Structural Design and Construction Practice of Precast Concrete

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Structural Design and Construction Practice of Precast Concrete
Reinforced concrete Precast and prestressed concrete Reinforced concrete Precast and prestressed concrete
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Reinforced concrete Precast and prestressed concrete Reinforced concrete Precast and prestressed concrete Reinforced concrete
International Seminar on Design and Construction of Precast Structures in Seismic Regions
October 2015, Chile Structural Design and Construction Practice
of
Precast Concrete Buildings in Japan
Fumio Watanabe
Emeritus Professor of Kyoto University
Executive Technical Advisor of Takenaka Corporation
[email protected]
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I would like to express my hearty thanks to
Prof. Patricio Bonelli (University Frederico Santa Maria, Valparaiso) and
Dr. August Holmberg (President of Chilean Cement and Concrete
Institute), who kindly invited us to nice country Chile in the southern
hemisphere.
I would express my hearty
sympathy to the Chilean
people who suffered the heavy
losses during the great
earthquake on September 16.
CHILE
01
JAPAN
Seismic Countries
Reinforced concrete Precast and prestressed concrete Reinforced concrete Precast and prestressed concrete
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Part 1
1. Outline of Japanese Seismic Design Method
2. Requirements for Structural Equivalency to Monolithic Construction
3. Design Equations fro Interface Shear
4. Typical Detailing of Precast Connection
Part 2
5. Design Example of Precast Connection
6. Example of Precast Reinforced Concrete Building
7. Example of Precast Prestressed Concrete Building
8. Example of Precast Prestressed Concrete Stadium
9. Structural Damage in Past Earthquake
02
Dr. Tsutomu Komuro at Taisei Corporation
Prof. Makoto Maruta at Shimane University (Kajima Corporation)
Prof. Minehiro Nishiyama at Kyoto University
Dr. Masaru Teraoka at Kure National Collage of Technology (Fujita)
Dr. Hideki Kimura at Takenaka Corporation
Mr. Hisato Okude at Takenaka Corporation
Dr. Yuuji Ishikawa at Takenaka Corporation
Dr. Hassane Ousalem at Takenaka Corporation
Reinforced concrete Precast and prestressed concrete Reinforced concrete Precast and prestressed concrete
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Part 1 - 1. Outline of Japanese Seismic Design Method
Hukui Earthquake (1948, M7.1)
Establishment of modern seismic design code
(Building Standard Law) (1951)
Tokachi-Oki Earthquake (1968, M7.9)
Intensification of the requirement to lateral reinforcement
(1971)
Miyagiken-Oki Earthquake (1978, M7.4)
Drastic revision of Building Standard Law
(1981: currently used)
Hyogo-Ken Nanbu (Kobe) Earthquake (1995, M7.2)
03
Partial revision of 1981 Building Standard Law (1995)
Adoption of performance based design process (2000)
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Part 1 - 1. Outline of Japanese Seismic Design Method
Design for Gravity Load
Allowable stress design
Flexural
Design
'
Allowable stress of concrete = fc / 3
Allowable stress of re-bar ≤ 215 N / mm2 for deformed bar
A: Conventional Seismic Design Method
(most widely used in Japan and completely revised in 1981)
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Conditions: Buildings less than 60 meters and without isolation systems, damping
devices and other response control devices
Allowable stress design for minor earthquake
Flexural
Design
Allowable stress of concrete = 2 fc' / 3
Allowable stress of re-bar ≤ specified yield strength
Capacity design for major earthquake
Lateral story shear strength should be greater than the code
specified story shear strength which depends on the structural
ductility.
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Part 1 - 1. Outline of Japanese Seismic Design Method
A: Conventional Seismic Design Method
Capacity design for major earthquake
Required lateral strength at each story is determined based on the
elastic response for design base shear coefficient of unit and the lateral story
shear distribution function.
Required lateral strength at each story can be reduced depending on
the structural ductility. This reduction factor ranges from 0.30 (for special
ductile moment frames) to 0.55 (for elastic responding structures).
Qun = Ds FesQud
Qun
Qud
Fes
Ds
05
(Eq. 1)
Ds = 0.55
=required story shear strength
=elastic story shear response
=coefficient for structural irregularity
1.0 ≤ Fes
=reduction factor based on the structural
ductility
0.3 ≤ Ds ≤ 0.55
Ds = 0.30
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Part 1 - 1. Outline of Japanese Seismic Design Method
A: Conventional Seismic Design Method
Capacity design for major earthquake
Qud = Wi ZRt AiCo (Eq. 2)
Co =standard base shear coefficient and 1.0 for major earthquake
Z =zoning coefficient and ranged from 0.7 to 1.0
Wi =weight of building above i-th story
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Roof level
0
0. 2
0. 4
αi
T=4.0 sec.
T=0
Soft soil
0.8
T=0.5 sec.
T=0.1 sec.
0. 6
0.6
R
t
0.4
Medium soil
0.2
0.8
1. 0
1
Ground level
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Lateral story shear distribution factor Ai
0
0
Hard soil
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
Natural period of a building T in sec.
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Part 1 - 1. Outline of Japanese Seismic Design Method
B: Advanced Verification Procedure (Revised in 1981)
All types of buildings can be designed by this procedure
Dynamic time history analysis against earthquake ground motion is required
to assure the design criteria for structural responses such as maximum interstory drift, story ductility, member ductility and others.
As input ground motions, past strong
ground motion records and artificial
waves are used, where artificial waves
should meet the code specified
standard design spectrum at the
engineering bedrock.
Phase, duration time and site condition
(surface geology) are also considered.
The engineering bedrock is defined as
a thick soil stratum that shear wave
velocity is not less than 400 meter/
sec.
Standard Design Spectrum
at Engineering Bed Rock
07
Part 1 - 1. Outline of Japanese Seismic Design Method
C: Performance based design method
(Newly established in 2000)
Required lateral strength and structural ductility are given at
an intersection point (performance point) of the demand spectrum at
building base and the capacity spectrum for superstructure.
sec
0.5
h=0.05
T=
The keys of design are
the proper evaluation of
equivalent damping
factor of a superstructure
and the reliable
estimation of input
ground motion at
building base. Because
the standard design
spectrum (response
spectrum) is given at the
engineering bedrock Demand spectra for different
Demand Spectra fordamping
Different
valuesDamping
calculated Values Calculated
Spectral Acceleration
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h=0.1
0.4g
T=
0
1.
se
c
S /S
h
0 .0 5
=1.5/(1+10h)
h=0.3
Performance
point
T=2
.0 s e
c
0.2g
1/200
Spectral Displacement
Determination of Performance Point
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Part 1 - 2. Requirements for Structural Equivalency to Monolithic Construction
In Japan, precast concrete building structures are being constructed that
attempt to emulate seismic performances of cast-in-place monolithic
structures. The reason is that Japanese Building Standard Law and
Enforcement Order for structural design have been established based on
the structural behavior of monolithic reinforced and prestressed concrete
structures.
Equivalent monolithic structural behaviour is generally
demonstrated by tests on precast beam-column subassemblages and other structural sub-assemblies.
Experimentally observed data is compared with that of
simultaneously constructed pair specimen or with past
experimental data in view of lateral stiffness, lateral
strength, structural ductility and hysteretic behaviour
(energy dissipation).
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Part 1 - 2. Requirements for Structural Equivalency to Monolithic Construction
Beam column arrangement
Beam bar welding
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Part 1 - 2. Requirements for Structural Equivalency to Monolithic Construction
(1) Lateral strength at yielding should be greater or equal to that of
emulated monolithic construction
(2) Drift at yielding should be greater than 0.8Ry and not greater than
1.2Ry of emulated monolithic construction
(3) These condition should be satisfied up to 2 % drift
AIJ proposal for
structural equivalency
(a) Envelop curve
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Part 1 - 2. Requirements for Structural Equivalency to Monolithic Construction
(b) Degradation and (c) Energy dissipation
With regard to the degradation of load carrying capacity during seismic
load cycling, the maximum load in the second cycle should be greater
than 80% of that in the first cycle in the same drift amplitude.
Energy dissipation of a precast system in second loading cycle should
not be smaller than 80% of that of emulated monolithic construction
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Part 1 - 2. Requirements for Structural Equivalency to Monolithic Construction
Monolithic pair
specimen
Precast
specimen
Japanese tests on equivalent monolithic
precast beam-column assemblage
(Courtesy of Dr. Masaru Teraoka at Fujita Cooperation)
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Part 1 - 2. Requirements for Structural Equivalency to Monolithic Construction
Precast Wall Specimen tested by Hassane Ousalem at Takenaka Corporation
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Part 1 - 2. Requirements for Structural Equivalency to Monolithic Construction
Testing Setup and Obtained Load Displacement Curve
Hassane Ousalem et al ;Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol.61B, March 2015
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Part 1 - 2. Requirements for Structural Equivalency to Monolithic Construction
Testing Setup and Obtained Load Displacement Curve
Hassane Ousalem et al ;Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol.61B, March 2015
15-1
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Part 1 - 2. Requirements for Structural Equivalency to Monolithic Construction
Example of Rebar Splice for Seismic Connection
Grout
injection
Re-bar
Mortar Grout Type
Non-shrink grout
無収縮グラウト
Sleeve
Threaded Screw Type
Epoxy injection
Grout
outlet
Seal
material
Specifications approved
by the Authority
1. Weather condition
2. Temperature range
3. Correct materials
4. Usable time after mixing of
grout or epoxy materials
5. Correct insert length of rebar into sleeve
6. Perfect injection of grout or
epoxy
7. Fixing re-bar and sleeve
until hardening of grout or
epoxy
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Part 1 - 2. Requirements for Structural Equivalency to Monolithic Construction
Requirements for Rebar Splice for Seismic Connection (Rank A)
4 cycles
20 cycles
Elastic
2ε y
Slip<0.3mm
4 cycles
5ε y
Re-bar
Coupler
Grout
injection
Slip<0.9mm
Grout
Re-bar
Final fracture should occur at the base material
One Example
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Part 1 - 3. Design Equations fro Interface Shear
AIJ proposal : Basic design equations for joint
(1)
Friction (shear strength)
Normal stress
τ u = µσ n (Vu = µ N )
(3)
Friction Coefficient (ACI310-02)
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Part 1 - 3. Design Equations fro Interface Shear
AIJ proposal : Basic design equations for joint
(1)
Friction (shear strength)
Friction resistance due to flexural compression
a
Vu = µC = µ ( M / j ) = µ V > V
j
(4)
a
µ>
j
Design condition
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Part 1 - 3. Design Equations fro Interface Shear
AIJ proposal : Basic design equations for joint
(2)
Shear Friction (shear strength)
τ u = µ ( ρ sσ y + σ o )
ρs
σy
σo
Reinforcement ratio
'
(5)
τ u < 0.3 fc
'
f c Compressive strength of concrete
Yield strength of reinforcement (less than 800MPa)
Normal stress
µ
Friction coefficient (ACI318-02)
To suppress the slip deformation at
maximum strength less than 0.5 mm,
the shear strength should be taken as
a half of calculated one (excepting for
ultimate limit state design).
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Part 1 - 3. Design Equations fro Interface Shear
AIJ proposal : Basic design equations for joint
(3)
Qdowel
Dowel Action (shear strength)
2
Qdowel = 1.3db
'
fcσ y
Qdowel
(6)
Qdowel = 1.3db2 fc'σ y (1 − α 2 )
(7)
α = σ s /σ y
db
fc'
α
: Bar diameter (mm)
: Concrete strength (MPa)
σ y : Yield strength of re-bar (MPa)
σ s : Tension stress of re-bar (MPa)
: Stress ratio of re-bar
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Part 1 - 3. Design Equations fro Interface Shear
AIJ proposal : Basic design equations for joint
(4-1)
Shear Key (shear strength)
Concrete bearing
Vl1 = β
'
f cl
n
∑ wi xi
(8-1)
i =1
n
Vr1 = β
xi
wi
xi
'
f cr
∑ wi xi
i =1
(8-2)
Width of a key
Height of a key
β Bearing strength factor: 1
Vbearing = Smaller of ( Vr1 or Vl1)
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Part 1 - 3. Design Equations fro Interface Shear
AIJ proposal : Basic design equations for joint
(4-2)
Shear Key (shear strength)
Concrete shear
Vl 2 = 0.5
Vr 2 = 0.5
xi
wi
ai bi
0.5
'
f cl
'
f cr
n
∑ wi ai
(9-1)
∑ wibi
(9-2)
i =1
n
i =1
Width of a key
Bottom length of a key
Tens. strength
'
f cl of concrete
Vshear = Smaller of ( Vr 2 or Vl 2 )
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Part 1 - 3. Design Equations fro Interface Shear
AIJ proposal : Basic design equations for joint
(4)
Shear Key (shear strength)
Shear strength of a set of
shear keys is given by
Smaller of ( Vshear , Vbearing ) (10)
Japanese empirical equation for shear strength
of a set of keys with joint reinforcement (Mochizuki et al)
n
m
Vu = 0.1 fc' ∑ wi xi + ∑ a jσ y
i =1
j =1
(11)
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Part 1 - 4. Typical Detailing of Precast Connections
Joint examples of frame system (Ductile connection 1)
Beam hinging
Beam top bars are
arranged at site
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Part 1 - 4. Typical Detailing of Precast Connections
Joint examples of frame system (Ductile connection 1)
Most popular and well established beam column
arrangement in Japan
Courtesy of Dr. Masaru Teraoka at Fujita Corporation26
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Part 1 - 4. Typical Detailing of Precast Connections
Joint examples of frame system (Ductile connection 2)
Beam hinging
Beam bottom bars are
anchored in a joint with
90 degree hooks
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Part 1 - 4. Typical Detailing of Precast Connections
Joint examples of frame system (Ductile connection 2)
Beam hinging
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Part 1 - 4. Typical Detailing of Precast Connections
Joint examples of frame system (Ductile connection 3)
Beam hinging
Continuous beam unit with
beam-to-column joint
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Part 1 - 4. Typical Detailing of Precast Connections
Joint examples of frame system (Ductile connection 3)
Beam unit is put on column
One Directional Continuous Beam Unit
Beam hinging
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Part 1 - 4. Typical Detailing of Precast Connections
Joint examples of frame system (Ductile connection 3)
One Directional Continuous Beam Unit
Beam-to-beam Joint
Strong Joint
Courtesy of Dr. Tsutomu Komuro at Taisei Corporation
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Part 1 - 4. Typical Detailing of Precast Connections
Joint examples of frame system (Ductile connection 3)
Two Directional continuous Beam Unit
Courtesy of Prof. Makoto Maruta at Kajima Corporation 32
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Part 1 - 4. Typical Detailing of Precast Connections
Joint examples of frame system (Ductile connection 3)
Post tensioned precast prestressed beam
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Part 1 - 4. Typical Detailing of Precast Connections
Joint examples of frame system (Beam to Beam; Strong connection)
Re-bar welding
Casting concrete
at site
Shear key
Courtesy of Dr. Masaru Teraoka at Fujita Corporation34
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Part 1 - 4. Typical Detailing of Precast Connections
Joint examples of frame system (Beam to Beam; Strong connection)
Exterior surface of
precast beam unit
Casting concrete at site
Mechanical cou
pler
Roughene
d surface
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Part 1 - 4. Typical Detailing of Precast Connections
Joint examples of frame system (Beam to Beam; Strong connection)
Grout outlet
Only grout
injection
Grout injection
Threaded splice
No protruding
re-bar
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Part 1 - 4. Typical Detailing of Precast Connections
Joint examples of frame system (Beam to Beam; Strong connection)
Construction work
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Part 1 - 4. Typical Detailing of Precast Connections
Joint examples of frame system (Connection Interface)
Composite
column section
Inner surface is roughened
Internal cross tie is
buried in precast unit
Composite
Beam section
Internal cross tie is
placed at site
Inner surface is roughened
Bottom reinforcement is
buried in precast unit
Bottom reinforcement
is placed at site
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Part 1 - 4. Typical Detailing of Precast Connections
Joint examples of wall system
(Wall-beam Unit + Column Unit + Cast-in-situ Concrete at Connections)
Cast in Place Concrete
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Part 1 - 4. Typical Detailing of Precast Connections
Joint examples of wall system
Slab & beam
reinforcemen
t Mortar
sleeve
joint Cast-in-place
part Cast-inp l a c e
vertical joint Precas
t column Lap splicing Cast-in-place
part Panel’s hor. &
v e r t .
reinforcement G r o u t
horizontal
joint Integrated
beam Story i Precast panel S h e a r
key Cast-in-place
part Courtesy of Dr. Hassane Ousalem
at Takenaka Corporation
40
Cast-in-place
part Story i+2 Cast-in-place
beam-column
joint and slab Story i+1 Mechanical
s p l i c e
device Precast Wall Panel
+
Precast Colum Unit
+
Cast-in-situ
Beam Column Joint
+
Cast -in-situ
Floor Slab
Mainly for apartment buildings of middle rise height
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Part 1 - 4. Typical Detailing of Precast Connections
Joint examples of Half Precast Slab System
Top reinforcement:
Enough buckling
strength is required
to prevent buckling
during construction
process.
Truss bar:
Slab shear and
lateral stability of top
reinforcement
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Part 1 - 4. Typical Detailing of Precast Connections
Joint examples of Precast Prestressed Half Slab System
Top Reinforcement
Arranged at Site
Top Reinforcement
Arranged at Site
Cast-in-situ
Concrete
Wire Mesh Precast Pre-tensioned Prestressed Concrete Unit
Void
Prestressing Strand
Rough
Surface
42
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Intermission
Beautiful Historic Bridge in Switzerland
Built in 1930
Good materials, careful detailing and affectionate construction 43

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