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59). It was thought that the Yamasee and the Guale could live on this land unmolested by their European
HISTORY
counterparts (Figure 4.03).
From the Yamassee Indians to the visionary developer Charles Fraser, many people have had a hand
in shaping the history of the Point South area.
During both the American Revolutionary War
and the Civil War, Point South was recognized as a
strategic location and it continues to be today, due
to tourists travelling along Interstate 95.
Figure 4.03
Location of “Indian Lands”, 1670-1732 (adapted from Crane
2004:foldout).
Location
of “Indian Lands”, 1670-1732
Adapted from Crane, 2004
In 1707, South Carolina set up a reservation for
the Yamasee Indians near the area now known as
Point South. At first, the relationship between
the colonists and the Yamasee tribe was friendly,
but soon deteriorated due to encroachments on
Yamasee territory by white settlers. The disputes
culminated in the Yamasee War of 1715, the greatest threat the young colony had faced. The colonists persuaded the Cherokee Indians to join them
in fighting the Yamasee, and by 1716, the uprising
was surpressed and the Yamasee Indians driven
south to Florida.
During
thenumerous
colonial
era, South
a diverse
economy
included
rice and indigo production, trade in deer skins,
Nonetheless,
problems
persistedCarolina
between thehad
Yamasee
and the English,
most that
of which
were
of South Carolina’s economic landscape assisted in the rapid accumulation
of wealth for the colony’s residents. At this time, South Carolina was considered the wealthiest society in British
… in 1712 the surrounding parish was organized. Although technically not
colonial encroaching
America on
(Weir
1983:153,
214).
This wealth
was “highly
their area,
the Yamasees
were understandably
concerned
about concentrated in a few hands” within the Lowcountry.
raising
ofestablishment
livestock,ofand
naval
production.
diversification
induced
by the
Beaufort
in 1711.
According to The
Weir (1983),
these developments. Moreover, squatters and cattle did intrude on their land
and the latter
became fair
forwar
the Indians
1983:83).
As the colonies
prepared
togame
go to
with(Weir
England,
Point South became an important location because of its position
between
Charleston
and
Savannah.
As
the
British
troops
moved up from Florida toward Charles Town through this area,
Encroachments by white settlers and incidents of individuals trespassing on Yamasee lands were prevalent.
Point South because the site of many battles. A general panic ensued within the area as British forces ravaged the countryside,
In 1711, Joseph Bryan (brother of Hugh Bryan who owned property bordering the LOG-1 project area) was
plundering and burning numerous plantations and significant buildings such as the Sheldon Church. By the autumn of 1780,
among 10 individuals who were charged by the legislature with trespassing on Indian lands. In addition, the
the British worked to consolidate their control over the Beaufort District. In an effort to reinforce their offensive line and
Yamasee owed large debts in skins to their European trading partners. According to Rowland et al.,
maintain communications and supply lines between Charles Town and Savannah, the British constructed Fort Balfour along
By 1711, the Yamasee owed debts that amounted to one hundred thousand
present-day
U.S. Highway 17 between the Coosawhatchie and Pocotaligo Rivers. The abandonment of Charles Town by
deerskins, and by 1715 that debt had reached fifty thousand pounds Carolina
British troops in December of 1782 essentially ended South Carolina’s involvement in the war.
Page 34
Yamasee Indians
06.22.2006
Development of Port Royal area, mid-18th century
Bowen 1752
Frampton House
Frampton’s
“Thewas
Hill”
plantation in
During the antebellum
period there
a remarkable
increase in the state’s
major 19th
century
cash
crops
thethree
northwest
corner
of the
Mackay
– rice, cotton and tobacco. In 1840, rice was Beaufort
peninsula
(38JA1017;
LOG-1
County’s principal Point
crop. The
area experienced
immense
prosperity during this
time andarea;
in the 1850s,
a railroad
conproject
Figure
4.15).
necting Savannah and Charleston was constructed, which
Meanwhile,
residents
of Grahams
opened the previously
isolated area
to commerce,
trade and
communication. Neck, as well as other planters
Local families werethroughout
also thriving.Prince
By 1860,
the family
of
Williams
Parish,
John Frampton, who settled on Grahams Neck in the late
were evacuating
further inland.
The
1700s, had grown substantially.
Five generations
had passed
since the first Frampton
came tohad
America
andtoBeaufort
Framptons
moved
Barnwell
County and John Edward Frampton (1810-1896) was a
and the
to
wealthy planter, as well
as a neighboring
force in local Hutsons
and state went
politics.
The Frampton Plantation
stillinstands
and now serves
familyHouse
homes
Orangeburg
and
as the Lowcountry Visitors Center and Museum.
Barnwell.
During the Civil War, Point South’s proximity to the
headwaters of the Broad River and the nearby railroad from
theit beginning
of 1862,
Savannah to CharlestonBy
made
a strategic location
forthe
the
Confederacy. Earlyextensive
in 1862, General
Robertwest
E. Leeofbuilt
plantations
the
earthen fortifications near the Frampton House to estabPocotaligo
River During
were cared
for
lish a stronghold against
Union troops.
the 1862
Battle of Pocotaligo,solely
Unionby
soldiers
attacked,
but Lee’sand
slaves
left behind
stronghold held and the Confederacy prevailed in the area
until the end of theLee’s
war. army of regular soldiers and
Figure 4.15
Map of Rebel Lines during Civil War
Poe (National
Archives RG77 inArchives
Schmidt 1993:xxxiii)
“Map of Rebel Lines”, O.M.
O.M.
Poe (National
RG77 in
Schmidt 1993:xxxiii).
local militia,
suchofas
Whippy
Charles Fraser, the visionary
developer
Seathe
Pines
Plantation on Hilton Head Island, bought land at Point South in the
mid- to late-1960s in
anticipation
of Interstate 95 that was built through the area between 1965 and 1980. Fraser’s plan for
Swamp
Guards.
a unique commercial development at Point South recognized the area’s unique location as a crossroads of the Lowcountry, at
the intersection of Interstate 95 and Highway 17.
In Spring 1862, Federal forces in the Port Royal area began to stir. Watching them were Le
commanders across the upper reaches of the Broad River and its tributaries, the Coosawhatchie, Pocotal
Ashepoo (Figure
4.16).the HISTORY
LE ARNandMORE
about
of
POINT SOU TH
Barr, William B. and Carole Bastian. A Phase I Cultural Resources Smith, Stephen, Report of Findings: The Search for Fort Balfour and
Confederate
forces
were
given ample
chance toBattlefield
perfect. South
theirCarolina
response
when
Union troops moved
Survey, Inventory and Assessment
a Portion
of John
Edward
Coosawhatchie
Institute
of Archaeology
Frampton’s “The Hill” Plantation, Point South, Jasper County,
and Anthropology, University of SC, Columbia, 2005.
reconnoiter the May River near Bluffton and, later, during a second Union landing at Pages Point. Le
South Carolina. Barr & Associates, 2006.
Trinkley, Michael B. and Sarah Fick, A Survey of Civil War Fortificadefense
plansMoore
called
cavalry
pickets totions
report
an enemyBeaufort,
presence
and then
skirmish
with the opposing fo
Rowland, Lawrence
S., Alexander
andfor
George
C. Rodgers,
in Charleston,
Berkeley,
Hampton
and Jasper
Jr., The History of Beaufort County, South Carolina, Volume 1,
Counties, South Carolina. Research Series 59, Chicora Foundation,
while
was relayed
to district1996.
and department
headquarters.
1514-1861. University
of word
South Carolina
Press, Columbia,
Inc., Columbia,
SC, 2000. Troops from nearby units were moved forw
meet
theof enemy
while
other
hurriedly
by train (Clement et al. 2000:22). Depend
Schmidt, Lewis G.,toThe
Battle
Pocotaligo,
October
22,troops
1862. were
South
Carolinabrought
Historicalin
Society
Allentown, Pennsylvania, 1993.
(www.southcarolinahistoricalsociety.org)
upon the location of the impending fight, troops could be shipped north from Savannah or south from Charles

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