activity
•
Students read a text and summarize as well as make connections
with assigned reading
We do…
You do…
107
Support and Extension: Text Map
Support: To differentiate for struggling learners, teacher
• Provide background knowledge prior to reading so that students
• Model a second (more complex) type of text
Extension: To challenge students, teacher
• Encourage connections that are less obvious
• Ask students to explain how they made their connections
• Ask students to use their worksheet to create an essay
My Notes and Ideas: This strategy is great for all levels (not just the advance students)! The Level 1
students can use single word or short phrases in the target language to answer in each section. For the
higher-level students, complex sentences in the target language are to be expected.
This strategy can also be used with a theme (example provided) instead of a reading.
How can this apply to my classroom?
108
Título de la lectura/ Title of the reading:
Página(s)/ Pages:
El tema (una palabra)/ Main idea (one word):
E.D.D. :
•
Exposición (personajes, lugar, tiempo)/ Exposition (people, place, time)
•
Desarrollo (el problema y los conflictos)/ Development (problem, conflicsts)
•
Desenlace (la re-solución del problema)/ Resolution
Frases de la lectura para apoyarla…EVIDENCIA/ Support statements (Evidence):
Vocabulario/ Vocabulary:
1.
4.
2.
5.
3.
6.
Frases – modismos/ phrases - colloquialisms:
1.
2.
3.
Lo que no entendí bien/ What I didn’t really get:
Comparaciones.../ Comparisons…
•
•
•
Culturales/ Cultural:
Personales/ Personal:
Con otras materias/ In other subjects:
109
Título de la lectura/ Title of the reading: El
Ratoncito Pérez y The Tooth Fairy by Jane Cadwallader &
Gustavo Mazali
El tema/ Main idea: ¿Quien recoge los dientes? / Who picks up the baby teeth?
E.D.D.:
•
•
•
Exposición (personajes, lugar, tiempo)/ Exposition (people, place, time): La Tooth Fairy, el ratoncito Pérez,
otros personajes de cuentos. Se encuentran en la casa y visitan a sus amigos. Toma lugar durante una noches.
Desarrollo (el problema y los conflictos)/ Development (problem, conflicsts): La Tooth Fairy y el ratoncito
Pérez tratan de recoger el mismo diente y no saben que es lo que está haciendo el otro personaje.
Desenlace (la re-solución del problema)/ Resolution: Los dos deciden que la Tooth Fairy van a turnarse a los
niños que hablan ambos idiomas.
Frases de la lectura para apoyarla…EVIDENCIA/ Support statements (Evidence):
“Who are you? Asked the Tooth Fairy, but the mouse just spoke mumbo jumbo!
“The Tooth Fairy recoge los dientes de los niños que hablan inglés y les deja, a cambio, una moneda.”
Vocabulario/ Vocabulary:
1. andaba
4. diente
2. agujerito
5. hada
3. almohada
6. turnarían
Frases – modismos/ phrases - colloquialisms:
1. El diente estaba enganchado.
2. El hada volvió a responder en jerigonza y el Ratoncito Pérez no entendí ni media palabra.
3. Los dos estaban muy contentos porque ahora sabían que tenían el mismo trabajo y podían ser amigos.
Lo que no entendí bien/ what I didn’t really get: ¿Que es un Lirón?
Comparaciones.../ Comparisons…
•
•
•
Culturales/ Cultural: Hay una diferencia entre quien recoge los dientes. ¿Habrá una diferencia en otros
personajes?
Personales/ Personal: Yo crecí con el ratoncito, pero mi hermano cree en la Tooth Fairy.
Con otras materias/ In other subjects: Los personajes usan tecnología para ver quién es la otra ‘persona’ que
estaba tratando de ‘robar’ el diente.
110
Strategy Name: THIEVES (Title Heading Introduction Every first sentence Visuals/Vocabulary Endof-chapter questions Summary) (Rinsky & Wassman, 1997)
Strategy Explanation: The THIEVES strategy is used to preview informational text, activate prior
knowledge and set a purpose for reading by surveying the passage prior to reading.
RtI Target Tier: Tier 1
Materials: THIEVES blackline master, overhead/doc cam, chart paper, informational passage
Estimated Time for Strategy: 20 – 30 minutes
Steps for Strategy:
I do…
•
•
•
identify informational text to be used
provide students with handouts
review THIEVES acronym with students
.
•
model using THIEVES strategy with a short informational text
or a portion of assigned reading
•
students complete the THIEVES handout as they preview the
informational text.
We do…
You do…
111
Support and Extension: THIEVES
Support: To differentiate for struggling learners, teacher
• allows students to work in pairs to preview the text and complete the activity
My Notes and Ideas:
How can this apply to my classroom?
112
Title
What is the title?
What do I already know about this topic?
What does this topic have to do with the preceding chapter?
Does the title express a point of view?
What do I think I will be reading about?
Headings
What does this heading tell me I will be reading about?
What is the topic of the paragraph beneath it?
How can I turn this heading into a question that is likely to be answered in the
text?
Introduction
Is there and opening paragraph, perhaps italicized?
Does the first paragraph introduce the chapter?
What does the introduction tell me I will be reading about?
Do I know anything about this topic already?
Every first
sentence
Visual and
vocabulary
What do I think this chapter is going to be about based on the first sentence in
each paragraph?
Does this chapter include photographs, drawings, maps, charts, or graphs?
What can I learn from the visuals in a chapter?
How do captions help me better understand the meaning?
Is there a list of key vocabulary terms and definitions?
Are there important words in boldface type throughout the chapter?
Can I tell the meaning of the boldfaced words from the sentences in which they
are embedded?
End-ofchapter
questions
What do the questions ask?
Summary
What do I understand and recall about the topics covered in the summary?
What information do they earmark as important?
What information do I learn from the questions?
Let me keep in mind the end-of-chapter questions so that I may annotate my text
where pertinent information is located.
113
Chapter/Article Title:
Title
Headings
Introduction
Every first sentence
Visual and
vocabulary
End-of-chapter
questions
Summary
114
2010 The College Board (www.collegeboard.com) Spanish Language exam sample questions
(NARR ETS) Este informe titulado «La música mejora el rendimiento académico» apareció
en el sitio de Internet de OEI (Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos) el 2 de septiembre de 2008.
(MA) Trabajo en equipo, compromiso, rigurosidad, llevar objetivos adelante, son algunos de los
beneficios que puede entregar la música, la cual mejora notablemente los resultados académicos de
quienes la ejercitan.
Diversos estudios han asociado los resultados escolares al entorno, a la familia, a la educación de los
padres, a la sala de clases, etc. A esto se agrega la primera investigación chilena que determina la
influencia de la música en el desempeño académico, realizada por el economista de la Universidad de
Chile, Pablo Egaña.
Según estudios internacionales, el arte influye para:
* Inducir a ser y sentirse parte de una comunidad o escuela.
* Desarrollar a los estudiantes en áreas que de otra forma no desarrollaría.
* Transformar el ambiente de aprendizaje y proveer nuevos desafíos a los jóvenes.
* Otorgar una oportunidad para que los adultos (padres, profesores y otros) aprendan de los jóvenes.
* Conectar las experiencias de aprendizaje a las del mundo laboral, ya que ayuda a aprender sobre el
desenvolvimiento y funcionamiento de organizaciones propias del mercado laboral.
"La participación en las orquestas potencia el desarrollo de habilidades no cognitivas: autoestima,
trabajo en equipo, tolerancia a la frustración, etc., que generan un impacto en aspectos cognitivos", dice
Egaña, quien ejemplifica: "Los profesores te cuentan cómo cambia la actitud de los niños en clases:
aumenta su participación y están más concentrados, lo que hace que la misma clase sea más
provechosa. Es decir, lo que antes el alumno estudiaba en dos horas en su casa, parándose, mirando
televisión, etc., ahora puede hacerlo en 30 minutos de manera más concentrada efectiva".
El músico, profesor, director de la sede de Concepción de la Fundación Orquestas Juveniles e
Infantiles, y mentor de la Orquesta Infantil Juvenil de Curanilahue, Américo Giusti, tiene claro los
beneficios académicos: "La música entrega disciplina, un componente vital para obtener logros.
Cuando el niño aprende por una experiencia propia es más potente que la vía del premio o el castigo, ya
que hace un trabajo y un esfuerzo que tiene una meta y entrega un logro, una realización. Es otra forma
de aprender".
Para el maestro Giusti, si al proceso de aprender un instrumento se suma el incentivo de la familia es
aún mejor: "Cuando un instrumento llega al niño, es toda la familia que se abre al disfrute del arte, la
cultura y al trabajo duro, cotidiano y de equipo".
A continuación, añade Giusti: "Este aprendizaje logra resultados desde un comienzo, lo que le entrega
al alumno el valor del trabajo y del esfuerzo. Esto trae consigo una autoafirmación del niño, una mejora
en la autoestima. A través del aprendizaje de un instrumento fortalecemos, también, el carácter y la
voluntad. En la Fundación que ayudamos a 270 orquestas que se han formado, hemos tratado de
cultivar una cierta cultura al mérito, a través de las becas, las cuales las ganan los mejores".
115
Chapter/Article Title: La música mejora el rendimiento académico
Title/ Titulo
La música mejora el rendimiento académico – Me imajino que vamos a leer
sobre musica en la clase.
La música mejora el rendimiento académico – I think I’ll be reading about
music in the classroom.
Headings/ Partes
Las diferentes partes de la lectura describen como la música ayuda en el
progreso escolar de los estudiantes.
Bullets in the reading describe benefits of music in student’s educational
progress.
Introduction/
Introducción
Da la idea principal del estudio: que la música aumenta el progreso
académico de los estudiantes.
Gives the main idea of what the study is about: how music can help improve
students’ performance.
Every first sentence/ Este artículo me va a decir que aprender a tocar un instrumento me va a
Cada primera frase ayudar en el colegio.
This article is going to tell me how learning to play a musical instrument is
going to help students perform better in school.
Visual and
No hay objetos visuales (tablas, fotos, etc.) y no hay vocabulario aparte.
vocabulary/ Objetos
There are no visuals or highlighted vocabulary.
visuales y el
vocabulario
End-of-chapter
Hay un ensayo que debería tomar 35 minutos para responder.
questions/ Preguntas
al final del capitulo There is a 35 min. essay question associated with this article.
Summary/
Conclusion
No hay una conclusión formal en el artículo, pero el último párrafo da un
pequeño resumen y explica sobre la fundación de música que ayuda a
estudiantes que quieren tocar instrumentos.
While there is no summary at the end of the article the last paragraph does
highlight some aspects of music education, as well as giving me information
about musical foundation that helps students who want to learn to play
instruments.
116
Strategy Name: Think-Pair-Share (Lyman, 1981)
Strategy Explanation: Think-Pair-Share is a discussion strategy that encourages active participation
from every student. This strategy is best served as a pre-reading activity, problem-solving strategy,
pause in a lecture, or post-reading activity.
RtI Target Tier: Tier 1
Materials: Display device (overhead, dry erase board, document camera, question strips, or chart
paper) for questions
Estimated Time for Strategy: 5 minutes
Steps for Strategy:
I do…
•
suggest a topic or ask a question
•
“Think” about what you know or have learned about the
topic
•
students write down what they know or have learned
about the topic
students “Pair” with another student or small group and
share ideas
whole group “Share” discussion
We do…
You do…
•
•
117
Support & Extensions: Think-Pair-Share
Support: To differentiate for struggling learners, teacher
• uses as a brainstorming activity for a writing assignment
• includes a hint under each question to lead their thinking
• includes a sentence starter for the responses
Extension: To challenge students, teacher
• has students generate their own questions or topics and use them within cooperative groups
or with the whole class
• uses Think-Pair-Share in place of brainstorming
My Notes and Ideas: This strategy is appropriate for all levels of students and for most classroom
activities. It can be used as a pre-activity to activate prior knowledge in your classroom, or for critical
thinking in small and whole group regarding a theme, topic or reading. In the lower levels the use of
partner work can help improve target language vocabulary and expression.
Keep in mind that there should be a set time limit that is not too long for this activity to minimize
student’s using the time for social planning.
How this can apply in my classroom?
118
Think-Pair-Share Template
Name: _________________________
Directions
Before we read this selection, think about the following question or problem:
Think
Write three answers or ideas you have about this question or problem.
1.
2.
3.
Pair
Discuss your ideas with a partner. Check any ideas above that your partner also wrote down.
Write down ideas your partner had that you did not have here.
1.
2.
3.
Share
Review all of your ideas and circle the one you think is most important. One of you will share this idea
with the whole group.
As you listen to the ideas of the whole group, write down three you liked.
1.
2.
3.
119
Think-Pair-Share Example
Name: _________________________
Directions
Before we read this selection, think about the following question or problem:
Example #1 (mostly in English, one word or short answer for Level 1)
In 2010 the state of Arizona enacted an immigration law (Senate Bill 1070) that is meant to help the
state deal with its illegal immigrant problem. Do you feel that the Arizona has the right to pass such a
law? – Consider that such a law is being contested by the US Attorney General as overextending the
States authority into federal law.
Think
Write three answers or ideas you have about this question or problem.
1. There is already a federal law that covers this.
2. What are they going to do with all these people they suspect to be illegal, arrest them, jail them,
sent them home?
3. What happens if someone is there on vacation and gets harassed as an “illegal immigrant”? Can
they go to their hotel to get their passport? Will they tell their friends not to go to Arizona?
Pair
Discuss your ideas with a partner. Check any ideas above that your partner also wrote down.
Write down ideas your partner had that you did not have here.
1. Is the law Constitutional?
2. Do Arizona’s voters get to have a say in this law?
3.
Share
Review all of your ideas and circle the one you think is most important. One of you will share this idea
with the whole group.
As you listen to the ideas of the whole group, write down three you liked.
1. What happens to Arizona if it does something to offend another country? Will the US defend them
internationally even if it’s fighting to repeal the law?
2. Is this racism? If so, aren’t there laws against that?
3. Are the just going after Spanish people or anyone who ‘looks foreign’… they have the Grand
Canyon; lots of immigrants go see that!
120
2010 The College Board (www.collegeboard.com) Spanish Language exam sample questions
Jóvenes de la Sinfónica «orgullosos de ir a España» con Abreu
Caracas, Venezuela.- Los jóvenes integrantes de la Orquesta Sinfónica Nacional Simón Bolívar están
«orgullosos» de «representar a Venezuela» y arropar a su maestro, José Antonio Abreu, en la entrega
del Premio Príncipe de Asturias de las Artes 2008.
«Es una gran emoción recibirlo, porque aquí estamos trabajando fuerte, y cuando nos otorgan un
premio de esta categoría, es increíble», aseguró el músico y profesor Rafael Pallaro tras un ensayo en
su sede en Caracas.
Él es uno de los 240 músicos de entre 14 y 29 años que conforman la Orquesta Simón Bolívar, la
considerada «primera división» del Sistema de Orquestas Juveniles e Infantiles de Venezuela fundado
por Abreu en 1975.
«Es un honor recibir este premio, te pones a analizar quiénes lo han recibido . . . Y es grandioso viajar
con toda la orquesta y acompañar al maestro», manifiesta otro joven músico. Junto a ellos estará
también el director de la Orquesta Simón Bolívar, uno de los más ilustres alumnos de Abreu,
Gustavo Dudamel. Pallaro empezó a estudiar música en los Andes venezolanos, y entró en la Orquesta
Nacional Infantil de Venezuela para tocar el violín de la mano de Abreu, que es para él «como un
segundo padre».
«Cuando el maestro inició todo esto, creo que ni él mismo pensaba que esto iba a ser así», afirma
Vanesa Matamoros, una contrabajista de 23 años.
La mayor parte de estos jóvenes comenzó su formación musical en los llamados «núcleos», pequeñas
orquestas diseminadas por Venezuela que sirven como cantera de las agrupaciones nacionales.
Actualmente, «El Sistema» está constituido por unas 170 orquestas en todo el país, en las que están
integrados unos 265.000 jóvenes y niños de todos los sectores, especialmente los más desfavorecidos, y
que su fundador califica de «instrumento para el desarrollo humano».
«Cuando era pequeña soñaba con que llegara rápido la tarde para ir al núcleo, porque lo pasaba muy
bien», comenta Vanesa. Según el joven Ramón Grande, en esta red «no importa la edad que tengas, de
dónde vengas: lo que importa es que estás tocando música y compartiendo con otros muchachos,
educándote».
En esta red musical «no existe diferenciación, no tienes que ser rico o muy pobre para poder tocar»
porque «aquí todos somos iguales, vengan de donde vengan», asegura antes de advertir que «una vez
que entras en la música, es muy difícil despegarse».
Reproduced by permission of El Universal
121
Think-Pair-Share Template
Name: _________________________
Direcciones
Después de leer el artículo piensen y respondan a la próxima pregunta.
Ejemplo #2 (Reponses in target language for levels 2+/respuesta en Español para niveles 2+)
Question/Pregunta: Como podemos comparar a los personajes más importantes de la historia
hispana y Estados Unidos.
Think/ Piensen
Escriban 3 respuestas o ideas sobre la pregunta relacionada con el artículo. Write three answers or
ideas you have about this question or problem.
1.
2.
3.
Pair/ En Pareja
Discute tus ideas con tu pareja. ¿Que ideas tuvo tu pareja diferentes a las tuyas? Discuss your ideas
with a partner. Check any ideas above that your partner also wrote down. Write down ideas your
partner had that you did not have here.
1.
2.
3.
Share/ Compartir
Revisen todas las ideas e identifiquen la más importante para ustedes. Un personaje en la
pareja/grupo va a compartir esta idea con la clase. Review all of your ideas and circle the one you
think is most important. One of you will share this idea with the whole group.
Escribe otras buenas ideas que oyes durante la discusión en clase. As you listen to the ideas of the
whole group, write down three you liked.
1.
2.
3.
122
Strategy Name: UNRAVEL
Strategy Explanation: UNRAVEL is a comprehension strategy that helps students engage
with text to better understand their reading.
RtI Target Tier: Tier 1
Materials: whiteboard, overhead projector/document camera, blackline master, or chart
paper
Estimated Time for Strategy: varies
Steps for Strategy:
I do…
•
•
.
•
students follow the steps as the teacher is modeling
with the abbreviated text on their sample
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Underline the title
Now predict what the passage is about
Run through and number the paragraphs
All the important words should be circled or underlined
Venture through and read the passage
Eliminate the wrong answers
Let’s answer the questions
students fill out their handout using the above
directions
We do…
You do…
make sure each student has a copy of sample
abbreviated text
teacher models UNRAVEL with an abbreviated text
123
Support and Extension: UNRAVEL
Support: To differentiate for struggling learners, teacher
• provides more modeling
• assigns peer partner(s)
• reduces number of activities (letters of UNRAVEL) that students are expected to
complete
Extension: To challenge students, teacher
• provides different types of articles for students to UNRAVEL
My Notes and Ideas: This activity requires two components: an informational article and multiplechoice questions. It is also particularly beneficial for review prior to test taking. This activity increases
critical thinking skills within the question and answer format and can be used to better prepare students
for questions on FCAT 2.0 and the upcoming Common Core Standards requirements. This strategy
can be used with simple or complex answers for all levels of world language acquisition.
How can this apply to my classroom?
124
UNRAVEL YOUR READING
Underline the title
Now predict what the passage is about
Run through and number the paragraphs
All the important words should be circled or underlined
•
the first sentence in each paragraph
•
bold or italicized words
•
words that answer who, what, where, when, why, and how
•
underlined words
•
big words
•
any of the 12 words
•
words in parentheses
•
transition words
•
words in quotation marks
•
words in different colors
•
number words and dates
•
words you don’t know
•
Proper Names
•
ANY WORDS THAT STAND OUT
•
Venture through and read the passage
Eliminate the wrong answers
Let’s answer the questions!
Remember to DOUBLE CHECK your work!
* For this strategy I could not find an appropriate level text to use as an example, but it can be used
with any appropriate level text that has multiple-choice questions at the end.
125
Strategy Name: VIPER W?
Strategy Explanation: VIPER W? (Visualize, Infer, Predict, Emotion, Remind, I Wonder, and
? I’m totally confused about …) VIPER W? helps engage the student to make connections to
any content area text or novel.
RtI Target Tier: All tiers
Materials: whiteboard, overhead projector/document camera, VIPER W? blackline master, or
chart paper
Estimated Time for Strategy: Used throughout lesson
Steps for Strategy:
•
explain and discuss what each letter stands for and
means
•
read aloud a section of text and model how a
connection is made and noted on the blackline master
using phrases or pictorial representations
I do…
.
•
teacher continues reading aloud, students make their
own connections and record on blackline master
•
students continue reading and noting connections on
their blackline master
•
students share their personal connections with rest of
the class
We do…
You do…
126
Support and Extension: VIPER W?
Support: To differentiate for struggling learners, teacher
• provides more modeling
• assigns work with partner
• allows for verbal responses
• provides one or two answers
• allows picture representation
Extension: To challenge students, teacher
•
•
•
changes V to represent Vocabulary
assigns students to write a summary of their different connections
assigns students to give a detailed explanation of their personal connections
My Notes and Ideas: This activity increases critical thinking skills within the question and answer
format and can be used to better prepare students for questions on FCAT 2.0 and the upcoming
Common Core Standards requirements. It can be done at any language acquisition level and can be
used with simple or complex answers.
How can this apply to my classroom?
127
V
I
P
isualize
nfer
redict
E
R
W
?
motion
eminds
onder
(I am
totally
confused)
128
Example/Ejemplo
Realidades Level 3 pg. 35 “Los Ecocamps de Torres del Paine”
Los glaciares, caminar, montar bicicleta, subir montanas.
Visualize/
Visualiza
Beautiful glaciers, hiking, biking, nature walks.
Infer/
Inferencias
El parque nacional de Torres del Paine es hermoso, pero hay tantos visitantes que
están afectando el ecosistema.
Predict/
Predicción
Van a tener que cambiar la cantidad de visitantes y como pueden visitar al parque si
lo van a rescatar.
Emotion/
Emociones
The national part is beautiful but is in trouble because too many people are visiting it.
They are going to have to make changes to how people visit the park if they are going
to save it.
Quiero viajar a este parque y ver la naturaleza que ha inspirado a tantos. Pero
también lo quiero ver conservado.
Feeling like I want to travel there and see this natural beauty that inspires so many.
But I also want to see the park protected.
Reminds/
Me acuerdo
de…
Los exploradores de los Andes y los conquistadores que subieron las montanas para
tener más terreno.
Wonder/
¿Que
piensas?
¿Comó puedo viajar a una de estas localidades que respetan la naturaleza? ¿Hay una
opción similar para el parque Glaciar en Alaska? ¿Comó resolvieron ellos su
problema turístico?
?
Cuando establecieron el parque nacional, qué hicieron con la gente que vivía en el
territorio?
Andes explorers and conquistadors having to climb the Andes to get to more land.
How to travel down there and stay in an eco-friendly location. Can I do the same
with the Alaska Glacier National Park? How did they solve their ecotourism
problem?
When the national park was established and what did they do with people who may
have lived in the area.
129
Strategy Name: Vocabulary Grid
Strategy Explanation: Vocabulary Grids allow students to recall previous vocabulary words, and
reference them to current and previous topics/themes. It is a good way for students to make
connections between vocabulary, culture and familiar activities/locations.
RtI Target Tier: All tiers
Materials: White boards, pens/pencils, paper.
Estimated Time for Strategy: 5 minutes
Steps for Strategy:
I do…
•
•
•
Select a letter of the alphabet
Select the categories for students
Model using one letter
•
Model using one word for the class
•
Fill out words from previous vocabulary that starts with
the assigned letter into each category
We do…
You do…
130
Support and Extension: Vocabulary Grid
Support: To differentiate for struggling students, teacher
• Provide more modeling
• Assign work with partner
• Allow extra time for the activity
• Allow students to use textbook and/or reference guide
Extension: To challenge students, teacher
• Shorten the time allowed for activity
• Make groups for competition
My Notes and Ideas: This strategy is great for all levels and can be adjusted to help higher-level
students (Level 3+) to review concepts and/or themes for text. Vocabulary grid is also a great strategy
for review and tying in of vocabulary to cultural and every day items and ideas for the students.
How can this apply to my classroom?
131
Example/Ejemplo:
Letter/Letra: ________
Categoría/ Category
Casa/ House
Escuela/ School
Vacaciones/ Vacation
Afición/ Hobby
Palabra/ Word
Example/Ejemplo:
Letter/Letra: ____S____
Categoría/ Category
Casa/ House
Escuela/ School
Vacaciones/ Vacation
Afición/ Hobby
Palabra/ Word
Sabanas/ Sheets
Salón/ Classroom
Sol/ Sun
Saltar Caballos/ Jumping horses
Example/Ejemplo:
Letter/Letra: ____E____
Categoría/ Category
Casa/ House
Escuela/ School
Vacaciones/ Vacation
Afición/ Hobby
Palabra/ Word
Estufa/ Stove
Escaleras/ Stairs
Esperar el avión/ Waiting for the plane
Esquiar/ Skiing
132
Strategy Name: Vocabulary Menu (Langston, et al, 2004)
Strategy Explanation: Vocabulary Menus are used to increase student understanding of
word meanings through student chosen activities with varied and multiple interactions with the
words.
RtI Target Tier: Tier 1
Materials: notebook paper and writing utensils
Estimated Time for Strategy: Three to five days/5-10 minutes daily
Steps for Strategy:
I do…
•
•
•
.
We do…
•
•
write definitions of vocabulary words
write an example related to the vocabulary word meaning
•
activity 1: Choose an appetizer activity from the menu
and complete using all vocabulary words
activity 2: Choose a main course activity from the menu
and complete using all vocabulary words
activity 3: Choose a dessert activity from the menu and
complete using all vocabulary words
activity 4: Review words for assessment, and turn in all
activities for the week
•
You do…
display vocabulary words (no more than 10), give
example of word in a sentence (optional), and show
picture of word (optional)
direct instruction of vocabulary word meanings
daily review of vocabulary (if extra time available)
•
•
133
Support & Extensions: Vocabulary Menu
Support:
•
•
•
To differentiate for struggling learners, teacher
provides visual examples for each strategy that are available to students
modifies choices on menu to meet individual needs of students
allows extended time as needed
Extension: To challenge students, teacher
• changes the menu choices every nine weeks
• allows students to create menu options
• provides more challenging options
My Notes and Ideas: This activity is great for all language learning levels, as it gives the
students the option for pictures, short answers, and multi-media integration. This can be
done with any theme, and can a graded project with modifications for every grade level.
How can this apply to my classroom?
134
Vocabulary Menu
Evening Specials:
Monday—Teacher explains the word directly, THEN write your vocabulary words in your notebook.
Tuesday—Choose an appetizer
Wednesday—Choose a main course
Thursday—Choose a dessert/STUDY the words
Friday—Turn in your Menu from the whole week!
Appetizers
Choose One…
1. Write each of your vocabulary words and then use a dictionary or thesaurus to write a
synonym OR antonym for each word.
2. Choose seven of your words and draw a cartoon to help you remember what they mean.
3. Locate your words in the newspaper or a magazine, cut them out and paste them on a sheet of
paper.
4. Write each of your vocabulary words and then use a dictionary or thesaurus to write an
antonym for each word.
5. Write each of your words on your paper and then rearrange the letters to make at least four
new words.
Main Courses
Choose One…
1. Use each of your words in a sentence so that the meaning is in the context of the sentence.
2. Write a short story which includes at least seven of your words.
3. Create a crossword puzzle using the definitions of your words as clues (NOT a word search
puzzle!!!)
4. Write a poem or song with includes at least seven of your vocabulary words. Be sure to use
them correctly and write using poem format.
5. Draw a cartoon strip and include at least seven of your vocabulary words in the conversations
between the characters.
Desserts
Choose One…
1. Write a news report of a recent accident OR a recent sporting event. Use at least seven of
your vocabulary words in the report.
2. Choose four of your vocabulary words and write a “knock, knock” joke with each word.
(Knock, Knock. Who’s there? Igneous. Igneous who? Igneous rock concert great?)
3. Look up all your words in the dictionary and write the part of speech and origin for each
word.
4. Write your words and divide them into word parts. Use a space to separate each word parts.
Then write another word that has the same beginning part as your word. (lib er ty)
5. Draw a picture and disguise your words in the picture.
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Strategy: Vocabulary Menu
MESH Subject: World Languages
Example/Ejemplo: Realidades 1, pg 268, Repaso del capítulo: vocabulario y gramática
Day 1: Definition/Definicion
1. Plato principal: the main dish
2. El postre: the dessert
3. La cuchara: the spoon
4. El camarero: the waiter or waitress
5. El cuchillo: the knife
6. El vaso: the glass
Day 2: Appetizer/ Aperitivo (Los estudiantes usan imagines/ student uses clip art to illustrate)
Plato principal
El postre
El camarero
La cuchara
El cuchillo
El vaso
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Day 3: Main Course/ Plato principal
1. Mi tía Helena siempre cocina el mismo plato principal, carne asada.
2. El pudin de mi mama es el mejor postre de la familia.
3. El camarero en el restaurante de anoche no nos atendió bien.
4. La cuchara de madera no es el mejor instrumento para revolver caramelo.
5. Se necesita afilar los chichillos de la cocina, casi no cortan el pan.
6. El vaso de agua fue muy refrescante.
Day 4: Dessert/ Postre
1. Plato principal – Noun (masculine)
2. El postre – Noun (masculine); British origin
3. El camarero (a) – Noun (masculine and feminine); Spanish origin
4. La cuchara – Noun (feminine)
5. El cuchillo – Noun (masculine)
6. El vaso – Noun (masculine)
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Strategy Name: What Happened? So What? What Next?
Strategy Explanation: The What Happened?, So What?, What Next? strategy is used to
summarize or reflect on a passage or an activity. The “what happened?” portion should be a
paragraph summary; the “so what?” portion focuses on what the reading/activity means to the
student; and “what next?” focuses on how the student can use the information.
RtI Target Tier: Tier 1
Materials: text or planned activity, blackline master
Estimated Time for Strategy: 3-5 minutes
Steps for Strategy:
•
select text or plan an activity
•
use a familiar or short reading passage to model the
strategy
I do…
We do…
•
You do…
after completing the reading or activity, students
summarize what happened, tell the impact in the so what
portion, and reflect on the impact in the what next portion
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Strategy Name: What Happened? So What? What Next?
Support: To differentiate for struggling learners, teacher
• provides the summary for students and only has them complete the “So What?” and
“What Next?” portion
• allows students to complete the activity in pairs or small groups
Extension: To challenge students, teacher
• has students read two related passages, completing the activity for both, and compare
and contrast each part of the activity
My Notes and Ideas: Students examine how the passages are similar/different using the
“What happened” part. Then they examine the impact of the information in the passage by
comparing/contrasting the “So What” part. The last part is to compare/contrast how they
can use the information from each passage.
This activity can be combined with Think-Pair-Share for lower levels or as part of a team
competition for review at the end of a unit/chapter at all levels. Level 1 and 2 students can
use single words or small phrases to describe each section. Pictures are optional, but
may be useful depending on the topic/theme.
How can this apply to my classroom?
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What Happened? So What? What Now?
Topic/Chapter/Title:
What
Happened?
So What?
What Next?
Write a paragraph summary here:
What does this mean to me?
How can I use this information?
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Titulo/Capitulo/Tema: El Camino de Santiago (Realidades Level 3, pg. 48-49)
What
Happened? /
¿Qué pasó?
Escriba una abreviación de lo que paso en la lectura. Write a
paragraph summary here:
Este articulo es sobre el camino religioso (e histórico) en España.
Por los últimos 1000 anos peregrinos ha usado este camino para
llegar a la Catedral de San Jiménez. En el camino hay muchos
hoteles para que los peregrinos y los turistas se queden. Hoy en
día puedes caminar, montar bicicleta, montar a caballo, ir por carro
o bus. Turistas vienen de todo el mundo para ‘caminar’ el camino
de Santiago.
This article is about the ancient religious (and now historical route)
of Saint James in northern Spain. Pilgrims over the last 1000 years
have traveled this route that ends at Saint James Cathedral. Along
the route there are many hotels and hostels for people to stay in.
You can travel the route by walking, biking, ridding a horse, car or
bus. People come from all over the world to take this pilgrimage.
So What? /
¿Qué
significa…?
¿Qué significa esto para mí? What does this mean to me?
Para mí este camino es históricamente importante como una
localidad turística y religiosa. Podría ser una parte interesante de
una vacación en España. Visitante todas las paradas y conociendo
a otras personas de todo el mundo y de mi edad que también están
interesados en la historia del camino.
To me this means this is an important historical and tourist site and
that it might be something fun for me to do if I’m on vacation in
Spain. Visiting all those places and meeting other people my age
that are having a similar experience visiting all these historical
places.
What Next? / Y
ahora qué…
¿Como puedo usar esta información? How can I use this
information?
Esta información es importante no solo porque es parte de la
historia de España y los pelegrinos, pero como una experiencia
cultural. El viaje de lugar en lugar a lo largo del camino representa
una buena experiencia cultura.
This is important information not only about the history of Spain and
of this pilgrimage; but to see and experience the cultural aspect of
traveling with people my age around Spain.
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Strategy Name: Word/Flower Wall
Strategy Explanation: Word walls consist of words posted on classroom walls as a means of
immersing students in language. Students add new words as they come in contact with them.
Word walls can be used to teach vocabulary, pronunciation, word families, categorization, and
spelling.
This variation uses ‘flowers’ to represente each word in the ‘garden’.
RtI Target Tier: All tiers
Materials: Paper plates, colored pencils, pencil/pen, scissors, vocabulary list.
Estimated Time for Strategy: Varies per word
Steps for Strategy:
I do…
We do…
You do…
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
select a vocabulary word to model for students
set what each ‘pedal’ is going to stand for
create flower pots to plant flowers in per class
assign reading from which words are to come from
•
pick the first week’s worth of words and do them in
class as an activity to answer any questions
select words from assigned reading
create ‘flower’ with appropriate examples per pedal
turn in my ‘flower’ each week
‘weed’ previous flowers
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Support and Extension: Word/Flower Wall
Support: To differentiate for strggling learners, teacher
• Provide the word list
• Provide multiple examples of ‘good’ flowers
• Assign work with a partner
Extension: To challenge students, teacher
• Assign student to create their own ‘garden’
• Assign more ‘pedals’ per flower example
My Notes and Ideas: This is a great activity for all language levels in any world language. It is also
an activity that can be easily translated to all subject areas. Can be used in conjunction with ThinkPair-Share and with Back to Your Roots.
How can this apply to my classroom?
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De acuerdo
Lo que es difícil de
cumplir
El desafío
El Reto
(Dare or
Challenge)
El reto mas difícil en
mi clase de
matemáticas es hacer
toda la tarea.
Substantivo
(Noun)
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Dar
(to give)
Obtener
(to obtain)
Recibir
(To receive)
Voy a recibir
(recibo) muchos
regales para mi
cumpleaños.
Verbo
(Verb)
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Strategy Name: X – Marks the Spot (Brown & Stephens, 1987)
Strategy Explanation: X – Marks the Spot is a strategy where students use symbols to
interact with their reading. This strategy helps students identify significant information, new
information, and unclear information.
Response Codes: X = “I’ve found a key point.”
! = “I’ve found something interesting, new information.”
? = “I’m confused; I have a question about what this means.”
RtI Target Tier: Tier 1 and 2
Materials: any article or textbook, sticky notes, highlighters, highlighter tape
or journal
Estimated Time for Strategy: used throughout lesson
Steps for Strategy:
I do…
•
•
model the strategy before having students try it on
their own
be sure to include an example of each code you
want the students to use
.
•
students respond to teacher modeling
•
students read text and use the response codes
We do…
You do…
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Support and Extension: X Marks the Spot
Support: To differentiate for struggling learners, teacher
• provides more modeling
• assigns work with partner
• allows for verbal responses
• provides one or two answers
Extension: To challenge students, teacher
•
•
•
has students organize important details (X) into a summary
has students give an explanation of their interesting details (!)
has students reread to clear up confusions (?)
My Notes and Ideas: This is a good activity for all learning levels. It can be done with any
piece of text (simple or complex), and students can use this strategy across the content area.
Teaching students to use similar strategies throughout their school day increases retention of
information and increases comprehension.
For the higher level students, this strategy can be used to organize their thoughts for a
reflective or summaritive essay on the topic being presented.
How can this apply to my classroom?
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100 Web sites/ References
•
http://www.stenhouse.com/assets/pdfs/Allen0399%20pp81-86.pdf – an excerpt from a Janet
Allen book, describes the strategy
•
http://www.ohiorc.org/adlit/strategy/strategy_each.aspx?id=9 – a web-site that focuses on how
predictions impact student learning – includes possible sentences as well as other strategies
•
http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/lesson_view_printer_friendly.asp?id=816 – a lesson plan
for The Story of Ruby Bridges by Robert Coles – includes possible sentences
•
http://english.byu.edu/novelinks/reading%20strategies/Brave%20New%20World/anticipation%
20guide.pdf – an anticipation guide plan for Brave New World by Aldous Huxley – includes
teacher notes for possible discussion
•
http://www.readwritethink.org/lesson_images/lesson226/anticipation.pdf – another template for
anticipation guides – more in depth for after reading
•
http://www.learnnc.org/reference/anticipation%20guide – a description of anticipation guides –
the column on the right side has content area lesson plans for anticipation guides
•
http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr/strats/kwl/ - describes the strategy – includes suggestions for
adaptation and additional web resources
•
http://oame.on.ca/main/files/thinklit/FrayerModel.pdf – a description of the strategy – focuses
on use in math classes – contains examples and adaptation ideas
•
http://www.tantasqua.org/superintendent/Profdevelopment/etfrayermodel.html – a description
of the strategy – includes several examples on different topics
•
http://www.teach-nology.com/web_tools/graphic_org/sq3r/ - SQ3R generator
•
http://www.litandlearn.lpb.org/strategies/strat_sqrqcq.pdf – a strategy similar to SQ3R – for
math word problems
•
http://www.usatoday.com/educate/et/2008/jul/IUSAT07.16.2008.pdf – a concept ladder from
USA Today – uses articles from the paper and includes a small vocabulary focus
•
http://teachers.net/lessons/posts/1337.html – a description of using quick writes for vocabulary
•
http://162.127.6.150/esu6/Gems/lvermaas/SemanticFeatureAnalysis.doc – brief explanation and
two math examples
•
http://www.readaloudamerica.org/booklist.htm – lists recommended read alouds for different
grade levels
•
http://www.seeds-ia.org/pages/uploaded_files/unalteredContent%20Area%20Read.pdf –
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planning guide for using read aloud during a lesson
•
http://searchlight.utexas.org/content/study-guide-second-grade/study-guide-secondpdf/2.2_SemanticMapping.pdf
•
http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/pd/instr/strats/think/index.html – describes the strategy and lists was to
adapt and manage
•
http://wac.colostate.edu/intro/pop5.cfm – lists examples of write to learn activities – explore the
other areas of the site too
•
http://iteslj.org/Lessons/Peng-Geography.html – examples of write to learn in geography
•
http://www.teachervision.fen.com/writing/letters-and-journals/48536.html?page=2&detoured=1
– this article has suggestions for how to use in each subject area
•
http://www.edhelper.com/teachers/General_graphic_organizers.htm – printable graphic
organizers
•
http://www.writedesignonline.com/organizers/ - explanations of various graphic organizers,
printable
•
http://www.brideys.com/GraphicOrganizers.pdf – has many, many graphic organizers to choose
from
•
http://www.greece.k12.ny.us/instruction/ela/6-12/tools/Text%20Connections2.PDF – shows
how to use text connections with a 3 circle Venn diagram
•
http://www.wku.edu/3kinds/dmaesexamples.html – has examples of exit slips for various
content areas – includes student samples
•
http://www.jimwrightonline.com/pdfdocs/math_QAR.pdf – using QAR to interpret math
graphics
•
http://writingfix.com/WAC/RAFT.htm – description of the strategy – include “RAFT builder”
for content areas
•
World Language Related Web Sites
•
•
http://www.spanish.bz/cognates.htm - Spanish Cognates
http://www.elearnspanishlanguage.com/vocabulary/falsosamigos.html - Cognates and other
helpful lists
http://www.proteacher.com/redirect.php?goto=859 - Spanish graphic organizers
http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/spanish/ - Spanish graphic organizers
•
•
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READING TERMS TO KNOW
1. Authentic assessment uses actual literacy tasks for the purpose of
determining student performance, as opposed to relying solely on traditional
forms of testing.
2. Balanced reading is a reading program which includes phonemic awareness,
decoding, fluency, calling on prior knowledge, vocabulary-building,
comprehension, and motivation.
3. Choral Reading is a reading technique that is highly effective for students, it
teaches expression. The students have a high level of accountability as the
whole group is reading the same material.
4. Clustering is grouping information to help children remember it better; a form
of brainstorming.
5. Clozed Reading is a reading technique where the teacher reads a passage
and the students fill in the word when the teacher pauses.
6. Critical listening is listening for a specific purpose (e.g., evaluation,
information, entertainment).
7. Critical reading is reading “text in such a way as to question assumptions,
explore perspectives, and critique underlying social and political values or
stances.” (IRA and NCTE, 1996, p.71)
8. Experience stories are teacher-directed stories written by the teacher and the
students to reflect a group experience.
9. Expository writing refers to a precise, factual, informational writing style.
10. Implied meaning is meaning which cannot be cited from the text but which
may be drawn from the reading; reading “between the lines.”
11. Letter-sound correspondence means recognizing the corresponding sound
of a specific letter when that letter is seen or heard.
12. Metacognition is the awareness and knowledge of one’s mental processes
such that one can monitor, regulate, and direct them to a desired end; selfmediation; thoughts about thinking (cognition); for example, thinking about how to
understand a reading selection.
13. Non-print text means visual media other than printed material (e.g.,
photographs, movies, symbols).
150
14. Paired reading means partners reading aloud to each other for the purpose
of practicing, sharing, developing fluency, communicating information, or
modeling oral reading technique.
15. Paired writing refers to two students collaborating to create one piece.
16. Phoneme is the smallest unit of sound; for example, the word “cat” has three
phonemes.
17. Phoneme awareness is an understanding that speech consists of a series of
small sound parts.
18. Phonics is the association of speech sounds with printed symbols.
19. Print text is a written, typed, or printed version of a piece of prose or poetry.
20. Reading process is a process in which we construct meaning from print.
The reading process is made up of the following areas: oral language, phonemic
awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension.
21. Reflection (1) The process or result of seriously thinking over one’s
experiences, especially those valued. (2) An approach to problem solving that
emphasizes the careful consideration of the nature of the problem, the thorough
planning of procedures to solve the problem, and the monitoring of the processes
used in reaching a solution. (3)In Rosenblatt’s (1978) transactional theory of
reading, a late or final phase of the reading process in which the significance of
the reader’s evocation of the text is reviewed and evaluated. (4)A sign.
(5)Introspection.
22. Schema is a unit of organized knowledge. It includes how a person thinks
and acts when planning and executing and evaluating performance on a task and
its outcomes.
23. Shared reading is all reading that is not individual; this can include paired
reading, read-alouds, literacy circles, small groups, and choral reading.
24. Visual message refers to non-print texts (e.g., cartoons, posters, pictures).
25. Word families are groups of words having similar roots or stems: --ight, -oon.
26. Word play consists of addressing words through games, rhymes, tongue
twisters; any method that increases students’ awareness of the meaning and
value of individual words.
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27. Word walls consist of words posted on classroom walls as a means of
immersing students in language. Students add new words as they come in
contact with them. Word walls can be used to teach vocabulary, pronunciation,
word families, categorization, and spelling.
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