A Poetry Study - MISD ELAR Wiki

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A Poetry Study - MISD ELAR Wiki
Immersed in Verse:
A Poetry Study
Teacher
Resources
Poetry Study
Before students can begin analyzing and creating poetry, they must have a clear vision of what
poetry looks like. Students and teachers must spend time reading and getting to know the
different forms of poetry.
Immerse student with poems of all kinds. Read them aloud, have a variety of poetry books
and poems. Provide for differentiation at every level: interest, choice, ability. Create criteria
charts and examples for the different kinds of poetry that you study.
Draw students attention to the unique characteristics of poetry such as rhyme, rhythm, line
breaks, meters, and so on. The direct instruction of key terms helps establish a common
vocabulary that will facilitate discussions of poetry throughout this study.
Poetry Resources
Poets.org
http://www.gigglepoetry.com/
The link More Than Words provides an opportunity/ structure for the students to make
inferences about poetry.
See Colorin Colorado for more tips on reading poetry with ELLs.
http://www.missspott.com/figurativelanguage.html
Mentor Texts:
http://www.tooter4kids.com/forms_of_poetry.htm
Where The Sidewalk Ends by Shel
Silverstein
Love That Dog By Sharon Creech
Out of the Dust By Karen Hesse
I Never Saw Another Butterfly by Hana
Volavkova
Yo! Yes! by Chris Raschka
Speak to Me by Karen English and Amy
June Bates
Marvelous Math: a book of poems by Lee
Bennett Hopkins
Wonderful Words selected by Lee Bennett
Hopkins
Spectacular Science by Lee Bennett
Hopkins
Turtle In July by Marilyn Singer
Pirates by David Harrison (Bluebonnet Book
2010)
Haiku Hike by written and illustrated by
fourth-grade students of St. Mary's
Catholic School in Mansfield,
Massachusetts (Scholastic, 2005)
http://www.poemsforchildren.org/
The Children’s Poetry Archive
Poetry in the TEKS
Third Grade
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Fifth Grade
8
4(A) explain how the structural elements of
poetry (e.g., rhyme, meter, stanzas, line
breaks) relate to form (e.g., lyrical poetry,
free verse).
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(5) analyze how poets use sound effects (e.g.,
alliteration, internal rhyme, onomatopoeia,
rhyme scheme) to reinforce meaning in
poems.
SEs that were tested and/or dual coded on the Reading STAAR Release tests
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2(B) Reading/Beginning
Reading/Strategies - ask relevant
questions, seek clarification, and locate
facts and details about stories and other
texts and support answers wit evidence
from text
(5) Reading/Comprehension of Literary
Text/Theme and Genre - Students analyze,
make inferences and draw conclusions
about theme and genre in different
cultural, historical, and contemporary
contexts and provide evidence from the
text to support their understanding
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F19 (F) Reading/Comprehension Skills –
make connections (e.g., thematic links,
author analysis) between literary and
informational texts with similar ideas &
provide text evidence
Additional SEs that may be tested and/or dual coded with poetry
Reporting Category 1:
x
Reading/Vocabulary Development –
4 A,B,C
Reporting Category 1:
x
Reading/Vocabulary Development –
2 A, B, E
x
Reading/Comprehension of Literary
Text/Literary Nonfiction – 7A
Reporting Category 2:
x
Reading/Comprehension of Literary
Text/Sensory Language – 10, 10A
x
Reading/ Media Literacy – 16
x
Reading/Comprehension Skills – 19E
Reporting Category 2:
x
Reading/Comprehension of Literary
Text/Theme and Genre – 3, 3A, B
x
Reading/Comprehension of Literary
Text/Sensory Language – 8, 8A
x
Reading/ Media Literacy – 14
x
Reading/Comprehension Skills – 19E
Reporting Category 1:
x
Reading/Vocabulary Development –
2 A, B, E
x
Reading/Comprehension of Literary
Text/Theme and Genre – 3, 3A
x
Reading/Comprehension Skills – 19F
Reporting Category 2:
x
Reading/Comprehension of Literary
Text/Theme and Genre – 3C
x
Reading/Comprehension of Literary
Text/Sensory Language – 8, 8A
x
Reading/ Media Literacy – 14
x
Reading/Comprehension Skills – 19D,
19E
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Responding to Poetry
Encourage students to reflect on a poem after reading it aloud
together. Short discussions following a poem can be an enjoyable
way to highlight word choice and poetic techniques, without getting
into long definitions. Allow for open-ended responses, where
children can practice the vocabulary of poetry. They may struggle
at first, but soon they will talk about the feelings, the tone or mood,
the word choice, what the author was trying to convey, etc.
Try one of these open-ended questions to get kids talking. Use only
one or two questions at a time and let your students build on each
other’s comments.
What does the poem say to you?
How did the poem make you feel?
What did the poem make you think about?
What did you think about the poem?
What did you notice?
Were there any words or phrases you especially liked?
Does the poem remind you of anything in your life?
What do you think the poet was thinking?
Who’s talking in the poem?
What did you notice about the way the author wrote the poem?
By using open-ended questions, you encourage students to express
their response in words. You can also have students talk in pairs
or small groups about poems, or jot down some thoughts or
sketches in their writer’s notebook before or after sharing.
~ from Fountas and Pinnell
The Vocabulary of Poetry - Bilingual (English/Spanish)
From Fountas and Pinnell’s Guiding Readers and Writers, Grades 3-6
As you introduce your students to different types of poetry, gradually
introduce the vocabulary of poetry.
Rhyme – Two or more words which match in the same last sound (bat, cat, sat).
Rima- es el uso de palabras cuyas terminaciones tienen sonidos idénticos o
similares (casa, masa, tasa).
Rhythm – The beat or cadence of poetry. A fast
rhythm indicates action, excitement, tension, or
suspense. A slow rhythm suggests peacefulness,
fullness, harmony, and comfort. Often, a change in
rhythm signals a change in action or a change in
meaning.
Ritmo – la repetición regular de silabas acentuadas y
no acentuadas dentro de cada verso. Un ritmo
rápido indica acción, emoción, tensión o suspenso.
Un ritmo lento sugiere tranquilidad, plenitud,
harmonía y comodidad. A menudo, un cambio en
ritmo señala un cambio de acción o de significado.
Pattern of Rhyme or Rhyme Scheme–
(illustrated in the following poem)
Patrón de rima o Esquema de Rima–
(ilustrado en el siguiente poema)
Excerpt from “Our House”
by Dorothy Brown Thompson
Alla en la fuente
From Arroz con leche by Lulu Delacre
Allá en la fuente
había un chorrito;
se hacía grandote,
se hacía chiquito;
estaba de mal humor,
pobre chorrito
tenía calor.
Our house is small—
The lawn and all
Can scarcely hold the flowers,
Yet every bit,
The whole of it,
Is precious, for it’s ours!
a
a
b
c
c
b
Meter – A rhythmic pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables.
Métrica-Es el patrón de sílabas acentuadas y sílabas no acentuadas.
a
b
a
b
c
b
c
Alliteration – A repetition of consonant sounds, such as “the smooth, skaterly glide
and sudden swerve.” (Robert Burleigh, 1997, “Hoops”)
Aliteración- Es la repetición de sonidos, especialmente los consonánticos, por
ejemplo “Rosas rojas relucen en mi jardín”.
Consonance – Repeats the consonant sounds in the final position, such as a “tight,
swift, fist.”
Rima Consonante- Es la repetición de sonidos consonánticos finales idénticos en
una serie de palabras, por ejemplo “valientes, hormigas, cuates”.
Assonance – The repetition of vowel sounds, as in the way a person can “bruise and
abuse shoes.” (Douglas Florian, 1999, “Shoes”)
Rima Asonante- Se produce cuando solo coinciden las vocales de las últimas
palabras, a partir de la vocal acentuada, como “Llego al prado. Y corro…corro. No me
molesta, porque es otoño”.
Onomatopoeia – The use of words that imitate the sound of what they represent.
Onomatopeya-Palabras como cataplum y clic que imitan el sonido que nombran.
Meaning and Emotion – The language of poetry compresses meaning in just a
few words. This compact expression intensifies emotion; every word may
convey a powerful message.
Significado y emoción – El lenguaje de la poesía comprime el significado en
solo unas pocas palabras. Esta expresión compacta intensifica la emoción; cada
palabra puede transmitir un mensaje impactante.
Metaphor – A direct comparison of two unlike things. “All the world’s a stage, and we
are merely players.” (William Shakespeare)
Metáfora- Compara dos cosas distintas sin usar como. “La cerca es un guardia
amigable.”
Simile – A comparison of unlike objects using the words like or as. “She is as
beautiful as a sunrise.”
Símil- Compara dos cosas distintas con como. “La cerca se veía como una sonrisa repleta
de dientes.”
Personification – Language that gives human characteristics to inanimate objects,
animals, or concepts.
Personificación- Hace que algo que no es humano lo parezca. “La cerca sonreía con
dientes blancos y brillantes.”
Stanza — In poetry, each line of words is placed within a stanza, a group of lines
that convey an idea.
Estrofa — En la poesía, cada verso de palabras forma parte de una estrofa, un
grupo de líneas que comunican una idea.
White space – Indicates that the writer wants the reader to pause or be silent for a
second.
Espacio blanco– Indica que el escritor quiere que el lector pause o guarde silencio por
un segundo.
Line Break – The place where the poet chooses to end a line, often used to
indicate rhythm or to represent meaning.
Encabalgamientos –El sitio donde el poeta elige terminar una línea, a menudo
para indicar ritmo o representar significado.
The Forms of Poetry
“The best way to expose students to new forms is to
read examples to them. Only after you have
experienced poetry can you begin to write it for
yourself. Avoid beginning with formulaic poetry. A
lasting love for reading and writing poetry will come
from rich experiences with free verse prior to the
study of other forms.” (Fountas and Pinnell)
Note: These are not the only forms of poetry, but they are the
most common forms that young children will encounter.
Free Verse – Poetry that does not rhyme and has no regular rhythm. In free
verse, the poet creates the rules, drawing on his intuitive sense of how the
poem should look, sound, and express meaning.
Verso libre – Poesía que no rima y no tiene ritmo regular. En verso libre, el
poeta crea las reglas, utilizando su sentido intuitivo de cómo el poema se debe
ver, sonar y expresar significado.
Lyric Poetry – Personal and descriptive poetry; it helps the reader feel through
the senses. Lyric poetry showcases melodic language that conveys a sense of
song.
Poesía lírica – Poesía personal y descriptiva; ayuda al lector a sentir a través de
los sentidos. La poesía lirica exhibe lenguaje melódico que comunica un
sentido de canto.
Narrative Poetry – Tells a story or a sequence of events.
Poemas narrativos – Cuenta una historia o secuencia de eventos.
Limericks – Humorous poems that are structured in five lines. The first and
second lines rhyme, as do the third and fourth. The fifth line yields a surprise
ending or humorous statement and rhymes with the first two lines.
Limerik– Poema humoristico de cinco lineas. El primer verso y el segundo
verso riman, igual que el tercero y el cuarto. La quinta línea aporta un final
sorprendente o una oración graciosa y rima con las primeras dos líneas.
Cinquain – The form of this poem is built on the number of syllables. The
five lines of the cinquain have, respectively, two, four, six, eight, and two
syllables.
Quintilla –La forma de este poema está construida a base del número de
sílabas. Tiene una determinada cantidad de sílabas en cada verso: dos, cuatro,
seis, ocho, y dos.
Concrete Poems – Dramatically represent meaning not only by the way
words sound but how they look. The print of the poem itself takes shape as a
collage or picture that conveys meaning.
Caligrama – Representa dramáticamente el significado no solo por la manera
que suenan las palabras sino también por su apariencia. La manera en que se
imprime el poema toma forma como un collage o imagen que transmite el
significado.
Found Poems – Pieces of writing that were not intended as poems but appear
in the environment for us to discover. You can find “poems” in newspaper
ads, on signs, or in the written and oral language your students use.
Poemas encontrados– Se refiere a piezas de escritura que no fueron escritos
como poemas pero que aparecen en el ambiente para que los descubramos.
Pueden encontrar “poemas” en anuncios de periódico, letreros o en el lenguaje
oral o escrito utilizado por sus estudiantes.
Haiku – A style of poetry that originated in Japan. It uses simple language,
contains no rhyme, and rarely includes metaphor. A haiku has three lines.
The first and third lines are the same length and the middle one is a little
longer. Frequently, a haiku has a syllable structure of five, seven, and five.
Haiku – Es un estilo de poesía que se originó en Japón. Utiliza lenguaje
sencillo, no contiene rima y casi nunca incluye metáfora. Los poemas haiku se
escriben en tres versos. Por lo general, el primer y el tercer verso tienen cinco
sílabas y el segundo tiene siete sílabas
List Poem – This poem may be rhymed or unrhymed, short or long. It may
list objects, a series of events, specific characteristics, or any other set of
items.
Poema en lista – Este poema puede rimar o no rimar, ser corto o largo. Puede
incluir objetos, una serie de acontecimientos, características específicas o
cualquier otra serie de artículos.
Four Elements to Make a Successful Poem
1. Central Idea (Theme)
This is the focus of the poem. It is the main idea of
the piece and everything in the poem relates to that
idea and reinforces it.
2. Purpose
- Who is your audience and what do you want to tell them?
- What is your theme?
- How can you support your theme with poetic elements?
The most common purposes are to persuade, to entertain, and to inform. To
help writers determine their purpose, have them use their theme and write one
prose paragraph as if they were trying to persuade their reader about their
theme. Then have writers write another paragraph as if they were trying to
entertain the reader about their theme. Finally, have writers write a prose
paragraph as if they were trying to inform the reader. This activity will help
them decide what they want to tell their audience about their topic.
(Example: Theme of ‘A dog makes a good pet.’ Write one paragraph to
persuade someone to love dogs as much as you do. Write another paragraph to
entertain the reader about a special dog in your life, and the funny way he looks,
the crazy things he does, etc. Write another paragraph to describe dogs in
general.)
3. Mood
Purpose and mood will combine to complete the poem.
- How do you feel about the theme?
- Is the theme serious, funny, sad?
- Are you explaining something?
- What effect do you want your poem to have on the reader?
- How can you ‘flavor’ or ‘figure’ your poem to make it
spooky/suspenseful or touching/inspiring?
4. Form
Which poetic form will you use to best achieve the mood, fulfills the
purpose, and supports the theme you’ve determined?
~ adapted from http://volweb.utk.edu/school/bedford/harrisms/lesson14.htm
Poetry Reading Strategies
Preview the poem by reading the title and paying attention
to the poem’s form: shape on the page, stanzas, number of
lines and ending punctuation.
Read poem aloud several times to hear rhyme, rhythm, and
the overall sound of the poem. This makes it easier to
understand the poem.
Visualize the images by paying close attention to strong
verbs, and comparisons in poem. Do the images remind you
of anything? Let the comparisons paint a picture in your
head.
Clarify words and phrases by allowing yourself to find the
meaning of words or phrases that stand out, are repeated, or
you do not understand the meaning. Use dictionary, context
clues, teacher or peer.
Evaluate the poem’s theme by asking what message is the
poet trying to send or help you understand? Does it relate to
your life in any way?
Rereading a Poem
Every poem is worthy of a second reading or more. Here’s
why:
With the first reading of a poem, a or reader gains
™ An overview of rhythm, rhyme, subject and theme
™ Familiarity with tone, style and mood
™ A general, broad impression of the poem
With the second and subsequent readings, a reader can
™ Experience heightened enjoyment
™ Focus on the specifics of the rhyme scheme
™ Listen for appealing, intriguing, or unusual words
™ Listen for the use of imagery and figurative language
™ Savor the sounds of words, phrases, and repetition
™ Increase understanding, make inferences and derive
deeper meaning
™ Commit certain words and phrases to memory
™ Practice reading skills
™ Improve fluency (and thus comprehension)
Examples of Poetry
Questions on STAAR
Question Stems for Poetry from STAAR Release tests
x The poet includes this line most x The reader can tell that the poem
likely to show that …(6, 19D)
is written in ____ form because
…(4A)
x What is the main message in the
poem? (5, 19D)
x Which poetic structure is found
in the poem? (4A)
x Lines 11 through 16 are
included in the poem because
x The paragraph above the title of
they…(6, 19D)
the poem is included to… (4,
19D)
x Which word best describes the
feeling that the poet creates in
x What is one difference between
this poem? (6, 19D)
the poem and the selection?
(19F)
x The poet titled this poem
“XXX” most likely
x Both the poem and the selection
because…(6, 19D)
express the importance
of…(19F)
Possible Question Stems
x What form of poetry is this
x The same questions as 3rd above
poem? (6)
apply.
x What images in your mind were x What do the characters in __ and
created by reading this poem?
__ have in common? (7A)
(6)
x What is one similarity between
the events in the poem and the
x Which line or lines created this
image for you? (6)
selection? (7A)
x Which words in this poem made x What was the message in this
you feel like you could almost
poem?(3A)
(smell, hear, see) __? (10A)
x Which line from the poem has an
example of a simile/metaphor?
x How did you feel when you read
____? (10A)
(8A)
x What is the best summary of this x The picture(s) in the poem
poem? (19E)
show…(14)
x What is the best summary of this
poem?(19E)
There were no release items for
poetry; however the same questions
as those in 3rd grade apply, as well
as the ones in 4th grade, with the
exception of the 1st two bullets.
x
x
x
x
x
x
What do the lessons/themes in
__ and __ have in common?
(3A)
A theme found in both the poem
and the selection is…(3A)
The historical context of this
poem is important
because…(3C)
The phrase “__” is important
because…(8A)
Which line in the poem told the
reader that ____was afraid?
(19D)
What is the best summary of this
poem? (19E)

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