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Abstracts
s
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Contents
Welcome
Invitation from the Conference Chair......................................................................................................
3
Welcome Message
FAO....................................................................................................................................................
TEAKNET.............................................................................................................................................
IUFRO.................................................................................................................................................
ITTO...................................................................................................................................................
4
5
6
7
Overall Programme
Conference themes...............................................................................................................................
List of Keynote Speaker.........................................................................................................................
Programme at a glance.........................................................................................................................
Organising Committee...........................................................................................................................
Scientific Committee.............................................................................................................................
Oral Presentation Programme.................................................................................................................
Poster Presentation Programme..............................................................................................................
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8
9
10
11
12
19
Abstarcts
Oral- Abstracts.....................................................................................................................................
Poster- Abstracts..................................................................................................................................
List of Participants................................................................................................................................
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Invitation from Conference Chair
On behalf of the Organizing Committee of the World Teak Conference 2015, it is my pleasure to invite you to join us in this
international event that will take place at the Hilton Colon Hotel, Guayaquil, Ecuador from the 11th to the 15th May, 2015.
The World Teak Conference 2015 is being jointly organized by Asociación Ecuatoriana de Productores y Comercializadores de Teca
y Maderas Tropicales (ASOTECA), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), TEAKNET, an international
teak information network, the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) and Soluciones Ambientales Totales
(SAMBITO), the event organizer.
The Conference’s theme “Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development” will focus on economic,
social, technical and environmental issues that have an impact on the production, marketing and trade of teakwood. It will also
facilitate the transfer of knowledge and technology among teak growing countries.
I take this opportunity to express our special gratitude to all of our sponsors, allies and strategic partners who entrusted us to
make this Conference possible, as well as our honorable speakers, organizers and committee members for their unparalleled
dedication and commitment to deliver an event of upmost quality. Once again, thank you for your interest to attend the World
Teak Conference 2015 and I look forward to meeting you in beautiful Guayaquil this coming May.
Sincerely,
Antonio Pino Gómez-Lince
President, ASOTECA
Chairman
World Teak Conference 2015
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Welcome Message from FAO
Dear delegates from Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and Oceania, distinguished ladies and gentlemen, dear colleagues,
I am deeply honoured by the opportunity to welcome you at the World Teak Conference 2015 in Guayaquil, Ecuador. This event has
been organized for the 3rd time after previous conferences have been held in Costa Rica (2011) and Thailand (2013) that have
attracted worldwide attention of plantation managers, growers, investors, traders, scientists and researchers.
As a member of the Scientific and Organizing Committee I would like to express my sincere appreciation for the Asociación
Ecuatoriana de Productores y Comercializadores de Teca y Maderas Tropicales (ASOTECA) for having taken the initiative to organize
this event in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Teak
Information Network (TEAKNET), the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) and the event organizer
Soluciones Ambientales Totales (SAMBITO).
Teak (Tectona grandis) has gained worldwide recognition as the most preferred tropical hardwood reputed for its exceptionally
superior physical, mechanical and aesthetic qualities. Teak is one of the tropical hardwoods in high demand for the luxury market
and for heavy duty applications. Since the 1980’s, this species has attracted large-scale investments from the private sector in
approx. 70 countries throughout tropical Asia, Africa, Latin America and Oceania. Growing private investment in teak plantations is a
clear indication of the perceived potential of the species. Ecuador is an important teak growing country and has emerged as one of
the largest teak exporters in Latin America. The government of Ecuador has launched a national support program that provides
financial incentives for reforestation with commercial species, among them teak. It is estimated that today, more than 1200 teak
plantations cover an area of approx. 50,000 hectares in Ecuador. The annual export of round logs and sawn timber to mainly Asian
countries is estimated at approx. 150,000 cubic meters.
In this context I am convinced that we are looking forward to an interesting and stimulating convention that will provide ample
opportunities to learn about teak resources and markets in different country contexts and to discuss their contributions to
sustainable livelihoods and rural development. I encourage you to fully embrace this event and to take the opportunity to mobilize
your networks and meet familiar colleagues from the international teak community and, equally important, to make new friends and
to share with them your views on old and innovative ideas. I am also looking forward to enjoying Ecuador’s rich culture and
hospitality, which will make this event a significant milestone in the history of the international teak community.
Sincerely,
Walter Kollert
Planted Forests Officer, FAO, Rome
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Welcome Message from TEAKNET
Let me extend a most sincere welcome to all of you to the 3rd World Teak Conference here in the beautiful city of Guayaquil.
On behalf of the Conference Scientific Committee and TEAKNET, the Co-organiser of the event, it is my pleasure to welcome you to
the 3rd World Teak Conference with the theme: “Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development”
with major focus on economic, social, technical and environmental issues that have an impact on the production, marketing and
trade of teakwood. This is in fact the second time that the World Teak Conference is being held in Latin America which is home to
about 6% of the world’s planted teak resources. Ecuador is the largest teak exporting country in Latin America. The government of
Ecuador has launched massive reforestation programme and provide financial incentives for commercial species, including teak. It is
estimated that today, more than 1200 teak plantations covering an area of approx. 46,000 ha in Ecuador. .
The local organizers, ASOTECA has taken lot of efforts and pains to make elaborate arrangements for the successful organisation of
this conference. The scientific programme was developed in 4 major sessions that include 30 Oral presentations and an equal
number of Posters encompass all aspects of teak plantation management, production, marketing and trade, highlighting the
problems faced by the teak sector, globally. TEAKNET which is an international R & D network established by FAO of the United
Nations is one of the technical sponsors of this conference. TEAKNET is more than delighted and committed to work for the
sustainable development of the world teak community, this time at the largest gathering of growers, traders and researchers
assembled here for the face to face dialogue and continued interaction between the stakeholders.
We, from TEAKNET are extremely happy to wish you very successful and memorable days in Guayaquil.
Sincerely,
Lars Graudal
Chairman, TEAKNET
Copenhagen, Denmark
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Welcome Message from IUFRO
On behalf of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) I am honoured to be able to welcome you to the 3rd World
Teak Conference. An important meeting underpinned by the theme “Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable
Development” and held in Guayaquil, Ecuador from 11 to 15 May 2015. It makes me particularly proud to be able to highlight the fact that
IUFRO, via its Working Party on “Utilization of Planted Teak” is co-sponsoring this international event. More than 300 participants from
across the globe will meet in Guayaquil to discuss important aspects of teak conservation and management including silviculture, genetics,
plantation management, marketing and trade. These discussions will play an important role in promoting teak as a quality product from
sustainable forest resources management.
IUFRO is a non-profit, non-governmental international network of forest science institutions that advances research excellence and
knowledge sharing. Importantly, it fosters development of science-based solutions to forest-related challenges for the benefit of forests
and people worldwide. With its 650 member institutions in more than 120 countries, IUFRO is able to generate and disseminate scientific
information on key economic, social, technical and environmental issues impacting on the production, marketing and trade of many
different products including teak products.Therefore, the World Teak Conference provides an excellent opportunity for researchers,
practitioners, policy makers and the private sector to interact, to learn from each other and in this way to strengthen partnership and
cooperation.
One of the outcomes of the World Teak Conference held in Bangkok in 2013 was the recognition that the genetic resource base of natural
teak forests is under constant threat and that urgent conservation measures were needed. IUFRO together with TEAKNET and FAO has
been at the forefront of initiating a global project on the genetic conservation and management of teak resources. To this end, a Project
Formulation Workshop for Asian partners coordinated by IUFRO’s Special Programme for Development of Capacities (SPDC) was organised
in Bangkok in May 2014. As a follow-up and aiming at further developing the project, a similar 2-day workshop for African and Latin
American countries will be held prior to the 2015 Ecuador Conference.
ASOTECA, the local organizers of the World Teak Conference, together with, FAO, IUFRO, TEAKNET and other sponsoring agencies are
commended for their hard work in organising this important event. I am confident that this conference spanning 3 days with an additional
day of field visits will provide a platform to discuss and deliberate all aspects of teak production. And importantly that the outcomes will
include measures to overcome the challenges faced in the sustainable development of the global teak sector.
IUFRO is all the more happy to join you in this conference in Guayaquil.
Sincerely,
Mike Wingfield
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
President, IUFRO, Vienna
Welcome Message from ITTO
I am extremely glad to learn that the 3rd World Teak Conference is going to be held in Guayaquil, Ecuador during 11-15 May 2015
with the theme: “Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development”. This will be a historical event of
global significance in developing international strategic plans for sustainable utilization of naturally renewable resources, especially
teak.
The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) is an intergovernmental organization promoting the conservation and
sustainable management, use and trade of tropical forest resources. With these mandates, ITTO joins hands with international
organizations like FAO, TEAKNET, IUFRO and other stakeholders to promote sustainable development in the forests products sector
thereby increasing their capacity to export legally harvested timber and other forest products from those forests. ITTO serves the
international teak community by providing the trade policies and market information of teak logs and squares through its Market
Information Service published bi-monthly.
I congratulate the organizers, ASOTECA, the consortium of private owned teak enterprises in Ecuador who have come forward to
conduct this international conference in the land of the largest teak exporting country in Latin America, in association with FAO,
TEAKNET and other organizations.
I hope you enjoy your time in Guayaquil and I encourage you to take advantage of the wider opportunities to develop your new
networks.
Sincerely,
Emmanuel Ze Meka
Executive Director, ITTO, Japan
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
The Conference Scientific Themes
The 3rd World Teak Conference with the theme - Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development will address the
most crucial issues of the global teak sector and it is planned to centre around the following major themes:
Session 1: Economics, investments and trade
Session 2: Genetics, tree improvement, silviculture and wood quality
Session 3: Management models for different value chains, including smallholder forestry
Session 4: Teak plantation management and environmental protection
Keynote speakers
General Keynote
: Mr. Darshan Raiyani, OLAM International, Singapore
Keynote in Session I
: Dr. Walter Kollert, FAO, Rome
Keynote in Session II
: Dr. Oliver Monteuuis, CIRAD, France
Keynote in Session III : Dr. Henri Bailleres, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Australia
Keynote in Session IV
: Mr. Hans Lemm, Kilombero Valley Teak Company, Tanzania
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Program at a Glance
Tuesday, 12 May 2015
Wednesday, 13 May 2015
08:00-09:00
09:00-09:30
Registration
Session II: Thematic Keynote
09:00-09:20
Presentation 20
09:30-09:50
Presentation 9
09:20-09:40
Presentation 21
Opening ceremony
09:50-10:10
Presentation 10
09:40-10:00
Presentation 22
Government of Ecuador & ASOTECA
10:10-10:30
Presentation 11
10:00-10:15
Discussion
10:00-10:45
General Keynote
10:30-10:45
Discussion
09:00-10:00
10:45-11:15
11:15-11:45
Session I: Thematic Keynote
11:45-12:05
Presentation 1
10:15-10:45
Session IV: Thematic Keynote
Morning Break
11:15-11:35
Presentation 12
11:15-11:35
Presentation 23
11:35-11:55
Presentation 13
11:35-11:55
Presentation 24
12:05-12:25
Presentation 2
11:55-12:15
Presentation 14
11:55-12:15
Presentation 25
12:25-12:45
12:45-13:00
Presentation 3
Discussion
12:15-12:35
12:35-13:00
Presentation 15
Discussion
12:15-12:35
12:35-13:00
Presentation 26
Discussion
Presentation 16
14:15-14:35
Presentation 27
14:35-14:55
14:55-15:15
Presentation 28
Presentation 29
13:00 -14:15
Lunch
14:15-14:35
Presentation 4
14:15-14:35
14:35-14:55
14:55-15:15
Presentation 5
Presentation 6
14:35-14:55
Presentation 17
14:55-15:00
15:15-15:30
Discussion
Discussion
15:00-15:30
16:00-16:20
16:20-16:40
16:40-17:00
Presentation 7
Presentation 8
Discussion
19.00
Welcome Dinner
Session III: Thematic Keynote
15:30-16:00 Afternoon Break
16:00-16:20
16:20-16:40
16:40-17:00
17:30-19:00
Presentation 18
Presentation 19
Discussion
15:15-15:30
Friday, 15 May 2015
Field Trip
Monday, 11 May 2015
15:00-17:00
Registration
Thursday, 14 May 2015
Discussion
16:00- 17:00
Closing Ceremony
FAO, ITTO & TEAKNET
TEAKNET Steering
Committee Meeting
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Organizing Committee
Chairman
: Antonio Pino Gómez-Lince, President ASOTECA, President FORESCAN
Co-Chairman : Xavier Elizalde, Executive Director ASOTECA
1.
Walter Kollert, Planted Forests Officer, FAO, Rome
2.
PK. Thulasidas, TEAKNET Coordinator, India
3.
M.P. Sreelakshmy, TEAKNET Secretariat, India
4.
Adolfo Rodríguez, Director ASOTECA, President AGRONACUI, Ecuador
5.
Jorge Román, Director ASOTECA, Grupo ENDESA-BOTROSA, Ecuador
6.
Fernando Muirragui, Director ASOTECA, President EPACEM, Ecuador
7.
Teodoro Malo, Vice-President ASOTECA, Teak Grower, Ecuador
8.
Enrique García, Director ASOTECA, General Manager ALLTEAK, Ecuador
9.
Fernando Montenegro, General Manager NEOFORESTS, Ecuador
10. Diego Maruri, Director Asoteca, AGROTROPICAL Representative, Ecuador
11. Néstor Medrano, General Manager MENPROE, Ecuador
12. Luis Fernando Jara, General Manager, Ecuador
13. Juan Carlos Palacios, Executive Director, COMAFORS, , Ecuador
14. Bianca Dager, Corporate Director, SAMBITO, , Ecuador
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Scientific Committee
Chairman
Co – Chairman
: Lars Graudal, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
: P.K. Thulasidas, TEAKNET, India
Session I: Economics, investments and trade



Walter Kollert, FAO, Rome
Mammen Chundamannil, Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi, India
Dominique Y. Leuba, Novelteak Costa Rica S.A., Costa Rica
Session II: Genetics, tree improvement, silviculture, Wood quality



Lars Graudal, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
P.K. Thulasidas, TEAKNET, India
Jurgen Stock-Omar Carrero, PROTEAK, México
Session III: Management models for different value chains, including smallholder forestry



Henri BAILLERES, ACIAR, Australia
James Roshetko, ICRAF, Indonesia
Edwin Jiménez Ruiz M.Sc., ESPOL, Ecuador
Session IV: Teak plantation management and environmental protection

Markku Kanninen, University of Helsinki, Finland
 Stephen Midgley, Salwood Asia Pacific Pty Ltd, Australia

Folkert Kottman, PANAMERICAN WOODS, Costa Rica
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Oral Presentation Programme
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
11 May 2015, Monday
15:00-17:00
Registration
12 May 2015, Tuesday
08.00-09.00
Registration
09.00-10.00
Opening Ceremony
Government of Ecuador & ASOTECA
10.00-10.45
General Keynote
Mr. Darshan Raiyani
OLAM International, Singapore
10.45-11.15
Morning Break
Session I (a): Economics, Investments, Markets and Trade
Chairperson: Dr. Michael Kleine, IUFRO HQ,Vienna, Austria
11:15-11:45
11:45-12:05
12:05-12:25
12:25-12:45
12:45-13:00
13:00-14:15
Thematic Keynote : Dr. Walter Kollert, FAO, Rome
Global Teak Trade in the Aftermath of Myanmar’s Log Export Ban
OI–01:
Prof. Ohn Lwin, University of Forestry, Myanmar
Current Status of the Legal Framework and Administrative Procedures in the Forestry Sector Shaping Teak Management in Myanmar
OI-02: Dr. Rafael de la Torre, ArborGen Inc, USA
What are the Key Teakwood Market Drivers in the Western Hemisphere?
OI-03: Mr. Rahul Ahuja, ARON Global, Singapore
Insights into the Teak Market from a Latin American Perspective
Discussion
Lunch Break
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Session I (b): Economics, Investments, Markets and Trade
Chairperson: Mr. Hans Lemm, Kilombero Valley Teak Company, Tanzania
14:15-14:35
OI-04: Mr. Vikram Aditya Watal, OLAM International, India
Teak Supply from LATAM in the Next 3 Years: Quarterly Peaks, Valleys and Age Classes
14:35-14:55
OI-05: Mr. Carlos Rojas-Guzman, AGSA, Mexico
The Global Teak Alliance: A Proposal to Develop an Association that can Represent the Global Plantation Teak Industry
14:55-15:15
OI-06: Mr. Juan Lopez, Camcore at North Carolina State University, USA
Profitability Model for a Teak Tree Breeding Program
15:15-15:30
Discussion
15:30-16:00
Afternoon Break
16:00-16:20
OI-07: Mr. Gaston Mauvezin, PROTEAK, Mexico
Maximizing Returns on Teak Investments through Logistics Optimization
16:20-16:40
OI-08: Mr. Sid Bhargava, APP Tiimber, India
Teak - Perception & Usage in India
16:40-17:00
Discussion
19.00
Welcome Dinner
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
13 May 2015, Wednesday
Session II (a): Genetics, Tree Improvement, Silviculture and Wood Quality
Chairperson: Mr. Lars Graudal, Forest and Landscape, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
09:00-09:30
Thematic Keynote : Dr. Oliver Monteuuis, CIRAD, France
Teak Clonal Forestry: Rationale, First Accomplishments and Suggestions
09:30-09:50
OI-09: Dr. Ashwani Kumar, Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, India
Genetic Improvement of Teak in India for Growth and Timber Quality
09:50-10:10
OI-10: Dr. Yazar Minn, Forest Research Institute, Myanmar
Genetic Diversity and Breeding of Teak (Tectona grandis Linn f.) in Myanmar
10:10-10:30
OI- 11: Mr. Ricardo Lujan, BARCA S.A., Costa Rica
Experiencias y Tendencias al Analizar el Manejo Aplicado a Diferentes Rodales de Teca (Tectona grandis) Después de 19 años de
su Establecimiento en el Pacífico Central de Costa Rica. BARCA S.A.
10:30-10:45
Discussion
10.45-11.15
Morning Break
Session II (b): Genetics, Tree Improvement, Silviculture and Wood Quality
Chairperson: Dr. Olivier Monteuuis, CIRAD, France
11:15-11:35
OI-12: Mr. Lars Graudal, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Worldwide Teak Resources: Genetic Map of Natural Populations
11:35-11:55
OI-13: Mr. Mario Espinoza, Novelteak, Costa Rica
Mejoramiento Genético de Teca (Tectona Grandis Linn. f.) Asistido Por Marcadores Moleculares
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
11:55-12:15
OI-14:. Prof. Liang Kunnan, Research Institute of Tropical Forestry, China
Heartwood Colour Variation in Different Geographical Provenances of Teak at 27 Year-Old
12:15-12:35
OI-15: Dr. Helaine Carrer, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil
The Functional Genome of Teak
12:35-13:00
Discussion
13:00-14:15
Lunch Break
14:15-14:35
OI-16: Dr. Doreen K.S Goh, YSG Biotech Sdn Bhd, Malaysia
Top Teak – From Test Tube to Worldwide Exportation
14:35-14:55
OI-17: Dr. Anoop E.V, College of Forestry, Kerala Agriculture University, India
Towards Securing Geographical Indicator Status for Nilambur Teak – The Wood Quality Perspective
14:55-15:00
Discussion
Session III (a): Management Models for Different Value Chains, including Smallholder Forestry
Chairperson: Dr. P.K. Thulasidas, TEAKNET, India
15:15-15:30
Thematic Keynote : Dr. Henri Bailleres, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Australia
Enhancing Key Elements of The Value Chains for Plantation-Grown Teak Wood in Lao PDR
15:30-16:00
Afternoon Break
16:00-16:20
OI-18: Dr. James Roshetko, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Indonesia
Models of Smallholder Teak Production in Indonesia: The Emerging Dominant Value Chain
16:20-16:40
OI-19:
16:40-17:00
Discussion
17:30-19:00
TEAKNET Steering Committee Meeting
Prof. Mauricio Jerez, Universidad de Los Andes,Venezuela
Modeling a Planning and Management System for Industrial Forest Plantations
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
14 May 2015, Thursday
Session III (b): Management Models for Different Value Chains, including Smallholder Forestry
Chairperson: Mr.Henri Bailleres, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Australia
09:00-09:20
OI-20: Ms. Nelly Grace Bedijo, Sawlog Production Grant Scheme, Uganda
Promoting Teak Plantation Development in Uganda: Analysis of the Sawlog Production Grant Scheme (SPGS) Model for
Community- Based Management of Planted Teak Forests
09:20-09:40
OI-21:
Prof. Ana Mercedes Quevedo, Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela
Simulador de crecimiento y secuestro de carbono para plantaciones de teca
09:40-10:00
OI-22:
Ms. Sreelakshmy. MP, TEAKNET, India
Future Perspectives of TEAKNET
10:00-10:15
Discussion
Session IV (a): Teak Plantation Management and Environmental Protection
Chairperson: Mr. Walter Kollert, FAO, Italy
10:15-10:45
10.45-11.15
Thematic Keynote : Mr. Hans Lemm, Kilombero Valley Teak Company, Tanzania
Teak Plantations Embedded in the Natural Landscape
Morning Break
11:15-11:35
OI-23: Mr.Luit Smith, Tectona Agroflorestal, Brazil
Key Factors for Optimizing Teak Growth - a Case Study in Tangara da Serra, Brazil
11:35-11:55
OI-24: Ms. Marcela Arguedas, Instituto tecnológico de Costa Rica, Costa Rica
Plagas y Enfermedades en Plantaciones de Teca (Tectona Grandis L.f.) en Centroamérica –Nuevos Reportes
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
11:55-12:15
OI-25: Dr. Mario Guevara, Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Costa Rica
Aumento de la productividad de plantaciones establecidas de Tectonagrandis en sitios marginales mediante el mejoramiento de
las condiciones físicas y químicas del suelo
12:15-12:35
OI-26: Mr. William Andrew Whittier, Camcore at North Carolina State University, USA
Teak Seedlings Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms in a Hydroponic System Correlated with Near-infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) Models
12:35-13:00
Discussion
13:00-14:15
Lunch Break
Session IVb: Teak Plantation Management and Environmental protection
Chairperson: Mr. Xavier Elizalde, ASOTECA, Ecuador
14:15-14:35
OI-27: Dr. Ahmad Zuhaidi Yahya, Forest Research Institute Malaysia
Long-Term Assessment on the Growth and Yield of 15-year-old Plantation-Grown Teak (Tectona grandis) in Tawau, Malaysia
14:35-14:55
OI-28: Mr. Leon Viljoen, Kilombero Valley Teak Company, Tanzania
Fire Management at Kilombero Valey Teak Company in Tanzania
14:55-15:15
OI-29: Mr. Geoff Smith, University of New England, Australia
Wind damage was related to thinning intensity in a 10 year old teak plantation
15:15-15:30
Discussion
15:30-16:00
16:00- 17:00
Afternoon Break
Closing Ceremony
Summary Report: Dr. Walter Kollert, FAO & Dr. P.K. Thulasidas, TEAKNET
Closing Remarks: Dr. Tetra Yanuariadi, ITTO, Japan
Cultural Dance programme
Official Closing of Conference: Mr. Lars Graudal, Chairman, TEAKNET
Friday, 15 May 2015
Field Trip
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Poster Presention Programme
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
12 May 2015, Tuesday
Session II: Genetics, Tree Improvement, Silviculture and Wood Quality
P II - 01
Mr. Fernando Montenegro, Neoforests, Ecuador
El programa clonal de Teca en Ecuador
P II - 02
Prof. Guihua Huang, Research Institute of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, China
Study on Seedling Growth Traits, Photosynthetic Characteristics and Influencing Factors in Teak (Tectona grandis Linn.) Clones
P II - 03
Mr. Petr Madera, Mendel University in Brno, Czech Republic
Growth of Teak (Tectona grandis L. f) in the Dry Tropics of Nicaragua
P II - 04
Mr. João Vicente de Figueiredo Latorraca, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Effect of tree spacing on swelling properties of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) wood from central-west region of Brazil
P II - 05
Mr. Sinan Hagenah, University of Goettingen, Germany
The reproduction system of Teak (Tectona grandis): Flowering phenology in a Clonal Seed Orchard population in Java, Indonesia
P II - 06
Mr. Roberto Bacilieri, UMR AGAP, INRA-CIRAD-SupAgro, France
Genetics of growth in teak CSO families and provenances in two contrasted tropical sites
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
P II - 07
Dr. Ashwani Kumar, Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, India
Genetic Improvement of Teak in India for Growth and Timber Quality
P II - 08
Dr. P.K. Thulasidas, Kerala Forest Research Institute, India
Ring-width variability and growth rate of natural teak provenances from India
P II - 09
Mr. Fernando Velez, Refocosta S.A., Colombia
Teak (Tectona grandis) plantation management based upon stand density index concept
P II - 10
Ms. Isabel Schargel, Unellez, Venezuela
Influencia de la posición fisiográfica sobre el crecimiento de una plantación de teca (Tectona grandis L.F.) de siete años de edad, en
Guanarito, estado Portuguesa, Venezuela
P II - 11
Dr. Mario Guevara, Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Costa Rica
Tiempos y rendimientos de aserrío de madera escuadrada (rough squares) en plantaciones de teca en la zona norte de Costa Rica
P II - 12
Dr. Luis Ugalde, International Forestry & Agroforestry - INFOA, Costa Rica
Superior Yield and Growth of Teak Clones on a Wide Variety of Sites Can Increase Land Value
P II - 13
Ms. Novinci Muharyani, Research and development center-Perum Perhutani, Indonesia
Genetic Parameter Estimation of 10 years old Half-sib Teak Stands
P II - 14
Dr. Mohd Zaki Abdullah, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia
Evaluation of The Performance Of Tectona Grandis Progenies From Plus Trees In Peninsular Malaysia
21
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Session III: Management Models for Different Value Chains, including Smallholder Forestry
P III - 01
Mr. Ana Milena López Aguirre, Universidad del Tolima, Colombia
Stand-level simulation system applied to Teak (Tectona grandis) plantations in Colombia
P III - 02
Prof. Ana Y. Moret, Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela
Variación de la relacion area basal-volumen en función de la calidad de sitio y la edad para plantaciones de Tectona grandis L.f.en los
Llanos Occidentales de Venezuela
P III - 03
Dr. Luis Ugalde, International Forestry & Agroforestry - INFOA, Costa Rica
Software to Predict Bucking of Standing Teak Trees for Maximum Commercial Volume and Value
Session IV: Teak Plantation Management and Environmental protection
P IV - 01
Mr. Hensy Froilan Caal, Universidad Rafael Landivar, Guatemala
Evaluación del primer raleo comercial en plantaciones de Teca (Tectona grandis Linn f.) en El Petén, Guatemala
P IV - 02
Mr. Elemer Briceño, Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Costa Rica
Mejoramiento tecnológico de suelos para el incremento de la productividad en plantaciones de Tectona grandis: incremento en biomasa de
raíces finas
P IV - 03
Ms. Nohelia Bedoya Velásquez, Departamento de Ciencias Forestales, Colombia
Modelación Calidad de Sitio en Plantación Juvenil de Teca
P IV - 04
Mr. Juan Camilo Patiño Zabala, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Medellín, Colombia
Manejo de plantaciones de Teca aplicando modelos de distribución diamétrica
P IV - 05
Prof. Mauricio Jerez, Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela
Historia y Manejo Actual de Plantaciones de Teca en Venezuela
22
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Abstracts
Oral Presentations
23
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
SESSION I
ECONOMICS, INVESTMENTS, MARKETS AND TRADE
24
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
General Keynote
World Teak Market – What’s next?
Darshan Raiyani
The Teak market has gone through a dramatic change with the Myanmar government imposing a ban on export of round logs of teak and other hardwoods
from March 31st 2014. Myanmar was the world’s largest supplier of high quality teak logs with an annual exports of 300,000 Ht (Hoppus tons) or about
425,000 cbm of teak. This huge deficit is expected to bring about significant changes in the international Supply & Demand of teak and will most likely have a
lasting impact on both the exporting and importing countries. The world’s largest importer and consumer of teak, India, will be the most affected. There are
signs of some changes in preferences in India due to the very high prices of the Myanmar teak. Other Asian countries like Thailand, Pakistan, China, Vietnam
and Middle East, which relied on Myanmar teak would also have to reconcile with this change and alter consumption patterns. The high end consumers in
Europe and America would also feel the pinch due to the reduced volume and increased competition for the available quantities of Myanmar lumber. What
would be the impact of these changes in India and the other markets? Will there be a drop in consumption or will there be an increased demand for
plantation teak from Latin America and Africa? Can the gap left by Myanmar be filled by other countries, albeit in plantation Teak? Can the suppliers look
forward to better prices from the consuming markets? Can the destination markets pay higher prices? What are the risks of substitution by other timber
species and other materials like iron, aluminium, synthetic materials? Will Myanmar restart the export of logs? Once Myanmar has the necessary processing
capacity, what would be the expected volumes of teak lumber and how will it impact the other teak exporting nations? How will Myanmar Teak lumber be
received by high-end consumers? What are the ramifications of these changes on the world Teak market?
Darshan Raiyani
Senior Vice President and Head – Wood Products
Olam International Limited
Singapore
Email: [email protected]
25
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Thematic Keynote
Global Teak Trade in the Aftermath of Myanmar’s Log Export Ban
Walter Kollert and Przemyslaw Jan Walotek
Myanmar and its major trading partners, in particular India and China, traditionally take a significant role in the global teak trade. However, uncontrolled and
illegal exports of teak and other hardwoods (Dalbergia spp., Pterocarpus spp.) from Myanmar have led to increased deforestation and forest degradation
which have increased the risk of natural disasters. As a consequence, the government of Myanmar has halted log exports as of March 31st, 2014 in order to
promote the export of more finished products. This log export ban has had significant impacts on the forestry sector and local timber market. Immediately
before the log export ban entered into force Myanmar forestry authorities observed a considerable rise of illegal harvests, log smuggling and illegal exports.
As logs can no longer be legally exported, but have to be processed locally the tenders conducted by the Myanmar Timber Enterprise (MTE) are hardly
frequented by private international buyers, and, as a result, the prices for locally produced teak are reported to have collapsed by up to 40% (IHB Timber
network). On the other hand the log export ban in Myanmar is said to have created a market opportunity for international suppliers of plantation teak from
Africa and Latin America to expand sales to India and other countries. In this context Indian importers are urging plantation teak suppliers to improve
plantation tending and management techniques in order to produce higher quality logs that come near to the quality of teak logs from natural forests. In view
of the rising scarcity of high quality teak logs international teak prices, e.g. in the US, are reported to have risen by approximately 10% -20% for average
quality, while prime quality timber for yacht building have jumped by up to 30% and are expected to go even higher as the stock of available raw material
continues to dwindle.
The paper aims to assess and evaluate the available data and information on global teak trade based on official timber trade and price statistics, and analyse
and evaluate the impact of the Myanmar log export ban on global teak trade, the international timber market, and the future management of teak
plantations.
Walter Kollert
Forestry Officer
FAO, Rome, Italy
Email: [email protected]
Przemyslaw Jan Walotek
Director,WaKa Serviços de Investimentos Florestais Ltda.
Garopaba, Brazil
Email: [email protected]
26
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Current status of legal framework and administrative procedures in the forestry sector shaping teak management in
Myanmar
Ohn Lwin
Teak (Tectona grandis Linn.f) has substantially contributed to the country's economy and pride for its premium quality. However, due to unavoidable longterm harvesting to earn foreign currency and other human interventions such as illegal logging, encroachment, shifting cultivation, land-use changes etc.,
deforestation and forest degradation have emerged resulting in decreased production and distorted sustainable forest management. This article gives an
overview on the current teak management and on investment opportunities that will be improved by way of amending legal frameworks and regulatory
administrative procedures in the forestry sector along with changing government policies in Myanmar. The growing, harvesting, manufacturing and marketing
of teak has been previously a major government concern, however administrative reforms have opened opportunities to shift the responsibility of forest
management to private companies and small holder communities, and to facilitate foreign investment in the forestry sector. These reforms comprise: (i)
amending the legal framework for the possession of teak resources, (ii) implementing the drafted land use policy, (iii) formulating guidelines for foreign
investment, (iv) introducing a log export ban, (v) planning to regulate the volume of the timber harvest within the limit of the annual allowable cut (AAC), (vi)
restructuring the Myanmar Timber Enterprise to be a state-owned economic organization in the future and (vii) scaling up the regional and international
cooperation in trade, environment and climate change issues. The author will draw attention to a number of challenges and recommendations to overcome
them by implementing realistic achievements in the forestry sector of Myanmar.
Ohn Lwin
Professor, Forest Products Department
University of Forestry, Forestry Department
Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry
Yezin, P.O Box 05282, Nay Pyi Taw
Myanmar
Email: [email protected]
27
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
What are the Primary Investment Returns and Market Opportunities of Teakwood?
Rafael De La Torre
A forestry company, like any other organization oriented towards profitability and economic sustainability with social responsibility, seeks to maximize
financial returns adjusted for their asset category risk. Investments in forest resources are attractive because they preserve capital, biological inventories
increase in value faster than in volume, land appreciates, and they are an instrument for mitigating risk in investment portfolios. The management of these
real assets has its own attributes and financial assumptions, which are examined specifically and quantitatively in industrial teak forests.
Study Objectives:
 Assess the contribution of primary drivers of timberland investment returns in teak plantations, analyze their implications, and define actions to
follow
 Describe case studies of the impact of government regulations, preferences and consumer trends of hardwoods
 Identify commercial teak opportunities in major markets of the Western Hemisphere
 Envision trading platform that teak producers might consider to minimize risks of their investment (market survey, promotional teak marketing
campaign/ check off programs, consumer market preferences, and recommendations of experts)
This study also investigates the minimum requirements for marketing forest products, certification requirements, procurement policies, price ranges, variable
volumes, preferences and substitutes in the acquisition of wood products, customer perception of the value / quality of special products, etc. Based on the
analytical results, collection and analysis of information on potential markets, the implications of the regulations on teak marketing in the European Union
and North America, we will be able to determine the path to follow that benefits teak growers, particularly when forests are fragmented and small.
Keywords: Profitability, teak plantations, marketing, regulations
Rafael De La Torre
Manager of Planning and Analysis
ArborGen Inc., 247 Davis Street, Athens, GA 30606
USA
Email: [email protected]
28
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Insights into the Teak Market from a Latin American Perspective
Rahul Ahuja
The teak business has traditionally seen supplies being controlled by Government entities in Asia and at a later point of time in Africa as well. These entities
have dominated the teak business from a supply side over the last 150 years. Over and above this, the teak business has largely seen supply being lesser than
demand, lending itself to a market space where the seller has always wielded disproportionate power. This overall market situation has, till now, obviated the
need for greater insights into the workings of the teak market.
The last three decades have seen the entry of commercially driven supply entities in the teak market space, primarily in Latin America. There are, today,
several hundred thousand hectares of commercially planted teak in the region. It is in the last few years, when supplies from these commercial teak
plantations have started finding their way into the market, that we are seeing the balance of power getting more and more balanced between the sellers and
the buyers. This trend, which has yet to run its full course, is coupled with the fact that these supply entities have a greater interest in the inner workings of
the teak market to protect their commercial interests.
The teak supplying entities and the teak market literally lies on the opposite sides of the world. This paper attempts to shed light on the workings of the teak
market space in Asia, with a primary focus on India, through the commercial expertise of a trading entity with several hundred man hours of marketing
experience gained over the last two decades
Rahul Ahuja
CEO, Aron Global Pte Ltd.
Singapore
Email: [email protected]
29
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Teak Supply from Latin America in the Next 3 Years: Quarterly Peaks, Valleys and Age Classes
Vikram Aditya Watal
In the last few years teak originating from Latin America is being seen as a significant and reliable source of timber. Impressive year-on-year growth in
supplies from this region, aided by change in international teakwood-supply-demand dynamics have resulted in the emergence of a whole new dimension of
Latin American Teak. With more than 300,000 ha of planted teak and annual exports of around 400,000 cbm, the region is significantly contributing to the
international supply of teak wood. The presentation aims to quantify supply potential from the various regions in Latin America and arrive at a supply
segmentation based on the age, quality & seasonality in the delivery of wood. Some clear visible trends in supplies from established countries like Costa Rica
& Ecuador or developing origins like Panama, Colombia or Brazil are visible. The presentation intends to quantify and link the crop availability in these
countries to possible supply scenarios. At the same time the interplay with upcoming origins like Guatemala & Nicaragua will be analyzed as well as questions
regarding the situation in Mexico or Honduras in next 3 years. Will Latin America continue to see a 20% year on year growth and end up exporting close to
600,000 cbm of teak logs in the next 3 years? The presentation will attempt to answer questions, which may affect individual countries or Latin America as a
region. What is the total potential of the region for next three years? Can the potential be met or will there be delivery challenges? How is the total potential
and supply divided between various age groups? Can we expect a high volume of wood from thinnings in the next 3 years? How is the supply from each of the
originating countries following certain patterns (peaks or bottom)? Is the six month supply period from each origin a desired supply situation? Do similar
quality teak logs from Panama or Colombia or Ecuador compete with each other? Will the uniqueness of the product portfolio from each origin count e.g.
Costa Rica as consistent supplier of long lengths versus rough squares from Ecuador?
The presenter will share the data and analysis on supply scenarios from Latin America for the next three years. Meaningful conclusions will be drawn from the
data in order to present a clear view on the supply potential emerging in the short term.
Vikram Aditya Watal
General Manager
Olam International
India
Email: [email protected]
30
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
The Global Teak Alliance: A proposal to develop an association that can represent the global plantation teak industry
S. Coutinho, H. Lemm, D. Leuba, A. Pino and C. Rojas-Guzmán
During the last two decades the teak market has witnessed significant growth following the development of multiple commercial teak plantations throughout
the world. Plantation teak has filled the gap that has been developing as a result of dwindling supply from natural teak forests and in addition offers a
sustainable substitute for other hardwoods from natural forests.
As (volume) supply from plantation teak is increasing and with several older plantations reaching its full potential, buyers and producers have expressed a
desire to better understand the market drivers and potential for their products.
Many industry players have identified three areas where market information is lacking: (1) pricing, volume flows and trade statistics; (2) grading and quality
standards; and (3) knowledge and acceptance of plantation teak in the non-traditional markets (i.e. outside India).
This paper will present the need for an international and coordinated effort to promote plantation teak in existing and new markets by enhancing demand
growth without intensifying competition, for the benefit of all players in the value chain.
Silvio Coutinho
Floresteca,
Caixa Postal 257/ CEP 13330-970
Indaiatuba, São Paulo
Brazil
Email: [email protected]
Hans Lemm
Kilombero Valley Teak Company
PO Box 12452
Dar es Salaam
Tanzania
Dominique Leuba
Novelteak
P.O. Box 63-5000
Liberia, Guanacaste
Costa Rica
Antonio Pino
Fore Scan Cia. Ltda
Samborondón SBC
Office Center
Ecuador
Carlos Rojas-Guzmán
Agropecuaria Santa
Genoveva S.A.P.I. de CV
Niebla 8, Campeche
México
31
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Profitability Model for a Teak Tree Breeding Program
Juan Luis Lopez
Better adaptation and increased productivity may be achieved in commercial plantations of Teak (Tectona grandis) through the implementation of a tree
breeding program (TBP). A financial model to the forest level was built to measure the profitability of a TBP that includes the costs of establishment,
management, and measurement of provenance/progeny trials, clonal trials and seed orchards, and estimate genetic gains derived from them. As part of the
genetic improvement costs, the annual membership dues to a cooperative program like Camcore at NC State University were included. Within the model,
strategic direction, analyses of data, and results for genetic selections are provided by Camcore as part of the membership services. Costs of intensive land
preparation, silvicultural practices, and timber harvesting of commercial plantations as well as wood market prices are inputs to the model. Results are
presented for a time horizon of 40 years, equivalent to two 20-year rotations. The minimal operational land area that has to be planted by a tree grower every
year to justify the investment in the TBP with Teak and the net present value at different discount rates are outputs of the model. Sensitivity analyses of
profitability to wood prices, mean annual increment, discount rates and genetic gains are also illustrated.
Juan Luis Lopez
Associate Director
Camcore NC State University
Raleigh
USA
Email: [email protected]
32
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Maximizing Returns on Teak Investments through Logistics Optimization
Gaston Mauvezin and Enrique Espinosa
The production decline of natural forests worldwide as a result of deforestation, coupled with a growing population with higher purchasing power,
particularly in Asia, pose a unique opportunity for commercial plantations as the only sustainable alternative to satisfy the increasing demand for wood.
Tropical wood plantations are expected to increase their supply 13 times in the next 20 years; by 2035, over 60% of demand for tropical wood will be supplied
by plantations.
Thus, how can international suppliers of plantation tropical wood, particularly teak, leverage this unique market opportunity?
Traditionally, plantation suppliers have focused mainly on improving forestry management techniques to produce higher quality logs by optimizing key factors
such as genetic material, tree spacing, irrigation and drainage, fertilization, thinning and harvesting schedules, etc.
All these factors, while undoubtedly important, are, however, not enough to guarantee a high return on a plantation investment; they have to be coupled
with an efficient logistics strategy. Logistics costs represent up to 40% of the final value of the wood and their adequate management can add (or deduct)
several percentage points to the return on any plantation investment.
Based on PROTEAK’s own experience of over 14 years in three different countries, the paper will analyze the impact of the different components of an
efficient logistics strategy in a teak plantation.
Gaston Mauvezin and Enrique Espinosa
PROTEAK Uno
S.A.B. de C.V.
Mexico
Email: [email protected]
33
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Teak - Perception and Usage in India
Sid Bhargava
India is one of the biggest markets for teak. Different teak origins have different perception and corresponding pricing. Pricing is dependent on colour, sap
content, formation of logs, (straight, bend), defects like knots, channels, hole etc. There is a marked preference of logs over sawn timber and finished
products due to a progressive duty structure for logs, rough squares, clean squares and finished products like panels and floorings.
Logs are also preferred in India due to a high efficiency of labour intensive sawing techniques. The Indian saw mills are used to optimize on logs required for
veneers, flooring and other uses which vary from region to region. There is also a fairly large market for mouldings.
Timber from fast-growth plantations suffers from softer core which tends to split in India due to extreme temperatures, especially in Northern India. There is
a marked difference in preference with respect to sizes and quality between North and South India.
Consumption and usage of teak is facing competition from other products that are competing like stone, plastic, composites, panels etc. Moreover, the public
perception is being created that wood is not good as it leads to deforestation, and using non-wood products would be better.
Sid Bhargava
Country Manager
APP Timber Ltd.
India
Email: [email protected]
34
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
SESSION II
GENETICS, TREE IMPROVEMENT, SILVICULTURE AND
WOOD QUALITY
35
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Thematic Keynote
Teak Clonal Forestry: Rationale, First Accomplishments and Suggestions
Olivier Monteuuis
The rationale of opting for teak clonal forestry is to overcome the serious hindrances associated with the use of seed-derived planting stock. These encompass
insufficient fruit production, too low germination rates, a positive correlation between flowering age and forking height and substantial variability for
economically important traits. In contrast, soundly selected and wisely deployed teak clones are theoretically expected to produce in much shorter time
superior yield of premium and uniform quality timber. Practically, due to the inhibitory effect of ageing on adventitious rooting, clonal propagation of mature
selected teak trees has been restricted for decades to the use of grafting/budding mainly for establishing clonal seed orchards. Thanks to the development in
the early 1990’s of efficient nursery and in vitro techniques for mass clonally propagating true-to-type any selected tree regardless of its age, teak clonal
forestry has lately become a reality. Millions of clonal offspring have been produced and planted under the tropics in Asia, Oceania, Latin America and Africa.
Judiciously selected clones have been proven to outperform local seed-issued teak planted material in every place they have been introduced so far, and to
thrive in site conditions assumed formerly to be unsuitable for teak. Teak clonal plantations are still in their infancy. More and longer time assessments
supported by efficient and application-oriented R and D programs are needed before drawing any conclusive statement. Enriching the genetic diversity of the
current clonal populations by the infusion of new genotypes derived from multi-criteria selection taking into account also site adaptability remain priority
concerns. Notwithstanding these aspects, it can already be assumed that teak clonal forestry will have a noticeable impact on teak plantations considering the
urgent need to meet the increasing demand for high grade teak timber in the wake of declining supplies from natural stands.
Olivier Monteuuis
CIRAD - BIOS Department - UMR AGAP
TA A-108/03- Avenue Agropolis, F-34398
Montpellier, Cedex 5
France
Email: [email protected]
36
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Genetic Improvement of Teak in India for Growth and Timber Quality
Ashwani Kumar
India has around 6.8 million hectares of natural teak-bearing forests and about 1.7 million hectares of plantations. It has a wide but discontinuous
distribution from about 8 to 24 oN latitudes covering a range of climatic and soil conditions. It occurs in areas receiving rainfall as low as 700 mm to more
than 3000 mm. Expectedly teak in India shows a large amount of variation in terms of growth, stem form, wood quality and vegetative and reproductive
phenology. Teak populations are recognized as dry, semi-moist and moist subtypes based on the environmental conditions and tree characteristics. Several
studies have shown a genetic basis for this observed variation and India is generally regarded as the centre of diversity for teak. Most of the introductions of
teak outside its natural distribution range were made with Indian provenances and they showed the best growth in many international provenance trials
particularly in central and South America. Despite the large area under teak forests and plantations, India is one of the largest importers of tropical timber
particularly teak. The forest policy adopted during the last three decades gave more emphasis to conservation of natural forests than timber extraction. The
steady economic growth during the same period resulted in increased timber demand and heavy imports to meet the demand. Research on increasing
plantation productivity started with the launching of teak improvement progamme in 1962 with selection of plus trees, establishment of seed orchards and
seed production areas. Significant achievements have been made in developing fast-growing clones with high timber quality and cost-effective clonal
technology, tissue culture, improving seed production in orchards and understanding the genetic structure of Indian teak populations and the patterns of
inheritance for growth and wood traits. Alongside silvicultural improvements like clonal plantation establishment, agroforestry models, managing soil fertility
after successive rotations and reduction in harvest age have also been attempted. This paper reviews the progress made in these recent initiatives and
presents a strategy for sustaining them in the future.
Ashwani Kumar
Director General
Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education
Dehradun-248006
India
E-mail: [email protected]
37
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Genetic Diversity and Breeding of Teak (Tectona grandis Linn f.) in Myanmar
Yazar Minn
Genetic diversity is indispensable for stability and productivity of forest ecosystems; thus conservation of genetic diversity is a key element of sustainable
forest management. Genetic diversity of teak (Tectona grandis) in Myanmar has been analyzed using microsatellite and Amplified Fragment Length
Polymorphism (AFLP) markers. The study revealed high level of genetic variation within populations and strong genetic differentiation among populations.
The study also reported that the northern and southern teak populations are genetically highly significant, suggesting two major conservation and breeding
zones of teak genetic resources.
Genetic diversity plays a fundamental role for breeding of forest tree species. Due to the high genetic diversity of teak, Myanmar still possesses strong genetic
basis for tree breeding programs. The selection of plus trees has been the foundation for tree improvement programs in Myanmar. The number of selected
plus trees are currently 155. The number of seed production areas are currently 191 in different regions covering 3256 ha while that of clonal seed orchards
are still quite limited in the country. Meanwhile, in-vitro culture of teak offers one of the possible solutions for sufficient supply of quality genetic materials for
reforestation programs. However, it is still in the experimental stage. Hedge gardens serve as sources for production of vegetatively propagated materials like
shoot cuttings, though the production is not sufficient for operational level at present. Some provenance trials were also initiated in some regions but more
genetic testing like progeny and clonal tests are still needed. While strengthening current breeding activities, further breeding strategies should be developed
to maximize genetic gains by utilizing broad genetic basis of teak. In this paper, genetic diversity of teak for in situ and ex situ conservation and potential
breeding strategies are discussed.
Keywords: Teak, Genetic diversity, Breeding, Conservation
Yazar Minn
Forest Botany and Tree Improvement Section
Forest Research Institute
Forest Department, Nay Pyi Taw
Myanmar
Email: [email protected]
38
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Experiencias y tendencias al analizar el manejo aplicado a diferentes rodales de teca (Tectona grandis) después de 19
años de su establecimiento en el Pacífico Central de Costa Rica. BARCA S.A.
Ricardo Luján, Jose Corrales and Fred Schutter
En este estudio se analizan las respuestas (variables dasométricas) de la teca, a nivel de pequeños rodales, en relación a su manejo y correlacionado con los
diversos micro-sitios, eventos específicos atmosféricos y de mortalidad (enfermedades), después de 19 años de su establecimiento en la zona de Parrita,
Costa Rica. Las tendencias identificadas al analizar el crecimiento de éstos, en relación al manejo efectuado como a los efectos de micro-sitio, brindan
recomendaciones claves para lograr mejorar la calidad de las plantaciones de teca.
Se llevó a cabo un censo de los árboles de teca existentes en 16.6 hectáreas divididas en 19 rodales de diversos tamaños (entre 0.2-4.2 ha.). Se hicieron
análisis de suelos, y recopilación del manejo silvicultural como también de los eventos adversos del clima (fuertes vientos) y enfermedades que afectaron
árboles y rodales en la plantación.
Los promedios generales del censo de los rodales de teca a sus 19 años de edad resultaron en una densidad de 174 árboles/ha, un área basal de 16.9 m2/ha,
una dap promedio de 34.6 cm, una altura comercial de 8.6 m y un volumen comercial de 108 m3/ha.
Las variaciones de promedios entre los diferentes rodales resultaron en: 86-340 árboles/ha, entre 8-27 m2/ha de área basal, el dap osciló entre 32-43 cm, y el
volumen entre 47-200 m3/ha. Un 3% de la población total resultó con diámetros (dap) arriba de los 50 cm y un 20% con diámetros mayores a los 40 cm.
El manejo de la densidad y efecto del micro sitio, (fertilidad y drenaje) son los principales factores en la variabilidad de los rodales.
Ricardo Luján, Jose Corrales and Fred Schutter
BARCA S.A.
San José
Costa Rica
Email: [email protected]
39
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Worldwide Teak Resources: Genetic Map of Natural Populations
Ole K. Hansen, Suchitra Changtragoon, Bundit Ponoy, Yazar Minn, Reiner Finkeldey, Lars Graudal and Erik D. Kjær
For the first time a comprehensive population genetic analysis of teak from the entire natural distribution range of the species has been conducted with DNA
markers. This analysis, based on twenty nine provenances of teak, showed large differences in genetic diversity, strong genetic structure among populations
and a clear geographic pattern. Provenances originating from the semi-moist east coast of India had the highest genetic diversity, while provenances from
Laos showed the lowest. In the eastern part of the natural distribution area, comprising Myanmar, Thailand and Laos, there was a strong clinal decrease in
genetic diversity the further east the provenance was located. Overall the pattern of genetic diversity supports the hypothesis that teak has its centre of origin
in India, from where it spread eastwards. The analysis of the population genetic structure of Teak was made through Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA)
and gave an overall highly significant Fst value of 0.227. Population pairwise Fst values were in the range 0.01-0.48. A neighbour-joining (NJ) tree, using the
pairwise population matrix of distance values as input, as well as Bayesian cluster analyses using both the STRUCTURE and the GENELAND software gave
results which clearly reflected the geographical distribution of the 29 provenances. The strong genetic differences and structure gives hope of being able to
identify the origin of the different land races of teak found outside Asia; an issue which have been speculated about for more than forty years.
Ole K. Hansen, Erik D. Kjær and
Lars Graudal
University of Copenhagen
Rolighedsvej 23, 1958
Frederiksberg C
Denmark
E-mail: [email protected]
Suchitra Changtragoon
Forest and Plant Conservation
Research Office,
Department of National Parks,
Wildlife and Plant Conservation,
Thailand
Yazar Minn and Reiner Finkeldey
Forest Genetics and Forest Tree
Breeding, Georg-AugustUniversitätGöttingen, Germany
Bundit Ponoy
Forest Research and
Development Bureau,
Royal Forest Department,
Thailand
40
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Mejoramiento genético de teca (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) asistido por marcadores moleculares
Mario Espinoza Pizarro
Novelteak, empresa de Capital Suizo, con más de 23 años de experiencia como productor de teca y manejando más de 6679 Ha de plantaciones entre Costa
Rica y Nicaragua; siendo líder en innovación, estable desde el año 1995 unos de los mejores programas de mejoramiento genético y silvicultura clonal de toda
la región, plantando hasta el año 2014 un total 2315 hectáreas clonales, con una ganancia en volumen comercial de 40% con respecto a plantaciones no
mejoradas.
No obstante este resultado, la empresa, consciente de que su base genética es estrecha, decide a partir del año 2012 invertir en una nueva estrategia de
mejoramiento genético, con el objetivo de establecer la base con la cual se desarrollarán todas sus poblaciones comerciales en el futuro. Esta nueva
estrategia tiene un primer componente de ampliación de la base genética, un segundo componente de selección recurrente de material mejorado por medio
de sublíneas y como tercer componente la optimización de la interacción genotipo-ambiente.
Paralelamente se han desarrollado dos importantes herramientas: las técnicas de propagación vegetativa y los marcadores moleculares, siendo estos últimos
fundamentales la consecución de los objetivos.
Se desarrolló un protocolo de genotipeo de individuos por medio de marcadores microsatélites (VNTR´s) que se aplica actualmente en la identificación de
clones, relaciones de parentesco y determinación de relaciones filogenéticas en poblaciones. Además se está trabajando en genómica de teca a través de la
secuenciación de marcadores específicos con el objetivo de establecer relaciones filogenéticas y también correlacionar marcadores moleculares con el
fenotipo de los individuos, por medio de SNT´s.
Los resultados obtenidos permiten determinar la probabilidad del origen genético de un individuo así como la factibilidad de usar dicho individuo como
progenitor en alguna línea de mejoramiento, garantizando mejores resultados a largo plazo.
Mario Espinoza Pizarro
Gerente I & D
Gerente de Investigación y Desarrollo en Novelteak
Costa Rica
Email: [email protected]
41
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Heartwood colour variation in different geographical provenances of teak at 27 years-old
Pengxiang Peng, Kunnan Liang, Guihua Huang and Kaifu Li
Heartwood colour of eight different geographical provenances of teak (Tectona grandis L.f) at 27 years-old from a provenance trial established at Hainan
Island in China was characterized by using CIE 1976 (L* a* b*) system and Munsell system in order to study the colour variations among different geographical
provenances. Two defect-free trees for each provenance were selected to fell and Colour measurements were made on 10 standard flat-sawn boards with a
size of 100×50×20 mm. The results measured by the two systems showed that there were significant or highly significant differences on each parameter
among eight provenances; therefore, wood decorating property could be improved by provenance selection. The range of the degree of luminosities for eight
different provenances by using CIE 1976 (L* a* b*) system were from 46.94 to 64.65 with a mean value of 55.33, belong to medium brightness wood.
Although provenance 3071 had the lowest brightness, it had the greatest the green–red relative position, the blue–yellow relative position and chroma.
Similarly, provenance 3071 with the lowest value by Munsell Color System had the highest chroma. Therefore, provenance 3071 was selected as superior
provenance with good decorating property by using CIE 1976 (L* a* b*) system and Munsell system. The results of correlation analysis also showed that wood
brightness had significant positive correlation with the latitude of origin.
Keywords: Tectona grandis, Provenance variation, CIE Lab color system, Munsell color system
Pengxiang Peng
Yueyang Changde Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.
Yueyang, 414007
China
Kunnan Liang and Guihua Huang
The Research Institute of Tropical Forestry
CAF, Guangzhou, 510520
China
Email: [email protected]
Kaifu Li
College of Forestry
South China Agricultural University
Guangzhou, 510642
China
42
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
The Functional Genome of Teak
Esteban Galeano, Tarcísio Sales Vasconcelos and Helaine Carrer
Teak (Tectona grandisL.f.) is one of the most valuable trees in the world and there is no large gene dataset available. In order to obtain the functional genome
of teak, we have sequenced the genetic material (RNA) from plantlets after two weeks from seed germination, leaves and roots from two month-old in vitro
plants, flowers and secondary xylem from branches and stems from 12- and 60-year-old trees from Brazilian plantations. A widely catalog of 462,260
functional genes from all the tissue/organs was produced using Illumina technology for sequencing and the de novo assembly with Trinity program. Deep
bioinformatic analyzes allowed us to discover more than two thousand genes from secondary xylem related with lignin deposition such as phenylpropanoid
members along with analogous binding proteins, carbohydrate enzymes and response-to-stress genes which seemed to be essential for teak. Interestingly,
secondary xylem exhibited substantial differences when comparing with non-lignified tissues (roots, plantlets, leaves and flowers) with highly expressed genes
such as transcription factors and heat-shock proteins, and in roots, several drought stress genes were found such as aquaporines, AREB and DREB members. A
detail analysis of the MYB transcription factor family from secondary xylem was done. The MYBs are one of the most important gene regulators in plants, and
they grouped phylogenetically with several gymnosperms and angiosperms, which explain that wood formation is conserved among vascular plants.
Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR showed that Tectona grandis MYB2 and CAD3 (Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase) genes are highly expressed in young
secondary xylem (12-year-old trees) and Tectona grandis MYB1, MYB4 and CAD4 genes are highly expressed in mature secondary xylem of sapwood (60-yearold trees) and seem to have a crucial role in wood formation, maturation and lignin deposition in teak. The functional genome of teak will open new
perspectives for plant transformation, gene characterization, biological, ecological and evolutionary understanding of this species, improving the knowledge
of this tropical tree. Finally, our results will allow the generation of molecular markers to select genotypes for breeding programs aiming for growth rate and
adaptability improvement.
Esteban Galeano, Tarcísio Sales Vasconcelos and Helaine Carrer
Laboratório de Genômica e Biologia Molecular, Centro de Biotecnologia Agrícola (CEBTEC),
Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz",
Universidade de São Paulo
Brazil
Email: [email protected]
43
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Top Teak – From Test-tube to Worldwide Exportation
Doreen K. S. Goh
Yayasan Sabah Group Biotech (YSG Biotech), a commercial subsidiary of the Sabah Foundation Group is involved in the mass propagation of superior clonal
teak using a tissue culture technique developed jointly with the forestry division of CIRAD in the early 1990s. This presentation describes the evolution of the
company from a pilot research and development project into a commercial entity over a span of 15 years. The challenges and accomplishments of the
company are highlighted starting with the development of the technologies for in-vitro culture of any selected teak genotype regardless of ortet age, to the
ex-vitro acclimatization of plants to the field-ready stage, leading finally to the exportation of teak plants to many tropical and sub-tropical countries across
the globe. YSG Biotech is a pioneer in many aspects of the mass production and exportation of teak planting materials, making it one of a very few existing
companies that has managed to sustain its core activity against numerous odds. With a collection of one of the broadest known teak genetics in the world,
the company today stands as one of the most reputable supplier of quality clonal teak. In turn, this has allowed the establishment of clonal teak plantations
on a large scale in buyer countries, thus bringing the potential of overcoming teak timber shortage in the world market much closer to reality.
Keywords: Teak clones, tissue culture plants, exportation, clonal teak plantations
Doreen K. S. Goh
YSG Biotech Sdn Bhd., Yayasan Sabah Group
Voluntary Association Complex
Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
44
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Towards Securing Geographical Indicator Status for Nilambur Teak – the Wood Quality Perspective
E.V. Anoop, C.R. Elsy, M.C. Anish and R. Vishnu
Geographical indications are names used to identify the place of origin and quality, reputation or other characteristics of products that are unique to the
place. The GI tag is a mechanism instituted by the World Trade Organization (WTO) of the UN to prevent unfair competition in trade where the public can be
mislead about the real origin of goods. Nilambur Teak, which is a name instantly recognized by connoisseurs of teak around the world will soon be protected
against unauthorized labeling. Efforts are on to get the name registered as a Geographical Indication (GI). The Kerala Agricultural University (KAU) along with
the local self-government at Nilambur, the Kerala Forest Department, Kerala Forest Research Institute and the GI Registry, Chennai recently took an initiative
for the registration of the Nilambur variety of Teak or Malabar Teak, which enjoys a world-wide reputation for the log dimensions and desired wood figure.
Nilambur holds a special status as the home of the world’s first commercial teak plantation established in 1840’s. The Conolly’s plot and the Chathu Menon
plot remain preserved to this day and attract tourists from far and wide. In this connection, a study was undertaken at the department of Wood Science,
College of Forestry to compare wood quality of Nilambur teak with that of important provenances from within the country as well as abroad. Wood quality
parameters like specific gravity, resistance to deformation, heartwood color and total extractive content were found to be superior for Nilambur teak, apart
from qualitative characters such as the golden brown heart wood, attractive figure and straight grain. Findings from previous studies using AFLP markers had
indicated that natural teak population of Nilambur population had a separate genetic identity among southern western ghats populations matching with its
popularly known phenotypic identity and wood quality. The GI tag ensures that the product name can be used only by those who are authorized as the
beneficiaries. Developing technologies to trace timbers to its geographical region of origin assumes importance in this context. The GI registration will give
growers and users of Nilambur teak the legal right to exclusive use. It is expected to encourage more people to take up teak planting and improve the
prosperity of the region through export of teak timber.
Keywords: Geographical Indicator, Nilambur teak, wood quality, GI registry
E.V. Anoop, M.C. Anish and R. Vishnu
Department of Wood Science
College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University
Kerala, India
Email: [email protected]
C.R. Elsy
Intellectual Property Rights Cell
College of Horticulture
Kerala Agricultural University
Kerala, India
45
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
SESSION III
Management Models for Different Value Chains
Including Small Holder Forestry
46
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Thematic Keynote
Enhancing Key Elements of the Value Chains for Plantation-Grown Teak Wood in Lao PDR
Henri Bailleres, Barbara Ozarska and Lathsamy Boupha
Laos has an emerging forest plantation industry, based on both smallholder and corporate growers. The Lao PDR Forestry Strategy to 2020 envisages a
substantial forest plantation estate, with a target of a total of 500,000 hectares of tree plantations. Plantations and planted trees have the capacity to provide
significant financial benefits to Lao PDR, and to smallholder growers. The plantation resource could have an annual farm gate value of $197 million at full
production and will offer further value through primary and secondary wood processing. However, there are many challenges, constraints and opportunities
which need to be addressed in order to maximise returns to smallholders and support the development of competitive value-added wood industries.
Although the Lao timber industry has grown rapidly over the past three decades, the export value of finished wood products has been very low compared to
that of squared logs or basic sawnwood. Research and development is needed in the value-adding wood processing and manufacturing sector to assist in the
production of high value wood products such as furniture and flooring. To meet these research needs the Australian Centre for International Agricultural
Research (ACIAR) in conjunction with 14 partner organisations from Lao PDR and Australia are funding a project titled Enhancing key elements of the value
chains for plantation-grown wood in Lao PDR. It is a four-year project spanning years 2012 to 2016.
The overall aim is to improve livelihoods for farmers and processing workers and the international competitiveness of Lao PDR wood industries through
improved efficiency of key elements of the planted wood value chain. Specific objectives are to (1) Address constraints and inefficiencies in the value chain,
from harvest to processor stages, that limit returns to smallholder growers; (2) Increase returns to processors and smallholders through improved efficiencies
of the primary wood processing sector; (3) Improve the value and quality of wood products for domestic and export markets; (4) Enhance the
competitiveness and capacity of wood processing industries. The current primary wood processing practices and efficiencies in Lao companies have been
identified and characterised through a series of onsite surveys. Further studies provides a broad assessment of opportunities to improve current primary
wood processing practices and efficiencies in order to optimise the research direction required for subsequent activities.
Henri Bailleres
Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
Horticulture & Forestry Science, Agri-Science
Queensland, Australia
Email: [email protected]
Barbara Ozarska
Department of Forest and Ecosystem Science
The University of Melbourne
Australia
Lathsamy Boupha
Faculty of Forestry,
National University of Laos
Vientiane Capital
Lao PDR
47
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Models of Smallholder Teak Production in Indonesia: the Emerging Dominant Value Chain
James M Roshetko, Gerhard Sabastian, Aulia Perdana, Dede Rohadi and Philip Manalu
Teak (Tectona grandis) was introduced to the Indonesian archipelago from India in as early as the second century. The species has become widely
naturalized, with most people believing it to be indigenous. Indonesia is the second largest producer of teak in the world. Originally teak and other forest
resources were controlled by Javanese sultans. During its period of dominance, the Dutch East India Company (1619-1796) gained control over the teak
resource as a means to maintain the global dominance of its navy. In the early 1800s, the Dutch government assumed direct control over the colony. While
control of teak was initially weak, between 1870 and 1934 central authority over all teak resources was firmly re-established. Following independence, the
government of Indonesia established a state-owned forest enterprise to control and manage the nation’s teak resources. While restrictions remain,
individuals and other parties own the teak grown on their land. Managing plots of less than a hectare, farmers have become a major supplier of teak timber
to Indonesia’s furniture industry. On Java alone, approximately 1.5 million farm families manage 444,000 ha of teak-based farming systems. Farmers cultivate
teak in four models of systems Tegalan (mixed tree annual crop systems), Pekarangan (homegardens), Kitren (teak-dominated woodlots), and line plantings
(on agriculture land). Species composition, tree density, management intensity and location differ between the systems. Household and farm characteristics
also affect the type of system that developed. Marketing strategies and economic and financial return vary by system. This paper details the difference
between the models of smallholder teak production systems, as well as, a historical evolution between the models. Recommendations are provided regarding
how to move from the current low input timber production systems towards more intensive, market oriented systems.
Keywords: smallholder farmers, timber production and marketing, intercropping, alternative livelihood strategies
James M Roshetko, Gerhard Sabastian and Aulia Perdana
World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)
PO Box 161, Bogor 16001, Jawa Barat
Indonesia
Email: [email protected]
Dede Rohadi and Philip Manalu
Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)
Jl CIFOR, Situ Gede, Sindang Barang
Bogor 16115, Jawa Barat
Indonesia
48
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Modelling a Planning and Management System for Industrial Forest Plantations
María A. Quintero and Mauricio Jerez
A multi-objective forest planning model was developed for optimizing timber production and carbon sequestration on industrial scale forest plantations in
Venezuela. The model integrates two operational scales: the stand level and the forest level (multiple stands). At stand level, a growth and yield simulator
with a heuristic thinning optimizer finds a set of near optimal thinning regimes and rotation ages for individual stands differing on initial spacing and site
quality, given a set of biological, silvicultural, and financial constraints. Then, a forest-level model assigns and integrates the best regimes. The output is a
harvest plan indicating which and how stands should be thinned or cut in each year of a planning period. Because of the system complexity, classical
mathematical programming approaches were not feasible; therefore, Genetic Algorithms and Simulated Annealing heuristics were used to find solutions at
both levels. Experimentation for obtaining optimal harvest plans was done on hypothetical teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) plantations with up to 10.000 ha and
200 stands. The potential for CO2 sequestration and the average time carbon remains stored on the various biomass components before returning to the
atmosphere were estimated based on data from existing literature. Spatial constraints were indirectly considered. The heuristic approach allowed a quick
analysis of interactions among management regimes, timber yield, and carbon sequestration, as solutions were obtained in very short time, independently of
problem size. The results indicate that the objectives of timber production and carbon sequestration are in conflict, and that regimes that increase carbon
sequestration, reduce the benefits of timber production. A sensitivity analysis showed that the system is very sensitive to variables related to stand growth
rates; moderately sensible to interest rates and production quotas; and barely sensible to harvest and transport costs. The generic nature of the model allows
easy modification and calibration.
María A. Quintero and Mauricio Jerez
Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales Universidad de Los Andes,
Mérida, 5101
Venezuela
Email: [email protected]
49
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Promoting Teak Plantation Development in Uganda: Analysis of the Sawlog Production Grant Scheme (SPGS) Model for
Community-based Management of Planted Teak Forests
Bedijo Nelly Grace and Walter Mapanda
Different models of community forestry management have been implemented in various parts of the world including Uganda. A unique approach to
community forestry development which involves payment of retrospective and conditional plantation establishment and maintenance grant was developed in
Uganda in 2004 under the management of Sawlog Production Grant Scheme (SPGS). Since inception, 47,000 hectares have been planted by 400 private
growers spread throughout the country. SPGS is a government institution, funded by the European Union, and the Governments of Norway and Uganda.
Major hindrances to community forestry development identified are: Limited capital, lack of knowledge and skills, lack of improved planting material, land
and limited access to information. The Government of Uganda together with SPGS have been successful in addressing some of these challenges. The model
incorporates most categories of tree growers in a community setting each playing a unique role in the forestry sector. SPGS contracted clients receive a
retrospective subsidy, which covers 50% of the establishment cost. Practical field based training courses for forest supervisors, managers, contractors and
investors to impart skills and knowledge and acquire positive attitudes in forestry have been institutionalised. Guidelines, standards and a quarterly
newsletter have been developed. In addition, the contracted clients are visited regularly for technical guidance onsite.
Success of the SPGS model is attributed to its commercial and result oriented approach, a high level of autonomy, where the government has less
intervention on the operations, a team of young, motivated, commercially focused staff. 90% of the funds are allocated to the actual tree planting ventures
with only 10% to administrative costs, making it a very cost-effective model. This paper calls for urgent need for supportive policies among donors and a
sustained promotion of the model, which might be the best incentive option to ensure profitable community forestry investments.
Bedijo Nelly Grace and Walter Mapanda
Sawlog Production Grant Scheme
P.O. Box 5244, Kampala
Uganda
Email: [email protected],[email protected]
50
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Simulador de crecimiento y secuestro de carbono para plantaciones de teca
Ana Quevedo, Mauricio Jerez , María Quintero and Ana Moret
La simulación es una herramienta de gran valor en la investigación ambiental, ecológica y forestal; y en los procesos de toma de decisiones para el manejo de
recursos ambientales. Los modelos de simulación permiten representar la complejidad de diversos procesos e integrar la información de numerosas
investigaciones en un único sistema que puede utilizarse para predecir su estado futuro y evaluar el efecto de alternativas de decisión. Se creó un prototipo
de simulador del crecimiento y rendimiento para plantaciones de teca (Tectona grandis) basado en un sistema de ecuaciones diferenciales bajo el enfoque de
espacio de estados. El simulador se implementó en SIMILE v. 6.0, un lenguaje de simulación visual, ye fue utilizado para analizar el crecimiento de las
plantaciones, su volumen aprovechable, y la capacidad de secuestro de carbono en respuesta a escenarios de manejo silvicultural: calidad de sitio,
espaciamiento inicial y régimen de aclareo. El simulador desarrollado mediante el lenguaje visual es útil particularmente para propósitos educativos, al
facilitar la experimentación de alternativas que incluyen la producción de madera y el secuestro de carbono permitiendo analizar muchos escenarios
simultáneamente y representarlos espacialmente, examinar el efecto de cambios en los parámetros del modelo, el examen de los supuestos, la calidad de los
datos, el enfoque de construcción, la eficiencia de los algoritmos de computación y la calidad de las predicciones.
Ana Quevedo, Mauricio Jerez, María Quintero and Ana Moret
Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales,
Universidad de Los Andes,
Mérida, 5101
Venezuela
Email:[email protected]
51
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Future perspectives of TEAKNET
Sreelakshmy. M. P and Thulasidas. P.K
TEAKNET, established in 1995, is an international network of institutions and individuals interested in teak. Its members are mostly growers, traders and
researchers apart from policy makers and others who have a profound interest in teak. TEAKNET was established to address the issues of the global teak
sector. The goal of TEAKNET is to transform the global teak sector from its current suboptimal state to that of a dynamic entity for the benefit of all
stakeholders of the sector. Its mode of operation is through collective discussions and persistent follow up actions. Issues are identified through periodical
workshops and meetings of the stakeholders. The most basic activity of TEAKNET is information exchange which is achieved through its website
www.teaknet.org and the TEAKNET Bulletin. The members have certain additional privileges with respect to access to information supplied by the
organization. Apart from the networking, TEAKNET also undertakes much promotional activities on teak and its products. By linking the various institutions
across the world, the network really acts like a virtual research and development organization for the species. This approach is designed to develop
appropriate future perspectives and plans for the organization based on the expectations of the stakeholders.
Sreelakshmy. M.P and Thulasidas. P.K
TEAKNET (International Teak Information Network)
Kerala Forest Research Institute
Peechi - 680653
India
Email: [email protected]
52
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
SESSION IV
Teak Plantation Management and Environmental Protection
53
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Thematic Keynote
Teak Plantations Embedded in the Natural Landscape
Hans Lemm
Globally, natural forests are under pressure whilst demand for fibre is set to continue to grow in the near and long term. Ultimately, this will result in an ever
increasing imbalance in supply and demand that can only be curbed by expanding, high-productivity forest plantations.Softwoods, acacia, eucalyptus and
other forest plantations have taken on an increasingly dominant role in the global supply of industrial lumber and fibre; there has been relatively little
progress made in the replacement of natural hardwoods for decorative use.
Teak is widely recognized as a premier hardwood and one of the few species that can be commercially grown in plantations. As a result of its relatively high
value compared to other plantation species, teak plantations can be viable on a much smaller scale than, for instance, pine or eucalyptus plantations and thus
avoiding some of the social and environmental conflicts associated with large-scale, greenfield forest plantations.
The Kilombero Valley Teak Company has developed a landscape approach where, a relatively small area of land has been set aside for commercial plantation
development whilst the balance of its landholding has been dedicated to conservation management. Although for many years, this approach has been seen as
controversial by the environmental community it is now gaining recognition as a model for integrated plantation and conservation projects. The landscape
approach adopted by KVTC is now seen as a new plantation model for Africa.
Keywords: Plantation Teak, Environment, Landscape, Deforestation
Hans Lemm
Kilombero Valley Teak Company
PO Box 12452, Dar es Salaam,
Tanzania
Email: [email protected]
54
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Key Factors for Optimizing Teak Growth -a Case Study in Tangara da Serra, Brazil
Luit Smit and Evaldo Oestrich Filho
This paper presents a case study of commercial teak plantations located in Tangara da Serra, in the cental-western part of the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso.
The latitude is 14° South, altitude varies from 200-350 m.a.s.l, and the annual rainfall is around 2000 mm, with 4 months of dry season. The excellent growth
figures of this specific teak project with a mean annual increment of 25-30 m3/ha/year are highlighted, and the key factors for such growth optimization are
discussed.
Graphs of growth are presented based on the performance of conventional planting material after 16 years of inventory as well as the performance of clonal
material compared to conventional planting material after 8 years, on 4 different soil types. The influences of soil characteristics and corrective fertilizer
applications are explained, as well as the importance of soil moisture retention capacity. The phenological differences between traditional seedling planting
stock and clonal materials are highlighted.
The role of key factors for plantation forest management such as good initial establishment, weed control, proper pruning, and timely thinning is also
discussed. The conclusion is that optimal growth of teak depends upon a conjunction of favourable factors. When one of these factors is not optimal, growth
can be seriously affected.
Luit Smit and Evaldo Oestrich Filho
Tectona Agroflorestal Ltda
Brazil
Email: [email protected]
55
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Plagas y enfermedades en plantaciones de teca (Tectona grandis L.f.) en Centroamérica – Nuevos reportes
Marcela Arguedas, María Rodríguez and Mario Guevara
La teca (Tectona grandis L.f.) es una de las especies mayormente usadas en reforestación en las regiones tropicales. Durante los últimos diez años,
plantaciones comerciales de T. grandis en la región centroamericana han sido inspeccionadas para la determinación de herbívoros y fitopatógenos asociados
a la especie. Se han identificado 57 especies de insectos, 34 de patógenos, cinco de vertebrados (Campephilus principales, Odocoileus virginianus,
Orthogeomys underwoodii, Sciurus spp. y Sigmodon hispidus), el ácaro Tetranychus sp. (Tetranychydae, Acari) y el muérdago (Struthanthus cf leptostachyus).
Durante los años 2013-2014, en el departamento del Petén, Guatemala se presentaron defoliaciones muy severas causadas por Schitocerca peceifrons
(Acridae, Orthoptera). Es una especie con comportamientos solitarios o gregarios. Los daños en el follaje de T. grandis lo producen en su forma gregaria, en la
cual las mangas alcanzaron hasta 500 m de ancho y se alimentan tanto de esta especie forestal como cultivos agrícolas, especialmente el maíz.
Aparentemente presentan dos generaciones por año. La hembra oviposita en el suelo en grupos de hasta 100 individuos dentro de una vaina, las ninfas
requieren de 45 días para alcanzar la fase adulta; los adultos alcanzan los 6 cm de largo, de colores brillantes, principalmente amarillo o pardo rosáceo con
manchas negras. También en el follaje se reporta por primera vez una larva de una especie no identificada del género Acharia y manchas producidas por las
“cenicillas polvorientas” (Oidium sp.).
En las inspecciones de los últimos tres años, se observa un incremento en la severidad del ataque de las bacterias Erwinia en plántulas y Ralstonia en árboles
recién establecidos. En follaje defoliaciones por los lepidópteros Hyblaea puera (Hyblaeidae) y Oxidia spp. (Geometridae) y el coleóptero Walteraniella sp.
(Chrysomelidae) y la “roya de la teca” (Olivea tectonae); en el fuste de árboles jóvenes el “cancro rosado” (Erythricium salmonicolor) y a nivel de raíz la
pudrición producida por Dematophora sp.
Marcela Arguedas, María Rodríguez and Mario Guevara
Escuela de Ingeniería Forestal
Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Email: [email protected]
56
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Aumento de la productividad de plantaciones establecidas de Tectona grandis en sitios marginales mediante el
mejoramiento de las condiciones físicas y químicas del suelo
Mario Guevara, Elemer Briceño, Dagoberto Arias, Edwin Esquivel y Adrián Chavarría
La disponibilidad de tierras para el cultivo de teca (Tectona grandis) en la zona norte de Costa Rica, por lo general tienen limitaciones físicas y químicas que en
muchas ocasiones impiden el buen crecimiento de los árboles. Ante esta problemática surge la necesidad de realizar estudios que proporcionen posibles
soluciones y que permitan recuperar la productividad de plantaciones en sitios marginales. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo mejorar la productividad
de plantaciones ya establecidas, mediantes el mejoramiento de las propiedades del suelo. Se estableció un diseño experimental de tres bloques completos al
azar con arreglo factorial y ocho tratamientos que combina el efecto de tres niveles de labranza (sin labranza, labranza a 25 y 50 cm de profundidad) y tres
"intensidades" de implementos de labranza, usando un arado de cincel con 1, 3 y 5 púas. Los primeros resultados indican que los tratamientos no se han
diferenciado entre sí con respecto al incremento en diámetro y altura.Esto posiblemente a que debe darse más tiempo para que las diferencias puedan
apreciarse. Sin embargo, se observa un crecimiento radical debido al efecto de la aplicación de los tratamientos. Además no se evidenció la presencia de
plagas o enfermedades producto de la poda radical realizada.
Palabras clave: Plantaciones forestales, productividad, Propiedades físico-químicas, Tectona grandis
Mario Guevara, Elemer Briceño, Dagoberto Arias, Edwin Esquivel y Adrián Chavarría
Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica Escuela Ingeniería Forestal
Costa Rica
E-mail: [email protected]
57
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Teak Seedlings Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms in a Hydroponic System Correlated with Near-infrared Spectroscopy (NIR)
Models
Andrew Whittier
Growers working with teak seedlings in nursery settings often encounter issues related to incorrect nutrition. In order to monitor the growth of individual
seedlings with respect to nutrition issues, a study was initiated looking at the symptoms of twelve macro and micro nutrient deficiencies and toxicities on
hydroponically grown teak seedlings. Preliminary studies were conducted to determine ideal hydroponic solution strength, pH level, and buffer solution for
hydroponically growing teak seedlings. This research was done in preparation for the nutrition study.
In the larger symptomology experiment, seedlings were grown in greenhouses in both a conventional liquid hydroponic setup and in sand culture hydroponics
in order to investigate the efficacy of each system. In the sand culture hydroponic experiment, significant differences in height were observed at eight weeks.
The most dramatic differences in height occurred between control seedlings and those grown without one of the macronutrients. Additional teak seedlings
were also grown in sand under varying levels of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium in order to investigate whether Near Infrared Spectroscopy models
could be developed that accurately determine levels of these nutrients in seedling foliage. Near Infrared models were developed using both a handheld
Microphazir NIR scanner on fresh leaves and with dried ground leaves in the laboratory with Foss NIR 6500 machine. Both systems were investigated in order
to compare the accuracy of the less expensive and more efficient handheld machine withthat of the more intensive wet-laboratory module. Results from all
sections of this study will be incorporated into a guide that provides growers with a suite of tools to accurately diagnose issues with their seedlings.
Andrew Whittier
Camcore
College of Natural Resources,
North Carolina State University
USA
Email: [email protected]
58
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Long-Term Assessment on the Growth and Yield of 15-year-old Plantation-Grown Teak (Tectona grandis) in Tawau,
Malaysia
Ahmad Zuhaidi Y
The paper highlights the achieved stand growth and yield, and comparison on the field performance of plantation-grown teak (Tectona grandis) in two
different sites in Tawau, Sabah, Malaysia. Both sites were generally of volcanic soil origin, and at 15 years after planting, site A with sandy loam and high sand
content has lower growth and yield as compared tosite B comprising loamy soil with a fair amount of silt. During this period, a low thinning was conducted in
the 8th year by removing 20−25% of the remaining standing trees. At age 15, the achieved volume ha-1 in both sites was 144.51 and 206.06 m3ha-1equivalents
to an average annual volume increment of 9.63 and 13.74 m3ha-1year-1. Subsequent assessment on the measured growth, the average diameter of dominant
trees (100 biggest trees ha-1) in both sites was 24.4 and 28.0 cm while the average stand diameter at breast height was 17.2 and 18.8 cm, respectively. As the
stands were managed for sawlogs in 15 year rotation, the average merchantable and total height varies from 18.7 to 24.2 m in site A, while 20.0 to 30.6 m in
site B. Despite having the information obtained from two localized sites, the results show the effects of ecological and sites requirement of the species for
higher growth and yield as compared with some planted stands in different soils types in the country. The observation from this long-term assessment
demonstratesthe potential growth and yield of teak and the need to evaluate the proposed rotation length andsite suitability for commercial production of
logs.
Ahmad Zuhaidi Y
Forest Research Institute Malaysia, 52109 Kepong, Selangor,
Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
59
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Fire Management at Kilombero Valley Teak Company in Tanzania
L. Viljoen, A. Callister and H. Lemm
The Kilombero Valley Teak Company (‘KVTC’) is an integrated forestry operation consistingof 8,000ha of teak plantation, 20,000ha of natural woodland, a
sawmill and remanufacturing plant.Due to the geographic and social settings, the company has had a history of fires originating in surrounding (farming)
communities as well as on its own land as a result of poorly managed fires by communities, pastoralists using fire to stimulate grass growth as well as hunters
using fire as a tool for hunting. Little information is available on the effects of fire on wood properties, apart from reports that examined wood quality from
old-age teak plantations that experienced many uncontrolled conditions such as fire and found wood quality to be acceptable. . The authors are not aware of
any reports that draws a direct linkage between fire and degrade of wood properties.
Observations in KVTC’s plantations do not show any direct correlation between reduced growth, decreased wood quality and other quality parameters. The
only observation that was made is a slightly higher occurrence of heart rot in areas that have been frequently hit by fires. Despite the lack of scientific
evidence, company management believes that fires are detrimental for growth of teak plantations and can result in increased pests and diseases. KVTC has
taken the approach that fire should be avoided in its plantations. In 2011, a complete review of the fire management practices at KVTC was undertaken which
results in several measures that range from social interventions and revised silviculture measures to better equipped, fire-fighting teams in the plantations. By
2014, fires hadbeen brought back to an acceptable levels showing the success of management’s interventions. This paper provides an overview of the various
interventions and can serve as a tool for companies and tree farmers on how to manage fires in and around their plantations.
Keywords:Fire, Plantation Teak, Damage, Final Crop, Economics
L. Viljoen, A. Callister and H. Lemm
Kilombero Valley Teak Company
PO Box 12452, Dar es Salaam
Tanzania
Email: [email protected]
60
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Wind Damage was related to Thinning Intensity in a 10 year-old Teak Plantation
Geoff Smith
Wind damage is common in plantations and Northern Australia is subject to strong winds even many kilometres inland. Scotts tree plantation is 80km from
the coast at Kunnunurra in the East Kimberley, NW Western Australia where wind gusts can be over 100km/hr during summer months. A 10 year old teak
plantation was thinned to three residual stockings: 125, 250 and 650 trees per hectare in a randomised complete block design. One year after thinning, there
were clear growth differences related to thinning, however, these were confounded by wind damage that was also related to thinning intensity. Greatest
damage was in the 125 trees per hectare treatment where 50 trees per hectare had broken trunks. The 250 trees per hectare had only 30 trees per hectare
broken, while the unthinned 650 trees per hectare treatment had only 15 trees per hectare damaged. Damage was due to broken trunks rather than
uprooting. The damage was unrelated to height diameter ratio as the largest diameter trees were those retained after thinning. Thinning to stockings below
300 trees per hectare can result in significant stand damage.
Geoff Smith
University of New England
Armidale 2351 NSW
Australia
Email: [email protected]
61
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Abstracts
Poster Presentations
62
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
SESSION II
GENETICS, TREE IMPROVEMENT, SILVICULTURE AND
WOOD QUALITY
63
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
El programa clonal de Teca en Ecuador
Fernando Montenegro
NeoFORESTS desarrolla un programa de reproducción clonal en Ecuador desde fines 2007. Se han identificado sobre 210 Ortetos entre 9 y 31 años en 16
fincas con plantaciones de Teca distribuidas en las provincias de Pichincha, Santo Domingo de los Colorados, Esmeraldas, Manabi, Los Rios, y Guayas que han
sido preparados para obtener explantes y reproducirlos mediante la técnica de cultivo de tejidos in vitro.
A la fecha se han reproducidos comercialmente 9 clones, terminando los protocolos otros 14 clones, otros 17 estan en distintas etapas, en total se han
introducido al laboratorio 40 clones. Ensayos y pequeñas plantaciones se iniciaron en 2012, en el 2013 se plantaron 19000 rametos y 40000 en 2014. Los
rametos en campo presentan un crecimiento precoz y buena salubridad con un fenotipo peculiar.
Palabras claves: Clones, Cultivo de tejidos, Teca, clones, plantaciones, Ecuador
Fernando Montenegro
Neoforests
Ecuador
E-mail: [email protected]
64
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Study on Seedling Growth Traits, Photosynthetic Characteristics and Influencing Factors in Teak (Tectona grandis Linn.)
Clones
Guihua Huang,Kunnan Liang,Zaizhi Zhou,Huaming Ma
The growth traits, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of teak clones and CK seedlings (clone from seed orchard) were measured and
evaluated. The influencing ecological factors of net photosynthetic rate were also analysed. The results showed that there were abundant genetic variation in
gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and growth traits in teak clones. The genotypes 7029, 71-5, 7219, 7412 and 7122 had relatively higher photosynthetic
efficiency, and provenances 3070, 3074 and 3071 could be considered with higher photosynthetic efficiency. Germplasm resources from India and low
longitude and latitude had higher photosynthesticefficiency and should be paid more attention in future teak breeding. Photosynthesis rate had significant
positive correlation with seedling height. Photosynthesis rate (Pn), actual quantum yield of photosystem II centers (Yield), quantum efficiency of photosystem
II centers (Fv/Fm) and stomatal conductance (Gs) were expected to be applicable for the evaluation of photosynthetic efficiency in teak resources.
The results also indicated that the curves of diurnal variations of net photosynthetic rate for teak clones had one single peak curve in June at Guangzhou
China, while it showed two-peak curves with “photosynthetic midday depression” in August and October. The average net photosynthetic rate of teak was
October>June>August. Photosynthetic available radiation (PAR) had great significant positive correlation with net photosynthetic rate, high temperature in
June and August had great significant depressing effect to net photosynthetic rate.
Guihua Huang, Kunnan Liang, Zaizhi Zhou and Huaming Ma
Research Institute of Tropical Forestry
Chinese Academy of Forestry
Guangdong
China
Email: [email protected]
65
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Growth of Teak (Tectona grandis L. f) in the Dry Tropics of Nicaragua
Haninec P, Maděra P, Smola M, Cafourek J, Střítecký J, Habrová H, Šenfeldr M, Úradníček L, Rajnoch M, Pavliš J, Šmudla R, Trojan V, Jelínek P,
Jelínek B, Úradníček L and Gryc V.
The present study provides an overview of production characteristics of a teak plantation established near Diriamba in Nicaragua in an area with precipitation
1400 mm and the length of dry season (six months) at the bottom limit of the species tolerance. The production characteristics of one to nine years old stands
are based on four-year repeated measurements on permanent research plots. There were 143 research plots; each of them contained 100 trees. The GBH,
tree height, stem height, radial and height increment was evaluated, as well as the basal area and stem volume were calculated. The results allowed us to
define the 4th site class of teak. These natural conditions can simulate the influence of global ecological changes on future growth of teak in recently better
conditions.
Haninec P, Maděra P, Smola M, Cafourek J, Střítecký J, Habrová H, Šenfeldr M, Úradníček L, Rajnoch M, Pavliš J, Šmudla R, Trojan V, Jelínek P, Jelínek B,
Úradníček L and Gryc V.
Mendel University
Brno Zemědělská 1
Czech Republic
Email: [email protected]
66
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Effect of Tree Spacing on Swelling Properties of Teak wood (Tectona grandis L.f.) from central-west region of Brazil
João Vicente de Figueiredo Latorraca, Roger E. Hernández and Bruna Ugulino
Knowledge of wood properties like its swelling behaviour, as a result of changes in its moisture content, helps to ensure a successful use of wood for a given
purpose. Also, it is known that the variation in wood properties within and between trees is affected by silvicultural management like tree spacing. This study,
therefore, deals with the swelling behaviour of both sapwood and heartwood in the longitudinal, tangential and radial directions of teak trees grew under
three different spacing treatments (6x2, 5x2 and 4x2m) in the central-west region of Brazil. For this purpose, three disks (dbh) for each treatment were cut in
forty-two samples (twenty one for heartwood and sapwood, respectively) of 20 x 20 x 60 mm (R x T x L) and stored in a conditioning room at 20°C; 60% RH.
Dimensional changes and swelling coefficients were measured on each sample under five moisture conditions (0% RH, 30% RH, 60% RH, 85% RH and
saturated). The swelling was different among the two types of wood, being nearly twice as greater in sapwood than in heartwood under all sorption
conditions. The results indicated that planting density influenced the variability of wood in radial, tangential and volumetric shrinkage. The closer spacing
showed the lowest swelling values than the other treatments. However, tree spacing had no significant effect on longitudinal shrinkage for sapwood and
heartwood.
Keywords: tree spacing, teak, wood swelling
João Vicente de Figueiredo Latorraca
Department of Forest Products
Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro
Seropédica (RJ)
Brazil
Email: [email protected]
Roger E. Hernández
Département des Sciences du Bois et de la Forêt
Pavillon Gene-H.-Kruger
Université Laval. Québec (QC)
Canada
Bruna Ugulino
Département des Sciences du Bois et de la Forêt
Pavillon Gene-H.-Kruger
Université Laval. Québec (QC)
Canada
67
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
The Reproduction System of Teak (Tectona grandis): Flowering Phenology in a Clonal Seed Orchard Population in Java,
Indonesia
Sinan Hagenah
Teak (Tectona grandis) production forest in Indonesia covers an area of approximately 1.6 million ha and commonly occurs in monospecific, even-aged
stands. The main part of these planted forests (1.1 million ha) is managed by the state-owned forestry company Perum Perhutani on the islands of Java and
Madura. The management system of Perum Perhutani prescribes that harvested compartments are replanted with seedlings from tree nurseries, with about
70% of the reproductive material originating from three Clonal Seed Orchards (CSO) of mostly identical clonal composition. The extend of standing genetic
variation in these CSO populations and the share of genetic variation that is inherited to their progeny during reproduction, thus decide to a considerable
degree on the genetic constitution of teak plantations of Perum Perhutani. The flowering phenology is an important aspect of the reproduction system of
teak, since the timing and intensity of flowering of tree individuals affects mating likelihoods and in this way the formation of genetic structures in the
progeny generation.
We studied the flowering phenology in a population of 420 trees in one of the three CSOs mentioned above. The beginning and end of flowering per tree as
well as individual flowering intensity was measured throughout the flowering phase from January until April of 2014 by counting the number of inflorescence
per tree repetitively. A characterization of flowering patterns in the CSO population shall show whether positive assortative mating can be expected from a
phenological point of view, with possible implications for the design and management of propagation populations, in particular CSOs.
Sinan Hagenah
Section Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Breeding, Göttingen University
Büsgenweg 2 · D-37077
Göttingen · Germany
Email: [email protected]
68
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Genetics of Growth in Teak CSO Families and Provenances in Two Contrasted Tropical Sites
Roberto Bacilieri, Doreen K S Goh, Gilles Chaix and Olivier Monteuuis
Teak is diploid (2n=36), has a small genome (480Mpb), and display a high level of heterozygosity (more than 70% in the less depleted forests), all favorable
traits for improvement through selection and breeding. In spite of the interest of teak for the world market, R&D efforts in teak genetic improvement are still
rare. As a result, forest companies still have little choice for their investment in genetically superior materials.
As a first step towards a better exploitation of teak genetic potential, we tested 16 families derived from a clonal seed orchard (CSO) and 10 common
provenances (Prov) of teak in two different tropical sites, a) to compare, in a statistically sound experiment, the provenances among them and with the CSO
families and, b) to estimate the heritability of growth traits and the genetic gains that can be expected via breeding.
Both sites are located in Sabah, East Malaysia. For the statistical analysis we used a mixed model accounting for spatial variation. Nine years after planting,
the two genetic entries, CSO and Prov, showed highly significant differences for height, DBH and volume in both sites. The superiority of the CSO families
compared with the Prov class was large for volume production, resulting in an advantage of +67.9% and +40.3% in Luasong and Taliwas, respectively.
Narrow‐sense heritabilities for the 16 CSO families were larger for height (0.38) and volume (0.23). These promising results will translate in even better
outcomes in the field, once geneticists will be able to concomitantly deal with the improvement of stem form, wood quality and tolerance to biotic and
abiotic stresses.
In combination with the deployment of new modern DNA technologies, these favourable traits should make teak genetic improvement through selection and
breeding attainable and effective with a reasonable R&D investment.
Roberto Bacilieri
INRA-CIRAD-SUPAGRO
Genetic Improvement and Adaptation of
Mediterranean and Tropical Plants
Montpellier, France
Email: [email protected]
Doreen K S Goh
YSG Biotech Sdn Bhd
Yayasan Sabah Group
Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
Malaysia
Gilles Chaix and Olivier Monteuuis
CIRAD - BIOS Department
UMR AGAP, ESALQ USP
Piracicaba-SP
Brazil
69
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Genetic Improvement of Teak in India for Growth and Timber Quality
Ashwani Kumar
India has around 6.8 million hectares of natural teak-bearing forests and about 1.7 million hectares of plantations. It has a wide but discontinuous
distribution from about 8 to 24 oN latitudes covering a range of climatic and soil conditions. It occurs in areas receiving rainfall as low as 700 mm to more
than 3000 mm. Expectedly teak in India shows a large amount of variation in terms of growth, stem form, wood quality and vegetative and reproductive
phenology. Teak populations are recognized as dry, semi-moist and moist subtypes based on the environmental conditions and tree characteristics. Several
studies have shown a genetic basis for this observed variation and India is generally regarded as the centre of diversity for teak. Most of the introductions of
teak outside its natural distribution range were made with Indian provenances and they showed the best growth in many international provenance trials
particularly in central and South America. Despite the large area under teak forests and plantations, India is one of the largest importers of tropical timber
particularly teak. The forest policy adopted during the last three decades gave more emphasis to conservation of natural forests than timber extraction. The
steady economic growth during the same period resulted in increased timber demand and heavy imports to meet the demand. Research on increasing
plantation productivity started with the launching of teak improvement progamme in 1962 with selection of plus trees, establishment of seed orchards and
seed production areas. Significant achievements have been made in developing fast-growing clones with high timber quality and cost-effective clonal
technology, tissue culture, improving seed production in orchards and understanding the genetic structure of Indian teak populations and the patterns of
inheritance for growth and wood traits. Alongside silvicultural improvements like clonal plantation establishment, agroforestry models, managing soil fertility
after successive rotations and reduction in harvest age have also been attempted. This paper reviews the progress made in these recent initiatives and
presents a strategy for sustaining them in the future.
Ashwani Kumar
Director General
Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education
Dehradun-248006 , India
E-mail: [email protected]
70
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Ring-width Variability and Growth Rate of Natural Teak Provenances from India
P.K. Thulasidas and E.P. Indira
In India, teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) is distributed naturally in the peninsular region below 24o latitude over a wide range of climatic and geographic conditions.
This paper evaluates growth-ring variability of natural teak provenances from 23 geographic locations of India covering the dry and moist deciduous forests of
10 Indian States. A total of 150 samples from 82 trees of various ages were collected from dbh level and analysed. The collected samples were grouped into
five age groups viz; G I (upto 24 yrs); II (25-34 yrs); III (35-44 yrs); IV (45-54 yrs) and V (>55 yrs). The ANOVA revealed that ring-width differed significantly
between the 23 provenances and it varied within the age groups ((P≤0.01). The dbh increased with age and the mean ring width (growth rate) decreased after
initial increase up to age class II, showing its consistent relationship with age of the tree rather than the growth rate, in later years. For a given age class,
Nilambur provenance from Kerala shows higher dbh (72.5 cm) with wider growth rings (7.6 mm) followed by other provenance from south Indian States. The
study proved that the South Indian teak provenances showed superior wood quality attributes as well as growth characteristics suitable for future genetic
conservation programmes.
Keywords: Teak provenance, ring width, growth rate, Tectona grandis
P.K. Thulasidas and E.P.Indira
Kerala Forest Research Institute
Peechi - 680653, India
Email: [email protected]
71
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Teak (Tectona grandis) Plantation Management based upon Stand Density Index Concept
Fernando Vélez-Escobar
This paper forms part of the development of a consultancy work to Refocosta S.A. company, during the years 2004-2011, at La Gloria project, for a 1.513 ha
teak plantation area, located at Monterrubio county, Magdalena province, Colombia, 10◦ 23´ N 74◦ 23´ O, at 55 m.a.s.l., classified within Holdridge´s life zones
as Tropical dry zone.
The whole work includes development of volume and tape single tree equations, yield and growth studies up to 28 year-old stands, including potential
intermediate thinning and remnant stand density variables after management, as well as crop volume classification by five log size ranges. The net of
permanent plots has at age 25 years the following average variables: height 23 m, diameter 27 cm with 0,4 cm/year growth, basal area 27 m2/ha, volume
under bark 173 m3/ha with 6,5 m3/ha-a for current and mean growth.
To estimate productivity under forest management, defined stand density index to a minimum desirable level of 475 stems of 25 cm per hectare, thinning
crops over 25 m3/ha, and a rotation age up to 40 years, a simulation model software developed by the author has been used, which uses the four study levels
mentioned above: the project could therefore expect since year 2010 an annual growth of 10.000 m 3 (6,87 m3/ha/year), an average annual harvest volume of
3.278 m3 by thinning plus 5.225 m3 by final cut, 19% over 25 cm log diameter and 72% over 15 cm.
An updated financial calculation is presented for this paper: an average site quality stand, applying the recommended forest management and rotation,
expected production costs USD 66 m3 for logs over 15 cm, and internal rate of return (IRR) about 6%, with maximum sensitivity to wood price.
Fernando Vélez-Escobar
Consultant
Reforestadora de la Costa S.A.
Colombia
Email: [email protected]
72
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Influencia de la posición fisiográfica sobre el crecimiento de una plantación de teca (Tectona grandis L.F.) de siete años
de edad, en Guanarito, estado Portuguesa, Venezuela
Isabel Scharge and Gregorio Hernando
Se evaluó el crecimiento de una plantación de teca hasta los siete años de edad ubicada sobre suelos de origen aluvial en dos posiciones fisiográficas: napa de
desborde con un suelo Fluventic Haplustept de textura franco arcillo limoso y cubeta de desborde con un suelo Fluvaquentic Epiaquepts arcillo limoso. La
plantación se encuentra ubicada en el municipio Guanarito, estado Portuguesa, Venezuela. La población fue definida por una plantación de teca de 60
hectáreas, sobre suelos del orden de los Inceptisoles, la muestra se obtuvo al seleccionar al azar 10 hileras, en las cuales se seleccionaron al azar 10 plantas,
para un total de 100 plantas seleccionadas en cada posición fisiográfica. Las variables evaluadas fueron: diámetro de tallo a la altura del pecho (1,30 m) y
altura total. Se realizaron seis mediciones entre marzo de 2005, a los nueve meses de establecida la plantación y julio de 2011 cuando la plantación tenía siete
años de edad. Los datos se procesaron mediante el análisis de la varianza (ANDEVA) y la prueba de comparación de medias t de Student. Se encontraron
diferencias en el diámetro a la altura del pecho y altura total, que indican que el crecimiento es mayor sobre la napa de desborde, que corresponde a la
posición más elevada y con suelos mejor drenados, diferencias que son más marcadas en los primeros años de la plantación. El promedio de altura total y
diámetro a la altura del pecho sobre la napa de desborde a los siete años de edad fue 14,35 m y 19,43 cm respectivamente; mientras que sobre la cubeta de
desborde la altura total fue 14,05 m y el diámetro a la altura del pecho 18,95 cm. El crecimiento obtenido en ambas posiciones fisiográficas, tanto en
diámetro como altura total se consideran elevados para la especie en Venezuela.
Palabras Clave: crecimiento, plantación, Tectona grandis, suelos, posición fisiográfica.
Isabel Scharge
Universidad Ezequiel Zamora UNELLEZ, Programa Ciencias del Agro y
del Mar,
Guanare, 3350 Po.
Venezuela
Email: [email protected]
Gregorio Hernando
Agropecuaria La Filera,
C.A. Carretera Guanare –
Guanarito, Km 13
Venezuela
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Tiempos y rendimientos de aserrío de madera escuadrada (rough squares) en plantaciones de teca en la zona norte de
Costa Rica
Mario Guevara-Bonilla, Jason Rojas
Determinar la eficiencia y el rendimiento físico en el procesamiento de la madera es una de las mejores maneras de conocer las debilidades del proceso y
realizar los ajustes necesarios que conduzcan a una mayor eficiencia. En Costa Rica, los productores de teca venden su madera procedentes de raleos en pie o
escuadrada siendo esta última opción una de las más utilizadas y la que mejores precios presenta. Sin embargo, no hay información relacionada a la cantidad
de tiempo ni los rendimientos que esta actividad posee. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar los tiempos y rendimientos de la operación de aserrío
de bloques producto de un raleo forestal en plantaciones de teca de la zona norte de Costa Rica. Se realizó un estudio de tiempos y movimientos mediante el
método de muestreo para determinar el porcentaje de eficiencia de la operación. El rendimiento de aserrío se determinó como el cociente entre el volumen
aserrado y el correspondiente volumen de madera rolliza. Se encontró que el porcentaje de eficiencia fue mayor al 60% y el tiempo promedio de aserrío fue
de 93 segundos. El rendimiento promedio de aserrío fue de 54%. Los valores de tiempo y rendimiento varían de acuerdo a la clase diamétrica de las trozas.
Palabras clave: tiempos y movimientos, rendimiento de aserrío, plantaciones forestales, Tectona grandis.
Mario Guevara-Bonilla
Profesor e investigador
Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica
Costa Rica
E-mail: [email protected]
Jason Rojas
Reforestación Grupo Internacional
Costa Rica
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Superioridad en Crecimiento y Rendimiento de Clones de Teca en una Variedad de Sitios puede Aumentar el Valor de los
Terrenos
Luis Ugalde Arias
Se presenta una revisión del estado de la reproducción de clones de teca utilizados en plantaciones comerciales en diferentes países y bajo diferentes
condiciones de clima y suelo. Los resultados obtenidos con los clones con procedencia de las Islas Solomon en crecimiento y productividad bajo diferentes
condiciones de sitio, en comparación con plantaciones comerciales de semilla certificada, muestran diferencias altamente significativas a favor de los clones.
Se discuten las características fenotípicas y el desarrollo del sistema radical que proporcionan y explican en gran parte, las ventajas en crecimiento y en una
disminución en costos en las actividades silviculturales. Esto significa que, aunque el costo inicial por planta sea mayor, implican una menor inversión durante
el turno de rotación (costo-beneficio menor). Experiencias de estos clones en plantaciones comerciales jóvenes en varios países de América Tropical como
Brasil, México, Panamá, Nicaragua y Guatemala; en Australia y en el Sureste asiático (Malasia) arrojan una superioridad en volumen total (m3/ha) en los
primeros años, de dos a cuatro veces más a favor de los clones en comparación con plantaciones de semilla certificada. Estos clones, en plantaciones
comerciales, en varios países, han mostrado la capacidad de adaptarse a condiciones de suelos donde las plantaciones de semilla no crecen favorablemente.
Las investigaciones recientes (Ugalde, 2013) y el monitoreo del crecimiento durante los primeros 10 años en plantaciones comerciales comprueban la
capacidad de estos clones de poder crecer en suelos muy arcillosos, en suelos arenosos con poca fertilidad y en suelos ácidos. Estos clones abren nuevas
oportunidades para reforestadores e inversionistas porque permiten utilizar y dar valor a suelos que tradicionalmente no eran aptos para plantaciones de
teca. Características fenotípicas de los árboles de algunos de estos clones, hacen posible la producción de una mayor cantidad de trozas vendibles, de mejor
forma y calidad, lo que permite mejorar la rentabilidad del negocio en plantaciones puras, agroforestería y sistemas
silvopastoriles.
Luis Ugalde Arias
Asesor Forestal Internacional (International Forestry Advisor)
International Forestry & Agroforestry – INFOA
Costa Rica
E-mail: [email protected]
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Genetic Parameter Estimation of 10 year-old Half-sib Teak Stands
Erlangga Abdillah, Eko Sudaryanto, Novinci Muharyani
Teak is a beautiful, luxury wood species that attracted people for centuries. Perum Perhutani, state owned forestry enterprise in Java, Indonesia, as one of
the teak wood supplier, have engaged Teak (Tectona grandis) breeding programe since 1981, to obtain genetically superior planting teak. This study was
conducted to determine the growth variation and some growth characteristic by estimating the genetic parameter of heights and diameter characteristics.
The estimation was carried out on a 10 year- old half-sib teak stand, located in Ngawi, East Java, Indonesia. The trial was arranged in a randomized complete
block design (RCBD) which comprised of 20 families as treatment, 10 replication and each replication comprised of 4 tree plot with 3 x 3 meter planting space.
The result of analysis of variance (ANONA) showed that height and diameter were significantly different between families. The individual heritabilities value
for height characteristic was 0.45 and for diameter characteristic was 0.17. The family heritabilities value for height characteristic was 0.6 and diameter
characteristic was 0.3 and the genetic correlation between the two characteristic were 0.704. The above values needed in the breeding activities are further
discussed in the paper.
Keywords: Half-sib teak, genetic parameter
Erlangga Abdillah, Eko Sudaryanto and Novinci Muharyani
Research and Development Center - Perum Perhutani
Jalan Wonosari-Batokan Tromol Pos 6 Cepu
Central Java Indonesia
Email: [email protected]
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Evaluation of the Performance of Tectona Grandis Progenies from Plus Trees In Peninsular Malaysia
Mohd. Zaki. A, Nor Fadilah. W and Mohamad Lokmal. N
In Malaysia, teak cultivation is relatively new compared to neighbouring countries like India, Myanmar, Thailand and Indonesia. Planting of the species is
preferred to ensure sustainable supply of the wood raw materials. A number of research projects have been formulated to strengthen the gaps in the
technical knowledge of this species amongst which include the production of genetically improved planting material. Therefore, the objective of this study
was to identify the best genotypes or phenotypes to use as the criteria for the selection of parent trees for the production of improved planting stock for
future breeding programmes. Teak fruits were collected from 34 teak plus trees growing at the plantation in Mata Ayer Forest Reserve, Perlis. The plus trees
were evaluated based on their overall superiority in several important characters. The seeds were collected, germinated and raised at FRIM’s nursery. The
progenies (seedlings) were then transplanted at four sites namely, Merchang Forest Reserve (FR), Papulut FR, Kemasul FR and Labis FR. The experimental
design used in this study is a row and column design with 4 replications. Each plot was planted with 4 progenies from one family (plus tree). The trial was
designed in a manner intended for future conversion into seedling seed orchard. The trial was evaluated and analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) to
determine the diameter and height increment variation among the plus trees and by Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) to detect significant differences of
means among the progenies. The result showed high variations on survival and diameter and height increments observed within and between the families.
The environmental effects such as soil and micro climatic conditions have contributed to the high variations. This was shown by the differences in overall
performance of the teak seedlings in different sites. Although there is strong indication of genetic x environment interactions, both in term of survival and
growth rates among the families. The result from this trial can be used as the basis for the establishment of seed orchard.
Mohd. Zaki. A, Nor Fadilah. W and Mohamad Lokmal. N
Plant Improvement Programme
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
Kepong
Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
SESSION III
Management Models for Different Value Chains
Including Small Holder Forestry
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Stand-level Simulation System Applied to Teak (Tectona grandis) Plantations in Colombia
Ana M. López, Alonso Barrios and Víctor M. Nieto
An increasing interest has been generated around the establishment of forest plantations in Colombia, with public and private investments leading to increase
of the planted forestry sector in the country. Teak (Tectona grandis) is one of the most important species used in the forestation programs, currently around
25.000 ha are planted mainly in the northern region of the country. To facilitate forest management and decision-making process of these forest plantations
computational tools are required.
The aim of this research is to develop growth models to be integrated into the forest growth and yield simulation system. SimFor v1.2 software, conceived as
an easy to use tool to be applied as support for decision-making of forest plantations management. The data used for fitting and validating the growth models
proceed from the measurement of more than 80 permanent sample plots during five consecutive years, installed in forest plantations covering 1-17 years-old
and site indices ranging 17-24.
The modelling strategy applied, considered the development of a stand-level model with disaggregation in diameter classes. The forest growth simulator use
three transition functions (mortality, basal area, and dominant height) expressed as algebraic differences equations. Once the stand variables are known to a
determined age, the number of trees per hectare in each diameter class is estimated by means of a parameter recovery algorithm of the Weibull function.
The tree height of the mean diameter class is predicted using a generalized height-diameter model and the total and merchantable volumes are predicted
through a taper model.
Keywords: forest management, growth and yield, dynamic models, simulation.
Ana M. López and Alonso Barrios
Facultad de Ingenieria Forestal
Universidad del Tolima, Ibagué
Colombia
E-mail: [email protected]
Víctor M. Nieto
Corporación Nacional de Investigación y Fomento Forestal –CONIF
Bogotá
Colombia
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Variación de la relacion area basal-volumen en función de la calidad de sitio y la edad para plantaciones de Tectona
grandis L.f.en los Llanos Occidentales de Venezuela
Ana Y. Moret, Mauricio Jerez, Ana Quevedo y Lawrence Vincent
La relación área basal-volumen es muy importante en ciertos métodos modernos de inventario forestal, debido a que permite obtener predicciones del
volumen partiendo solo de la estimación del área basal la cual puede obtenerse rápidamente utilizando el método de parcelas variables. Sin embargo, esta
relación parece ser afectada por la calidad de sitio, y la edad, por lo cual es importante tomar en cuenta el efecto de estas variables antes de emplearla
operacionalmente. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la relación área basal:volumen en función de la calidad de sitio y la edad, en plantaciones de teca
establecidas en varias localidades de los Llanos Occidentales y Centrales de Venezuela. Los datos utilizados provienen de parcelas permanentes de aclareo y
rendimiento, con diferentes espaciamientos (2 × 2 m hasta 4 × 4 m) y regímenes de aclareo (0 a 4), y de 800 parcelas temporales. Las parcelas permanentes
fueron establecidas opináticamente, mientras que las parcelas temporales obedecen a muestras sistemáticas con arranque aleatorio. Se planteó como
hipótesis que la relación entre área basal y volumen es poco afectada por la edad, la densidad, el régimen de aclareos y el índice de sitio. El volumen en pie se
calculó según la ecuación de Moret et al. 1998 que estima volumen en pie hasta 8 cm de diámetro en punta, utilizando el dap y la altura total de los árboles; y
la clasificación de sitio se basa en curvas de índice de sitio generadas a partir de una curva guía tipo Chapman-Richards ajustada con modelos mixtos.
Resultados preliminares indican que la relación área basal y volumen no es afectada por la densidad o tratamientos silviculturales, mientras que la calidad de
sitio y la edad tienen un efecto importante en la misma. Para un rango más o menos amplio de edades y calidades de sitio, la relación área basal: volumen es
de alrededor de 1:10,5
Ana Y. Moret, Mauricio Jerez, Ana Quevedo y Lawrence Vincent
Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales
Universidad de Los Andes
Mérida, 5101
Venezuela
Email:[email protected]
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Software para Predecir el Troceo de Árboles de Teca en Pie para Maximizar el Volumen Comercial y su Valor
Luis Ugalde Arias
Se presenta una descripción del desarrollo y las bondades que ofrece el troceador con el fin de facilitar las proyecciones del número de trozas y volumen
comercial en trozas de diferentes largos y su respectiva valoración. Las decisiones se basan en los catálogos de precios de compradores de teca, incluyendo la
valoración de la madera en trozas por clase diamétrica. Se incluyen ejemplos para verificar y comparar las proyecciones realizadas por el troceador con
resultados obtenidos, a través de la metodología de cadena de custodia desarrollada para cuantificar la producción real en el campo, de trozas de árboles
individuales de un raleo o de una corta total de los árboles en las parcelas de medición (Ugalde, 2008).
El troceador permite hacer las estimaciones del diámetro de las trozas a diferentes alturas del árbol utilizando ecuaciones de ahusamiento o factores de
ahusamiento generados a partir de las cadenas de custodia de árboles individuales. Esta aplicación está integrada dentro del software MiraSilv (Ugalde, 2014)
y permite la proyección de trozas y volumen por árbol individual en pie de acuerdo a la simulación de un raleo o de una corta total de los árboles en las
parcelas de medición o del inventario forestal. Incluye reportes de trozas y volúmenes de árboles individuales, promedios por parcela, promedios por
hectárea, y promedios por lote de plantación y su correspondiente valoración de trozas con o sin corteza y hasta un diámetro mínimo superior del tronco.
Luis Ugalde Arias
Asesor Forestal Internacional (International Forestry Advisor)
International Forestry & Agroforestry – INFOA
Costa Rica
E-mail: [email protected]
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
SESSION IV
Teak Plantation Management and Environmental Protection
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Evaluación del primer raleo comercial en plantaciones de Teca (Tectona grandis Linn f.) en El Petén, Guatemala
Hensy Froilan Caal Chamám, Edwin Estuardo Vaides and Manuel Mollinedo
La evaluación se realizó con la finalidad de documentar el primer raleo comercial efectuado en plantaciones de Teca al año 2,014, localizadas en los
municipios de La Libertad y Las Cruces, del departamento de Peten, Guatemala. Dichas plantaciones fueron intervenidas a una edad de 7 años, siendo
evaluadas las actividades de raleo con tres escenarios propuestos a densidades iniciales post-raleo de 550, 450 y 400 árboles por hectárea, quedando al final
una densidad remanente de 527, 465 y 400 árboles por hectárea, para estas remanencias se utilizaron los métodos de cajas de marcación dobles y simple;
donde se tomaron en cuenta las variables de crecimiento y productividad: DAP (cm), altura total (m), AB (m2 ha-1), Volumen (m3 ha-1), calidad del fuste y
calidad de trozas. Para alcanzar los objetivos de esta evaluación se efectuaron mediciones antes y después del raleo, con parcelas permanentes de
monitoreo.
Después de ejecutar el marqueo se encontró que las cajas simples son más efectivas en relación a las densidades deseadas, al implementar el raleo se
encontró que la corta de los individuos a través de los productos obtenidos para biomasa y exportación fueron de 0.67 m3 ha-1, 5.37 m3 ha-1 y 3.41 m3 ha-1
exportable respectivamente, según las densidades remanentes de cada escenario; a través del muestreo de productos se determinó que un 56.61% es de alta
calidad y un 36.95% de calidad aceptable, ambos para el mercado de Teca. Esto confirma que con la ejecución del raleo, inicia el mejoramiento en la calidad
de las plantaciones. Se generó la ecuación de Volumen Comercial (m3) = 0.00003 * (DAP cm) 2.9241 a obtener por árbol a partir del DAP (cm). Otra
evaluación que se realizó fue el costo por hectárea la cual dio Q. 609.75, Q. 829.22 y Q. 849.48, correspondiente a las densidades iniciales post-raleo.
Palabras claves: Teca, raleo, productividad, crecimiento, plantaciones.
Hensy Froilan Caal Chamám
Universidad Rafael Landivar
Guatemala
Email: [email protected]
Edwin Estuardo Vaides
Gerencia Técnica
Tripan
Guatemala
Manuel Mollinedo
Carrera Ingeniería Forestal
Campus La Verapaz
Guatemala
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Mejoramiento tecnológico de suelos para el incremento de la productividad en plantaciones de Tectona grandis:
incremento en biomasa de raíces finas
Elemer Briceño, Mario Guevara, Edwin Esquivel, Dagoberto Arias and Sara Molina
Tierras tradicionalmente bajo cultivo de teca (Tectona grandis), están sujetas a adversidades físicas y químicas que requieren un mayor estudio y soluciones
específicas. Costa Rica requiere que mantener las áreas reforestadas bajo el mismo uso; sin embargo hasta el momento no existe una discusión sobre la
segunda rotación ha tenido lugar ni ninguna consideración respecto a continuar con la misma especie o no. Consideraciones en estado nutricional del sitio
post-cosecha o qué paquete tecnológico asegurará una producción sostenible tampoco está bajo discusión. Lo prioritario es que estas plantaciones ya sean de
moderada a alta productividad, deben mantener la producción de madera. El presente proyecto ha establecido varios tratamientos de mejora física de suelos
en plantaciones con aparente deficiencia en crecimiento e historia de compactación. Se estableció un diseño experimental de tres bloques utilizando ocho
tratamientos, que combinan el efecto de dos niveles de labranza profundos y tres "intensidades" de implementos de labranza, utilizando 1,3 y 5 arados de
cincel; además, dos tratamientos más, incluyendo un tratamiento no fertilizado de inclinación y una parcela de control. Además de los efectos en las variables
normales de crecimiento (diámetro y altura y consecuentemente volumen) se espera un cambio en el desarrollo radical, donde la intensidad de los
tratamientos estimulen un mayor desarrollo radical, mayor área de absorción de nutrientes y razonablemente crecimiento. Los resultados aquí expuestos
buscan mostrar el efecto de tratamientos en la demografía de raíces en estas plantaciones y recomendar la mejor intensidad a seguir en términos técnicos y
económicos.
Palabras clave:Tectona grandis, producción sostenible, biomasa de raíces, subsoleo.
Elemer Briceño, Mario Guevara, Edwin Esquivel, Dagoberto Arias and Sara Molina
Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica
Escuela Ingeniería Forestal
Costa Rica
Email: [email protected]
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Modelación Calidad de Sitio en Plantación Juvenil de Teca
Nohelia Bedoya Velásquez
Como proceso para el establecimiento, manejo y evaluación continua de una plantación juvenil de teca, previo a la siembra en zona de uso agroforestal en el
norte del Urabá Chocoano, Costa Caribe, Colombia, Sur América se realizó la calificación de sitio por método indirecto (topografía, edafología y clima),
identificándose buena aptitud de uso. Posteriormente al año y medio de siembra se realizó el monitoreo del crecimiento en la etapa juvenil con el
establecimiento de 31 parcelas circulares de 300 m², bajo el criterio de muestreo estratificado por calidad de sitio. Los datos recabados durante cuatro años
se utilizaron para el cálculo de IS con base en las ecuaciones de Schumacher, Korf y Richard-Chapman. Las regresiones arrojaron estadígrafos de R²
Schumacher (67,2446 %), Korf (67,5393 %) y Richard-Chapman (67,4306%), la comparación para muestras pareadas indicó no diferencia significativa entre los
dos últimos modelos. Los resultados para edad de referencia (12 años) en la familia de curvas IS promedio indican con Korf un límite superior 22,62 m. e
inferior 12,57 m., Schumacher 19,94 m y 11,80 m. y Richard-Chapman 22,28 m y 13,25 m. El análisis ANOVA y prueba de comparación de los rangos IS Korf
con los hallados por (Torres, Delvalle y Restrepo, 2011) región Caribe Colombia, IS superior 24,7 metros e inferior 9,8 m., ubica los valores estimados al
interior de estos niveles. El análisis por parcela presentó igual comportamiento.
Palabras Clave: Teca, índice de sitio, modelación crecimiento, plantación juvenil, Korf, Richard – Chapman, Schumacher
Nohelia Bedoya Velásquez
Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias
Departamento de Ciencias Forestales
Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Sede Medellín
Colombia
Email: [email protected]
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Manejo de Plantaciones de TecaAplicando Modelos de Distribución Diamétrica
Juan Camilo Patiño Zabala
Para las plantaciones forestales de producción de madera fina, el objetivo de producción puede llegar a ser no tanto la cantidad de volumen de madera
producida, sino que está mucho más relacionado con alcanzar las mayores dimensiones por pieza de madera, reflejo de diámetros gruesos en los árboles. Por
eso, la modelación de la distribución diamétrica de una plantación forestal es de gran interés para su evaluación y monitoreo y para la programación de los
esquemas de manejo correspondientes. A partir de la medición sistemática durante 11 años de 173 parcelas permanentes en plantaciones de teca de
diferentes edades en la costa ecuatoriana, se pudieron ajustar y caracterizar modelos para la distribución diamétrica con relación al paso del tiempo,
mediante el uso de matrices de transición y procesos de difusión que permitieron simular escenarios óptimos de intervención y estimar con mayor precisión
la producción futura a partir del comportamiento de las categorías de diámetro definidas. Estos análisis incluyen la calibración de un modelo logístico
multinomial, para determinar la influencia la relación de las intervenciones con el desarrollo de la plantación en términos de la distribución diamétrica.
Juan Camilo Patiño Zabala
Posgrado en Bosques y Conservación Ambiental
Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Sede Medellín
Colombia
Email: [email protected]
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
Historia y Manejo Actual de Plantaciones de Teca en Venezuela
Mauricio Jerez, Isabel Schargel, Gregorio Hernando, Yajaira Moret, Ana Quevedo, María A. Quintero, Lawrence Vincent
Venezuela fue uno de los países pioneros en el cultivo de teca en Suramérica, donde fue introducida en 1936 en Rancho Grande, estado Aragua. Pese a que
desde los años 70 se han establecido plantaciones con excelentes resultados (15-20 m3 ha-1 año-1) basados en investigación y experiencias sobre el
crecimiento y adaptación a las condiciones climáticas y de suelo de Venezuela; el mercado de la teca tuvo poco desarrollo, principalmente debido a políticas
forestales y la predominancia de los mercados de maderas del bosque natural. En este trabajo se hace un recuento de la historia del establecimiento y
manejo de plantaciones de teca en Venezuela; las principales investigaciones y experiencias con especial referencia a los resultados provenientes de parcelas
permanentes de aclareo y rendimiento con seguimiento por más de 40 años. Se destacan los logros en la biometría, crecimiento y rendimiento, calidad de
sitio y regímenes de manejo silvicultural, que han permitido desarrollar simuladores para optimizar el rendimiento biológico y financiero, a escala de rodal
individual y múltiples rodales, proyectos para la producción simultánea de madera y secuestro de carbono. Se analizan experiencias actuales de
establecimiento y manejo intensivo en condiciones de sitio óptimas y en otras tradicionalmente consideradas sub-óptimas para el crecimiento de la teca. Se
describe el estado actual de las plantaciones y las características del mercado en Venezuela, resaltando las ventajas y limitaciones que existen para su
expansión. Finalmente, se discute la participación e impacto del cultivo de la teca a nivel comunitario en plantaciones a pequeña escala, en sistemas
agroforestales a la luz de las condiciones sociopolíticas particulares existentes en Venezuela.
Mauricio Jerez, Yajaira Moret, Ana Quevedo, María A.
Quintero andLawrence Vincent
Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales
Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida
Venezuela
Email:[email protected]
Isabel Schargel and Gregorio Hernando
Universidad Nacional Experimental de Los
Llanos Occidentales “Ezequiel Zamora”,
Guanare
Venezuela
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
List of Participants
ALEMANIA
1.
Sinan Hagenah
University of Goettingen
Alemania
Email:
[email protected]
AUSTRIA
5.
AUSTRALIA
2.
Henri Bailleres
Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and
Forestry
Agri-Science Queensland,
Australia
Email: [email protected]
3.
Geoff Smith
University of New England
Australia
4.
Timothy Fleming
The International Woodland Company
Australia
Email: [email protected]
Michael Kleine
International Union of Forest Research
Organizations (IUFRO)
Austria
Email: [email protected]
9.
Alfredy Alvarez
FORESTECA
Bolivia
Email: [email protected]
10.
Assaad Daher
FORESTECA
Bolivia
Email: [email protected]
11.
Annette Daher
FORESTECA
Bolivia
Email: [email protected]
BOLIVIA
6.
Andres Carrasco Pereira
PLANT-FOR
Bolivia
Email: [email protected]
7.
Marcelino Montero
FORESTECA
Bolivia
Email: [email protected]
12.
Francisco X. Sáenz Cabezas
FORESTECA
Bolivia
Email: [email protected]
Luiz Gonzaga de Oliveira Filho
Tiete Agricola Ltda
Brasil
Email: [email protected]
13.
Gilberto Francischetto
Cia Vale do Araguaia
Brasil
Email: [email protected]
8.
BRASIL
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
14.
Helaine Carrer
University of Sao Paulo/ESALQ
Brasil
Email: [email protected]
20.
Fernando Torres
PROTECA
Brasil
Email: [email protected]
15.
Carmen Sanchis
NOBLEINVEST
Brasil
Email: [email protected]
21.
Rodrigo Vieira
PROTECA
Brasil
Email: [email protected]
16.
17.
18.
19.
Paulo Popenmayer Neto
ECOFLORESTAL
Brasil
Email: [email protected]
Alexandre Baldasso
GUAVIRÁ
Brasil
Email: [email protected]
Carolina Torres
PROTECA
Brasil
Email: [email protected]
Erick Espinoza
PROTECA
Brasil
Email: [email protected]
22.
Sylvio De Andrade Coutinho
FLORESTECA
Brasil
Email:
[email protected]
23.
Cassiano Massakazu Sasaki
FLORESTECA
Brasil
Email:
[email protected]
24.
Fausto Hissashi Takizawa
FLORESTECA S.A.
Brasil
Email:
[email protected]
25.
Daniel Leandro Costa Oliveira
FLORESTECA
Brasil
Email: [email protected]
26.
Joao Vicente De Figueiredo Latorraca
Universidade Federal Rural Do Rio de
Janeiro
Brasil
Email: [email protected]
27.
Luit Smith
Tectona Agroflorestal Ltda
Brasil
Email: [email protected]
28.
Przemyslaw Jan Walotek
WAKA Forest Investment Services Ag
Brasil
Email: [email protected]
29.
Selton Vieira
Oito Florestal Ltda
Brasil
Email: [email protected]
30.
Fernando Passos
Bacaeri Florestal Ltda
Brasil
Email: [email protected]
31.
Sueza Basso
UNICENTRO
Brasil
Email: [email protected]
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
CANADA
32.
33.
37.
Roger Hernández
Universidad Laval
Canada
Email: [email protected]
Eduardo Gutierrez
Particular
Canada
Email: [email protected]
35.
Alexis Wainer
Tripan Guatemala S.A.
Chile
Email: [email protected]
Diego Frederick
Greenwood Resources Inc.
Chile
Email: [email protected]
CHINA
36.
Guihua Huang
Research Institute of Tropical Forestry,
Chinese Academy of Forestry
China
Email: [email protected]
43.
Juan Camilo Patiño Zabala
Grupo Htm
Colombia
Email: [email protected]
44.
Andres Correa
Reforestadora Caracoli
Colombia
Email: [email protected]
45.
Maria Camila Villegas Piedrahita
Fundación Grupo Argos
Colombia
Email: [email protected]
46.
Julio Alfonso Pinedo Mejia
Piloto de Colombia
Colombia
Email: [email protected]
Reynaldo Escobar Perez
JAEMSAS
Colombia
Email:
[email protected]
47.
Nelson Silva
Universidad de La Salle
Colombia
Email: [email protected]
Luz Nohemí Restrepo Builes
Laefm Colombia Ltda.
Colombia
Email: [email protected]
48.
Juan Rodríguez Santamaria
Maderas Ts S.A.S
Colombia
Email:
[email protected]
COLOMBIA
38.
CHILE
34.
Liang Kunnan
Research Institute of Tropical Forestry,
Chinese Academy of Forestry
China
Email: [email protected]
39.
40.
41.
42.
Juan Piedrahita
Reforestadora Lomaverde
Colombia
Email: [email protected]
Jose Luis Romero
EQUIFOREST
Colombia
Email: [email protected]
Fernando Velez-Escobar
Independent Professional
Colombia
Email: [email protected]
90
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
49.
Nohelia Bedoya Velásquez
Nacional de Colombia Sede Medellín
Colombia
Email: [email protected]
50.
Ramiro Salazar Bernal
Universidad de Antioquia
Colombia
Email:
[email protected]
54.
55.
Luis Ugalde
International Forestry and Agroforestry
(INFOA)
Costa Rica
Email: [email protected]
Renato Satta Espinosa
Austral Andes
Colombia
Email: [email protected]
56.
Ricardo Lujan
Barca S.A.
Costa Rica
Email: [email protected]
52.
Juan Guillermo Toro
TEKIA
Colombia
Email: [email protected]
57.
Jose Corrales
Barca Sa
Costa Rica
Email: [email protected]
58.
Carlos A. Urcuyo
Cuestamoras Agropecuaria S.A.
Costa Rica
Email: [email protected]
59.
Silvia Obando
Cuestamoras Agropecuaria
Costa Rica
Email: [email protected]
53.
Folkert Kottman
Panamerican Woods Plantations
Costa Rica
Email: [email protected]
Marcela Arguedas
Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Email: [email protected]
61.
Mario Guevara Bonilla
Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Email: [email protected]
62.
María Rodríguez
Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Email: [email protected]
63.
Elemer Briceño
Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Email: [email protected]
64.
Mario Espinoza
NOVELTEAK
Costa Rica
Email: [email protected]
65.
Francisco Xavier Matamoros Hernéndez
NOVELTEAK
Costa Rica
Email:
[email protected]
Diego Perez
Life Forestry Group
Costa Rica
Email: [email protected]
51.
COSTA RICA
60.
91
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
66.
Luis Diego Jiménez Alvarado
CATIE
Costa Rica
Email: [email protected]
67.
Andres Marten
TECA GKM de Panamá
Costa Rica
Email: [email protected]
68.
69.
70.
71.
Juan Jose Jimenez
C & M Investment Gruop
Costa Rica
Email: [email protected]
Juan Luis Fallas Zúniga
GFA Certification Gmbh
Costa Rica
Email: [email protected]
72.
73.
74.
75.
Raunak Bhatia
Associate Group
Costa Rica
Email: [email protected]
Sudesh Pillai
Gujarat University
Costa Rica
Email: [email protected]
Josue Brenes
Adoniss Limited
Costa Rica
Email: [email protected]
77.
Teodoro Malo
ASOTECA
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
DENMARK
78.
Poul Elgaard
Tectona Production, Panama
Dinamarca
Email: [email protected]
Xavier Elizalde
ASOTECA
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
79.
Lars Graudal
University of Copenhagen
Dinamarca
Email: [email protected]
Yuchi Cen
Ecuawood Sa
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
80.
Erick Anderzen
The International Woodland Company
Dinamarca
Email: [email protected]
Andres Moral
MAGAP
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
81.
Jill Peralta Benites
MAGAP
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
82.
Jose Ramos
MAGAP
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
ECUADOR
76.
Antonio Pino
ASOTECA
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
92
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
83.
Enrique Garcia
MAGAP
Ecuador
84.
85.
86.
87.
88.
89.
Darwin Salvatierra
MAGAP
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
Freddy Magdama
MAGAP
Ecuador
90.
Carlos Cabrera
MAGAP
Ecuador
Email:
[email protected]
Juliana Gonzalez
MAGAP
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
91.
Luis Calderon
MAGAP
Ecuador
Carlos Muñoz
MAGAP
Ecuador
Email:
[email protected]
92.
Sebastián Garzón
MAGAP
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
93.
Pablo N Noboa
MAGAP
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
94.
Mayra Luna
REFOREI
Ecuador
Nestor Medrano
MAGAP
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
Jose Ricardo Rivas Barzola
MAGAP
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
95.
Ismael Olmedo
REFOREI
Ecuador
96.
Carlos Giler
REFOREI
Ecuador
97.
David Montes
MENPROE
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
98.
Andreas Haessler
SYNERGY
Ecuador
99.
Emanuel Carrasco
Hawa Solutions
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
100.
Alexandra Calero
RICATIK
Ecuador
Email:[email protected]
101.
Marcos Medina
Particular
Ecuador
102.
Eduardo Ubilla
Particular
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
93
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
103.
Gustavo Alfredo Davila Moncayo
Hacienda Cañaguate
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
109.
Sebastian Bustamante
Loyola Marymount University
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
115.
Felipe Pazmiño
Aglomerados Cotopaxi
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
104.
Luis Bolivar Davila Silva
La Pata del Lobo
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
110.
Maggic Arroyo
Retratorec
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
116.
Bianca Dager Jervis
SAMBITO
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
105.
Victor Borbor Cordova
AGROPIEMER
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
111.
Tamara Panchana Bello
Petroradia Sa
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
117.
Francesca Achi
SAMBITO
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
106.
Heidemarie Sonnenholzner
Planet Wood
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
112.
Gustavo Antonio Davila Silva
Hacienda Cañaguate
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
118.
Anand Somani
Nirmala International Pte Ltd
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
107.
Luis Antonio Cruz
Particular
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
113.
Fernando Montenegro
Neo Forests Sa
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
119.
Ashish Kumar
Nirmala International Pte Ltd
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
108.
Alberto Jalil
Asisbane
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
114.
Julio Alberto Salazar Valle
Particular
Ecuador
120.
Kyra Peñareta
DHL Global Forwarding Ecuador
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
94
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
121.
Christian Cordova
DHL Global Forwarding Ecuador
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
127.
Pablo Burbano
PROFAFOR Latinoamérica
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
133.
Cynthia Castro
OLAM
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
122.
Andrea Celi
DHL Global Forwarding Ecuador
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
128.
Juan Carlos Salazar
PROFAFOR Latinoamérica
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
134.
Sohil Kumar Chovatiya
Madhav
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
123.
Ivan Leon
PROFAFOR Latinoamérica
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
129.
José Morán
PROFAFOR Latinoamérica
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
135.
Becker Anasi
Cecomex S.A.
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
124.
Luis Fernando Jara
PROFAFOR Latinoamérica
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
130.
Jose Vicente Palacios
SEFNOR
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
136.
Gabriela Belica
Cecomex S.A.
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
125.
Pablo Mogrovejo
PROFAFOR Latinoamérica
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
131.
Jorge Roman
Forestal Bosquepalm Cia Ltda
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
137.
Rodrigo Anda
Cecomex S. A.
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
126.
Maria Jose Zambrano
PROFAFOR Latinoamérica
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
132.
Juan Antonio Rivas
OLAM
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
138.
Kit Combay
Hacienda 5 Amigas
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
95
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
139.
Rolando Minda
Fundacion Wilson Popenoe
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
145.
Maria Cevallos Abad
Hacienda San José De Cerecita
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
140.
Fernando Torres
Agridole S.A.
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
146.
Alberto Peñalver Romeo
Universidad Catolica Santiago de
Guayaquil
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
141.
142.
143.
144.
Toni Marlon Flores Velastegui
Tropibosques S.A
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
147.
Eddy Loor Aveiga
Universidad Catolica Santiago de
Guayaquil
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
Jorge Guzman Restrepo
Tropibosques S.A
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
148.
Jose Castro Gaviria
Tropibosques S.A
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
Juan Pablo Cedeño
Forestal Cabo Pasado
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
149.
Tania Wazhima Pulla
Exportadora de Maderas Tropicales
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
Eduardo Estrada
Zamoranoteak S.A.
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
150.
Ricardo William Naula Espinoza
Sinergy Teak Managment
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
151.
Oscar Nuñez
Sociedad Agricola E Industrial San Carlos
S.A.
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
152.
Gilberto Decker
Sociedad Agricola E Industrial San Carlos
S.A.
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
153.
Jorge Chavez
POLIDIST
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
154.
George Aguirre Diaz
Particular
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
155.
Rodrigo Izurieta
Particular
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
156.
Rafael Altamirano
COPROCL
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
96
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
157.
158.
159.
160.
Sixto Valeriano Manobanda Alvarez
EXP e Imp Manobal C. Ltda.
Ecuador
Email:
[email protected]
163.
Antonio Acosta
PVS Internacional S.A. Salumbers
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
169.
Leonidas Yugcha Quisatasig
CHEMCROP
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
164.
170.
Winston Jose Torres Quiñonez
EXP e Imp Manobal C. Ltda
Ecuador
Email:
[email protected]
Sergio Muñoz
PVS Internacional Sa Salumbers
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
Ever Sequeira Aguinaga
Ecuatimber S.A.
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
165.
171.
Denis Mieles
Sociedad Agricola Manabi
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
Saurabh Sagar
PVS Internacional S.A. Salumbers
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
Marjorie Patricia Mendoza Palma
Agrimen S.A
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
166.
172.
Orlando Zambrano
Madetec S.A.
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
Adriana Garcia
PVS Internacional Sa Salumbers
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
Darwin Goyes Marcillo
Universidad Estatal Técnica de Quevedo
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
167.
Diego Medina
CHEMCROP
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
173.
Jaime Davila Silva
Finca La Bonita
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
168.
Jaime Sanchez Vasquez
CHEMCROP
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
174.
Luis Meneses
INIAP
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
161.
Edwin Jimenez
CFN
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
162.
German Rigoberto Espinoza Jumbo
CFN
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
97
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
175.
Diana Almeida Arteaga
INIAP
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
181.
Carlos Zambrano
Nirmala International Pte Ltd
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
187.
Yovanny Buste
La Vanguardia Forestal
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
176.
Ricardo Limongi
INIAP
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
182.
Rodny Garrido
ECUAFORESTAL
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
188.
Martin Umpierrez
La Vanguardia Forestal
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
177.
Danilo Isaac Vera
INIAP
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
183.
Gonzalo Quillupangui
Particular
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
189.
Jhon Marcelo Ormaza Ponce
Unversidad Tecnica De Manabi
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
178.
Ernesto Cañarte
INIAP
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
184.
Vineeth Menon
ARON Global Pte Ltd
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
190.
Xavier Perez Mac Collum
Permac Agricola Los Potreros S. A.
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
179.
Rafael Elizalde
Nirmala International Pte Ltd
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
185.
Rahul Kaul
Pamposh International S.A.
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
191.
Sucre Hernan Perez Baquerizo
Permac Agricola Los Potreros S. A.
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
180.
Guillermo Ortega
Nirmala International Pte Ltd
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
186.
Paul Palacios
La Vanguardia Forestal
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
192.
Cesar Arboleda Lucero
Permac Agricola Los Potreros S. A.
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
98
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
193.
Fernando Muirragui
Negcorpbis S.A.
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
199.
Romulo Patricio Gonzalez Peñaherrera
Reybanpac, Reybanano Del Pacifico C.A
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
205.
Juan Martin Gomez
Agroeleonor
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
194.
Juan Salgado
Negcorpbis S.A.
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
200.
Sandro Navas
Morondava S.A.
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
206.
Boanerges Pereira
Heightwood S.A.
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
195.
Mohit Maheshwari
Royal Global Exports
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
201.
Stephanie Navas
Morondava S.A.
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
207.
Anand Motha
Particular
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
196.
Juan Carlos Ludeña Velasquez
Reybanpac, Reybanano Del Pacifico C.A
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
202.
César Nogales
Zamorano
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
Jose Alberto Sandoval Muñoz
Reybanpac, Reybanano Del Pacifico C.A
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
203.
Rafael Wong
Reybanpac, Reybanano Del Pacifico
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]oritafc.com
204.
197.
198.
Knut Radicke
Life Forestry Ecuador S.A.
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
Manuel Bonifaz
Capaltec S.A.
Ecuador
Email: [email protected]
EMIRATOS ARABES UNIDOS
208.
Vikash Nihalani
PVS Internacional Sa Salumbers
Emiratos Arabes Unidos
Email: [email protected]
209.
Vijay Nihalani
PVS Internacional Sa Salumbers
Emiratos Arabes Unidos
Email: [email protected]
99
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
ESTADOS UNIDOS
210.
211.
212.
213.
214.
215.
Felipe Veliz
Times International
Estados Unidos
Email: [email protected]
Mark Willhite
World Forest Investment, Inc
Estados Unidos
Email: [email protected]
Adam Watson
Terrasource Valuation LLC
Estados Unidos
Email: [email protected]
Jeff Wikle
Terrasource Valuation LLC
Estados Unidos
Email: [email protected]
216.
217.
218.
219.
220.
Juan Luis Lopez
NC State University
Estados Unidos
Email: [email protected]
William Andrew Whittier
NC State University/ Camcore
Estados Unidos
Email: [email protected]
221.
Rafael De La Torre
Arborgen Inc
Estados Unidos
Email: [email protected]
Luis Osorio
University of Florida
Estados Unidos
Email: [email protected]
John Turland
RISI Inc.
Estados Unidos
Email: [email protected]
Alex Finkral
The Forestland Group
Estados Unidos
Email:
[email protected]
FRANCE
222.
Olivier Monteuuis
CIRAD
Francia
Email: [email protected]
223.
Pierre-Yves Comte
571 Chemin De La Tuilerie
Francia
Email: [email protected]
224.
Roberto Bacilieri
INRA Montpellier
Francia
Email: [email protected]
GHANA
225.
Richard Andrew
Hemisphere Forest Investment LP
Estados Unidos
Email:
[email protected]
Ravichandran Sarojanam
Particular
Estados Unidos
Hugh Brown
Forestry Commission
Ghana
Email: [email protected]
GUATEMALA
226.
Hensy Froilan Caal Chamam
Consultorias Agrícolas Y Forestales
Guatemala
Email: [email protected]
100
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
227.
Luis Alvarado
GFP
Guatemala
Email: [email protected]
228.
Edwin Estuardo Vaides López
Tripan Guatemala
Guatemala
Email: [email protected]
229.
Kurt Schneider
CORVIGLIA Sa
Guatemala
Email: [email protected]
230.
Mario Alberto Hurtado Montenegro
HOLZ
Guatemala
Email: [email protected]
232.
Biswajeet Singh
OLAM
India
Email: [email protected]
238.
Darshan Raiyani
OLAM
India
Email: [email protected]
233.
Vikram Aditya Watal
OLAM
India
Email: [email protected]
239.
Bhanu Avasthi
OLAM
India
Email: [email protected]
234.
Vignesh Tj
OLAM
India
Email: [email protected]
240.
Rakesh Semwal
OLAM
India
Email: [email protected]
235.
Priyank Pradeep
OLAM
India
Email: [email protected]
241.
Raja Shekhar Bogireddy
OLAM
India
Email: [email protected]
236.
Veronica Flores
OLAM
India
Email: [email protected]
242.
Kartar Singh
Matharu
India
Email: [email protected]
237.
Ashish Malik
OLAM
India
Email: [email protected]
243.
Sreelakshmy M.P
TEAKNET
India
Email: [email protected]
INDIA
231.
Koustubha Bhutra
OLAM
India
Email: [email protected]
101
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
244.
Thulasidas P.K
Kerala Forest Research Institute
India
Email: [email protected]
245.
Siddhartha Bhargava
APP Timber
India
Email: [email protected]
246.
Anoop Elaveettil Vasu
Kerala Agricultural University
India
Email: [email protected]
247.
Ashwani Kumar
Indian Council of Forestry Research And
Education
India
Email: [email protected]
248.
Gaurav Agicha
Associate Group
India
Email: [email protected]
249.
Narendra Agicha
Associate Group
India
Email: [email protected]
250.
Prateek Garg
Madhav
India
Email:
[email protected]
255.
INDONESIA
251.
James Roshetko
World Agroforestry Centre (Icraf)
Indonesia
Email: [email protected]
252.
Thomas Akuarin Tanjung
HARFAM Afforestation Indonesia
Indonesia
Email: [email protected]
253.
254.
Novinci Muharyani
Research And Development Center of
Perum Perhutani
Indonesia
Email: [email protected]
Erlangga Abdillah
Research And Development Center of
Perum Perhutani
Indonesia
Email: [email protected]
Eko Sudaryanto
Research And Development Center of
Perum Perhutani
Indonesia
Email: [email protected]
IRAN
256.
Amir Sohrabi
Particular
Irán
Email: [email protected]
ITALY
257.
Walter Kollert
FAO of the United Nations
Italia
Email: [email protected]
258.
Graciela Andrade
FAO of the United Nations
Italia
Email:
[email protected]
m
102
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
JAPAN
259.
260.
Tetra Yanuariadi
ITTO, Yokohoma
Japón
Email: [email protected]
Rahmayanti Rahmayanti
ITTO, Yokohoma
Japón
Email: [email protected]
MALAYSIA
261.
262.
263.
Abdullah Mohd Zaki
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
Malasia
Email: [email protected]
264.
265.
266.
267.
Ahmad Yahya
Forest Research Institute Malaysia
Malasia
Email: [email protected]
Doreen Ks Goh
Sabah Foundation
Malasia
Email: [email protected]
268.
MEXICO
269.
Jose Cibrian
Forestal Milenium
México
Email: [email protected]
Jurgen Stock
PROTEAK
México
Email: [email protected]
270.
Gaston Mauvezin
PROTEAK
México
Email: [email protected]
271.
Raul Alvarez
Multimedios
México
Email: [email protected]
272.
Ruben Quezada
Multimedios
México
Email:
[email protected]
Victor Fernandez
Agropecuaria Santa Genoveva Sapi de Cv
México
Email:
[email protected]
Carlos Rojas
Agropecuaria Santa Genoveva Sapi de Cv
México
Email: [email protected]
Mauricio Blanco
Agropecuaria Santa Genoveva Sapi de Cv
México
Email:
[email protected]
Enrique Espinoza
PROTEAK
México
Email: [email protected]
MYANMAR
273.
Yazar Minn
Forest Research Institute
Myanmar
Email: [email protected]
103
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
274.
Ohn Lwin
University of Forestry
Myanmar
Email: [email protected]
280.
Jinmy José Hernández Robles
Nicaforestal S.A.
Nicaragua
Email: [email protected]
286.
Salvador Zuñiga
Teca GKM de Panamá
Panamá
Email: [email protected]
275.
Than Swe
CONCORD Commodities
Myanmar
Email: [email protected]
281.
Eugenio Robelo
EQUIFOREST
Nicaragua
Email: [email protected]
287.
Elvis Yanguez
Teca GKM de Panamá
Panamá
Email: [email protected]
276.
Sameer Kaushal
Organization
Myanmar
Email: [email protected]
288.
Robert Kroesen
United Nature, Inc.
Panamá
Email: [email protected]
289.
Juan Carlos Arenas
United Nature, Inc.
Panamá
Email: [email protected]
290.
Ariel Urriola
United Nature, Inc.
Panamá
Email: [email protected]
291.
Abraham Nuñez
United Nature, Inc.
Panamá
Email: [email protected]
277.
Aye Thiha
Royal Tree Services
Myanmar
Email: [email protected]
PANAMA
282.
283.
NICARAGUA
278.
279.
Carlos Domke
MLR Forestal
Nicaragua
Email: [email protected]
284.
Ove Faurby
Norteak Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Email: [email protected]
285.
Ariel Uriola
United Nature
Panamá
Email: [email protected]
Ashish Parik
Nirmala International Pte Ltd
Panamá
Email: [email protected]
Fardeen Chhapra
Matrix Green Central America Inc
Panamá
Email: [email protected]
Hessel Van Straten
Panamerican Reforestation Services Sa
Panamá
Email: [email protected]
104
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
292.
Edgar Guerra
United Nature, Inc.
Panamá
Email: [email protected]
298.
Diego Dipieri
BARCA
Panamá
Email: [email protected]
303.
Robert Hereña
Banati Bosque Sac
Perú
Email: [email protected]
293.
Martin Johansson
Ecotopia Group
Panamá
Email: [email protected]
299.
Naveen Singh Rawat
Alkemal Singapore Pte Ltd
Panamá
Email: [email protected]
304.
Franco Hereña
Banati Bosque Sac
Perú
Email: [email protected]
294.
Luis Rios
ANARAP
Panamá
Email: [email protected]
305.
Felipe Koechlin
Universidad Pacifico
Perú
Email: [email protected]
Freddy Céspedes
Atlantexco Forestal Sac
Perú
Email: [email protected]
306.
Duberli Elera
Universidad Nacional de Cajamarca
Perú
Email: [email protected]
Gonzalo de Aliaga
Reforestal S.A.C.
Perú
Email: [email protected]
307.
Mariano Bustamante
Reforestal
Perú
Email: [email protected]
308.
José Chlimper
Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria North
Carolina State University
Perú
Email: [email protected]
295.
296.
297.
Ana Selena Lacayo
ANARAP
Panamá
Email: [email protected]
Carlos Omlin Navarro
Empresas Darien S.A
Panamá
Email: [email protected]
Melanio Aguilar
Empresas Darien S.A
Panamá
Email: [email protected]
PERU
300.
301.
302.
Mauricio Scheelje
Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina
Perú
Email:
[email protected]
105
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
REPÚBLICA CHECA
309.
310.
311.
312.
314.
319.
Petr Madera
Mendel University in Brno
República Checa
Email: [email protected]
Rahul Ahuja
ARON Global Pte Ltd
Singapur
Email: [email protected]
Juan Carlos Vega Malo
Arbofino Switzerland Ag
Suiza
Email: [email protected]
315.
320.
Josef Cafourek
Mendel University in Brno
República Checa
Email: [email protected]
SP Biyani
Nirmala International Pte Ltd
Singapur
Email: [email protected]
Egon Fink
Life Forestry Switzerland
Suiza
Email: [email protected]
316.
Himanshu Biyani
Nirmala International Pte Ltd
Singapur
Email: [email protected]
Peter Haninec
Mendel University in Brno
República Checa
Email: [email protected]
Martin Smola
Lesprojekt Vychodni Cechy
República Checa
Email: [email protected]
Reetesh Dalmia
ROYAL
Singapur
Email:
[email protected]
321.
Leon Viljoen
Kilomero Valley Teak Company
Tanzania
Email: [email protected]
322.
Hans Lemm
Kilombero Valley Teak Company
Tanzania
Email: [email protected]
323.
Harbert Marwa
Tanzania
Email:
[email protected]
SWEDEN
317.
SINGAPUR
313.
TANZANIA
Fredrik Lundberg
VIMEK AB
Suecia
Email: [email protected]
SWITZERLAND
318.
Dominic Ziegler
Arbofino Switzerland Ag
Suiza
Email: [email protected]
106
Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
VENEZUELA
UGANDA
324.
325.
326.
327.
328.
329.
Nelly Grace Bedijo
Sawlog Production Grant Scheme(SPGS)
Uganda
Email: [email protected]
330.
Bueno Dickens Sande
Sawlog Production Grant Scheme (SPGS)
Uganda
Email: [email protected]
331.
Sim Katende
Katende. Ssempebwa and Co. Advocates
Uganda
Email: [email protected]
332.
Andrew Ireland
Beaver Biotech Uganda Limited
Uganda
Email: [email protected]
333.
Felician Kilahama
Beaver Biotech Uganda Ltd
Uganda
Email: [email protected]
334.
Abdul Safiq
Beaver Biotech Uganda Ltd
Uganda
Email: [email protected]
335.
336.
Mauricio Jerez-Rico
Universidad de Los Andes
Venezuela
Email: [email protected]
Mounir José Kabche El Douaihi
Inversiones Britmar Ca
Venezuela
Email: [email protected]
337.
Ana Moret
Universidad de Los Andes
Venezuela
Email: [email protected]
Helena Evelyn Dahdah
Inversiones Britmar Ca
Venezuela
Email: [email protected]
338.
María Isabel Gamboa Gessen
Inversiones Britmar Ca
Venezuela
Email: [email protected]
339.
Kevin Higinio Muñoz Cantor
Inversiones Britmar Ca
Venezuela
Email: [email protected]
340.
Neil Deivis Martínez Cantor
Inversiones Britmar Ca
Venezuela
Email:
[email protected]
341.
Luis Brito Arismendi
Inversiones Britmar Ca
Venezuela
Email:
[email protected]
Ana Mercedes Quevedo-Rojas
Universidad de Los Andes
Venezuela
Email: [email protected]
Isabel Schargel
UNELLEZ
Venezuela
Email: [email protected]
Gregorio Hernando
Agropecuaria La Filera
Venezuela
Email: [email protected]
Karim José Kabche El Douaihi
Inversiones Britmar Ca
Venezuela
Email: [email protected]
107

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