INGLÉS Prácticos/Temas: 5, 31,32 - Preparadores de Oposiciones

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INGLÉS Prácticos/Temas: 5, 31,32 - Preparadores de Oposiciones
PREPARADORES DE OPOSICIONES PARA LA ENSEÑANZA
Inglés 1 -
INGLÉS
Prácticos/Temas: 5, 31,32
Tema 5: La comunicación oral. Elementos y normas que rigen el discurso oral. Rutinas y fórmulas
habituales. Estrategias propias de la comunicación oral.
1. Oral communication
• Transient and unpredictable, mutable..
• Natural means of communication
• Affected by individual and contextual factors
• Speaker and listener share knowledge and physical setting
• High levels of interaction
• Usually more informal and less standardised.
Theoretical approaches
• Supremacy of speech
• Subsidiary form, a means of representing the primary form
• Saussure, Bloomfield and Chomski:
• Abstract system of signs: object of linguistic studies.
• Writing and speech on the same level
• Writing and speech: product of the functions they serve.
• Haas, Vachek, Uldall and Halliday
• Complementary language functions: dynamic-static; process -product; informalformal.
• Supremacy of writing
• Mc Luhan, Kerckhove etc.
• Consequences of literacy and printing
2. Structure and formal elements
Features of the spoken language
•
•
•
Lexical features (Low lexical density, little abstract vocabulary, prefabricated comment
clauses, use of context dependant terms)
Grammatical features (Tendency to ellipsis. abbreviation of verbs and use mainly of
active voice, lack of standard grammar, little subordination and embedding)
Discourse features (more than one participant, markers of interpersonal dynamics,
repetition and echoing, reformulation of utterance; co-operation.)
The spoken channel: prosody
• Prosodic, paralinguistic and indexical features
• Prosodic features (Stress, rhythm, intonation, tone units)
• Individual aspects of speech (dialectal, sociological, physical and incidental aspects)
Routines, formulae and strategies.
•
•
•
Specific functions of speech (formulaic utterances)
Functions and formulae (giving and seeking information, expressing attitudes etc)
Strategies in oral communication (communicative competence, listening, speaking)
Tema 31: Texto y contexto. Tipos de texto. Criterios para la clasificación textual. El Registro.
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Inglés 2 -
1. Introduction
• Text and discourse linguistics: used as synonyms here.
• Discourse description: Contextual and textual.
2. Text and context
Text comprehension
• Pragmatic context: physical aspects, non physical aspects
• Malinowski::
• Context of culture: register and dialect.
• Context of situation: field, tenor and mode of discourse.
• Internal coherence (cohesion): deictic elements, register etc.
Textual field
• Text made of meanings (semantic unit):
• Linguistic component: Conceptual content and expression.
• Process: invention, disposition, elocution.
• Unity: macrostructure (Textual coherence, other aspects)
• Microstructure: textual cohesion (texture: repetition, substitution etc.)
3. Types of text. Criteria for textual classification
• Types of text: narration, description, exposition and argumentation.
• Aspects: contextual, aim, roles of encoder/decoder
3.1 Modes of discourse
• Descriptive mode
• Naming, situating and qualifying.
• Techniques to describe: observation, selection, order of elements
• Act of description: omniscient, subjective, confidential attitude.
• Narrative discourse
• Narrative structure: actants, processes, sequences
• Coherence, intention, linking connections.
• Lineal ordering, parallelism, inclusion, rhythm.
• Specific elements of a story:
• Relation between narrator, story and characters
• Types of speech: direct, indirect, free indirect.
• Argumentative discourse.
• Components: thesis, conclusion, argumentative outline.
• Ways: deductive and inductive.
• Other structures: one-sided argument, pro-con, eclectic approach.
• Linguistic resources: semantic, discourse and organising elements.
• Text types: scientific texts and humanist essays.
• Expository discourse.
• Types of texts: scientific, newspapers, academic, commercial, legal.
• Linguistic resources: lexical and grammatical, discourse, organisers
4. The Register
• Communicative competence: appropriate register
• Close and open registers; sociocultural and situational varieties
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Inglés 3 -
Tema 32: El texto narrativo. Estructura y características.
1. INTRODUCTION
• Genre as general frame: study of texts; contrast with traditional idea of genre; ESP.
2. GENRE THEORY
2.1. General ideas
• Genre theory and education: Martin and Rotheric; Kress
• Definition of genre: Kress and Swales
• Difficulty of defining genres: relative prominence, combination and function.
• Teaching/learning perspective: used as a way of interaction; ability to use codes.
2.1. Taxonomy of genres
• Traditional rhetoric: exposition, argument, description and narration
• Factual and non factual texts
• Texts that sequence, order and expand.
• Processes and products
3. NARRATIVE TEXTS
3.1. Definition, features and types
• Macro genre: us. non factual texts, entertaining; generic purpose; social role.
• Formally: people and experience in time and space. Problem solving skills
• Types:
• Recounts
• Reports or News stories
• Stories
• Newspaper accounts
• Structure: Orientation, complication, resolution, re-orientation.
• Main features:
• Grammar features:
3.2. Narrative genre and time
• Narration: chronological dimension
• Possibilities: past (most common), present, future, hypothetical (stories) time.
• Physical and existential time: person’s aprehension of time (diversity of styles)
• Time sequencing: lineal, parallelism, connection.
3.3. Point of view and plot
• Point of view: relation between narrator with story and other characters.
• Narrator/story: other’s story; own story: autobiographical levels; several narrators.
• Narrator/characters: Objective or subjective point of view.
• Plot: scenes, agents, agency, acts and purposes (cause/effect sequence).
• Circumstances and actions and mental states
• Means of introducing ideas of social appropriateness
3.4. Narrative Genre and Structure.
• Setting, initiating event, reaction or internal response, overt attempt and consequence.
• Setting: Physical, social or temporal context (includes psychological climate)
• Mental landscape: emotional state, morality, perspectives, motives.
• Key event that disrupts expected situation provoking responses.
4. Pedagogical aspects.
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Inglés 1 -
Find words in the text to match the following definitions
1. To turn aside or be turned aside from a straight course.
2. Soft, sweet, juicy, and full-flavored because of ripeness
3. A distinctively sharp taste, flavor, or odor, as that of orange juice
4. A cut or projection forming a shelf on a cliff or rock wall.
5. trousers extending to the knee or just below, worn for riding, mountaineering, etc
6. a covering of cloth or leather for the ankle, sometimes also the lower leg, worn
over the shoe or boot.
7. a trimming, as a strip of cloth or lace, gathered at one edge and left loose at the
other
8. A durable fabric, usually made of cotton, with vertical ribs
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Inglés · 1
SPANISH ENGLISH TRANSLATION
Ahora, sin embargo, el amargo recuerdo de aquellos años sólo anidaba en rincones oscuros, y sus
secuelas apenas si se hacían sentir en algunos aspectos de la vida diaria. Por más que las autoridades
ponían el máximo empeño en resolver graves problemas de abastos, el pan, las alubias, las lentejas,
los garbanzos, la carne, el azúcar y el aceite escaseaban en la mesa del pobre, y los inmigrantes,
debido a la carestía de los materiales, que impedía la construcción de nuevas viviendas, habían de
alojarse en endebles barracas, hechas de adobe y de cinc, agrupadas sin orden ni criterio en barrios
carentes de todo servicio, sin escuelas ni dispensarios, sin agua y sin luz, sobre tierras baldías,
inadecuadas para el asentamiento humano, como las playas o los cauces secos de los ríos o las
laderas empinadas de los montes, donde las lluvias torrenciales del otoño ocasionaban año tras año
inundaciones y a menudo víctimas mortales. Tampoco faltaban infortunados que, no habiendo
conseguido trabajo y no pudiendo permitirse ni siquiera una de aquellas barracas cochambrosas,
merodeaban por las calles practicando la mendicidad y dormían bajo los bancos públicos o en el
interior de los camiones estacionados a las afueras. Pero estos pequeños contratiempos no bastaban
para alterar la buena marcha de la ciudad, ni la callada conformidad de sus gentes, dispuestas a
comprar el reposo a cualquier precio. Habían sufrido tanto que ahora los hombres cifraban toda su
ambición en ganar un sueldo mínimamente decoroso, pagar las cuentas, hablar de política en tono
amortiguado, discutir de toros y de fútbol y contar chistes picantes. En estas charlas vehementes,
osadas o salaces, nunca participaban las mujeres, pues era en ellas donde debía reflejarse en mayor
grado la continencia y el comedimiento propio de los tiempos. (Eduardo Mendoza, Una comedia
ligera.)
ENGLISH SPANISH TRANSLATION
Such was the house, the household, and the business Mr Verloc left behind him on his way westward
at the hour of half-past ten in the morning. It was unusually early for him; his whole person exhaled
the charm of almost dewy freshness; he wore his blue cloth overcoat unbuttoned; his boots were
shiny; his cheeks, freshly shaven, had a sort of gloss; and even his heavy-lidded eyes, refreshed by a
night of peaceful slumber, sent out glances of comparative alertness. Through the park railings these
glances beheld men and women riding in the Row, couples cantering past harmoniously, others
advancing sedately at a walk, loitering groups of three or four, solitary horsemen looking unsociable,
and solitary women followed at a long distance by a groom with a cockade to his hat and a leather
belt over his tight-fitting coat. Carriages went bowling by, mostly two-horse broughams, with here
and there a victoria with the skin of some wild beast inside and a woman’s face and hat emerging
above the folded hood. And a peculiarly London sun—against which nothing could be said except
that it looked bloodshot—glorified all this by its stare. It hung at a moderate elevation above Hyde
Park Corner with an air of punctual and benign vigilance. The very pavement under Mr Verloc’s
feet had an old-gold tinge in that diffused light, in which neither wall, nor tree, nor beast, nor man
cast a shadow. Mr Verloc was going westward through a town without shadows in an atmosphere of
powdered old gold. There were red, coppery gleams on the roofs of houses, on the corners of walls,
on the panels of carriages, on the very coats of the horses, and on the broad back of Mr Verloc’s
overcoat, where they produced a dull effect of rustiness. But Mr Verloc was not in the least
conscious of having got rusty. He surveyed through the park railings the evidences of the town’s
opulence and luxury with an approving eye. (Joseph Conrad, The Secret Agent)
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Inglés · 2
GRAMMAR
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Inglés · 3
LISTENING: MOTHERS AND DAUGHTERS
COMPREHENSION EXERCISE
1. Name at least two subjects Deborah Tannen has written about.
2. What difference is there in the relationship between girls and mothers and boys and men?
3. What does Deborah Tannen refer to when she speaks about “The big Three”.
4. What’s the difference between a message and a metamessage? What example is given.
5. Explain in what sense is the sentence: “It’s like the cake recipe, Mom”, is used in the text.
6. What three ethnic groups did Deborah Tannen interview?
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Inglés · 4
KEY
POSSIBLE TRANSLATIONS
Now, however, the bitter memory of those years nestled only in dark corners, and the consequences
were felt in only a few aspects of life. Although the authorities did their utmost to resolve serious
supply problems, bread, beans, lentils, chick peas, meat, sugar and oil were rarely seen at the tables
of the poor, while due to the high cost of building materials, new immigrants to the city had to live in
flimsy adobe-and-tin shacks, thrown up in chaotic fashion in districts lacking all services, schools or
clinics. They were to be found usually on wasteland unfit for human habitation: dried-up riverbeds
and sandbanks, or steep hillsides where year in, year out, the violent autumn rains caused floods
and, more often than not, fatalities. There were also large numbers of unfortunates who, unable to
find work or even afford one of these filthy shacks, wandered the streets begging by day and sleeping
at night under public benches or in trucks parked on the outskirts of the city. But these minor
problems were not so serious as to disturb the proper functioning of the city, or the hushed
conformity of its inhabitants, keen to secure peace and quiet at any cost. The men had suffered so
badly that now their greatest wish was to earn a more-or-less decent wage, pay their bills, talk
politics with as little controversy as possible, argue about bullfighting and football and tell racy
jokes. The women never took part in these violent, daring or salacious discussions – it was they who
had to bear the brunt of showing the moderation and propriety demanded by the moment.
__________________
Así eran la casa, familia y negocio que Mr. Verloc dejó, atrás en su camino hacia el oeste a las diez
y media de la mañana. Era inusualmente temprano para él; toda su persona exhalaba el encanto de
una frescura casi de rocío: llevaba su saco azul desabotonado, sus botas relucían, las mejillas,
recién afeitadas, tenían cierto brillo e incluso sus ojos de pesados párpados, frescos tras una noche
de sueño pacífico, echaban miradas de relativa vivacidad. A través de la verja del parque, esas
miradas contemplaban hombres y mujeres cabalgando en el Row, parejas marchando en un medio
galope armonioso, otros paseando tranquilos, grupos de ociosos, de tres, o cuatro personas,
solitarios jinetes de aspecto insociable y solitarias mujeres seguidas a distancia por un sirviente de
sombrero, adornado con una escarapela, y un cinturón de cuero por encima del saco ajustado.
Circulaban carruajes, en su mayoría berlinas de dos caballos, y alguna victoria aquí y allá,
tapizados por dentro con la piel de algún animal salvaje y un rostro de mujer y un sombrero
emergiendo por encima de la capota plegada. Un peculiar sol londinense contra el que no se puede
decir nada, excepto que tiene brillos sangrientos glorificaba toda la escena a través de su cara
insolente, colgada de una mediana elevación, por encima del Hyde Park Corner, llena de un aire de
puntual y benigna vigilancia. Bajo los pies de Mr. Verloc, tenía un tinte de oro viejo esa luz difusa
en la que ni paredes, ni árboles, ni animales, ni hombres proyectan sombra. Mr. Verloc marchaba
hacia el oeste, a través de una ciudad sin sombras, en medio de una atmósfera de oro viejo
polvoriento. Había destellos rojos, cobrizos, en los techos de las casas, en las aristas de las paredes,
en los paneles de los coches, en las mismas gualdrapas de los caballos y hasta en la amplia espalda
del saco de Mr. Verloc, donde producían el efecto opaco de cosa antigua. Pero Mr. Verloc no estaba
para nada consciente de haberse puesto antiguo. Examinaba con ojos aprobatorios, a través de las
verjas del parque, los testimonios de la opulencia y el lujo de la ciudad.
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Inglés · 5
GRAMMAR
TENSE AND CONTEXT: 1J; 2G; 3B; 4H; 5D; 6F; 7L; 8A; 9E; 10C; 11K; 12I.
TENSE REVIEW: 1; HAS BEEN INPROVING; 2: HAS CHANGED; 3: IT HAD BEEN
SNOWING; 4: HAS BEEN WORKING; 5: WILL HAVE BEEN DIGGING; 6: HAVE YOU
BEEN GOING OUT; 7: HAD BEEN KILLED; 8: HAVE BEEN MEANING; 9: WILL
HAVE FINISHED; 10: HAD BEEN BROKEN
REWRITING: 1: THERE WAS A SIGNIFICANT DETERIORATION; 2: THE RUNWAY WAS
LITTERED WITH DEBRIS; 3: I SPENT AGES WAITING FOR A BUS TO ARRIVE; 4: THE
MINISTER TOOK FULL RESPONSIBILITY FOR WHAT HAD GONE WRONG; 5: MY
MOTHER HAD MISGIVINGS ABOUT MY DECISION TO BECOME AN ACTOR; 6: I
DROVE..... ONLY TO FIND THAT; 7: WOULD YOU LIKE TO MAKE A CONTRIBUTION; 8:
I’VE GOT TO CUT DOWN ON CHOCOLATE AS PART OF MY DIET.
Sea and Sardinia: Text analysis
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Swerve: To turn aside or be turned aside from a straight course.
Mellow: Soft, sweet, juicy, and full-flavored because of ripeness
Tanging: A distinctively sharp taste, flavor, or odor, as that of orange juice
Ledged: A cut or projection forming a shelf on a cliff or rock wall.
Breeches: trousers extending to the knee or just below, worn for riding, mountaineering, etc
Gaiters: a covering of cloth or leather for the ankle, sometimes also the lower leg, worn over the shoe
or boot.
Frill: a trimming, as a strip of cloth or lace, gathered at one edge and left loose at the other
Corduroy: A durable cut-pile fabric, usually made of cotton, with vertical ribs
TRANSCRIPTION
'You're Wearing That? Understanding Mothers and Daughters in Conversation'
I'm Nancy Beardsley, filling in for Avi Arditti and Rosanne Skirble. This week on Wordmaster we'll talk about
communication -- and miscommunication -- between mothers and daughters.
Our guest is Deborah Tannen, a Georgetown University linguistics professor who writes best selling books
about how conversation styles affect relationships. She's written about dialogues among men and women, adult
family members, friends and co-workers. Her latest book is called "You're Wearing That? Understanding
Mothers and Daughters in Conversation."
Ms. Tannen says mother-daughter relationships are like other close bonds-but even more intense:
DEBORAH TANNEN: "In every relationship you have to balance how close or distant you want to be, but
girls in particular are very focused on that closeness-distance dimension, as well
as the sameness and difference. (They are) always asking, are we the same, or are we different? What I see in
you, what does that say about me?
"And talk is the glue that holds the relationship together for girls and women, and less so for boys and men. So
mothers and daughters talk more. They talk about more personal topics, which gives you more of an
opportunity to say the wrong thing."
NB: "And in fact you found that a mother with more than one daughter is more likely to have flare-ups with the
daughter she talks to more?"
DEBORAH TANNEN: "Yes. The closer you are, the more opportunity to step on each other's toes. And
women are much more focused often on appearance, and that's where you get what I call 'the big three,' and
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Inglés · 6
that's clothing, hair and weight, where daughters feel their mothers are criticizing, and mothers feel, 'I can't
open my mouth. She takes everything as criticism.'
"And the caring and the criticizing really are communicated in the same words. So if the mother says, 'Do you
like your hair that long?' or if she says, 'Do you think that skirt really fits you?' the daughter is going to hear it
as criticism. In the first case, 'Your hair doesn't look good.' In the second, 'You're putting on weight.'"
NB: "And you talk about the way messages and metamessages work in mother-daughter communication.
Would you explain what that means?"
DEBORAH TANNEN: "The message is the meaning of the words, and we always agree on that if we speak
the language, but the metamessage is what we think it says about our relationship that you say these words in
this way at this time. Often between mothers and daughters, you're having a conversation that seems like an
amiable chat, and then suddenly somebody says something and everybody's back is up.
"So when the mother says to the daughter about the granddaughter, 'She would look so pretty if she would
comb her hair,' the metamessage the daughter hears is--first of all, she
may be reminded her mother was always at her to brush her hair when she was a child, which reminds her that
her mother didn't really approve of her because she was kind of a tomboy.
"And then there's the level that her parenting is being criticized. So she might snap something like, 'She's
perfectly fine, Mom, leave her alone.' Now who introduced that note of contention? The daughter thinks the
mother did by criticizing the grandchild's hair. But the mother thinks she may have made an innocent
comment, and the daughter has changed it.
NB: "Given the years that shape these messages and their interpretation, how can mothers and daughters
change the way they communicate to avoid some of these misunderstandings?"
DEBORAH TANNEN: "Both need to recognize that caring and communicating are in the same words, so
mothers can try to bite their tongues. One mother said her mantra is 'Don't advise, don't criticize.' But daughters
can remind themselves that it really is a sign of love, and you're probably going to miss it when your mother is
gone.
"Humor is very helpful. One family said, one time the mother was giving a recipe and she was so detailed the
daughter said, 'You know, I think I know you should sift the flour without your telling me,' so whenever she
feels her mother is giving her too much advice she says, 'It's like the cake recipe, Mom.' And then they laugh,
because it's something they share, and that in itself makes them feel connected."
NB: "Did you find any differences among ethnic groups in the way mothers and daughters communicate?"
DEBORAH TANNEN: "I did interview African Americans, Asian American women and white women of all
backgrounds. And no, I didn't find that much difference. A woman wrote to me who grew up in Guyana. And
she said her mother said to her word for word the title of my book 'you're wearing that?' in Guyanese the night
before a party. And even though she thought the dress was fine, when her mother said that, she stayed up all
night and made a new dress. So it does seem to be quite universal. I'm sure there are some levels of difference,
but I found many fewer than I expected."
NB: Deborah Tannen, thank you very much. Ms. Tannen is the author of "You're Wearing That?
Understanding Mothers and Daughters in Conversation." And that's Wordmaster for this week. Our e-mail
address is [email protected], and you can find all of our segments posted at voanews.com/wordmaster.
Filling in for Avi Arditti and Rosanne Skirble, I'm Nancy Beardsley
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Inglés · 7
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