RAP 20 Year Book final pdf 03-03-11 - Library

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RAP 20 Year Book final pdf 03-03-11 - Library
STILL COUNTING...
Biodiversity Exploration for Conservation
The First 20 Years of the Rapid Assessment Program
Edited by
Leeanne E. Alonso, Jessica L. Deichmann, Sheila A. McKenna,
Piotr Naskrecki, and Stephen J. Richards
Introductory Letter by Peter A. Seligmann
Foreword by Russell A. Mittermeier
STILL COUNTING...
1
STILL COUNTING...
Biodiversity Exploration for Conservation
The First 20 Years of the Rapid Assessment Program
Edited by
Leeanne E. Alonso, Jessica L. Deichmann, Sheila A. McKenna,
Piotr Naskrecki, and Stephen J. Richards
This book has been published by:
Rapid Assessment Program
Conservation International
2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 500
Arlington, VA 22202
USA
1-703-341-2400 telephone
1-703-979-2980 fax
www.conservation.org
Conservation International is a private, non-profit organization exempt from federal income tax under
section 501c(3) of the Internal Revenue Code.
Editors: Leeanne E. Alonso, Jessica L. Deichmann, Sheila A. McKenna, Piotr Naskrecki, and
Stephen J. Richards
Design/production: Piotr Naskrecki and Lisa Capon
Map: Jessica L. Deichmann and Piotr Naskrecki
Front and back cover photos: Piotr Naskrecki
Cover design: Piotr Naskrecki
ISBN: 978-1-934151-44-0
© 2011 by Conservation International
All rights reserved.
The designations of geographical entities in this publication, and the presentation of the material, do
not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of Conservation International or its
supporting organizations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, or area, or of its authorities,
or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.
Any opinions expressed in this publication are those of the writers and do not necessarily reflect those of
Conservation International.
Citation:
Alonso, L.E., J.L. Deichmann, S.A. McKenna, P. Naskrecki and S.J. Richards. (Editors). 2011. Still
Counting...: Biodiversity Exploration for Conservation – The First 20 Years of the Rapid Assessment
Program. Conservation International, Arlington, VA, USA, 316 pp.
An electronic version (pdf ) of this book can be downloaded at: www.conservation.org.
The paper used to print this book is FSC-certified, 55% recycled with 30% post
consumer waste. Linemark Printing is 100% wind-powered.
We dedicate this book to the memory of Theodore A. Parker III,
Alwyn H. Gentry, Fonchii Chang, Reynaldo Sandoval,
Henri Blaffart, and Paul Igag
© Piotr Naskrecki
The RAP Katydid (Brachyamytta rapidoaestima)
A new species discovered by and named after the Rapid Assessment Program
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Contents
Introductory Letter
Foreword
Preface
Acknowledgments
RAP at a Glance
RAP Highlights
History and overview of Terrestrial RAP
History and overview of MarineRAP
History and overview of AquaRAP
Map of RAP survey sites
RAP survey profiles
Protected Areas
Species New to Science
Capacity Building
Spatial Planning
Human Well-being
Regional profiles
Venezuela
Indonesia (Bird’s Head Seascape)
Madagascar
New Guinea
Lists and appendices
Contributors
Appendix I. RAP survey participants
Appendix II. Major RAP partner institutions
Appendix III. RAP donors and supporters
Appendix IV. RAP publications
Index of RAP Survey Profiles
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285
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295
302
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309
314
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Introductory Letter
In 1987 we launched CI with the express purpose of protecting the most important
places on earth. As we began to initiate programs in tropical South America, we
realized that we faced the challenge of identifying precisely where our ecosystem
conservation programs should focus. The information did not exist for us to say
one place was more important than another. We just did not know which specific
locations had escaped the pressures of modern society and remained the best
benchmarks of undisturbed natural systems.
During a late night conversation in my kitchen in Washington DC, Dr. Murray Gellman, the Nobel Prize winning physicist and chair of the John D. and Catherine
T. MacArthur Foundation’s Resources Committee, suggested to me that we hire a
few extraordinary field biologists to find these ecological jewels. He had Louisiana
State ornithologist Ted Parker and Missouri Botanical Garden’s botanist Al Gentry
in mind. These two men were not mere mortals in the world of field biologists.
They were legends for their knowledge and their ability to disappear into the wild,
only to emerge months later with extraordinary tales of adventure and discovery. Murray’s idea was for us to start with Ted and Al and to build a team of the best
field biologists from different disciplines. We could place them in places that we
suspected were ecological paradises and then define with precision the highest
biodiversity priorities. An ecological SWAT team that could accurately assess the
health of an ecosystem in a fraction of the time it would take the normal team of
University scientists. Murray was so enthusiastic about the idea and the urgency of
the need, that he offered to have the Foundation finance the effort.
Out of this came RAP. Ted Parker and Al Genty had unbridled enthusiasm. I recall
a conversation with Ted where he implored me to give him half an hour with the
then president of Peru, Alberto Fujimori, so that President Fujimori would know
which places in Peru were irreplaceable jewels. The meeting took place. The conversation was a little unusual. Joined by mammalogist Louise Emmons and forest ecologist Robin Foster, the initial
RAP Team emerged. After awful tragedy and extraordinary successes, Leeanne Alonso
took over the lead of RAP. Under her clear and strong guidance, RAP has emerged as
a high tech, hands on, teaching by experience, tool for identifying and then protecting
the most important ecosystems on land, in the oceans and in the water.
This book is a tribute to the ecological warriors who launched RAP and sacrificed
their lives doing so. Peter A. Seligmann
Chairman and CEO, Conservation International 8
Foreword
Back in the 1970s and 1980s, we were just beginning to understand the great diversity and global importance of tropical forests and other tropical ecosystems. At
the same time, we could see that they were under increasing pressure almost everywhere, with land being cleared at unprecedented rates for cattle pasture, large
scale monoculture agriculture, huge hydroelectric projects, and large and small
scale mining activities. Those of us who had already spent some time carrying out
research in these regions had begun to understand their great biological wealth,
but what we had seen had made us even more aware of our own ignorance and
how much we still needed to learn to understand these places and to effectively engage in their conservation. We were also acutely aware of the time needed to carry
out research and exploration in these often remote sites, and, given the growing
threats, how little time we had left. What could we do? Was there a way to learn
about these wonderful, truly unique storehouses of biological wealth in a much
faster way, but a way that was still scientifically rigorous and comprehensive.
These were thoughts that occupied many of us back in those early days, but none
of us had an immediate answer. As a result, you can imagine my excitement one
day back in early 1990 when my good friend, ornithologist Ted Parker, came into
my office, and in his inimitable way told me that he had an offer that I couldn’t refuse. Ted, at that time – although he was only in his late 30s – was already acknowledged as the greatest field ornithologist that had ever lived. He had the entire vocal
repertoires of more than 4,000 bird species embedded in his brain and he could
carry out an inventory of 500 bird species in an Amazonian forest by sound alone.
He had even discovered a species new to science simply by hearing it calling in the
forest. He was unique, charming, irrepressible, persistent, and endlessly enthusiastic about his passion for birds and for conservation of the natural world.
What Ted told me on that day long ago was that he had been on an expedition to
Bolivia, one of his favorite countries for bird-watching, together with Nobel Prize
winning physicist Murray Gell-Mann, another avid bird-watcher, and Spencer
Beebe, formerly of The Nature Conservancy and one of the co-founders of Conservation International along with Peter Seligmann. They had been sitting around
a campfire talking about how little we knew of the tropics and how we needed to
learn more as quickly as possible, while there was still time. They had hit upon
the idea of using a handful of superstar field biologists like Ted himself to go into
remote areas and carry out “quick and dirty” assessments, using their amazing
skills to do in a few weeks’ time what it would take ordinary mortal Ph.D. level field
biologists months or years to do. Aside from Ted, there were only a few people
around with such expertise in other groups of organisms such as plants, mammals,
and reptiles and amphibians, but there were enough of them to constitute a small
team. Ted, Murray, and Spencer came up with the idea of a program for Rapid Assessment of Priority Ecosystems, which was later changed to simply the Rapid Assessment Program or RAP, and Ted wanted to see if the young CI, only three years
old, was interested in taking on this challenge.
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I had just come to CI as its President a few months earlier, in July of 1989, leaving an 11 year position with the World Wildlife Fund. We were a young, agile, passionate new organization always
open to new ideas – even if we had no idea where the resources to pay for them would actually
come from. I was immediately thrilled with Ted’s proposal, and we bounced around my office
like little boys with a new toy, as excited as we could possibly be. What was even more exciting
was that there was a potential source of funding for the concept as well. Murray Gell-Mann was
then an influential board member of The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, a new
foundation that over the past couple of years had shown a strong interest in biodiversity conservation. Murray thought that MacArthur could fund the start-up phase of RAP over perhaps
a three year period, and could do so at a scale that was large enough to create a meaningful
program.
Right after talking to Ted, I consulted with Peter Seligmann, the Chairman and Co-founder of CI,
about this exciting idea. As it turned out, Peter had already had a separate conversation with
Murray Gell-Mann, and he was equally enthusiastic about the potential of a RAP Team. As a result, we very quickly put together a proposal, sent it to MacArthur, and had it funded within a
few months time. Instrumental in this were two other people who also played key roles. One
was Brent Bailey, who was part of CI’s Science Program and who put together the original proposal and managed the program in its early days, and the other was Dan Martin, the Director of
MacArthur’s World Environment and Resources Program, who had already shown great leadership and vision in getting MacArthur to focus its conservation investments on the biodiversity
hotspots, an important concept that had just been developed by British ecologist Norman Myers
back in 1988. The original grant was for approximately $750,000 over three years.
With this major support – a lot of money in those days, we were off and running. Ted pulled together the initial team, which consisted of botanist Al Gentry from the Missouri Botanical Garden
(affectionately referred to as a “perchologist” by avid birdwatcher Murray Gell-Mann because he
studied bird’s perches), plant ecologist Robin Foster from The Field Museum , and mammalogist
Louise Emmons from the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. Like Ted, Al was a genius.
I remember once visiting him in his office at the Missouri Botanical Garden and handing him a
stack of unidentified plant specimens pressed in newspaper and fresh from the field. He leafed
through them like the pages of a book, unhesitatingly identifying each one in a matter of seconds.
He once got lost in a forest in Colombia for three or four days, crawled back into camp on the
verge of starvation, grabbed some food from a pot cooking on the campfire, and went right back
into the forest to collect a plant specimen that he thought was new to science. Robin Foster was
equally amazing. I remember taking a leaf fragment of a forest floor sapling from the mouth of a
turtle on Barro Colorado Island in Panama when we were both working there in 1970, bringing
it back to him, and having him identify it on the spot. Louise was considered the best field mammalogist working in the Neotropics at that time, and had amazing skills as well.
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The location that we chose for the first RAP expedition was the Madidi region of Bolivia, a place
that Ted and Al already had some familiarity with. The expedition ran from May 18 – June 15,
1990, and produced amazing results – 403 bird species, nine of which were new for Bolivia and
52 for the department of La Paz, and high plant diversity (204 species in 0.1 hectare). The RAP
report was produced very quickly, and was published in 1991. The official launch of the report
was held in La Paz, Bolivia, and the then President of Bolivia, Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada, was
so taken with it that he took the report’s recommendation that Madidi be set aside as a national
park very seriously. Indeed, within a year of the RAP survey, the Bolivian government and the
World Bank both ranked Madidi as one of six high-priority sites to receive significant funding
and, in 1995, President Sánchez de Lozada declared Madidi as a 1.8 million hectare national
park, making it one of the largest then in existence.
This immediate political success demonstrated very clearly to us that RAP was not just going to
be an important scientific tool. The romantic adventure-filled nature of the work struck a chord
with a wide audience – these, after all, were the true “Indiana Joneses” of the world. Everyone
from decision-makers to the media to the general public was taken with the program, and this
demonstrated very quickly to us that we had struck upon something very special and that the
impact of RAP was going to exceed all of our original expectations. Overnight, RAP became a signature program of the young CI – in many ways it became our most prominent activity in those
early years – and it helped to define the character of the program for the remainder of that early
critically important decade of the 1990s.
We were also fortunate in that several key media outlets picked up on the program early on. Bill
Kurtis, the well-known Chicago journalist and news anchor, had just launched a series called
“The New Explorers”, and RAP was perfect for his program. Smithsonian, People magazine, National Geographic and many others covered it, often in considerable depth, and we were off and
running.
For the first four years, RAP focused exclusively on tropical rain forest regions, mainly in the Andean countries of Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru, the heartland of the Tropical Andes Hotspot and the
richest and most diverse tropical forest region on Earth. In 1994, with the participation of Bruce
Beehler, the world’s expert on the birds of New Guinea, we began work in Papua New Guinea,
another incredibly rich region and even more poorly known than South America. In 1997, RAP
made its first foray into the African region with an expedition to Madagascar, the highest priority
biodiversity hotspot on Earth, and in 1998, a trip to Cote d’Ivoire in West Africa, another very
high priority, heavily impacted hotspot. The work in Madagascar has been especially productive,
with a wide range of new species being discovered on every expedition, in spite of the severe
fragmentation in this unique country.
After six years of work in the terrestrial realm, and at the urging of Adrian Forsyth, our first
Director of Conservation Biology, and later Jorgen Thomsen, who followed Adrian in this position, we decided to look into freshwater systems as well. With support generously provided by
the U.K.–based Rufford Foundation, we were able to move forward with this new dimension,
which we called AquaRAP. The first expedition was to the Rio Orthon in the Pando Department
of Bolivia in 1996, soon followed by trips to other important rivers in South America and to the
Okavango Delta of Botswana.
It was a logical step to add MarineRAP, which officially began in 1997 with an expedition to Milne
Bay Province in Papua New Guinea, followed by other expeditions to the Coral Triangle region
of the Pacific, by far the richest area on Earth for coral reef diversity. As with Terrestrial RAP,
these early marine expeditions had huge impacts, not just on CI’s program but on conservation
at a global level. Milne Bay became our major focus in Papua New Guinea, our expeditions to
the Philippines and Sulawesi laid the groundwork for our major Sulu-Seascape Program, and,
most impressive of all, our 2001 RAP expeditions to the Raja Ampat Islands of Papua Province in
Indonesian New Guinea discovered the richest coral reef system known to date. This expedition
resulted in an intense focus on Raja Ampat, and the creation of 1.7 million ha of new marine protected areas in what we are now calling the Bird’s Head Seascape. Indeed, in many ways, these
early MarineRAP expeditions were responsible for the great global interest in the Coral Triangle,
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which has now become one of the largest conservation programs in the world, the six-nation
Coral Triangle initiative.
By the end of the 1990s, we knew that we had something very special. Not only had our RAP
program succeeded in achieving its original goals, it had developed a methodology that had been
replicated by a number of other institutions and had become a mainstream element of the biodiversity conservation business. What is more, since we knew that RAP would have to be fullyowned by the countries of the tropics where so much of the world’s biodiversity resides, we
began early on to train field biologists from these countries so that they could become the superstars of the future. This has worked particularly well, to the point that the vast majority of RAP
work is now done by researchers from the tropical countries themselves. This was something
envisioned by Parker, Gentry, Foster, and Emmons in the early days, and it has come to fruition
in a major way.
Sadly, the work of RAP has come at a high cost. When we began the program in 1990, we all
knew that there were great risks involved. Reaching the remote areas of greatest interest required travelling by small plane, helicopter, or boat in often precarious conditions, and the risks
of disease, snakebite, guerrillas, and drug-dealers were ever-present – regardless of how well
one prepared for a given expedition. We all took them for granted, and still do – an accepted occupational hazard, and it has never prevented any of us from carrying out our life’s work. But
the risks are real, as became painfully evident in August, 1993, when two of our RAP founders,
and perhaps the two greatest field biologists that ever lived – Ted Parker and Al Gentry, died in
a plane crash in the mountains outside of Guayaquil, Ecuador. Ironically, they were not actually
on a RAP expedition. They had just completed an expedition, had missed their flight to the U.S.,
and were occupying their time by taking a scouting trip with a local conservation NGO. We are
all shocked and greatly saddened by this loss, but, as both Ted and Al would have wanted, their
untimely deaths only strengthened our resolve to continue the work that had been such an integral part of their lives.
Six years later, disaster struck again, this time during an AquaRAP expedition in Peru’s Rio Pastaza. The expedition boat was trawling for fish when it got stuck on a submerged log, dragging the
boat under water. Two people perished in this accident, Fonchii Chang, a promising young Peruvian ichthyologist, and Reynaldo Sandoval, a local boat driver. As sad as these tragic accidents
were, we never thought of ending the program because of them. Rather, we always felt that the
best thing that we could do to honor the memory of these committed pioneers who gave their
lives for conservation was to increase our efforts and do even more than we had done before.
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Now, as I look back at the past 20 years, I am extremely proud of what RAP has accomplished
and how important it has been to CI and to the conservation world in general. Indeed, it is fair
to say that CI would not be where it is today without the sound science and great visibility that
RAP provided for us in those early years. We have carried out an amazing 80 expeditions, 51 terrestrial, 13 freshwater, and 16 marine. We have discovered more than 1,300 species previously
unknown to science and have gathered vast amounts of data on poorly known species, adding
greatly to our knowledge of the tropical world. The new protected areas created as a result of
RAP expeditions have been of global significance, and have led to major global programs extending far beyond CI’s own activities. In several cases, our expeditions have laid the foundation for
land claims by indigenous people, resulting in the creation of special community conservation
areas for them. Our methodology is even being used in a program called IBAT (Integrative Biodiversity Assessment Tool) to inform businesses on where to site their extractive industries. And
perhaps most important of all, by training hundreds of students from tropical countries, we have
truly laid the groundwork for the future and created constituencies that are already carrying the
cause of conservation forward.
Nonetheless, in spite of all that we have learned, there is still much to do. The pressures on the
countries richest in biodiversity have not diminished, and many regions still remain unexplored.
Knowledge has already helped to conserve some of the world’s highest priority sites and regions, and knowledge will continue to be our strongest tool in ensuring the future of life on our
planet. RAP has been critical in providing us with such knowledge, and we look forward to the
next 20 years and the many challenges and the exciting new discoveries that lie ahead.
Russell A. Mittermeier
President, Conservation International
Read Spencer Beebe’s account of the trip
to Bolivia that inspired the creation of the
RAP program on page 126
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For the past 20 years, RAP has played a catalytic role in many of CI’s successful conservation actions in the field. RAP teams have exemplified CI’s values of courage, passion, and integrity as they
explore the far reaches of our planet to document and assess the value of the natural world. We are
counting on RAP to continue to provide the essential data on natural capital that will guide CI’s
new mission of green economies and spatial planning.
- Niels Crone, Chief Operating Officer, Conservation International
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Preface
If you ask different people “What is RAP?” you will likely get many different answers. Aside from the obvious answer that it’s a type of music with rhyming lyrics,
“RAP” has become a well-known acronym for Conservation International’s Rapid
Assessment Program (RAP). Some familiar with the roots of the RAP program may
reply that it’s a small team of expert field biologists swooping in to rapidly collect
data for conservation. The general public who has seen recent media may state
that it’s a bunch of scientists discovering new species. Scientists may reply that it’s
a way to quickly collect data to complete their taxonomic revisions and ecological studies. Students may say that it’s an opportunity to gain field experience and
learn from scientific experts. Local communities may reply that it’s a means of
learning more about what’s in their backyard and how to protect and sustainably
use it. NGOs and governments may say that it’s a way to obtain information they
need to make informed decisions about conservation or development. All of these
views are correct and collectively they provide a picture of what RAP is all about.
Rapid biodiversity assessment is a means of quickly collecting information on the
species present in a given area. Rapid biodiversity assessment differs from other
biodiversity assessment approaches because it is done quickly with the aim of providing information to guide conservation action. Conservation decision-making is
usually done on a time frame that is much more urgent than many scientific studies
and thus data needed to inform these decisions must be made available as quickly
as possible. The typical time frame for RAP is: field survey of 4-6 weeks, with 5-7
days/nights surveying per site; preliminary report published within 2 months of
field survey; final report (with species lists) published about one year after field
survey in the RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment; and utilization of the RAP data
for follow-up conservation action taken by CI field programs and partners.
At the core of RAP is the collaboration between expert scientists (collaborators
from universities and museums) who specialize in the taxonomy and identification of multiple taxonomic groups – birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, plants,
and select insect groups – and a wide range of folks from other CI programs and
outside partners, including local communities, government, NGOs, development
agencies etc. The biodiversity surveys carried out by RAP are not, and cannot, be
done by CI alone – it takes a team of devoted people with many diverse skills to
make it work. In the NGO world, keeping a program funded for this long is not easy.
RAP’s longevity is a testament to the dedication of RAP staff and collaborators, as
well as to the appeal of the RAP concept as a means of attracting and motivating
funders and the general public for biodiversity conservation.
I first learned about CI’s RAP program in 1992, when as a graduate student I became interested in measuring species richness in tropical ecosystems. I took a discussion course on conservation biology with Dr. Edward O. Wilson who encour-
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aged me to investigate how species data can guide conservation decision making. For my class
project, I compared various aspects of species inventory programs from universities and museums and concluded that the RAP program was the best at directly applying the survey data into
conservation planning. Other programs surveyed mostly for scientific purposes. Of course this
piqued my interest in getting involved in RAP so when Dr. Wilson was invited to collect ants on a
RAP survey to Peru but could not go, I heartily volunteered to go in his stead. I was disappointed
that they didn’t take me along then but was delighted six years later when an even greater opportunity came along and I landed my dream job of running the RAP program. The last 12 years
have been an incredible adventure for me - I have had the pleasure of working with brilliant collaborators to make amazing discoveries leading to conservation action all over the world.
This book is a celebration of a multitude of accomplishments by many people the world over
during the first 20 years of the RAP program (1990-2010). In preparing this book, our first goal
was to have a written history of the RAP program, which has been a central part of CI’s work
for most of the organization’s history. We also wanted to show highlights of the 80 RAP surveys,
emphasizing the many ways that the RAP data have been used to catalyze follow-up action at the
RAP survey sites. While all RAP surveys have had multiple impacts, the RAP profiles in the book
are categorized based on the central objective and outcome of each survey, principally related
to: Protected Areas, Species New to Science, Capacity Building, Spatial Planning, and Human
Well-being.
There are two messages that I hope come through to readers of this book. The first is that the
applications of rapid biodiversity assessment reach far beyond the collection of scientific data
and the discovery of species new to science. The second is that species data are essential for any
conservation and development planning or action, as species are the building blocks of all our
natural ecosystems. We know so little about each species and the roles they play in keeping our
planet functioning. Conservation legend Aldo Leopold once said “To keep every cog and wheel is
the first precaution of intelligent tinkering.” RAP aims to find and study species to guide mankind
toward the sustainable management of natural resources to benefit all creatures on Earth. That’s
why we’re still counting…
Leeanne E. Alonso
Director of the Rapid Assessment Program
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Acknowledgments
RAP is, first and foremost, a collaboration among many talented and dedicated
people. Over these past 20 years we have had the honor and pleasure to work with
and be supported by so many who have contributed in ways as diverse as the species we study. We thank all collaborating scientists, who take time out from their
research projects and teaching schedules to lend their expertise to conservation.
We thank all CI staff and partners who help plan and coordinate the extremely
complicated logistics involved in getting to remote field sites. We thank all the
authors, editors, designers, printers, publishers, communicators, and media who
help us to get our RAP results distributed around the world. We thank all partner
NGOs, academic institutions, museums and government agencies, who take the
RAP data and turn it into conservation action. We thank all the local people and
communities who surely wonder why we chase after small creatures in the forest
but who open up their homes and land to us and share with us their traditional
knowledge. We thank the senior leadership of Conservation International for being supportive of the RAP program for two decades. We thank all the individuals,
foundations, and organizations who understand the importance of documenting
biodiversity and have financially supported our RAP work.
We look forward to another 20 years of collaborating with all of you!
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RAP at a Glance
Leeanne E. Alonso and Piotr Naskrecki
All photos © Piotr Naskrecki
What is RAP?
Conservation International’s Rapid Assessment Program (RAP) was created in
1990 to address the lack of biological information needed to make quick but
sound conservation decisions in the developing world. RAP puts together teams
of international and host-country expert scientists to conduct rapid first-cut assessments of the biological value of little-known and unexplored areas. RAP field
surveys generally last three to four weeks, focused on taxonomic groups that can
give an indication of the health of the ecosystem and its conservation value. Preliminary RAP results and conservation recommendations are made available immediately to local decision-makers with a final report and species lists published
in the RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment series.
RAP serves as an important catalyst for conservation action. Data collected during RAP surveys form an essential scientific baseline from which conservation
priorities can be derived and recommendations for conservation action made.
Exciting discoveries of species new to science and the documentation of threatened species help draw attention to the unique biological resources of a site and
raise awareness of its conservation importance.
What is Rapid Biodiversity Assessment?
At its most basic, biodiversity assessment (survey/inventory/etc.) can be viewed
as an evaluation of biological diversity – a scientific study of the species present at
a site. This involves making a list of the species observed, sometimes with information about abundance, and analyzing the data in relation to species lists from
other sites. Multi-taxa biodiversity surveys were once a major preoccupation of
museums and universities in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but are less common today, due to funding constraints and increasing difficulties in obtaining
proper permits to conduct fieldwork in many countries.
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Who is RAP?
At the core of the RAP team are experienced
field biologists, primarily taxonomists, who
specialize in finding, collecting, and identifying species of a particular group of animals or
plants. Ecologists and socioeconomic specialists are also often part of the RAP team. The
scientific experts on the RAP team are not
usually staff of RAP or CI, but are collaborators from universities, museums, government
agencies, other NGOs, etc. Whenever local experts are available, the RAP team preferably
includes scientists from the host countries.
Scientists are the core of RAP, without them
there would be no exciting RAP results to report. The relationship between the RAP program and the RAP scientists is a mutualism,
a relationship in which both parties benefit.
RAP provides the logistical support for accessing remote, unexplored regions of the
world of interest to collaborating scientists,
RAP is above all a pragmatic methodology designed to provide a species-driven basis for the
formulation of conservation policies and action.
RAP has a wide taxonomic scope, speedy data
processing, and swift and broad data dissemination. RAP involves government, local counterparts
and stakeholders to actively participate at all
stages of the surveys. RAP’s approach involves a
team of both international and national experts
combined with training of local scientists to build
scientific capacity for biodiversity assessment
and conservation.
The RAP methodology is primarily designed to
quickly collect data on species richness and composition, compare the data on a global and regional scale, and make conservation recommendations. These recommendations may range from
identifying priority sites and taxa for conservation,
to informing and designing management and
monitoring plans for the area, to designing conservation strategies for particular taxa. RAP often
includes a social science component to address
the challenge of how to use the RAP results to influence conservation policy and action. Combined
with the species information, data on local natural resource-use and livelihoods provide a rough
characterization of the importance of the forests
for local people, a history of anthropogenic disturbance, and the likely changes in scale of resource
use in the near future.
supporting
exciting
Rapid biodiversity assessment is not an exhaustive inventory and will not record every
species in an area. A longer-term inventory
or monitoring program will add more species
to the list. Careful thought must go into planning and implementing an assessment. Like
any biodiversity assessment, rapid biodiversity assessment can only report what species
have been detected and recorded as present
in the area. It cannot tell you what species are
definitely not there.
What makes RAP an effective conservation tool?
RAP is….. targeted
rapid
science-based
Rapid biodiversity assessment aims to collect
biodiversity data quickly so that they can be
available to meet the needs of urgent conservation challenges. An assessment may focus
on one taxonomic group, such as birds or vascular plants, or on multiple taxa. In addition
to the species list, scientists can also collect
information on habitat condition, extent of
disturbance to the habitat, and details on the
biology of the species (e.g., nesting sites, habitat, diet, etc.).
tough
flexible
surprising
catalytic
news breaking
engaging impactful
19
whose job is usually to collect and study
specimens of their target group. The scientists also provide an evaluation of the threats
and conservation status of the species they
document and thus contribute to conservation recommendations for the species and
the sites.
In addition to the core scientific RAP team,
RAP is a collaboration of many people and
organizations. RAP works closely with CI’s
Required qualifications of core RAP team members
regional and country programs to identify
the need for a RAP survey in areas for which
• Recognized experts in their field
biodiversity information is required to guide
• Ability to identify observed species and collected specimens to species level
conservation priorities or management strat• Field experience: able to live cooperatively
egies. RAP works together and with other CI
under primitive, remote field conditions
programs to raise the funds needed to carry
• Time available to produce a scientific reout the survey. Local, scientific, non-governport with species lists within one year of
mental and government, as well as private
the RAP survey
sector partners, are then involved to help
• Ability to analyze the RAP data in a regional
with logistics planning for the RAP – everyand global context to make conservation
thing from food, to helicopters, to research
recommendations
permits. Local communities are an essential
part of the team since they have a lot of traditional knowledge and are the beneficiaries of the data collected and the follow-up conservation activities. RAP works closely with these communities to understand their needs, to obtain
approval to work on their land, and to learn from their knowledge of the site and of the local
biodiversity. The RAP team grows to include partners, students, governmental and community
trainees, local field guides, and field support personnel. Immediately after a survey, RAP scientists provide preliminary conservation recommendations to local governmental agencies,
environmental groups, and other stakeholders based on their observations. RAP teams have
ranged in size from 3-29 expert scientists (average 10-15) from a wide variety of governmental, NGO, and academic institutions around the world.
Reasons to RAP
The rapid loss of natural ecosystems around the world drives the need to collect biodiversity
data that can be used to prioritize and protect areas that are threatened. Pristine, remote, unexplored ecosystems are becoming fewer and more endangered every day. Documenting the
species from these sites provides the scientific baseline to guide conservation efforts at the
site level as well as the global scale as the species data are fed into global datasets such as the
IUCN Red List and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF).
It is also clear that a staggering number of species worldwide falls victim to a tragic process known as the Centinelan extinction – disappearance of species before science even had
a chance to recognize and formally described them. It was named after the Centinela ridge
20
in Ecuador, where, in 1978, RAP founder Alwyn Gentry and botanist Caraway Dodson
discovered 90 previously unknown plant
species. Within a few years, before many of
them could be scientifically described, the
ridge was converted into a plantation, and all
its newly discovered species became extinct.
By conducting RAP surveys in places under
immediate threat of industrial development,
as we often do, we create a record of species
that otherwise could have lived and disappeared without anybody’s knowledge, and by
publicizing their existence we dramatically
increase their chances of survival.
The objectives of each RAP survey are unique,
designed to meet the data and conservation
needs of the area surveyed. However, the
principal objective of RAP has always been,
and continues to be, to quickly collect biodiversity data for unexplored areas to guide
conservation decision making.
The principal objectives of RAP surveys are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
RAP surveys are a field biologist’s dream!
The hardships of living and working in mud and rain
without the basic comforts of home and the dangers
of tropical diseases are easily forgotten when you get
a chance to explore a remote, unknown area where
no scientist and few humans have ever set foot. The
scientific treasures and discoveries of species new
to science are more than worth the minor risks and
lack of comfort.
Derive a brief but thorough overview of species diversity at the survey sites.
Evaluate the area’s conservation importance to identify conservation priorities.
Offer recommendations for sustainable management and research.
Increase awareness in local communities (and national and global communities) of the
value of the species and ecosystem services provided by the natural ecosystem surveyed
Build local scientific capacity for biodiversity assessment and conservation planning
through training.
Guide private sector activities such as mining and energy activities, ecotourism, and fishing
Evaluate human and natural disturbances to the ecosystem.
Contribute the scientific baseline for spatial planning and long-term monitoring.
Provide scientific justification for creating, expanding, and strengthening protected areas.
While long-term scientific studies are critically important, decision-makers often need information quickly in order to determine biodiversity priorities, manage natural resources, and
avoid negatively impacting the environment. Rapid biological assessments provide the baseline data that decision-makers need. These short, intense, and focused studies help to answer
the following three fundamental biological questions that are important for the conservation
of biodiversity:
1. What organisms live in a specific area? In other words, what plants and animals will be affected by decisions regarding land use? If we don’t know what organisms depend upon a piece
of land, we can’t possibly assess the potential impacts of modifications to that land.
21
The Diversity of a RAP Team
The motivation and benefits of participation
in a RAP survey varies for the many different
participants. Take for example the 2010 RAP
survey of southwestern Suriname around the
Indigenous Trio village of Kwamalasamutu. The
team consisted of the following, each of whom
had their own motivation for joining the RAP
survey, and different expectations of how the
experience and data would benefit them:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
22
16 international and Surinamese scientists:
Collect data for scientific research and
specimens for their museum/university
collection, opportunity to explore remote field
site
7 students and recent graduates from Anton
de Kom University of Suriname and Advanced
Teachers Training Institute: Obtain field
experience and learn from expert scientists
3 representatives from the Government of
Suriname’s Nature Conservation Division:
Obtain field experience and learn from expert
scientists
6 forest rangers from Amazon Conservation
Team: Learn new field techniques from
expert scientists, assist team with their local
knowledge
18 Trio field assistants from Kwamalasamutu:
Employment, assist team with their local
knowledge, learn new techniques for longterm monitoring of biodiversity
Community of Kwamalasamutu: obtain an
evaluation of their natural resources and
recommendations for sustainable use of
freshwater, wildlife, fisheries and other forest
products, obtain information and products to
promote ecotourism to their village
Conservation International - Suriname staff:
Obtain data to guide creation of nature reserve,
help develop ecotourism in the area, and raise
awareness of the importance of biological
resources in southwestern Suriname.
2. Do the organisms living in a specific area
differ from those living in other areas? How
distinct is the community of organisms in
one area when compared to other areas? We
might wish to take special care of species or
groups of species that are rare or restricted
in their distribution, whereas we might be
less concerned about a species that is widespread and abundant. To answer this question, analytical procedures must be applied
to the field data.
3. Will a certain use of land or resources (or
did a previous use) negatively or positively
affect specific organisms? This can be a very
complicated question to answer confidently,
but rapid biological assessment can collect
the basic data to begin answering this question.
Places to RAP
Geographic Priorities. All of the 80 RAP surveys conducted during RAP’s first 20 years 51 terrestrial, 13 freshwater, and 16 marine
- have been conducted in tropical regions
of the world (see Map 1 on p. 92). RAP sites
have all been located within Biodiversity Hotspots, regions of high diversity, endemism,
and threat, or within High Biodiversity Wilderness Areas, regions of high diversity and
endemism but with lower threat, and more
expansive natural habitat for exploration.
These regions harbor the highest species diversity and number of endemic species in the
world, so they are of interest to RAP scientists as potential sites for rare and new species and to CI as conservation priorities.
RAP may be best known for getting into the
most remote, hard-to-reach places on earth
that have the potential for new, surprising
discoveries. Tropical mountain areas and
remote islands are examples of such places
because they tend to have a high degree of
endemism i.e., each mountain/island has a
different array of unique species found nowhere else on Earth. Other sites of interest include
habitats that require special adaptations for species to survive, such as areas with low oxygen
levels (e.g., swamps) and limestone caves. Sites with high rainfall, long geological history, and
unique environmental conditions all have high potential for the discovery of new and rare
species.
See the RAP History Chapters (pages 56, 74 and 80) for details on geographic priorities for
RAP surveys.
RAP Survey Site selection. Characteristics of sites of interest for RAP surveys include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
high species richness
high endemism
threat of habitat conversion and ecosystem degradation
lack of ecosystem representation in protected area systems
absence of adequate biological inventory
significant potential for biodiversity conservation
existence of large areas of potentially intact habitat
The presence of large areas of intact habitat is crucial to the long term ecological viability
of tropical ecosystem functions because it allows for the maintenance of critical ecosystem
services and species, such as viable seed dispersal systems and keystone predators. Studies
of tropical forest fragments reveal that the prospects of ecosystem viability are substantially
and negatively impacted by fragmentation and reduction of habitat. Accordingly, RAP places
particular emphasis on selection of sites that are potentially large enough to remain ecologically viable.
Specific site selection is based on the analysis of satellite images, aerial photographs, and overflights. About six months prior to a RAP survey the team consults remote-sensing imagery to
determine the extent of forest cover and best areas for exploration. Fortunately, with online
tools such as Google Maps (http://maps.google.com) and Microsoft Live (http://maps.live.
com) quality satellite imagery is available to anyone with a computer and an internet connection. When searching for potential study sites, RAP scientists look for any hills, gradients, or
mountain peaks and any obvious changes in forest or savanna habitat and plant composition.
Geological maps are also a good source of information on what may make an area distinct, and
therefore especially important for conservation. Detailed local maps are extremely useful to
identify potential camp sites and access points.
Sites for rapid biological assessment are selected primarily based on habitat type and condition. Because the objectives of a RAP survey include documentation of any rare, endemic or
threatened species in the area, as well as documentation of as much of the diversity as possible, a representative of all habitat types in the area should be surveyed. If the area of interest
has a wide range of elevations, sites should be located along this gradient in order to cover as
much of the range as possible. Surveys should be done in the habitats that are in the best condition. If some of the target sites of interest to the RAP survey are not in good condition, these
may be surveyed, but additional sites in better forest should also be included.
23
In the surveyed country, the scientists conduct aerial reconnaissance in small planes
or helicopters to identify and verify forest
types, access routes, and potential campsites. Local people are consulted about the
vegetation and fauna of the planned survey sites as they often know the local terrain better than anyone. Once key habitats
are identified, two to four RAP target areas
are usually selected within the study area
and their precise geographic coordinates
are recorded. A field reconnaissance team,
consisting of a few RAP scientists and the
logistical coordinators, then goes into the
area to try to get to the desired survey site
and select an area for the RAP camp. Ideally,
the recon team is able to reach all the target
RAP sites and set up the infrastructure for
a RAP camp prior to the RAP survey. Sometimes this is not possible if the RAP sites are
far apart or particularly difficult to access.
In those cases, the first RAP camp is set up
then while the RAP scientists work at the
first RAP camp, a camp set-up team of local field assistants and RAP coordinators travels to
the area of the second RAP target site to set up a camp that will be ready when the scientific
team is ready to move on.
Conducting a RAP Survey
The RAP Logistics. During RAP surveys, scientists spend three-to-four weeks deep in remote
forests, river systems, coral reefs or other wild places, looking for species. The logistics required to undertake such trips often takes as much planning and work as the expedition itself.
The process of planning a RAP survey is outlined on the RAP Biodiversity Survey Network
website (https://learning.conservation.org/biosurvey/Pages/default.aspx) and in the RAP logistics manual available at https://learning.conservation.org/biosurvey/RAP/Toolkit/Pages/
SurveyCoordinating.aspx.
There are many steps involved in planning and organizing a rapid biodiversity survey, including the following, listed in order:
• Identify need and objective for the survey.
• Choose survey area.
• Obtain all available biodiversity information for the area/region.
• Determine number and location of sampling sites.
• Set survey dates based on climate and season.
• Determine appropriate taxonomic groups.
• Determine appropriate survey team members.
24
• Logistical planning (transport, camps, equipment, contracts, food, etc.).
• Organize and purchase equipment and supplies.
Getting to the field sites is one of RAP’s biggest challenges. After all, they wouldn’t be remote
and unexplored if they were easy to access! RAP teams utilize many different modes of transportation, depending on the remoteness of the site, its terrain, and whether there is access
by river or by land. The purpose of RAP is not adventure travel or extreme sports. The goal
is to spend as much time conducting the scientific survey work as possible and to minimize
time spent getting to and from the sites. Thus small planes and helicopters are used whenever
possible to get the RAP team quickly into remote areas. If there is river access, motor boats
or dugout canoes are used to get to the site.
Ground travel is more difficult: often a combination of vehicles, boats, pack animals,
and foot travel is required to get the team to
remote sites where few, if any, roads exist.
The most remote and difficult RAP surveys
may require several days of hiking, usually
up steep mountainsides. The RAP team surveying in the Foja Mountains of Papua, Indonesia (November 2008) faced constant
torrential rains, repeatedly crossed streams
at flood tide, and constantly worked in wet
clothes. It is tough work to reach places
where undescribed species are found, but
well worth the effort to these scientists
whose dream is to discover and document
life on Earth.
RAP employs people from local communities
to help porter all the scientific equipment,
food, camp gear, and personal gear of the
RAP team, which can together be quite
heavy. The cargo weight on the recent RAP
survey to the Muller Range Mountains in
Papua New Guinea was probably in excess
of 1,000 kilos – it had to be delivered to
the vicinity of the camp by a helicopter, but
fortunately not carried far from the landing
pad. Similarly, the cargo weight for the
RAP survey of southwest Suriname around
Kwamalasamutu was over 2,000 kilos – all of
which was flown down to Kwamalasamutu
in small charter planes and then taken by
dugout canoes (with outboard motors,
fortunately) six hours down river to reach
the first RAP camp site.
25
Taxonomic groups surveyed. While many people may think of mammals and birds when they
think of biodiversity, these groups constitute less than 1% of known life (approx. 15,000 species of the 1.9 million documented species of animals). The majority of species are invertebrates, which includes arthropods (insects, spiders, and relatives), mollusks (snails, mussels
etc.), echinoderms (starfish, sea urchins etc.), platyhelminths (flat worms), and many others.
It is estimated that as many as 10-30 million species of organisms are yet to be discovered
and scientifically described. It is important to consider all of biodiversity when conducting a
RAP survey, especially since it is these smaller organisms that are often both the principal ecosystem engineers and keystone species, and at the same time face a greater risk of becoming
threatened or extinct than the larger, warm-blooded species.
However, it is impossible to survey all species during a rapid biological assessment. We therefore concentrate efforts on surveying focal taxonomic groups, or focal taxa. Focal taxa must
meet three criteria:
1. The group can be fairly easily sampled in the field in order to obtain a good picture of
species richness in a short time.
2. The taxonomy of the group is worked out well enough so that species-level identification can be made.
3. There are adequate identification guides with which to identify specimens and sightings of the group to species level, or there are specialists willing to devote their time and
expertise to participate in the survey and perform the identification.
Focal taxonomic groups surveyed most often
during rapid assessment include vascular
plants, mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. More recently, the taxonomy of many invertebrate groups has improved so that they
can also be included in biological assessment.
Invertebrate groups surveyed include several
insect groups: ants, orthopterans (grasshoppers, crickets and katydids), termites, dung
beetles, butterflies, and dragonflies, as well
as a few other invertebrate groups such as
mollusks, crabs and spiders. For most groups
of invertebrates there are only a few experts
for each region, thus the selection of invertebrate groups for inclusion in a particular RAP
survey depends on the existence of an expert and their availability for the RAP survey.
For AquaRAP surveys, fishes, aquatic plants,
aquatic invertebrates, and water quality are
sampled. Corals, marine invertebrates, and
fishes are the focus of coastal MarineRAP surveys.
26
Rapid biological assessment also relies on indicator species, which are species whose presence (or
absence) is also an indicator of a particular aspect of the environment, such as closed canopy or
good quality forest, disturbance, or the presence of other species. For example, certain bird species
require closed canopy forest and thus their presence indicates good forest quality. Likewise, some
amphibian and insect species are more typical of open areas and thus can indicate if there has been
disturbance to the area. Species and broader taxonomic groups that respond quickly to small changes in microclimate, such as moisture and heat regimes, are best at detecting disturbance, such as fire
and habitat conversion, and also best suited to monitor restoration efforts. Large mammal species
richness and composition are usually good indicators of the extent of hunting pressure in an area.
It is important to choose the right target taxa so that the objectives of the project can be met.
These are some of the things to consider when deciding which groups to survey:
• Do the data collected for the taxon address the objectives and questions of the study?
• Well-known taxa have more experts and resources. Poorly known groups have fewer
experts and can have disputed taxonomy delaying final determinations.
• What level of taxonomic accuracy and precision is needed? Is a list of morphospecies
sufficient or are species names needed? Are there taxonomic references for species
identification?
• How difficult is it to make species determinations? Can enough useful data be collected
on this group in the allotted period in the field? Can specimens be identified within
eight months?
• Which groups will have most species new to science? The likelihood of discovery of
new or very significant taxa (i.e., rare birds) helps to generate public interest and
awareness.
RAP data. The types of RAP data collected must
meet the objectives and goals of the survey.
Data collected during RAP usually include:
• List of species by site.
• Total number of species for each site
and for entire assessment (if multiple
sites).
• Comparisons between sites (as appropriate) in terms of species richness and
important species.
• List of important species including
threatened, endemic, restricted range,
indicator, introduced, and other key
species.
• Ecological information about each of
the important species, including what
type of habitat they require, what they
feed on, where they live/nest, their
population size (if possible), and their
role in ecosystem processes/services.
27
RAP data collected in the field fall into the following categories:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Species check-lists
Habitat where each species is found
GPS location for each species and individual recorded
Additional biological notes on species records (e.g., diet, nesting site, number of individuals)
Habitat heterogeneity (identify different habitat types)
Use of particular species by local people (interviews)
Habitat condition
Threats – observed and future
Field Survey Methods
RAP survey methods need to be fast, because time is of the essence. They should be reliable,
because diverse people need to apply them in a variety of areas to generate comparable data.
They should also be simple and inexpensive because species diversity is highest in developing
tropical countries where the scientific and museum infrastructure is often still rudimentary.
Each RAP survey is individually designed to meet specific objectives, with distinct team size,
members, focal taxa, length of survey, etc. However, there is one aspect that we try to keep constant across all RAP surveys: a minimum of five nights per site. Each site should have the same
sampling effort if possible. This allows for some degree of comparison among thoroughly surveyed sites globally, and for most taxa will allow RAP team members to obtain a good impression of the biodiversity at the site.
RAP scientists have been at the forefront of novel, cutting-edge methodologies for detecting
and recording species in tropical forests and technology has played an increasingly larger role
in this process. Some examples include the use of heat-in-motion camera traps for mammals,
sound recording and playbacks for birds using iPods, and digital recording devices for other
acoustic animals. DNA analysis has also become important for identification of species that are
indistinguishable morphologically and for determining evolutionary relationships among the
species. Online identification aids featuring high magnification photography of small organisms has greatly advanced scientists’ abilities to identify organisms to species level and are
valuable as a training tool. As technology advances even more rapidly in the next decade, new
methods of species detection and rapid identification of species are sure to be developed.
Although some groups of organisms can be documented in the field by simple observations
and non-invasive methods (sound recordings, camera traps, bird watching), for many taxonomic groups scientists must collect and preserve physical specimens in order to perform
definite identifications. For example, nearly all ants look similar when seen scurrying on the
forest floor, but reveal amazing differences in the morphology of their bodies when examined under a microscope. Sometimes minute, seemingly trivial differences in the details of
their bodies carry significant information – the shape of the abdomen, impossible to see in
an active, live insect, can tell the scientist whether this ant is an invasive pest, indicative of
28
habitat disturbance, or a species new to science. While RAP scientists always strive to
minimize their impact on the environment
they are surveying, and this includes collecting only the absolute minimum number of
specimens, trapping and preserving specimens is a critically important part of the RAP
methodology. Without physical, preserved
specimens scientists would neither be able
to describe the many species new to science
found during the RAP survey, nor study their
genetics. It also must be stressed that RAP
scientists never trap or collect species that
are known to be threatened (such as those on
the IUCN Red List) or species whose populations, due to their relatively small size, may
be impacted by collecting (such as those of
many birds, mammals, or reptiles). Conversely, species whose populations are known to
be very large, such as those of many insects,
will never be imperiled by RAP scientists collecting a handful of specimens. (An average
insect-eating bird probably consumes more
insects in a day than a RAP scientist collects
during a week-long survey.)
Searching for Species. Each RAP scientist
searches extensively in the micro-habitats
where they are most likely to find interesting
species from their group. For example, bird experts walk trails through the forest, especially
along edges where a mixture of forest and open field birds can be found and where the birds
can be better seen than in the dense forest. Mammal experts seek out areas where mammals
find water, salt or prey. Ant experts search through leaf litter and soil for tiny species that have
been overlooked by others. Of course, species are sometimes found in unexpected places, such
as your own tent or around the lights of the field kitchen!
For organisms that use songs and other sounds to communicate, sound detection and recording is a good way to recognize and document something different. Virtually all birds, frogs,
many insects, and, surprisingly, many fish produce distinct calls, each unique to a particular species. By recording all sounds in a specific environment, such as the forest canopy or a
coral reef, and using sound analysis software to assess the data, scientists can quickly pinpoint
those elements of the sound spectrum that are different from all known animal songs. Often
such songs are not audible to the human ear because they use frequencies that are too low
(infrasounds) or too high (ultrasounds) for us to perceive. In such instances special recording
equipment must be used. In Ghana RAP researchers have already discovered a number of katydid species new to science by tracking never-before-heard ultrasonic sounds.
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Many unnamed species are very shy or live in places that are virtually inaccessible to researchers. In such cases we often use traps or remote recording devices. Pitfall traps left on the forest
floor or hung in the canopy attract and capture many small organisms that are active only at
night or are particularly cryptic. Sometimes traps are baited with a broad spectrum of artificial
pheromones, chemical attractants that mimic the scent of a mating partner. Nocturnal flying insects can be lured to traps equipped with ultraviolet light.
For particularly shy animals, such as most mammals, remote camera traps sometimes help document never-before-seen species of rodents or occasionally deer. Such traps consist of a wellcamouflaged camera, which will take a photo if the animal trips an invisible infrared or laser
beam. Some traps will also detect the body heat of an approaching animal or react to the sound
of it, taking a photograph that otherwise would be impossible to get.
Surveys of the marine life of coral reefs generally involve scuba diving and snorkeling along transect routes among the coral, recording all species of invertebrates, corals and fishes observed.
Old fashioned hard work and determination is still often the best way to find interesting species.
Scientists spend long hours, often all night in the rain, or all day in the hot sun, to find species
they suspect should be there, or to find undescribed species that had eluded other scientists.
True dedication is required.
Field scientists generally use a set of standard
methods for rapid biological assessment. A
manual of field methods specifically for rapid
biological assessment is in preparation by
CI’s RAP program. For now, drafts of RAP field
methods are available on RAP’s Biodiversity
Survey Network website: https://learning.
conservation.org/biosurvey/RAP/Toolkit/
Pages/SurveyCoordinating.aspx. There are
many sources of information for specific
field methods for surveying each taxonomic
group including Heyer et al. (1994), Wilson
et al. (1996), Agosti et al. (2000), and Rödel
and Ernst (2004). Some general descriptions
of the field methods are listed below.
Vascular plants: One hundred meter
transects are established and all tree
species within 10 meters of the transect
are identified. Plots are set up and all trees
and shrubs in the plot are identified. Visual
searches for rare, endemic and threatened
species are conducted in a variety of habitats.
In some places, grasses and herbs may also
need to be surveyed because tree diversity
may not be high. Specimens of plants that
30
Tetraponera rufonigra – a beautiful ant from Cambodia
cannot be identified in the field are collected and deposited in herbaria (museum or university
collections of dried and pressed plants).
Ants: Field sampling methods include targeted searches within three strata where ants are commonly found: leaf litter and soil, lower arboreal, and high arboreal. Collecting from leaf litter
includes examining rotting logs and branches, looking under stones, locating nests in soil and between rotting leaves, searching for individuals and foraging columns, and also some limited litter
and extraction using Winkler sacs. Collections from the lower arboreal strata include looking
under loose bark, in myrmecophilous plants, in epiphytic root masses, and in leaf litter trapped
in arboreal vegetation. Ants from the higher arboreal strata are more difficult to collect, but can
be found when they descend from the canopy to forage and nest in branches, old termite nests,
and epiphytes that have fallen from the canopy as well as on freshly fallen trees. An extensive
area need not be sampled, as many ant species can be found within a small area (e.g., 254 species
from an area less than 1 km2 in Papua New Guinea).
The presence of introduced species, such as the Tropical Fire Ant, Solenopsis geminata, should be
documented in order to evaluate the level of disturbance to the area. Data on nesting sites and
food habits are noted whenever possible. Basic data on the micro-habitat environment (temperature, humidity, leaf litter depth, and canopy cover) are also recorded for each major sample.
The status of the survey sites in terms of ant diversity is evaluated with respect to the level of ant
species richness compared to that expected, the status of the micro and general habitats for ants
and other insects, and the presence of invasive species, rare or new species, mutualistic species
(with plants, etc.), species that perform key functions in the ecosystem, and species that may be
restricted to particular microhabitats. Specimens are collected for each species that cannot be
identified in the field.
Katydids and relatives: Three main methods are used to collect the Orthoptera (grasshoppers,
crickets and katydids): (1) sweeping, (2) UV-light trapping, and (3) visual and acoustic searches.
Sweeping includes standardized sweeping of grass and low vegetation with a durable insect net.
31
It is usually conducted in a series of 6-10 forceful sweeps within a series of parallel transects 20-30
m long, depending on the type of vegetation. Collected insects are immediately sorted to family and
preserved in 70% ethanol or preserved dry on silica gel in glassine or paper envelopes. A portion of
specimens is retained live for subsequent photographic documentation. UV (=blacklight) trapping
involves collecting all insects attracted to light at night within a designated period of time. In most
cases UV-trapping is done between dusk until 23:00 or midnight. Attracted insects are collected by
hand or with a small aspirator, and preserved in 70% ethanol.
Visual and acoustic searching is employed mostly in habitats with dense vegetation cover where
sweeping is impossible. It involves collecting individuals noticed or heard on their calling perches, and is usually conducted at night when most species are active. In addition to the collection
of physical specimens, acoustically signaling species (most katydids and some grasshoppers of
the family Acrididae) are recorded. Such recordings are often the only reliable characters that
allow for positive identification of species. Specimens are collected for each species that cannot
be identified in the field.
Butterflies: Butterflies are surveyed by catching or identifying butterflies along transects
through different habitats, particularly open fields and areas with nectar plants. Baited traps
are put out for five days (with rotting fruit) to attract forest butterflies. Visual searches are made
diurnally in all habitat types. Specimens are collected for each species that cannot be identified
in the field.
Freshwater fishes: Fishes are surveyed using a variety of net sizes and types (seine and gill
nets) according to habitat type, water depth, and water flow rate. Rapids and rocks are inspected and sampled using hand nets when possible. Water quality parameters such as temperature,
pH, oxygen levels, and turbidity will also be recorded. Specimens are collected for species that
cannot be identified in the field.
Amphibians and reptiles: Visual searches of aquatic and terrestrial habitats are done both during night and day. All specimens are photographed to insure that later identification of problematic species will be possible. Calling frog species are recorded at night with a portable sound
recorder. Nocturnal and diurnal searches include checking under rocks and logs in the forest,
and raking through leaf litter on the forest floor. Snakes are captured with snake tongs or a
snake stick. The appropriate terrestrial habitat is searched for tortoises, and turtle traps are set
in aquatic habitats. Dip nets are used to sample amphibians and tadpoles in aquatic habitats.
Pitfall traps are set in the ground and drift fences (metal flashing) are set up between pitfall
traps to lead animals into the pitfalls during the night. Specimens are collected for reference and
positive identification by comparison with museum specimens.
Mammals: Tracks, sounds, evidence of feeding sites, and direct observations are recorded. In
addition, 20 camera traps are set within 10 km of the base camp at each site. The traps are
motion-sensitive and thus automatically take photographs of any animal that comes in front
of the camera. Camera traps are set to run continuously. A 20 second delay between pictures
is programmed. Scent and visual lures are sometimes used to attract mammals to the camera
traps. The cameras are left in place and not checked until we move to a different location. If the
locations are close, some of the cameras are left in place and a subset of the cameras are moved
to the next location.
32
RAP scientists preparing a camera trap in Botswana
A relative abundance index for each confirmed species can sometimes be calculated. A phototrapping rate that allows comparison of camera photo-trap effort between sites is also computed. RAP scientists generally try to survey beyond the area where other RAP team members
collect their data. Day and night surveys are made to collect information on large mammals.
Transects are walked for primates and other diurnal mammals.
Birds: The widest range of natural habitats in the area should be surveyed, with a more intense
focus in specific habitats for species of interest. Transects are walked at dawn and in the early
evening and all birds observed and heard are noted. Bird calls are recorded for later identification. Mist nets are set up for catching and identifying understory birds. Survey results include
species lists and estimates of the relative abundance of species.
See page 74 for details of MarineRAP Methods.
Training Local Scientists
The best way to do rapid biological assessment is to make use of the best available scientific expertise. An interdisciplinary scientific team comprised of experienced, highly respected, field scientists
can collect a significant amount of high-quality biodiversity data in a short time period. Taxonomic
experts from the area or region of the rapid assessment are essential since they are familiar with
the species of the region. However, in many of the highly diverse countries where rapid assessment
will be required, there are not many taxonomic experts and the general scientific capacity of the
country or region may be poor. Therefore, RAP promotes collaboration between expert scientists
33
from scientific institutions worldwide and local scientists, and places particular emphasis on training local students in modern research and conservation methodology.
Building local capacity for biodiversity research and assessment involves training local students
and scientists to increase their skills in biological assessment, taxonomy, data analysis, and report preparation. Throughout the past 20 years, RAP has developed and implemented a well-established training program designed to build up expertise in these areas. RAP training includes
building a local team of scientists who will develop the skills to conduct rapid biological assessment in their country or region. Once local scientists are trained, it is important that opportunities exist for them to use their skills to conduct biodiversity research. Therefore, RAP also aims
to include trainees in RAP surveys in order to give them field experience and opportunities for
further collaborations with international experts. RAP’s Biodiversity Survey Network website
provides many materials useful to anyone seeking to learn more about rapid biodiversity surveys (https://learning.conservation.org/biosurvey/Pages/default.aspx).
Data Analysis
Knowledge of the species richness of a variety of taxa can provide a great deal of useful information for conservation planning. First of all, an inventory of the species in an area will
provide data on the distributions of species
and will document the presence of any rare,
threatened or ecologically important species,
such as introduced species or species found
only in particular habitat types. The number
of species and the species composition in an
area can indicate the health of an ecosystem
and can provide insight into the presence of
other organisms or habitat changes (indicator species). Data on species richness and
composition provide the baseline needed for
using various taxa to monitor environmental change or recovery. While many taxa are
capable of living in a wide range of habitats,
some species have narrow ecological requirements, and thus can be used as indicators of
habitat change or restoration success.
Many developing countries with high biodiversity lack the scientific capacity to collect
and analyze biodiversity data needed to make
sound conservation decisions for the country.
It is important to build local scientific capacity by training local students and scientists in
biodiversity research, assessment, and monitoring. Such efforts are vital for decisions to
be made about the long-term management
of the country’s resources, which involves
both conserving biodiversity as well as benefiting local people.
34
The first step for the RAP team is to identify and list the species recorded at each site.
From this list, species of particular interest
(threatened, endemic, or new to science)
are identified and studied to reveal patterns
of distribution and habitat preferences. For
most analyses, specimens must be identified to species level. If just a total count of
the number of species in an area is needed,
perhaps to compare with other areas, then identification to the morphospecies level may be
satisfactory.
Careful consideration is given to which methods of data analysis will best address the questions
of each particular study. The relevant analytical tools and their use varies for each taxonomic
group (Magurran 1988, Krebs 2002). Statistical analyses will depend on the research objectives
and questions. Some questions that are often asked and the statistical tools that can be used
to address them include:
1. What is the estimated species richness based on the available data? EstimateS (Colwell
2004) is a widely used, freely available online program, which allows to compute a
number of indices (Chao, ACE, ICE, etc.).
2. What is the diversity at a site? Several diversity measures are available including Shannon index (H), alpha index (α), the Simpson index (D), and the Berger-Parker index (d).
3. Does one site or transect have higher diversity than another? Compare the diversity
indices using a t-test or Mann-Whitney U test.
4. What are the patterns of association among samples or sites? Indices of similarity such
as Jaccard’s index and indices of complementarity such as the Marczewski-Steinhaus
distance measure, ordination and classification procedures can be used.
Data that are particularly useful to biodiversity conservation and project planning include:
A. Global/regional importance of each species and taxonomic group including:
• Species ranges and distributions (local, regional and global), especially for species
listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
• Identification and data for endemic, rare, commercial and invasive species.
• Species used by local human communities (for food, building, cultural ceremonies,
etc.).
B. Habitat condition and its regional/global conservation value, comparisons between
sites as appropriate, threats observed (roads, hunting, logging, etc.).
C. Comparisons between survey sites and other areas or regions – evaluation of sites as
priorities for global or local conservation based on presence of key species and habitat
condition; analysis of sites for designation as conservation priority areas, such as an Important Bird Area (IBA), Key Biodiversity Area (KBA), etc.
D. Specific recommendations to illustrate what is needed to protect key species and their
habitats, including:
• What specific habitat and sites within the survey area does the species need to survive?
• How large is the range of the species and how much area is needed to protect it?
• Do the food sources for this species need protection as well?
• If the area is impacted, can this species move to a nearby area (e.g., is it mobile), and
if so, is there sufficient habitat nearby to sustain it?
• What specific human impacts will affect these species most and how?
• What measures should be taken to protect these species?
35
E. Presence of species that indicate the status of the ecosystem’s health. Evidence of species known to be invasive or common in disturbed areas can indicate that the ecosystem
has been impacted. Similarly, the presence of species known to survive only in healthy,
dense natural forest or savanna can indicate a healthy ecosystem.
In most cases, data from different RAP surveys cannot be directly compared because they
were collected using different methods, by different people, over different time frames, and
for different objectives. In some cases, RAP surveys are conducted at more than one site by
the same RAP team and thus RAP data can then be directly compared. The RAP data for all
the taxonomic groups can be evaluated together to develop a picture of the status of the ecosystem and to prioritize sites for conservation based on the health of the habitat and species
groups, as well as the extent of threats documented during the RAP survey. See Table 1 for an
example from southeast Guinea.
Discovering Species New to Science
It is not easy to determine whether a species is different from those already described and
named. Imagine the expertise needed to differentiate among species from large taxonomic
groups like birds (10,000 species) and ants (>12,000 species). But in tropical regions, scientists often come across a species they do not recognize and cannot identify – these are referred
to as “undescribed” (or “unnamed”) species that are considered potentially new to science.
To verify that a species is indeed undescribed, scientists collect a small series of specimens
(these are needed to evaluate morphological variation, and sexual and age dimorphism within
the species) and compare their characteristics to specimens of related species already known.
They compare many different features, including things such as the number of hairs or spines
on the legs, the texture of the body, the shape of the bones, or the number of scales on the head.
Characteristics that are used to define a species new to science vary from group to group, but
generally involve a few key morphological characters, often related to reproduction. Unique
features – like the shape of reproductive organs or coloration of body parts used in a courtship
display – not only prevent species from unsuccessful mating, but also provide useful traits for
scientific differentiation.
Similarly, behavioral traits, such as vocalizations or courtship displays, provide very good clues
to a species’ identity. This principle is well known to ornithologists, who are often capable of
instantly recognizing hundreds of different species of birds based on a single note. Entomologists also use sounds produced by insects such as cicadas, crickets, or katydids to tell species
apart, and sometimes describe new discoveries based solely on the characteristics of the song.
The pattern of flashes produced by lightning bugs, the rhythm of claw waving in mud crabs, or
the shape of an orb spun by a spider are other examples of behavioral characters that can be
used to identify species, and pinpoint those that are different. During RAP surveys, scientists
often make sound or video recordings of animal behavior, and these data help confirm the new
status of documented species. For example, the first indication that a katydid found during a
RAP survey in Guinea in 2003 was potentially new to science was its song which was very different from that of any other species known from Africa.
36
Table 1. Comparison of species, threats and habitat condition between five sites in southeast Guinea. The sites were prioritized
for conservation value based on species and habitat data
Site
Elevation/
Habitat
Degree
of habitat
degradation
Logging
Hunting
Agriculture
Groups
indicating
healthy
ecosystem
Groups
indicating
unhealthy
ecosystem
Priority for
biodiversity
conservation
Déré
(8,920 ha)
360-750 m
floodplains,
RAP camp
at 440 m,
lowland
forest,
foothills of
Mt. Nimba
90%
High
intensity,
cleared
for agriculture
High
degree of
degradation and
cultivated
land
Birds, Amphibians
Plants, Small
& Large
Mammals,
Primates,
Reptiles,
Katydids,
Bats
Lower Priority
(site degraded
but harbors
key habitat and
species)
400-595 m,
RAP camp
at 450 m
lowland
humid
forest
30%
Moderate
hunting;
evidence
of hunting trails,
cartridges
Moderate
degree of
agricultural
encroachment
Plants, Small
& Large
Mammals,
Primates, Reptiles, Katydids,
Bats, Birds,
Amphibians
None
Highest Priority
Mt. Béro
(26,850
ha)
600-1210 m,
RAP camp
at 620 m,
semideciduous
forest and
savanna
75%
Selective
logging for
fuelwood
and
potential
commercial
logging
Active
hunting;
evidence
of snares,
cartridges &
hunting
trails
Moderate
logging
and
clearing
for agriculture
High
hunting
pressure:
greatest
# of cartridges
found
here
Moderate
degree of
habitat
degradation and
cultivated
land
Plants, Small
Mammals,
Primates,
Katydids,
Bats, Birds,
Amphibians
Large,
Mammals,
Reptiles
High Priority
Pic de Fon
(25,600
ha)
600-1656 m,
RAP camps
at 600m
and 10001600m,
humid
forest,
savanna,
montane
forest and
grassland
30-35%
Significant logging for
fuelwood
and
construction
Moderate
hunting
pressure:
snares,
trails cartridges
Moderate
degree of
agricultural
encroachment
Plants, Small
& Large
Mammals,
Primates, Reptiles, Katydids,
Bats, Birds,
Amphibians
None
Highest Priority
Current
status
unknown
Logging
concession permitted in
30,000
ha (27%
of reserve)
Overhunted
with
>750
animals
taken per
year
56,170 ha
multiple
use zone,
current
status
unknown
Plants, Small
& Large Mammals, Reptiles,
Amphibians,
Birds
None
Biosphere
Reserve, Highest
priority to protect the 42,547
ha core zone
Diécké
(59,143
ha)
Ziama*
(116,1703
ha)
5001387m,
montane
forest and
savanna
* Data for Ziama from literature not from RAP survey
37
A different behavior is a very good indication
of a species’ distinctness, but additional proof
is often needed to declare a species new to
science. These can usually be found among
the morphological or molecular characteristics of an organism. Molecular and other
genetic characters, such as certain DNA sequences or shapes and numbers of chromosomes, often provide very reliable indicators
of a species’ uniqueness. Genetic barcoding, a
fast and easy genetic screening process that
allows scientists to compare a key fragment
of mitochondrial DNA among thousands of
species at once, has recently begun to play
an important role in identifying both known
and as yet unnamed species. RAP scientists
routinely collect DNA samples from species,
which in some cases leads to the discovery
of new species, like new species of frogs described in West Africa in 2005.
RAP Audiences and Presentation of Results
Each RAP scientist makes conservation recommendations for their taxonomic group and the
survey sites based on their RAP data. These recommendations form the basis for follow-up conservation action that can be pursued by CI field programs and partners, other NGOs, governments, etc. The audience for the RAP results must always be considered carefully so that the
RAP results and recommendations are presented in a way that is useful, understandable and
informative for their decision-making.
Some of the key audiences of RAP data and recommendations include:
• Governments - decisions on conservation priorities and management.
• NGOs - data to support conservation action and set global priorities.
• Local communities - to raise awareness of the value their biodiversity, to develop plans for
sustainable use of natural resources, and to support conservation efforts.
• Ecotourism - development of sustainable practices and promotion of species attractions
• Private sector - guiding mining, energy, agriculture and other activities that may impact
natural resources.
• Conservation community - evaluation of threatened species (IUCN), identification of priority sites such as Important Bird Areas (IBAs, Birdlife International) and Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs), etc.
• Scientific community - taxonomic, ecological, distribution data to inform research.
RAP works with CI field programs and partners to get the RAP data to these key audiences. Immediately following each RAP survey, the RAP team makes a presentation of the preliminary re38
sults to local communities and partners. The preliminary RAP report is then distributed among
key stakeholders about one month later. The final RAP report and other products are delivered
to all stakeholders often accompanied by a book launch/press release. When appropriate, local
and global media has effectively been used by CI to publicize the RAP results and to draw attention to conservation needs.
Products
RAP publications. One of the strong points of RAP is that there is always a concrete product at the
end of the RAP surveys that is a clear indication of the completion of the RAP project and successful
data collection. Although it has been suggested that RAP should only produce electronic versions
of the RAP reports, we have found that printed publications are needed as they can have a great
impact when delivered to government officials and partners in support of conservation recommendations.
RAP database. In addition to printed publications, RAP has developed an online database into
which all the species data are entered and displayed (rap.conservation.org). Users can search
for specific species records by taxonomic group,
site, or RAP survey. The RAP database is linked
with the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and thus RAP data feed into a large
global dataset and can be searched through
GBIF as well.
Media. Species new to science are particularly
valuable as a tool for raising global interest in
biodiversity conservation. RAP and CI have
been very successful at using the exciting RAP
survey results to raise awareness of interesting species and the need to conserve them and
their habitats. The discovery of species new to
science peaks the interest of people the world
over and engages them in ways that other aspects of conservation cannot. Local, national
and global media coverage of a RAP survey
help to bring attention to conservation needs at
the RAP survey site. Thus, whenever there are
exciting RAP results, CI prepares and releases a
press release, usually about discoveries of species new to science, which is most effective. The
press release may go out immediately after a
RAP survey if the results are especially novel or
at the time of the publication of the final RAP
report, which may include important information about the health of the ecosystem surveyed
and an urgent call for conservation action.
Several types of publications result from
each RAP survey:
• Preliminary report of RAP results produced
1-2 months after RAP survey, presented to local partners, communities and government officials; PDFs available online
• Final RAP report published in the RAP Bulletin
of Biological Assessment (formerly RAP Working
Papers) series about a year after each RAP survey; PDFs available online (conservation.org)
• Biodiversity booklets for local communities to
illustrate the importance and beauty of biodiversity in their area, including photographs of
species documented during the RAP survey
• Peer-reviewed papers in scientific journals
39
CI’s website is currently featuring and tracking RAP’s new species discoveries at
http://www.conservation.org/explore/discoveries/Pages/expeditions_discovery.aspx
Impacts
As should be evident throughout this book, RAP surveys have many different impacts over a wide
range of scales. These impacts have been measurable and RAP is able to report on metrics related
to most of them. The principal categories of RAP impacts and the metrics used to measure them
are presented in Table 2. While each RAP survey has multiple impacts, the RAP survey profiles
presented in this book are ordered according to their principal impacts.
Scientific impacts. As the biodiversity of our planet diminishes at an alarming rate (scientific estimates put the rate of species loss at one species every 20 minutes!), the time to document and
save it is quickly running out. There is no question that future generations will inherit a world that
harbors but a fraction of the richness of species and natural ecosystems ours is still privileged to
enjoy. The RAP program, in collaboration with other conservation initiatives at CI and elsewhere,
is often the first and most important step in trying to protect particularly valuable fragments of the
Table 2. Principal categories of RAP impacts and their metrics
Protected Areas
Number of hectares of new, expanded or improved protected areas for biodiversity conservation
Capacity Building
Number of local students, scientists, land managers, and conservationists trained
Species New to Science
Spatial Planning
Human Well-being
Scientific impact
40
Number of species new to science discovered
Amount of globally threatened species distribution data recorded, number of corridors
developed, guidance provided to private sector
Number of communities provided with RAP data for use in developing sustainable use of
natural resources
Number of RAP volumes of the RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment published, number of
peer-reviewed papers published
world’s biodiversity. The data collected during RAP surveys serve not only to document the current
distribution of species, both already known and those new to science, but they also allow scientists
to examine conservation issues on multiple scales – from the effects of bushmeat hunting on a local
mammalian population to global trends affecting entire classes of organisms. Each survey provides
thousands of data points that help model and predict the impact of human activities on the natural
world, and develop strategies to minimize its negative results. RAP data have been used to assess
species conservation status for both the IUCN Red List and local conservation ranking systems,
such as the “star” ranking system of plant species in Ghana.
Information on species behavior and ecology gathered during RAP surveys is often the very first
and only such information available for many tropical animals and plants. It is not uncommon for
RAP scientists to be the first ones to see alive species previously known only from singular, preserved specimens collected over a century ago, and record their ecological preferences, feeding behavior, courtship habits, or relationships with other organisms. Such observations give us not only
priceless insight into the evolution of life on Earth, but also arm conservationists with information
that may be critical in designing strategies for those species’ preservation.
RAP surveys have led to the collection of over 1,300 never-before-seen species new to science.
Over 500 of these have already been formally described by taxonomists, but many more are currently being processed. (Unfortunately, in some particularly poorly known groups of animals and
plants this process may take several years.) The ability to collect fresh samples and specimens
during RAP surveys allows scientists to use modern, genetic tools to look into the species’ relationships and population structure, something that cannot be done using existing museum specimens.
Ecological data, sound recordings, and photographs of live organisms taken in their natural environments have also been used by RAP scientists to publish field guides and identification keys to
animals and plants that are used by local conservation authorities, students, and scientists, leading
to more effective efforts to protect them.
Local economic impacts. Over the past 20 years, RAP surveys have contributed significantly to the
national and local economies of the countries where RAP surveys have taken place. The average
RAP survey costs about US$100,000. Estimating that two-thirds of this amount is spent within the
Ricinoides atewa – an ancient, relict species of arachnid discovered during a RAP survey in Ghana
41
ness Build
are
ing
Aw
nt
me
ge
ga
Co
ns
Cap
ac
ity
ng
ei
pacts and Hum
an
n Im
o
i
We
at
v
llb
er
and Communi
ng
ty
ldi
En
i
Bu
Scientific Data
The impacts of rapid assessment data
when applied to conservation.
country where the RAP survey has taken place,
an average of US$67,000 is spent in country for
each RAP survey. Expenses include payments
to local contractors for logistical planning;
payments to local community members
who assist the RAP team as field assistants,
guides, boat drivers, and cooks; field supplies
including camping equipment, food, and
communications; domestic flights; boat rental
from local communities; charter flights and
helicopters. Totaling over the 80 RAP surveys
conducted, at least US $5,340,000 has been
invested in local communities and national
economies through RAP surveys.
RAP amplifies and catalyzes. RAP surveys
provide essential baseline data on biodiversity,
ecosystem health, and natural resource use
that are amplified as they are used by a wide variety of stakeholders. RAP surveys may often
serve as the beginning of data collection in an area, but are never the end of data collection or of
conservation action. RAP is a catalyst: collecting the first round of data, training a new generation
of scientists, engaging communities in biological exploration, and enticing the global public with
amazing discoveries.
Read more about RAP online at:
http://www.conservation.org/explore/discoveries/Pages/expeditions_discovery.aspx
https://learning.conservation.org/biosurvey/Pages/default.aspx
References
Agosti D., J.D. Majer, L.E. Alonso, T. R. Schultz (eds). 2000. Ants: Standard Methods for Measuring and
Monitoring Biological Diversity. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, D.C.
Colwell R.K. 2004. EstimateS, Version 7: Statistical Estimation of Species Richness and Shared Species
from Samples (Software and User’s Guide). Freeware for Windows and Mac OS (http://viceroy.eeb.
uconn.edu/estimates).
Heyer W.R., M.A. Donnelly, R.W. McDiarmid, L.C. Hayek and M.S. Foster (eds). 1994. Measuring and
Monitoring Biological Diversity. Standard Methods for Amphibians. Smithsonian Institution Press,
Washington, D.C.
Krebs C.J. 2002. Program for Ecological Methodology 2nd ed. (version 6.1). Web site: zoology.ubc.ca/
kebs
Magurran A.E. 1988. Ecological Diversity and its Measurement. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Rödel M.-O. and Ernst R. 2004. Measuring and monitoring amphibian diversity in tropical forests. I. An
evaluation of methods with recommendations for standardization. Ecotropica 10:1-14.
Wilson D.E., R.F. Cole, J.D. Nichols, R. Rudran and M.S. Foster. 1996. Measuring and Monitoring Biological
Diversity. Standard Methods for Mammals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.
42
The First 20 Years
RAP Highlights
❦
Over 20 million hectares of new, expanded or improved protected areas
for biodiversity conservation
❦
More than 1,300 species new to science discovered
❦
Distribution data recorded for around 400 globally threatened species
❦
Scientific capacity building for over 400 local students, scientists, land
managers, and conservationists
❦
58 volumes of the RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment published
© Piotr Naskrecki
43
Sites
PROTECTED AREAS
Madidi, Bolivia
© Conservation International/photo by Sterling Zumbrunn
Bird’s Head Seascape,
Indonesia
© Conservation International/photo by Haroldo Castro
© Andre Baertschi
RAP data from the very first RAP
survey helped create Madidi
National Park, 1.8 million hectares.
Vilcabamba, Peru
44
Amazing marine discoveries,
including 76 species new to
science, contributed to the
creation of 1.7 million hectares of
new marine protected areas.
RAP data supported efforts by
CI-Peru and many partners to
establish two indigenous reserves
and a national park totaling
700,000 hectares.
Sites
SPECIES NEW TO SCIENCE
The mountains of New Guinea
have a seemingly unlimited number
of species unknown to science.
This “Lost World” revealed many
new species including two new
birds, five new mammals, and over
20 new frogs.
© Bruce Beehler
Foja Mountains, Papua,
Indonesia
Rio Orthon, Bolivia
© Theresa Bert
The first AquaRAP team found over
93 species new to science in this
large river basin, with an amazingly
high – 45 – new fish species.
Nakanai and Muller Ranges,
Papua New Guinea
RAP data are currently supporting a
bid to designate these sites as World
Heritage Sites.
© Piotr Naskrecki
Over 200 species new to science in
just eight weeks at two sites. Enough
said!
45
Sites
CAPACITY BUILDING
Lakekamu, Papua New Guinea
© Conservation International/photo by Leeanne E. Alonso
© Piotr Naskrecki
Of 20 PNG nationals trained
through RAP, three have gone on to
obtain PhDs, four received Masters,
and two achieved Honours degrees.
Haute Dodo, Cote d’Ivoire
Twenty African scientists learned
RAP methods from 12 RAP experts
in the field. Five joined future RAP
surveys, and at least three received
graduate degrees.
© Piotr Naskrecki
Suriname
46
Over 30 students have been trained
in a five year RAP program to build
local capacity for biodiversity assessment. Seven students joined a
recent RAP survey of southwest Suriname in August 2010.
Sites
SPATIAL PLANNING
RAP data collected between these
two parks guided creation of a conservation corridor that now protects
a critical watershed for this key rice
growing region.
© Piotr Naskrecki
Mantadia-Zahamena,
Madagascar
Coral Reefs of Mont Panié,
New Caledonia
© Burt Jones
MarineRAP data helped identify priority sites for marine protected areas
and fisheries management by local
communities.
RAP and other CI programs
worked closely with Rio Tinto to
identify key species and habitats
within their iron ore concession
in need of protection. Further RAP
surveys of sites in southeastern
Guinea provided the context for
regional spatial planning.
© Piotr Naskrecki
Pic de Fon, Guinea
47
Sites
HUMAN WELL-BEING
© Josefa C. Señaris
Venezuela
A series of six AquaRAP surveys
provided key baseline data for the
sustainable management of critical
watersheds through actions such
as community monitoring of water
quality, fish, and turtle populations.
Southern Guyana
© Piotr Naskrecki
RAP results are being used by the
indigenous Wai-Wai people to develop ecotourism and a management plan for their Community
Owned Conservation Area (COCA).
© Piotr Naskrecki
Mountains of Southwest China
48
In this culturally Tibetan region, sacred sites harbor significant biodiversity. A local Conservation Stewardship Program used RAP data to
support official protection of hallowed sites.
Species New to Science
Wattled Smoky Honeyeater
(Melipotes carolae)
This new honeyeater was discovered
during the 2005 expedition to the
Foja Mountains. It was found to be
a common but quiet species in the
upland forests, spending most of its
time foraging for small fruit.
© Conservation International/photo by Stephen Richards
OVER 1,300 SPECIES DISCOVERED
This genus of salamanders has fully
webbed feet which help them climb
high into the canopy of tropical forests; they also have no lungs and
breathe instead through their skin.
This new species was found in the
wet forests of the tepuis in southern
Ecuador.
© Jessica Deichmann
Web-footed salamander
(Bolitoglossa sp. n.)
Collected at nearly 2,900 m in the
Muller Range – this represents the
highest altitude ever recorded for
an ant in New Guinea. Its amazing
trap-jaw mouthparts are held open
at 180 degrees and snapped closed
when tiny sensory hairs detect a
small, soft bodied invertebrate prey
item.
© Andrea Lucky
Ant (Strumigenys sp. n.)
49
Species New to Science
OVER 1,300 SPECIES DISCOVERED
© Conservation International/photo by Stephen Richards
© Piotr Naskrecki
Big-headed Katydid
(Ingrischia macrocephala)
This new genus and species of
large, seed-feeding katydids was
discovered in the forests of Papua
New Guinea by entomologist Piotr
Naskrecki.
Forest frog
(Batrachylodes sp. n.)
This bizarre little frog measuring
just two centimeters long belongs
to a genus previously known only
from the Solomon Islands. Its discovery high in the Nakanai Mountains of Papua New Guinea’s New
Britain island came as a complete
surprise to RAP herpetologist Stephen Richards.
© Gerald Allen
Walking shark
(Hemiscyllium galei)
50
Don’t be fooled by its name,
this shark can swim! However, it
prefers to walk along the shallow
reef flats on its fins, preying on
shrimp, crabs, snails, and small
fish. The discovery of this shark
during a MarineRAP survey has
created a media sensation!
Species New to Science
OVER 1,300 SPECIES DISCOVERED
Corals belonging to this genus
build reefs that support unique marine communities. This was one of
at least 20 new species of coral discovered during MarineRAP surveys
in the Bird’s Head Seascape in Indonesia.
© Emre Turak
Coral (Asteropora sp. n.)
During the RAP survey in Vilcabamba, researchers discovered this new
species of large arboreal rodent
which closely resembles a species
known only from skulls collected at
pre-Columbian burial sites in Macchu Picchu. Both species were then
included in a new genus described
by Louise Emmons in 1999.
© Louise Emmons
Arboreal Chinchilla Rat
(Cuscomys ashaninka)
This catfish was uncovered during
a RAP in Suriname. RAP ichthyologists named the new species
Pseudancistrus kwinti after the
indigenous Kwinti people who
live along the lower reaches of
the Coppename River.
© Phillip Willink
Suckermouth catfish
(Pseudancistrus kwinti)
51
IUCN Red-Listed Species
OVER 400 THREATENED SPECIES
DOCUMENTED
Purple Marsh Crab
(Afrithelphusa monodosus)
© Piotr Naskrecki
Status: Endangered
The discovery of a population of
these crabs on a RAP survey in
Boké, Guinea confirmed the persistence of the species and helped
downgrade its threat status from
Critically Endangered.
Fiji Ground Frog
(Platymantis vitianis)
© Conservation International/photo by Russ Mittermeier
© Paddy Ryan
Status: Endangered
52
Babies of this frog hatch directly
from eggs in a nest, forgoing an
independent tadpole stage. These
frogs are only found on the four
large islands of Fiji.
Black and White Ruffed Lemur
(Varecia variegata)
Status: Critically Endangered
Endemic to the island of Madagascar, this loud and gregarious primate has been spotted on at least
one RAP survey in Madagascar.
IUCN Red-Listed Species
OVER 400 THREATENED SPECIES
DOCUMENTED
Giant Otter
(Pteronura brasiliensis)
These aquatic weasel relatives form
cohesive family groups. They communicate with loud vocalizations
and are often heard before seen. They
have been recorded on RAP surveys
in Guyana, Peru, Bolivia and Brazil.
© Andre Baertschi
Status: Endangered
Gola Malimbe
(Malimbus ballmanni)
This Upper Guinea endemic was
observed in mixed-species flocks
in Diécké Forest, southeast Guinea, during a RAP in 2003. Previously, it was known only from
eastern Sierra Leone, Liberia and
western Côte d’Ivoire.
© David Monticelli/RSPB
Status: Endangered
Status: Vulnerable
Asian turtles in general are severely threatened by overharvesting
for the pet and food trades. Little
is known about the natural history
of this beautiful tortoise which has
been spotted at high elevations
during RAP surveys in Cambodia.
© Conservation International/photo by David Emmett
Impressed Turtle
(Manouria impressa)
53
IUCN Red-Listed Species
© Conservation International/photo by Russ Mittermeier
© Conservation International/photo by David Emmett
OVER 400 THREATENED SPECIES
DOCUMENTED
Siamese Crocodile (Crocodylus
siamensis)
Status: Critically Endangered
Only small populations remain of
this shy and unaggressive crocodile,
native to Southeast Asia. Individuals
have been observed during RAP surveys in Cambodia.
West African Red Colobus
(Procolobus badius)
Status: Endangered
These primates are highly sensitive to
hunting and habitat destruction and
are important prey for Chimpanzees.
They have been documented on several West African RAP surveys.
Humphead Wrasse
(Cheilinus undulatus)
© David Harasti
Status: Endangered
54
Heavily exploited by fishermen, these
large colorful fish grow to over 2
meters in length and live to upwards
of 30 years. MarineRAP scientists are
always on the lookout for these and
have seen them on RAP surveys in
Indonesia, Madagascar and Papua
New Guinea.
Exploring new places, finding new species, and bringing their rich diversity
into our thinking about conservation planning, RAP is an enduring critical
part of CI’s scientific work.
– Andrew A. Rosenberg, Senior Vice President, Science + Knowledge,
Conservation International
55
History and Overview of Terrestrial RAP
Leeanne E. Alonso
© Piotr Naskrecki
Introduction
The lack of data on the incredibly high species diversity of tropical ecosystems has
often been a barrier to effectively plan and implement conservation action in the
tropics. How do you evaluate and conserve what you don’t even know is there?
Exploration of remote tropical wilderness had been going on for centuries, led by
eminent explorers such as Charles Darwin, Alfred Russell Wallace, William Beebe,
Richard Archbold and many others. But these wilderness areas are so vast and
the species so numerous that each expedition discovered more and more species,
without an end in sight. Exploration continues today, with the world’s top scientists
from universities and museums penetrating the remotest corners of the planet.
However such exploration and subsequent publication of the results can take years,
and the results are not often made available on a time scale needed for conservation decision making. With the acceleration of habitat and species loss around the
globe, there arose a great need for the development and application of a more rapid
means of collecting species data to guide conservation and development.
As Russ Mittermeier so eloquently explains in the Foreword (p. 9), the concept for
Conservation International’s (CI) Rapid Assessment Program (RAP) was created in
1989 by the late Ted Parker, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Murray Gell-Mann, and
Spencer Beebe, one of CI’s founders. The expertise of the RAP scientists was the
basis of RAP’s success from the very beginning. Their ability to find and detect the
elusive and threatened species, and to document and rapidly identify the vast number of species in the tropical areas they explored, was unparalleled and allowed
them to evaluate the conservation importance of a site based on the species they
found. They knew how to use their data to make the case for conservation and the
establishment of protected areas.
56
RAP uses an integrated approach that pulls together information on a variety of
taxa to obtain a portrait of the habitat under study. The combined knowledge of
the RAP scientists allows them to quickly assess the uniqueness and conservation value of an area and to make recommendations about its management. RAP
methodology has never been viewed as a substitute for more in-depth inventory
or monitoring but is designed to provide critical scientific information quickly. Information
collected includes biological diversity, degree of endemism, special habitat types, threatened
species, degree of habitat degradation, presence of introduced species, and the degree of risk
of extinction on a national and global scale. See page 18 for more details on the RAP approach.
The first RAP teams focused on plants, birds, and mammals. Specialists studying reptiles and
amphibians were added to the team early on, and RAP added selected groups of invertebrates
in 1996 for the Kanuku Mountains, Guyana RAP survey. While the core RAP team often consists of non-local scientists, a trademark of RAP from the very beginning has been a close integration with local scientists. RAP team members work closely with host country scientists,
exchanging information, methodologies and training young scientists.
The conservation capacity of tropical countries often suffers from a lack of collaborative interaction between conservation organizations, academic institutions, and government agencies.
A key feature of RAP is to link scientists and academic institutions with conservation organizations and the government agencies in charge of natural resources. In-country scientists
and institutions gain more prominent visibility within country when collaborating on a RAP
expedition, as well as additional experience and research opportunities by participation in the
fieldwork, and a greater voice in consultations with conservation planners. RAP participants
are also invited to contribute to the final report of a trip, which is published in the RAP Bulletin
of Biological Assessment series, formerly RAP Working Papers.
After Madidi, the RAP team, working closely
with CI staff and collaborators at The Field
Museum, continued to explore the unknown
wilderness of Central and South America,
where their expertise could be applied most
readily. They surveyed sites that were suspected to contain high diversity, endemic
species, and/or unique species and habitats
found in few other parts of the world. Their
focus fell on areas most threatened and in
danger of disappearing in the very near future. The Cordillera de la Costa, site of the
second RAP survey, is a prime example of
such a highly threatened site. Located in the
highly fragmented forest of Western Ecuador, at the time of the RAP survey in 1991
this region contained just 6% of its original forest cover. The RAP team collected
biodiversity data from nine sites with the
hope that their data would be used to raise
© Randall Hyman
Targeting the Most Threatened Sites
The original RAP team (left to right): Al Gentry,
Ted Parker, Louise Emmons, and Robin Foster
57
awareness of the unique biological diversity
of this area and identify key sites for protection. While this region has continued to
degrade since the RAP survey, the future of
some sites is hopeful (see page 193). Providing the scientific basis for such conservation efforts is the ultimate goal of RAP.
© Piotr Naskrecki
Over the next few years, from 1991 through
1994, this RAP team and local collaborators
surveyed other highly threatened unique
ecosystems, including the lowland dry forests of Santa Cruz and Noel Kempff Mercado
National Park in Bolivia, the Columbia River
Forest Reserve in Belize, the TambopataCandamo Reserved Zone and Pampas del
Heath in Peru, and the Kanuku Mountains
of Guyana. Most of these sites have received
some degree of improved protection based
on the RAP data or actions are underway.
The process that leads to formal, legal protection of a site can take a long time, as evidenced
by the conservation actions pending at many of the RAP sites. There must also be people willing to keep pushing for action. The RAP program and its scientific team members have always
been highly committed to this follow-up action. One prime example is the RAP scientists’ involvement in the development of a national park feasibility study leading to the creation of the
Tambopata-Candamo protected area of 1.5 million hectares. Arguably the richest region on
the planet, this park in northeastern Peru could hold as much as 10% of global avian diversity.
Expanding within the Andes and to Asia with USAID
From 1994 through 1998, the RAP program had a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Agency
for International Development (USAID) aimed at 1) advancing the conservation of biodiversity
in the Tropical Andes and 2) expanding RAP in Southeast Asia and the Pacific. RAP carried out
rapid biological assessments in four tropical countries, Peru, Bolivia, Indonesia (in Irian Jaya,
now Papua Province), and Papua New Guinea under this agreement, assisting decision makers and conservationists to identify conservation priorities in these countries. RAP activity
was also expanded in Bolivia and Peru to include four expeditions (Chuquisaca, Bolivia; two
to Vilcabamba, Peru; Madidi, Bolivia) and two training courses (Noel Kempff Mercado, Bolivia;
Pampas del Heath, Peru).
The New Guinea region is globally significant both in terms of numbers of species and in terms
of endemism. In 1994 RAP chose to conduct its first survey in the Asia-Pacific region on the
island of New Ireland in Papua New Guinea. The RAP team experimented with methods that
could measure ecological parameters and could be standardized and repeatable. From 19961998, RAP was very active in Papua New Guinea with a full RAP expedition to the Lakekamu
Basin in 1996 and ongoing training conducted by then RAP Asia Team Leader, Andrew Mack,
58
Table 1. The First Decade (1990-1999) – 18 surveys
Year
Country
Site
1990
Bolivia
Alto Madidi Region
1991
Ecuador
Cordillera de la Costa
1990-1992
1991-95
1992
1992
1992, 1996-1997
1993
1993-94
1994
1995
1996
1996
1997
1997-98
1998
1998
1998-1999
Bolivia
Bolivia
Belize
Peru
Peru/Bolivia
Guyana
Ecuador/Peru
Papua New Guinea
Bolivia
Papua New Guinea
New Caledonia
Madagascar
Peru
Côte d’Ivoire
Indonesia
Madagascar
The Lowland Dry Forests of Santa Cruz
Noel Kempff Mercado National Park
Columbia River Forest Reserve
Tambopata-Candamo Reserved Zone
Pando and Alto Madidi, Bolivia & Pampas del Heath, Peru
Western Kanuku Mountains
Cordillera del Cóndor
Southern New Ireland
Humid Forests of Chuquisaca
Lakekamu Basin
Province Nord
Reserve Naturelle Integrale d’Ankarafantsika
Cordillera de Vilcabamba
Parc National de la Marahoué
Wapoga River Area
Mantadia-Zahamena Corridor
in conjunction with the Wildlife Conservation Society. The Lakekamu Basin represents one of
the largest and best tracts of lowland forest in Papua New Guinea. In just one month, 35-47
new species and several new genera (ant, damselfly) were discovered. CI formally presented
the RAP report to appropriate agencies in Papua New Guinea and the international development and conservation community including the World Bank and local NGOs. Building on this
first RAP expedition to the Lakekamu Basin, 1998 activities in Papua New Guinea included a
mini-RAP and a more extensive training session for Papua New Guinea graduate students in
the field of conservation biology and RAP methodology.
Conservation efforts in Papua New Guinea must take a different approach than in Latin America. Most of the land is owned not by the government but by individual landowners. Successful
conservation will not come from national parks, reserves or centralized laws but by working
with local landowners to develop sustainable practices on their land that have the least impact
on local ecosystems. Results from the RAP expedition are an important contribution toward
formulating conservation policies in the Lakekamu Basin. Before and after the RAP survey,
CI scientists Andrew Mack and Kurt Merg spent a lot of time presenting communication and
educational activities to help landowners think more about biodiversity. The RAP surveys and
training courses have stimulated more local participation and discussion of management of
the land in the Lakekamu Basin.
59
Additional RAP surveys in New Guinea were delayed for several years due to an unstable political climate and logistical challenges in Indonesia, but a RAP survey was finally successfully
carried out in Indonesian New Guinea in 1998 with the help of P.T. Freeport Mining Company. The survey area was chosen because it was identified by the 1997 Irian Jaya Biodiversity Conservation Priority-Setting Workshop conducted in Biak as an area where ecological
and biogeographic data are particularly inadequate. One goal of the survey was to provide
data on the biota of an area that has remained virtually unexplored by biologists. The RAP
survey revealed a very high diversity, with many species endemic to New Guinea and many
new to science. The success of this RAP expedition was notable for three reasons. First, in
the context of the political situation there, it is significant that permission was secured and
that the expedition proceeded without incident. Second, this RAP filled in a significant gap in
our biogeographic knowledge of this part of the island. This region of New Guinea had never
before been surveyed. Third, the expedition itself set a strong precedent for successful and
productive scientific collaboration in Indonesia. For participating Indonesian scientists, the
survey was useful to learn the RAP methodology of scientific field assessment, as well as an
important opportunity to obtain important reference materials from this under-studied and
under-surveyed province of Indonesia.
During the latter half of the 1990s, RAP expanded to coral reef and freshwater ecosystems,
launching MarineRAP and AquaRAP programs (see those sections of this book). RAP began
conducting surveys in Africa starting in the Reserve Naturelle Integrale d’Ankarafantsika,
Madagascar in 1997 and Parc National de la Marahoué, Côte d’Ivoire in 1998. RAP also surveyed Laguna del Tigre National Park, Guatemala in 1999, a site highly threatened by oil operations and an encroaching agricultural frontier. These three RAP surveys were conducted in
60
© Piotr Naskrecki
Expanding RAP’s Approach
Table 2. The Second Decade (2000-2010) – 33 surveys
Year
2000
2001
2001
2002
2002
2003
2003
2003
2004
2004-2006
2005
2005
2005
2005
2005
2005
2005
2006
2006
2006
2007
2007
2007
2008
2008
2008
2008
2009
2009
2009
2009
2010
2010
Country
Indonesia
Guyana
Cambodia
Côte d’Ivoire
Guinea
Ghana
Guinea
Botswana
Dem. Rep. Congo
Brazil
Guinea
Suriname
Liberia
Papua New Guinea
China
Indonesia
Nepal
Ghana
Ghana
Guyana
Cambodia
Indonesia
Madagascar
Venezuela
Fiji
Indonesia
Papua New Guinea
Ecuador
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
Fiji
Suriname
New Caledonia
Site
Cyclops Mountains and the Southern Mamberamo Basin
Eastern Kanuku Mountains
Central Cardamom Mountains
Haute Dodo and Cavally Classified Forests
Foret Classée du Pic de Fon, Simandou Range
Southwestern Forest Reserves
Déré, Diécké, and Mont Béro
Okavango Delta III - Terrestrial
Lokutu
Tumucumaque Mountains National Park
Boké Préfecture
Lely and Nassau Plateaus
North Lorma, Gola and Grebo National Forests
Kaijende Highlands
Mountains of Southwest China Hotspot, Sichuan
Foja Mountains I
Makalu-Barun National Park
Atewa Range Forest Reserve
Ajenjua Bepo and Mamang Forest Reserves
Konashen Community Owned Conservation Area
Virachey National Park
Northwest Mamberamo Basin
Andrafiamena
Ramal de Calderas
Nakauvadra Range
Foja Mountains II
Upper Strickland Basin
Upper Río Nangaritza Basin
Nakanai Mountains, East New Britain
Muller Range
Nakorotubu Mountains
Kwamalasamutu
Mont Panié
61
protected areas in need of biological information for management and to promote increased protection of the park. RAP finished
up its first decade with a survey of unprotected forest that lay between Mantadia and
Zahamena national parks in Madagascar,
with the objective of identifying key sites to
include in a corridor between the parks.
Expanding Roster of RAP Team
Collaborators
© Piotr Naskrecki
As RAP expanded geographically during
these 10 years, so did its roster of collaborating scientific team members. Most field
biologists/taxonomists focus their work
on a specific group of organisms (ie. small
mammals or dung beetles) in a particular
region of the world. Most are experts on
the fauna or flora of one or a few areas of
the world such as the Neotropics (Central
and South America), Southeast Asia, tropical Africa, Madagascar, etc. Thus as RAP expanded to other regions of the world, new
teams of RAP scientists were formed consisting of expert taxonomists and field biologists
from universities, museums, governments, NGOs, etc. specializing in those new regions. Collaborating scientists from The Field Museum began their own rapid survey program, Rapid
Biological Inventories (http://fm2.fmnh.org/rbi/), through which they carry out high impact field surveys in the Andes region of South America as well as other sites throughout
the world.
Scientific Capacity Building
A key component of RAP activities during this decade was the training of local scientists to
develop the capacity to conduct rapid biological assessments independently. Participation in
RAP expeditions provides host-country scientists with experience in working on interdisciplinary teams, in rapid assessment techniques, and in the integration of data from different
taxa to make preliminary conclusions regarding biological diversity. At the same time, the suggestions and input from scientific counterparts enhance and improve the RAP approach.
Under the RAP-USAID cooperative agreement from 1994-1998, RAP conducted several training courses specifically for host-country scientists and students. Training courses were held in
Peru, Bolivia, and Papua New Guinea. Courses usually involved at least two or three RAP team
experts as instructors and up to 20 host-country students. The philosophy and methodologies
of RAP were taught over a one to two week period in the field of the host country. RAP train62
© Piotr Naskrecki
ing courses have also been
very successful at developing
taxonomic skills in local scientists and identifying highly
motivated and knowledgeable
young scientists, thus building up local capacity for biological assessment. Training
courses involve field practice
of biodiversity assessment
techniques, thereby providing
essential field experience for
participants as well as collecting important biological data about the area under study.
In Noel Kempff Mercado National Park, a RAP training course in rapid ecological field techniques was organized for over 30 biologists, primarily Bolivians, in 1995. During the training
course the RAP experts and trainees surveyed many poorly studied habitats and catalyzed
new research programs for the park. A RAP training course was held in the Pampas del Heath
National Sanctuary in Peru, near the border with Bolivia, in 1996. Ten Bolivian and 10 Peruvian students were trained in biodiversity survey techniques in order to build up local capacity for national biodiversity inventories.
From 1995-1998, Andrew Mack, RAP’s Asia Team Leader, conducted several training courses
for Papua New Guinea students, many of whom participated in “mini-RAP” assessments of the
biodiversity of the region to practice their newly learned field techniques. The courses focused
on RAP field methods but also on experimental design and on analysis of experimental data
and the presentation of results.
With funds from the USAID agreement, RAP collaborators based at The Field Museum, primarily ornithologists Doug Stotz and Tom Schulenberg, and botanist/ecologist Robin Foster
developed field guides to assist trainees in rapidly identifying birds and plants. These identification aids were used by RAP scientists, participants in RAP training courses, and by hostcountry scientists to identify species in the field. RAP collaborators John Fitzpatrick, Doug
Stotz, Deborah Moskovitz and Ted Parker also created a Neotropical avian diversity database
that includes information on key indicator species of birds, those with highly restricted ranges
and habitat needs that indicate high habitat quality. Some of the identification aids included:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
A “Biological Inventory Methods Manual” for Bolivian trainees, October, 1995.
A “Rapid Field Guide to the plants of Noel Kempff” for RAP trainees, October, 1995.
A tropical lowland bird identification CD training tool for southeastern Peru, May, 1996.
A tropical Andes bird identification CD training tool, March, 1997.
A “Rapid Field Guide to the Birds of Madidi” for RAP trainees, April, 1997.
A “Rapid Field Guide to the Plants of Madidi” for RAP trainees, April, 1997.
A “Plants of Madidi” field guide.
A “Plants of Vilcabamba” field guide from the first RAP expedition to the Vilcabamba
Mountain Range, Peru, April 1997.
63
The Second Decade of RAP
During RAP’s second decade, RAP and partners coordinated over 30 rapid biodiversity surveys.
These surveys were conducted to collect biodiversity data to meet a wide variety of objectives
across the globe. The choice of sites to survey came primarily from four different processes:
1. RAP continued to respond to requests from CI field programs to provide biodiversity
data they need to plan and implement their conservation strategies.
2. RAP continued to train host-country scientists and students to build local scientific capacity for conservation and natural resource management.
3. RAP partnered with The Energy and Mining Program of CI’s Center for Environmental
Leadership in Business (CELB) to develop a means of engaging energy and mining companies in biodiversity conservation – the Initial Biodiversity Assessment and Planning
approach (IBAP).
4. RAP and scientific partners continued to identify and survey the most important sites
for scientific exploration. RAP has begun using gap analysis modeling to identify priority sites, starting in Papua New Guinea. This process identifies sites that are most
likely to yield endemic species or species new to science based on information about
the unique characteristics of the environment and lack of data about the biota of these
‘environmental envelopes’.
5. CI field programs and partners carried out rapid field surveys on their own, with various levels of assistance from RAP on logistical and scientific aspects. The results from
these surveys are published in the RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment series with RAP
editorial oversight.
Of course there are tradeoffs to each of these processes, with some RAP surveys assessing sites
richer in biodiversity than others, and some that have less support for conservation follow-up
than others. The common theme is that the need for biological data has been identified, and
the RAP program provides scientific guidance and logistical support and brings in collaborating taxonomic experts to conduct a professional rapid biodiversity assessment.
RAP Surveys Requested from the Field
With the ultimate goal of using the RAP data to guide conservation, it is essential that CI field
programs and other local partners are fully in support of and involved in the entire RAP process.
Integration of RAP data into local, national and regional conservation planning is more likely to
occur when the need for biological data is identified from within the region. There are many uses
of the biological data, the most prominent being to identify priority areas for conservation
based on high diversity or endemism, and developing management plans for protected areas.
Most of the RAP surveys conducted over the last 10 years, and also within the first decade of
RAP, have been by request of CI field programs. Close collaboration with local communities is
facilitated by local CI staff and is essential to the successful implementation of a RAP survey.
Local community members often request CI to help with conducting a biodiversity assessment
so that they will have data to manage their lands; they also know the land better than anyone
and provide essential local knowledge on biodiversity and the terrain.
64
© Piotr Naskrecki
RAP surveys are carried out in high biodiversity regions of the world, mostly in CI’s Hotspots
and High Biodiversity Wilderness Areas. During the second decade of RAP, RAP surveys were
carried out across the globe, responding to conservation needs in areas where CI had expanded its work, including several sites in mainland Asia including Cambodia and China; into the
heart of Africa in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Botswana and Liberia; and throughout
the Pacific Islands.
Several RAP surveys during this second decade were conducted on indigenous lands to collect data to help them develop management and conservation plans. Data were collected on
the richness and abundance of species of particular interest to the local peoples, such as large
mammals and birds hunted for bushmeat, fisheries, and other products used from the forest.
The 2006 RAP survey of the Wai Wai’s Konashen Community Owned Conservation Concession
(COCA) of Southern Guyana and the 2010 RAP survey of the lands around the indigenous Trio
village of Kwamalasamutu are two examples of how RAP data were collected to inform the
management of the local peoples’ food sources as well as to promote ecotourism to their areas.
Data from the 2005 RAP survey of southwest China continue to be used to support protection
of Tibetan Sacred Lands that harbor important species such as the Panda and Red Panda.
During many RAP surveys, data on the use of natural resources by local people are often collected in addition to the biological data. Data on the socioeconomics of the region are helpful
to make RAP recommendations that will benefit not only the biodiversity and habitats of the
area but also the well-being of the local people. Such data have been collected on many RAP
surveys but recently have become almost a mandatory part of the RAP process. During the
2009 RAP survey in the Nakorotubu Mountains of Fiji, a socioeconomic team worked with four
local villages to produce a list of more than 40 non-timber forest products used for food, medicine and building supplies. These data will help demonstrate the crucial link between natural
65
resources and the quality of life for local people. RAP is continuing to develop and expand the
socioeconomic component of field surveys.
There are few places left on earth with extensive tracts of natural habitat lacking human disturbance. These are the places where CI and RAP have traditionally focused their work, in the
High Biodiversity Wilderness Areas. Two of these areas are the island of New Guinea in the
Asia-Pacific region, and the Guiana Shield region of northern South America, consisting of the
eastern part of Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana. RAP has conducted many
surveys in these two regions and will continue to do so, as there is so much left to explore.
Requests to Train Host-country Scientists and Students to Build Local Scientific Capacity
© Piotr Naskrecki
Continuing the legacy of training begun in RAP’s first decade, scientific capacity building has
grown to be a key focus of RAP surveys. The number of expert taxonomists capable of rapidly
surveying and identifying species in the field, or soon after in the museum, is not large. These
few people are increasingly busy working on the specimens they and others have collected.
Thus the need is great to create a new cadre of taxonomic specialists available for biodiversity
survey work. In addition, the scientific capacity for natural resource management and conservation within many developing countries is seriously deficient. Given the rate of habitat
alteration within these countries, it is extremely important to build capacity of local scientists and students to survey the biodiversity
within their country, to learn to identify the
species and become taxonomic experts, and
to develop skills to apply this knowledge to
the management of their natural resources.
Every RAP survey includes involvement of
host-country scientists, most of whom are
taxonomic experts already. Some are along
to continue to learn from the expert RAP
team members and continue to refine their
field and taxonomy skills. Students are often involved to obtain more field experience
and work alongside the taxonomic experts.
RAP training continued in this second decade with both RAP training courses and
training surveys. The first was a 2000 training course for Indonesian students held in
the Cyclops Mountains on the Irian Jaya
(now Papua) coast along with a RAP survey
of the southern Mamberamo Basin. A similar training activity was held for Guyanese
students in 2001, followed by a second RAP
survey in the Kanuku Mountains, Guyana.
The West Africa Priority Setting Workshop
(WAPS) in 1999 identified a great need for
66
developing scientific capacity within West Africa. With funds from the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF), RAP organized a RAP training survey in southwestern Cote d’Ivoire in
2002. A team of 12 scientific experts worked closely with 20 West African students and scientists from six African countries, who had all come to learn RAP field techniques from some of
the world’s top experts. This experience also served to forge collaborations among scientists
from several African countries.
In 2008, RAP began a five year RAP training and survey program in Suriname. Two training
courses for Surinamese students were conducted to introduce field methods and data analysis. The students most interested in field work were then invited to participate in a series of
RAP surveys conducted in Suriname. The first of these was the RAP survey recently conducted
around the village of Kwamalasamutu in southwest Suriname. Seven students, three government representatives and seven forest rangers from the local Trio AmerIndian community assisted the RAP scientific team, gaining new skills and field experience. RAP is currently working on developing a similar training program for Suriname’s neighbor, Guyana.
Providing Data to Engage the Private Sector in Conservation
For several years, primarily from 2002-2006, RAP worked closely with CI’s Center for Environmental Leadership in Business (CELB) to carry out rapid biodiversity surveys with extractive
industry partners as part of an Initial Biodiversity Assessment and Planning (IBAP) process.
CI’s Center for Environmental Leadership in Business (CELB) works with many companies to
provide information and guidance so that they can make informed decisions and address up
front environmental issues they may face in their operations.
IBAP is an approach designed to assist industry at the very earliest project stages in systematically identifying important biodiversity considerations that should be factored into project
site selection and decision-making, and risk-evaluation processes as well as biodiversity offset
design. The IBAP approach is designed with the understanding that highly detailed biodiversity information is not generally appropriate at the very earliest project development stages
when there is a chance that the project will not proceed. However, IBAP contributes data to
form a solid foundation for standard and more detailed environmental management processes
(for example, ESIA) and standalone biodiversity tools required at later stages of the life cycle
if the project proceeds. Based on IBAP, Birdlife International, CI and other partners developed
an online tool, the Integrated Biodiversity Assessment Tool (IBAT), designed to facilitate access to accurate and up-to-date biodiversity information to support critical business decisions
(www.ibatforbusiness.org). This tool is also available for use by the conservation community
at www.ibat-alliance.org/ibat-conservation.
The IBAP process includes four steps. RAP was involved in all four steps since RAP data fed
into the recommendations and monitoring stages:
1. Rapid Biodiversity Assessment (RAP). RAP survey of the area where the company is
working or plans to work. Key areas are identified prior to the survey.
2. Threats Assessment Workshop. A workshop with scientists and local stakeholders to
assess the various threats to the region and incorporate the results of the RAP and other
baseline studies into a Biodiversity Action Plan.
67
© Piotr Naskrecki
3. Develop an Initial Biodiversity Action Plan. The product of the RAP and Threats Assessment workshop, combining the scientific and workshop results and providing conservation recommendations for the area and for the company, including consideration of
biodiversity offsets.
4. Long-term Biodiversity Monitoring Plan. CI helps to develop protocols for the long-term
monitoring of key biodiversity elements in the area based on the RAP results. The company and other local partners would then be responsible for implementing the monitoring protocols and utilizing the data to feedback on their operations.
The IBAP approach was implemented by RAP and CELB with several industry partners across
a wide range of ecosystems. These engagements demonstrated an interest by these companies
to incorporate biodiversity data into their decision making process. The first collaborative
IBAP project was conducted in 2002 with Rio Tinto Mining and Exploration Limited in the Pic
de Fon Classified Forest, Guinea where Rio Tinto was in the early stages of exploration for iron
ore. CELB and RAP worked together to conduct IBAP projects with Alcoa World Alumina LLC
(Alcoa) and Alcan Inc. in the Boké Prefecture of Guinea and in Atewa Forest Reserve, Ghana
with Alcoa.
Another IBAP project was carried out in Eastern Ghana with Newmont Gold, Inc. in 2006 to
identify potential offset sites for the mining project and to inform the Environmental Impact
Assessment for the gold mine. In 2005 CELB and RAP also conducted an IBAP with BHP Billiton and Suralco in Suriname to assess biodiversity on two bauxite plateaus of interest for
mining. Two RAP surveys were also carried out successfully in Venezuela with ConocoPhillips
in the Gulf of Paria and with Gold Reserve, Inc. in the Cuyuní River Basin. See the Venezuela
RAP summary (page 256) for details.
68
In addition to IBAP, RAP has also been a tool for engaging with business in other ways, such
as the unique partnership in 2005 between RAP, CELB, the Walt Disney Company, Disney
Worldwide Conservation Fund and Discovery Communications. Joe Rohde, of Disney Imagineering, had designed a new roller coaster for Disney’s Animal Kingdom (Expedition Everest). Joe, an
avid nature lover and conservationist, and CI President Russ Mittermeier came up with the idea
of doing a real expedition in the Himalayas that would contribute to biodiversity conservation
in the Himalayan region as well as promote the new roller coaster. They brought into this mix
Discovery Communications who suggested that they film the RAP expedition(s) to be featured
on a segment of Corwin’s Quest television program. Two RAP surveys were undertaken as part
of this project; the first in the Tibetan region of southwest China and the second in Makalu Barun National Park in Nepal. Despite the cool conditions of the Himalayan region, the RAP team
documented many interesting species, built relationships between Chinese, Nepalese and international scientists, and catalyzed a Conservation Stewards Program in China to protect Tibetan
Sacred Sites. The RAP team and methods are still on display along the queue line to ride the
Expedition Everest roller coaster at Disney’s Animal Kingdom in Orlando, Florida, USA.
Identification of Remote, Unexplored Sites of Interest to Science and Conservation
© Piotr Naskrecki
The most exciting surveys for the RAP scientists are those that explore the most remote, hard to reach
places on earth that have the potential for new, surprising discoveries. These sites include tropical
mountain areas because the species tend to have small ranges (i.e., each mountain has a different
array of species). Other sites of interest include
habitats that require special adaptations to survive, such as areas with low oxygen levels (e.g.,
swamps) and limestone caves. Sites with high
rainfall, long geological history, and unique
environmental conditions all have high potential for the discovery of novel and rare species.
Countries and regions that contain sites such
as these include: Papua New Guinea, Indonesia
(especially western New Guinea, Sulawesi, Kalimantan and Sumatra), New Caledonia, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, India, Madagascar, the
Guiana Shield (Guyana, Suriname and French
Guiana), and the Andean countries, especially
Peru and Bolivia. These areas can be considered to have the highest chances of revealing
intriguing new biological finds.
Since the advent of RAP, the expert knowledge
and opinions of the collaborating RAP scientists have played a major role in selecting sites
for RAP surveys. The wish list of places they’d
like to explore has led RAP to many sites with
exciting results, especially in the Andes Mountains of South America and across the island of
New Guinea.
69
In the last few years, RAP has begun using
gap analysis modeling to identify sites that
have not been surveyed within various environmental envelopes, starting in Papua New
Guinea. These sites are most likely to yield endemic species or species new to science due to
the unique characteristics of the environment.
© Piotr Naskrecki
As discussed above there are many reasons
why RAP surveys are conducted, but all revolve around the need to obtain information
about biodiversity to guide conservation actions. Selection of sites for surveys has often
been determined by the needs of Conservation International’s field programs. A number of these sites, such as the Foja Mountains,
had already been identified as being of high
priority for biodiversity assessment on the
basis of expert opinion. This expert opinion
was provided in various forms, including
both personal communications from internationally recognized scientists, and through
priority-setting exercises. Two examples were
the Irian Jaya (now Papua and West Papua)
Indonesia Biodiversity Conservation PrioritySetting Workshop, and Papua New Guinea’s Conservation Needs Assessment. Both of these exercises solicited the opinions of experts on New Guinea biota about areas they considered to be both
poorly known and likely to harbor high species diversity and endemism. Resulting ‘consensus’
documents have been used to guide survey site selection by RAP and other organizations devoted
to biodiversity conservation in New Guinea.
In 2008, RAP enlisted the support of Australia’s CSIRO to develop a gap modeling tool that would
use biological and environmental data to identify sites in Papua New Guinea that are most poorly
known biologically and most likely to contain large numbers of new and data-deficient species.
This process aimed to avoid any potential biases in the ‘expert opinion’ approach by establishing
a rational, data-based model to identify sites. The model identified 20 of the most poorly documented places in Papua New Guinea and a workshop was subsequently held to discuss the conservation benefits of a RAP survey at each of these. Three sites were selected, two of them (Nakanai
and Muller Range) on the World Heritage tentative list. These two surveys were conducted during
2009 and the data collected will be presented to local, provincial and national governments to help
promote the World Heritage listing of these areas. Funds are currently being sought to conduct
a RAP assessment at the third site, Mt Suckling. RAP has plans to conduct gap analysis for other
regions of the world to identify survey priorities.
70
Surveys Conducted by CI Field Programs and Partners
CI field programs and partners occasionally carry out rapid biodiversity field surveys on their
own with local scientific partners, with various levels of assistance from RAP on logistical
and scientific aspects. The results from these surveys are also published in the RAP Bulletin
of Biological Assessment series with RAP editorial oversight. In particular, CI-Madagascar, CIVenezuela, and CI-Indonesia (Bird’s Head) developed strong biodiversity inventory programs
within their countries. See pages 277, 256 and 272 respectively for summaries of their inventory programs. Recently, CI-Fiji has been working with the University of the South Pacific to
conduct a series of rapid biodiversity surveys to guide corridor planning and CI-New Caledonia is working closely with the government of Province Nord to carry out surveys on and
around Mont Panié to document native biodiversity and to control invasive species.
Media Impacts – Raising Global Awareness of Biodiversity
One of the most unexpected yet successful aspects of RAP has been the media attention that
RAP expeditions and discoveries have received over the years. The discovery of species new
to science continues to fascinate us all and provides a positive respite from the bad news typical of today’s media. The discovery of a “Lost Eden” provides us with a glimpse of an amazing
world still unexploited and full of mystery. Species discoveries resonate with people and help
them to make connections with the species and habitats we are working to protect.
Some of the international media related to Terrestrial RAP discoveries have included:
• The April 1997 RAP expedition to the Vilcabamba Mountain Range in the Urubamba Region of Peru was a feature article in the March/April 1998 issue of International Wildlife,
a publication of the National Wildlife Federation. Author Michael Tennesen accompanied the CI RAP expedition on special assignment for the magazine.
• In January 1998, the Vilcabamba I RAP expedition was featured in the CARETAS magazine.
• National Geographic Magazine included the May 1998 Vilcabamba II RAP expedition as
a feature story in their 1999 millennium issue on biodiversity conservation. National
Geographic reporter Virginia Morell and photographer Frans Lanting were in the field
with the RAP team to cover the story.
• BBC Horizon’s series in 1996 featured RAP for a segment entitled “Nature’s Numbers”.
• The 2005 RAP expedition to the Foja Mountains of Indonesian New Guinea made media
history with countless internet and printed media articles across the world. It was featured in a story on the PBS Lehrer News Hour in 2006.
• Animal Planet’s Jeff Corwin joined the RAP team in Nepal to film a segment on Himalayan biodiversity for his TV show, “Corwin’s Quest” which aired in 2006.
• CBS’ TV program 60 minutes filmed a second RAP survey to the Foja Mountains and
twice aired the story, entitled “Garden of Eden,” on its ever-popular Sunday program in
December 2007 and then again in the spring of 2008.
• The Suriname RAP expedition in 2005 drew international attention for the discovery of
several new species to science.
71
Most recently, RAP survey discoveries from New Guinea garnered significant media attention:
• May 2010 CI Press release on new species from 2008 RAP survey in the Foja Mountains
garnered worldwide attention for new species, including a new bird species.
• The June 2010 issue of National Geographic magazine included a feature story of the
2008 Foja RAP expedition entitled “Foja Mountains Fauna”. Photographer Tim Laman
and writer/naturalist Mel White accompanied the RAP team in the field.
• October 2010 CI press release announcing the discovery of over 200 species new to
science discovered by RAP in 2009 from two sites in Papua New Guinea. The story was
featured in 672 news articles reaching 604,194,621 viewers. Key media outlets that ran
the story included USA Today, CBS, ABC, Fox News, CNN, Al Jazeera, NPR, National Geographic, Yahoo!, AOL, Discovery, Guardian, Telegraph, O Globo, and the Sydney Morning
Herald.
Selected Publications from Terrestrial RAP Surveys
Decher J. and J. Fahr. 2007. A conservation assessment of bats (Chiroptera) of Draw River, Boi-Tano, and
Krokosua Hills Forest Reserves in the Western Region of Ghana. Myotis 43:5-30.
Decher J., R.W. Norris and J. Fahr. 2010. Small mammal survey in the upper Seli River valley, Sierra Leone.
Mammalia 74:163-176.
Dijkstra K.D.B. 2008. The Systematist’s Muse - two new damselfly species from ‘Elisabetha’ in the Congo
Basin (Odonata: Chlorocyphidae, Platycnemididae). Zool. Med. Leiden 82(3): 15-27.
Ernst R., A.C. Agyei and M-O. Rödel. 2008. A new giant species of Arthroleptis (Amphibia: Anura: Arthroleptidae) from the Krokosua Hills Forest Reserve, south-western Ghana. Zootaxa 1697:58-68.
Howcroft N.H.S. and W. Takeuchi. 2002. New and noteworthy orchids of the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua
New Guinea. SIDA 20(2): 461-486.
Luna L. and V. Pacheco. 2002. A new species of Thomasomys (Muridae: Sigmodontinae) from the Andes
of southeastern Peru. Journal of Mammalogy 83(3):834-842.
Naskrecki P. 2008. Sylvan katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Pseudophyllinae) of the Guinean Forests
of West Africa hotspot: an overview and descriptions of new species. Zootaxa 1712: 1-41.
Oliver P. and S.J. Richards. 2007. A new species of montane stream-dwelling Litoria from Papua, Indonesia (Anura: Hylidae). Hamadryad 31: 299-303.
Richards S.J. and D.T. Iskandar. 2006. A New Species of Torrent-Dwelling Frog (Hylidae, Litoria) from the
Mountains of New Guinea. Current Herpetology 25(2): 57-63.
Robbins M.B., M.J. Braun, C.M. Milensky, B.K. Schmidt, W. Prince, N.H. Rice, D.W. Finch and B.J. O’Shea.
2007. Avifauna of the upper Essequibo River and Acary Mountains, Southern Guyana. Ornitologia
Neotropical 18: 339-368.
Rödel M-O., M. Gil, A.C. Agyei, A.D. Leache, R.E. Dias, M.K. Fujita, and R. Ernst. 2005. The amphibians of the
forested parts of south-western Ghana. Salamandra 42: 107-127.
Roth L.M. and P. Naskrecki. 2003. A new genus and species of cave cockroach (Blaberidae: Oxyhaloinae)
from Guinea, West Africa. Journal of Orthoptera Research 12(2): 57-61.
Takeuchi W. 2007. Some notes on Ericaceae from recent expeditions to New Guinea summit environments. Harvard Papers in Botany 12(1):163-171.
Terán-Valdez A. and J.M. Guayasamin. 2010. The smallest terrestrial vertebrate of Ecuador: A new frog of
the genus Pristimantis (Amphibia: Strabomantidae) from the Cordillera del Cóndor. Zootaxa 2447:
53-68.
Theischinger G. and S.J. Richards. 2006. Two new species of Nososticta Hagen in Selys from Papua New
Guinea (Zygoptera: Protoneuridae). Odonatologica 35: 75-79.
72
Launching RAP
When the first RAP team members gathered at CI in December 1989 to plan the program, it became clear
that they were discussing a potential game-changer for conservation. What had been an interesting idea that
brought Ted, Robin, Louise, and Al to the table suddenly took form as a contribution that they were uniquely
suited to make to help save the planet… with the realization that they needed to race together, as a team, if they
were to succeed. For two days, their discussions ranged worldwide about areas that had great potential for conservation, but which were under siege by a range of threats, and which might be lost before their real biological
value was understood. Their global grasp of the planet’s geography and wild places was humbling; they could
envision the world’s most remote places, and knew each one’s unique assemblages of species.
“There are only a few dozen people in the world who do this kind of thing,” Ted pointed out. “In 5 days, I can
find 90% of the birds that are in a location.” “I need 10 days for monkeys,” Louise stated, “but six months for
mammals overall.” “One month for me to describe major communities,” was Robin’s opinion. “I’ll keep going
as long as I can,” Al offered.
Each member emphasized the tools they would need: Tape recorders for Ted to capture bird song; transects to
follow day and night for Louise; Robin’s up-front assessment using satellite photos, then overflights, and ground
truthing to figure out what features to examine up close; and Al’s climbing equipment to scale trees for botanical
collections. “I can’t work without locals,” Ted reminded the group, all of whom echoed the importance of local
knowledge of species and terrain that would help them narrow their efforts to focus on the most important elements of a particular location.
For a group of biologists whose magnificent obsession to explore the remote corners of the planet had meant
they eschewed the traditional academic and scientific paths to success, sacrificing regular salaries and predictable schedules, the notion that they could be hired to deploy the skills they’d acquired in their life’s work was not
just exciting, but a chance to offer what few others could to save the world’s most underexplored places. “I want
to do this for the rest of my life,” Ted claimed.
The team was also clear about what it would not take on: RAP expeditions would not deliver thorough inventories, nor develop extensive collections. “This is not necessarily science; this is conservation,” was a theme
they agreed on. Certain taxonomic groups were excluded from their initial plans: Butterflies were seen as too
seasonal to provide a good index of richness and diversity; frogs could best be assessed during rainy seasons, but
intense rains would limit the freedom to cover large areas on foot. Economics and threats assessments would be
left to others. Training of nationals, seen as a critical need, was debated as perhaps too time consuming for the
team to take on. Political follow-through on RAP recommendations for creation of reserves would fall to others
in conservation planning.
The latter, however, was subsequently tested when the irrepressible Ted leaped at the opportunity to meet with
Bolivia’s vice president after a series of RAP trips. Ted’s conservation colleagues cringed as protocol and diplomacy faded as his face turned deep red, his voice rose, and his passion drove an urgent plea for the government
to understand the value of the places the team had explored. His message hit its mark: “It is because of people like
you that your country is great,” the vice president told him. Many of those areas have indeed received protection.
A sense of urgency and RAP’s potential were evident during this first planning meeting. The energy and excitement felt in the room during that 2-day session caught fire, attracted worldwide attention, and led to conservation victories around the world. RAP has evolved over time, and gone far beyond the experts-based approach
that launched it. But the legacy of these four uncompromising pioneers is rich and long-term. And the game,
though far from over, was changed forever.
- Brent Bailey, Director, Appalachia Program, The Mountain Institute
73
History and Overview of MarineRAP
Sheila A. McKenna
© Conservation International/photo by Sterling Zumbrunn
Introduction
Covering more than 70% of our planet, the oceans are our earth’s life support system and hold an amazing amount of biodiversity including vast numbers of undescribed species. Although less explored than land and freshwater, the marine
realm is known to hold more phyla and classes than land or freshwater environments. Similar to their land and freshwater counterparts, marine ecosystems suffer assaults directly and indirectly from human activities such as resource extraction, exploitation, pollution, ocean acidification (carbon dioxide released into the
atmosphere is absorbed by the ocean making it more acidic), physical alterations
to habitat and introduction of invasive species. Unfortunately, areas set aside in our
oceans for regulated use and protection (called Marine Protected Areas) lag far behind the number and size of regulated use and protected areas on our lands.
Our overall exceedingly poor treatment of the oceans may lead some to think our
oceans must not be that important or the vastness of the ocean cushions any harmful effects from human activities. Nothing could be further from the truth as our
oceans are critical to life, regulating our climate and weather, providing the air we
breathe and the water we drink. The oceans are a source of food and in some regions provide the sole source of protein for people. To top it off, the oceans also
are aesthetically pleasing and provide an amazing playground for several activities such as surfing, swimming, scuba diving, sailing, and snorkeling. There is no
doubt our behavior has a significantly negative effect on the ocean as evidenced
by the Deepwater Horizon oil well blowout (2010), the increasing frequency and
intensity of dead zones along our coasts (areas of the ocean where there is too little
oxygen for life to live), large swirling garbage patches and the alarming worldwide
dwindling population numbers of several marine species such as corals, sharks,
turtles, fish and whales. In fact a study released in 2008 in the peer-reviewed journal, Science indicates that no area of the ocean is free from the impacts of humans
(Halpern et al. 2008). The good news is that, as on land or in freshwater, we can
take action to reverse the decline of our ocean’s health and conserve biodiversity.
74
Connectivity between all three realms, marine, terrestrial and freshwater, renders mitigation activities on one to the benefit of the other two as well. For example, ensuring a healthy watershed
with good land use practices such as keeping the native vegetation intact can prevent sediment
being brought through freshwater rivers and streams to the coastal marine environment.
Effective science-based conservation requires detailed regional and place-specific descriptions
and analyses of biodiversity, ecology, and socioeconomics. Recognizing the successes of terrestrial and freshwater RAP surveys with the urgent need to improve our knowledge of species and
mitigate threats to the marine environment, the RAP concept was first applied to the marine
realm in 1994 in Rennell Island and the Indispensable Reefs, Solomon Islands. The focus marine
habitat chosen was coral reefs based on their incredible biodiversity, the ever increasing amount
of threats to them, and their vital function in supporting people’s survival and livelihoods. Moreover many regions of the world with coral reefs have either not been explored or have not had
their reefs surveyed for biodiversity and health or state. Moreover, coral reefs have been labeled
the “canary in the coal mine” – the first ecosystem humans will see the demise of due to global
warming. More immediate assaults from humans such as resource extraction, poor land use
practices and pollution makes this scenario even more likely. Alternatively, halting these threats
makes it possible that some coral reefs can adapt and survive climate change, and be saved for
future generations.
The main objectives for the MarineRAP surveys are to fill in data gaps on marine species
biodiversity in coral reef areas where data
is lacking or the area is under threat. The
surveys provide data on select species (fish,
coral and mollusks), state of the reef (e.g.,
incidence of disease, bleaching, and physical
damage) and make recommendations to conserve the biodiversity and habitat. The RAP
team members consist of international and
national scientists who spend approximately
two to three weeks in the field collecting and
compiling the data. The surveys usually lead
to the discovery of new species and range
extensions of known species. The surveys
also provide exchange between national and
international scientists. Technical capacity
building is achieved by having local scientists
and students take part in the surveys. A socioeconomic component that includes education and outreach is conducted in parallel
with the scientific survey to determine the
concerns and perceptions of the local communities on their marine environment.
© Conservation International/photo by Sterling Zumbrunn
Overview
75
Approximately three weeks following the
completion of the fieldwork, information
gathered during the survey is compiled and
distributed first in a preliminary report. Results from the RAP surveys are presented
back to the local communities through brochures, meetings and or workshops in the
local languages. A full scientific report (in
the RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment)
of the findings is then published for wide
distribution, usually in both English and at
least one local language. These publications
include full species lists as well as a range
of conservation recommendations. The end
users include scientists, managers, government officials, local and international nongovernmental conservation/environmental
agencies, policy makers and all local stakeholders. Many scientific peer reviewed publications also have resulted from the rapid
assessment surveys. Findings from the surveys enable informed decision making, es© Conservation International/photo by Sterling Zumbrunn
pecially for the creation of Marine Protected
Areas and for implementation of other conservation “tools” (e.g., limitations on extraction). CI’s
field offices and members of the RAP survey team work together with government and local
communities to implement activities to mitigate threats and conserve marine biodiversity and
resources based on findings of the RAP survey in synthesis with other relevant factors such as
culture.
History
In the beginning of the MarineRAP program, the main focus was on the coral reefs located in
the “Coral Triangle”, an area that occupies waters surrounding the countries of Australia, Japan, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and Philippines (Werner and Allen 1998). The first official
MarineRAP survey took place in 1997 in Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea in collaboration with
Milne Bay Provincial Government with the support of The Rufford Foundation and The Henry
Foundation. As the diversity of coral reefs is too high to assess all species present, three focal
groups were chosen as indicator taxa to be assessed by taxonomic experts. These included corals by JEN Vernon, mollusks by Fred Wells and reef and shore fishes by Gerry Allen. These three
indicator focal groups were chosen for several reasons. Corals as architectural species provide
the structural foundation or basis for the habitat. Fishes as a group are the most conspicuous
and are important contributors to the overall biomass of the reef. Mollusks have an extremely
high level of species diversity, are ecologically and commercially important, and are well studied taxonomically. In addition to documenting biodiversity for these three key indicator groups
at each site, the team also made observations on the state or health of the habitat and noted
the presence or absence of species targeted for local consumption or commercial sale. The fish76
eries and community outreach components were conducted respectively by David Tauna and
Edward Kibikibi. The team was led by Tim Werner.
Prior to the next surveys, a MarineRAP priority-setting workshop was conducted in Townsville,
Australia in 1998 with the taxonomic experts who participated in the 1997 Milne Bay MarineRAP. Based on the knowledge of workshop participants, a priority list of approximately 10 areas
needing surveys was produced. Four more rapid assessments followed with two in 1998 and
two in 2000. Three of the four MarineRAP surveys were carried out in the Coral Triangle and included the Calamian Islands, Northern Palawan Province, Philippines (1998); Togean and Banggai Islands, Indonesia (1998) and a second survey in Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea
(2000). Outside the Coral Triangle, a MarineRAP survey was conducted in Abrolhos Bank, Bahia,
Brazil (2000). Generous support for these surveys came from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, The Henry Foundation, The Rufford Foundation, and the Smart Family Foundation, as
well as the Japan Bank for International Cooperation. Abrolhos Bank was chosen due to its high
level of endemism for coral and reef fishes with increasing threats due to coastal deforestation
and over-exploitation of marine resources. Select findings from these past surveys in Indonesia,
Philippines, Papua New Guinea and Brazil comprised a special CI MarineRAP sponsored minisymposium entitled “Coral Reef Biodiversity: Assessment and Conservation” at the Ninth International Coral Reef Symposium in Bali (McKenna and Allen 2002).
A MarineRAP survey was conducted on the
coral reefs of Raja Ampat Islands, Indonesia
(2001). This area was identified as the number one survey priority in Southeast Asia at
CI’s MarineRAP Workshop owing to its array of habitats and location near the ‘heart’
of the Coral Triangle. Even before the survey,
the area was surmised to be the world’s richest in terms of marine biodiversity. Findings
from this survey confirmed that the area supports some of the richest coral reefs in the
entire Indonesian Archipelago.
Following the Raja Ampat survey, MarineRAP’s methodology was slightly revised
with the objectives and research focus expanded based on a review of literature in
© Conservation International/photo by Sterling Zumbrunn
Using CI’s Biodiversity Hotspot approach, an analysis of existing species distribution maps of
select coral reef species (lobsters, snails, coral and reef fish) was begun in 2000 and conducted in
collaboration with the main MarineRAP team consisting of Gerry Allen, Charlie Veron, Fred Wells
and Tim Werner. Findings from this multi-authored study led by Callum Roberts were published
in Science (Roberts et al. 2002). This analysis
has generated much useful and continuing
debate on the use of biodiversity, endemism
and level of threat to set conservation priorities in the marine realm (Allen 2007).
77
marine conservation and in
Table 1. Summary of MarineRAP Rapid Assessment Surveys
consultation with colleagues
Year
Country
Site
in the field as well as local
stakeholders. Revision of the
1994
Solomon Islands
Rennell Island and the Indispensable
methodology was to ensure
Reefs
statistical robustness and
1997
Papua New Guinea
Milne Bay Province I
compatibility with other avail1998
Philippines
Calamianes Islands, Palawan Province
able global, regional and local
1998
Indonesia
Togean and Banggai Islands
marine data sets. The objectives were expanded to include
2000
Papua New Guinea
Milne Bay Province II
additional data on commer2000
Brazil
Abrolhos Bank, Bahia
cially important species and
2001
Indonesia
Raja Ampat Islands, Bird’s Head
to provide more data for manSeascape
agement especially for the
2002
Madagascar
Coral Reefs of the Northwest
creation of Marine Protected
2004
New Caledonia
Mont Panié Lagoon
Areas (MPAs). To that end, the
2006
Caribbean Netherlands Saba Bank
focus and methods used for
2006
Madagascar
Coral Reefs of the Northeast I
the MarineRAP surveys are
tailored to meet the needs of
2006
Indonesia
Teluk Cenderawasih National Park,
the specific area. Further the
Bird’s Head Seascape
application of the data was
2006
Indonesia
Fakfak-Kaimana Coastline, Bird’s
extended. The information obHead Seascape
tained during the MarineRAP is
2007
New Caledonia
Northwest lagoon (Yandé to Koumac)
analyzed, synthesized and geo2009
New Caledonia
Northeast lagoon (Touho to
spatially mapped with other
Ponérihouen)
relevant and available data to:
2010
Madagascar
Coral Reefs of the Northeast II
a) pinpoint key sites and issues
within the region for implementing realistic mechanisms/activities to conserve marine biodiversity (e.g., establishing
locally managed marine areas) and for mitigating threats to biodiversity (e.g., curtailing blast
fishing); b) identify data gaps and topics for further study (e.g., stock assessments); c) implement further surveys, activities and studies needed for identified species and regions (e.g.,
survey of large clam populations, contribute data to Global Marine Species Assessment and
IUCN red list data) and d) address key conservation questions regarding biodiversity and the
design of Marine Protected Areas.
Examples of questions for the last objective include: What is the effect of area and sampling
on the documented biodiversity of coral, fish and mollusk species? How can the best MPA that
captures the most diversity in the least amount of time and money given increasing threats be
designed? Can surrogates or indicator species be used in conservation planning in site selections of MPAs (Beger et al 2007)?
Recognizing the global need to increase Marine Protected Areas, the geographic area of focus
for MarineRAP surveys was extended to more areas outside the coral triangle. These included coral reefs off the northeast coast of Madagascar (November 2002) and off the northwest
coast of New Caledonia (Mont Panié Lagoon, December 2004). In 2006, four MarineRAP surveys were conducted with two in the waters of the Coral Triangle off West Papua, Indonesia
78
(Teluk-Cenderawasih National Park and Fakfak-Kaimana Coastline). Outside the coral triangle, the
first MarineRAP survey took place in the Caribbean on Saba Bank off the island of Saba in the Caribbean Netherlands. Results from the MarineRAP survey at Saba Bank comprised a special volume
of the scientific journal, Proceedings of the Library of Science One (PLoS ONE) published in May
2010. Finally, a second survey took place in Madagascar, this time off the northeast coast from Cap
d’Ambre to Baie du Loky (2006).
Following on from the successful Mont Panié Lagoon MarineRAP and the inscription of the tropical lagoons and coral reefs of New Caledonia as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, two more MarineRAP surveys took place in Province Nord of New Caledonia. These included coral reef sites along
the northwest coast from Yandé to Koumac (2007) and along the northeast coast from Touho to
Ponérihouen (2009).
Recognizing the importance of identifying coral reef areas for protection that appear less prone or
more resilient to climate change, an additional MarineRAP survey was conducted off the northeast
coast of Madagascar in 2010. This was to further assess areas such as Ambodivahibe Bay where
the first survey in 2006 had discovered areas that appeared to have little or no stress and were
extremely healthy with no evidence of disease or past bleaching events.
MarineRAP surveys have a high conservation impact. Surveys usually lead to discoveries of species previously unknown to science or range extensions for particular species. As of 2010, over
100 new species of coral, mollusk and fish have been documented. MarineRAP has contributed to
the creation of eight new Marine Protected Areas and Locally Managed Marine Areas (e.g., Brazil,
Saba Bank, New Caledonia, Indonesia and Madagascar) and to the halting of potentially destructive
development and over-fishing in fragile areas. The program has trained over 55 nationals and increased technical capacity and conservation awareness in many regions. Education and awareness
about the importance of marine biodiversity and resource use is also raised as a result of MarineRAP surveys. Further, national and international attention has been brought to these regions
resulting in an increase in resources and activities to conserve species and their habitats.
References
Allen G.R. 2007. Conservation hotspots of biodiversity and endemism for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes.
Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 18:541-556.
Beger M., S.A. McKenna and H.P. Possingham. 2007. Effectiveness of surrogate taxa in the design of coral
reef reserve systems in the Indo-Pacific. Conservation Biology 21(6):1584-1593.
Halpern B. S., S. Walbridge, K.A. Selkoe, C.V. Kappel, F. Micheli, C. D’Agrosa, J.F Bruno, K.S. Casey, C. Ebert,
H.E. Fox, R. Fujita, D. Heinemann, H.S. Lenihan, E.M.P. Madin, M.T. Perry, E.R. Selig, M. Spalding, R. Steneck and R.A. Watson. 2008. Global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. Science 319:.948
- 952.
McKenna S.A. and G.R. Allen. 2002. Coral Reef Biodiversity Assessment and Conservation. Pp 92-94 in
Best B.A., P.S. Pomeroy and C.M. Balboa (eds). Implications for Coral Reef Management and Policy:
Relevant findings from the Ninth International Coral Reef Symposium.
Roberts C.M., C.J. McClean, JEN Vernon, J.P. Hawkins, G.R. Allen, D.E. McAllister, C.G. Mittermeier, F.W.
Schueler, M. Spalding, F. Wells, C. Vynne and T. Werner. 2002. Marine biodiversity hotspots and conservation priorities for tropical reefs. Science 295: 1280–1284.
Werner T.B. and G.R. Allen (eds). 1998. A rapid biodiversity assessment of the coral reefs of Milne Bay
Province, Papua New Guinea. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 11. Conservation International.
Washington, DC, USA.
79
History and Overview of AquaRAP
Leeanne E. Alonso and Philip Willink
© Piotr Naskrecki
Importance of Freshwater Biodiversity Conservation
The effectiveness of RAP to provide data for conservation in terrestrial ecosystems led CI to expand the RAP approach to the freshwater realm in 1996. Again,
RAP proved to be at the forefront with a novel conservation approach. For almost
a decade, the AquaRAP program was the primary - and at some times the only
- initiative at CI specifically addressing freshwater conservation. Freshwater conservation has fortunately become a high priority at CI and other NGOs, for many
good reasons.
The streams, lakes and wetlands that comprise the world’s freshwater ecosystems contain a concentration of species that is far out of proportion to their area.
While the world’s inland waters add up to only 0.3% of its surface area (104,590
km2), they contain, for example, 41% of the world’s fish species. Humans depend
directly on clean fresh water for drinking, food, energy, industry, recreation and
transportation. We also depend indirectly on fresh water for the role it plays in
driving the ecological processes that support all the terrestrial systems on earth,
such as forests, wetlands, grasslands, and agricultural lands, and in maintaining
them resilient to change.
Unfortunately, freshwater not only constitutes the richest biome, but also the
most highly threatened. More than 50% of the world’s wetlands have been destroyed since 1900 and at least 20% of the world’s freshwater fishes, some 2,500
species, are estimated to have become extinct or imperiled in historical time. The
urgency for conservation of aquatic biodiversity and fisheries is escalating. Demands through channelization, development and damming are threatening watersheds without regard for the dynamics of aquatic ecosystems or the complexities of the life histories of aquatic organisms. Food demands also are increasing.
80
Another factor that complicates the conservation of freshwater systems is that they tend to
be multinational resources. The great Amazon River basin, for example, borders on, or flows
through, eight countries. Where not multinational, aquatic resources are usually multipolitical within a country. This multinational character challenges conservation efforts for many
reasons, including: cooperation, funding, investment potential of all partners, external sources
of pollution, and over-fishing. To succeed, conservation efforts for aquatic ecosystems must
have a strong multinational and collaborative component, and they must adopt proper units
of conservation.
Advent of AquaRAP
With funding from the W. Alton Jones Foundation in 1996, the AquaRAP program began as a
joint collaboration between CI and The Field Museum with a focus on watersheds in South
America. A steering committee was formed of 14 scientists from six South American countries
and the US, with Dr. Barry Chernoff (The Field Museum) as the committee lead, to guide development of the AquaRAP program. The steering committee’s role was one of coordination, continued program development, training and fund raising. The steering committee developed
the protocol AquaRAP surveys, and the parameters for selecting priority sites for conservation
action based on the AquaRAP data. The scientists represented a variety of disciplines, including ichthyology, botany, entomology, macro-invertebrate zoology, limnology and genetics. The
AquaRAP protocols were tested and revised during the first AquaRAP expedition in the Río
Orthon Basin of Bolivia in 1996.
In 1997, a large grant was obtained from the Rufford Foundation for an ambitious program of
AquaRAP surveys in 10 South American watersheds. The AquaRAP Steering Committee identified ten basin-projects of global priority across South America to meet immediate conservation needs. In selecting these basins, the committee also focused
Table 1. AquaRAP surveys 1990-2010
on gathering critical information
Year
Country
Site
from around the continent, and
from many different types of wa1996
Bolivia
Upper Río Orthon Basin, Pando
tersheds (Table 1).
Prior to the initiation of the
AquaRAP program, CI had already been including freshwater
biodiversity assessment as part
of terrestrial RAP surveys in New
Guinea, with Dr. Gerry Allen surveying freshwater fishes and Dr.
Dan Polhemus surveying freshwater Odonata (damselflies and
dragonflies) and other aquatic
insects. Their surveys were usually in small mountain streams
and did not strategically target an
1997
Paraguay
Río Paraguay Basin, Alto Paraguay
1999
Ecuador/Peru
Río Pastaza Basin
1998
1999
2000
2000
2002-03
2003
2003
2004
2005
2008
Brazil
Guatemala
Botswana
Venezuela
Venezuela
Venezuela
Botswana
Suriname
Venezuela
Venezuela
Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul
Laguna del Tigre National Park
Okavango Delta I – High Water Survey
Río Caura Basin
Orinoco Delta and the Gulf of Paria
Río Ventuari
Okavango Delta II – Low Water Survey
Coppename River Basin
Upper Río Paragua Basin
Upper Río Cuyuní Basin
81
entire watershed as was envisioned for the
AquaRAP program. The RAP program continues to conduct surveys that include both
terrestrial and freshwater taxa as needed to
meet the objectives of the survey.
© Piotr Naskrecki
Given the importance of watershed biodiversity and protection, the need for
AquaRAP surveys in other parts of the
world quickly arose. Two AquaRAP surveys
were undertaken in the Okavango Delta,
Botswana, bringing together a new team
of aquatic biodiversity experts from across
Africa to form a high impact and insightful
scientific team (see page 189). CI’s program
in Venezuela teamed up with the Fundacion
La Salle to conduct a series of successful
AquaRAP surveys throughout the Guiana
Shield in Venezuela (see page 256). The
AquaRAP program has benefited greatly
from loyal support from the Leon and Toby Cooperman Family Foundation.
AquaRAP Approach
Similar to its terrestrial counterpart, on which it is based, AquaRAP provides a first-cut assessment of the biological value, conservation priority, and opportunities of the basin surveyed. The attempt is to focus not on a comprehensive collection, or even a comprehensive
inventory, but on uncovering the maximum amount of conservation-related information –
e.g., biodiversity, uniqueness, unusual records – in the minimum amount of time. During an
AquaRAP survey, interdisciplinary teams of expert scientists and advanced students rapidly
survey the diversity of habitats in the regions of interest. AquaRAP scientists work in an integrated fashion, allowing for instant feedback and sharing of information. These daily interactions make AquaRAP highly efficient, and different from serial surveys, where information is
not shared or combined into an integrated overview.
AquaRAP teams typically include scientists from international and local institutions who are
experts on the taxonomy of aquatic plants, fishes, aquatic invertebrates (mollusks, crustaceans and insects), and plankton. Specialists in water quality are also a key part of the team
to provide data on the relevant physical parameters (e.g., dissolved oxygen, turbidity, flow,
nutrient levels) to help explain patterns in the species data.
The overarching goal of AquaRAP is to assess the biological and conservation value of a watershed based on: a) the heterogeneity of the habitats, b) a preliminary survey of the organisms that characterize each of these habitats, and c) the overall intactness of the habitats,
and their capacity to support important biological resources and ecological processes. Field
collections are made to identify the organisms, but the collections are minimized. Specimens
82
are identified to the most appropriate taxonomic level (genus or species) to get at a firstcut assessment of diversity and species composition. Environmentally destructive sampling
methods such as poisons are not used. Specimens are shared among museum collections
throughout North and South America, as well as Africa and Australia, as relevant to the taxonomic group.
Key components of AquaRAP are to build the scientific capacity of local students and scientists in the field, to stimulate international cooperation among scientists and institutions, and
to contribute to the infrastructure of participating institutions. The results of AquaRAP are
published about a year after the field study and disseminated in a variety of ways, including
the RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment, CI web pages, RAP database (rap.conservation.org),
papers in scientific journals, field guides, etc. (see references list).
© Piotr Naskrecki
The main objectives of the AquaRAP program are to:
1. Increase the priority given to conservation of freshwater systems, raising the profile of
freshwater conservation to that of terrestrial conservation.
2. Serve as a catalyst for multinational, multidisciplinary, collaborative research on freshwater systems over a larger time frame.
3. Serve as a catalyst for multinational basin level conservation projects. This includes
serving as a vehicle to attract other groups of scientists, conservationists and policy
makers.
4. Increase the training of students in the aquatic sciences and conservation sciences in
many countries.
5. Provide substantial support for the collection infrastructures of the participating institutions.
6. Highlight the role and importance of systematic research and systematics collections
for conservation.
83
7. Generate a body of reliable data about the selected watersheds. This body of information will serve as a basis for future conservation projects, such as priority setting
within basins. The data also will help AquaRAP improve on a system for surveying
freshwater ecosystems in the most rapid, cost-effective manner to obtain useful, firstcut characterizations of the watersheds that will help design aquatic conservation and
management strategies
8. Provide a better definition of the critical boundaries of watersheds
Watersheds as Natural Units
A distinct feature of the AquaRAP program is its focus on the entire watershed or basin. Aquatic
ecosystems are dynamic, with a high diversity of geological, physical and chemical processes, and
of animals and plants with complex life histories. Basins and watersheds are the units that organisms use during their life cycles. For example, some large catfishes are born in the foothills of the
Andes, the young drift thousands of miles downstream to the Amazon’s delta where they grow
to maturity, then years later the adults migrate to the foothills of the Andes to spawn. AquaRAP
includes the terrestrial environment up to the level of the 50-year flood to encompass the critical
linkages between riparian forests and the aquatic environments. Flooding cycles are critical to create the nurseries for juvenile fishes, and many species of plants fruit during periods of inundation,
relying on fishes not only for dispersal but also for proper seed germination (e.g., rubber tree seeds
must pass through the stomachs of fishes to germinate). AquaRAP’s basin concept and protocols
for rapid assessments facilitate the development of management plans that allow a variety of sustainable uses for aquatic systems, while protecting the maximum biodiversity possible.
AquaRAP Criteria
The AquaRAP Steering Committee developed thirteen criteria to select a site for AquaRAP and to
evaluate the site’s priority for conservation (or restoration) action. These criteria were grouped
into three hierarchical levels of importance. AquaRAP scientists study the biological, physical and
when possible the anthropological aspects of watersheds, to categorize the level (high, medium or
low) for each of the 13 criteria listed below.
Primary Criteria
Habitat heterogeneity – the number and types of habitats (e.g., lakes, riffles, rapids, vársea, etc.) found
within the area. This factor is a critical predictor of species and genetic diversity that may be
found in the region.
Habitat uniqueness – an estimate of the degree of uniqueness of a particular habitat within both the
basin and the entire continent or world. For example, the deep channel of the Amazon River, the
Chaco, or the llanos of Venezuela-Colombia are unique habitats at the global level.
Level of current threat – an estimate of the number, types and permanence of the threats that currently or potentially affect the biological or physical integrity of the basin. For example, dams,
impoundments, pollution from roads, farms or refineries, impending housing development,
channelization, etc. It is important to identify the nature and long term status of the threat. For
example, if refinery pollution were abated, would the system cleanse itself and within what time
frame?
Conservation potential and opportunity – the biological opportunities for significant conservation action in the region, within the political, social and geographic framework. For example, if the
84
© Piotr Naskrecki
majority of endemic organisms in a region are still intact, and the surrounding
human population is low, the region may
offer a significant opportunity for protected reserve status, even though the
current level of threat to the region may
be relatively low.
Degree of fragility – the resilience or fragility
of an aquatic ecosystem to human disturbance. Highly fragile systems (e.g., springs,
morichales or aguajales) are of high priority for protection status; they may not be
able to respond to restoration or maintenance programs depending on surrounding conditions.
Other biological significance (ecological processes) – the critical roles some habitats play
in ecological processes that affect species
outside the aquatic community. For example, the extremely productive low llanos are key resources for migratory birds.
Areas within watersheds (e.g., floodplains)
where contaminants are removed from
the water play a critical cleansing role.
These important processes must be considered in evaluating the region’s priority
for conservation action.
Secondary Criteria
Endemism – the proportion of organisms restricted to the region. Endemism often is used as the primary
determinant of conservation priority. We argue, however, that percent endemism does not supersede the above criteria because the overall conservation value of aquatic ecosystems depends on the
habitat, the species, and their uniqueness in relation to global or regional measures of biodiversity.
Estimates of endemism also require a continental-wide perspective and standardization of nomenclature, which are currently not available for many aquatic organisms (published lists are not guaranteed to be accurate). Nonetheless, habitats with identified or estimated high degree of endemism
rank highly.
Productivity – the productivity of the aquatic system for human consumption and for other wildlife (e.g.,
wetlands for birds).
Richness – the number of species in the aquatic region. The absolute measure of biodiversity often is considered an indicator of the importance or health of the ecosystem. However, many unique, highly important aquatic systems have relatively low biodiversity (e.g., Lake Titicaca, Lago Chapala). Although
we consider richness to be an important measure, we do not rank it above uniqueness (endemism)
or productivity. In this measure we also include an estimate of the actual or potential contribution to
genetic diversity. For example, the potential for unique genetic composition, and eventual speciation,
increases in habitats found in a series of tributaries with reduced “communication” among them.
Human significance – the economic and cultural values of the aquatic system for humans. Of particular
importance are the areas and species used by indigenous peoples. Fisheries and recreational use also
must be factored into management plans. This category provides both limitations and opportunities
for conservation.
Degree of intactness – the extent to which the region is free of human disturbance. The conservation
value of the ecosystems will vary directly with its degree of intactness. This should include, if possible, an estimate for the habitats critical for various life history stages of the aquatic organisms.
85
Tertiary Criteria
Ability to generalize – the ability to generalize from studies of particular habitats. This does not override the importance of unique habitats without analog.
Degree of knowledge – how unknown a particular system is.
Highlights of AquaRAP Results
During RAP’s first 20 years, 13 AquaRAP surveys were conducted that focused primarily on the
aquatic ecosystem and covered the entire watershed (Table 1). Several other RAP surveys were
primarily terrestrial surveys but also included aquatic taxa (see Terrestrial RAP section).
The data compiled during AquaRAP surveys in Latin America (Table 2) reveal a wealth of biodiversity that, except for the plants,
was unanticipated. From just the
Table 2. Species Richness recorded during AquaRAP surveys in Latin
first six watersheds surveyed by
America
AquaRAP (Pando, Paraguay, PanTaxon/Site
# Documented
New records Species new to
tanal, Pastaza, and Caura), more
(species unless indicated)
science
than 1,700 species of plants and
Plants
1,300 species of fishes were
Caura
303
identified. The number of new
Pantanal
>600
3
records and new species enParaguay
385
1
Pastaza
>300
countered was impressive (TaSan Pedro
130
ble 2). This is especially true for
Phytoplankton
fishes and for decapods (given
Pastaza
31
their low overall diversity). Even
San Pedro
71
in a well-studied region such
Zooplankton
as the Pantanal, AquaRAP inOrthon
120
creased the known ichthyofauna
Pastaza
20
by more than 30%, and collected
Benthos, incl.
36 species new to science. Adinsects
58 taxa
Caura
ditional species continued to be
36 taxa
Orthon
collected every day and at each
Pantanal
70 taxa
site during most AquaRAP surParaguay
121 sp. + 10 orders
possibly many
veys, resulting in species accu12 taxa
Pastaza
44
San Pedro
mulation curves that did not plateau, which indicates that many
Decapods
Caura
10
2
1
more species remain to be found
Orthon
10
6
in those areas. Overall AquaRAP
Pantanal
10
2
2
identified 238 new basin and
Paraguay
13
1
1
country records for fishes in
Pastaza
10
addition to 105 species new to
Fishes
science that have been identiCaura
273
113
10
Orthon
313
87
14
fied conservatively – these data
Pantanal
193
3
36
represent more than 26% of all
Paraguay
173
5
2
the fishes collected. FurtherPastaza
312
50
43
more, the number of records for
San Pedro
41
86
© Piotr Naskrecki
planktonic and benthic organisms are underestimates of
the number of species, new records and new species. There
just are not many taxonomists
working on these groups – the
specialists often identify these
elements to higher taxa only
(genera and above), which
highlights a need to develop
taxonomic expertise for these
groups. AquaRAP results also
highlight the urgent need for
continued inventories of watersheds in Latin America and around the world.
The Structure of Biodiversity Within Watersheds
The classic literature on Neotropical aquatic communities, other than plants, indicates that watersheds are not highly structured beyond the numbers of species that may occur along elevational gradients. This generalization is particularly true for the Neotropical lowlands (< 250 meters
above sea level). These notions, whether true or false, would be critical for conservation plans.
With this in mind AquaRAP scientists developed a new, innovative methodology for investigating
the potential structure and integration of biodiversity within watersheds among subregions and
among macrohabitats. The methodology is based upon the realization that data from all rapid assessments represents point source data. That is, snapshots of the biodiversity. As such, the data
are formally the same as those in paleontology, where the fossil record provides “instantaneous”
snapshots and the record is largely incomplete. Thus, it becomes critical when comparing samples
of taxa from different regions or different macrohabitats to test the observed similarity against the
expectations of randomness (i.e., given any two collections with so many species, how much similarity should we expect just due to random movements, etc.) If we reject the null hypothesis that
similarity is due to randomness then two possibilities result: 1) that the samples are biologically
correlated or dependent upon one another; or 2) that a turnover or displacement of taxa is evident.
The methodology includes a modified entropy analysis, rarefaction, bootstrapping, network and
eigenanalysis described in detail in each of the AquaRAP volumes. These are robust and conservative procedures and are applicable to all rapid assessment data as well as for community ecology
studies in general. This methodology was published in scientific journals, increasing AquaRAP’s
profile in the scientific community (Chernoff et al. 2004a and b).
What the AquaRAP teams determined in each of the watersheds (except for the San Pedro in Guatemala) is that the fish, invertebrate and plant communities are structured and are not random
(Chernoff et al. 2004b). There are significant patterns for subregions and for macrohabitats within
the basins. The patterns demonstrate well the effects of flood zones on the structure of aquatic
communities. Thus, environmental alterations that would reduce or impact the natural flood cycle
have a predicted impact on the loss of species. This is only one example of many that appear in the
AquaRAP volumes demonstrating that conservation plans must use this type of information in
order to effectively conserve biodiversity.
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Furthermore, AquaRAP surveys were the first published studies in tropical ecosystems that have
investigated how different groups of taxa are correlated with each other across regions and macrohabitats. For example in the Río Paraguay the AquaRAP team discovered that the pattern of species
turnover among subregions of the Río Paraguay basin are almost identical for macroinvertebrates
and for fishes. In the Pantanal they found that there is a strong faunal and floral transition above
200 m but that plants were less rich in the lowlands, while fishes and invertebrates were less species rich in the highlands. A similar pattern was found in the Caura River of Venezuela.
The AquaRAP teams collected scientific evidence to demonstrate how the health and diversity of
riparian vegetation and forests affect fish communities: when flooded vegetation is present then
the fishes are more abundant; however when riparian forest is present and healthy the number of
species of fishes is significantly higher as well as their abundances. In other words, terrestrial and
aquatic ecosystems are interconnected. It is unwise to examine just one or the other. We need to
look at both in order to understand the big picture and conserve the biodiversity of an entire region.
Raising the Priority of Freshwater Conservation to that of Terrestrial Conservation
© Piotr Naskrecki
AquaRAP has significantly elevated the international profile of aquatic conservation and the plight
of rivers with the general public, political audiences as well as conservation organizations. The
large scale and scope of AquaRAP, as well as its conservation impacts, have drawn significant attention from the global conservation community.
AquaRAP was identified and recognized as the
premier approach to assessing freshwater biodiversity by the Secretariat of the U.N. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Division for
Scientific, Technical and Technological Matters
(SBSTTA), a United Nations sponsored initiative addressing global biodiversity conservation issues. In 2001, the Programme on Inland
Waters of the Secratariat for CBD asked the
AquaRAP program to aid them in developing
a protocol for the rapid assessment of inland
waters. This protocol was developed along
with a committee of international aquatic scientists and approved at the 8th SBSTTA meeting of the CBD in 2003.
AquaRAP is officially part of the methodologies
sanctioned by the massive BIOTA Sao Paulo
Program (FAPESP) in Sao Paulo State, Brasil.
AquaRAP was acknowledged by the U.S.
National Committee for the International
Union of Biological Sciences to contribute to the
International Diversitas efforts. Subsequently,
Diversitas International included freshwater
ecosystems as a STAR program, which thus far
88
has led to major initiatives to study the biodiversity and conservation of ancient lakes. AquaRAP has
served as a catalyst and has played a major role in bringing freshwater conservation issues to the
forefront through publicity, publications, scientific and public presentations and lobbying. Despite
these gains there is a long way still to go to reach parity with terrestrial conservation efforts.
Capacity Building and Strengthening International Collaborations
AquaRAP expeditions included more than 100 different scientists and students from over 30 institutions from Bolivia, Brazil, Botswana, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname,
United States and Venezuela. Of the scientists and students who have learned the AquaRAP methodology and philosophy, a number have implemented the main ideas in separate studies in their
countries, including Brazil, Guatemala and Paraguay. There has been much follow-up scientific collaboration between AquaRAP scientists and students and continued training, with several students
entering graduate school. Other scientists, both students and professionals, have used specimens
collected during expeditions and deposited in museums as material for numerous research projects.
Conservation Impacts of AquaRAP
Conservation results, in terms of the creation or strengthening of protected areas such as parks,
usually are achieved over a longer time frame than has elapsed since AquaRAP expeditions were
carried out. However, several direct conservation impacts can already be attributed directly to the
data collected by AquaRAP. A few of these include:
© Piotr Naskrecki
1. Three protected areas were created in the Pantanal: The Serro Bodequena National Park
(70,000 hectares); The Upper Taquaria State Park (30,000 ha); and the Pantanal do Río Negro State Park, which encompasses the Santa Sofia swamp that was highly recommended
for protection by AquaRAP (78,300 ha). These are some of the first aquatic parks anywhere
in South America.
2. Following the AquaRAP, CI-Brazil received a major donation which allowed them to purchase the 7,700 ha Río Negro Farm in the heart of the Pantanal. This provides a corridor of
aquatic protection within the Río Negro watershed of the southern Pantanal. CI has established a field station and ecotourist lodge on the site. Teams of volunteers from Earthwatch
visited the station to work on conservation projects related to water quality, limnology, fish
stock assessment, and river otters.
89
3. The AquaRAP report on the Río Orthon Basin provided critical information to inform the
decision by the state government of the Pando, Bolivia, in establishing the Tahuamanu protected area within the basin.
4. The results of the Paraguay AquaRAP are being used by NGOs in Paraguay to fight against
the Hidrovía project. Furthermore, Barry Chernoff has helped form a group that is studying
the economics of the entire Paraguay River Basin (Pantanal and Paraguay River) to prevent
the Hidrovía. The results were presented at a United Nations Sanctioned Workshop in April,
2001.
5. Scientists are working with a Venezuelan NGO to establish a resource identification training
program for the peoples of Caura Basin. Part of the final AquaRAP report is being translated
into Ye’kwana, the local language, so that the indigenous Kuyijani community, who participated in the Río Caura AquaRAP, can use the results directly in their conservation planning.
6. Due to the attention and public pressure brought about by the AquaRAP team’s discovery of
potential DNA damage in fishes found near operating oil wells in Laguna del Tigre National
Park in Guatemala, the Supreme Court of Guatemala officially declared Concession 192, a
large oil concession (192,233 ha, covering almost 79% of the park) as having been granted
illegally (May 2000).
7. The results from the Pantanal, Pastaza, Paraguay and Caura AquaRAP surveys are being
used by CI regional and country programs and partners to design and implement broadscale conservation corridors in these areas.
8. The AquaRAP expedition to the Okavango Delta, Botswana catalyzed a process for resolving conflicts between local fishermen and sportfishermen in the Delta. AquaRAP scientists
were invited to monitor the effects on aquatic diversity of pesticide spraying for tsetse flies
that took place in 2001. The AquaRAP data are currently being used to support a proposal
to nominate the Okavango Delta as a World Heritage Site.
Communicating AquaRAP Adventures and Results
Online AquaRAP expedition reports including background information on the biology, threats
and other issues pertaining to the area were developed and posted on the CI website for six of the
AquaRAP surveys (Paraguay, Pantanal, Pastaza, Caura, Okavango, and Guyana). The Río Paraguay
AquaRAP (1997) debuted the AquaRAP program on the web with daily journal reports and real
time communication with scientists to help species identification in the field. The AquaRAP trip to
the Pantanal (1998) was produced in Portuguese and English to access collaborators and decisionmakers locally and worldwide. AquaRAP online steadily evolved into a more educationally oriented
program, addressing the dire lack of awareness of freshwater biodiversity issues throughout the educational system. The 1999 expeditions to the Río Pastaza in Ecuador and Perú employed a master’s
student as the internet correspondent, experimenting with these interactive reports in academia.
When CI launched its Investigating Biodiversity (IB) website with Intel in 2000, the dynamic, onthe-ground aspects of AquaRAP teams in the field fit hand-in-glove with IB’s educational perspective. The IB site carried internet broadcasts from the field for another three AquaRAP expeditions
(Okavango Delta, Botswana - 2000; Caura River, Venezuela - 2000; Rewa River/Kanuku Mountains,
Guyana - 2001). These field reports and their supporting articles, interviews with scientists, species
profiles, and explanation of the scientific process can still be viewed at www.conservation.org.
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Major articles covering AquaRAP expeditions appeared in local newspapers and magazines from
each country as well as The Chicago Tribune, the Washington Post and Veija Magazine. Bill Kurtis
filmed a television program on the Paraguay AquaRAP entitled “River in Peril” for the New Explorer’s Series that aired on the A&E cable network. This film was subsequently shown in Paraguay. The
South African Television program 50/50 accompanied the AquaRAP team in the Okavango Delta
and aired a 15 minute segment on its program. MediaVision (Suriname) just recently produced an
hour long documentary on the Central Suriname Natural Reserve and the AquaRAP survey of the
Coppename River Basin entitled “Pristine Treasures.”
Selected Publications from AquaRAP Surveys
Buhrnheim C.M. and L.R. Malabarba. 2006. Redescription of the type species of Odontostilbe Cope, 1870 (Teleostei: Characidae: Cheirodontinae), and description of three new species from the Amazon basin. Neotropical Ichthyology 4(2):167-196.
Chernoff B. 1998. Biodiversity and conservation of aquatic ecosystems: rapid assessment programs, establishing priorities and ethical considerations. Pp 1-7 in Castagnoli N. (ed). Symposium on Biodiversity and
Conservation, S8.2, in Proceedings of the Pan American Veterinary Congress XV, Campo Grande, Brazil.
Chernoff B., A. Machado-Allison, and N. Menezes. 1997. La Conservacion de los Ambientes Acuaticos, una Necesidad Impostergable. Acta Biol. Venez. 16(2):1-3
Chernoff B., P.W. Willink and A. Machado-Allison. 2004a. Spatial partitioning of fishes in the Río Paraguay, Paraguay. Interciencia 29(4): 183-192.
Chernoff B., A. Machado-Allison, P. Willink, J. Sarmiento, S. Barrera, N. Menezes and H. Ortega. 2000. Fishes of
three Bolivian rivers: diversity, distribution and conservation. Interciencia 25(6):273-283.
Chernoff B., A. Machado-Allison, F. Preovenzano, P. Willink and P. Petry. 2002. Bryconops imitator, a new species
from the Río Caura Basin of Venezuela (Characiformes, Teleosteii). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshw. 13(4):259268.
Chernoff B., P.W. Willink, A. Machado-Allison, M.F. Mereles, C. Magalhães, F.A.R. Barbosa and M. Callisto. 2004b.
Distributional congruence among aquatic plants, invertebrates and fishes within the Río Paraguay Basin,
Paraguay. Interciencia 29(4): 199-206.
de Santana C.D. 2003. Apteronotus caudimaculosus n.sp. (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae), a sexually dimorphic
black ghost knifefish from the Pantanal, western Brazil, with a note on the monophyly of the A. albifrons
species complex. Zootaxa 252:1-11.
Lee T., S. Siripattrawan, C.E. Ituarte and D.O. Foighil. 2005. Invasion of the clonal clams: Corbicula lineages in the
New World. American Malacological Bulletin 20:113-122.
Machado-Allison A., B. Chernoff, R. Royero-Leon, F. Mago-Leccia, J. Velazquez, C. Lasso, H. Lopez-Rojas, A. Bonilla, F. Provenzano and C. Silvera. 2000. Ictiofauna de la cuenca del Río Cuyuní en Venezuela. Interciencia
25(1):13-21.
Machado-Allison A., J. Sarmiento, P. W. Willink, B. Chernoff, N. Menezes, H. Ortega, S. Barrera and T. Bert. 1999.
Diversity and abundance of fishes and habitats in the Río Tahuamanu and Río Manuripi basins (Bolivia).
Acta Biologica Venezuelica 19(1):17-50.
Provenzano R.F., A. Machado-Allison, B. Chernoff, P. Willink and P. Petry. 2005. Harttia merevari, a new species
of catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Venezuela. Neotropical Ichthyology 3(4):519-524.
Valdez-Moreno M.E., J. Pool-Canul and S. Contreras-Balderas. 2005. A checklist of the freshwater ichthyofauna
from El Peten and Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, with notes for its conservation and management. Zootaxa
1072:43-60.
Willink P.W., J.H. Mol and B. Chernoff. 2010. A new species of suckermouth armored catfish Pseudancistrus
kwinti (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the Coppename River drainage, Central Suriname Nature Reserve, Suriname. Zootaxa 2332:40-48.
Willink P. W., B. Chernoff, A. Machado-Allison, F. Provenzano and P. Petry. 2003. Aphyocharax yekwanae, a new
species of bloodfin tetra (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae) from the Guyana Shield of Venezuela. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 14(1):1–8.
91
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Terrestrial RAP
MarineRAP
AquaRAP
Map 1. Location map of RAP surveys conducted during 1990 – 2010
93
27.
28.
25.
26.
24.
21.
22.
23.
17.
18.
19.
20.
15.
16.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
2.
3.
4.
5.
1.
Laguna del Tigre National Park, Guatemala
(1999)
Colombia River Forest Reserve, Belize (1992)
Saba Bank, Caribbean Netherlands (2006)
Ramal de Calderas, Venezuela (2008)
Orinoco Delta and the Gulf of Paria, Venezuela
(2002-03)
Río Ventuari, Venezuela (2003)
Río Caura Basin, Venezuela (2000)
Upper Río Cuyuní, Venezuela (2008)
Río Paragua Basin, Venezuela (2005)
Western Kanuku Mountains, Guyana (1993)
Eastern Kanuku Mountains, Guyana (2001)
Coppename River Basin, Suriname (2004)
Lely and Nassau Plateaus, Suriname (2005)
Konashen Community Owned Conservation Area,
Guyana (2006)
Kwamalasamutu, Suriname (2010)
Tumucumaque Mountains National Park, Brazil
(2004-2006)
Cordillera de la Costa, Ecuador (1991)
Río Pastaza Basin, Ecuador and Peru (1999)
Upper Río Nangaritza Basin, Ecuador (2009)
Cordillera del Cóndor, Ecuador and Peru (19931994)
Cordillera de Vilcabamba, Peru (1997-1998)
Upper Río Orthon Basin, Pando, Bolivia (1996)
Tambopata-Candamo Reserved Zone, Peru
(1992)
Pando and Alto Madidi, Bolivia and Pampas del
Heath, Peru (1992, 1996, 1997)
Alto Madidi Region, Bolivia (1990)
Noel Kempff Mercado National Park, Bolivia
(1991-1995)
Humid Forests of Chuquisaca, Bolivia (1995)
The Lowland Dry Forests of Santa Cruz, Bolivia
(1990-1992)
Central and South America
48. Makalu-Barun National Park, Nepal (2005)
49. Mountains of Southwest China Hotspot, Sichuan,
China (2005)
Asia-Pacific
32. Boké Préfecture, Guinea (2005)
33. North Lorma, Gola and Grebo National Forests,
Liberia (2005)
34. Foret Classée du Pic de Fon, Simandou Range,
Guinea (2002)
35. Déré, Diécké, and Mont Béro, Guinea (2003)
36. Haute Dodo and Cavally Classified Forests, Côte
d’Ivoire (2002)
37. Parc National de la Marahoué, Côte d’Ivoire
(1998)
38. Southwestern Forest Reserves, Ghana (2003)
39. Ajenjua Bepo and Mamang Forest Reserves,
Ghana (2006)
40. Atewa Range Forest Reserve, Ghana (2006)
41. Lokutu, Democratic Republic of Congo (2004)
42. Okavango Delta I - High Water Survey, Botswana
(2000), Okavango Delta II - Low Water Survey,
Botswana (2003) and Okavango Delta III Terrestrial, Botswana (2003)
43. Coral Reefs of the Northeast I (2006) and Coral
Reefs of the Northeast II (2010)
44. Coral Reefs of the Northwest, Madagascar (2002)
45. Andrafiamena, Madagascar (2007)
46. Reserve Naturelle Integrale d’Ankarafantsika,
Madagascar (1997)
47. Mantadia-Zahamena Corridor, Madagascar
(1998-1999)
Africa and Madagascar
29. Río Paraguay Basin, Alto Paraguay (1997)
30. Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (1998)
31. Abrolhos Bank, Brazil (2000)
50. Central Cardamom Mountains, Cambodia (2001)
51. Virachey National Park, Cambodia (2007)
52. Calamianes Islands, Palawan Province,
Philippines (1998)
53. Coral Reefs of the Togean and Banggai Islands,
Sulawesi, Indonesia (1998)
54. Raja Ampat Islands, Bird’s Head Seascape,
Indonesia (2001)
55. Fakfak-Kaimana Coastline, Bird’s Head Seascape,
Indonesia (2006)
56. Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, Bird’s Head
Seascape, Indonesia (2006)
57. Wapoga River Area, Indonesia (1998)
58. Northwest Mamberamo Basin, Indonesia (2007)
59. Foja Mountains I, Indonesia (2005) and Foja
Mountains II, Indonesia (2008)
60. Cyclops Mountains and the Southern
Mamberamo Basin, Indonesia (2000)
61. Muller Range (2009) and Upper Strickland Basin
(2008), Papua New Guinea
62. Kaijende Highlands, Papua New Guinea (2005)
63. Lakekamu Basin, Papua New Guinea (1996)
64. Nakanai Mountains, East New Britain, Papua New
Guinea (2009)
65. Southern New Ireland, Papua New Guinea (1994)
66. Milne Bay Province I, Papua New Guinea (1997)
67. Milne Bay Province II, Papua New Guinea (2000)
68. Rennell Island and Indispensable Reefs, Solomon
Islands (1994)
69. Northwest Lagoon (Yandé to Koumac), New
Caledonia (2007)
70. Province Nord, New Caledonia (1996) and Mont
Panié terrestrial, New Caledonia (2010)
71. Mont Panié Lagoon, New Caledonia (2004)
72. Northeast Lagoon (Touho to Ponérihouen), New
Caledonia (2009)
73. Nakauvadra Range, Fiji (2008)
74. Nakorotubu Mountains, Fiji (2009)
RAP survey profiles
The ultimate goal of all RAP surveys is to collect biodiversity data to inform conservation, although
each survey over the last 20 years has had other more specific objectives and outcomes as well.
Here, we present summaries of nearly 80 RAP surveys, divided into five categories of conservation
impacts. It is important to remember, however, that because each survey has multiple objectives
and impacts, each RAP survey meets the criteria of most, if not all, of the categories listed below.
Protected Areas
RAP data have contributed to the creation of protected areas, increased protection status for areas already
designated as protected, or improved management for protected areas. In fact, RAP surveys have resulted
in over 20 million hectares of new, expanded or improved protected areas for biodiversity conservation.
Surveys included in this category are those which have been conducted in protected areas, or have resulted in increased protection status after dissemination of the results of the RAP survey.
Species New to Science
The primary objective of a RAP survey typically is not to find species new to science, but many of the
places we visit are so isolated, so absolutely pristine and unexplored, that we have had the great fortune to
discover over 1,300 new species of plants and animals in our wanderings across the globe. In this section,
you will find some of our most outstanding RAP surveys in terms of the number of species new to science
that were encountered during the expedition.
Capacity Building
Local knowledge of biodiversity is a priceless tool for RAP scientists. It is our privilege to work with local
students, scientists, land managers, and conservationists, and to both learn from their experiences and to
share our own knowledge with them to increase scientific capacity on the ground. Profiles of RAP surveys
in this category include some of our most successful training courses and highlight continued successes of
local stakeholders who have worked with RAP.
Spatial Planning
RAP surveys are often solicited by industry or local stakeholders who are involved in projects which necessitate the identification of priority biodiversity areas during project planning stages. Results from RAP
surveys in this section have contributed to the development of wildlife corridors, industry planning, and
the establishment of priority areas for global recognition such as World Heritage or Ramsar Sites, among
others.
Human Well-being
At the heart of biodiversity conservation is the well-being of human communities who depend on healthy
ecosystems for their survival. RAP surveys have always collected data important to human well-being,
particularly information on ecosystem services such as the provision of food (through data on bushmeat
and fisheries, for example) and freshwater (through data on the quality of water and watersheds). The
RAP survey profiles included in this category exemplify ways in which RAP data can be used to improve
the well-being of human communities living near RAP survey sites.
RAP color codes
Terrestrial RAP
94
AquaRAP
MarineRAP
Protected areas
Bolivia
Alto Madidi Region
May 18 – June 15, 1990
Giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis)
All photos © Andre Baertschi
© Andre Baertschi
T
he very first Conservation International RAP
survey was conducted in Alto Madidi and other locations in the northern part of the Department
of La Paz, located in western Bolivia on the border
with Peru. The topography of Madidi is extreme, as
is its climate: from snow-capped mountains at over
5,700 meters above sea level to less than 200 meters
elevation in the forests of the southwestern Amazon
Basin; and with an annual rainfall of 700 mm in the
upper areas and dry valleys to 5,000 mm per year
in the Alto Madidi zone. This variability is reflected
in its multiple ecoregions, from the puna in the
highest zones passing through humid to perhumid
evergreen montane forests and dry mesothermal
valleys on the eastern slopes of the Andes down to
the tropical seasonal rainforest in the lowlands and
the palm savannas. Most of Madidi is inaccessible,
although the southern area can be accessed from
Pelechuco and Apolo, and the northern area from
Rurrenabaque, San Buenaventura, Tumupasa, Ixiamas and the Heath River.
The objective of this first RAP expedition was to
quickly assess the biological importance of a vast,
largely unexplored wilderness area in the province
of Iturralde, along the upper reaches of the Heath,
Madidi and Tuichi rivers. The region encompasses
nearly 5,000,000 hectares of pristine forest and
grassland, none of which received any protection
under Bolivian law at the time.
An in-depth assessment was made of three groups:
birds, mammals and plants. Each of the sites as-
96
sessed turned out to have exceptional biological diversity. In just 14 days time and in an area of 120
hectares in Alto Madidi, 403 bird species were registered, nine of which were new for Bolivia and 52
for the department of La Paz. Similar findings were
reported in the savannas, or pampas, where 135
bird species were registered, and also in the Calabatea valley with 169 bird species. The diversity of
mammals was more limited with 51 total species,
45 of which were present in Alto Madidi. However,
important species for conservation were registered
in Alto Madidi, particularly large mammals such
as Jaguars (Panthera onca, Near Threatened) and
Tapirs (Tapirus terrestris, Vulnerable). One significant finding was the ninth registry for science of the
Bushy-tailed Opossum (Glironia venusta), a very
rare species that was seen coming out of its hole
in the dry forest of Machariapo, near Apolo. The
plant diversity in Alto Madidi was unusually high
as a result of the juxtaposition of different floras and
the assessment also showed a great diversity of habitats. In just one tenth of a hectare, 204 plant species
were recorded, significantly more than the average
of 152 species for humid forests.
The Madidi RAP team proposed nine conservation recommendations, five of which were attained
within five years after the RAP survey. Today, this
fantastic landscape is part of the Madidi National
Park and Integrated Natural Management Area
(1,880,996 hectares), one of the largest of its kind
in Bolivia, which together with Apolobamba and
Pilón Lajas in Bolivia and Bahuaja Sonene and
The RAP team recommended achieving connectivity between the Madidi area and the protected areas
in the north, in the department of Pando – this action is pending, as is action regarding sustainable
management of the ecosystems of the vast areas that
are not yet protected, but that offer potential for
sustainable development. Partial progress has been
made in sustainable forest management; production forests have been certified but many efforts
against illegal timber exploitation are pending. One
of the greatest successes has been in the development of ecotourism: Chalalán Ecolodge, which was
begun with funding from the Inter-American Development Bank and Conservation International, is
now entirely managed by the indigenous Uchupiamona people, with all profits feeding back into the
Uchupiamona community of San José.
© Andre Baertschi
Marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus)
© Jessica Deichmann
To date, the Madidi protected area has been subject
to 15 years of uninterrupted management, within
the framework of participatory management by the
National Service for Protected Areas (SERNAP),
with investments of over $600,000 per year, a reasonably well-developed infrastructure and solid
links with key stakeholders. Five municipalities enjoy jurisdiction in the area: Apolo, San Buenaventura, Ixiamas, Curva and Pelechuco. They all have
included the Madidi in their community planning,
as they recognize its value for conservation.
Giant leaf frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor)
© Andre Baertschi
Tambopata in Peru, forms the heart of the Vilcabamba Amboró Conservation Corridor, covering
a protection area of more than 4,135,039 hectares
with the unique feature of harboring the most biodiverse forest on the planet. In the RAP report, Ted
Parker, RAP ornithologist, states that he believes the
area has 1,000 bird species, which would represent
an incredible 11% of all bird species known to exist
on our planet! The now protected area of Madidi is
linked to five indigenous territories, which partly
overlap with the protected areas and complement
the Madidi landscape: T´simane Mosetene, Leco
Apolo, Leco Larecaja, Uchupiamonas and Tacana I.
Contributed by Eduardo Forno
Black caiman (Melanosuchus niger)
97
Protected areas
Bolivia: Lowland Dry Forests of Santa Cruz (July 1990 – March 1992)
he Pantanal, the largest wetland in the world, embodies well over 10,000,000 hectares of permanent
swamps and seasonally flooded grasslands interspersed
among large areas of deciduous and gallery forest on
higher ground. The Bolivian Pantanal, located along the
most eastern part of the country, accounts for 15% of the
total area of the Pantanal and is being impacted by cattle
ranching and other human activities. In order to prevent
repeating the pattern of forest exploitation and chaotic
agricultural development that has occurred in the neighboring Brazilian Pantanal, a RAP team set out to take the
first steps in the process of environmental protection:
identifying biotic communities in the Bolivian Pantanal,
and conducting an overview of conservation priorities
and opportunities in the Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. During the RAP surveys, an incredible concentration of waterbirds was observed (conservative estimates
cited 2,000 Snowy Egrets, 1,200 Maguarí Storks and
1,000 Jabirus, among others!). The presence of several
endangered species was witnessed, among these the
Marsh Deer (Blastocerus dichotomus, Vulnerable), the
Hyacinthine Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, Endangered), the Pampas Deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus,
Near Threatened), and the Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis, Endangered). Hence, this RAP survey highlighted
© Ted Parker
T
Aerial view of the Serrania de Santiago dry forest
the need for a protected area which would include the
seasonally flooded grassland, permanent marshland,
and deciduous forests of Santa Cruz. The region is visually spectacular and has great potential for ecotourism.
Today, San Matias Natural Area of Integrated Management (3 million hectares) and Otuquis National Park and
Natural Area of Integrated Management (1 million hectares), created by law on July 31, 1997, protect a great
portion of the Bolivian Pantanal and associated dry forests ecosystems.
Contributed by Juan Carlos Ledezma
For more than two decades, CI has captured the imagination of donors and the public through
its commitment to field science and field assessment. This is a part of CI’s institutional DNA
and is an important reason that CI has such a loyal donor base. Being able to tell the world
about nature’s little-known wonders is critical to CI’s “voice.” But it is more than engaging
donors – it involves having the trust of the world because of CI’s demonstrated commitment
to basing conservation priorities on good data and good field science. This commitment
distinguishes CI from many other environmental institutions.
- Bruce Beehler, Senior Director, Biodiversity Assessment, Science &
Knowledge Division, Conservation International
98
Protected areas
Guyana
Western Kanuku Mountains
February 3 – 25, 1993
Young capuchin monkey (Cebus apella)
All photos © Piotr Naskrecki
© Piotr Naskrecki
Red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria)
T
he Kanuku Mountain Range, located in southwestern Guyana, occupies an area of approximately 500,000 hectares (100 km east to west
and 50 km north to south). The range is divided
into eastern and western halves by the Rupununi
River and is surrounded by the vast Rupununi Savannas. The Kanuku Mountains are considered
to be one of the richest and most biological diverse areas in Guyana, and as such, this area has
been earmarked by the government as one of the
country’s priority sites for protection. With an
elevation of 150-900 meters, the mountains contain lowland evergreen, montane evergreen, and
semi-deciduous forests as well as savanna. The
Kanukus are known to support the world’s largest identified density of the Endangered Harpy
Eagle as well as other Vulnerable species such as
the Lowland Tapir.
A RAP survey was conducted in the Western Kanuku Mountain Range and along the upper Rewa
River in 1993 to collect data to help determine
whether the Kanuku range should be designated
as a protected area. Emerging threats such as a
road system linking coastal Guyana to interior
regions and to Brazil made this RAP survey a top
priority.
100
A great portion of Guyana’s known biological
diversity was documented within the Kanuku
Mountains during the RAP and previous surveys
including 80% of Guyana’s mammals (150 species), and 60% of the known bird fauna (349
species). High diversity of plants and bats were
also noted. Such high diversity is likely due to the
wide variety of habitat types present in the area.
An invertebrate group – the Scarabaeine (dung)
beetles - was surveyed for the first time on a RAP
survey and tested as an indicator group. Because
dung beetles must have plentiful mammal dung in
order to raise their young, dung beetle densities
can be indicative of mammal densities. Twentyfour dung beetle species were documented, indicating a moderately diverse fauna compared to
Amazonian dung beetle communities, and also
indicating a healthy mammalian fauna.
A number of education and awareness tools were
produced after the two Kanuku RAP surveys (a
subsequent survey followed in 2001), including a
booklet describing the results of the RAP surveys,
a video documentary, and posters on the biological importance of the Kanuku Mountains. The information produced from the RAP surveys raised
the Kanukus’ potential as a tourism destination
and triggered the development of a blue print for
community-based tourism in the area. RAP data
in combination with other socioeconomic data
were used to guide the development of a Village
Resources Management Plan for nearby stakeholder communities, thereby promoting sustainable use of natural resources in the Kanukus.
The RAP team recommended the development
of a protected area along the Rewa River in the
eastern Kanukus due to its high biodiversity and
pristine state and suggested a biosphere reserve
model for the western range (more heavily set-
© Conservation International/photo by Jensen Montambault
In 2003, the government of Guyana passed a
moratorium on plans for mining in the Kanukus,
and currently (2010), the Kanuku Mountains are
part of the proposed National Protected Areas
System that will conserve 611,000 ha (46% of the
Upper Essequibo Watershed; 2.8% of Guyana’s
land mass). Results from this and the subsequent
(2001) RAP survey contributed to the development of a conservation management plan for the
area and for delineating the boundaries for a proposed protected area that will include all of the
Kanuku mountain range, watersheds and patches
of the surrounding savannas. Additionally, this
RAP survey highlighted the need for continued capacity building within communities for on-going
species monitoring and enforcement to protect
the biological integrity of the Kanuku Mountains.
Since 2001 about 10 residents from nearby communities have been trained as rangers for community-based monitoring.
Red-tailed Catfish (Phractocephalus hemioliopterus)
© Piotr Naskrecki
tled by humans) which would include promotion
of ecotourism. Halting all unsustainable resource
use, such as gold dredging, poaching, unmanaged
hunting and farming and uncontrolled burning of
forest was also highlighted.
Guyana is the only country in the western hemisphere without a national protected area system.
There is currently only one protected area in the
country, Kaieteur National Park. In the absence
of protected areas legislation, CI and other NGOs
have applied innovative approaches to biodiversity conservation through community planning,
development and management. Guyana’s high
forest cover and low rate of deforestation has
been maintained largely in part by the traditional
way of life of the indigenous peoples.
The proposed protected area in the Kanukus involves a co-management plan prepared using a
highly participatory approach, using a structure
of co-management involving some 6,500 indigenous people in 18 communities and government
at the highest level of governance and implementation.
Contributed by Leeanne Alonso and Eustace
Alexander
An aerial view of the Kanuku Mountains
101
Protected areas
Belize: Columbia River Forest Reserve (April 2 – 14, 1992)
T
he RAP team surveyed the Columbia River Forest
Reserve of Southern Belize along the border with
Guatemala in April 1992. This RAP survey was solicited
by several agencies in Belize because of increasing concern about illegal encroachment into the reserve, including logging, hunting and agriculture. The Columbia River
Forest Reserve lies at the southeastern edge of the Maya
Mountains and at the time of the RAP survey included
approximately 52,600 hectares of primarily old growth
subtropical lower montane wet forest ranging in elevation from 300-900 meters. In 12 days, researchers found
over 430 species of plants, at least 30 of which were new
records for the country of Belize; 224 species of birds; 29
species of mammals, including the Baird’s Tapir; and 10
species of frogs, four of which were new country records,
one of these new to science. RAP team members played a
key advisory role in efforts to increase the area’s legal sta-
tus to national park and suggested improved protection
of the reserve, including control of incursions by people
into the reserve, extension of the reserve’s boundaries,
and infrastructure to attract ecotourism and employ local
villagers. Unfortunately, the area is still a Forest Reserve,
not a park, and incursions, particularly from the border
with Guatemala, have increased since 1992, as have logging and hunting rates. The size of the reserve has actually been decreased to allow for agriculture. A monitoring
post was built at one of the park entrances but has since
fallen into disrepair and the level of ecotourism is low because of unsafe conditions in the park (J. Meerman, pers.
comm.). This important reserve, which is a significant
spring flyway for North American migratory birds like the
Cerulean Warbler, is in dire need of conservation action.
Contributed by Jessica Deichmann
Twenty years ago when it was launched, RAP was a disturbing concept to many in the scientific
community. Surely it was not possible to fast-track the painstaking process of biodiversity inventory
and taxonomy without unacceptable compromises in scientific rigour. But RAP has proved all its
sceptics wrong. RAP recognizes the need for rapid assessments in the face of our global extinction
crisis, but has done this without sacrificing the science, as testified by the numerous papers in the
peer-reviewed literature arising from RAP expeditions. I hope that in the next 20 years we shall see
a huge expansion in the RAP approach in all parts of the world.This is urgently needed so that our
conservation actions can proceed on the basis of the best possible information.
- Simon N. Stuart, Chair, Species Survival Commission,
International Union for Conservation of Nature
102
Protected areas
Ecuador/Peru
Cordillera del Cóndor
July 16 – August 1, 1993 & July 14 – August 7, 1994
© Piotr Naskrecki
Hawk moth (Enyo ocypete)
© Cesar Vega
© Piotr Naskrecki
© Piotr Naskrecki
© Cesar Vega
T
he Cordillera del Cóndor, a mountain range
consisting of tortuous and intricate geological
formations, spans the border between Ecuador and
Peru and is a key element in the complex hydrological cycle linking the Andes with the Amazon. The
proximity of the eastern slopes of the equatorial Andes to the vast sea of Amazonian rain forests create
ecological and evolutionary conditions that generate and sustain extraordinary biological wealth. As
such, the Cóndor is an area of great global conservation significance.
Indigenous communities have inhabited these majestic mountains for centuries. The Jivaroan populations living at the base of the Cóndor and along the
rivers that drain the region include the Shuar and
Ashuar peoples, who mainly occupy the Zamora,
Nangaritza and Pastaza river basins, and Aguaruna
and Huambisa peoples of the Cenepa and Santiago
river basins. As one of the largest indigenous ethnic groups in Amazonia, the Jivaroan communities
depend heavily on the ecosystems within the Cordillera del Cóndor and are in a position to play the
leading role in land-use management.
Despite the fact that the Cordillera del Cóndor remains remote, largely roadless and completely uninhabited above 1,500 meters, this pristine area has
been allocated into numerous mining concessions.
It has also been the site of several cross border
military conflicts and as a result has been virtually
104
off-limits to biologists for half a century. The RAP
surveys were conducted, beginning in Ecuador in
1993, and continuing in Peru in 1994 with the aim
of contributing to a better understanding of the biology of one particular area of humid lower montane forest within the mountain range. The second
objective was to encourage the appreciation of the
importance of the Cordillera del Cóndor as a global
conservation priority, contributing to a satisfactory
resolution of the many competing demands on the
region’s resources.
The most important outcome of the two surveys of
the Cordillera del Cóndor was the discovery of the
remarkable plant communities found along the top
ridges and on sandstone mesas at Achupallas and at
Machinaza. Many of the plants found in these herbazales, or grassland meadows, appear to represent
species new to science; the herbazales of the Cordillera del Cóndor probably are the largest anywhere
in the Andes. Although lower elevations in the Cóndor are more accessible to human encroachment
and settlement and to date have experienced the
greatest amount of habitat disturbance in the cordillera, bird and mammal surveys suggest that the
small mammal and avian fauna there are fairly diverse and are represented by many Amazonian species. The higher elevation areas surveyed had lower
richness of birds and mammals and included more
species typical of montane ecosystems.
These RAP surveys were the basis for the creation of
the Santiago-Comaina Reserved Zone in 1999, after
the peace agreements between Peru and Ecuador.
With 1.6 million hectares, the Santiago-Comaina
Reserved Zone was the foundation for the creation
of Ichigkat muja-Cordillera del Cóndor National
Park (88,477 ha) and Tuntanin Communal Reserve
(94,968 ha) in Peru, both created in 2007. The fact
that the new protected areas are smaller in comparison to the original reserved zone is because most
of the Santiago-Comaina Reserved Zone covered
territories of indigenous communities, who already
implement conservation activities as part of their
traditional use of natural resources. Since the RAP
surveys, two additional biological assessments have
been implemented to complement the 1993 and
1994 surveys, and to contribute to the development
of management plans for both areas. There are still
398,449 ha in the Santiago-Comaina Reserved Zone
that remain to be categorized.
Contributed by Carmen Noriega and Luis Espinel
© Conservation International/photo by Haroldo Castro
Andean condor (Vultur gryphus)
© Conservation International/RAP Image Library
The Cordillera del Cóndor represents the largest
and most diverse area of Sandstone Mountains in
the Andes and may have the greatest richness of
vascular plants in South America. The RAP team recommended that the Cordillera del Cóndor be recognized for its diversity and given protection status, so
that its unique flora and habitats will be preserved.
Atelopus spumarius, a Vulnerable species of harlequin
frog
© Conservation International/RAP Image Library
Some of the most interesting records from these RAP
surveys were found in the herbazales; for example,
the presence of 40 species of orchids, as many as 26
potentially new to science; the discovery of a new
species of mouse opossum; and also the record of a
bird typically found at much higher elevations, the
Mouse-colored Thistletail (Schizoeaca griseomurina). These results indicate that additional studies in
these localities would undoubtedly produce further
discoveries.
The RAP team planning a field survey
105
Protected areas
Peru: Tambopata – Candamo Reserve Zone (May 15 – June 20, 1992)
L
CI has collaborated with the Peruvian government since
1990 to carry out ecological and social studies to assess
potential land uses in the region. The primary goals of
the RAP survey of Tambopata-Candamo in 1992 were to
provide a clearer picture of biological diversity in the region, and to apply that knowledge to the zoning process.
The survey focused on two main areas: a) The Río Tambopata and the Cerros del Távara and b) The Rio Heath
and Pampas del Heath National Sanctuary. Both areas offer unique opportunities for long-term research projects
on their biological communities. These areas are distinct
in the diversity of habitats, which support diverse native
flora and fauna: 165 species and 41 families of trees, 103
mammal species, 1,300 butterfly species, and 90 species
of amphibians. There are large populations of species
that have become rare from overhunting, especially tapirs, jaguars, peccaries, otters, and river turtles. At least
© Jessica Deichmann
ocated in the Peruvian Amazon Basin, south of the
Madre de Dios River in Tambopata Province’s Inambari and Tambopata districts, the Tambopata-Candamo Reserve Zone is part of the largest and least disturbed remaining areas of Upper Amazonian and Lower
Andean ecosystems. The Tambopata-Candamo Reserve
Zone was created on January 26, 1990 to protect the forests adjacent to the Heath and Tambopata rivers.
Juvenile Emerald Tree Boa (Corallus caninus)
seven species new to science were recorded for the area.
The RAP team recommended establishment of a national
park within the Tambopata-Candamo Reserve Zone due
to the biological importance of the different types of forest
on the floodplains of the Río Tambopata. In 2000, these
expectations were fulfilled as the National Park Bahuaja
Sonene (1,091,416 ha) and the Tambopata National Reserve (274,690 ha) were created from the Reserve Zone.
Contributed by Carmen Noriega and Luis Espinel
CI’s Rapid Assessment Program surveys and publications have been critical components of our
work in the Center for Environmental Leadership in Business when engaging with companies in
biodiversity assessment and planning in the early stages of project design. The survey results have
provided detailed data about the species, habitats and ecosystems in a project area. That information coupled with socio economic assessments have informed the development of action plans that
demonstrate the sustainable use of the biological resources in a project area.
- Mahlette Betre, Center for Environmental Leadership in
Business, Conservation International
106
Protected areas
Cambodia
Virachey National Park
October 1 – 15, 2007
All photos © Piotr Naskrecki
White-lipped Pit Viper (Trimeresurus albolabris)
V
irachey National Park is located in the northeast corner of Cambodia, near the borders
with Laos and Vietnam. It is the largest national
park in Cambodia, and one of the least accessible.
Virachey contains a variety of natural habitats
(e.g., bamboo, pine forest, semi-evergreen rainforest, dry dipterocarp forest) depending on altitude, aspect, history, geology, and hydrology. The
most abundant formation is tropical evergreen
rainforest, much of which appears to be in primary condition. Virachey National Park massif contains a range of mountains that reach over 1,400
meters in altitude to the east, and over 1,500 m
towards the Laos border. These high elevation
sites are far from any footpaths or villages, and
have never been surveyed. This remoteness has
protected the area, yet it has also prevented biological assessments because it requires 5-7 days
of hiking through evergreen rainforest to get
deep into the survey site.
The objective of the survey was to gain a better
understanding of the biological importance of Virachey and highlight its importance for biological
conservation. The survey will lead to the production of a detailed report for Cambodia’s Ministry
of the Environment, which will help the ministry
raise awareness and funds to protect and conserve the unique biodiversity of Virachey.
108
The surveyed areas were found to contain an interesting diversity and abundance of species. At
least 15 mammal, 37 fish, 30 ant and 19 katydid
species were recorded during this survey, including direct observations of several large mammal
species (e.g., Sambar deer, wild dog, wild cattle)
and recent tracks and signs of other mammals
(bears, Clouded Leopards). Many of these mammals are considered globally threatened.
The RAP team recorded at least 26 amphibian
and 35 reptile species, a number of which may
be new to science. On the basis of this survey, Virachey represents an area of extremely high amphibian and reptile diversity within Cambodia,
and a relatively high diversity regionally. Many
of the species documented during the RAP survey have never previously been recorded elsewhere in Cambodia, making the park of significant herpetological conservation importance for
the country. The Asiatic Softshell Turtle (Amyda
cartilaginea), Asian Giant Pond Turtle (Heosemys grandis), and Impressed Tortoise (Manouria
impressa), are all classified as Vulnerable by the
IUCN. None of the recorded amphibians are currently classified as globally threatened; however,
this is because too few data exist for these amphibian species to be properly classified at this
time. The RAP survey recorded one Endangered
mammal, the Dhole (Cuon alpinus). While fewer
than 2,500 Dhole are thought to remain in the
wild, the RAP team observed a total of at least 15
of these wild dogs, highlighting the crucial importance of Virachey for the conservation of this
species. Five other large mammals were recorded
which are classified by IUCN as globally threatened (Vulnerable): the Gaur (Bos gaurus), Yellowcheeked Gibbon (Nomascus gabriellae), Stumptailed Macaque (Macaca arctoides), Asiatic Black
Bear (Ursus thibetanus) and Malayan Sun Bear
(Helarctos malayanus). Tracks of otters along
the rivers and hill streams appear to be from the
Asian Small-clawed Otter (Aeonyx cinerea, Near
Threatened), which the IUCN Otter Specialist
Group recommends reclassifying as Endangered
due to hunting for the fur trade. The presence of
these globally threatened species indicates a relatively undisturbed ecosystem, with little hunting
pressure. Additionally, at least two shrew species
are likely to represent new country records and
may even be undescribed species.
The Cambodian government has plans to mine
in the mountains and dam one of the rivers that
flows through Virachey. The RAP team strongly
recommends surveying other rivers to ensure
that species living in the river to be dammed can
be found elsewhere, and that at least one biologically important wild river remains undeveloped
and conserved within the park. The river to the
west of the proposed dams is of particular interest as it is a very large intact river system with
multiple tributaries – a watershed covering over
60,000 hectares with headwaters at over 1,300
m elevation. Conservation of this watershed and
river will ensure that Virachey’s globally threatened and restricted range turtles, freshwater
fish and amphibians are adequately protected.
RAP scientists plan to conduct more surveys in
collaboration with the mining company to help
mitigate the effects of the proposed mining and
to ensure that development within the park has
minimal impact on the most vulnerable and high
biodiversity ecosystems.
Ants tending aphids (Dolichoderinae)
Ant plant (Myrmecodia sp.)
Contributed by Piotr Naskrecki and David Emmett
Stream frog (Limnonectes dabanus)
109
My thoughts go back over the fifteen years that I have served on the Conservation International
board – experiencing train wrecks in Peru, running out of food on our trip to visit the Kayapo
Indians in Brazil, and our excursion to the Cardamom Mountains in Cambodia. On our journey
to Cambodia, we took helicopters on a mission to locate the endangered Indochinese tigers that
once inhabited the terrain. Within minutes of landing on the mountain top my feet started to itch.
I looked down and noticed that leeches and blood covered my white tennis shoes. I immediately
called for the helicopter to take me back to the camp. For a city boy, the experience was all too overwhelming. Later that night in camp, Leeanne Alonso told me of the next RAP expedition to spend
a week in that same mountainous landscape that forced my early return. I couldn’t image anyone
being so adventurous and brave.
As always, my thoughts are with you in appreciation of your amazing work for Conservation
International. I would like to congratulate you on your Papua New Guinea RAP, where you made
the marvelous new species discoveries. I always try to keep up with your adventures through the
Conservation International webpage. Thank you for all that you do for our planet.
– Mark Feldman, Vice-chairman of the Executive Committee,
Conservation International Board of Directors
110
Protected areas
Peru
Cordillera de Vilcabamba
June 1997 – August 1998
© Louise Emmons
Red Howler Monkeys (Alouatta seniculus)
© Conservation International/photo by Haroldo Castro
© Louise Emmons
© Piotr Naskrecki
© Conservation International/photo by Haroldo Castro
T
he Cordillera de Vilcabamba in south-central
Peru contains such unique and abundant diversity that it took three expeditions to study
just a fraction of the 3 million hectare mountain
range - two by RAP in 1997 and 1998 and one by
the Smithsonian Institution (SI) in 1998 - which
were all published together in the RAP Bulletin
of Biological Assessment (2001). RAP’s quests to
explore this remote and inaccessible range were
featured in National Geographic as well as International Wildlife magazine in 1998.
112
The lure of the Cordillera de Vilcabamba lies in its
wide variation of altitudes, from the highest peaks
above 4,300 m to the lower river basins at around
400-500 m, with seven life and two transition vegetation zones. The steep slopes and isolation of
Vilcabamba have created the setting for the evolution of a high number of endemic species. The
Cordillera de Vilcabamba is also recognized as an
area of significant conservation importance for
its high diversity of indigenous peoples, including
the Asháninka, Matsigenka (or Matsiguenga), Nomatsiguenga, and Yine. Vilcabamba also serves as
the headwaters of many important South American rivers, which maintain a clean supply of freshwater for the communities who farm the fertile
soils in the lowlands below.
RAP and Smithsonian Institution surveys of forests from 1,000 m to over 3,350 m in elevation
documented exceptionally high overall species diversity and a remarkable substrate heterogeneity,
which contributed to extraordinary levels of overall habitat heterogeneity, from humid canyons to
high-elevation pajonales (grass- or scrub-lands).
The higher elevation sites were distinct from each
other and from lower altitudes. Species richness
of vertebrates was high, with many endemic and
geographically restricted species of mammals
and birds. Most of the amphibians observed are
endemic to the Cordillera de Vilcabamba. Invertebrate species were also documented and high
diversities of spiders, crickets, beetles, wasps and
bees were revealed. Many of the vertebrate and
invertebrate species recorded were new to science or were found in unexpected habitats or in
surprising abundance, further indication that this
area is a special place in relation to biodiversity.
Among the discoveries was even a new genus of
mammal!
The RAP and SI survey results came at a critical
time to provide support to a 30 year process begun by the Peruvian government in the 1960s and
taken up by several non-governmental organizations in the 1980s that culminated in a proposal
The region continues to be managed by the indigenous communities and park authorities. A gas
pipeline running from the Camisea natural gas
fields in the remote lower Urubamba region to the
Peruvian coast runs below ground, directly under
the Machiguenga Communal Reserve, reducing,
but not eliminating the environmental impact of
the pipeline. The Camisea project has strengthened the organizational capabilities of the local
communities, but the project remains controversial due to the possible impacts on the ecosystems
of the region.
Saddleback Tamarin (Saguinus fuscicollis)
Yellow mushroom from the Vilcabamba-Amboro
Corridor
© Louise Emmons
Contributed by Carmen Noriega, Luis Espinel, and
Leeanne Alonso
© Conservation International/photo by Haroldo Castro
In January 2003, three new protected areas were
officially created and designated as the Ashaninka
Communal Reserve (184,468 ha), Matziguenka
Communal Reserve (218,905 ha), and Otishi National Park (305,973 ha) by Supreme Decree 0032003-AG. Of the 1,669,200 ha in the Apurimac
Reserved Zone, 709,347 ha are included in these
three new protected areas.
© Conservation International/photo by John Martin
put forward by Conservation International-Peru,
Asociación para la Conservación del Patrimonio
del Cutivireni and the Centro para el Desarrollo
del Indígena Amazónico to establish two communal reserves and a national park in the Apurimac
Reserved Zone. Reserved Zones have only a transitory protected status. The RAP scientific data
provided the scientific justification for declaring
the Apurimac Reserved Zone as a region of high
global biodiversity importance, deserving of conservation efforts and protection.
A panoramic view of the Cordillera de Vilcabamba
113
Protected areas
Côte d’Ivoire: Parc National de la Marahoué (January 31 – February 23, 1998)
Biological Assessment of Parc National de la Marahoué National Park, an area of approximately
101,000 hectares in central Côte d’Ivoire, represents a
unique protected area with transitions from semi-deciduous Upper Guinea forest to savanna ecosystems. The
1998 RAP survey recorded baseline data for ecological
monitoring and to aid in the development of a conservation management strategy for the park. During the
survey, 458 plant, nine primate, 16 other mammal and
256 bird species were recorded. The savanna lacked
tree species typically found in West African savannas,
but herbaceous species appeared rich. Detection rates
of primates were low, although interviews with local
people suggested there may have been a viable population of the Diana Monkey (Cercopithecus diana), a highly
endangered primate, within the park at the time of the
survey. Eight of the 14 endemic Upper Guinea forest
birds known to occur in Côte d’Ivoire were recorded, indicating a rich avifauna. RAP researchers reported signs
of human incursions within park boundaries including
scattered cocoa farms inside the forest and mammal
density patterns which suggested high hunting pressure,
particularly on the western side of the park. Although
© Conservation International/photo by Carla Short
A
Marahoué National Park at dawn
researchers made a number of recommendations for
improved conservation of the park including improved
surveillance within the borders and enlisting support
for the park from local communities, civil unrest since
2002 has made follow-through difficult. Unfortunately,
hunting and agricultural encroachment have increased
and the situation of the park has largely deteriorated (S.
Gonedelé Bi, pers. comm.)
Contributed by Jessica Deichmann
My first experience with the RAP program was as a guest lecturer during the second Asia-Pacific
RAP project, in Papua New Guinea’s Lakekamu Basin in 1996. This project had a strong focus on
training young Papua New Guinean biologists, and several of the promising trainees at Lakekamu
have become long-term research collaborators and good personal friends. The next RAP in the
region, to the Wapoga area of Indonesian New Guinea in 1998, opened my eyes to the magnitude
of the task facing scientists trying to document New Guinea’s poorly-known biodiversity. At dusk
on the first night of our survey a chorus of chirps, tweets and honks from a multitude of frogs emanated from the forest. With a thrill known only to those who have experienced discovery of a new
species, I immediately knew from their calls that many of these represented species never before
documented by science. Every subsequent expedition continues to evoke a sense of wonderment and
excitement but more importantly RAP surveys in New Guinea have confirmed the island as a biological treasure-trove, and provided invaluable information about patterns of diversity, endemism
and the conservation status of many plant and animal groups.
- Stephen Richards, RAP manager for Asia-Pacific Region
114
Protected areas
Indonesia
Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, Bird’s Head Seascape
February 9 – 26, 2006
© Gerald Allen
Coral (Anacropora dendracis)
© Dan Polhemus
© Gerald Allen
© Emre Turak
© Graham Abbott
Healthy coral reefs of Cenderawasih Bay
S
ituated in the far eastern reaches of the Bird’s
Head Seascape in West Papua, Indonesia,
Teluk Cenderawasih is a large bay of nearly
5,000,000 hectares which reaches depths of almost
2,000 meters in its center. The mouth of the bay
is nearly blocked off by the reef-fringed islands of
Yapen, Biak and Numfor, while the inner bay has a
multitude of small islands, atolls and fringing reefs
which are protected by nearly pristine watersheds.
Teluk Cenderawasih National Park is Indonesia’s
largest marine national park at just over 1,500,000
hectares in size.
This MarineRAP survey had five main objectives:
1) assess the current conservation status (including
reef condition and biodiversity values) of Cenderawasih National Park; 2) identify areas of outstanding conservation importance (due to the presence
of endemic or globally threatened species, fish
spawning aggregation sites, turtle nesting beaches, etc.) to inform the park’s zonation process; 3)
conduct socioeconomic and fisheries surveys of
coastal villages to identify conservation threats and
opportunities arising from local attitudes and practices; 4) assess the potential for the development of
marine tourism in the park; and 5) estimate levels
of ecological and genetic connectivity between the
reefs of Cenderawasih and those in Raja Ampat
and Kaimana to inform seascape-level management strategies.
116
The MarineRAP survey team assessed 33 sites
over the course of an 850 nautical mile route covering most of Cenderawasih Bay, with over 450
man-hours recorded underwater. While the team’s
findings confirmed that Cenderawasih is an area of
extremely high biodiversity, no one predicted the
spectacular levels of endemicity that were revealed
in the bay’s marine populations. Of the nearly 500
hard coral species recorded, 22 are undescribed
and apparently endemic to the bay! Likewise, five
of the 37 stomatopod crustacean species collected
were new and found nowhere else, while at least
eight of the 716 reef fishes recorded were also
new and endemic, including a charismatic species
of Hemiscyllium “walking” shark. Moreover, at
least a dozen species of reef fish displayed color
patterns unique to populations in the bay, adding
further evidence of past oceanographic isolation
of the bay. Population genetic analyses of over
50 different species of marine organisms further
elucidated this pattern of repeated isolation of the
bay over the past 14 million years; this evidence,
combined with tectonic reconstructions of the area,
helped the team to hypothesize a rare case of a marine “species factory” within the bay.
Perhaps just as importantly, the survey revealed
that the reefs of the national park were generally
in very healthy condition (>47% average live coral
cover on the reef crest), with excellent recovery
Based upon the striking levels of endemicity exhibited in the bay, the generally excellent condition
of the reefs and the impressive community support
for conservation, the team strongly recommended
that Cenderawasih National Park receive much
higher priority by the Indonesian government
in terms of funding and community engagement
programs. Two fish spawning aggregation sites
were recommended for inclusion in no-take zones,
while steep coastal forests were slated for inclusion
in a buffer zone to protect the fragile watersheds in
the bay. Finally, the team recommended that the
provincial government immediately prioritize development of well-managed, sustainable marine
tourism as well as pushing the University of Papua
to initiate active marine biological research in the
bay. A number of these recommendations have recently been put in to practice (see Indonesia Regional Summary).
© Gerald Allen
from previous blast-fishing damage and rebuilding stocks of large reef fishes including groupers
and sharks. Socioeconomic surveys in 18 coastal
villages revealed strong conservation awareness
and support for the national park – a tribute to the
dedicated ranger staff working in this remote area.
Incidence of blast and cyanide fishing was greatly
reduced from what had been recorded a decade
previous.
Cenderawasih fairy wrasse (Cirrhilabrus cenderawasih)
© Graham Abbott
Contributed by Mark Erdmann
Healthy coral reef of Cenderawasih Bay
© Gerald Allen
Cenderawasih walking shark (Hemiscyllium galei)
117
Protected areas
Ghana: Southwestern Forest Reserves (October 22 – November 10, 2003)
our forest reserves (Draw River, Boi-Tano, Tano Nimiri
and Krokosua Hills) classified by the Government of
Ghana as Globally Significant Biodiversity Areas were surveyed to assess their faunal diversity and to secure their
ecological integrity. The RAP team documented 1,309
species with one amphibian species new to science, and
several new records for Ghana including two plant, one
butterfly, three amphibian and one shrew species. Over
250 species of butterflies were recorded, including many
endemic to West Africa. The bird fauna (170 species) included a high component of forest species. The reserves
harbor 30 species of international conservation concern.
These reserves have the potential to act as stepping
stones for wildlife gene flow within the fragmented landscape. They need to be connected to neighboring national
parks and other reserves through corridors. Draw River
should receive the highest level of protection and be integrated into Ankasa/Nini Suhien National Park, with which
it is contiguous. In Krokosua Hills, the greatest priority
© Jan Decher
F
Forest rodent (Hybomys sp.)
should be halting illegal clearance of forest and embarking on innovative sustainable livelihood initiatives compatible with conservation of biodiversity. Conservation
will only succeed when people living close to biodiversity
are aware of its value and able to enjoy the benefits from
its preservation and sustainable utilization.
Contributed by Leeanne Alonso
My first RAP survey took place in the Atewa Range Forest Reserve (Ghana) from 6-24 June 2006.
During this RAP, I was fascinated with the atmosphere of brotherhood that reigned between all the
RAP participants. Personally, I think that this brotherhood was the key of the success of that RAP.
In the Amphibian Group to which I belonged as a specialist, it was an honor for me to train Mr. Caleb Ofori Boateng, a graduate student from Ghana, in amphibian sampling and taxonomy. We recorded 32 taxa of amphibians; I was fascinated particularly in the site of Asiakwa North. I gained
a valuable first impression of the originality of its topography, the steepness of its slopes, the diversity of West African frogs, and the diversity of its vegetation types. The beauty of its landscape was
illustrated by a deep valley in which a succession of very huge blocks of granite constituted refuge
for the critically endangered frog Conraua derooi (Petropedetidae). I am indebted to Conservation International, Washington D.C., in general, and L.E. Alonso and J. McCullough in particular
for the invitation to participate in that RAP survey. My special thinks are to Heather Wright who
I affectionately call “Mommy RAP”, Piotr Naskrecki, Yaw Osei-Owusu and Nana Abena-Somaa,
the Accra office of Conservation International, Okyeame Ampadu-Agyei and Philip Badger for
organizing the logistics!
- N’goran Germain Kouamé, University of Abobo-Adjamé
118
Protected areas
Caribbean Netherlands
Saba Bank
January 4 – 15, 2006
© Diane Littler
Green turtle (Chelonia mydas)
© Paul Hoetjes
© Robert Thacker
© Piotr Naskrecki
© J.A. Sanchez
High diversity gorgonian assemblage on the Saba Bank fore-reef
L
ocated in the Dutch Windward islands approximately 250 km southeast of Puerto Rico, Saba
Bank is a completely submerged platform (total
area of 220,000 hectares) that rises 1,000 m up
from the surrounding sea floor. The platform is
well mapped, but largely unexplored. A large portion of the Bank lies between 7 and 20 m in depth
and contains extensive coral reefs.
The hard coral, soft coral, and sponge reefs present on Saba Bank are generally healthy, but the
reefs are regularly imperiled by maritime activity, especially anchoring and abrasion by tankers
traveling to and from oil terminals on St. Eustatius. Traditional fisheries operating from Saba Island (about 1,300 residents) are concerned about
the problem.
120
Sabans are directly responsible for the management of Saba Bank, so they sought to mitigate
damage from passing oil tankers through a zoning
plan. The Department of Environment and Nature
of the Netherlands Antilles (MINA) supported the
zoning process, and is seeking to designate Saba
Bank a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA)
through the International Maritime Organization.
The PSSA designation would ensure that fragile
habitats and areas with high biodiversity are off
limits to ship anchors under maritime law.
Scientific data on the biodiversity of Saba Bank
were needed to justify the PSSA designation.
Some key pieces of information on species and
habitats were missing, so MINA sought the expertise of Conservation International’s MarineRAP to
fill these data gaps. In order to accomplish this, a
multi-disciplinary team of RAP scientists and Saba
National Marine Park managers was assembled
and the team conducted biodiversity assessments
at 20 sites along the Bank. The surveys focused on
macro-algae (seaweeds), habitat-forming benthic
invertebrates (hard corals, soft corals, and sponges) and the fishes associated with these habitats.
Species richness of all taxa was found to be as high
or higher than other well-studied Caribbean sites
like Puerto Rico. The species composition was
similar to other Caribbean localities, thus the reef
habitat is representative of the region. Over 500
species were documented, including 270 species
of fish, 150 seaweeds, 81 sponges, 48 octocorals,
and 43 hard corals. The number of fish species
known to occur on Saba Bank rocketed from 42 to
270 over the course of the study.
Scientific findings from these studies comprised
a collection in the scientific journal PLoS ONE
called Biodiversity of Saba Bank (http://www.
ploscollections.org). A few highlights from the
However, not all the news was good. There was
evidence of bleaching to hard corals at 82% of
dive sites. The hard coral surveys took place in
2006, and the damage was attributed to the record bleaching event in the Caribbean in 2005.
Damage to sponges and corals from anchor chains
was also documented. Videotaped evidence confirmed the detrimental impacts of maritime activities on the sponge and coral communities on
Saba Bank.
In the opinion of the MarineRAP science team,
the majority of sites surveyed merited protective measures because of their biodiversity, and
susceptibility to damage from maritime activity
especially anchoring by large ships. Immediate
action to protect these diverse habitats was recommended.
In October 2010, the Netherlands Antilles government declared Saba Bank the Caribbean’s newest
marine protected area. The declaration prohibits
anchoring by large ships (i.e., tankers) on the entire Bank with a few exceptions (e.g., permitted
local fishing boats). The Coast Guard of the Dutch
Caribbean will be enforcing these regulations. After the constitutional changes in the Caribbean
An application for PSSA status was submitted by
the Netherlands to the International Maritime Organization for consideration in Spring, 2011. The
MarineRAP survey results highlighted the complexity and biodiversity of Saba Bank, and helped
lead to its protection, but all scientists involved
in the surveys agreed that more discovery and
exploration awaits on this unique and expansive
Caribbean atoll.
Contributed by Sheila A. McKenna, Peter J. Etnoyer,
and Paul Hoetjes
© Robert Thacker
New habitat types were described in the PLoS ONE
collection, including a 50 km shallow fore-reef
with high diversity and abundance of hard and
soft corals and a broad plateau environment with
exceptional richness of red and brown seaweeds.
New high-resolution seafloor maps showed deep
linear features on the southeast perimeter and
deep mounds in the northeast quadrant.
Netherlands, the Netherlands will take on the
management of Saba Bank.
Sponge (Aiolochroia crassa)
© Piotr Naskrecki
volume include multiple sightings of the Critically
Endangered hard coral Acropora cervicornis, a robust population of the Giant Barrel Sponge, Xestospongia muta, and exceptional species richness
overall among seaweeds and octocorals. New species were discovered in shallow and deep (> 50
m) water. Octocoral colonies appeared healthy,
with only a few lesions observed. Further, no
signs of disease or bleaching were evident on the
sponges, as reported from other Caribbean reefs.
Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata)
121
Protected areas
Madagascar: Coral Reefs of the Northeast II (March 27 – April 16, 2010)
T
cies of echinoderms (starfish and the like). Moreover,
67 different species of coral associates were observed,
some of which revealed unexpected diversity in color
and pattern. Nine species of seagrass and over 90 species of macroalgae were recorded. Acting as nursery
areas for larval forms, these provide habitat for a high
diversity of fish and macro-invertebrates. These results
group Northeast Madagascar with the highest marine
diversity sites in Northwest Madagascar, Northern Mozambique and Southern Tanzania, lending support to
the existence of a high diversity center for the Western
Indian Ocean. Discussions between local indigenous
communities and government agencies over the creation of Marine Protected Areas in the areas surveyed
(particularly in Ambodivahibe Bay) are currently ongoing. A socioeconomic evaluation of the area was conducted in the summer of 2010 and the full MarineRAP
report is predicted to be published in early 2011.
Contributed by Giuseppe DiCarlo
© Keith Ellenbogen/ILCP
he extreme northeast region of Madagascar is
particularly rich in marine biodiversity; some believe it could be considered another “Coral Triangle”.
Spurred by results of the MarineRAP survey in 2006,
additional reef surveys were conducted in Northeastern Madagascar in 2010, covering 125 km of coastline. The goals were to assess the resilience of coastal
ecosystems and to produce management recommendations that would contribute to identifying Marine
Protected Area priority sites for Madagascar. Moreover, this study would support the creation of “climatesmart” Marine Protected Areas as a tool to mitigate the
impacts of climate change on the coastal marine environment of Madagascar. Over the course of 20 days, a
multi-disciplinary team of marine scientists surveyed
selected areas, namely Baie de Ambodivahibe, Baie de
Loky, Nosy Ankao, Baie de Andrivana and Vohemar. The
MarineRAP survey revealed 280 species of hard corals,
292 species of coral reef fishes (70% of the fish species
known to occur in Madagascar waters!) and 68 spe-
In the field program, RAP remains one of the most valuable tools for engaging partnerships
with officials, politicians, scientists and local communities. In many ways, it becomes the preliminary phase of potentially rewarding landscape projects in support of CI’s new strategy.
- François Martel, Conservation International – Pacific Islands program
122
Protected areas
New Caledonia
Mont Panié Lagoon
November 24 – December 15, 2004
Top left and background photos: © Conservation International/Schannel van Dijken. Top right photo: Roger Grace.
© Conservation International/photo by Schannel van Dijken
M
ont Panié in the northeastern part of the
South Pacific Island of New Caledonia is
an important terrestrial reserve spanning 5,400
hectares and encompassing the highest mountain (1,629 meters), bearing the same name. In
2004, a new community-based Marine Protected
Area was proposed for the coral reefs lying off
the coast of this reserve and the municipalities of
Hienghène and Pouebo. At the time of the survey,
existing governmental management was mainly
limited to regulations on the extraction of specific
species such as fish, snails and crabs. Selected
sites in the area are under traditional marine resource practices and conservation measures instituted by the Kanak tribes. For example some
of the reefs are designated as “taboo” sites with a
ban on fishing or collecting marine creatures.
124
This MarineRAP survey was conducted in collaboration with the government of Province Nord,
Dayu Biik (a local conservation NGO supported
by CI and Province Nord) and local Kanak tribes
to obtain site-specific data on the ecology and
socioeconomics of the area to inform effective
conservation and management activities. The
team consisted of two groups of local and international scientists, sociologists and local community members working in parallel. The biological
group evaluated 42 coral reef sites from Grand
Recif Pouma and Balade Pass in the north to Recif
Doiman in the south. Sites of particular interest
included the reefs adjacent to the Mont Panié reserve and culturally taboo sites. Special care was
taken to ensure all sites visited were afforded the
utmost respect and all tribal laws were followed.
No specimens were collected as requested by the
local tribes and only photographs were taken to
document the species and habitats. At each site,
the MarineRAP team documented the biodiversity and condition of the reefs, and assessed populations of exploited fish and macro-invertebrate
stocks. The socioeconomic group conducted extensive on-site interviews with local stakeholders
from 21 coastal settlements to assess their practices, needs, beliefs and concerns regarding marine resource use.
Outstanding marine biodiversity was documented with a total of 279 species of hard corals plus
over 200 species of other benthic invertebrates.
The number of coral reef fish species per site
ranged between 109 and 229. Moreover, an incredible number of species known to be at risk
of global extinction as assessed by the IUCN (referred to as “red-listed species”) were observed.
These included 12 fish species such as reef sharks
and the Napolean Wrasses that are fished heavily
throughout the world. Seeing these spectacular
The Mont Panié region offers an excellent opportunity to conserve terrestrial and freshwater as
well as marine species and their associated habitats. The RAP team recommended that the whole
area surveyed should be officially protected and
managed as a network of Marine Protected Areas
(MPAs). Moreover, the establishment of a proposed multiple-use MPA is politically feasible. To
successfully establish and implement this network, it is imperative that all local stakeholders
continue to be involved in the designation and implementation of any MPAs or other management
units, and that their traditional laws and customs
be incorporated into MPA plans.
This MarineRAP led to the establishment of three
MPAs in the Mont Panié area, in which the government of Province Nord, the World Wildlife Fund,
and CI work in partnership to complement terres-
© Conservation International/photo by Schannel van Dijken
Overall, the coral reefs surveyed were in excellent
to good health. Bleaching was not observed at any
of the sites. No evidence of large masses of the voracious coral predator, the Crown of Thorns Starfish, was noted on any of the sites. Récif Tao and
Colnett, two of the proposed reefs to be protected
by the anticipated Mont Panié Marine Protected
Area, had the highest species richness of the survey. Findings suggest that the local traditional
management scheme may work at some sites. The
tribes interviewed during this survey supported
increased tribal and governmental regulations
regarding marine resource use and conservation.
trial conservation efforts. Each MPA is managed
by their own committee which includes Province
Nord. On the terrestrial side, Dayu Biik is now
resourced with three full-time staff pioneering
practical conservation management. This is one
step in a formal process to establish a large integrated Ridge to Reef Conservation and Development Area. The value of MarineRAP was fully
recognized and two more surveys have been supported by CI under Province Nord’s leadership.
Province Nord endorsed the MarineRAP methodology as a key baseline tool for improving information, planning and management of their UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the Lagoons of
New Caledonia Site, inscribed in 2008 following
this survey.
Contributed by Sheila A. McKenna, Nathalie Baillon,
and Henri Blaffart
© Sheila A. McKenna
animals at more than half of the sites surveyed is
truly noteworthy and set a new global benchmark
for such sightings during MarineRAP surveys.
Dedication
This MarineRAP, its success in both leveraging protection for the sites surveyed and
providing a useful tool for Province Nord’s
further management of its marine areas is
dedicated to the memory of Henri Blaffart, a
dedicated and inspiring conservationist who
saw only links rather than limits to land and
sea conservation efforts.
125
Stories from the field...
I took Ted Parker and Murray Gell-Mann on a birding trip to Bolivia to discuss the RAP team idea. It was
really Murray’s original idea. Some of our scientific staff at the time scoffed at such an amateurish idea,
but eventually saw the noble light shining through. Murray saw a handful of off scale, brilliant scientists
in a variety of fields, people like Ted Parker on birds, Al Gentry, renowned “perchologist” (a term he loved
to use with Peter Raven as a man who studied the things birds landed on; Murray is a bird lover), Gould
the Amazon fish guy, and others with long deep field experience who, if brought together across disciplines,
à la Santa Fe Institute, should be able to collectively identify the large scale tropical biodiversity hotspots.
(hypothesize the quark, then test to prove it….the physicists’ logic…)
We had the usual nightmare of logistics getting around in the yungas of Bolivia, unexpected road construction crews on the only highway (of mud) from the lowlands to the cloud forest, with interminable waiting between overloaded trucks with drivers fast asleep (“why are you guys always taking me to garbage
dumps?” Murray asked. “Because that’s where the roads end!” said Ted), a jeep from the Beni biological
station with no brakes (“Stop!” Murray would shout as we rolled past a rare bird sighting.) “At least its flat
ground Murray and we are not on foot!” I would retort.
At one field expedition outside of San Borja, we were suddenly surrounded overhead by what appeared to
be camouflaged green DC3 DEA surveillance planes: we in our own camouflage outfits deep in the brush
with binoculars and Ted’s sound equipment, looking like so much drug and ammo equipment. On a multiday side trip towards the Río Madidi-Rio Heath “hotspot” we went up a river in an Indian canoe full of
smoked whole monkeys, one of which we thought might be a good welcome souvenir for Russ Mittermeier’s
imminent arrival to CI; but thought better of it. Murray complained constantly and bitterly, I sweated profusely, Ted Parker and I disagreed on the ID of a small forest falcon in our scope.
Looking worn and bearded but cleanly dressed, I was dragged out of the departure lounge of the Santa
Cruz airport by the local drug enforcement mafia and strip searched. When I got back Murray was looking at the floor counting “one, one thousand, two, and one thousand…” But we roughed out an $750,000 +
proposal to the MacArthur Foundation to launch RAP, which Russ et al. filled in with appropriate scientific
rigor, and was later approved by Murray’s world resources & environment committee and off we went.
About a week later Murray called to thank us for a wonderful, spectacular birding trip to Bolivia, his
enthusiastic support of the RAP idea and later described the trip briefly in his book The Quark and the
Jaguar (published after Ted’s untimely death, so Murray said he decided not to recount how I turned out to
be right about the forest falcon ID; sadly my only claim to birding fame…)
I was thrilled and fell asleep exhausted.
Way to go CI.
- Spencer Beebe, President, EcoTrust
126
Protected areas
Brazil
Pantanal, Mato Grosso de Sul
August 24 – September 14, 1998
© Conservation International/RAP Image Library
Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris)
© Conservation International/RAP Image Library
© Robin Foster
© Conservation International/photo by Sterling Zumbrunn
© Conservation International/RAP Image Library
A
n AquaRAP team of over 30 Brazilian and international scientists surveyed the wetlands of
the Brazilian Pantanal in 1998. The team was exceptionally large due to the high level of interest and
importance placed on the expedition by Brazilian
governmental and academic institutions. The scientists were divided into two teams: one team spent
the duration of the AquaRAP survey sampling the
headwater regions of the Rio Taquari, Rio Aquidauana, Rio Negro, and Rio Miranda (Bodoquena region),
while the other team concentrated on the Rio Negro
watershed (upper, middle and lower regions), and
on a stretch of the Rio Taboco. Daily reports from the
field were sent via email/satellite link and posted on
the CI website, allowing local stakeholders and any
interested parties (including schools and university
classrooms) to follow the AquaRAP team’s work.
128
Prior to the AquaRAP survey, the fauna and flora of
the headwaters of the rivers forming the southern
Pantanal – between the Rio Taquari and Rio Miranda
and in the Rio Bonito region – were poorly known
scientifically. AquaRAP results from the headwater
region revealed a tremendously interesting fauna,
with 30% of the fishes collected being new to science. Close to 50% of the amphibians known for the
pantanal/cerrado region were registered during the
survey, even though the dry season is not ideal for
amphibian sampling. Four of the amphibian species
collected represent new records for the pantanal/
cerrado region, and may also be new species. The
flora in the region had never been documented and
over 400 specimens were collected. The team’s bota-
nists estimated that about 600 plant species occur in
the region.
Although the fauna of the Pantanal wetlands is
much better known than that of the headwaters,
the AquaRAP team surveying the poorly known region of the Rio Negro watershed produced several
new records for the region as well as potentially new
species. Twenty-eight species of fish may be new
to science, not including an interesting taxonomic
puzzle regarding the local “red-bellied piranha”. The
expedition may also have uncovered a new species
of shrimp and a new species of frog. Nine of the 12
species of crabs and shrimps known from the Pantanal were registered during this rapid assessment,
as were 28 of the 35 known species of amphibians.
One interesting finding was the different association
of fish species with different species of aquatic plants.
As an example, about 60% of the fish species found
associated with purple hyacinths was different from
the fish associated with white hyacinths. If floating or
emergent aquatic species support different fish communities as preliminary results indicate, future fish
sampling and conservation measures should take
special note of the associated plant species.
In addition to scientific discoveries, the AquaRAP
team documented the current environmental status of the Pantanal and put forth some critical conservation recommendations. The team found substantial deforestation throughout the headwater
areas surveyed. Natural habitats are being replaced
or altered for ranching, farming, and wood extrac-
The AquaRAP data contributed to the creation of
three protected areas in the Pantanal: The Serro Bodequena National Park (70,000 hectares); The Upper
Taquaria State Park (30,000 ha); and the Pantanal
do Rio Negro State Park (78,300 ha), which encompasses the Santa Sofia swamp that was highly recommended for protection by AquaRAP. These are
the first aquatic parks anywhere in South America.
Following the AquaRAP, CI-Brazil received a major
donation which allowed them to purchase the 7,700
ha Rio Negro Farm in the heart of the Pantanal. This
provides a corridor of aquatic protection within the
Rio Negro watershed of the southern Pantanal. CI has
established a field station and ecotourist lodge on this
site. Teams of volunteers from Earthwatch come to
the station to work on conservation projects related
to water quality, limnology, fish stock assessment,
and river otters.
Contributed by Leeanne Alonso
© Conservation International/RAP Image Library
Leaf frog (Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis)
© Robin Foster
Lack of effective regulation of commercial and sport
fishing along the lower courses of the Pantanal has
become another threat. The impact of fishing (both
sport and commercial) on fish populations should be
assessed, and regulations adjusted accordingly. The
area and habitats required for successful reproduction
of commercial, sport, and ornamental fishes must be
determined and monitored constantly. The Rio Negro
watershed forms a largely intact green corridor across
the southern portion of the Pantanal and provides a
tremendous opportunity for an integrated conservation plan that combines human-use of the land with
conservation of the natural communities of the Pantanal, including its unique aquatic communities.
Flowers of Eichhornia crassipes (Family Pontederiaceae)
© Conservation International/RAP Image Library
tion. Deforestation of riparian forests along streams
and rivers of the Pantanal destroys the condition of
aquatic habitats both in the zone of deforestation and
downstream. In the mid to lower Pantanal, riverside
vegetation and back swamps, critical for the maintenance of the productivity of the Pantanal, are also disappearing. The veredas or Mauritia swamps, unique
areas within the headwaters region, are currently in
good shape but in need of protection. Although legislation exists to protect the critical vegetation along
river margins, these laws need to be more strongly
enforced.
Floating mats of river vegetation
129
Protected areas
Papua New Guinea: Kaijende Highlands (August 19 – September 9, 2005)
which were new to science; 102 species of birds; 30 species
of mammals; and 17 species of frogs, 10 of which were new
to science. The results of this survey generated a great deal of
interest within Papua New Guinea, and Conservation International is currently working with local communities and the
Forest Stewards Program in progressing towards the formalization of a conservation area that encompasses these important montane habitats.
Contributed by Stephen Richards
© Conservation International/photo by
Stephen Richards
I
n August-September 2005, a RAP expedition to the Kaijende Highlands in Enga Province, Papua New Guinea,
documented plants and animals in a near-uninhabited expanse
of spectacular montane grasslands and rainforest. The conservation value of this region was recognized nearly 20 years ago
when Papua New Guinea’s Department of Environment and
Conservation recommended that it be considered a Wildlife
Management Area. However at the time of this RAP survey
little progress had been made towards protecting the area and
information about the biodiversity of this remarkable alpine
environment remained scant. To redress this lack of information, and to generate impetus towards declaration of the region
as a conservation area, Conservation International and Papua
New Guinea’s Department of Environment and Conservation
conducted a RAP biodiversity survey with support from the
nearby Porgera Joint Venture mining operation. The RAP expedition surveyed sites ranging in elevation from 2,100-3,200
meters in lower montane rainforest on the shores of beautiful
Lake Tawa, in stunted montane forest around Paiela Road,
and in spectacular subalpine grasslands dotted with Cyathea
treeferns behind the Porgera mine. Over a period of 22 days,
researchers found nearly 500 species of plants, at least 16 of
Spectacular scenery of the Kaijende Highlands
© Province Nord / Photo by Julien Barrault
New Caledonia: Mont Panié (October 10 – 20 and November 1 – 30, 2010)
Cascade crayfish (Atyopsis spinipes)
T
wo teams of botanists, entomologists, herpetologists,
ornithologists, hydrobiologists and experts on invasive
species assessed the biodiversity value and conservation status of five sites in and around the Mont Panié Wilderness Reserve in Province Nord of New Caledonia. Led by a partnership between Province Nord, Conservation International, and
their local conservation partner Dayu Biik, the RAP survey
involves New Caledonian and international experts, including
130
five regional scientists, as well as local guides who will also
be able to improve their taxonomic and scientific skills during
the expedition. This RAP survey aims at providing a sound
baseline for the development of the reserve management plan,
as well as for the extension of the reserve. It currently covers
4,000 hectares of mountain forest within a forested block of
30,000 ha around Mont Panié, one of the highest peaks in the
country (1,629 m). Mont Panié is already known to host many
micro-endemic species, sometimes with ranges of only a few
square kilometers, and many more species new to science are
expected to be discovered during this RAP survey. Invasive
species, wild bushfires and climate change are thought to be
the most critical threats to the forest and its rivers, all lying
in the buffer zone of a World Heritage Site which includes a
world-class reef just north of the mainland that was assessed
during a MarineRAP in 2004. Mont Panié’s forests play a
critical role in the traditional Kanak culture, providing wild
food, construction wood, medicinal plants, and erosion control within an area of high biological value.
Contributed by François Tron and Jean-Jérôme Cassan
Protected areas
Guatemala
Laguna del Tigre National Park
April 8 – 30, 1999
© Conservation International/photo by Sterling Zumbrunn
Green iguana (Iguana iguana)
© Piotr Naskrecki
© Conservation International/photo by Leeanne E. Alonso
© Piotr Naskrecki
© Conservation International/photo by Leeanne E. Alonso
L
aguna del Tigre National Park is located within the Maya Biosphere Reserve, a largely dry
forest system that extends from southern Mexico
through northern Guatemala and Belize.
The western portion of the park is characterized by
flooded savanna wetlands and lagoons designated
as “Wetlands of International Importance” under
the Ramsar convention. A combination freshwater and terrestrial RAP survey was carried out in
the park in 1999 to evaluate the biodiversity of a
wide variety of habitat types with respect to phytoplankton, aquatic insects, fish, amphibians, reptiles, ants, birds, and mammals. The primary objectives of the RAP survey were to augment the park’s
biodiversity database, highlight the park’s regional
importance, evaluate the nature of the threats to
animals and plants within the park, and provide
this information to natural resource managers and
decision makers.
132
Other objectives included bringing international
attention to an important scientific resource, the
Guacamayas Biological Station, a research station
located near the southern boundary the park, and
training local students in species identification and
ecological monitoring techniques. The ecological
work focused on documenting the biodiversity
value of several aquatic and terrestrial taxa in the
park, investigating the relationships between taxa
and different habitats and areas of the park in order to ascertain the conservation value of those areas, and evaluating the potential effects of ongoing
deforestation and petroleum development on the
park’s biodiversity.
The RAP team recorded 647 species, including
range extensions for one mammal, three birds, and
two ant species. The species list included 71 species of phytoplankton, 44 species of aquatic insects
associated with Eared Watermoss (Salvinia auriculata), 130 species of plants, 41 species of fishes,
173 species of birds, 36 species of reptiles and amphibians, 40 species of mammals, and 112 species
of ants. This RAP survey provided the first species
lists of ants and phytoplankton for Laguna del Tigre National Park. Remarkably, the park harbors
16 vertebrate species that are of international concern and that are listed by IUCN and/or the Convention on the International Trade of Endangered
Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Also, an
extremely rare freshwater reef habitat, composed
of living and dead bivalve mollusks, was discovered
on the Río San Pedro. This reef harbored a unique
assemblage of plants and animals. Environmental
heterogeneity was recognized differently by each
taxon. For some taxa, marshes were important; for
others, lagoons, rivers, or complex forests were important.
A great variety of both aquatic and terrestrial habitats were observed in the course of the RAP sampling, including marshes, lagoons, rivers, streams,
regenerating forests, and pristine forests. The
diversity of species and the representation of endemic, rare, or endangered species were also high,
Some important actions have been recently carried out to address these threats, which endanger the long term viability of the park. Networks
between Civil Society and the Government have
been strengthened to improve and restore the
governance of Laguna del Tigre National Park.
Governmental agencies responsible for territorial
management and control, the National Protected
Areas Council (CONAP) and Conservationist Studies Center of San Carlos de Guatemala University
(CECON), have increased their capacity in strategic
zones with Laguna del Tigre National Park and the
Maya Biosphere Reserve over the last three years,
with the following results: removal of more than
1,260 head of cattle from illegal ranches; injunctions and legal proceedings initiated against five illegally established ranches; commitment for more
than 250 new soldiers to be trained as “green brigades”; and confiscation of several truckloads of illegally logged timber and trafficked wildlife.
These actions are making progress in the battle
to maintain the ecological viability of this critical
wetland within the Maya Biosphere Reserve, but
the long term survival of Laguna del Tigre National
Park is still very much in jeopardy. More resources
and global efforts to stem the threats and restore
habitat are needed.
© Conservation International/photo by Leeanne E. Alonso
Red Bay Snook (Petenia splendida) – color polymorphism
© Conservation International/photo by Sterling Zumbrunn
Since the RAP survey, threats to Laguna del Tigre
National Park have greatly escalated. Oil operations and other extractive industries have spread
within the park. Human colonization along roads
created for oil operation and illegal activities such
as cattle ranching have increased.
Montezuma’s Oropendula (Psarocolius montezuma)
© Piotr Naskrecki
underscoring the park’s value for conservation in
Central America. An ecotoxicological assessment
of two fish species revealed an impact of mutagenic contaminants within some of the park’s aquatic
ecosystems. Publication of this finding led to investigations into oil operations within the park that
identified an illegal concession in operation, which
was revoked and shut down.
Contributed by Miriam Castillo, Leeanne Alonso,
Roan Balas, and Bayron Castellanos
Acacia ant (Pseudomyrmex flavicornis)
133
Stories from the field...
All photos © Piotr Naskrecki
The Glamorous Life of a RAP Scientist: A fine dining experience
Spacious, comfortable seating
Elegant dining companions
Delicious smoked fish (with barely any maggots)
A typical expression of utter culinary bliss
Authentic, local cuisine, served fresh and still
warm
134
Protected areas
Suriname
Coppename River Basin
February 20 – March 14, 2004
© Conservation International/photo by Peter Hoke
Rocks on Coppename
© Phillip Willink
© Jessica Deichmann
© Conservation International/photo by Peter Hoke
RAP ichthyologists sampling fish
T
he Coppename River Basin is a large basin that
originates in the heart of the Central Suriname
Nature Reserve, a large protected area in the center
of Suriname that has received protection and international interest in large part due to Conservation
International’s activities. In 1999, CI President
Dr. Russell Mittermeier and the President of
Suriname signed an agreement designating the 1.6
million hectare area as a national Nature Reserve.
The Coppename River travels northward through
pristine forests of the Reserve before reaching the
Atlantic Ocean. The Coppename River is fed from
black, white and clear water tributaries, which
create diverse aquatic and terrestrial ecological
communities. The Coppename River drains twothirds of the reserve area, making it a vital part of
the entire ecosystem.
136
CI-Suriname and partners were tasked with developing a management plan for the Reserve,
for which data on the aquatic diversity and water quality were needed. Thus an AquaRAP survey was conducted in 2004 to assess the aquatic
biodiversity of the Coppename River and its major tributaries. During the AquaRAP survey, the
team surveyed all three of the upper branches of
the Coppename - the Rechter Coppename, Linker
Coppename, and the Midden Coppename - down
to the mouth. Access to these river branches is
very difficult and few people have ever ventured
up them. Due to extremely low water levels at
the time of the AquaRAP survey, the RAP team
traveled to the Upper Rechter Coppename River
by helicopter, landing along the river bank and unloading all the scientific equipment and rubber zodiacs for the trip. The team then traveled down the
Rechter Coppename River into the other branches,
continuing down the main Coppename River back
to the Reserve headquarters at Ralleighvallen and
finally to the mouth of the river. Only the lower
parts of the Coppename River outside of the reserve have human settlements along it. While all
members of the RAP team and their specimens
survived the trip in good condition, the zodiacs did
not! Next time RAP will stick with the local dugout
canoes which are better suited to the enormous
boulders and rocks of Suriname’s rivers.
The AquaRAP team was pleased to find the
Coppename River Basin to be one of the largest,
most intact and pristine watersheds they had
ever encountered. Water quality was good in all
sections of the river surveyed and fishes were
large with brilliant colors. Overall species richness recorded was moderate for a Neotropical
river with plants and aquatic animals comparable
in species richness to other lowland forests and
rivers of the Guiana Shield. Aquatic insect richness was higher than found in other areas due to
the abundance of rock-clinging aquatic plants of
the family Podostemaceae, known commonly as
riverweed. Ten species of fishes were new to science, and four were new records for Suriname.
No exotic or invasive species were recorded up
river of Ralleighvallen. Several species indicative
of pristine forest and high water quality, including
Ephemeroptera (mayflies) and freshwater sponges were recorded. Many species of crabs, shrimps,
and fishes demonstrated specific habitat requirements that should be considered in conservation
planning. The shrimp Macrobrachium faustinum
requires both freshwater and the coastal environment to complete its life cycle, which highlights
connectedness of freshwater and marine ecosystems within the Coppename River Basin.
Contributed by Leeanne Alonso and Annette Tjon
Sie Fat
© Conservation International/photo by Peter Hoke
Given the remoteness of most of the Coppename
River Basin from human settlements and its
pristine nature, most of the conservation recommendations resulting from the AquaRAP survey
focused on regulating and monitoring human activities such as fishing, hunting, tourism, and the
export of natural resources from the reserve. The
main threat to the Coppename River Basin and
the Reserve comes from possible future bauxite
mining in the Bakhuis Mountains to the west and
the construction of roads to the north. Of particular interest and concern was the Adampada
Creek, which originates in the Bakhuis Mountains
and joins the Coppename inside the Reserve. The
RAP team strongly recommended: 1) control and
monitor future mining activities in the adjacent
Bakhuis Mountains to avoid potential impacts on
Adampada Creek and other areas of the Reserve,
and 2) expand the boundary of the Reserve to include the entire Coppename watershed, especially
to include the Adampada Creek. CI-Suriname and
RAP have plans to survey the area between the
Reserve and the Bakuis mining concession to delineate an area that can serve as a buffer zone between the two areas.
137
Stories from the field...
In early 2008, I was very fortunate to be given the opportunity to travel to southeast Venezuela to take part in the Río
Cuyuní AquaRAP. The trip lasted three weeks; my days in South America are ones that I’ll remember for the rest of
my life.
We arrived in Venezuela a day late as a snow storm in Atlanta delayed our departure from Washington; we did get
bumped up to business class so things were already looking up! We reached the capital, Caracas, in the early hours,
and after just 4 hours sleep, headed back to the airport. We then flew to Puerto Ordaz accompanied by Anabel Rial
who was managing logistics. On arrival we connected with Henry Briceño (limnologist) and Bruce Holst (botanist) who
were also travelling to the RAP camp. It was a 6 hour drive to the Brisas mining camp; from there we would leave the
following morning by boat to the RAP camp.
Up at 5:30 am, we headed to the river in 4x4’s.The short journey was plagued by the most unbelievable mud I have ever
seen, and the 4x4’s were sliding all over the place. We arrived unscathed, and once the boats were loaded up we began
our trip to the RAP camp. We finally reached our destination and on gazing at our new home I felt like I had arrived
at Allie Fox’s Geronimo camp in the film “Mosquito Coast”. There was an incredible wooden-tarped structure peering
out of the jungle which served us well as a meeting/dining/sleeping area during our time there.
Over the next few days I filmed the scientists at work, documented camp life, and got used to spending an extended
period of time in the jungle. We had 3 cooks who did an amazing job so we never went hungry. Bathing was a little
different - each day I would head to the river in my swim shorts and immerse myself in the freezing river water; after
a few days, it felt perfectly normal! (I tried to keep any thoughts of snakes and caimans in the back of my mind…) The
climate was warm and a little muggy and it would rain on and off during the day. I was often placing the camera in a
zip lock bag throughout my time in the field.
As the days wore on I was surprised how tiring life in the jungle was. We’d be up early (5:30 or 6:00 am), and after
breakfast the teams would head off to conduct their surveys. By 9:00 pm most nights I would be hitting the sack (something I could never imagine doing so early at home in the US!). Halfway through our time in the field, I joined a group
travelling to a higher elevation site by helicopter. In one word,WOW! I had never travelled by helicopter, let alone over
the jungles of Venezuela. During the flight I was able to shoot some great video which included an amazing waterfall
which was tumbling off a table-top mountain (tepui) and appeared to be pouring directly out of the clouds themselves.
I made the most of our 3 days at this camp and worked alongside ornithologist David Ascanio who I filmed conducting bird surveys and playing bird calls on his iPod, trying to draw out different species to add to his records - very cool
stuff. After the weekend, we headed back by helicopter (a hairy ride as it was so misty that at one point the helicopter
was having issues with visibility). During our time away, there had been lots of flooding at the first camp and the water
had risen 9 ft!
My remaining days in the jungle were spent conducting on-camera interviews with team members and shooting more
footage of the teams at work. One day while hiking, we arrived at a beautiful waterfall in the middle of nowhere. We
took advantage of this and had a refreshing swim in the very cold water. Travelling back to camp that day was challenging and the last parts of the hike were lit by headlamps. Before I knew it we were breaking down camp and preparing for departure. On the final morning, the team spent many hours trying to recover a boat that had capsized and
sank overnight! The next day, we were back in Puerto Ordaz. The team was in fine spirits as we had all made it safely
out of the jungle, and everyone was looking forward to getting back to civilization and family. We all said our goodbyes
at the airport and then caught our respective flights. I went to Caracas where I connected with some of the team to help
get the plant samples down to the botanical gardens for analysis and pressing.
Finally it was time to leave Venezuela, an incredibly beautiful country in which I had the good fortune of spending
time in the rainforest with a great team of scientists and staff. RAP surveys are an amazing tool that draws on experts
around the world and following the surveys themselves, produces a powerful and tangible document that can be placed
in the hands of key decision makers. My time in Venezuela taking part in an AquaRAP will not easily be forgotten and
I’ll treasure the experience for years to come.
- Edward Lohnes, Conservation International
138
Species new to science
Indonesia
Raja Ampat Islands, Bird’s Head Seascape
March 27 – April 10, 2001
Coleman shrimp (Periclimenes colemani)
All photos © Conservation International/photo by Sterling Zumbrunn
© Conservation International/photo by Sterling Zumbrunn
L
ocated near the heart of the Coral Triangle –
the richest area of coral reefs on Earth – the
Raja Ampat Islands’ diverse array of marine life,
coupled with striking island scenery, make it one
of the world’s most spectacular tropical wildlife areas. The Archipelago lies west of Papua Province,
Indonesia and is surrounded by approximately
4,000,000 hectares of sea. The Raja Ampat Islands
are composed of four main islands (Misool, Salawati, Batanta, and Waigeo) and hundreds of smaller
islands, cays, and shoals. The population consists
of just under 49,000 residents, most of Papuan origin, inhabiting 89 villages, with about seven people
per km2. The survey area covered approximately
600,000 ha, encompassing reefs of the Dampier
Strait between northern Batanta and Waigeo. The
survey was implemented by Conservation International in collaboration with the University of
Cenderawasih and the Research and Development
Center for Oceanology, a branch of the Indonesian
Institute of Sciences.
140
The main objectives of the survey were: 1) to
document local marine biodiversity of the three
selected indicator taxa of mollusks, hard corals
and coral reef fishes, 2) to assess the condition
of coral reefs, 3) to take an initial snapshot of the
existing level of fisheries exploitation and 4) to
assess the importance of marine resources to the
economic livelihood and general well-being of local
villagers. The purpose in collecting such data was
to guide regional planning, marine conservation,
and the use of sustainable marine resources.
Forty-five different MarineRAP biodiversity survey
sites were reached by motor boats, operating
from base camps at Kri Island and Alyui Bay. For
the socioeconomic component of the survey, the
MarineRAP team visited 22 villages and sought
input from about 7,700 people. These villages
ranged in size from Arborek with just 98 people, to
Fam with 785 inhabitants.
The MarineRAP survey results indicated an extraordinary marine fauna. Totals for the three major indicator groups surpassed those for all previous MarineRAP surveys at that time in Indonesia,
Papua New Guinea, and the Philippines. Researchers identified 456 species of hard corals, more than
half the world’s total. For mollusks, a total of 699
species were recorded during the survey. Among
reef fish, 828 species, including four species never before recorded by science, were documented
raising the total known from the area to 972 species. Reefs were generally in very good condition
compared to most areas of Indonesia, with high
live coral diversity and minimal stress due to natural phenomenon such as cyclones, predation and
freshwater runoff. Almost every village in the area
complained about the use of explosives for fishing by outsiders (i.e., non-villagers) and explosive
Contributed by Sheila A. McKenna, Gerry Allen, and
Suer Suryadi
© Gerald Allen
Although much of the area is already gazetted as
a wildlife reserve, there is no real enforcement of
conservation laws as evidenced by the illegal logging and destructive fishing practices. There is an
urgent need for marine and terrestrial conservation action. Several sites were identified as deserving of special attention and included Cape Kri, Kri
Island, Gam-Waigeo Passage, Majalibit Passage and
the adjacent Majalibit Bay Pam Islands, Equator Islands, Saripa Bay and Wayag Islands. Further recommendations were for more RAP surveys, both
terrestrial and marine, such as those that subsequently took place in 2006 (see MarineRAP profiles of Fakfak-Kaimana and Teluk-Cenderawasih
Bay). The results of the Raja Ampat survey catalyzed local communities, the government, and nongovernmental organizations to develop a strategic
conservation plan for the region. Conservation
work in the region grew from that point onward to
form the multi-national Coral Triangle Initiative, a
new multilateral partnership to safeguard the region’s extraordinary marine and coastal biological
resources.
Wayag Islands
Mayalibit Village
© Conservation International/photo by Sterling Zumbrunn
More than 90% of the adult population of this area
is engaged in sustenance-level fishing. At most
villages there is relatively little commercial activity, although some people collect sea cucumbers
(relatives of starfish) that are sold to merchants
in Sorong, the nearest large population center on
the mainland. Fishers from at least seven villages
were found to be using chemicals containing cyanide to catch Napoleon Wrasse and large groupers.
Many villagers expressed concern about various illegal fishing methods. There was a scarcity of large
groupers, Maori or Napoleon Wrasse, and sharks
observed during the survey. This represents a potential consequence of being targeted by illegal
fishers, either for the lucrative live fish trade or for
food.
© Gerald Allen
damage was noted at 13.3% of the survey sites. Illegal logging (in designated nature reserve areas)
that can lead to heavy siltation stress and ultimately death for the delicate coral reefs was also noted.
Lionfish (Pterois sp.)
141
Stories from the field...
It was early 2004 and José Maria Cardoso da Silva, then CI Brazil’s Vice president of Science – and my director, since
at that time I was CI’s Amazonia Program Manager – came to my office and said:
“Enrico, as part of our work to implement the Amapá Biodiversity Corridor, we have to increase the scientific knowledge on the biodiversity there. We need such information to refine our scientific analysis about species occurrence, endemism, diversity and their conservation status. Moreover, none of the conservation units there have management plans
and they also need this information. We are missing the data and we definitively need to go to the field. Get ready to
coordinate such task.”
That sounded like music to my ears. As a biologist working in Amazonia for more than a decade, I knew Amapá was
a large data gap. In other words, it was a real chance to sample large untouched areas of Amazonian forest – a dream
for any biologist. Still excited about the possibilities, I didn’t realize at that moment the size and the complexity of the
task José Maria just had asked me to do. Days later, when I finished putting the project on paper, I had a better idea
about the dimension of the challenge: 10 million hectares. That was the size of Amapá Biodiversity Corridor. The core
of the Corridor was Montanhas do Tumucumaque National Park, then the largest continuous forest protected area in
the world, with 3.6 million hectares alone. Tumucumaque is huge. To be more precise, 220 km from north to south, 250
km from east to west, and 1750 km of perimeter. There were no roads; the area is accessible just by small boats due to its
rocky and shallow rivers, or by air, using helicopters – what a challenge!
Fully supported by CI and our partners in Amapá (IBAMA and IEPA), the project moved on and I put together a team
of young and motivated scientists to conduct the inventories. Motivation was the # 1 requirement, since we realized that
a minimum of 5 expeditions would be necessary to sample Tumucumaque’s large and diverse area. Motivation was also
necessary because, due to the remoteness and difficulty of access, our expeditions would require around 30 days of field
work each. No cold drinks, no toilet and no amenities for 30 days in the jungle. In the first expedition, we had requested
support from the Brazilian Army to help us with the logistics and a sergeant was responsible for our food menu for the
entire expedition. Confident in his capacity, I didn’t check his food list. What a mistake! The guy was cruel: we had 30
days of rice and sausage – for breakfast, lunch and dinner. Needless to say, food lists became a priority for me in the
next expeditions.
The work was also physically challenging. I still remember one expedition when we had to drag our heavy wooden
boats (safer for the rocky waters) over 14 waterfalls and rapids to reach the selected sampling point. One after another,
we cursed our satellite images that were not able to detect the rapids hidden by the forest. In another expedition, the
goal was to reach a special area in the park, a place where the forest was dotted with inselbergs (huge rock blocks, like
Rio de Janeiro’s Corcovado). At this time, thanks again to the Brazilian Army, we skipped the small, slow boats, and
were transported by helicopter. The pilots took the opportunity to train their skills and practice low altitude flights. Flying a Black Hawk chopper, with doors open, just two meters above the forest canopy, almost touching the tallest trees,
was surreal.
But it was the scientific and biological experience that marked me most. The chance to have close encounters with
animals not familiar with humans was fantastic. Spider monkeys, which always shy away in other areas of Amazonia,
never avoided curious contact with us. One day while working on a trail, I was surprised by a huge female tapir and
her infant coming exactly in my direction. I became completely silent and still. With a poor sense of sight and contrary
wind, the female did not detect me. I decide to see how close our encounter would be. She changed direction when we
were literally less than half a meter apart and I decided to move to avoid being hit by them. Another exciting experience
was seeing the specimens recorded by my colleagues: so many different colors, shapes, sizes, appendages, tails, fins, nails
and beaks – amazingly different life forms.
After almost two years, we successfully concluded our five expeditions to Tumucumaque, recording nearly 1,700 species, several of them new to science. We assessed the conservation status of the park and concluded that Tumucumaque
is in excellent shape, providing immensurable ecosystem services, not just locally but globally as well. Today, almost 6
years after the first expedition to Tumucumaque, while I was writing this text and revisiting those experiences in my
memory, I realize that I was a privileged person. In a world that is changing so fast and so intensely, I had the privilege
to experience nature at its best.
- Enrico Bernard, Adjunct Professor at Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil
142
Species new to science
Indonesia
Fakfak-Kaimana Coastline, Bird’s Head Seascape
April 18 – May 7, 2006
© Gerald Allen
An endemic flasher wrasse (Paracheilinus nursalim)
© Burt Jones
© Burt Jones
© Gerald Allen
© Burt Jones
R
ounding out the trio of Bird’s Head Seascape
MarineRAP surveys, this survey covered the
topographically complex southern coastline of
West Papua province from Fakfak to Kaimana
regencies, including the Bomberai Peninsula and
Triton Bay.
As with Cenderawasih Bay, this MarineRAP survey had five main objectives: 1) assess the reef
condition, fish biomass and marine biodiversity
values of the southern Bird’s Head Seascape; 2)
identify any areas of outstanding marine conservation importance that should be prioritized for
inclusion in marine protected areas (MPAs); 3)
conduct socioeconomic and fisheries surveys of
coastal villages to identify conservation threats
and opportunities arising from local attitudes and
practices; 4) assess the potential for the development of marine tourism in the region; and 5) estimate levels of ecological and genetic connectivity
between the reefs of the southern Bird’s Head and
those in Raja Ampat and Cenderawasih to inform
seascape-level management strategies.
144
The MarineRAP survey visited 39 sites over an
1,300 km route, with over 550 man hours underwater recorded. The first half of the survey covered the stunning reefs of Fakfak and the Bomberai Peninsula, revealing excellent hard coral cover
(particularly in Sebakor Bay) and a host of new
coral species (up to 16, most of which are con-
sidered endemic). Three of these sites contained
world-record coral diversity, with over 250 coral
species recorded at each site.
As the survey entered the waters of Kaimana Regency and Triton Bay, the tremendous influx of
freshwater from large coastal river systems led to
a dramatic shift in reef communities. Hard corals
became few and far between, while stunning soft
coral gardens replaced them. Reef fish diversity,
apparently enhanced by the presence of extensive soft bottom habitats in immediate proximity
to the reefs, skyrocketed; a world record 330 fish
species were recorded at a single survey site at
Tanjung Papisol! The team was amazed at the diversity and abundance of normally rare fish species like tilefishes, jawfishes and garden eels. At
least ten new fish species were uncovered, as well
as three new stomatopod mantis shrimp species.
The reefs around Kaimana were not only diverse,
they were thick with at least 232 different species
of economically important reef food fish including groupers and snappers: the team recorded
the highest reef fish biomasses of anywhere previously surveyed in SE Asia, averaging 228 tons/
km2. Perhaps taking advantage of this abundance,
a unique resident population of Bryde’s whales
(Balaenoptera brydei) was also uncovered in the
area, as well as a hammerhead shark (Sphyrna
lewini) pupping ground in Triton Bay.
Contributed by Mark Erdmann
Endemic tilefish (Hoplolatilus erdmanni)
© Burt Jones
Kaimana fish
Mantis shrimp (Busquilla plantae)
© Gerald Allen
The team highlighted three areas of extreme conservation value for possible gazettement in new
MPAs, including Sebakor Bay (due to its stunning
and endemic coral gardens), Tanjung Papisol
(outstanding reef fish biodiversity and near pristine coastal watersheds), and Triton Bay (unique
soft-coral dominated reefs with extremely high
fish biomass and resident Bryde’s whale population). They also recommended that the local
and national government immediately institute
a turtle nest-guarding program on the highly endangered nesting beaches in Pulau Venu Nature
Reserve. Finally, the team highlighted the strong
potential for marine tourism development in the
southern Bird’s Head as a potential source of sustainable income for local coastal communities. For
an update on the follow-through with the recommendations of this and the other two Bird’s Head
Seascape MarineRAP surveys, see the Indonesia
Regional Summary on page 272.
© Gerald Allen
Unfortunately, the team also determined that local
communities lacked the conservation awareness
seen elsewhere in the Bird’s Head, with shark-finning and turtle poaching (eggs and adults) rampant throughout the region. On the bright side,
the local government was extremely enthusiastic
about the MarineRAP survey findings and keen to
both develop a new MPA and marine tourism in
the area.
145
Species new to science
Bolivia
Upper Río Orthon Basin, Pando
September 4 – 20, 1996
© Barry Chernoff
Armoured catfish (Liposarcus disjunctivus)
© Theresa Bert
© Theresa Bert
Species new to science
T
he first survey of RAP’s South American
AquaRAP program focused on the watershed
of the Río Orthon in northern Bolivia. This area,
which encompasses the Tahuamanu and Manuripi
river systems in the northern department of Pando, Bolivia, had been largely unexplored previous
to the AquaRAP expedition. The upper Río Orthon
basin represents an important transition zone
between drier deciduous forests to the south and
the wet lowland Amazonian forests to the north
and east. The Río Orthon basin, a remote section
of the larger upper Río Madeira basin, is typified
by unique, heterogeneous riparian forest communities and floodplain vegetation. It has been said
that this area has the potential to hold the richest
aquatic biodiversity within Bolivia, if not within
the Amazon River Basin.
The Río Orthon’s natural ecosystems were being
threatened by increasing human occupation and
commercial activities. Large tracts of forests were
being converted to pastures for cattle, with the
hardwood being removed for lumber. Such habitat conversion puts great pressure on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Freshwater ecosystems were further stressed by an unregulated
food fishery. Because so little was known about
the ecosystems in the Río Orthon basin, especially
freshwater systems, and due to the threats occurring in this area so close to the northern boundary of the Heath-Madidi conservation region (created as a result of the very first RAP expedition in
1990), immediate attention was required to support conservation activities.
Over the course of 17 days, the first AquaRAP
team uncovered 120 species of zooplankton with
Rotifera and Protozoa being the most diverse
groups. Over 1,500 different benthic macroinvertebrates belonging to 19 orders were identified,
including many bivalves, oligochaete worms, gastropods, and leeches, among others. Seventeen
different genera of chironomid flies, indicators of
water quality, were also found in the waters of the
Tahuamanu and Manuripi rivers. Water quality
was assessed at 22 different sites within the rivers. The water appeared to be of good quality and
did not exhibit significant signs of contamination
or eutrophication.
The AquaRAP team collected 10 species of freshwater crabs and shrimps including six new records for Bolivia. Shrimps and crabs are important players in aquatic and terrestrial food chains,
acting as predators, filterers, decomposers and
prey. It is anticipated that they can be conserved
as long as their habitats are not significantly modified.
Over 300 fish species were collected from 85 stations, of which 87 are new records for Bolivia and
45 of these are likely new to science. This small
region in northeastern Bolivia contains 63%
and 49% of all the species known to inhabit the
Bolivian Amazon and Bolivia, respectively. The
AquaRAP team collected 500 samples for genetic
tests and employed novel analyses of the fish diversity to investigate fish distribution patterns
within the Río Orthon basin. They found that fish
species were not distributed randomly among
the rivers within the basin, but showed highest
diversity in the Rio Manuripi. This is important
for conservation, as 75% of the fish species were
documented in the Rio Manuripi and Rio Nareuda, making them key areas for conservation.
Tributaries and flooded areas are also important
as over 80% of the fishes depend on flooded areas
for reproduction and food. Thus maintenance of
the seasonal flooding regime is critical to maintaining fish diversity.
The surveyed area was originally located within
the Manuripi-Heath National Amazon Reserve,
which was created in December 1973. This national reserve was assessed by the Land Use Plan
of the Pando department in 1995 and the Reserve’s limits were adjusted in 2000. Today, the
Bolivian headwaters of the Manuripi River are
included within the Manuripi Amazonian Wildlife
National Reserve which comprises in total more
than 700,000 hectares. Additionally, a 22,000
hectare conservation concession surrounding
the Tahuamanu Biological Station located in the
Tahuamanu river basin has been proposed and is
the subject of on-going discussions.
Contributed by Juan Carlos Ledezma
147
Species new to science
Indonesia – Papua Province: Wapoga River Area (March 31 – May 2, 1998)
very survey is unique and presents challenges, but
the Wapoga RAP survey stood out as one of the more
complex efforts in RAP’s history. Fifteen scientists and
several support staff surveyed five sites from near sea
level to 1,900 m in an extremely remote and rugged area
of western New Guinea. Sites were accessible only by helicopter and the terrain was so rough, we could barely
move more than 500 m from some of our base camps.
When the team arrived they found themselves deep in
a part of New Guinea where no biologist had previously
set foot, and during the survey they were visited by a
small group of indigenous people dressed completely in
traditional manner and showing no evidence of experience with the outside world. The biodiversity of the region was spectacular, and even by New Guinea standards
the number of new species discovered was outstanding.
These included more than 20 new species of frogs, dozens of new species of ants and aquatic insects, and several new species of freshwater fishes and plants.
© Conservation International/photo by S. Richards
E
Colorful weevil (Eupholus sp.)
The best protection for conservation of biodiversity
in places like Wapoga might be the rugged mountains,
heavy rainfall and frequent landslides that make road
building and colonization by humans so difficult.
Contributed by Andrew Mack
By documenting the diversity of life found in otherwise unstudied pristine and at-risk ecosystems,
the RAP program aids conservation planners, national leaders, and, perhaps most importantly,
local communities in understanding the natural wonders of an area. Put simply, we support RAP
because good information leads to good decisions. But that isn’t all that RAP accomplishes. When
I was a Ph.D. student at Oregon State University, my Conservation Biology professor walked into
the classroom and started the day’s discussion by writing “R. A. P.” in big bold letters across the
blackboard and asked if anyone knew what it stood for. We proceeded to dedicate the entire class
to discussing the RAP “model” of conservation. So, we also support RAP because its success serves
as a model for future conservationists to build upon. May you have another 20 years (and more) of
success!
- Michael S. Cooperman, Trustee of the Leon and Toby
Cooperman Family Foundation
148
Species new to science
Ecuador
Upper Nangaritza River Basin
April 6 – 20, 2009
© Galo Buitron
Velvet worm (Onychophora: Peripatidae)
© Jessica Deichmann
© Galo Buitron
© Jessica Deichmann
© Jessica Deichmann
T
he Cordillera del Cóndor in southeastern Ecuador lies within one of the most critically threatened ecoregions in the world. Owing to its isolation
from the Andes mountains, its unique soil characters, and the unusual presence of both black and
white water rivers, the Cordillera del Cóndor contains a unique complement of species with origins
in the Andes as well as species found in the Guiana
Shield, thousands of kilometers away. Unlike much
of the Andes, the Cordillera del Cóndor has, up to
now, escaped major deforestation and maintains
much of its original forest cover and associated biodiversity.
Lying close to Ecuador’s historically contested border with Peru, the Nangaritza River Basin in the
Cordillera del Cóndor is geologically unique. Ranging in altitude from 950 to 1,850 meters, the higher
elevation points form flat-topped mountains known
as “tepuis” (pronounced te-poo-ees). Tepuis are best
known from further north in South America, where
they are much larger and contain a vast array of
unique and endemic species. Although the tepuis of
the Nangaritza are smaller, the cool wet weather and
characteristic poor soils set the stage for an equally
unique diversity of life in the Nangaritza tepuis.
150
In 2004, over 90,000 hectares of the Upper Nangaritza River Basin were declared a Protected Forest, and its protection was assigned to the indigenous Shuar Tayunts and the community of San
Miguel de las Orquídeas who inhabit the area. Currently, these communities are working with the Ec-
uadorean Ministry of Environment toward obtaining increased protection status there. In 2009, a RAP
survey was conducted to provide the Shuar and the
San Miguel community with information on the biodiversity and ecosystems in the Nangaritza tepuis so
that they can build a strong case for strengthening
official protection for the area.
RAP botanists noted unique vegetation as an adaptation to the poor soils and wet climate: on top of
the tepuis, vegetation was stunted and composed
primarily of mosses, terrestrial bromeliads, dwarf
shrubs and a few trees, while the forests surrounding the tepuis were mainly lower montane wet forests with trees densely covered by epiphytes. In total, the RAP team found 274 plant, 93 invertebrate,
27 amphibian, 17 reptile, 205 bird and 65 mammal
species – an incredible number for such a small area
of mid-elevation forest. Among these were many
species recorded for the first time ever in Ecuador,
including two katydids, one frog, one mouse species
and the Endangered Lesser Yellow-shouldered Bat
(Sturnira nana). The RAP team also discovered at
least 31 species new to science: three plant, 13 katydid, 10 stick insect, one salamander, one reptile and
three frog species, including Pristimantis minimus,
which is now the smallest known terrestrial vertebrate in the country.
The RAP team made another surprising discovery –
a healthy population of a species of harlequin frog
(Atelopus aff. palmatus). Over 90% of Atelopus species are listed as Endangered, Critically Endangered
After the RAP survey, the team designed a colorful
booklet for local communities describing the findings of the survey, including drawings of species
found in the conservation area. The booklet was
distributed in the community of San Miguel de Las
Orquídeas, and can be used for communicating the
biological importance of the region as well as promoting ecotourism. Fundación Ecológica Arcoiris,
a local NGO based in Loja, and Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, two of the partners in this
RAP survey, have also begun “Project Atelopus”, supported by CI-Ecuador and designed to protect the
healthy population of harlequin frogs discovered
during the survey.
© Holger Braun
Leaf katydid (Typophyllum sp. n.), a new species discovered
during the survey
© Jessica Deichmann
The RAP team recommended that land titles be provided to the Shuar Tayunts and the San Miguel community who are currently in charge of managing the
Nangaritza Protected Forest. They also recommended the establishment of zones in the conservation
area for no-trespassing, scientific use only and for
ecotourism, and that the communities develop clear
sanctions for failure to comply with the zoning. The
Upper Nangaritza River Basin is of significant conservation importance and warrants increased protection designation under Ecuadorean legislation.
Creation of a National Park or Biological Reserve
should include this area of the Cordillera del Cóndor
and also the nearby Cutucú mountain range, which
would conserve one of the most biologically and culturally diverse regions of South America.
Tepui harlequin frog (Atelopus aff. palmatus)
© Carlos Boada
or Extinct by the IUCN Red List of Endangered species, and of the 21 species known from Ecuador, the
vast majority has been devastated by disease and
appears to be extinct. This discovery represents just
the third healthy population currently known in the
country. Conservation of this frog is important not
only for posterity, but frogs also provide a number
of ecosystem services important to humans: adult
frogs prey on mosquitoes, ticks and other pest and
disease-carrying species, and tadpoles help maintain water quality by grazing on algae while at the
same time providing a food source for commercially
valuable fish.
Contributed by Jessica Deichmann, Juan Manuel
Guayasamin, Cristina Félix, and Luis Suárez
Camp “Los Tepuyes”
151
Stories from the field...
The Glamorous Life of a RAP Scientist: Meet new friends
“Stompy”, the friendly elephant
(who came to inform us that the
protective fence around our camp
in Botswana was not working)
“Sandy”, the affable leishmaniasis-transmitting sand fly
“Sleepy”, the sleeping sickness-transmitting tsetse fly
“Clingy”, the affectionate tick
“Swarmy”, the inquisitive driver ant,
and hundreds and hundreds and
hundreds of her sisters
152
All photos © Piotr Naskrecki
“Piercy”, the always hungry malarial
mosquito
Species new to science
Indonesia
Foja Mountains
November – December 2005 & October – November 2008
Should we use a different photo? Golden-fronted Bowerbird (Amblyornis flavifrons)
All photos © Bruce Beehler
© Bruce Beehler
High Foja summits
U
ntil 1979 the Foja Mountains of Papua
Province, Indonesia, remained a mystery to
scientists documenting biodiversity on the island
of New Guinea. In 1979 and 1981 Professor Jared
Diamond became the first scientist/explorer to
visit the Fojas where he rediscovered the “lost”
Golden-fronted Bowerbird, a species previously
known only from trade skins. This unusual
discovery hinted that the Foja Mountains may be
an important center of biological endemism and
the home of additional novel species.
154
Rising to about 2,200 meters elevation, and
entirely isolated from other mountain regions,
the Foja Mountains constitute an unroaded and
unpopulated forest reserve of 300,000 hectares
on the northern fringe of the great Mamberamo
Basin. At more than 7 million hectares, this
basin contains the largest single block of humid
tropical forest in the Asia-Pacific region. At
higher elevations rain falls all year round, and
clouds persistently cloak the highest peaks.
Although their isolation and constantly warm,
wet conditions make the uplands an ideal site
to search for endemic biodiversity, the rough
terrain characteristic of the area prevented
access by scientists until Jared Diamond reached
the interior with the aid of a helicopter. To this
day a helicopter is required to gain access to the
interior uplands of this isolated mountain range.
After more than a decade of planning, preparation,
and negotiation, the first RAP expedition to the
Foja Mountains was conducted in NovemberDecember 2005. This was followed by a second
RAP survey in October-November 2008.
These two expeditions were conducted as a
partnership between the Indonesian Institute of
Science, Conservation International, and several
international research institutions (Smithsonian
Institution, South Australian Museum, Harvard
University, and the National Geographic Society).
Each trip fielded more than 20 fieldworkers, who
focused their work on either the foothills or the
highlands interior.
The Foja Mountains RAP surveys documented at
least 75 species new to science, including more
than 40 new arthropod species, over 20 new frog
species, no less than 10 new plant species, five
new mammal species, and two new species of bird.
The announcement of these discoveries created a
The discoveries led to an Indonesian postagestamp series commemorating the 2005
expedition, and enhanced government attention
to the importance of the Mamberamo Basin region.
The Governor of Papua (Barnabas Suebu) has
taken these discoveries as evidence of the global
importance of Papua’s forests and biodiversity,
and has publicly declared his intention to develop
the Province following green economic principles.
Protected today as a national wildlife sanctuary,
the Foja Mountains are one of the Pacific’s most
pristine forest environments with a rich endemic
biota. Conservation International has encouraged
the Government of Indonesia to upgrade the
conservation status of this national reserve.
Contributed by Bruce Beehler
A microhylid frog Albericus sp.
© Conservation International/photo by Stephen Richards
Mosses on the forest floor
Rhododendron species
© Conservation International/photo by Stephen Richards
Highlights of the RAP survey research included: 1)
first record for Indonesia of the Golden-mantled
Tree-Kangaroo, one of the rarest mammals in the
Asia-Pacific region; 2) re-discovery of the “lost”
bird of paradise, Berlepsch’s Parotia; 3) two new
species of birds – a honeyeater and an imperial
pigeon; and 4) discovery of the world’s smallest
kangaroo (a tiny terrestrial wallaby).
© Bruce Beehler
media sensation and put the Foja Mountains on
the map as a “Lost World.”
155
Species new to science
Ecuador and Peru: Río Pastaza Basin (July 12 – August 17, 1999)
he Pastaza River originates in the Ecuadorean Andes
and flows southeastward more than 700 km to the
Marañón River in Peru. In Ecuador, where most of the
river is at high elevations, the Pastaza is characterized by
quick flowing cascades with many rapids; while in Peru,
the Pastaza flows on flatter ground and transforms into a
meandering lowland river. Although remote, the Pastaza
watershed is increasingly threatened by mining and oil
exploration activities. An AquaRAP survey was done
in 1999 to provide data to environmental authorities,
conservation organizations, and to the indigenous
communities controlling the central reaches of the river
in order to ensure proper management of the natural
resources in the Pastaza River watershed.
The AquaRAP team explored the Pastaza from its
headwaters in Ecuador to its lower reaches in Peru.
Aquatic habitats were highly disturbed by agriculture and
logging in the headwaters, but less so along the transitional
zone between the headwaters and the lower floodplain
stretches. In the Peruvian portion of the Pastaza, aquatic
habitats were healthy, showing little evidence of human
impacts. As many as 44 new species of fish and four new
plant species were discovered. In addition, five plant,
eight shrimp and crab, and 22 fish species were recorded
in the Pastaza River for the first time ever. The AquaRAP
team recommended development of a green corridor or
© Elizabeth O’Neill
T
RAP fish team seining through aquatic vegetation
biosphere reserve to protect key areas along all reaches
of the Pastaza River, from headwaters to the mouth, in
order to preserve migration routes for fish, to prevent the
spread of invasive species and to maintain the biological
integrity of the Pastaza River watershed. Since September
2008, more than 166,000 hectares of native forests in the
Ecuadorean province of Pastaza have been included in
Socio Bosque, an innovative national forest conservation
program that provides economic incentives to forest
owners (individuals and communities) in exchange for
their commitment to protect key biodiversity areas in their
lands.
Contributed by Jessica Deichmann and Luis Suárez
During the Haute Dodo RAP, I was trained to implement standard methods for inventorying
insect biodiversity. Then I received support from RAP to attend the second edition of the Ant
Course in Arizona in 2002. This capacity building has been crucial in planning and conducting
my PhD research on biodiversity of savanna ants in Côte d’Ivoire. When doing my PhD, I was
able to lead my taxonomic group for the RAP surveys that followed and I did it during Boké
RAP in Guinea (2005) and Ajenjua Bepo and Mamang River Forest Reserves RAP in Ghana
(2006). In order to improve my taxonomic capacity I received another grant from the RAP (as a
complement to an Ernst Mayr Award) to visit the ant collection of the Museum of Comparative
Zoology at Harvard University in 2005. Since then I’ve become a regional expert and I did other
surveys in Mount Nimba (Guinea) and Liberia with Afrique Nature International. This training
I obtained from RAP has guided my research topics towards nature conservation and I’m happy
with that. I can say I’m a pure child of RAP!
- Yéo Kolo, University of Abobo-Adjamé
156
Species new to science
Papua New Guinea
Nakanai Mountains, East New Britain
April 2 – 29, 2009
© Piotr Naskrecki
Stag Beetle (Cyclommatus eximius)
© Piotr Naskrecki
© Conservation International/photo by Stephen Richards
© Piotr Naskrecki
© Conservation International/photo by Stephen Richards
View from Tompoi camp
T
he Nakanai Mountains form a rugged, rainforest-covered spine along the central-eastern interior of the large Pacific island of New
Britain. Extending from sea level to 2,185 m at
the highest point, the mountains are a predominantly karst (formed by the erosion of soluble
carbonate rocks) landscape of exceptional natural beauty and geological interest. Some of the
world’s largest underground rivers flow through
massive cave systems here, many emerging from
the caves as beautiful waterfalls that fuel torrential white-water rivers in spectacular gorges.
158
The forests of East New Britain are under intense
pressure from logging operations and oil palm
plantations, and Conservation International has
worked in the province since 1995, collaborating closely with local non-governmental organizations and communities in Pomio District
to promote the establishment of a protected
area covering the upland forests of the Nakanai
Mountains. The ultimate goal of Conservation
International’s work in the region is to establish a conservation corridor over these forests
that would encompass one existing and one
proposed Wildlife Management Area. The spectacular cave systems and natural beauty of the
Nakanai Mountains also prompted Papua New
Guinea’s Department of Environment and Conservation and other interested parties to prepare a nomination of the Nakanai Mountains for
World Heritage status. This spectacular range
has been on the World Heritage Tentative List
since 2006, along with the Muller Range and
Hindenburg Wall, in a submission titled ‘The
Sublime Karsts of Papua New Guinea.’ However,
despite a long history of cave exploration in the
Nakanai Mountains, the biodiversity of these
remote and inaccessible rainforest habitats remains poorly documented.
To redress this lack of data, RAP scientists
joined forces with the East New Britain Provincial Government’s Environment and Conservation Management Committee, and the local communities of Marmar, Irena and Muru to assess
the biodiversity of three sites in the proposed
World Heritage Area. These sites were in lowland rainforest at 200 m, in hill forest at 850 m
and in lower montane rainforest at 1,600 m altitude, near the summit of the Galowe Plateau
in Pomio District. Valuable information on the
local fauna was also obtained from the vicinity
of Palmalmal and Pomio townships during the
team’s transit to the field.
The 2009 RAP survey, a collaboration between
Conservation International, the Papua New Guinea Institute of Biological Research, and A Rocha
International, documented a treasure-trove of
previously unknown and unique biological diversity in the Nakanai Mountains that we hope
will provide impetus to the World Heritage
nomination process. The most significant re-
© Piotr Naskrecki
© Conservation International/photo by Stephen Richards
In addition to providing feedback to the local
communities to promote interest and pride in
their local biodiversity, the results of these surveys are being made available to Papua New
Guinea’s Department of Environment and Conservation and to the East New Britain Provincial
Government to encourage their efforts in nominating this region as a World Heritage Area.
Contributed by Stephen Richards
© Conservation International/photo by Stephen Richards
sults included 36 species of katydids, at least
15 of which are new species, and one that was
recently described as an entirely new genus; 34
species of dragonflies, including many new records for the island of New Britain; more than
100 species of spiders, of which at least half are
likely to represent new species; 39 species of
herpetofauna, including four frogs new to science; and 26 species of mammals, of which four
rodents are new to science, including two that
appear to represent entirely new genera. Sixtynine species of birds were observed during this
expedition, including a number of species that
are endemic to New Britain or the Bismarck Archipelago. The most significant bird record was
an immature individual of the rare Slaty-backed
Goshawk, Accipiter luteoschistaceus.
Pandan katydid (Segestidea defoliaria)
Blue-breasted Pitta (Pitta erythrogaster)
© Conservation International/photo by Stephen Richards
Tiny bats (Mosia nigrescens)
Cuscus (Phalanger orientalis)
159
Stories from the field...
It was 6:30 am one cold morning in May 1990 when we crossed the narrow streets of La Paz, Bolivia to
gather Ted Parker, Al Gentry and Brent Bailey from the hotel in the center of the city where the nucleus
of the first RAP team spent the night without sleeping – I don’t know if it was the altitude or dreaming
of the trip that kept them up.
We arrived at the El Alto airport, 4,070 meters above sea level; Captain Echalar’s twin-engine airplane
awaited us on the runway. The airplane careened down the long runway before soaring out over the
extensive plateau. After 15 minutes of flight, we crossed the mountain range and reached an altitude of
6,000 m. To our right lay two imposing mountains of the Andes, Illampu and Ancohuma, and we began to
fly through a dense mat of clouds that shrouded the mountain range. Seated in the copilot seat, I listened
as Captain Echalar explained the function of the flight instruments and then he said to me: “Eduardo, I
have never landed on the Alto Madidi runway. I don’t know it. Nevertheless, we can land in Ixiamas and
formulate a flight plan there to arrive at the final destination.”
I looked at the captain with surprise, but calmly told him that five years earlier, during two evaluations
of forest activity in Northern La Paz, I had flown over the zone and knew the location of the Alto Madidi
runway which had been used during the military dictatorships to isolate the opposition to the regime. I
told him that from Ixiamas it would be very easy for me to identify the flight path to our destination.
Initially, Captain Echalar had his doubts, but confronted with the team’s enthusiasm to arrive as soon
as possible at the final destination, he decided not to land in Ixiamas. He saw a clearing in the clouds
and lowered the plane to 1,000 m. From there, in just a few minutes we could see the town of Ixiamas. I
showed him the mountain chain to the west of the town, indicating that if we followed it parallel northward, then once we saw the Madidi river, the Alto Madidi runway would be at the foot of the mountains.
So we followed that path and in less than 20 minutes, the airplane was descending towards a short, dirt
runway, cleared two days prior of the dense green pasture that covered it by men with machetes who had
arrived in a helium plane, which had the capacity to land in difficult situations and on short runways,
and was piloted by Hermes Justiniano, private pilot, photographer, lover of nature and director of the
Fundación Amigos de la Naturaleza.
We landed and were struck with a heat wave as we opened the airplane door. Hermes and the other
members of that first RAP team were waiting for us on the edge of the runway, next to the trees. We exited the plane and after an enthusiastic welcome, the adventure of the first RAP survey in history began.
Captain Echalar and I returned to La Paz later that afternoon.
- Eduardo Forno, Conservation International - Bolivia
160
Species new to science
Papua New Guinea
Muller Range
September 2 – 25, 2009
© Conservation International/photo by Stephen Richards
Large Green Treefrog (Litoria sp.)
© Conservation International/photo by Stephen Richards
© Piotr Naskrecki
© Conservation International/photo by Stephen Richards
© Conservation International/photo by Stephen Richards
View of Camp III at high elevation
I
n 2008, RAP enlisted the help of Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
Organisation (CSIRO) to develop a modeling tool
that would help to identify areas of Papua New
Guinea that lack even the most basic information
about local biodiversity. A site on the southern
edge of the Muller Range in central-western Papua
New Guinea was identified by this gap analysis as
one of the three highest priorities for biodiversity
documentation in the country. As early as 1992, the
Muller Range had been recognized as a High Biodiversity Priority Area by the Papua New Guinea
Conservation Needs Assessment, and more recently it was included in a World Heritage nomination
titled ‘The Sublime Karsts of Papua New Guinea’,
which is on the Tentative World Heritage List.
However despite recognition of its global significance, the rugged topography and difficulty of accessing the remote and sparsely populated interior
of the Muller Range have hindered documentation
of the region’s biodiversity.
162
In September 2009, Conservation International’s
RAP team joined forces with the Papua New Guinea
Institute of Biological Research and A Rocha International to launch an expedition that penetrated
deep into the remote foothills and high-montane
peaks of the Muller Range. With helicopter support
from the nearby Porgera mine, the team had an opportunity to investigate a broad elevational transect in a poorly-documented area that promised to
reveal a treasure-trove of biological novelties.
The scientists spent a week at each of three camps
at 500, 1,600 and 2,875 meters altitude. Camp I
(500 m) was on a low ridge in lowland rainforest at the base of the Muller Range. Surprisingly,
the vegetation there contained some floristic elements more typical of montane forests elsewhere
in New Guinea, presumably reflecting the incredibly wet environment at this site. Camp I also had
the highest overall biological diversity found at
the three sites, and many new species of ants,
katydids, odonates (dragonflies and damselflies)
and spiders were documented.
Camp II (1,600 m) was wet, steep, and located
in montane southern beech (Nothofagus) forest
where the shrubs, trees, and even the ground
were covered with dripping moss. The abundance
and diversity of invertebrates was lower here
than in the lowland forest, and permanent water
was scarce so that odonates were absent altogether. However a number of new and interesting
species of katydids, ants and spiders were found,
along with several new frog species and many
new plants. Camp II also had a high abundance
of small mammals, many possums, and signs of
long-beaked echidnas and tree kangaroos. These
larger animals have been hunted to rarity or extinction in many areas of New Guinea, and our
sightings of tree kangaroos and numerous possums and cuscus indicate that hunting pressure is
low and fauna populations in the remote interior
of the Muller Range are still healthy.
The results of this expedition are being made available to the National and Provincial Governments in
the hope that these remarkable biological discoveries will add impetus to the declaration of the Muller
Range Karsts as a World Heritage Area.
Contributed by Stephen Richards
Feathertail Glider (Distoechurus sp.)
Bizarre microhylid frog (Asterophrys sp.)
© Piotr Naskrecki
Pandanus spider (Lycosoidea)
© Conservation International/photo by Stephen Richards
Overall the team discovered dozens of new species
including nine new plants, two of which have already been described by the team’s senior botanist
Wayne Takeuchi. Other highlights included 2 new
mammal and 20 frog species, and numerous new
insects (damselflies, ants, and orthopterans including katydids and stick insects) and spiders. The total
number of new species documented during this survey was between 100 and 140 – this will be settled
once all spiders have been carefully examined. The
team also observed many Birds of Paradise, and a
number of bird species with plumage patterns distinctly different from populations elsewhere in New
Guinea, suggesting that the Muller Range is a biogeographically significant area.
© Conservation International/photo by Stephen Richards
Camp III (2,875 m) was located in an unusual mosaic of sub-alpine fernland and extremely dense and
mossy upper-montane forest. Many orchids and
rhododendrons were present and, although animal
diversity was low, many species found by the RAP
team were of great interest biogeographically including new species of both plants and animals.
163
RAP in the media
RAP in the media
164
Species new to science
Ghana
Atewa Range Forest Reserve
June 6 – 24, 2006
All photos © Piotr Naskrecki
Chameleon (Chamaeleo gracilis)
T
overview of species diversity in Atewa, to evaluate the area’s relative conservation importance, to
provide management and research recommendations, and to increase awareness in local communities of the value of species and ecosystem services provided by the Atewa forest.
RAP collaborated with CI-Ghana and Alcoa World
Alumina LLC (Alcoa) to conduct a RAP survey
around three sites within Atewa: Atiwiredu (795
m); Asiakwa South (690 m); and Asiakwa North
(769 m). The RAP sites were chosen to coincide
with areas of potentially high biodiversity and
concentrated bauxite deposits that had been earmarked for exploration activities by Alcoa. The
RAP survey aimed to derive a brief, but thorough
Included among the many rare and threatened species at Atewa are six black star plant species, six
bird species of global conservation concern, two
primates and 10 other large mammals, and a high
proportion of threatened frog species such as Conraua derooi (Crictically Endangered), Hyperolius bobirensis (Endangered), and Phrynobatrachus ghanensis (Endangered), for which the Atewa Range
is likely to hold the largest remaining populations.
The unique and diverse species assemblages docu-
he Atewa mountain range, located in southeastern Ghana, runs approximately from
north to south, and is characterized by a series of
plateaus, which at the highest point reach the elevation of 800 meters. One of only two reserves
in Ghana still covered by upland evergreen forest,
Atewa represents about 33.5% of the remaining
closed forest in Ghana’s Eastern Region. It contains the headwaters of the major river systems
(Ayensu, Densu and Birim) that provide water for
all surrounding communities, including the capital city of Accra. Historically, Atewa plateau has
acted as a Pleistocene refugium of forest fauna
and flora during the last glacial maximum, and is
likely to play the same role in the future. The only
other forest of this type in Ghana is the Tano Ofin
Forest Reserve which is smaller and significantly
more disturbed. Atewa is home to many endemic
and rare species, including black star plant species (species considered threatened in Ghana),
and several endemic butterfly species. Seasonal
marshy grasslands, swamps and thickets on the
Atewa plateaus are nationally unique.
166
The results of the RAP survey showed that Atewa
is an exceptionally important site for national and
global biodiversity conservation, and the ecosystem services it provides are critically important
for the welfare of its surrounding communities.
All taxonomic groups surveyed were comprised
almost exclusively of forest species, indicating a
nearly intact forest ecosystem, which is a highly
unusual and significant finding for West Africa
where most forests are strongly fragmented and
disturbed. Atewa has the highest butterfly diversity of any site in Ghana and the highest site
diversity of katydids anywhere in Africa! Atewa
also harbors a high diversity of dragonfly, bird and
plant species.
mented during the RAP survey, especially of amphibians, Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies)
and fishes, all depend on the clean and abundant
water that originates in Atewa for their survival.
Ghanaians around Atewa, and as far as Accra, also
depend on this water source, provided by the plateau formations, which soak up rain and mist and
then hold, filter, and discharge fresh water. The RAP
survey confirmed that Atewa is a site of extremely
high importance for global biodiversity conservation and should be protected in its entirety.
The conservation recommendations that followed
the survey included the need to establish within
the Atewa Range Forest Reserve an integrally protected area with high protection status, such as a
National Park, which should encompass all remaining, intact fragments of the Upland Evergreen
forest, especially on the plateaus. A buffer zone
covering the more disturbed slopes and valleys of
the reserve should be established surrounding the
core protected area. To ensure the sustainable protection of Atewa, alternative incomes for the local
communities, particularly in Kibi, should be developed to reduce existing or potential dependence
on extractive industries and forest products from
Atewa. This should be done as a collaborative effort
between government, private, non-governmental,
scientific, development, and community groups.
The results of the survey and its conservation recommendations were presented to local communities during a workshop held in the town of Kibi.
Additionally, hundreds of color booklets that presented the biological richness and explained the
role Atewa forests play in the functioning and survival of the surrounding rural communities and
the rest of Ghana were distributed in villages and
towns surrounding the reserve.
Giant African snails (Achatina sp.) for sale near the
Atewa Forest Reserve
Butterfly (Euphaedra harpalyce)
Unfortunately, in the years that followed the RAP
survey, little has been done to ensure full protection of this unique ecosystem. Although bauxite
prospecting operations were halted in 2007, in
2008-2009 illegal logging was on the increase, and
it still poses a significant risk to the survival of the
Atewa Reserve. This site is in urgent need of conservation action.
Contributed by Piotr Naskrecki
Giant earthworms
167
Stories from the field...
In the summer of 2002, I began planning my first RAP expedition to the Pic de Fon - the highest point of
the Simandou Mountains in Southeastern Guinea (a small country in West Africa that curls around Sierra Leone and Liberia to the south, and borders the Ivory Coast to the east). The plan was that the team
(13 scientists, 3 drivers, a field cook, a camp manager - and me) would meet in mid-October in the Ivory
Coast and drive nearly a thousand kilometers to the RAP site, just over the border in Guinea. Very little
was known about the site, other than that it was possibly home to chimpanzees and a rare habitat known
as montane grassland, so we selected a team to study plants, invertebrates (katydids in this case), herps
(amphibians and reptiles), birds and mammals (we had an expert in small mammals such as shrews and
mice, another for bats, two for large mammals and two primate specialists to see if the chimp reports were
true). Having never been on a RAP expedition, all I knew at the time was that I would be flying 18 hours
from home to visit a continent I had never seen, speak a language I had unsuccessfully studied for one
semester in college, and live in a tent in the middle of nowhere with a group of 18 biologists/strangers for
almost a month while we explored the great unknown.
The first (of many) ‘slight’ changes in plan came in late September when, due to an attempted coup in the
Ivory Coast, we instead had to begin our journey in Conakry (Guinea’s capital), still nearly a thousand
kilometers away, but over slower, often dirt, roads. As we had no office, and no field supplies in Guinea,
this meant that I would carry 140 pounds of equipment (plus a backpack filled with binoculars, cameras,
a satellite phone) in duffel bags and we would buy the other necessary items (plastic pails, black plastic
sheeting, coffee) in the markets of Conakry. The team assembled as planned and, after a day hunting for
pails of the right size and shape, we set out to take a trip literally across the country.
And - after driving 2 days of 12 hours each in a 4x4 with 5 adults, half on unpaved, un-level roads eating (surprisingly good) baguettes, sardines and avocados, arriving after dark to drive up (or be towed
up) slick, steep mining tracks that took seemingly hours to navigate, setting up camp in the rain in the
dark, learning to set up mist nets, trekking 16 km up steep hills to look for primates, accidentally stepping
in my first and second (and narrowly avoiding my third) pile of driver ants and having to disrobe immediately because those little guys are fast and they hurt, staying up late to listen to the bat-man and his
recording of bat sounds, falling asleep to the sounds of frogs and more frogs and learning to scan nearly
every puddle for any sign of one, hoping that smell wasn’t me and learning that it was rather the scent
of a group of red river hogs, really, really hoping that I would not encounter any of the several snakes
I knew for a fact were in the area, going for a night hike to look for katydids and learning that, even
with a flashlight, night on top of a mountain in Guinea is very, very dark (and in this condition piles of
driver ants become much less noticeable, and my language less lady-like upon discovery), discovering the
ups (cleanliness) and downs (mountain in Guinea after sundown, surprisingly not warm) of an outdoor
bucket bath, discovering the downs of an outdoor latrine (you don’t want details, but have I mentioned
the bees?), and on the subject of bees, having heard the tales of insects that get under your skin (sometimes from your laundry hanging on the line) and then grow into giant worms that you have to remove
by rolling out and if they break off..., holding contests with rubber bands and giant biting flies, petting
the goat who spent the day at our camp and, after a few bleats, was later called dinner - I learned that
the greatest fear in a RAP camp is the possibility of running out of coffee and that the greatest joy is the
indescribable excitement and wonder of exploration and discovery.
- Jennifer McCullough
continues on p. 172
168
Capacity building
Bolivia
Noel Kempff Mercado National Park
RAP Surveys 1991 – 1997, RAP Training 1995
© Andre Baertschi
Jaguar (Panthera onca)
© Andre Baertschi
© Andre Baertschi
© Conservation International/photo by Haroldo Castro
© Andre Baertschi
T
he large sandstone Huanchaca Plateau in southeastern Bolivia has intrigued biologists, geologists and explorers for centuries. The plateau is
within an unusual climatic transition zone where
Amazonian forest intergrades with the dry forest
and savanna habitats of the cerrado, thus creating a
rich mosaic of habitats for a high diversity of species.
Descriptions of the area by explorer Percy Fawcett in
the early 1900s were used by author Arthur Conan
Doyle as the setting for his novel “The Lost World.”
Renowned Bolivian biologist Noel Kempff Mercado
led scientific explorations to the region in the 1970s80s and began a campaign to establish a national
park centered around the Huanchaca Plateau. Sadly,
he was killed in 1986 by drug traffickers during one
of his expeditions, but this incident sparked public
and governmental interest and led to the creation
of Noel Kempff Mercado National Park in 1988 with
750,000 hectares of forest and savanna.
170
The park attracted the interest of many biologists,
including the RAP team, to study its unique flora
and fauna. Some of the RAP scientists began studying their respective taxa within the park during the
1980s which led to a RAP survey in 1991 and subsequent visits in 1994 and 1995. Highlights include
high diversity of all taxa including 2,705 species of
plants, 597 species of birds, 124 species of mammals
including large numbers of rare small mammal species and many new records for Bolivia, 127 reptiles
and amphibians, 246 fish species (about 45% of Bolivia’s fish fauna), and 97 species of dung beetles. The
park is an important reserve for several threatened
Amazonian and a broad range of cerrado bird species and many large mammals, including brocket
deer, peccaries, puma and jaguar. The site is of national significance because it provides protection for
the flora and fauna of a biogeographic region that is
unlike any of the other ecosystems in Bolivia’s National System of Protected Areas. It is also of global
importance due to its large size, presence of many
unique and threatened ecosystems, and high diversity of species.
Data collected during the RAP surveys were used in
the development of the first comprehensive management plan for the park by the Bolivian government.
In addition, data derived from RAP supported a proposal by Fundación Amigos de la Naturaleza to expand the park’s boundaries to include forest and savanna habitats to the west of the Huanchaca Plateau.
This became a reality in 1997 when the park was
expanded west to the Río Bajo Paraguá for a total
of 1,523,000 hectares as part of the visionary Noel
Kempff Mercado Climate Action Project (NKMCAP)
to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest
degradation (REDD+) under consideration by the
United Nation’s Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC).
The many initiatives that were intended to consolidate the park’s status as a globally important protected area and strengthen its management provide
many lessons to today’s conservation practitioners.
Science, as exemplified by RAP, continues to exert
a strong role in keeping the park in the public eye,
Noel Kempff Mercado National Park is still important and it is still needs and deserves the support of
the conservation community.
Contributed by Tim Killeen and Leeanne Alonso
© Piotr Naskrecki
Unfortunately, the lessons learned from the Climate
Action Project and the numerous other conservation investments made since the park’s founding are
not all positive – but that does not make them any
less important. Very large sums of money were invested in tourist infrastructure that has never operated at a profit. Fortunately, part of the endowment
was invested in traditional financial instruments
and continues to support basic operations today –
albeit at only minimal levels. Noel Kempff Mercado
National Park faces many challenges. Private and
international funding for biodiversity conservation
has decreased and the non-governmental organizations that depended on those resources have ended
almost all of their activities in the region. Carbon revenues should be available because the Climate Action Project has so obviously succeeded in its objectives of protecting the Park and reducing emissions.
Communities are disappointed but still hope that
the long-promised tourist boom will someday materialize – even though the strategic infrastructure
necessary to receive those tourists has deteriorated.
Since the local communities are not benefitting from
tourism, they are seeking alternatives, including the
non-sustainable exploitation of the timber resources
within their own forest reserve. Meanwhile, colonization pressure and the advance of the agricultural
frontier are increasing yearly throughout the region.
Monkey tree frog (Phyllomedusa vaillanti)
© Andre Baertschi
especially internationally. The establishment of
long-term study plots, and their integration into an
Amazon-wide research network, has contributed to
our knowledge of the impacts of climate change on
tropical forest ecosystems, while ongoing studies of
the Maned Wolf and the Giant Otter have improved
our understanding of the behavior and reproductive
biology of these endangered species. In preparation
for the Climate Action Project, scientists field tested
forest carbon measurement protocols, remote sensing technology and GIS modeling tools that are now
commonly used in dozens (or possibly hundreds) of
REDD+ projects worldwide. Most importantly, this
proto-REDD+ project provided Noel Kempff Mercado National Park with secure and easily recognizable borders: the park is clearly more secure than it
was prior to that innovative and visionary initiative.
Part of this improved security comes from the creation of the Bajo Paraguá Communal Territory, which
enjoyed the support of the Climate Action Project
during the formative early years and is strategically
situated along the park’s western frontier. The National Service of Protected Areas currently invest
an amount up to $250,000 annually, satisfying the
core needs of this huge protected area, which still
requires more resources, equipment and facilities to
fulfill all its needs.
Noel Kempff Mercado savanna
171
Stories from the field...
continued from p. 168
Prior to our team’s visit to the Pic de Fon, virtually no information existed on the plants and animals
that might be found there - so virtually everything we found was something unknown from that area
(including 25 species never recorded before in Guinea). It was like we knew we were looking at a work
of art, but it was covered with thousands of tiny tiles, and at the end of each day of searching, we could
remove a few tiles and see more of the picture. In the late afternoon (when the primate folks had just
returned from a grueling day of searching for nests and were taking a break before looking for galagos,
the froggers were suiting up for an evening of visiting any wet spots they had noted, the birders might
be going to look for owls, the bat-man was gearing up for another long night of checking mist nets until
dawn, the botanists had returned with their giant books full of samples), most of the team would gather
in the ‘work’ tent and share what they had uncovered that day - a bird known only from three other sites
in the world, a bat that was only known from sites over 4,000 km away, three species of amphibian that
were likely new to science, at least five new species of invertebrate, confirmation of the presence of both
chimpanzees and Diana monkeys (to name only a few).
What an initiation. For all of the latrine bees, and the biting flies, and the driver ants, and the dusty,
bumpy roads, and the mystery meats, and the wet tents (and the...), witnessing this journey of exploration was an unparalleled privilege - to see the world alongside a team of people who have dedicated
their lives to studying the patterns of nature, to be there as they worked as an integrated team, sharing
information (a newly found water hole, a possible nest site, an encounter with an unknown bird) so that
as a group they could function as greater than the sum of the parts. It is grueling work in difficult conditions, and they worked with passion, enthusiasm and dedication (and generally a healthy dose of humor).
Watching the picture of a place unfold with this group was truly one of the most amazing experiences of
a lifetime. Would I travel for 4 days in a crowded jeep across Guinea again if given the chance? I would
(and I did, a year later, well, there was a plane full of chickens involved, but that is another story...).
- Jennifer McCullough, Director, Strategic Engagement, Center for
Conservation and Government, Conservation International
172
Capacity building
Guyana
Konashen Community Owned Conservation Area
October 6 – 28, 2006
Smooth-fronted Caiman (Paleosuchus trigonatus)
All photos © Piotr Naskrecki
Blue poison dart frog (Dendrobates tinctorius)
T
he Konashen Indigenous District in the Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo Region of southern Guyana is home to one of the last, and largest, swaths of pristine rainforests in the Guiana
Shield. The human population of the area is one
of the lowest in the world (about 0.032 people/
km2), and the biodiversity of the region has remained largely unexplored and unaffected by human activity. In 2004, the government of Guyana
awarded legal guardianship to an area of 625,000
hectares of Konashen to the community of Masakenari, a 200+ group of Amerindians of WaiWai ancestry. This area, known henceforth as the
Konashen Community Owned Conservation Area
(COCA), is now the largest protected area in the
country, covering 3.2% of Guyana’s landmass,
and harboring the headwaters of South America’s
third largest river, the Essequibo, and 47% of its
upper watershed. The COCA is comprised primarily of tall, evergreen hill-land and lower montane
forest, with large expanses of flooded forest along
major rivers. It is a part of the High Biodiversity
Wilderness Area of Amazonia, and a part of the
Guiana Shield Corridor.
174
Prior to the RAP survey, Conservation International-Guyana had been working with the members of the Masakaneri community to build local
capacity to assess, monitor, and manage their
natural resources, and trained six members of
the community to survey the species richness of
fishes, mammals, and birds, especially those of
economic importance to the community. These
six trainees also took part in the RAP survey conducted in October 2006.
The main objectives of the RAP survey were 1)
to collect baseline data on the biodiversity of the
COCA for potential use in the development of a
small-scale ecotourism industry managed by the
Wai-Wai community, and 2) to gather information
on the population levels of species used for food
and trade by the community in order to establish
sustainable thresholds for their utilization. In addition, the RAP team assessed the water quality
of rivers and streams in the vicinity of the community.
The survey was conducted at two principal sites:
the first in the foothills of the Acarai Mountains at
an elevation of 270 meters (with a satellite camp
near the top of the Acarai Mountains), and the second on the north bank of the Kamoa River at an
elevation of 250 m. Water quality was surveyed
at 18 sampling stations within five additional focal areas. The organisms documented during the
survey included terrestrial insects (katydids, ants,
bees and dung beetles), freshwater macroinvertebrates (decapod crustaceans, gastropods, and
bivalves), fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and
large (non-flying) mammals. Nearly 870 species
of animals were recorded, although this number
is likely to increase once the analysis of the vast
sampling of litter insect fauna collected during
the survey is completed. The highlights of the
survey include at least ten species of insects new
to science, four new species of fishes (including a
giant, economically important yet still unnamed
wolf fish species, genus Hoplias, known only from
the rapids of the Essequibo River), and two possible new species of reptiles. In addition, the survey
increased the previously virtually unknown fauna
of Guyanese katydids by 130%, added several new
reptile species to the fauna of the country, and recorded the first occurrence of the Large-headed
Flatbill (Ramphotrigon megacephalum), a 900 km
range extension of a bird species never previously
recorded from the Guianas. Mammalian populations at survey sites were robust, and included
several species of conservation concern, such as
Brown-Bearded Saki Monkey (Chiropotes stanas),
the Giant River Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis), and
the Giant Armadillo (Pridontes maximus.) Water
quality surveys revealed the absence of any artificial pollutants, although water turbidity and pH
values at sites close to the Masakenari community were somewhat below the WHO standards for
drinking water.
The RAP survey confirmed that the COCA harbors
exceptionally rich, virtually undisturbed assemblages of organisms typical of the Guiana Shield,
and must become the priority for conservation in
Guyana. Threats to the area come primarily from
illegal logging and gold mining activities. These
may soon increase, following the construction of
a highway across northern Brazil, which forms a
porous and unmonitored border with the COCA.
The RAP team recommended the development of
a program within the Wai-Wai community (with
some help from the government of Guyana) that
preemptively addresses these threats, including
the deployment of patrols along the border to detect encroachment of illegal loggers.
Although the population density of the COCA is exceptionally low, the RAP team also recommended
a sustainable management plan for the animals
that are frequently fished and hunted by the WaiWai community, which includes monitoring of the
most important species, and the development of a
rotation system to distribute the effect of subsistence hunting over larger areas. It also stressed
Peacock Katydid (Pterochroza ocellata)
the importance of the avoidance of trapping birds
for the pet trade, and hunting of threatened species. The results of the survey are being used
now to develop a management plan for the area,
including a possible implementation of a smallscale “sustainable ecotourism”, which will allow
visitors to experience one of the last, virtually
untouched fragments of the South American rainforest. The species check-lists and a biodiversity
booklet produced by the RAP team will also allow
the Wai-Wai community to promote organisms of
particular conservation or biological interest, including the spectacular, but unknown to general
naturalists, Peacock Katydids (Pterochroza ocellata) and Suriname Toads (Pipa pipa.)
Contributed by Piotr Naskrecki
Entomologist Dr. Chris Marshall collecting symbiotic
insects from a Three-toed Sloth (Bradypus tridactylus)
175
Capacity building
Guyana: Eastern Kanuku Mountains (September 20 – 29, 2001)
S
purred by the results of a RAP survey in the western
part of the mountain range in 1993, the flooded and
upland evergreen forests in the eastern Kanuku Mountains in the Rupununi region of southwestern Guyana
were surveyed in September 2001. Prior to the RAP
survey, a training session was held for 17 Guyanese and
Surinamese participants. Five of these trainees participated in the RAP survey, which focused on an area along
the lower Kwitaro and Rewa Rivers that forms part of the
Essequibo watershed, the largest source of freshwater in
the country of Guyana. The 2001 RAP survey collected
biodiversity data for policy makers considering the creation of a protected area within the Kanuku Mountain
range. Over just 10 days, plant surveys revealed 40 species not previously recorded in the Kanuku Mountains
and minimal evidence of human disturbance in the forest. Bird diversity was exceptional: 264 species including 17 of the 25 Guyana Shield endemics and 39 species
considered uncommon in the Neotropics, like the Harpy
Eagle and the Orange-breasted Falcon. RAP initiated the
use of camera trapping which photographed 14 non-volant mammal species including Ocelot, Margay, and Red
Brocket Deer. Other species such as Jaguar and the endangered Giant River Otter were observed or heard. Of
the 52 mammal species recorded, 27 were bats, thereby
bringing the total bat diversity of the area to 89 species.
Aquatic surveys revealed 113 freshwater fish species, 45
of economic value, including the Arapaima. A protected
area system which incorporates all the variety of habitats within the Kanuku Mountain range will provide respite for a high proportion of Guyana’s floral and faunal
diversity, including many threatened and endemic species. Discussions between local indigenous communities
and government agencies over the creation of such an
area in the Kanuku Mountains are currently ongoing and
very promising.
Contributed by Jessica Deichmann and Eustace Alexander
I started working for RAP back in late August 2000. I departed in October 2006 to raise my
daughter. I never realized what a gift this program had given to my life. I can honestly say to this
day that those six years were some of the best years of my life. Not only did I absorb and learn
about conservation and species preservation, but I also felt like the people I worked with were my
second family. What a joy it is to have had a job that had given me these things.
I probably learned more in the six years I worked for this program than the 4 years I spent in
college. I learned about the importance of conservation, biodiversity, various cultures in many
different countries, and protecting endangered species. My boss, Leeanne, gave me amazing opportunities to flourish and learn each day. I will be forever grateful to RAP for providing me such
amazing fulfillment and professional growth. I will never forget the people I worked with and
the mission that we all worked to accomplish.
- Leslie Kasmir
176
Capacity building
Papua New Guinea
Lakekamu Basin
RAP Survey Oct. 15 – Nov. 15, RAP Training Nov. 16 – Dec. 12, 1996
© Bruce Beehler
Forest dragon (Hypsilurus modestus)
© Bruce Beehler
© Bruce Beehler
© Piotr Naskrecki
© Bruce Beehler
View of Lakekamu Basin
A
fter successful fieldwork on New Ireland in
1994, the RAP survey program in Papua New
Guinea continued in 1996 in the Lakekamu Basin
with two priorities – the first was to undertake a
traditional intensive biological survey that could
help guide conservation practices. The second
was innovative in that it set out to train national
biologists and build the capacity of New Guinea’s
conservationists. While RAP priorities elsewhere
were guided by urgent needs in the field, the
survey location in Lakekamu was not facing imminent deforestation. One advantage to building
conservation in Papua New Guinea in the 1990’s
was that RAP scientists could develop robust conservation programs ahead of loggers or miners. In
1995, RAP scientists had selected a large pristine
lowland forest basin as an ideal spot to build a
conservation program: the Lakekamu Basin. Located in Gulf Province of southcentral Papua New
Guinea, this basin was sparsely inhabited and
thick with cassowaries, giant Goura pigeons and
other large game animals that disappear under
heavy hunting pressure. Dr. Bruce Beehler had
scouted out the area years before and conducted
several successful field seasons studying the birds
of the Lakekamu forests.
178
A major reason that RAP surveys need to be rapid
is that team members have time constraints. We
circumvented this problem for the large team
at Lakekamu by developing a flexible schedule,
where some scientists visited the site for only
a couple weeks, like Gerry Allen (fish), Dan Pol-
hemus (aquatic insects), Allen Allison (herpetofauna), and Wayne Takeuchi (plants). Other team
members stayed longer to teach a month-long
field course for the University of Papua New Guinea students – Andy Mack on birds, Debra Wright
on mammals, David Bickford, Geordie Torr, and
Steve Richards on herpetofauna, Roy Snelling on
ants, and Alexandra Reich on botany; Kurt Merg
helped coordinate logistics. This was a large team
and was supplemented by 20 University of Papua
New Guinea students in training. The goal in setting up for a couple months at one site was to generate better data and to offer a truly meaningful
training experience.
The Lakekamu project demonstrated the power
of RAP to teach and inspire young conservationists. The course was enthusiastically received by
students who had never done field work. It led
to similar annual courses for the next ten years,
reaching hundreds of students. Each year the
course helped develop a new, young generation of
well-trained conservation biologists that are playing a growing role in Papua New Guinea’s conservation scene. That first course is a fine example:
of the 20 trainees on the course, 11 are in work
as biologists in conservation-related programs.
Two have completed doctorate degrees and one
is currently working on a PhD, four have completed Master’s degrees and another two have
Honours Degrees in Biology. These nine also participated in the following year’s RAP course and
other training provided by Debra Wright and An-
Blue-tongued skink (Tiliqua gigas)
Buttress roots
© Bruce Beehler
The RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment and
training materials produced by the Lakekamu
RAP have found many uses in Papua New Guinea,
but the contributions of the students inspired to
become conservationists by RAP are much more
significant and continue to grow. Several of that
first cohort still plan to pursue PhDs in order to
build their impact as conservationists. That initial
investment back in 1996 is continuing to yield
dividends. In a nation where so little is known scientifically and the logistics are so difficult, foreign
researchers on short RAP-style research visits can
only do so much. The next era in New Guinea’s scientific history will leave behind the Archbold-toRAP tradition of short intense surveys by foreign
biologists. A new generation of national biologists, borne from programs like the RAP training
at Lakekamu, will help bring Papua New Guinea
to a higher level of sophisticated understanding of
their tropical nation. Young biology students will
get to go in the field with native mentors, not just
the expatriate visitors like us on the Lakekamu
RAP in 1996.
© Bruce Beehler
drew Mack. These are remarkable achievements
for a small nation like Papua New Guinea and for
a group of just 20 young students on their first
field experience. The RAP field experience can be
transformative and an inspiration – this is one of
the most important, yet least appreciated values
of the RAP program.
Contributed by Andrew Mack
© Piotr Naskrecki
Millipede (Diplopoda)
179
Capacity building
© Conservation International/photo by J. Sanderson
Nepal: Makalu-Barun National Park (October 27 – November 12, 2005)
T
o the east of Mount Everest in the Nepalese Himalayas lies Makalu-Barun National Park. A RAP
team of Nepalese and international scientists visited
the park in 2005 to document the species diversity of
plants, birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and ants
with the objective to enhance scientific capacity in the
Himalayan region by developing collaborations between international and local scientists. The three sites
visited by the RAP team, ranging from 2,200 to 3,550
meters elevation, were all in good condition with few
imminent threats. A few areas had been cleared by the
local communities for agriculture and for pasture, and
summer grazing sites (kharkas) were quite common,
with heavy grazing and man-made fires in some areas.
However, the mountain brooks, streams and marshes
were in excellent condition. The presence of large mammals like Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) close to local villages
indicated that hunting pressure by the local communities may be low. The area is difficult to access, which
makes trade of wildlife and cash crops extremely difficult, and the use of natural resources seemed to be sustainable and mostly for local use. A species of Paa frog,
though harvested for food and medicine by local Sherpas, appeared to have very healthy populations in the
mountain brooks and streams. This frog is considered
Saisima, Makalu Barun National Park
to be a valuable frog species in Nepal due to its large
size and great medicinal value (used to treat a variety of
ailments). The RAP team recommended that medicines
be provided to the local communities to reduce their
use of this frog species. The high abundance of small
mammals form a great prey base for a variety of other
animals in the area, such as birds of prey, snakes, and
small carnivores. Communities of small mammals are
therefore extremely important to conserving healthy
ecosystems in the area.
Contributed by Leeanne Alonso
The Conservation International RAP 55 effort (Río Cuyuní, Venezuela), in conjunction with our
mining project in Southeastern Venezuela was a valuable experience and tremendous success, resulting in important discoveries pertaining to the great biodiversity of the Guyana Shield of South
America. The gathering of such a wide range of expertise and great personalities – all working in
concert and with sincere dedication was one of the highlights of our business venture in Venezuela
and a testimony to the value of cooperation between conservation and business. Definitely a winwin experience!
- Don Proebstel, former Vice President of Environmental Affairs
and Sustainability, Gold Reserve Inc.
180
Capacity building
Indonesia
Cyclops Mountains and Southern Mamberamo Basin
August 19 – September 15, 2000
Crocodile skink (Tribolonotis gracilis)
All photos © Conservation International/photo by Stephen Richards
Frog (Oreophryne furu) brooding eggs on the underside of a leaf
B
uilding the capacity of local scientists and students to undertake biodiversity assessments
in their home countries has been a primary focus
of Conservation International’s (CI) RAP program. Following the success of the 1998 Wapoga
RAP survey, which involved a number of senior
Indonesian scientists, the RAP program helped
CI-Papua and CI-Indonesia design and implement
a combined training and survey project aimed
directly at young lecturers and students based in
Indonesia’s Papua Province.
On August 19th 2000, participants from the University of Cenderawasih, from provincial government
institutions, and from the Indonesian Institute of
Sciences gathered on an idyllic sandy beach in the
vicinity of Yongsu Dosoyo on the northern edge
of the Cyclops Nature Reserve. For the next 12
days, Indonesian and foreign scientists presented
a series of lectures and practical demonstrations
to an enthusiastic audience of young biologists in
rustic wooden huts transformed into makeshift
classrooms, and led participants on forays into
the surrounding rainforest to demonstrate field
techniques.
182
Lectures often evolved into lively discussions,
which were interrupted on one occasion when
the beach exploded into a frenzy of tiny flailing
flippers as two Hawksbill and Green Turtle nests
hatched simultaneously in the middle of camp,
and on another occasion when the team’s butterfly expert Henk van Mastrigt leapt onto a table in
front of 20 startled students waving his net franti-
cally in an attempt to catch a rare moth attracted
to the lights in our open-air lecture hall.
During this training program team leaders identified the most enthusiastic and promising young
Papuan biologists to participate in a follow-up
RAP survey at the southern edge of Papua’s vast
and sparsely populated Mamberamo Basin. Based
at two camps in dense rainforest near the village of Dabra, the RAP team surveyed plants and
animals in this poorly-known wilderness area
from September 1-15. The survey was supported
by The Papua Environment Foundation (YALIPapua) and the Great Mamberamo Adat Council,
two local environmental and community-based
groups committed to protecting ecological systems and to sustainable development for the benefit of local communities.
At the time of the RAP survey, the extensive lowland rainforests of the Mamberamo Basin were
facing severe threats from a proposed ‘Mega-Project’ including a hydro-electric dam and extensive
agro-industry. Although these projects did not
proceed, the basin continues to face severe pressure from planned large-scale development projects.
Working in partnership with Indonesian and
foreign scientists, the Papuan participants documented several hundred plant species along line
transects, in plots and during general surveys.
They also found 143 bird species, 129 butterflies,
and 21 frogs, of which up to seven species were
new to science. The RAP team concluded that
the aquatic ecosystems of the Dabra area were
in excellent condition, reflected by a diverse assemblage of 56 aquatic insect species including
at least 17 water bugs that were new to science.
Despite the generally healthy state of the Mamberamo drainage system, many exotic fish species were documented during the RAP survey
and it remains a matter of serious concern that
the Mamberamo has the highest proportion of
exotic fish found in any drainage system in New
Guinea. Many of these species have had serious
deleterious effects on aquatic habitats and on native species in other parts of the world, but their
long-term impacts on endemic fish species in the
Mamberamo Basin have not yet been assessed.
Beach camp at Yongsu, Cyclops Mountains
Conservation International has continued to work
with local communities in the Mamberamo Basin
to promote conservation of their forest resources
and to develop local community-led management
plans for key forest resources in the region (especially in the verges of the Foja Mountains). One
reason for optimism is the environmental leadership exhibited by Papua Governor, Bas Suebu,
who has sought to create a “green economy” for
Papua Province. Conservation International is
currently working with the Governor to foster the
development of this green economic pathway for
Papua, as an alternative to the resource-extractive
economy that has dominated the province for the
last two decades.
Contributed by Stephen Richards
Juvenile monitor lizard (Varanus jobiensis)
The bird team at work
183
Capacity building
Suriname: Kwamalasamutu (August 15 – September 10, 2010)
A
team of 16 international and Surinamese scientists
and seven Surinamese students surveyed the diversity of plants, mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians, and several insect groups including water beetles,
dung beetles, katydids, dragonflies and ants. The team
was assisted by three representatives from the Suriname government’s Nature Conservation Division, seven
forest rangers from the Amazon Conservation Team,
and 18 people from the local Trio village of Kwamalasamutu. Preliminary results include high diversity of all
taxonomic groups, especially small mammals (41 species), birds (324 species, fishes (100 species), frogs (43
species), and dragonflies (72 species). New records for
Suriname were reported for birds, snakes, and many of
the insect groups. At least 40 species likely new to science were discovered (pending verification), including
five fishes, one frog, five katydids, and about 25 water
beetles. Results from camera traps revealed a high diversity of large mammals and birds, including 24 species of mammals. Jaguar, ocelot and puma were photographed at the third site, potentially indicating less
human disturbance. Water quality was good. The RAP
results will be used to help the local Trio people devel-
op ecotourism around their village and to promote the
establishment of a Jaguar Sanctuary to provide refuge
for wildlife.
Contributed by Leeanne Alonso
Giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus) photographed by a camera
trap
For me, the various RAP surveys in West Africa I have participated in have permitted me to visit
sites for which, up to then, no ornithological data were available. Also, working with international multidisciplinary teams has been a particularly enriching as well as a highly pleasant experience. Although we did not discover new bird species – not surprising considering the region
– we did collect numerous data on species distribution and biology, and mapped many, sometimes
substantial, range extensions. In Guinea, RAP reports are now routinely taken as the main reference by private consultancies producing environmental impact studies. Our discovery of Sierra
Leone Prinia (Schistolais leontica) – a Red List restricted-range species – on Pic de Fon, SE
Guinea, during the 2002 RAP there led Rio Tinto subsequently to commission 1) more detailed
studies of the species at that site, to enable an accurate population size estimate to be produced,
and 2) additional surveys at other unsurveyed sites in Guinea, in the (eventually justified) hope of
finding as yet undiscovered populations that could be protected as compensation for the habitat
loss on Pic de Fon. RAPs surely made a difference!
- Ron Demey, RAP Scientist, Belgium
184
Capacity building
Côte d’Ivoire
Haute Dodo and Cavally Classified Forests
March 11– April 4, 2002
Variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus)
All photos © Piotr Naskrecki
© Piotr Naskrecki
Tree frog (Chiromantis rufescens)
T
he dense lowland forests of Haute Dodo and
Cavally Classified Forests in southwestern Côte
d’Ivoire have very high plant endemism and contain some of the last remaining lowland forests
of the Upper Guinea forest ecosystem. Along with
many partners, CI’s West Africa program has been
working to create a conservation corridor in this
region that will maintain natural connections between Taï National Park in Côte d’Ivoire and Sapo
National Park in Liberia. Conservation corridors
are large-scale landscapes that link parks, reserves
and other protected areas by identifying places between them that can be protected or managed in
an ecologically sustainable manner. Southwestern
Côte d’Ivoire and Liberia have the largest tracts of
rainforest remaining in the Upper Guinea forest
ecosystem. It is therefore of high priority to protect
these forests and their species before they become
fragmented like the rest of the region. In addition,
a West Africa Priority Setting Workshop held in
1999 identified the need for further collection of
biological information and for scientific capacity
building in this region.
186
A RAP survey of these two classified forests was
undertaken to determine their importance for inclusion in the corridor and to make recommendations for their management. During the RAP survey, 20 scientists from five West African countries
(Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and
Ghana) and Botswana were trained in methods of
rapid biodiversity assessment by international and
regional experts. The goal was to train a group of
interested and skilled regional biologists in standard methods of rapid biodiversity assessment for
key terrestrial taxa. These scientists, from governmental and scientific institutions in these six countries, are now better prepared to carry out further
biological assessments in their own regions. Five
of the trained regional scientists continue to work
with the RAP survey teams and participated in other RAP surveys in Guinea and Ghana. In addition,
three of the trainees went on to do graduate work
in collaboration with RAP expert scientists.
Despite the appearance of a greatly disturbed habitat, the Haute Dodo and Cavally Classified Forests
were found to contain a high number of species
of great importance to West African biodiversity
conservation. These areas contain high endemism:
23% of the plants recorded from Haute Dodo and
13% from Cavally are endemic to West Africa. Many
of these are regionally endemic species called “sassandriennes,” found only between the Sassandra
and Cavally rivers in Côte d’Ivoire. This highlights
the uniqueness of the vegetation of the two areas
surveyed in comparison to other areas in West Africa that do not have such high endemism. Similarly, 47% of the amphibians recorded are endemic to
Upper Guinea forests. The RAP team documented
In August 2006, local RAP team member, Yéo Kolo,
returned to Haute Dodo to search for more ants of
Mystrium silvestrii, a species which is represented
by few specimens in museums. Unfortunately, he
found that plantation areas had greatly increased
within the forest. The site where he had collected
Mystrium is now a cocoa plantation. The conservation status of the site has deteriorated due to the
conflict between the rebels and the governmental
army from September 19, 2002 to 2004 and the
anarchic post conflict period. The current status of
these two sites needs to be evaluated and areas of
biological importance should be urgently set aside
for strict protection in order to conserve the rare
and endangered species that hopefully still survive
in these two classified forests, which are key sites
for biodiversity conservation in West Africa.
© Conservation International/photo by Peter Hoke
© Piotr Naskrecki
Based on their high levels of diversity and endemism and the presence of many threatened and
restricted range species, both the Haute Dodo and
Cavally Classified Forests merit increased protection and inclusion in a regional biodiversity corridor. At the time of the RAP survey, both forests had
been somewhat impacted by logging and agricultural encroachment, but many areas were still well
preserved.
RAP ornithologists at work
Common agama (Agama agama)
© Conservation International/photo by Peter Hoke
the presence of 10 primate species, many of which
are threatened with extinction. Twelve bird species
documented are of conservation concern and several are restricted-range species. The high diversity of amphibians documented during the survey in
both forests clearly demonstrates that these areas
still have high conservation potential. However, the
established presence of breeding populations of
several invasive amphibian species not normally
found in forested areas indicated that the amphibian communities are already impacted. Ant and termite diversity was high but also indicated impacts
from timber exploitation. Only one typical forest
edge bird species was recorded at each site which
indicates that the forests are still of good quality
for forest birds.
Contributed by Leeanne Alonso and Yéo Kolo
A RAP scientist taking plaster casts of mammal tracks
187
Capacity building
Liberia: North Lorma, Gola & Grebo National Forests (November 13 – December 11, 2005)
s part of the Liberia Forest Initiative, an initiative
aimed at rehabilitating and reforming the forest
sector in Liberia, a RAP survey was conducted in three
national forests in 2005. The RAP survey worked to
build scientific capacity within Liberia’s Forestry Development Authority, the University of Liberia and local
NGOs. North Lorma, Gola and Grebo National Forests
all contain a wealth of biodiversity and a significant
number of species of conservation concern. Over 40%
of the remaining Upper Guinea forest lies within Liberia and it includes several large tracts of contiguous forest making these the last refuges for many species. A
high diversity of species was documented in these forests, including 548 plants, at least 40 amphibians, 93
dragonflies and damselflies, 17 reptiles, 211 birds, nine
small terrestrial mammals, and 29 large mammals. At
least 12 species new to science, 36 new occurrence records for Liberia, and many species restricted to Upper
Guinea forests were recorded. These three forests are
particularly important for protecting many threatened
and endangered species, including the Diana Monkey,
Pygmy Hippopotamus, West African Chimpanzee, West
© Conservation International/photo by Peter Hoke
A
Veldkamp’s Fruit Bat (Nanonycteris veldkampi)
African Red Colobus, two species of African puddle
frogs, the Ivory Coast Frog, and the Gola Malimbe (bird)
that were listed as Endangered by IUCN at the time of
the RAP survey. The RAP team recommended that all
three forests be granted increased protection as national parks so that they can form the core of a biological
corridor from Cote d’Ivoire through Liberia to Guinea.
Contributed by Leeanne Alonso
After being involved as a small mammal expert in the wonderful CI “From the Forest to the
Sea” Conference in Ghana in 1999, I participated in three RAPs in West Africa: Cote d’Ivoire
(Haute Dodo and Cavally Forest) in 2002; Pic de Fon (Simandou), Guinea, in 2002; and Southwestern Ghana (Draw River, Boi Tano and Krokosua Forest Reserves) in 2003. Due to a timing
conflict, Ryan Norris - then a graduate student in our department - replaced me on the second
Guinea RAP (Three Classified Forests) in late 2003. The RAP experience, standards, and reports, and the network of experts that it has generated so far led to two more in-depth small
mammal surveys I organized: for the Bumbuna Hydroelectric Project in Sierra Leone in 2006
(with Ryan Norris) and a more in-depth baseline study for the Simandou Project in Guinea in
2008. I am currently in the process of negotiating further survey projects in Liberia and Sierra
Leone, all prompted by the increased mining exploration activities in the region.
- Jan Decher, University of Vermont
188
Capacity building
Botswana
Okavango Delta I – The High Water Survey
June 5 – 22, 2000
All photos © Piotr Naskrecki
© Piotr Naskrecki
S
ituated in the semi-arid Kalahari of northwestern
Botswana, where about 500 mm of rain falls seasonally, the inland Okavango Delta is one of southern Africa’s largest wetlands. Given large differences
in water supply and demand, the Okavango wetland
fluctuates in area from 600,000-800,000 hectares
during the non-flood season to over 1,500,000 ha
during the flood season. The Okavango River arises
from a series of headwater streams on the southern
slopes of the Angolan highlands, forms the boundary between Angola and Namibia for hundreds of
kilometers, and then crosses the Caprivi Strip in
Namibia before entering Botswana as a single broad
river. As such the drainage basin of the Okavango
River is shared by three countries.
While most of the large terrestrial mammals of the
Okavango Delta are well-known and well-studied,
the aquatic members of the community have received much less attention. The aquatic ecosystems
of the Okavango are very complex and can change
yearly depending upon annual flood levels. Scientific data on the aquatic organisms and system
are needed to make informed management plans
for the Delta, which faces many threats including:
pollution, introduced species, low flood levels, fishing, a growing tourism industry, increasing local
human populations, and widespread insecticide
spraying, proposed water extraction, and hydroelectric power generation in Namibia.
190
An AquaRAP survey was conducted during high
water levels in 2000 by an impressive team of 20
expert aquatic scientists and students from Botswana, South Africa, United States, Namibia and
Norway. Four focal areas of the Okavango Delta in
Botswana were surveyed: the Upper Panhandle,
the Lower Panhandle, Northwestern Moremi Game
Reserve, and southeast of Chief’s Island along the
Boro River.
Water quality variables were measured, and all
results reflected benign and healthy conditions,
with the exception of the dissolved oxygen levels,
which were low, especially in the upper permanent
swamps and the Lower Panhandle. A high proportion (about 1/4) of the approximately 1,250 plant
species known from the Delta were recorded. The
vegetation varied greatly between the four focal
areas: species richness (number of species encountered) increased from the Upper Panhandle to the
lower reaches of the Delta, with landscape level
heterogeneity showing a similar trend. The invertebrates displayed both moderate diversity and abundance (likely due to difficulty sampling in high water
levels), and maintained surprisingly uniform populations throughout the open system. The AquaRAP
fish team found measurable differences in the fish
community diversity between the four focal areas,
indicating that the entire delta must remain intact to
preserve the overall biodiversity. A breeding colony
harboring 14 species of birds was also documented
and could represent the most important breeding
site in southern Africa for two rare species, the Yellow-billed Stork (Mycteria ibis) and the Slaty Egret
(Egretta vinaceigula, Vulnerable).
Contributed by Leeanne Alonso
© Piotr Naskrecki
© Piotr Naskrecki
The AquaRAP report is a thorough compilation of
the aquatic biology data available for the Okavango
Delta through 2002, with in-depth discussions of
the ecological processes that keep the Okavango
Delta functioning. This report will serve as a key
reference for those studying and managing the
Delta such as our colleagues from the Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Center (HOORC),
who conducted a follow-up aquatic survey in the
low water season. Soon after the AquaRAP survey,
the results catalyzed a process for resolving conflicts between local fishermen and sport fishermen
in the Delta, and AquaRAP scientists were invited
to monitor the effects of pesticide spraying for
tsetse flies on aquatic diversity that took place in
2001. The data from the AquaRAP survey are currently being used to develop a nomination for the
Okavango Delta as a World Heritage Site.
Reed frog (Hyperolius marmoratus)
Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)
© Conservation International/photo by Leeanne E. Alonso
The AquaRAP team provided specific recommendations to local decision makers to facilitate conservation of the wide variety of habitats and species within the Delta, as well as the enormous array
of ecological functions that these species provide
to local and regional human communities. Their
recommendations included 1) protect the Panhandle and Upper Delta as key areas for biodiversity
and function, 2) limit water extraction from the
Delta as well as from the Okavango River in Botswana and the neighboring countries that share
the watershed and ensure that flow patterns are
not modified, 3) maintain processes that promote
the dynamic channel changes of the Delta, especially by promoting the integrity of papyrus swamp
that fringes the upper channels and by promoting
hippo populations that maintain channels and water flow, 4) protect riparian forest vegetation that
promotes localized disposal of salts that would
otherwise poison surface waters in the Okavango
Delta, and 5) develop and enforce regulations for
commercial fisheries and consider dividing fishing
areas between commercial and tourist operations
either locally or regionally.
Local fishermen sorting their catch
191
Stories from the field...
The Glamorous Life of a RAP Scientist: Traveling in style
Zooming in luxurious,
dependable cars along wellmaintained highways
Smooth sailing in roomy boats
with attentive, always actively
engaged crew
Personalized carrier services
192
All photos © Piotr Naskrecki
Luxury jets (there is often enough
room for one or two persons to
squat comfortably among barrels
of pickled fish and bags of rice)
Spatial planning
Ecuador
Cordillera de la Costa
January 17 – February 4 & July 6 – 21, 1991
© Conservation International/photo by Haroldo Castro
Lantern bug, or Machaca (Fulgora laternaria)
© Joe E. Meisel/Ceiba Foundation
© Joe E. Meisel/Ceiba Foundation
© Piotr Naskrecki
© Piotr Naskrecki
Green iguana (Iguana iguana)
T
he Cordillera de la Costa in western Ecuador has
traditionally harbored high biological richness
and many endemic plants and animals with restricted ranges which make them highly susceptible to
extinction. As a result of a 255% increase in human
population in the region within just two decades,
more than 90% of the area was deforested and replaced with agriculture by 1990. With only small, but
extremely valuable forest remnants remaining, the
Cordillera de la Costa was in dire need of biological
assessment at the time of the RAP survey in 1991.
The goals of the survey were to determine the conservation status of endemic species with an emphasis on species of economic importance, to identify
the relative conservation importance of remaining
fragments of forest, and to increase awareness of the
losses, both biological and economic, that Ecuador
would suffer if remaining forest were not protected.
194
A 13-person RAP team spent six weeks assessing the
state of dry (deciduous) and wet (evergreen) forests
and their associated plant, bird, mammal, reptile and
amphibian species in low mountains and coastal
foothills of the Cordillera de la Costa between the
Ecuadorean cities of Esmeraldas in the north and
Arenillas in the south. At most sites visited, 20% of
the plant species documented were endemic. The
discovery of several new plant species, and even new
genera of plants illustrated how little was known
about the biodiversity of the Cordillera de la Costa
prior to the RAP survey.
Like plants, the bird fauna also exhibited high endemicity, with 10% of species endemic in wet forest and 40% in dry forest sites. One of the most
interesting ornithological discoveries was the
presence of 17 bird species that had previously
only been known to occur in the Andes Mountains.
Many range extensions were documented for species across all taxa – an indication that many of the
sampled forest remnants were once connected.
Despite heavy disturbance and fragmentation, RAP
researchers found evidence of survival of most
large mammal species known from the area. For
example, populations of Mantled Howler Monkeys
(Alouatta palliata) and White-fronted Capuchins
(Cebus albifrons) still persisted, albeit in low numbers. Perhaps the most exciting finding of the RAP
survey was the sighting of the harlequin frog Atelopus balios which had not been recorded by scientists in nearly 70 years!
The results of the RAP survey indicated that all nine
sites assessed still had high value for conservation
and in fact were critical reservoirs for protecting
the unique biodiversity of western lowland forests
in Ecuador. As such, the RAP team recommended
that priority be given to the protection and maintenance of these sites, some of the last known
habitats for a number of endangered and endemic
species, and that additional land connecting these
fragments be allowed to regenerate to create corridors for wildlife.
© Conservation International/photo by Haroldo Castro
© Conservation International/photo by Haroldo Castro
The results of the RAP survey were used as the basis
for several conservation initiatives that have been
developed in the last two decades, including the
promotion of the Chocó-Manabí Conservation Corridor, a regional planning framework designed to
address urgent conservation issues while also improving the livelihood and quality of life of the communities in the region. Since 1991, some RAP sites
have been declared protected forests and/or private
reserves. In 1996, one of the surveyed sites (MacheChindul) was declared an Ecological Reserve by the
national environmental authority, thereby protecting 70,000 hectares. The protection of the western
forests was also included as a top priority in the
Ecuadorean National Biodiversity Strategy (2001)
and in the National Gap Assessment (2007). The Ecuadorean Ministry of the Environment, CI-Ecuador
and many local non-governmental organizations –
such as Fundación Natura, Fundación Jatun Sacha,
Fundación ProBosque, and Fundación Ceiba – have
since also promoted the protection and effective
management of several of the RAP survey sites. Additionally, since September 2008, more than 5,000
ha of dry and wet forests of the Cordillera de la Costa
have been included in the Socio Bosque Program, an
innovative national forest conservation initiative
that provides economic incentives to forest owners in exchange for their commitment to protect key
biodiversity areas.
Spectacled owl (Pulsatrix perspicillata)
White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
© Piotr Naskrecki
© Joe E. Meisel/Ceiba Foundation
Tagua palm (Phytelephas aequatorialis)
Contributed by Jessica Deichmann and Luis Suárez
Cane toad (Bufo marinus) in its native habitat
195
Spatial planning
Bolivia: Humid Forests of Chuquisaca (May 5 – 31, 1995)
T
he eastern slopes of the Andes from Venezuela in
the north to Bolivia and Argentina in the south are
covered principally by humid forest. The Andes make a
spectacular bend to the east then south in Bolivia with
the most dramatic shift in vegetation occurring in the
Departments of Chuquisaca and Tarija. A RAP survey
explored three principal areas in this region: the forest
west of the town of El Palmar, the slopes of the Cerro
Bufete and the Cerro Tigrecillos, and the valley of the
Santa Marta River - an area encompassing the largest
tracts of untouched Tucuman-Bolivian forest. Together, these areas form an ecosystem that is a recognized
center of endemism. The RAP survey showed that the
flora in the region comprises an excellent assemblage
of species characteristic of the Tucuman–Bolivian forest, many of them endemic. Over 110 species of birds
were recorded using binoculars, tape-recorders and
directional microphones, including all endemic species
known from the Tucuman-Bolivian Forest. There were
many new registries for Chuquisaca and also a northern range extension for the endemic and Vulnerable
Rufous-throated Dipper (Cinclus schultzi). Thirty-two
of the 66 mammal species known from the TucumanBolivian Forest were recorded during the survey. Large
mammals were present, highlighted by evidence of the
Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus, Vulnerable) in
the area. Human pressure in the valleys and accessible
areas have heavily fragmented the Tucuman-Bolivian
forest ecosystem from central Santa Cruz to northern
Argentina, giving special importance to conservation of
this area, which has so far not been incorporated under
any category of protection.
Contributed by Eduardo Forno
Voltaire said that “No revolutions are ever made by anybody with common sense.” Our recent trip
with CI’s Mark Erdmann to explore the Arguni region of Papua, Indonesia is quintessential of
this phrase in that it embodies CI’s field revolutionary spirit to strive for goals which often defy
all odds.
Mark led our small team that included ichthyologist Gerry Allen, explorer Max Ammer, several
LIPI scientists, Fabian Oberfeld and myself to seek out isolated remote lakes unconnected from
other water bodies which would likely house endemic species new to science, awaiting discovery.
In spite of our efforts and a local tribal ceremony procession to protect us from crocodiles, the
lakes proved to be inaccessible during our short time period. They are not only far inland, but surrounded by Karsts and ominous topography which defeated us, humbling the team by dehydration and exhaustion. However, sampling in streams along the way uncovered over 20 species new
to science, which rendered the RAP survey more than worthwhile.
We had a true taste of the kind of resolve needed to carry out research in the area as it involved
delicate cultural sensitivity towards the local tribes and the politics; diplomatic ability and relationship with the various Indonesian authorities; daring recognizance flying, land, water and air
navigation with non existent and precarious and aged maps; obstacle river negotiation, major
physical and mental endurance, and willingness for capsizing boats, after dark water landings,
improvised medicine, tolerance for pain, humor and optimism; ironically, a passion for life at times
so committed, that it demands the very risking of it: Voltaire would have been very proud of CI’s
field missions! Whether he would actually join a CI RAP to the far corners of the world, doubtful.
- Dr. Richard Sneider, One World / Weavers Apparel LLC, RAP Supporter
196
Spatial planning
Madagascar
Mantadia-Zahamena Corridor
November 7, 1998 – January 26, 1999
© Piotr Naskrecki
Giraffe weevil (Trachelopharus giraffe)
© Conservation International/photo by Russ Mittermeier
© Conservation International/photo by H. Randrianasolo
© Piotr Naskrecki
© Piotr Naskrecki
Leaf-tailed gecko (Uroplatus sikorae)
T
he Mantadia-Zahamena Corridor is located in
the center of Madagascar’s eastern rainforests
and links the Réserve Naturelle Intégrale of Zahamena in the north and the Parc National de Mantadia in the south. These two protected areas are
managed by Madagascar National Parks and were
established to protect part of the flora and fauna
in the eastern biome which are representative of
dense humid evergreen forests. The corridor connecting these two protected areas, covering an area
of 539,225 hectares, lies on an altitudinal band
from 200 to 1,500 meters and is composed mostly
of mid-elevation humid forest. A few remnants of
lowland forest (<550 m) can be found on the eastern side of the corridor amidst a landscape of increasing agricultural lands. The corridor is characterized by a rugged topography with deep valleys.
Many small streams originate from this corridor to
feed four major rivers, the Onibe, Ivondro, Rianila,
and Sahatandra, which supply people downstream
with crop irrigation, hydroelectric power and water
for household use.
198
The Mantadia-Zahamena Corridor is isolated and
local people living within follow traditional practices. Threats to natural forests and biodiversity
come from local economic needs and socio-cultural
behavior. Forests in lower elevations are heavily
fragmented due to slash and burn agriculture. The
topography of the eastern region (steep and narrow valleys) limits the possibility of irrigated rice
cultivation. This fragile situation is exacerbated
by the rapid population increase. Pressures come
also from hunting and intensive collection of forest
products. In addition, natural disasters such as cyclones play a major role in the degradation of the
environment. The erosion of the watershed causes
silting and often reduces fertility of rice fields. Soils
may become poorer and the water cycle can be disrupted. The deterioration of the natural ecosystem
could aggravate the decline in production for the
surrounding population.
The Mantadia-Zahamena Corridor contains some of
the last remaining low and mid elevation rainforest
in Madagascar. At the time of this RAP survey, many
priority sites for biodiversity were outside of the
existing network of protected areas. Therefore, the
main objectives of the RAP survey in the corridor
were to prioritize areas for conservation activities
and to check the feasibility of including sites within
the corridor into a protected area representing the
eastern rainforest ecosystem.
A RAP survey was conducted in 1999 at five sites:
Iofa (835 m), Didy (960 m.), Mantadia (895 m), Andriantantely (530 m) and Sandranantitra (450 m),
selected because of their remoteness, some taking
2-3 day hikes to reach.
Floristic composition varied with the altitude and
the degree of degradation of surveyed sites. RAP
researchers identified 460 species of plants belonging to 72 families, four of which are endemic.
Thirty species of small mammals including 18 insectivores, six rodents and six bats were observed.
Contributed by Harison Randrianasolo, Michèle
Andrianarisata, Hanta Ravololonanahary, James
MacKinnon, Nirhy Rabibisoa, and Léon Rajaobelina
Malagasy villagers
© Piotr Naskrecki
© Conservation International/photo by Russ Mittermeier
Following the RAP survey, Conservation International and its partners have worked to conserve the
corridor’s forests and in 2005, 381,000 ha in the
Mantadia-Zahamena Corridor acquired temporary
protection status and became part of the new protected area system in Madagascar. This protected
area now links the parks to the north and south,
allowing species to pass freely between them. This
corridor contains an Alliance for Zero Extinction
site, shelters several critically endangered and locally endemic species, including one of the top most
endangered primates, the Greater Bamboo Lemur,
and four species of unique Ground-roller birds. The
corridor plays an important role in regulating ecosystem functions, such as water filtration, and nutrient cycling. Maintaining forest cover also contributes to climate change mitigation by serving as a
carbon sink. In these ways, the protected MantadiaZahamena Corridor contributes to the well-being of
both biodiversity and human beings.
Conehead katydid (Odontolakis sp.)
Golden frog (Mantella aurantiaca)
© Conservation International/photo by Harison Randrianasolo
Lemurs were abundant and diverse at sites with
low human presence and the 12 recorded species
included the Near Threatened Aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), the Critically Endangered
Black and White Ruffed Lemur (Varecia variegata)
and the Endangered Indri (Indri indri), the largest
living lemur. Many species of rare and endangered
birds were recorded, with 89 species identified in
total, 79% being Madagascar endemics. The species diversity of herpetofauna was exceptional with
51 species of reptiles, including six species of the
famous Leaf-tailed Gekkos (genus Uroplatus) and
78 species of amphibians, the majority of which
belonged to the colorful family Mantellidae. Insect
species richness was high, with 71 butterfly and 66
tiger beetle species, as well as 29 genera of leaf litter ants. Unfortunately, introduced rodents and ant
species were also found at several sites. A number
of species considered new to science were discovered such as Plethodontohyla mihanika (frog), Amphiglossus sp. (lizard) and 16 species of Strumigenys
(ant).
199
Spatial planning
Papua New Guinea: Southern New Ireland (January – February 1994)
ying northeast of mainland Papua New Guinea,
New Ireland is the third largest island in the tropical Pacific. Supporting two of the highest mountain
ranges in the western Pacific, it constituted a large biodiversity “blank” on the map until CI conducted a RAP
survey in southern New Ireland during January-February 1994. In partnership with Papua New Guinea’s
Department of Environment and Conservation and the
Bernice P. Bishop Museum in Hawaii, the 1994 survey
aimed to provide data that would support development
of an Integrated Conservation and Development (ICAD)
Project in the Weitin Valley. The survey covered a range
of elevations and documented several new species of
plants, butterflies, and a new frog. The major conclusions of the expedition were that a) the native avifauna
and non-flying mammal fauna were strikingly impoverished, but that levels of endemism in several animal
groups was high, and b) exotic invasive species (especially cats, pigs, and dogs) were abundant in disturbed
areas, and having a negative impact on the forest and its
biota. Although the RAP scientists recommended that
© Bruce Beehler
L
Bismarck Boobook Owl (Ninox variegata)
all of the forested uplands and representative samples
of the lowland rainforest of southern New Ireland be
conserved in a protected area, conservation activities
in the project area were halted soon after the survey
as a result of intense pressure from an existing logging
company.
Contributed by Bruce Beehler
“Three levels [of biodiversity documentation] can be envisioned. The first is the RAP approach, from the prototypic Rapid Assessment Program created by Conservation International,
a Washington-based group devoted to the preservation of biological diversity. The purpose is to
investigate quickly, within several years, poorly known areas that might be local hotspots, in order to make emergency recommendations for further study and action. The area targeted is limited in extent, such as a single valley or isolated mountain. Because so little is known of classification of most organisms and so few specialists are available to conduct further studies, it is nearly
impossible to catalog the entire fauna and flora of even a small endangered habitat. Instead a
RAP team is formed of experts on what can be called the elite focal groups --- organisms, such as
flowering plants, reptiles, mammals, birds, fishes, and butterflies, that are well enough known to
be inventoried immediately and can thereby serve as proxies for the whole biota around them.”
- Edward O. Wilson (1992) The Diversity of Life
200
Spatial planning
Guinea
Forêt Classée du Pic de Fon, Simandou Range
November 27 – December 7, 2002
Giant African mantis (Polyspilota aeruginosa)
All photos © Piotr Naskrecki
dition to its unique assemblages of ecosystems, the
Simandou Range harbors potential mineral wealth,
including extensive iron ore deposits. At the time of
the survey, Rio Tinto was conducting exploration activities on four contiguous exploration plots within
the Simandou Range. The RAP survey was initiated
by Rio Tinto as a contribution to their initial environmental and social assessment studies.
Tree frog (Leptopelis hyloides)
T
he Simandou Mountain Range is located in
southeastern Guinea, and extends for 100 km
from Komodou in the north to Kouankan in the
south. At the southern end of the Simandou Range
lies the Pic de Fon forest reserve, approximately
25,600 hectares of which was given limited protection. The Simandou Range acts as a natural barrier
against savanna fires and regulates the flow of water that originates from within the range (including
the rivers Diani, Loffa, and Milo). The location of this
reserve in the transitional zone between forest and
savanna offers habitat types ranging from a rainforest to a humid Guinea savanna to montane gallery
and ravine forests. The Pic de Fon forest reserve
covers an altitudinal range from about 600 to more
than 1,600 m (including the Pic de Fon, the highest
point on the range at 1,656 m and second highest
point in Guinea), and harbors at its highest elevation
montane grasslands, rare and threatened habitats
in West Africa. Surrounding the Pic de Fon forest reserve are 24 villages whose residents currently rely
on the forest as a source of food, water, wood fuel,
and medicine.
202
Two sites were surveyed during the RAP expedition:
one close to the summit of the Pic de Fon, and the
other at lower elevation near the village of Banko.
Prior to the RAP survey there was little published
information on the composition of the ecosystems
of the Simandou Range, and Pic de Fon in particular. Based on its unique habitat mosaic, Pic de Fon
was expected to contain high biotic diversity. In ad-
The survey was conducted in a variety of terrestrial
habitats, including montane grasslands, montane
forests (both gallery and ravine forests), a semi-evergreen lowland forest (both primary and secondary),
savannas, mountain streams, shrubby edge habitats,
perennial plantations (coffee, cocoa, banana), and
farmbush. Organisms sampled during the survey
included vascular plants (both woody and herbaceous), insects (katydids and cockroaches), amphibians, reptiles, birds, and small (including bats)
and large mammals (with special attention given to
primates). The RAP team documented the presence
of at least 797 species. Several of these were new to
science including six new species of katydids and
three new species of frogs. The team also recorded
range extensions for a number of species, and added
as new records for Guinea: 11 invertebrates, three
amphibians, seven birds, three bats and one shrew.
The Pic de Fon forest reserve harbors a number of
species of international conservation concern, including the tree, Neolemonniera clitandrifolia (Endangered) as well as 15 other tree species listed by
the IUCN Red List as Vulnerable and Near Threatened; one amphibian and four reptile species that
are protected by the international CITES law; two
primate species listed by IUCN as Endangered: West
African Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) and Diana Monkey (Cercopithecus diana), and two listed as
Near Threatened; eight birds of global conservation
concern including three Vulnerable species; and
seven bat species listed as either Vulnerable or Near
Threatened. Local hunters and guides also confirmed the presence of the Endangered, rarely seen
Nimba Otter Shrew (Micropotamogale lamottei).
The results of this RAP survey showed that the Pic
de Fon forest reserve contained unique species in
one of the last remaining, intact montane habitats
within Guinea and the Upper Guinea Highlands.
Threats to the biodiversity of the area include bushmeat hunting, conversion of forest to agricultural
land, and bushfires. Others include logging, artisanal
mining, road development, and unsustainable collection of non-timber forest products. Based on the
results of the survey, the RAP team strongly recommended that the Pic de Fon forest reserve receive
increased protection status, and that current regulations with regards to its classified status be monitored, enforced and strengthened. The limits of the
protected area should be defined and enforced in
collaboration with local communities and should be
accompanied by education and outreach programs,
as well as additional scientific and socioeconomic
studies. If the Pic de Fon forest reserve is incorporated into an effectively managed protected area
system that includes both forests and grasslands,
and representatives of the many microhabitat variations, with special attention paid to critical habitats
and endemic and threatened species, a high proportion of plant and animal species of this region would
be protected.
Bat (Myotis welwitschii) recorded for the first time in
West Africa during this RAP survey
The RAP team found few invasive species during
this survey, and steps should be taken to prevent
the introduction of such species. The survey results
pointed to the fact that any potential exploitation of
mineral resources in the Pic de Fon area, if undertaken, would require further investigation into potential hydrological impacts and possible impacts
on species relying on high altitude habitats. In addition, 24 surrounding villages rely on this forest for
a number of ecosystem services, and every effort
should be made to ensure that the forest continues
to provide these services.
Currently, the most serious threat to the survival of
the Pic de Fon Classified Forest comes from the large
scale iron ore mining operations. The RAP data have
been incorporated into Rio Tinto’s ESIA and planning for biodiversity offsets. Rio Tinto is using the
RAP and other environmental data to ensure their
compliance with the International Finance Corporation’s Performance Standards 6 which requires
companies to make efforts to protect and conserve
biodiversity, including critical habitat. However, recent political instability in Guinea, and its overall
poor record of enforcing conservation measures,
contributes to the uncertainty of the survival of this
rare and valuable West African ecosystem.
Ornithologist Hugo Rainey identifying birds (which were
later released)
Contributed by Piotr Naskrecki
Savanna grasshopper (Heteracris sp.)
203
Spatial planning
Democratic Republic of Congo: Lokutu (October 26 – November 8, 2004)
n 2004, a RAP team headed to the territory of Basoko,
DRC, near an active oil palm plantation known as the
Unilever concession to evaluate potential sites for longterm investment of conservation efforts as part of CI’s
Congo Basin High Biodiversity Wilderness Area program. Disappointingly, RAP scientists concluded that
the site was highly degraded and of low conservation
value. Many of the vertebrate taxa that RAP researchers expected to find at Lokutu were absent from survey
samples. Mammal communities appeared to be highly
depleted with only six primate and eight large mammal
species recorded; other large mammals of conservation
concern expected to occur there, such as elephants,
were not observed. Twenty-one species of amphibians
and 16 reptiles were found, most of which were highly-adaptable, generalist species. Bird species richness
(184 resident species and 20 migrants) was lower than
expected and contained no threatened or endangered
species. However, a high number of dragonfly species
were found, indicating a relatively healthy watershed
in the Lokutu region. The RAP team recommended
© Harald Schuetz
I
De Brazza’s Monkey (Cercopithecus neglectus)
against investing further in conservation practices in
the Unilever concession at Lokutu and suggested that
resources would instead be better spent by focusing
preservation efforts on other areas of intact equatorial
African forest.
Contributed by Jessica Deichmann
Madagascar: Coral Reefs of the Northeast I (March 10 – 24, 2006)
T
wenty-three previously unstudied sites on the
northeast coast of Madagascar between Pointe du
Phoque and Loky Bay were surveyed. These sites were
chosen for several criteria, including their isolation.
For reef fish, 420 species belonging to 175 genera and
57 families were recorded. For commercially important
reef fish, 70 species belonging to 40 genera and 18 families were identified. Serranidae, Scaridae, Mullidae and
Lutjanidae families are the most important. For Scleractinia corals, 156 species belonging to 47 genera and
13 families were identified including 26 unidentified
species. An average of 44 species was recorded per site.
The beach seine seems to be the fishing method most
used by local fishermen. The seine, a manual trawl net,
can be as long as 500 meters and is deployed along
the coast and pulled to the beach, scraping the seabed.
The small mesh netting and the presence of tile in the
bottom screen (the catchment chamber) ensure that
204
everything, including juveniles and larvae, is caught in
the net. This can present a major threat to some marine species. The sea cucumber is the most valuable
resource because of its high price. A medium-sized sea
cucumber costs between US $5 to $7, depending on the
species. However, stocks of sea cucumbers seem very
low in the area now. Shrimp and crabs are also harvested but the fishing is localized. Mangroves are somewhat
threatened because of harvesting for charcoal. Catch
per unit effort is greatly reduced and access is difficult
due to navigational problems generated by the local
wind “Varataraza”. Among the 23 areas explored, some
sites have good potential for conservation through the
establishment of a Marine Protected Area (MPA).
Contributed by
Randrianasolo
Jean
Maharavo
and
Harison
Spatial planning
Guinea
Déré, Diécké, and Mont Béro
November 17 – December 6, 2003
Goliath beetle (Goliathus regius)
All photos © Piotr Naskrecki
Sierra Leone reed frog (Hyperolius chlorosteus)
G
uineé Forestière, the forested southeastern
part of Guinea, forms part of the Upper Guinean Biodiversity Hotspot, and it is one of the most
threatened biodiversity areas in Africa, with only
an estimated 7,655 km2, or 4.1% of its original
extent still surviving. The forests of Guineé Forestière are home to a large number of endemic
and globally threatened species, and yet this relatively very small area is increasingly under pressure from large- and small-scale logging, shifting
agriculture, current and future mining projects,
and encroachment by refugees.
The flora and fauna of Guinea are poorly known
overall and large areas of the country have yet to
be surveyed. Within Guinea, only the Mont Nimba region is relatively well studied. To increase
the knowledge of the biodiversity of Guineé Forestière, CI’s Rapid Assessment Program conducted a biodiversity survey in three forest reserves
(“Forêt Classée”) in southeastern Guinea to build
upon previous work in the region (Pic de Fon RAP,
2002). This survey was conducted in a partnership with Rio Tinto.
206
The primary objectives of the survey were to compile a thorough overview of species diversity and
status within the largest remaining forest reserves
and evaluate their relative conservation importance, identify potential threats to the area’s bio-
diversity, and provide management and research
recommendations for its conservation. Additionally, the survey’s scientists provided “on-site” training for Guinean biologists and conservationists.
The RAP survey took place in three forest reserves in Guineé Forestière: Déré, Diécké, and
Mont Béro. Déré forest reserve covers approximately 8,920 ha and extends to the eastern border of Guinea with Côte d’Ivoire and lies close to
the base of Mont Nimba. Déré consists of lowlying floodplains, dry lowlands, and hillsides and
has its highest point at 750 m. Diécké forest reserve covers about 59,143 ha in the prefectures of
N’Zérékoré and Yomou close to the Côte d’Ivoire
border. It is composed of lowland humid, closed
canopy forest and dense evergreen rainforest,
and has an elevation range of 400 to 595 m. Mont
Béro includes natural and derived wooded and
grassland savanna, gallery forest along permanent watercourses, some semi-deciduous forest,
and wetlands. The elevation ranges from 6001,210 m and the reserve covers approximately
26,850 ha. The RAP team surveyed vascular
plants, insects (katydids), amphibians, reptiles,
birds, small mammals including bats, and large
mammals. A variety of terrestrial habitats and
taxa were surveyed, including low-mid elevation
humid forests, afro-montane savanna, farmbush,
wetlands, lowlands, and hillsides.
The results of the survey confirmed that all three
forest fragments are biologically rich, with at least
1,000 documented species (in the 10 taxonomic
groups sampled). Eighty-two species of conservation concern were documented at the three RAP
sites, including six species listed by IUCN as Endangered e.g., the West African Chimpanzee (Pan
troglodytes verus), Diana monkey (Cercopithecus
diana), and the bird Gola Malimbe (Malimbus
ballmanni). In addition, the survey discovered
10 species of katydids new to science as well as
one snake, 10 birds, and nine bats never before
recorded in Guinea. At the same time, the survey revealed a strong negative effect of the surrounding human populations on the biodiversity
of the reserves. Of the three surveyed sites, Déré
was the most affected by human activity, such as
logging and slash-and-burn-agriculture, while
Diécké appeared to be the least impacted, and
had the highest species richness. At all three sites
the RAP team found evidence of intensive hunting
pressure in the form of snares, hunting trails, and
shotgun cartridges.
The key conservation recommendations outlined
by the RAP team based on the results of the survey were: 1) the mechanism for conservation of
all three sites should be collaborative, and must
involve local communities to address the most
pressing threats, such as hunting, logging, and
clearing for agriculture; 2) Diécké, the richest and
least impacted site, should receive the highest priority for conservation; 3) conservation of all three
sites should be done concurrently with increased
conservation of other remaining forested sites in
southeastern Guinea (especially Pic de Fon and
Ziama); 4) the partnership between Rio Tinto and
CI should be expanded to include other national
and regional stakeholders; and 5) hunting should
be immediately banned for all threatened species,
and timber extraction should be reduced, particularly at Diécké.
Mont Béro
Serrated hinge-back tortoise (Kinixys erosa)
Contributed by Piotr Naskrecki
Guinean botanists processing plant
specimens collected during the RAP survey
207
Spatial planning
Fiji: Nakauvadra Range (November 17 – 28, 2009)
he Nakauvadra Range runs parallel to and 7 km inland from the northern coast of Viti Levu, the largest
island in the Republic of Fiji. A proposed forest reserve
(11,387 hectares) in the Nakauvadra Range was the site
of a combined Terrestrial and AquaRAP expedition in
November 2008. The RAP team set out to collect data
that would contribute to development of a conservation corridor in Viti Levu, protecting the Nakauvadra
watershed in cooperation with local communities, the
Fiji Water Foundation, and government entities. RAP
botanists identified four distinct vegetation types in
the range. Beetle and gastropod diversity was relatively
high and researchers discovered two endemic and very
rare stick insects. Among the terrestrial vertebrates recorded was the endangered Fiji Ground Frog thought
to have been extirpated from Viti Levu; globally threatened bird species like the Long-legged Warbler and the
Friendly Ground-dove; and three native bat species,
two of which are threatened. Many introduced species,
a common problem on inhabited islands, were also recorded. AquaRAP scientists noted that streams in Nakauvadra were healthy, as indicated by a high abundance
of mayfly and caddisfly larvae. There was no evidence
of invasive macroinvertebrates in sampled water catchments, although fish diversity was low and did include
two introduced species. The RAP team also constructed
© Art Whistler
T
Endemic Fijian stick insect (Nisyrus spinulosus)
a field map of culturally significant sites such as stopover spots, fortified settlements, and land boundaries.
Because of high endemicity and the fact that it still harbors stable populations of threatened and endangered
species, the Nakauvadra Range is an area of high conservation value. Forests surrounding headwaters of rivers
in the Nakauvadra Range should be protected in order to
ensure freshwater security for local people. In order to
achieve this, solutions should be offered to communities
to offset impacts from human activities that contribute
to the deterioration of the environment within the Nakauvadra Range.
Contributed by Jessica Deichmann
At that time, we were a group of young scientists - coming from every corner of the country - thirsty
for knowledge and hungry for field experience. Thrown into a sack, we were taken to the most
incredible settings with the most amazing dedicated and sapient tutors, and promised the glory of
learning how to do real scientific rigorous field work. Did it end up well? Did we learn much? I
believe it went way beyond what any one of us could imagine! We learned the tools of the trade, we
learnt to collect data and analyze it, to discuss the context and our findings. But most importantly
we learned to work together, to pursue academic goals in a community of healthy competition
and support. We are now professors, professionals, conservationists and scientists and we work in
the field, in universities, in projects, in NGOs. And I can assure you, we are replicating what we
learned: the fundamentals of how to carry out solid scientific research in the wild and support our
fellow scientists in their work.
- Armando Valdés, Smithsonian Institution – Biodiversity
Monitoring and Assessment Plan Country Director, Peru
208
Spatial planning
Brazil
Tumucumaque Mountains National Park
September 2004 – March 2006
Spiny-tailed (Uracentron azureum)
All photos © Conservation International/photo by Enrico Bernard
© Piotr Naskrecki
A group of puddling butterflies
A
series of RAP surveys were conducted in Tumucumaque Mountains National Park, located
in the northwest part of Amapá State in Brazil,
between September 2004 and March 2006. Tumucumaque Mountains National Park is fully incorporated in the Amapá Biodiversity Corridor,
which includes two other large protected areas in
Amapá State. It is also surrounded by several indigenous lands: Juminá, Galibi, Uaçá, Waijãpi, and the
Tumucumaque Indigenous Park. Together they act
as buffer zones, protecting each other. The Amapá
Corridor and nearby conservation units in the Calha Norte Paraense (22 million hectares) and the
Parc Amazonique in French Guiana (3.3 million ha),
among others, form a large block of protected areas
in the Guiana Shield.
cies in the park in order to produce the information
necessary to complete the conservation management plan.
As one of the main conservation units within the
Amapá Biodiversity Corridor, a lack of biodiversity
inventories within Tumucumaque has impeded
the development of a comprehensive management
plan for the corridor. The purpose of these RAP surveys was to document ecologically important spe-
The biodiversity data produced during the RAP
surveys were incorporated in the development of
Tumucumaque’s Management Plan (finally concluded in March 2010). The plan established a zoning system, considering the occurrence of species of
special concern. Tumucumaque’s excellent conser-
With over 3,800,000 ha, Tumucumaque is one
of the world’s largest tracts of continuous tropical forest within a national park. Elevation within
the park is minimal, between 100 and 400 meters
above sea level, although in the northern part of the
park there are numerous inselbergs (small isolated
mountains) that rise above the forest to approximately 700 m. The landscape of Tumucumaque
lacks roads and access is only available by air or river, making it a logistically difficult place to explore.
210
Over 1,600 species of plants and animals were recorded over the five expeditions. There were 355
species of birds; many bird species nearly hunted
to extinction outside the park, including Black Curassows, Great Tinamous and Grey-winged Trumpeters, were found in large numbers during the
surveys. Among the 156 species of amphibians
and reptiles found were seven that are potentially
new to science. The park held viable populations of
many mammals considered threatened both globally and in Brazil like the Black-bearded Saki and
the Giant River Otter, making this a potentially valuable study site for future work on the ecology and
systematics of several poorly known mammal species. The fish fauna of the park is extremely diverse
with over 200 species from varied trophic levels.
Of these, nine are likely new species, at least 23 are
new records for the state and one is a new record
for the country. Although plant identification has
not yet been completed, researchers are confident
that they collected over 800 species belonging to
653 genera across 147 different families in Tumucumaque Mountains National Park.
There were also infrastructure improvements after
the RAP surveys in Tumucumaque. The first park
office was donated by Conservation International
and opened in November 2006. It is comprised of
buildings, an administrative office, one guest house
and a boat house. According to the Executive Manager of the Brazilian Institute of Environment and
Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA), this office
contributes to the park’s management plan, making work easier for the park’s management team,
facilitating the integration of surveillance, scientific
research and environmental education activities,
and reducing the physical distance between IBAMA’s headquarters in Macapá and the Park. Serra
do Navio’s City Hall and the Government of Amapá
donated the area for the construction of the office.
Additionally, Tumucumaque’s pristine state, size,
remoteness, and excellent conservation status are
able to guarantee the perpetuation of several ecological and ecosystem services, such as fixation of
carbon and maintenance of the stability of water
resources. In fact, most of Amapá’s main rivers
have their headwaters inside or very close to Tumucumaque, making this a valuable site for freshwater conservation.
Contributed by Enrico Bernard
© Conservation International/photo by Enrico Bernard
Royal Flycatcher (Onychorhynchus coronatus)
© Conservation International/photo by Enrico Bernard
These RAP surveys served to increase scientific capacity in Amapá state. In order to perform the RAP
surveys we conducted in Amapá, a team of biologists was established at the Institute for Scientific
Research and Technology of Amapá (IEPA). Two
mammalogists, one ornithologist and one herpetologist joined one ichthyologist, one botanist and one
carcinologist that were already working at IEPA.
The new researchers were incorporated by the Institute and currently three of them are still working
in Amapá. They have already trained nearly a dozen
students (BSc. and MSc.), multiplying IEPA’s capacity to study and describe Amapá’s biodiversity.
Forest toad (Rhinella sp.)
© Conservation International/photo by Enrico Bernard
vation status can guarantee the maintenance and
persistence of large populations of top predators
and primary producers.
RAP team crossing rapids at the Anotaie River
211
Spatial planning
Paraguay: Río Paraguay Basin, Alto Paraguay (September 4 – 18, 1997)
I
n 1997, a RAP team of 26 scientists traveled to Paraguay to conduct the second AquaRAP survey of RAP’s
South American AquaRAP program. The team surveyed
a 350 km stretch of the Río Paraguay Basin as well as
the Río Apa and the tributary Riacho La Paz in eastern
Paraguay. This area had remained undisturbed because of its isolation, but human settlements were on
the rise and the watershed was facing an impending
threat from the Hidrovía Paraguay-Paraná Project, a
plan to expand the waterway to allow passage of larger
barges between the ports of inland Cáceres, Brazil and
Nueva Palmira, Uruguay on the Atlantic coast. This expansion would greatly alter the water flow and flooding cycles of the Río Paraguay watershed due to the
channeling and dredging of large portions of the river.
The AquaRAP survey found that the aquatic ecosystem
was in good health, with high levels of habitat hetero-
geneity and high diversity of fishes and aquatic invertebrates. The existence of all these depend on the seasonal flooding cycle of the Río Paraguay. The AquaRAP
team recommended the conservation of portions of all
available microhabitats in the Paraguay and Apa Rivers,
prevention of disruptions of seasonal flooding, continued study of environmental impacts of agriculture and
ranching, and determination of sustainable fish harvest levels. Although few of the recommendations have
been implemented, both the Paraguay and Apa Rivers
have remained relatively unchanged since the time of
the RAP survey (M. F. Mereles, pers. comm.). Progress
on the Hidrovía project has been quiet; there has been
virtually no progress on dredging because of much opposition to the project.
Contributed by Jessica Deichmann
My initial training was mostly on ornithology, but later on I had opportunities as a research
assistant working with several foreign researchers from different universities. The Rapid Assessment Program (RAP) has allowed me to have an exchange of experiences with other biologists
working on flora and other fauna. This made me further consider more the existing correlation and interdependence between the members of the forest community. Whether marine or
terrestrial, the RAP permits training or retraining Malagasy biologists. Participating in a RAP
survey let me live in the wild – to be in contact with nature, appreciate Vanga’s and Turdidae’s
(birds) song, hear different calls of Boophis (frog) and listen to the Sifaka. Visiting several sites
throughout the island helped to detect differences between ecosystems in Madagascar; also to
make comparison of ecosystems with other African countries such as between Tsimanampetsotsa
and Naivasha Lake (Kenya); the rainforest in the east of Madagascar and other sites like Kakum
National Park (Ghana), and Amani Nature Reserve (Tanzania); and to understand the distinctiveness of the Renosterveld (South Africa). My participation in different RAP surveys conducted
in Madagascar gave me an overview of the Malagasy biodiversity which helps partially in the
preparation or the updating of the IUCN’s global assessment for amphibians, mammals, fishes,
turtles and tortoises and other reptiles.
If we consider that a protected area is a refuge, or a tool for biodiversity conservation, then the
RAP can be considered as an ideal scientific tool to identify sites of biological significance in the
world. The first RAP was conducted in 1990; now it is good to see that other researchers and
CI’s Partners use the same approach to assess the wealth and the biological uniqueness of a site.
- Harison Randrianasolo, Conservation International-Madagascar
212
Spatial planning
Guinea
Boké Préfecture
April 22 – May 12, 2005
Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus)
All photos © Piotr Naskrecki
Purple Marsh Crab (Afrithelphusa monodosus), an Endangered species
T
he flora and fauna of Guinea are poorly known
and large areas of the country, with the notable
exception of Mont Nimba, have yet to be surveyed.
The coast of Guinea is estimated to hold, at times,
over half a million waterbirds, principally migrant
waders. Chimpanzees are found throughout Guinea,
except in the far east of the country from which they
are believed to have only recently disappeared. In
addition to the unique assemblages of species and
range of habitats, Guinea’s coastal area also harbors
potential mineral wealth.
214
RAP partnered with Alcoa World Alumina LLC (Alcoa) and Alcan Inc., to collect scientific data on the
diversity and status of species at a number of sites
within an area that is likely to encompass Alcoa/Alcan’s operations and infrastructure in Guinea, including the existing mining operations near Sangaredi,
the port facilities at Kamsar, and the connecting infrastructure corridor. This partnership was formed
in the spirit of providing gains for biodiversity conservation and the region’s communities that rely on
these resources. The information collected during the
RAP expedition was to be used to guide conservation
activities in the region and to provide input into the
biodiversity aspects of an Environmental and Social
Impact Assessment study for an Alcoa/Alcan alumina
refinery in Guinea. The RAP survey was carried out
at several sites in Boké Préfecture along the coast of
northwestern Guinea (Guinée Maritime): Sarabaya
(Rio Kapatchez), Kamsar, and Boulléré. Because the
overall area of study has been highly disturbed by human activity, the RAP survey focused on remaining
forest patches and wetland areas.
The first survey site at Sarabaya was located in an estuary at the mouth of Rio Kapatchez and in the surrounding area. This site has a wide variety of wetland
habitats, including extensive mudflats, well-developed mangrove forest along Kaliki River, a freshwater
marsh, a tidal creek and rice fields. Rio Kapatchez has
been identified as one of 12 Ramsar sites and one of
18 Important Bird Areas within Guinea. The second
survey site was located within the Kamsar sub-prefecture, and five individual subsites were surveyed
here. Parts of Kamsar and its surrounding area were
considered to be of high importance for conservation
based on the high priority given to coastal marine
ecosystems, mammals and freshwater biodiversity,
medium priority to birds, and potential priority areas for plants. The third survey site, Boulléré, was located in the Sangaredi sub-préfecture, and consisted
of a mosaic of vegetation ranging from gallery forest
to open grassland to rocky outcrops of bauxite. The
vegetation was highly disturbed by agriculture. The
gallery forest here was inconsistent in quality.
The RAP survey evaluated species richness of vascular plants (both woody and herbaceous), insects
(katydids and ants), crustaceans, amphibians, rep-
tiles, birds, mammals, and primates. The results of
the survey confirmed that all three sites were highly
disturbed by human activity. Nonetheless, the team
documented 709 species, including one amphibian
and one katydid species new to science. The RAP
team recorded significant range extensions for a
number of species (including approximately 50 bird
species), and added as new records for Guinea three
katydids, one crustacean, one amphibian, and two
bird species. An important finding from this survey
was the Endangered freshwater crab species, Afrithelphusa monodosus. This crab was recorded for the
first time since its original collection in 1947, and
was previously known only from a single specimen.
Other species of conservation concern recorded during the survey included the West African Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes versus, Endangered), West African
Red Colobus (Procolobus badius, Endangered), three
plant species listed by the IUCN as Vulnerable, and
three species of mammals, and one frog species listed
as Near Threatened. Four species of reptiles recorded
during the survey are protected by the international
CITES treaty.
The RAP data were used by Alcoa and Alcan, Inc. to
inform determination of the location of their refinery.
RAP recommended conservation of the gallery forest
areas, particularly those in the Boulléré area that are
most at risk from slash-and-burn agricultural practices. This has the effect of conserving the sites with the
highest biodiversity, while at the same time preserving the watershed areas. The area also needs a sustainable management plan that adequately protects
the coastal mangrove ecosystems in the Boké Préfecture, one that takes into account the function of the
mangrove ecosystems and the ecosystem services
they provide, such as nursery grounds for commercially important species of crustaceans and fish. This
also includes the need to rehabilitate the severely impacted mangrove plant communities of the region. It
is also important to protect the region’s threatened
species, and thus hunting of these species. should be
banned. The RAP team recommended that areas containing the recorded populations of threatened species be removed from consideration as areas for any
resource extraction.
A member of the RAP team looking for frogs at the
bottom of a village well
Chameleon (Chamaeleo gracilis) catching an insect
Contributed by Piotr Naskrecki
A young fisherman and his bait
215
Spatial planning
Botswana: Okavango Delta II & III (Jan. 20 – Feb. 16 & Sept. 19 – 30, 2003)
here are few places on earth as spectacular and full
of wildlife as the Okavango Delta. The Delta serves as
a critical source of water, food, and habitat to thousands
of animal and plant species as well as people. However,
the Okavango Delta might not be this way for long. Pollution, introduced species, low flood levels, fishing, a
growing tourism industry, increasing local human populations, and widespread insecticide spraying have been
increasingly impacting the Okavango Delta. Long-term
research on most of the large mammals of the Okavango
and studies by the local Henry Oppenheimer Okavango
Research Center provide a solid baseline of information.
The 2000 AquaRAP survey provided data on the aquatic
ecosystems (see page 189 for details). In 2003, CI-Botswana and partners conducted a second AquaRAP survey at low water levels and a terrestrial survey to fill in
data gaps for small mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and
many insect groups. The data have contributed to developing a central source of biodiversity information for the
© Conservation International/photo by Lani Asato
T
Lion lounging in the grass
Okavango Delta to be used by the Botswana government,
local non-governmental organizations, and international
agencies managing the Delta and to promote listing of
the Okavango Delta as a World Heritage Site.
Contributed by Leeanne Alonso
Participating in the RAP expedition was one of the most wonderful field experiences that I have
had in my professional career. In 1997, as a co-lead of the RAP expedition in the Corridor Mantadia- Zahamena, I really enjoyed the exploration phase of choosing sites for the RAP expedition:
Identifying sites from aerial photography of the corridor, conducting an over flight of all potential
sites and exploring in the field the best sites for the expedition. The biggest challenge for us was
to find sites within a lowland rainforest to conduct the RAP survey. On the satellite images, the
lowland forest looks intact. However, some parts of them are very damaged. After five hours hiking over hills with difficult access, we realized that we couldn’t conduct a RAP survey in such a
disturbed site. The canopy of this rainforest was thick on the aerial photos but inside, the forest
was very disturbed. Then we had to go to other sites that took half a day more hiking. Finally, we
found two sites in a beautiful, intact lowland rainforest and both lowland sites are now parts of the
corridor Zahamena –Ankeniheny, one of the biggest protected areas created under the Malagasy
Government Vision in tripling the surface of existing protected areas from 1.7 million hectares to
6 million hectares. During the conservation planning process in Madagascar for protected areas
creation, I was very proud to know that almost all data from RAP expeditions from different sites
were useful to identify new protected areas.
- Zo Lalaina Rakotobe, Conservation International-Madagascar
216
Spatial planning
Ghana
Ajenjua Bepo and Mamang Forest Reserves
August 24 – September 4, 2006
Fruit bat (Myonycteris torquata)
All photos © Piotr Naskrecki
Ants (Pyramica sp.)
I
n the 1920s and 1930s, foresters in Ghana demarcated and placed under management 280 forests
for the purpose of ensuring a sustainable use of Ghana’s forest resources, and the preservation of forests
with important roles as watersheds and windbreaks.
Due to expanding agriculture and mining activities,
combined with the rapidly growing population,
Ghana has already lost roughly 80% of its original
forest habitat, and the remaining forests are highly
fragmented and often isolated by large stretches of
farmlands. Fortunately, the reserves designated under the supervision of the Forest Services Division of
the Forestry Commission have generally retained a
significant integrity, in the sense that the boundary
lines laid down seventy years ago are still respected,
and their boundary lines are regularly maintained.
These forest fragments often act as the last refuges of
the highly threatened West African fauna and flora.
218
The Ajenjua Bepo Forest Reserve and the Mamang
River Forest Reserve are located in the Birim North
District of the Eastern Region of Ghana. The two reserves consist of moist semideciduous forest, and
were established in 1930 (Ajenjua Bepo) and 1938
(Mamang River). Ajenjua Bepo is a relatively small
reserve covering an area of hilly topography of 5.69
km2. Only small patches of the original forest remain
intact with the remainder of the reserve covered
mostly by degraded secondary forest or agricultural
plantations. Mamang River is relatively larger and
flatter, covering an area of 53 km2. The forest is uniform with dense tangles of lianas and a thick leaf litter layer.
The objective of the Ajenua-Mamang RAP survey
was to conduct a preliminary assessment of species diversity in both reserves, evaluate the relative
conservation importance and threats to the biodiversity within each area, provide management and
research recommendations together with conservation priorities, and to make this information publicly
available to increase awareness of this region and
promote its conservation. The survey was done in
collaboration with Newmont Ghana Gold, Inc. as a
part of their partnership with CI-Ghana, where they
worked to promote biodiversity conservation in
southeastern Ghana and to help inform Newmont’s
Environmental Impact Assessment and biodiversity
offsets commitment. The survey took place around
two camp sites: Ajenjua Bepo (150-300 m) and
Mamang River (130 m). Vascular plants, ants, butterflies, katydids, freshwater macroinvertebrates
(leeches, insects, crustaceans, and mollusks), fishes,
amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals were surveyed by the team.
Although both Ajenjua Bepo and Mamang River reserves have been heavily impacted by human influences, such as slash-and-burn agriculture, hunting
and development activities, the survey revealed that
they both contained pockets of quality forest and
significant biodiversity. And while neither is considered to be of the highest level of conservation priority for Ghana, because of the country’s paucity of
original forested areas they both deserve increased
protection. In the combined reserves, scientists
recorded six Black Star plant species (the highest
level of conservation requirement in Ghana), twelve
diurnal butterfly species of conservation concern,
twelve katydid species new to science, one Near
Threatened amphibian species, one Vulnerable and
one Near Threatened bird species, and three Near
Threatened mammal species.
Of the two reserves, Mamang River appears to be a
better candidate for conservation, despite the overall greater number of species recorded in Ajenjua
Bepo. The higher species diversity recorded during the survey in the latter is likely attributable to
its greater habitat fragmentation, and the sun and
wind’s affects on the edge of the forest. Mamang
River is nearly ten timems larger than Ajenjua Bepo,
providing more area of continuous habitat for flora
and fauna. Its larger size also has a stronger buffering effect to any negative changes caused by the activity of the surrounding populations. Furthermore,
Mamang River is a part of a larger series of forest
reserves, making it a candidate for part of a wildlife
corridor. This series of forest reserves represents
some of the last remaining, continuously forested
sites in southeastern Ghana, and therefore should
be preserved and protected as much as possible.
However, Mamang River does not contain as varied
topography as does Ajenjua Bepo. Upland areas are
restricted in West Africa, and different species are
associated with higher elevations in Ghana. Several
notable species observed during our survey were
recorded only from Ajenjua Bepo.
The RAP survey results were used to inform and
guide further detailed biological surveys and the
design of Newmont Gold, Inc.’s biodiversity offsets
in Ghana. The RAP program also recommended increased education of local communities on hunting
regulations and why they are needed, increasing
sanitation in surrounding villages to decrease the
impact of pollution on aquatic habitats of the reserves, a better control of deforestation and habitat
degradation, and a reduction in the size of the network of roads, plantations, and paths adjacent to
and within the forest reserves.
Katydid (Tetraconcha sp.)
Tree frog (Leptopelis occidentalis)
Contributed by Piotr Naskrecki
RAP scientists measuring collected mammal specimens
219
Stories from the field...
The tepuis in southeastern Ecuador may not be quite as grand as those of the Guianas, but they are
impressive in and of themselves. Table-top mountains rising above the other peaks on the border with
Peru, these tepuis, with their dwarf vegetation and potentially unique species, were little wonderlands
to me that I couldn’t wait to explore. This was the site of my first RAP survey. Before the trip, I thought
I would see some really cool things and that we might even find new species – I mean, after all, we were
going to an area that few scientists had ever visited – but I really had no idea just how exciting this trip
would be for me.
One afternoon, my colleague Elicio and I were searching for frogs and lizards along the margins of a
small stream near our first camp. An hour or so passed with no luck – frogs in particular are typically
more active and easier to find at night. My eyes were getting a little fuzzy (we had been out late searching
for herps the night before) as I approached a rock wall that bordered the stream. I ran my eyes across
the wall and suddenly did a double take – staring back at me, blending in perfectly with the orange and
green moss, was a small harlequin frog, about the size of my thumb! For a herpetologist in the mountains
of South America, this is like finding a diamond in a coal mine. Harlequin frogs (which are actually
toads) of the genus Atelopus, among many other amphibian species, have been largely wiped out in the
Andes of South America by a nasty fungus which kills frogs by preventing regulation of electrolytes. That
night, I went to sleep excited to have found an Atelopus, but a little sad because I assumed that she was
simply an unlikely individual that had temporarily survived in the wake of the fungus...
Trudging miles back to base camp down the mountain in the dark after searching all night for herps at
the top of the tepui was absolutely exhausting. To avoid the back and forth, we decided to make a satellite
camp closer to the top and stay there for the next few days. After a muddy trek to the base of the tepui,
and a treacherous climb up to a flatter area where camp was to be set up, we decided to rinse off in the
mountain stream flowing next to our new camp. I slowly stepped down into the cold water and glanced
at my feet. Once again, I couldn’t believe my eyes – the rocks at the bottom of the stream were teeming
with tiny, shiny black and gold critters – Atelopus tadpoles! Over the next few days, we found other
healthy adult frogs; these combined with lots of healthy tadpoles indicated to us that we hadn’t just found
an unlikely individual survivor, but rather an entire healthy population of harlequin frogs!
Without this RAP survey, we may never have found this Atelopus population. Local communities are
now working to give this population the protection it deserves, and who knows, maybe these frogs might
even teach us something about how they have managed to survive a global epidemic to which so many
other amphibian species have succumbed.
- Jessica Deichmann, Research Associate, Rapid Assessment Program,
Conservation International
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Spatial planning
Suriname
Lely and Nassau Plateaus
October 25 – November 26, 2005
© Jan Wirjosentono
An endemic rain frog (Pristimantis zeuctoctylus)
© Jan Wirjosentono
© Miguel Pinto
© Jessica Deichmann
© James Watling
Amazonian snail-eating snake (Dipsas indica)
L
ocated within the Guaiana Shield of northern
South America, Suriname has extensive tracts
of pristine rainforest, within which are ancient
plateaus formed over 26-38 million years ago and
topped with bauxite and ferrite. The presence of
extensive bauxite deposits makes these plateaus
very attractive to mining interests for aluminum
production. Thus, a RAP survey was conducted in
2005 to collect biodiversity data to be fed into the
early stages of decision-making by BHP-Billiton
Maatschappij Suriname and the Suriname Aluminum Company LLC (Suralco). Two plateaus in
Eastern Suriname were the focus of the RAP survey: the Lely Plateau, a series of plateaus with a
maximum altitude of 700 m and the Nassau Plateau, comprised of four plateaus ranging from
500-570 m. The RAP survey covered a variety of
habitats on both plateaus above 500 m including
mountain savanna forest, high dryland rainforest,
palm swamp, and secondary forest. These plateaus provide essential ecosystem services for local and coastal communities, as well as key sources of employment (small-scale gold mining), food,
medicine and building materials for local communities. Both plateaus were still relatively intact
at the time of the RAP survey in 2005, presenting unique opportunities for conservation over a
large landscape while addressing the threats of
logging, hunting/poaching, and small-scale (gold)
and large-scale (bauxite and gold) mining.
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The RAP survey revealed that both the Lely and
Nassau Plateaus contain high diversity of animals and plants, with 27 species endemic to the
Guaiana Shield region and at least 24 species
new to science. Eleven species listed by IUCN as
threatened with extinction live on the plateaus,
including many large bird (e.g., parrots, guans)
and mammal species, indicating that these plateaus may be a refuge for these species. Due possibly to its larger size, greater elevational range,
and pristine habitats, higher species richness was
documented on the Lely Plateau compared to Nassau. The Nassau Plateau is more heavily disturbed
by human activities but still contains some good
populations of mammals, birds and other taxa.
Only 31% of the amphibian species were found in
common between the plateaus.
The plateaus harbor a high number of species
endemic to the Guiana Shield: eight mammal species including the Guianan Red Howler monkey
and the Red-backed Bearded Saki; 19 bird species
such as the spectacular Guianan Cock-of-the-Rock
and the White-throated Pewee, which has a very
restricted range; five amphibian and two reptile
species.
The Nassau plateau was found to harbor a unique
fish fauna, including two catfish species Hartiella
crassicauda and Guyanancistrus sp., that are likely
endemic to the plateau. Hartiella crassicauda had
not been seen in the wild since its initial discovery
56 years ago. The presence of species potentially
endemic to the Nassau plateau prompted Suralco
to support additional studies of the fish fauna of
the plateau and surrounding areas to document
the range of the species. However, the species
© Miguel Pinto
Palm forest
© Jessica Deichmann
RAP and CI-Suriname continue to support the recommendations made in the 2007 RAP Bulletin of
Biological Assessment #43, which advocate that
the Lely and Nassau plateaus receive increased
levels of biodiversity protection through a collaborative approach between public and private
institutions, including local communities, to address and halt the threats currently and potentially facing these sites. Both plateaus contain a
high proportion of Suriname’s biodiversity and
contain great habitat diversity that is not widely
found in the region. Global amphibian declines
have resulted in the loss of many higher elevation
species; therefore the presence of abundant, diverse, stream associated amphibian assemblages
at Nassau and Lely is of significant conservation
value. These sites provide refuge for many threatened species and species endemic to the Guiana
Shield. We continue to support the RAP team’ s
principal recommendations including 1) the creation of a Nature Park on the Nassau Plateau to
protect the unique Paramaka Creek watershed
and 2) empowerment of the Nature Conservation
Division of the Suriname government to increase
monitoring in both areas, especially for hunting
and illegal mining. The Nassau plateau is currently (2010) still of interest to Suralco for possible
bauxite extraction.
Rufous-throated Antbird (Gymnopitlys rufigula)
© James Watling
have so far not been found outside of the headwaters of a single mountain stream, Paramaka
Creek, on the Nassau plateau (J. Mol, pers. com).
There is concern among the scientific community
that mining of the Nassau bauxite deposits will affect water quality in the stream and also impact
the aquifer that provides water for the Paramaka
Creek in the dry season; therefore threatening
these unique species with extinction. The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation issued a resolution in 2008 calling for the halt of
mining activities on Nassau plateau.
Contributed by Leeanne Alonso and Annette Tjon Sie Fat
Marbled Tree Frog (Dendropsophus marmoratus)
223
Spatial planning
Philippines: Calamianes Islands, Palawan Province (February 6 – 21, 1998)
L
ying between the South China and Sulu Seas, the Calamianes are an island group made of small satellite
islands dominated by the three larger islands of Busuanga, Culion and Coron. These islands form an important
part of the “Coral Triangle,” an area of the world’s richest
coastal marine biodiversity. A team of MarineRAP scientists collaborated to assess 38 diverse sites over a 16-day
period. The primary goal of the survey was to indentify
sites with high biodiversity and low exposure to threats
(healthy sites), and to make recommendations for areas
to be included in the Palawan Council for Sustainable Development’s Environmentally Critical Areas Network. At
each site the number of species of hard corals, mollusks
and reef fishes was determined by visual underwater
census by the MarineRAP team. High biodiversity for the
three groups (300 species of corals, 648 species of mol-
lusks and 736 fish) was documented. Populations of targeted species such as octopus and various ornamental
seashells were observed to be extremely low. Based on
the results, several areas were recommended for inclusion in the Environmentally Critical Areas Network such
as the northwest coast of Coron Island; Halsey Harbour
on Culion Island; and northwestern Kalampisauan Island
including Gutob Peninsula of Busuanga. As a result of the
MarineRAP survey, the Calamianes were one of the first
few sites with biological data to be considered in the zoning of the Environmentally Critical Areas Network and the
Palawan Council for Sustainable Development and their
partners are also using this information in their efforts to
establish a network of Marine Protected Areas.
Contributed by Sheila A. McKenna and Jeanne G. Tabangay
During the RAP in southern Suriname, in the indigenous village of Kwamalasamutu, I came to
realize that climate change can also affect scientists while on a mission to discover biodiversity.
I had the privilege to work alongside a professor who is specialized in aquatic beetles and with
whom I visited almost every puddle, small stream, and swamp to collect these amazing creatures.
We also did some collecting on an Inselberg on which temperatures can get sky high in the afternoon. Here we made an amazing discovery of aquatic beetle species that are new to science.
The excitement made us soon forget about the heat of the sun and the fact that we were actually
a ray away from dehydration. All of a sudden it struck me that this could become the impediment
scientists will be facing in the near future. With about half our bodyweight but still very satisfied,
we sought cover underneath some trees, where I concluded that contributing to RAP is one step
towards fighting climate change.
- Vanessa Kadosoe, student, Anton de Kom University of Suriname
RAPs are unique opportunities to explore the remotest regions of the planet, and then use what
is found to make a difference. There are not many pristine landscapes remaining, but RAPs have
been there and are working to conserve them before they are lost. To be part of such an expedition is a special experience. I have many memories from these adventures, including unanticipated discoveries, life-long friends made, and colleagues lost. It is wonderful to be part of a topnotch scientific team that uses what we discover to conserve and manage the world around us.
- Phil Willink, The Field Museum
224
Spatial planning
New Caledonia
Northwest Lagoon (Yandé to Koumac)
November 24 – December 15, 2007
Hermit crab
All photos © Conservation International/photo by Schannel van Dijken
© Nicolas Barré
Fairy Tern (Sterna nereis exsul)
T
hree years following the Mont Panié MarineRAP
in New Caledonia, a second survey was conducted off the northwest coast from Yandé Island in
the north to Koumac Pass in the south. The survey
covered reef sites within the Zone Côtière Nord–Est,
one of six marine clusters included in the Lagoons
of New Caledonia World Heritage Site, inscribed in
2008. The corresponding municipalities along this
coast are Poum and Koumac with populations of
1,390 and 3,003 respectively.
Using scuba- and snorkeling-based survey methods,
a team of scientists inventoried the biodiversity of
hard corals and reef fish, assessed exploited macroinvertebrates (e.g., clams and sea cucumbers), and
targeted fish stocks and the condition of the coral
reefs at each site. Additionally breeding birds of
conservation interest were evaluated as the area includes two Important Bird Areas which were identified after a survey by the Société Calédonienne
d’Ornithologie (SCO) mandated by Province Nord.
Additional data collected on birds during the RAP
survey supplemented the May 2006 work of SCO.
226
In total, 322 hard coral species and 526 reef fish
species were observed at 62 sites. Range extensions (additional places where species are known
to live) were documented for 43 hard coral and two
reef fish species. Among fish targeted by fishermen,
127 species were documented at 52 sites. In the
southern portion of the survey area, the 28 sites assessed for large exploited invertebrates indicated
that densities for all species were low and in need
of further study. Sediment stress was the most severe impact on the reefs examined, with the inshore
fringing reef sites in close proximity to nickel mining operations exhibiting the most damage. Most
hard coral species require relatively clear water to
survive, and under high sediment stress corals suffocate and die. Not surprisingly, the number of hard
coral species tended to increase significantly away
from the mainland corresponding to a decrease
in sediment stress and other human impacts. The
same was true for reef fish and targeted macro-invertebrates and fish.
Despite sediment stress, numerous red listed species were still spotted on 66% of the reef sites. These
included several species of sharks, fishes, and sea
turtles. This frequency of observation was less than
that of the previous MarineRAP survey on the east
coast in Mont Panié. For birds, highlights from the
SCO study and RAP survey included the discovery of
a new breeding species for the area, the Beach Thickknee (Esacus magnirostris). Two lagoon marine Important Bird Areas were identified that included
the main breeding area in New Caledonia (about a
hundred pairs) for a highly endangered subspecies
of Fairy Tern (Sterna nereis exsul). Previously, only
about 20 pairs had been recorded in New Caledonia.
© Conservation International/photo by Schannel van Dijken
Grouper among corals
© Roger Grace
Given the severe sedimentation stress, it was recommended that sedimentation be monitored and every
effort be made to restore the watershed and maintain those that are still intact. Mitigation techniques
(e.g., re-vegetating denuded areas, preferably with
native species) should be aggressively pursued.
Reducing the effects from mining is a particularly
challenging issue as there is a long history of mining
in New Caledonia (since 1870’s). Mines that have
ceased activity are still contributing to the problem
in adjacent coastal areas as the bare un-vegetated
landscape still erodes. Two locales of specific concern included the reef sites adjacent to the Tiébaghi
mine and the Poum mine. At the Poum mine center,
activity has resumed and has been projected to increase. A potential consequence is that sedimentation loading on the reefal areas will increase, even
further compromising reef health. Overall an integrated coastal zone management plan needs to be
instituted that would restore, maintain and monitor
the watersheds of Poum and Koumac municipalities.
This MarineRAP survey provided data for informed
decision making in the next steps for development
of an effective management and conservation plan
for the Lagoons of New Caledonia World Heritage
Site. Exhibiting outstanding biodiversity value,
reefs surrounding Yandé Island and the Yandé Pass
should be given full protection. This area is relatively
remote from large human populations and is part of
the World Heritage inscribed marine cluster, Zone
Côtière Nord-Est. Outside this marine cluster, the
Koumac Pass was observed to have high diversity
of fish species and as such is recommended for full
protection.
As an Important Bird Area, Yandé Island could form
an integrated conservation project including control
and/or eradication of introduced predators, and
monitoring of populations of Island Thrushes and
Tahiti Petrels. Likewise, islets in the Koumac area
should be placed under concerted management including regulation of human visitation and eradication of introduced predators. Creation of a network
of small natural reserves protecting the richest islets
is recommended.
Contributed by Sheila A. McKenna, Jérôme Spaggiari,
and François Martel
Oriental Flying Gurnard (Dactyloptena orientalis)
227
Spatial planning
Indonesia: Coral Reefs of the Togean and Banggai Islands (Oct. 27 – Nov. 9, 1998)
O
ff of northern Sulawesi, the Togean Islands stretch
for a distance of 90 km across the center of Tomini
Bay. Approximately 115 km to the south, the Banggai
Islands lie in the northern section of Tolo Bay. Prior to
this MarineRAP no comprehensive faunal surveys that
included corals, mollusks, and fishes had been undertaken in the combined Togean-Banggai area. The goal
of this survey was to provide crucial baseline data for
informed decision making for management and conservation of coral reefs. Moreover, information from
this survey was intended to provide a guide for further
study, monitoring and conservation management activities. Over a 17 day period, 47 reef sites were assessed
by MarineRAP scientists through underwater visual
census techniques. At each site the biodiversity of hard
corals, mollusks (clams and snails) and fish were determined. Additionally, presence and abundance of
targeted fish (for personal consumption or commer-
cial purposes) and observations on the environmental
condition of each site were made. Rich marine biodiversity was documented with over 314 species of hard
corals and 819 species of reef fish. For mollusks, 514
species were recorded for the Togean Islands alone as
the Banggai Islands were not sampled. Coral bleaching
was observed at nearly all sites in the Togean Islands,
but only one site exhibited bleaching in the Banggai
Islands. A total of 147 targeted fish species were observed. Alarmingly, illegal fishing practices including
the use of dynamite and cyanide were observed at over
80% of the reef sites surveyed. Based on the findings,
the MarineRAP scientists recommended that more
environmental awareness is needed with stronger enforcement of the existing fishing laws and the establishment of a network of Marine Protected Areas.
Contributed by Sheila A. McKenna
New Caledonia: Province Nord (June and October – November, 1996)
I
n 1996, Province Nord government of New Caledonia
collaborated with Conservation International and
the Maruia Society to undertake a biological and socioeconomic RAP survey of five key sites selected by the
Commission de l’Environnement: Mont Panié (5,000
hectares), Aoupinié (5,400 ha), Ouaté (6,400 ha), Néoua (1,865 ha) and Pindaï (2,320 ha). The first two sites
had protection status but were not being managed effectively, while the three other sites were not protected
by public regulations.
Plants, birds, reptiles and invertebrates (butterflies,
moths, long-legged flies, flies and barklice) were surveyed to generate species lists and abundances for each
of the five sites. The socioeconomic survey led to significant recommendations, especially toward the implementation of co-management principles that would
result in local tribes working in conjunction with the
228
government and NGOs to manage the sites. The final
report was delivered in 1998 with sound recommendations for conservation of the sites.
Beyond the valuable scientific gains of this RAP survey
for the government of Province Nord, a sustainable relationship was built with the Maruia Society and Conservation International. Indeed, Province Nord has started
to implement conservation actions for terrestrial biodiversity and Protected Areas, while the authorities have
become convinced that co-management principles are
both indispensable and realistic. This institutional vision of co-management was realized in 2002 in the
Mont Panié Special Botanical Reserve which gathered
again the three partners in collaboration on a sustainable and ongoing initiative.
Contributed by François Tron and Van Duong Dang
Human well-being
Cambodia
Central Cardamom Mountains
December 12 – 20, 2002
© Conservation International/photo by David Emmett
Pileated Gibbon (Hylobates pileatus)
© Conservation International/photo by Leeanne E. Alonso
© Conservation International/photo by Leeanne E. Alonso
© Conservation International/photo by David Emmett
© Conservation International/photo by David Emmett
Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis)
T
he Central Cardamoms lies within the midsection of the Cardamom Mountain range in
southwestern Cambodia. The Central Cardamoms
consists of a vast, forest-covered mountain plateau from which narrow valleys extend. The monsoon rains fall heavily on the Cardamom Mountains, with annual rainfall often exceeding 4,000
mm. The main habitat is evergreen forest, much of
which is in primary condition due to the remoteness of the mountain range and its relative inaccessibility. There are also dry deciduous forests
to the north of the mountain range, and pine forest and grasslands on the peaks. The Cardamoms
are a center of floral endemism, where over half
of Cambodia’s known 2,300 species of plants and
half of its estimated 230 endemic plant species
have been recorded.
230
A mini-RAP survey was conducted in 2001 to
provide an overview of species diversity in the
Central Cardamoms and to evaluate the area’s
conservation importance, with the ultimate goal
of providing sufficient information to support the
development of a Protected Forest. The RAP sur-
vey also aimed to identify threats and conservation targets for the proposed protected area.
The RAP survey results highlight the exceptional
biodiversity and ecosystem services values of the
area which are fostered by a wide range of elevations and high diversity of habitats. This survey
and subsequent surveys by CI recorded at least 66
mammal species, 174 bird species, 74 reptile species, 32 amphibian species and 44 fish species. Of
these, more than 40 are globally threatened species. Threatened mammal species include Asiatic
Black Bears, Clouded Leopards, Asian Elephants,
and Dhole (Asiatic wild dogs). The Central Cardamoms hold one of the last remaining breeding populations of Critically Endangered Siamese
Crocodiles, as well as seven globally threatened
turtle species such as the Endangered Elongated
Tortoise, making it one of the region’s most important sites for reptile conservation. Many rare
freshwater-dependent species were found associated with clear rivers flowing from the Cardamoms watershed, including the Endangered
Asian Arowana and White-winged Duck.
© Conservation International/photo by David Emmett
This RAP survey confirmed that the Central Cardamoms is a site of extraordinary biodiversity
and watershed conservation value, leading to the
official designation in 2002 of the Central Cardamoms Protected Forest for Biodiversity Conservation and Watershed Management. Covering an
area of 401,313 hectares, this is one of the largest protected areas in Southeast Asia. The Central
Cardamoms Protected Forest is now widely recognized as one of the most important protected
areas in the region, both for biodiversity and also
as a watershed upon which a third of Cambodia
depends. The rivers flowing from this protected
area provide drinking water for thousands of
downstream communities, as well as water for irrigation to allow year-round agriculture. In addition, the rivers contain migratory fish populations
that support the world’s most productive fishery
– the Tonle Sap Lake. The protected area is also
a vast carbon sink. This protected area therefore provides a perfect combination of biodiversity conservation, support for human wellbeing
through water and food security, and management of standing forests to reduce the impacts of
climate change.
Bengal Loris (Nycticebus bengalensis)
© Piotr Naskrecki
Contributed by David Emmett
Terrestrial flatworm
© Piotr Naskrecki
An ant (Dolichoderinae) collecting honeydew from
its “cattle” – tiny symbiotic aphids
231
Human well-being
Indonesia: Northwest Mamberamo Basin (April 27 – May 18, 2007)
uring April and May 2007, a RAP survey in northwestern Papua Province documented a rich flora
and fauna in the lower reaches of the Mamberamo
River. The RAP expedition surveyed eight sites during
22 days in mangrove forest, mixed sago swamp forest
and lowland rainforest. The survey was initiated by
and received support from Nations Petroleum, a company exploring for gas in the region with an interest in
minimizing their impact on the environment. The RAP
expedition aimed to generate information that could
be used by Nations Petroleum to guide environmental
management in their concession area. The team found
good populations of cassowaries, crowned pigeons and
wallabies, and discovered about eight new plants and
four new ant species. Diversity was particularly high
in largely undisturbed mixed rainforest above Baitanisa Village compared to the logged forest near Gesa
and the naturally poorer swamp and mangrove forests.
Careful management of the Mamberamo Basin is critical because logging operations, development for agriculture, and the associated influx of people from elsewhere threaten the integrity of this major freshwater
© Bruce Beehler
D
Mamberamo River
catchment. Although Nations is no longer working in
the area, large-scale logging has already had a major
impact in the foothill forests on the northern side of the
Van Rees Mountains. The RAP team recommended that
a conservation awareness program be initiated in the
area to counter an anticipated increase in demand for
bushmeat in the future.
Contributed by Stephen Richards
By joining the RAP surveys in Suriname, I got the chance to work on an international basis
and was exposed to different research methods because of the different taxa that we focused
on. It was a way for me to get to see and understand how different elements are connected
in nature, especially in the areas where we worked. Very impressing was the indescribable
breathtaking beauty of these areas. It is therefore very painful and heartbreaking sometimes
that governments do not understand that these places can bring more revenue for their
countries compared to the very destructive activities of mining and forestry. The RAP surveys
have shown that there are still numerous unknown species on earth. We have not focused on
mushrooms but especially the Natives in Suriname use many mushrooms for nutritional and
medicinal purposes. A lot is still unknown about earth’s biodiversity and its potential in serving
humans. I consider the RAP results as a guide and eye opener for institutions and governments
to choose a proper way of managing biodiversity rich areas from which the country and its
people can benefit without destroying it.
- Haydi J. Berrenstein, Suriname
232
Human well-being
Fiji
Nakorotubu Mountains
November 30 – December 11, 2009
All photos © Conservation International/photos by Leeanne E. Alonso
The villagers of Matuku in northeast Fiji rely greatly on the forest ecosystem services
© Conservation International/photo by Leeanne E. Alonso
R
AP joined up with a team from the Herbarium of the University of the South Pacific to
conduct a biodiversity survey in the Nakorotubu
mountains of northeastern Viti Levu, Fiji in December 2009. The scientific team included mostly
scientists and students from Fiji, who were joined
by experts from Solomon Islands, Bulgaria, Venezuela, Singapore and the United States. The team
surveyed a range of taxa including birds, amphibians, several insect groups (ants, dragonflies, fruit
flies, stick insects), snails, aquatic crustaceans,
fishes, and invasive plants and animals.
On northeastern Viti Levu – Fiji’s largest island –
the Nakorotubu mountain range comprises one
of the largest tracts of forest in the country, connecting crucial ecosystems and providing water,
food security and resources for the residents of
indigenous communities who own the land and
its forests.
234
The RAP survey will provide essential baseline
information on the forest’s biodiversity to show
just how closely its species are linked to human
livelihoods. It aimed to increase knowledge of
species distributions and demonstrate the value
of species and ecosystems for human well-being,
with a particular focus on the interconnectivity
of ecosystems. For example, one fish species that
spawns in a mountain river may be eaten miles
away in a coastal community. This information
will assist in national and community planning
and management that facilitate sustainable ag-
ricultural production, more effective forest management and the identification of special areas for
protection.
The RAP team visited three field sites near the villages of Matuku, Soa and Nasau, home to about 90,
300 and 200 people respectively. Led by guides
from these villages and from the sister village of
Verevere on the coast, the researchers explored
the mountains every day to document native and
invasive species. Preliminary results from the
survey indicate that the number of rare species
found in the mountains is very high. In Fiji, as
many as 75% of the plant species and 63% of ant
species are endemic to the islands, illustrating the
uniqueness of Fiji’s ecosystems.
While the biologists were out netting insects and
counting birds, the RAP team’s socioeconomic
team worked to bring this data closer to home for
nearby villagers. The goal was to verify how much
the community depends on these natural resources, and how they can maintain them as a part of
their culture. Also joining the expedition was a
researcher from the Fiji Museum who identified
and recorded sites of cultural significance and the
community stories linked to those sites. Through
interviews and “mind-mapping” – a methodology
where villagers were split into groups and asked
to draw maps of their village and surrounding
landmarks and resources – the socioeconomic
team collected a list of more than 40 non-timber
products used for food, medicine, building ma-
CI-Fiji and its partners plan to use these new findings to make recommendations for increased protection of regional ecosystems and an expanded
role in conservation efforts for local communities.
CI is focused on establishing a Viti Levu Islandscape based around a core corridor of protected
terrestrial and marine areas with integrated watershed and resource management areas linking
these protected areas. CI is promoting a co-management approach where the indigenous landowning communities, resource users, government and other stakeholders manage as partners
to ensure that Fiji meets its national and international conservation obligations while at the same
time assisting communities to meet their livelihood and wellbeing aspirations.
Contributed by Leeanne Alonso, Molly Bergen, and
Sefanaia Nawadra
Winkler traps used by biologists to collect small arthropods
from the soil and leaf litter
A cross-section of an ant-plant (Myrmecodia sp.)
© Hilda Waqa-Sakiti
An endemic Fiji katydid (Diaphlebus sp.)
© Conservation International/photo by Leeanne E. Alonso
Although data are still being compiled, preliminary findings suggest what was already evident to
local people: the region’s species play a large role
in everyday life for forest villages. These forests
also have a wider global impact: they absorb carbon from the atmosphere, playing a crucial role in
climate change mitigation. Local researchers are
continuing to collect data on regional resource
use.
© Conservation International/photo by Leeanne E. Alonso
terials and other purposes. They also created a
list of animal species that are regularly used for
food sources – species such as crabs and fish from
freshwater sources, and feral pigs from the forest.
235
Human well-being
Bolivia: Pando (June 23 – July 21, 1992)
T
he 1992 RAP expedition to the Pando region in
northern Bolivia collected information for future
decision-making on research and conservation, highlighting the conservation values of this region which
has two main biogeographic influences: the southwest
Amazon Basin, and the Brazilian Shield. The RAP survey
underscored the importance of the northeast region of
Pando for conservation, proposed creation of a protected area, and had other impacts as well. Following the
1992 RAP survey, Pando became an attractive area for
biological assessment: in 1996 an AquaRAP survey was
conducted, and between 1999 and 2002 there were
three Rapid Biological Inventories with support from
The Field Museum. In 1997, the Department of Pando
Land Use Plan provided for the creation of the Federico
Román Reserve, which in 2005 gave rise to the Bruno
Racua Departmental Wildlife Reserve, encompassing
74,054 hectares of intact forest. Likewise, it highlighted
the conservation value of the areas between the Tahuamanu and Muyumanu rivers, both tributaries of the Río
Orthon which is now part of the Bolpebra Filadelfia
Integrated Natural Management Area created in 2009
with 1.4 million hectares. Finally, the forests of Pando
are relatively well-preserved thanks to the presence of
Brazil Nuts, the wild fruits of the tree Bertholletia excelsa, an essential component of the economy of the region, the exports of which provide over US $40 million,
benefiting more than 10,000 households in Pando.
Contributed by Eduardo Forno
Stories from the field...
My first experience with RAP was during the Coppename RAP in 2004. I was still a student ‘Environmental Management’ at the Anton de Kom University of Suriname. I always knew I wanted do something with the ‘green’ side of environment, but it was all still vague. The RAP was also my first opportunity to go that far in the interior of Suriname. It was like a new world opening for me. I still remember
one experience. As I was assisting Dr. Paul Ouboter with water quality measurements one day, I told him:
‘Now I understand the geography lectures I got in primary school.’ The lectures were about the intrusion
of rivers through the high lands (bedrock) of the interior. I could never visualize that lecture in my head
and my question was always: how would that look like? Seeing the Coppename River with all the rocks
in it, brought back that lecture to my mind and made the process more clear to me.
RAP has shaped my whole career. After my participation with the Coppename RAP in 2004 in which
I assisted Dr. Paul Ouboter, who I didn’t know before, he offered me a job at the National Zoological
Collection of Suriname/Center of Environmental Research. I started working there while I was finishing
my bachelors degree, did my bachelors thesis there, for which I went back to the Coppename basin. Now
I have a Masters degree in Ecology, working as a researcher at the same institute (doing research on using amphibians as indicator for disturbance). I also participated recently (August-September 2010) as a
leading scientist for water quality in the South Suriname (Kwamalasamutu) RAP.
- Gwen Landburg, University of Suriname
236
Human well-being
China
Mountains of Southwest China Hotspot, Sichuan
August 22 – September 9, 2005
All photos © Piotr Naskrecki
Night view of Camp 3
T
he Mountains of Southwest China reach from
the Tibetan Plateau to the central Chinese plain.
Some of the largest remaining blocks of contiguous
forest in China are located within this mountainous
zone. The wide range of ecosystems from temperate to alpine harbors the richest biodiversity of any
temperate forest region in the world. An extraordinary 230 rhododendron species are found here,
half of which are endemic to the region. The diverse
vegetation provides habitat for many endangered
and endemic wildlife species, including Giant Panda, Red Panda, Golden Monkey, Snow Leopard, and
Takin.
The region is also culturally rich, inhabited by Kampa Tibetans, who are strong believers in Tibetan
Buddhism, which teaches unique cultural values
and perceptions toward life and the natural world.
In Ganzi Prefecture, western Sichuan, Tibetan villages and monasteries have designated more than
2,000 sacred natural sites that provide critical refuge for wildlife. This non-material value system
presents a unique opportunity for biodiversity conservation and is especially important in promoting
sustainable development and livelihoods, not only
for Tibetan communities but also for the rest of
Chinese society. Unfortunately, this cultural tradition currently faces great challenges from rapid social and economic development, including grazing,
roads, and tourism.
238
A RAP team of Chinese and international biodiversity experts surveyed the diversity of plants, several
insect groups including ants, beetles, and orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets and katydids), reptiles
and amphibians, birds, and mammals in three remote valleys in the Mountains of Southwest China,
Sichuan Province in 2005. The aims of the RAP
survey were to collect biodiversity data to assist in
guiding conservation activities and management of
Tibetan Sacred sites in the region, and to enhance
scientific capacity in the Himalayan region by developing collaborations between international and local scientists and by providing training to students.
The RAP survey revealed that all three RAP survey
sites contained a rich and interesting biodiversity,
each presenting unique opportunities for biodiversity conservation. In Danba County, the RAP team
found the habitat fragmented, with much of the
vegetation degraded or destroyed due to natural
or human causes. However, they also documented
many globally threatened species, including Critically Endangered and Endangered small mammal
species and several threatened bird species including the Chinese Monal (Lophophorus lhuysii, Vulnerable) and the Sichuan Jay (Perisoreus internigrans,
Vulnerable). The RAP survey took place near the
Sacred Dingguoshan Mountain which contains forests in good condition, a low population density of
local people, and vegetation recovering well from
past logging. Therefore this site has high protection
value.
Highest diversity values were recorded in the lower
elevation site in Kangding County with several species possibly new to science, including two amphibian species. Higher diversity of plants (1,227 species) and ants (34 species) was documented at this
site compared to the two others. The Alpine Stream
Salamander (Batrachuperus tibetanus, Vulnerable)
was recorded here. Interviews with local people revealed the possible presence of a total of 25 species
of large mammals at Kangding, including Red Pan-
da (Ailurus fulgens, Endangered), Serow (Capricornis milneedwardsii, Near Threatened), Asian Black
Bear (Ursus thibetanus, Vulnerable), and Tufted
Deer (Elaphodus cephalophus, Data Deficient).
The third site in Yajiang County was at the highest
elevation and in best condition, and featured a surprisingly high diversity of mammals and birds, as
well as high habitat heterogeneity. Twelve threatened plant species, eight beetles endemic to Sichuan
Province, and 104 species of birds were documented. More primary vegetation remains in this area,
as the scale and intensity of commercial logging is
less than that of the other two sites. A new subspecies of Qinghai Vole (Microtus fuscus) and a range
extension for the Greater Brown Vole (Eothenomys
miletus) were documented. The RAP team recorded
the presence of 12 species of large mammals (with
30 species likely) including White-lipped Deer (Cervus albirostris, Vulnerable), and Asian Golden Cat
(Catopuma temminckii, Vulnerable).
After the RAP survey, two nature reserves were established following RAP’s conservation recommendations to conserve the endangered species and
the alpine and sub-alpine ecosystems: Yongzhonglin nature reserve (40,100 hectares, established in
2005) in Danba County, and Shenxianshan nature
reserve (39,100 ha, established in 2009) in Yajiang
County. A Conservation Stewardship Program was
carried out at the survey site in Danba County during 2006 to 2008, facilitated by Conservation International. Local communities were authorized to
conduct patrolling and monitoring activities to protect the surrounding 5,000 ha of forest and wildlife
to augment protection by the Danba Forestry Department. The lessons learned from Danba County
have contributed to the other nine sites with ongoing Conservation Stewardship Programs in Tibetan
areas, which demonstrate that conservation stewardship is an effective way to integrate Tibetan cultural values and traditional land management into
the government conservation network.
The Alpine stream salamander (Batrachuperus tibetanus)
Prominent moth caterpillar (Furcula sp.)
Contributed by Leeanne Alonso, Xiaoli Shen, and
Piotr Naskrecki
Entomologist Derek Sikes, a member of the RAP team,
collecting data
239
Human well-being
Madagascar: Réserve Naturelle Intégrale d’Ankarafantsika (February 3 – 24, 1997)
T
he first RAP survey in Madagascar was conducted
in the Réserve Naturelle Intégrale of Ankarafantsika, located within the Complex of Protected Areas of
Ankarafantsika. The forests of the plateau of Ankarafantsika, located in the northwestern part of Madagascar between the Mahajamba and Betsiboka Rivers,
contain one of the largest remaining dry forests in
the west with an area of more than 134,000 hectares.
These forests protect the watershed of the second largest rice-growing region in Madagascar, Marovoay. Despite recognized national importance for conservation,
the reserve is visibly threatened and subject to strong
pressures from the production of charcoal, logging, expansion of grazing and collecting forest products. Every dry season, the reserve is also exposed to severe
fires. A RAP survey was conducted in 1997 to provide
information on the diversity within the reserve and
how it is impacted by human activities. Ankarafantsika
houses rich floral diversity with 287 species of vascular
and 154 species of herbaceous plants, many endemic,
within different habitats such as swamp forest and
dry forests. Among the fauna, eight species of lemurs
were observed, one of them new to science. Fourteen
species of small mammals and a total of 69 species of
birds were documented. Forty-seven species of reptiles
and 12 amphibians, including one snake, two lizard and
two frog species new to science, were also recorded.
The RAP team recommended that management be improved in order to reduce the effects of human incursions into the reserve, and that a sustainable alternative for people, possibly in the form of an ecotourism
project in the reserve, be created. Zoning of a national
park has since been proposed based on biological data
obtained through the RAP survey and ecotourism infrastructure is now well established at the station.
Contributed by Harison Randriansolo and Jessica
Deichmann
Madagascar: Andrafiamena (June 16 – 26, 2007)
A
ndrafiamena Forest, located in northern
Madagascar, is part of the transitional complex
between the eastern rain and western dry forest. It
represents a crossroads in a corridor which includes
Ankarana Special Reserve, the Analamera Classified
Forest and the forest of Andavakoera. This corridor
has a total area of about 29,000 ha and rises to 310760 m. Andrafiamena Forest is home to Perrier’s Sifaka
(Propithecus perrieri), one of the 25 most threatened
species of primates in the world, and the main reason
for conducting this RAP survey. The inventory also
aimed to identify key areas for conservation, which
may lead to the establishment of a new protected area.
The RAP team identified 214 species in 146 genera
of plants (25 of which are endemic). Three species of
mammals were recorded including two endemic rats
(Eliurus minor, E. webbi) and the invasive Rattus rattus;
however, many more species are expected to occur at
the site and likely were not observed because they were
not active during the season in which the survey took
place. Additionally, 49 bird (36 endemic), 28 reptile and
5 amphibian species were documented. The prevalence
240
of reptiles in relation to amphibians suggests that the
site belongs to the western dry domain; however, the
presence also of typical rainforest species indicates the
transitional character of the forest corridor.
Logging, uncontrolled bush fires and clearing, and
hunting for bushmeat are the major threats to
Andrafiamena Forest. In the future, change in traffic
following the improvement of the national road from
Ambondromamy into Antsiranana may have a negative
effect on the forest as well. The conservation of this site
is a great hope for people surrounding Andrafiamena
Forest. The forest operates as a reservoir of water in
this region, so loss of this forest would significantly
decrease the amount of water available for irrigation.
Andrafiamena Forest also has great potential for
ecotourism which would benefit local populations. As
of 2010, Andrafiamena Forest is part of a complex of
forests being considered for incorporation in the New
Protected Areas system of Madagascar.
Contributed by Michele Andrianarisata and Harison
Randrianasolo
Human well-being
Solomon Islands
Rennell Island and Indispensable Reefs
June 15 – 26, 1994
Midnight snapper (Macolor macularis), adult phase
All photos © Paddy Ryan
© Paddy Ryan
S
ituated southeast of the main chain of the Solomon Islands, Rennell Island, Bellona Island, and
their sister reefs, the Indispensables, are located a
considerable distance from any of the country’s major islands. Rennell and Bellona are of special interest
because they are the world’s finest examples of uplifted atolls and contain the Pacific’s largest lake, Lake
Te-Nggano. The area of islands, lagoons and coral
reefs here covers approximately 128,000 hectares in
total. The islands of Rennell and Bellona are almost
identical in size and orientation to the Indispensable
Reefs complex, which constitutes the Solomon Islands’ largest tracts of coral reefs.
This MarineRAP survey, requested by the Rennell and
Bellona Provincial Government, had four main objectives: 1) assess and establish a baseline of information
on habitat types and biodiversity in these reef ecosystems; 2) assess the level to which reef ecosystems are
affected by human activities or natural disturbances;
3) assess and estimate the abundance of select species with particular importance as marine resources;
and 4) identify and assess sites of particular importance for the maintenance of biodiversity, ecological
viability and economic value among the fringing reefs
of Rennell Island and the Indispensable Reefs.
242
The MarineRAP survey assessed 15 study sites over
an estimated 17,000 ha of fringing reefs. A team of
seven scientists and officials led by the University of
Auckland Leigh Marine Laboratory in New Zealand
carried out surveys to describe the coral and fish
communities, and to obtain quantitative estimates of
coral cover, abundance of large fish, as well as stocks
of economically important shellfish and invertebrate
species (giant clams, pearl oysters, sea snails and sea
cucumbers).
Coral diversity at Rennell and the Indispensable
Reefs, a total of 194 species in 52 genera, is consistent with previously recorded diversities from the
Solomon Islands, although the habitats visited did
not include more turbid coastal locations. The reef
ecosystems of these areas are relatively pristine and
retain a high level of integrity.
Over 170 species of fish were recorded during the
survey, including 28 species of butterflyfish (Chaetodontidae) and 17 species of surgeonfish (Acanthuridae). The taxonomic composition of fish communities at the Indispensable Reefs and Rennell Island
was quite similar, with no clear patterns in fish species present at each site or the overall number of species recorded. Among the three families of demersal
reef fish that are the main targets of fishing activity
(groupers, breams and snappers), there is a consistent trend for more fish and larger fish to be found at
Indispensable Reefs than at Rennell Island.
A survey of the shellfish resources revealed that
many large and important species were either absent
or very rare. Sea snails in the genus Trochus were not
recorded anywhere at the Indispensable Reefs, while
among giant clams, the Saffron-colored Clam (Tridacna crocea), was found at Rennell Island only, the
Horse’s Hoof Clam (Hippopus hippopus) was seen in
low numbers at the Indispensables only, the Southern Giant Clam (Tridacna derasa, Vulnerable) was
rarely seen, and no live specimen of the Giant Clam
(Tridacna gigas, Vulnerable) was recorded during the
surveys. There is clear evidence of the impact of largescale removal of commercially valuable clam species.
This indicates that it would be timely for resource
owners to initiate a management plan for these reefs.
Coral reefs of this region are valuable as sources of
food and income, and as tourist attractions. The influence of human activities on Rennell and the Indispensables has begun to have observable impacts on
coral reef resources, despite the remaining integrity
and high diversity of marine species. The survey team
recommended that the sites warrant international
recognition for their high biodiversity, and that both
the Island and the Reefs should be nominated as a
World Heritage Site, should this be desired by the resource owners and the provincial Government. Also
recommended was the development of a communitybased management program for commercial shellfish species (including re-seeding and population
monitoring, particularly of giant clams) to ensure viability of future resources.
Bluestripe Snapper school (Lutjanus kasmira)
The MarineRAP results and recommendations were
used in the decision that inscribed East Rennell Island on the World Heritage List of Natural Sites in
1998 as the first such site in the South Pacific. This
illustrates how improving knowledge of biodiversity and marine resource use through RAP can bring
about meaningful conservation efforts.
Contributed by François Martel
Sea cucumber (Thelenota rubralineata)
All photos © Paddy Ryan
Saffron-colored Clam (Tridacna crocea)
243
Stories from the field...
I got to know RAP 6 years ago when I started my graduate studies in a Tibetan region. RAP came to
the Mountains of Southwest China, one of the 34 global biodiversity hotspots identified by Conservation
International, for an explorative journey with scientists from all over the world. We conducted a threeweek comprehensive survey in a remote mountainous Tibetan area in Sichuan Province, where I was
impressed by the crystal clear rivers, surrounding snow-capped peaks and great smiles on local Tibetan
faces. Later that year, I joined another RAP exploration on the southern slopes of the Himalayas in Nepal as an avian team member. Both surveys were part of Mission Himalayas, a scientific and outreach
collaboration between Conservation International, The Walt Disney Company and Discovery Network.
RAP offered me the greatest experience I ever had! It was the first time I worked with world class ornithologists, searching for birds in remote forests and alpine meadows for weeks. I learned how to make
“pishing” sounds to attract birds. I was astonished by groups of tits and warblers rushing towards us
when Hem Baral, the Nepalese bird specialist, imitated the call of the Collared Owlet. I clearly remember the fluttering of a tiny Yellow-rumped Honeyguide hunting for honey on a cliff hundreds-of-meters
high and the loud whistle of Chestnut-headed Tesias along the trail in the dense rhododendron forest. I
was like a little kid exposed to the great nature and suddenly seeing all these incredible creatures, excited
and anxious. It was also the first time I stayed with more than 20 scientists in the remote camps, listening
to their stories from around the world. I was learning new skills and techniques as well as from their
dedication to the scientific work, inspired and motivated.
The network that RAP built remains in China although the field journey has ended. Two new nature
reserves have been established following the recommendations from RAP. In 2007, the Rapid Biodiversity
Assessment Program aimed at exploring the biodiversity in China was founded by the Center for Nature and Society, Peking University. Another 4 rapid biodiversity assessments have been organized and
conducted in China, and more than 30 new species of plants, rodents, amphibians, and insects have been
discovered. I grew with RAP, beginning as a young student and local RAP participant and becoming a
scientist and organizer of the rapid assessments in China.
The Tube-nosed Fruit Bat and the hundreds of other species recently discovered in Papua New Guinea by
RAP remind us about “how much we still don’t know about Earth’s hidden secrets and important natural
resources”. Our planet is currently suffering a rapid biodiversity loss, and an unprecedented number
of species are threatened with extinction due to human pressure and global changes. RAP quickly collects valuable biodiversity data and uses this information to guide conservation efforts and raise public
awareness of the global decline in biodiversity. RAP lives by its motto So many species...So little time. I
would like to further develop this motto, adding So many contributions for RAP’s efforts building local
networks, and So much value for “safeguarding the unknown and as-yet undiscovered benefits that
nature provides.”
- Xiaoli Shen, Center for Nature and Society
Peking University, Beijing, China
244
Human well-being
New Caledonia
Northeast Lagoon (Touho to Ponérihouen)
November 14 – December 7, 2009
Red sea fan (Melithaea ochracea)
All photos © Pierre Laboute
Plate coral (Montipora sp.)
A
third MarineRAP survey was conducted in
New Caledonia along the northeast coast
from Touho to Ponérihouen. This region lies just
south of the area surveyed during the 2004 Mont
Panié MarineRAP expedition. Forty-eight sites
were assessed from Grand Récif Mengalia in the
north to Ugue Pass in the south. The inscribed
World Heritage marine cluster, Zone Côtière
Nord–Est, encompasses the area between Grand
Récif Mengalia and Cap Bayes Pass that is speckled with several uninhabited small islands and
cays. For the entire survey area, the corresponding incorporated municipalities included Touho,
Poindimié and Ponérihouen. There are 44 Kanak
tribes in this area comprising approximately 75%
of the population. Only the most southerly municipality surveyed, Ponérihouen has nickel mining
activity that occurs in Monéo and the neighboring
commune of Houaïlou. Therefore some of the reef
sites assessed are subject to sediment stress.
246
Similar in scope to two previous MarineRAP surveys, the main focus was to identify the biodiversity, critical species and areas for protection.
Forty-seven reef sites and one mangrove site
were surveyed. During scuba diving and snorkeling surveys, the scientists evaluated the biodiversity of fish, invertebrates (e.g., hard corals, nudibranchs or sea slugs, and starfish), commercially
important species (e.g., sea cucumbers and fish)
and the health of the site. Sea turtles were also observed and recorded during the survey. An in situ
evaluation of marine mammals was planned for
this survey, but unfortunately was cancelled due
to inclement weather. Nevertheless, a compilation
of various past marine mammal studies is to be
included in the final report. The socioeconomic
scientists conducted extensive on-site interviews
with the local stakeholders to assess their needs,
beliefs and concerns regarding marine resource
use. This included approximately 25 tribes or settlements living on the coast.
MarineRAP scientists documented remarkable
biodiversity with 338 coral and 433 fish species.
For corals, 25 species were documented to have
range extensions with the most notable being
that of Acropora rudis, a species only previously
reported from the Indian Ocean. Range extensions were also documented for fish: Chlorurus
japanensis (parrotfish) and Halichoeres richmondi
(Richmond’s Wrasse). The latter was first observed, but not verified during the Mont Panié
survey. Moreover, several species possibly new to
science (nine corals and 10 fish) were discovered
and are currently undergoing further study. For
other invertebrates, a total of 14 starfish and 21
nudibranch species were observed. For sea cucumbers, 18 species targeted by fishermen were
found with an additional five non-targeted spe-
cies. There were very few sightings of apex predators such as sharks, and no observations of large
size classes of commercially important fish species.
The condition of the reefs varied with a trend
for fringing reefs (those closest to shore) to be
the most impacted, especially by sedimentation
stress. Alarmingly, symptoms indicative of disease were noted on some corals (both hard and
soft) and sponges at just over half the sites visited. Three species of sea turtle, Hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), Green (Chelonia mydas), and
Loggerhead (Caretta caretta) are known from this
area. The last two species have been documented
to nest on the islets in the area. A review of sightings data for cetaceans (e.g., dolphins and whales)
in the Touho to Ponérihouen area confirmed that
nine of the 24 species known to be from New
Caledonia occur there.
Further study is recommended for several taxa
(e.g., sea cucumbers, clams, fish) to provide better estimates of species population over time. The
diagnosis and cause of the diseases noted on several of the reefs sites also warrants further investigation. As this survey finished recently (2009),
synthesis of the data is still in progress. Report of
the findings back to the local stakeholders is the
next step in continuing to develop realistic conservation and management measures.
Contributed by Sheila A. McKenna, Schannel van
Dijken, and François Martel
The socioeconomic component indicated that the
stakeholder tribes interviewed recognize the importance of their marine resources and the need
to protect them through various methods (e.g.,
fish catch quotas and no–take areas). Interviewees confirmed other observations made by the
MarineRAP team, including the problem of sedimentation degrading especially the fringing reefs.
Although sediment loading did not appear to be
as severe on the reef sites here as that observed
during the Yandé to Koumac MarineRAP survey,
the need to undertake activities to mitigate land
erosion and land run off is certainly required. Restoring the watershed by replanting native plants
is a recommended start. Sediment from road
based work was also mentioned by the stakeholders as contributing to the problem. This can be
lessened by placing sediment screens as a barrier
to collect the sediment before it reaches the reefs.
Restoring, maintaining and monitoring the watersheds of the three municipalities as part of an
integrated coastal zone management plan would
be most beneficial.
Clown fish (Amphiprion perideraion)
247
Human well-being
Papua New Guinea: Milne Bay Province I (September 27 – October 18, 1997)
M
ilne Bay, a poorly known region within the area
known as the ‘Coral Triangle,’ is a large maritime
province (~25 million hectares) of eastern Papua New
Guinea. It contains 1.3 million ha of coral reefs, much of
which is still in near pristine condition, unlike other areas
of the Indo-Pacific. Milne Bay Province is sparsely populated, but 70% of the population lives on the coast. Coastal
villagers are interested in maintaining their traditional
rights and artisanal fishing of their marine resources,
while finding ways to benefit from them economically. On
September 27, 1997, a MarineRAP team took off aboard
the Black Adder yacht to survey 53 sites that had been
carefully selected to maximize the number of different
habitats included in the sampling. The scuba-diving team
encountered 362 species of coral including 14 new species; 637 species of marine mollusks; and 1,039 species
of reef and shore fishes, three of which were new to science. Large marine vertebrates like sharks, dugongs and
turtles were abundant. Two members of the expert RAP
team documented higher diversity at these sites than anywhere they had ever surveyed previously! As a result of
this MarineRAP survey, Milne Bay Province was identified
by the RAP team as a valuable coral reef wilderness area.
RAP scientists recommended that Marine Protected Areas
(MPAs) and/or Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) be
established in Milne Bay Province because of its unusually high biodiversity coupled with traditional community
management and rights to these resources. They also suggested that steps be taken to reduce the effects of human
activities on the nearly pristine areas of the province, that
economic incentives be developed to support marine conservation, and that capacity be strengthened for monitoring and managing potential MPAs and WMAs. The results
of this RAP, reinforced by a second RAP survey in 2000,
generated initial conservation interest that led to a community-based coastal and marine conservation project,
which ran from 2003-2006. This project was instrumental
in raising awareness among communities about the value
of their marine resources, and the importance of their sustainable management.
Contributed by Jessica Deichmann and David Mitchell
Papua New Guinea: Milne Bay Province II (May 30 – June 24, 2000)
248
ncouraged by the incredible diversity observed
during the first MarineRAP survey of Milne Bay
Province in 1997, the Milne Bay Provincial Government
invited a second MarineRAP expedition in 2000 to document 57 additional sites in the province. Researchers
recorded 418 species of coral, confirming Milne Bay as
one of the richest places on the globe for corals. Much of
the observed coral cover was live, with 50% of reefs surveyed in good to extraordinary condition. The results of
this second MarineRAP survey increased the number of
mollusk species known from Milne Bay to 954 and the
number of fish species to 1,109, the highest fish diversity of any area previously surveyed in Melanesia. Abundant stocks of most edible reef fish were observed, but
stocks of giant clams and sea cucumbers appeared to
be depleted as a result of overharvesting. The RAP team
recommended continued education and awareness of
the area’s conservation importance. Based on the MarineRAP data collected in Milne Bay Province and followup work led by Conservation International, Community
Managed Marine Areas off the eastern tip of PNG have
been proposed. These areas, which are covered under
© Gerald Allen
E
Sea slug (Ceratosoma magnifica)
local management plans, will be monitored and formally recognized under the innovative Local Level Government law by 2011. Other coastal communities have
shown an interest in participating in this process for
managing their own marine resources. Since 2006 the
Milne Bay Seascape has been on PNG’s tentative list for
selection as a World Heritage Site.
Contributed by Jessica Deichmann and David Mitchell
Human well-being
Madagascar
Coral Reefs of the Northwest
January 11 – 26, 2002
Cushion star (Culcita sp)
All photos © Gerald Allen
C
oral reefs along Madagascar’s coast are best
developed in the northeast, far north, northwest and southwest. For this MarineRAP survey,
30 coral reef sites off the northwestern coast of
Madagascar were surveyed from 11 to 26 of January, 2002. The survey area extended along the
far northwestern coast from Nosy Hao, near the
northern tip of Madagascar, to Nosy Iranja, lying
approximately 220 km to the south. The main areas assessed included Andranomaimbo Bay, Cape
Saint Sebastian, Mitsio Islands, Nosy Be (including Sakatia and Nosy Tanikely), Ambavatoby Bay,
and Nosy Iranja. The charter dive boat “Inga Viola” served as a base of operations and individual
sites were accessed by a pair of small motor boats.
Sites for assessment were selected based on lack
of pre-existing biodiversity information in the
area, importance of the area for existing and proposed protected or managed areas and logistical
feasibility.
250
The main objectives were to assess 1) the biodiversity of three focal taxa (coral, mollusks and
fish) 2) fish targeted for consumption 3) the
health of the reef and 4) use, needs and concerns
of local communities for their marine resources.
Highlights of the survey included a total of 323
species of corals documented, of which nine were
new to science. A total of 525 species of mollusks
were recorded. Two new species of damselfish
(family Pomacentridae) were discovered among
the 463 total species of fish documented during
the survey. Fifty-five species of fish are targeted
by local fishermen. The majority of reef areas surveyed were in good condition. The most frequently observed damage was predation by the coral
predator Acanthaster planci or Crown of Thorns
Starfish. Evidence of overfishing and destruction
to mangrove trees was also observed in the survey area.
Recognizing that reefs can only be sustained and
managed when there is strong community-based
support, the community liaison team visited 15
villages in the survey area. Initial contacts were
made with the head of the village and approximately three to four fishermen from each village
were then interviewed. As expected, findings
indicated that fishing is important in all the villages with an estimated 60-75 % of adult males
engaged in this activity. Women fish from the
beach and participate in fish drying. Seasonal immigrant fishermen account for about 80% of the
fishing activity in the area. Fishing is mainly from
dugout canoes (with sails) and small motor boats.
The primary methods include hook and line, fish
traps, nets, and beach seines. There is a feeling
among fishermen that fish stocks are declining
both in size and abundance.
Based on biodiversity and aesthetic qualities,
three sites were identified as deserving special
conservation protection during the survey. These
included Nosy Hoa, Nosy Ankarea and Nosy Tanikely. Many species of fishes and corals not seen
during other portions of the RAP suvey were
recorded in Nosy Hoa. Near the northern tip of
Mitsio Island, Nosy Ankarea was an excellent site
with spectacular reef development full of fish,
and the above water scenery was equally impressive with steep cliffs, lush forest and white sand
beaches. The area is also a nesting ground for
the rare and endangered Madagascar Fish Eagle.
Nosy Tanikely was the best location in the Nosy
Be area, and although it does not have official
status as a reserve, it is “semi-protected” by local regulations. For example, no fishing is allowed
on the surrounding reefs. Interestingly, this level
of protection has been incredibly successful. The
density of fish around the island was the best observed at any locality during the RAP survey. This
is an excellent indication of the sort of results that
can be expected if certain key reef areas are set
aside as reserves and properly managed.
Periophthalma prawn goby (Amblyeleotris periophthalma)
In general, all sites appear to be of biological and
ecological importance and should be preserved.
Unlike many terrestrial sites in Madagascar, the
natural state of most reef habitats in the country
remains intact. Thus, there is a real opportunity
to protect and ensure the preservation of high levels of biodiversity. As of 2007, one of the surveyed
sites, Nosy Hara archipelago, received temporary
protection status. This area covers over 180,000
hectares and this new temporary protection status has brought wide publicity about the initiative
to establish a formal protected area at the site.
Contributed by Harison Randrianasolo, Sheila A.
McKenna, and Jean Maharavo
Pomacentrus caeruleopunctatus, a new species found
during the RAP survey
Nosestripe anemonefish (Amphiprion akallopisos)
251
Stories from the field...
After lugging 97 kilos of canned sauerkraut deep into the heart of the Surinamese rain forest, I decided
it was my duty to catch a fish or two. Of course, I pretended to be motivated only by scientific research,
and jokingly promised to deliver a new species for the fish biologists on the expedition. As our native Trio
guide steered the dugout canoe away from camp, the setting sun illuminated a giant kapok tree, crowned
by the brilliant rainbow of a passing thunderstorm. We scrambled onto a pair of large boulders in the
middle of the river and I tossed a hook baited with a chunk of piranha into the water.
I breathed in the musty air mingling from the river and the forest and began to tune into all five senses,
which had been dulled by too much time in Washington, DC. Clouds of aquatic insects rose wispily from
the river’s surface, taking to wing after months of life underwater. Deep, throaty croaks of gladiator
frogs (among the world’s largest tree frog species), punctuated the songs of thousands of crickets and
katydids. A spectral pair of glowing yellow eyes danced eerily amongst the dark trees at the water’s edge.
I recognized the lights as the sexual display of a large male click beetle, one of thousands of insect species
in the region, many of which remain undiscovered by scientists.
Just as I watched a meteoroid’s fiery plummet into the Earth’s atmosphere, I felt a quick tug at the
fishing line in my hand and instinctively yanked back. I excitedly pulled in a striped catfish with long
whisker-like barbels. The fish specialists informed me that the catfish was a new species for our current
expedition. The specimen was preserved for the museum collection, leaving my dinner plate free for extra
sauerkraut atop my rice that evening.
Although the catfish species was not new to science, our expedition discovered several previously unknown species, including fish and my own specialty, scarab beetles. RAP expeditions such as this have
uncovered hundreds of new species over the years, but we have a long way to go and not enough time. It’s
critical that we understand which species exist and where they live if we are to prevent them from going
extinct, a problem facing thousands of species in a rapidly changing world.
- Trond Larsen, Senior Research Scientist, Biodiversity Assessment
& Ecosystem Health, Conservation International
252
Human well-being
Brazil
Abrolhos Bank
February 11 – 28, 2000
Juvenile French angelfish (Pomacanthus paru)
All photos © Gerald Allen
O
ff the coast of Brazil, about halfway between
Rio de Janeiro and Salvador, a 200 km wide expansion of the continental shelf forms the Abrolhos Bank, an area comprised of small volcanic islands, coral reefs, mangroves, algae bottoms and
sea grass beds. Waters in the Abrolhos Seascape
are heavily affected by coastal runoff and riverine
inputs. Most marine areas affected by this kind of
turbidity cannot support high biodiversity; however, the Abrolhos Seascape is home to more corals and endemic reef fish than anywhere else in
the Southern Atlantic. Its mosaic of habitats along
with unusually high biodiversity make the Abrolhos an important focus for marine conservation.
254
Threats to this unique and vulnerable seascape
are ever-present and include illegal and overfishing, oil and natural gas exploitation, proposed
shrimp farming and coastal deforestation which
causes excess sedimentation to build up in the
water. A MarineRAP in February 2000 was one
step in CI’s strategy, in partnership with several
Brazilian governmental and non-governmental
organizations, to mitigate coastal and marine
environmental degradation in the Abrolhos. Part
of the Abrolhos Seascape (88,250 hectares) has
been protected in the Abrolhos Marine National
Park since 1983, but the majority of the region’s
biodiversity remained unprotected. One of the
main goals of the MarineRAP survey was to demonstrate the importance of the region for marine
conservation in Brazil and the Southern Atlantic.
The MarineRAP survey called attention to the re-
gion and the importance of the creation of other
Marine Protected Areas in the Abrolhos.
Nineteen MarineRAP expert scientists surveyed
45 sites within a diversity of reefal habitats in the
Abrolhos Bank. RAP scientists conducted underwater surveys of corals, fishes, algae, polychaete
(bristle) worms, mollusks and crustaceans. These
groups were selected as indicator species – those
which would help scientists determine the relative biodiversity and health of the surveyed sites
in the Abrolhos Bank.
RAP scientists recorded over 1,300 species, confirming Abrolhos as the South Atlantic’s most biodiverse marine domain. Some of the most interesting findings included the discovery of 17 new
mollusks and one new fish species. This MarineRAP survey also revealed 15 algae, two coral, 86
polychaete (95% of all polychaetes found on this
RAP survey), 23 crustacean and nearly 100 fish
species never before observed in the Abrolhos region. RAP scientists even observed three algae, 17
mollusks and 11 crustaceans that had never previously been seen in all of Brazil!
RAP experts recommended that the network of
protected areas in the Abrolhos should be expanded to include other key biodiversity areas.
Proper enforcement of protected areas and improved partnerships between the government,
non-governmental organizations and local com-
munities in planning and management of coastal
resources should also be established. They also
advocated for continued biological surveys in other areas of the Abrolhos to determine the source
and extent of environmental degradation in the
region.
Since the 2000 RAP survey, CI-Brazil’s Marine
Program has been working with local communities and the Brazilian government to design and
implement a conservation management plan for
and increase the number of protected areas in
the Abrolhos Seascape. Approximately 370,000
hectares have been effectively protected so far
through a series of multiple-use and no-take Marine Protected Areas.
Through a comprehensive monitoring program
initiated after the RAP survey, the diligent work of
CI-Brazil, CI’s Marine Management Areas Science
(MMAS) Program and other partners demonstrated the spillover contribution of no-take reserves
to maintaining stable fish populations and continuing to provide locals with the food resources
they have been depending on for generations. The
information provided by the MarineRAP survey
was critical for the creation of two additional extractive reserves in the region, adding 200,000
hectares to the Marine Protected Area network.
Additionally, using data accumulated from the
RAP survey and the MMAS Program, Abrolhos
Marine National Park was designated a Ramsar
site in 2010, joining the list of the world’s most
important wetlands. These are concrete examples
of how scientific data can contribute to biodiversity conservation outcomes.
Ocean surgeon (Acanthurus bahianus)
Bleny (Malacoctenus sp.) on reef coral (Mussismilia
hispida)
Contributed by Jessica Deichmann and Guillherme
Dutra
Firecoral (Millepora sp.)
255
Regional Profile: Venezuela
Record of RAP Surveys
2000 – 2008
256
Venezuelan Guyana region
© Conservation International/photo by Anabel Rial
Through six RAP surveys conducted in 2000 –
2008 in unexplored and threatened areas of
Venezuela, the RAP program has recorded and
distributed new data of global interest, and
created an indispensible biological reference
for the country.
The six RAP expeditions in Venezuela represent the greatest contribution to the knowledge of biodiversity and the threats it faces in
the country in recent history. In fact, they constitute the only examples of continued, multidisciplinary and inter-institutional evaluations of this dimension not only in Venezuela,
but also probably in the region. Taking into account that they studied difficult to access sites
which necessitated complex logistics, requiring large budgets and effective scientific and
logistic coordination, the program was a great
contribution as much in its development as in
its results.
The RAP surveys recorded some 5,000 species of
flora and fauna in six large river valleys in Venezuela (Table 1).
© Josefa C. Señaris
The RAP program in Venezuela
A new species of Anomaloglossus
257
Table 1. Species documented during Venezuela RAP surveys
Guiana Shield
Wilderness
Plants
Aquatic invertebrates
Fishes
Amphibians
Reptiles
Birds
Andes Hotspot
Caura
2000
Delta
2002
Ventuari
2003
Paragua
2005
Cuyuní
2008
Calderas
2008
399
N
357
589
480
579
95
130
9
>105
>110
>64
112
N
44
29
26
278
N
106
91
470
51
31
82
27
23
77
17
16
N
202
157
127
254
294
New regional records
116
50
20
66
19
296
New to science
11
14
15
7
14
Mammals
New VZ records
N
11
14
9
N
20
48
0
47
8
74
10
Rió Paragua
© Conservation International/photo by Anabel Rial
N - not included in the survey
N
258
Caura (2000)
Discovering unknown aquatic biodiversity and the
threats it faces, including overfishing, indiscriminate
use of natural resources, agricultural expansion and a
possible water diversion project in the upper Caura,
was the motivation for this first AquaRAP survey in
Venezuela. The results show an extremely rich aquatic
biodiversity within the watershed, including 10 decapod crustaceans and 278 fish species, 11 of which are
new to science.
© Giuseppe Colonnello
One of the most pristine watersheds in the world home of the Ye´kuana
Para Waterfall
Orinoco Delta - Gulf of Paria (2002)
Richness and productivity of the Orinoco Delta and
Gulf of Paria estuarine ecosystem
Channel and river mouth in the Orinoco Delta
© Conservation International/photo by Leeanne E. Alonso
The enormous productivity and biotic richness of the Orinoco Delta and Gulf of Paria estuarine ecosystem faces a
great threat: use of trawl nets for catching shrimp and fish.
Additional threats include deforestation within mangrove
forests and increased sedimentation caused by dredging.
RAP and CI-Venezuela partnered with ConocoPhillips on
an AquaRAP survey in the Orinoco Delta and the Gulf of
Paria. The survey highlighted high diversity in the region
with 30 species of decapod crustaceans, more than 100
fish species, 44 amphibians, 91 reptiles and approximately 200 species of birds. Additionally, in this region,
the Warao indigenous population is basically completely
dependent on these natural resources, which makes the
design of conservation programs for the sustainable use
of biodiversity an urgent priority. Recommendations from
this AquaRAP survey promoted the first aquatic biodiversity monitoring program in Venezuela with participation
from local communities (Creole and indigenous) in the
Pedernales, Mánamo, and Manamito river branches and
adjacent areas; this also established a basis for replication
of this program in the Macareo tributary and Punta Pescador, including monitoring of fishing grounds and aiming
for responsible use of aquatic resources in the Orinoco
Delta.
259
Orinoco - Ventuari (2003)
Two great rivers, one continental delta
© Josefa C. Señaris
The union of the Orinoco and Ventuari Rivers forms an
internal delta with islands of flooded moriche swamps,
savannas and a great variety of bodies of water, which
are unique habitats due to their distinct physiographic,
limnotic and biodiversity characteristics. This framework of pristine landscapes has a latent, but near and
dangerous threat: illegal mining in adjacent zones, including in Parque Nacional Yapacana itself. The RAP
survey of this continental delta revealed more than 500
vascular plants in coastal forests which provide habitat
for 29 species of amphibians, 51 reptiles and more than
150 birds. On the aquatic side, the survey uncovered
470 fish species – 13 new to science – and 14 decapods including one new species of shrimp. This makes
this delta one of the most species rich areas, in both
flora and fauna, in South America. This internal delta
is also home to 10 species of aquatic turtles and it still
maintains a significant number of threatened species
including the Orinoco caiman, the Arrau turtle and the
Yapacana poison dart frog. As recommended as a result of this AquaRAP survey, the Fundación La Salle de
Ciencias Naturales is currently developing a program
backed by the Venezuelan government and within the
framework of the Statutory Law of Science Technology
and Innovation, focused on the education and training
of local personnel to monitor turtle populations and
their sustainable use, including ex situ conservation actions like incubation of eggs and monitoring of mercury
contamination.
Ventuari River
Upper Paragua (2005)
260
The Paragua River is the main tributary to one of the
country’s major rivers, the Caroní, which supplies 70%
of the hydroelectric power in Venezuela. The upper basin of the Paragua River is one of the least known and
most pristine areas on the planet. The hydroelectric
potential of its rivers and its biological and cultural
diversity combine to make this a key area for priority
protection. The Upper Paragua RAP survey in 2005 revealed 16 species that were new to science: one plant,
four amphibians, one reptile and at least 10 fish. As a
result of the survey, there was a remarkable increase
in the knowledge of the region’s biodiversity, as well
as extensions of the known distributions of more than
60 species. The upper basin of the Paragua River
© Conservation International/photo by Anabel Rial
Three million hectares of life, culture and
hydroelectric potential
Ichún Waterfall
remains in almost pristine condition, with healthy
populations of threatened species. Nevertheless, the
growing mining activity in other areas of the basin
presents an imminent danger, not only for the natural biodiversity, but also for the native people of this
zone. Sapé speaking indigenous people still survive
here, but apparently there are no Uruak speaking
people remaining. This last group is in alarming
danger of disappearance and with it, a part of our
universal cultural heritage.
Upper Cuyuní (2008)
The threat of mining against what is still unknown
The Cuyuní RAP Documentary “El Dorado
existe”, (45 min. MiniDV Pro Digital) shows the
preparation, development and conclusion of this
extraordinary expedition in Venezuela.
Uey River Waterfall
© Conservation International/photo by Anabel Rial
The Cuyuní River valley includes approximately 10%
of Venezuela’s Guyanan region. Harboring great diversity resulting from the juxtaposition of species
from the Amazon, the Guyanas and the river valley
itself, it forms an important part of the extensive Essequibo River basin, shared with the country of Guyana. The biological richness of this area continues
to be threatened by small and large scale gold mining activities that have historically been carried out
in the zone. The Upper Cuyuní RAP survey in 2008,
conducted in partnership with Gold Reserve Inc.,
registered a high diversity of invertebrate, aquatic
and terrestrial vertebrate, as well as plant species,
despite the deforestation and degradation of the
river. The headwaters of the Cuyuní River, however,
remain in nearly pristine condition, protected by
the geography of the Sierre de Lema and the Parque
Nacional Canaima, but face the latent threat of invasion by illegal miners. The recommendations from
this RAP survey include developing a monitoring
plan for threatened species, mercury contamination
and deforestation; an action plan for environmental
education; and establishment of a biological station
to fulfill the imminent need for monitoring the biota
and the territory of the Cuyuní River Basin.
261
Calderas (2008)
A natural Andean conservation corridor,
unprotected and highly valuable
Shade-grown coffee plantations
© P. Soriano
The Ramal de Calderas comprises a strip of 547 km2
in the piedmont and the vertical llanos of the Venezuelan Andes. Its strategic value is fundamental given
its hydrologic resources and its potential as a natural
biological corridor capable of connecting adjacent protected natural areas (Sierra Nevada, La Culata and General Cruz Carrillo [Guaramacal] National Parks, Teta de
Niquitao-Güirigay Natural Monument and the Protective Zone of the hydrological basins of the Guanare, Boconó, Tucupido, La Yuca and Masparro rivers). Current
agricultural activities strongly threaten its forests and
its hydrologic potential. Continued work in this area
over four years and the results of this RAP survey of-
fered effective alternatives to stop the fragmentation of
wooded habitat as well as the consequential impacts of
fragmentation on human well-being. Creation of a conservation area, development of sustainable use of natural resources projects and initiation of conservation
education are currently in progress. The Ramal Calderas RAP survey incited the National Electric Corporation’s interest in the area as well as economic support
for the installation of the first GLORIA site for global
climate change monitoring in Venezuela. Also, Project
GEF Terrandina and the National Government support
the evaluation of biodiversity in shade coffee plantations, plantations that mix in natural landscape but still
conform to coffee production.
262
New Species Discovered
© Oscar Lasso-Alcalá
Sixty five species new to science were discovered (Table 2), thanks to the collaboration and team work
of a network of more than 50 scientists and 20 institutions with experience and commitment to the
work of biodiversity conservation under the RAP scheme.
© Oscar Lasso-Alcalá
Rivulus sape, a new species of killifish
© Oscar Lasso-Alcalá
A new species of Trichomycterus catfish
A new species of Astroblepus catfish
263
© Josefa C. Señaris
Gontaodes alexandermendesi, a new gecko species
Table 2. New species discovered during Venezuela RAP surveys
Caura RAP
2000
Delta RAP
2000
Ventuari RAP
2000
Paragua RAP
2005
Cuyuní RAP
2008
Calderas RAP
2008
Perija Mini
RAP 2008
Decapods
Decapods
Decapods
Flora
Fishes
Flora
Amphibians
Pseudopalaemon
Alpheus sp. 1
Macrobrachium
sp.
Ilex sp.
Rivulus sp. 1
Ilea sp.
Cochranella sp.
Apareidon sp.
Palaemonetes
sp.
Potamotrygon
sp.
Anomaloglossus
sp. 1
Trichomycterus
sp. 1
Astyanax sp.
Armases sp.
Brittanichthys sp.
Dendrosophus
sp.
Potamotrygon
sp. 1
Characidium sp.
Fishes
Aphyocharax sp.
Bryconops sp.
Harttia sp.
Imparfinis sp.
Moenkhausia sp.
Paravandellia sp.
Alpheus sp. 2
Upogebia sp.
Fishes
Potamotrygon
sp. 2
Fishes
Schizodon sp.
Serrasalmus sp.
Amphibians
Anomaloglossus
sp. 2
Cecilia; gen.
and sp.
Batrachoglanis
sp.
Brachyglanis sp.
Tricomycteridae;
gen. and sp.
Ituglanis sp. 2
Ituglanis sp. 1
Trichomycterus
sp. 1
Trichomycterus
sp 2
Aequidens sp.
Rivulus sape
264
Fishes
Astroblepus sp.
Amphibians
Lebiasina sp.
Laetacara sp.
Coespeletia
Erythrinus sp.
Hemiancistrus
sp.
Crenicichla sp.
Frailejón
Trichomycterus
sp. 1
Cyphocharax sp.
Paracanthopoma
sp.
Trichomycterus
sp. 2
Xanthosoma sp.
Fishes
Hoplias sp.
Trachelychthys
sp.
Rivulus sp. 2
Trichomycterus
sp. 2
Adenomera sp.
Aromobates sp.
Pristimantis sp.
Cryptobatrachus
sp.
Pristimantis
sp. 4
Pristimantis
sp. 5
CI-Venezuela and its closest scientific collaborators from the Fundación La Salle de Ciencias Naturales introduced additional elements to the RAP
program in order to optimize the information
gathered in the field. This information can also be
found in the following volumes of the RAP Bulletin
of Biological Assessment: 28 (Caura), 37 (Orinoco
Delta and Gulf of Paria), 30 (Ventuari), 49 (Paragua), 55 (Cuyuní) and 56 (Calderas).
© Conservation International/photo by Anabel Rial
What’s new about Venezuela RAP
surveys?
Venezuelan Guiana Shield
Local people: Surveys encouraged active participation from local communities, indigenous people
or farmers in the design, field work and formulation of recommendations for the responsible use
of resources and area, and continued monitoring.
Biodiversity use: Surveys included the study of
the use of wild flora and fauna by the local communities.
Context analysis: Surveys included socioeconomic aspects and valuation of natural resources.
The analyses were done under an ecosystemic
concept.
AquaRAP team members
© Bruce Holst
Key biodiversity areas (KBAs): Venezuelan scientists and CI together selected priority areas for
study based on KBAs, representing the holes in
biodiversity information and threats, and together they took charge of the technical and logistic
coordination of exploration of these areas.
RAP team meeting in camp
© Cesar Barrio-Amorós
Aqua-terrestrial RAPs: As of 2003, we have
united explorations in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, including transitional zones (estuaries
and deltas), using multidisciplinary teams from a
number of institutions, applying different methodologies that produce effective results within a
short time frame.
© Douglas Rodriguez-Olarte
Elements of RAP Surveys in Venezuela
Bibliographic Reference: The RAP Bulletin became a reference publication so that other authors that had not participated in the survey but
that had unpublished data on the area covered
RAP herpetologists at work
265
in the survey were invited to publish and divulge
this information in the RAP Bulletin.
National Fundraising: Financial support was obtained from public and private businesses in Venezuela, and important counterparts of associates
in Venezuela in order to complete the expeditions.
Continuity: The frequency and continuity of the
RAP program in Venezuela is maintained by an
attentive and enthusiastic Venezuelan team. We
recognize the extraordinary support by Conservation International and its allies toward the understanding and conservation of Venezuelan biodiversity and its global importance.
© Josefa C. Señaris
Threatened Species: Sixty-seven threatened species were detected during the six RAP surveys in
Venezuela. This information has allowed updates
Fishery resources
266
© David Ascanio
© Josefa C. Señaris
Fishery resources
Herpetologists examining specimens
and provided additional knowledge about species status for cases in which a species has rarely been
seen since its original description.
Table 3. Venezuelan Guiana Shield. List of threatened species observed on the RAP surveys
Species
Amaurospiza carrizalensis
Crocodylus intermedius
Minyobates steyermarki
Chiropotes israelita
Pteronura brasiliensis
Neusticomys venezuelae
Ateles belzebuth
Cochranella riveroi
Colostethus murisipanensis
Diclidurus ingens
Eleutherodactylus marahuaka
Geochelone denticulata
Inia geoffrensis
Trichechus manatus
Lonchorina fernandezi
Metaphryniscus sosae
Oreophrynella cryptica
Oreophrynella huberi
Oreophrynella macconnelli
Oreophrynella nigra
Oreophrynella quelchii
Oreophrynella vasquezi
Pauxi pauxi
Peltocephalus dumerilianus
Podocnemis erythrocephala
Podocnemis unifilis
Priodontes maximus
Speothos venaticus
Sphiggurus vestitus
Stefania riveroi
Stefania schuberti
Tapirus terrestris
Tepuihyla rimarum
Thripophaga cherriei
Podocnemis expansa
Myrmecophaga tridactyla
Podoxymys roraimae
Leopardus pardalis
Leopardus tigrinus
Leopardus wiedii
Panthera onca
Lontra longicaudis
Harpia harpyja
Morphnus guianensis
Podocnemis expansa
Category
IUCN 2007
CR C2a(ii); D
CR A1c, C2a
CR B2ab(ii)
EN A2cd; B2ab(i,ii,iii); C2a(i) EN B1ab
EN B1+2c
VU A2acd
VU D2
VU D2
VUA2c
VU D2
VU A1cd+2cd
VU A1cd VU C1
VU A2cd+3cd
VU D2
VU D2
VU D2
VU D2
VU D2
VU D2
VU D2
VUc2a(i)
VU A1acd
VU A1bd
VU A1acd
VU A2cd
VU C2a(i)
VU C2a
VU D2
VU D2
VU A2cd+3cd+4cd
VU D2
VU D2
LR/cd
NT
LR/nt
LC
NT
LC
NT
DD
NT
NT
LR/cd
Venezuela RED BOOK
DD
CR C2a(i)
EN B2ab(iii)
VU A2d
EN A2cd
DD
VU A2cd
NT
VU D3
DD
DD
NT
VU A2acde+3de
CR A2cd
EN A3c
NT
NT
VU D2
DD
VU D2
VU D2
VU D2
EN C2a(ii)
VU A2abd
NT
VU A2abcd
EN A2cd
VU A2c
VU C1
VU D2
NT
VU A2cd
VU D2
VU D2
CR A2abd
VU A2cd
VU D2
VU A2c
VU A2c
VU A2c
VU A1cd+2c;C1
VU A2c
VU C2a(ii); D1
VU C2a(ii); D1
CR A2abd
267
Table 4. Venezuelan Andes. List of threatened species observed on the RAP surveys
Species
Aburria aburri
Allobates humilis
Dendroica cerulea
Doryfera ludovicae
Dysithamnus leucostictus
Grallaria guatimalensis
Hyloscirtus platydactilus
Ichthyomys hydrobates
Leopardus sp
Lonchophylla robusta
Lontra longicaudis
Mannophryne cordillerana
Ochthoeca cinnamomeiventris
Odontophorus columbianus
Oryzoborus angolensis
Pauxi pauxi
Pristimantis yustizi
Rupicola peruviana
Scytalopus atratus
Speothos venaticus
Sphiggurus pruinosus
Terenura callinota
Tremarctos ornatus
Vermivora chrysoptera
Category
IUCN 2007
Venezuela RED BOOK
NT
VU
DD
NT
DD
DD
NT
DD
CA
VU
CA
VU
DD
NT
NT
DD
EN
DD
NT
NT
VU
VU
DD
EN
DD
VU
LC
NE
LC
NE
NT
LC
VU
LC
LC
LC
VU
NT
Capacity Building/Training
The RAP surveys fortified institutional capacity in Venezuela. More than 20 institutions and 50 national
scientists along with six invited foreign institutions participated in the six RAP surveys and some of
the national scientists were then invited on RAP surveys in other countries. The national press has
maintained interest in our results and partnerships have grown over the years.
© Simón Ortiz
A RAP scientist explaining mammal identification
268
Table 5. The evolution of RAP partners in Venezuela
Caura RAP
2000
Delta RAP
2002
Ventuari RAP
2003
Paragua RAP
2005
Cuyuni RAP
2008
Calderas RAP
2008
CI Vzla
CABS
UCV
CI Vzla
CABS
FLSCN
CI Vzla
CABS
FLSCN
CI Vzla
CABS
FLSCN
CI Vzla
CABS
FLSCN
CI Vzla
FUNDATADI
ULA
CoP
CoP
FMNH
ConocoPhillips
Vzla.
Fund. Cisneros
CVG-EDELCA
Gold ReserveBrisas del Cuyuni
ACOANA
E&E
UCV
FIU
ABT
Organización
Kuyujani
UCV
CoP
Fundación Terra
Parima
FIJBV
CoP
MPPA
A.C. Proiectum
IVIC
ABT
Fundación
Andigena
Fundación
Andigena
UCV
UNC
INPA
MBG
UNELLEZ
INTI
MPPAT- CIARA
PAT
ICAE
IVIC
FIU
IVIC
FLSCN
UCV
GEF
TERRANDINA
CI Vzla: Conservación Internacional Venezuela, CABS: CI’s Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, UCV Universidad Central
de Venezuela, FMNH: Field Mus. Nat. Hist. FLSCN: Fundación La Salle de Ciencias Naturales, E&E: Ecology and Environment,
CoP: Colección Ornitológica Phelps, FIJBV: Fund. Inst. Jardín Botánico de Vzla., CVG EDELCA: Corporación Venezolana de
Guayana, Electrificación del Caroní., MPPA: Ministerio del Ambiente, IVIC: Inst. Venezolano Invest. Científicas, ABT: Ascanio
Birding Tours, FIU: Florida International University, UNC: Universidad Nacional de Colombia, INPA: Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas
Amazónicas (Brasil), MBG: Missouri Bot. Gard., FUNDATADI: Fund. Agricultura Tropical y Desarrollo- Universidad de los Andes,
ULA: Universidad de los Andes, INTI: Instituto Nacional de Tierras, MPPAT-CIARA: Ministerio de Agricultura y Tierras- Fund.
Ciara, ICAE: Instituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Ecológicas.
© Simón Ortiz
Calderas RAP team
269
Conservation Impacts
Protected areas - More than 300,000 hectares
of protected forest in the most important
electricity-providing river basin in the country
The Alto Paragua RAP survey promoted the formation of the Paraguata National Park. This was
originally a project of EDELCA that CI-Venezuela
took over and carried out along with the National
Institute of Parks and the local indigenous communities. Currently all the necessary documentation is in the hands of the National Government so
that it can decide on the area’s official designation
as a National Park.
Conservation Priority Setting - Corridor
strategy - Understanding the global
importance of the site
The Andean RAP survey in Calderas confirmed
the conservation priority that this site has in
the Andes and affirmed our conservation proposal before national players. Projects already in
progress or ready to begin include 1) first GLORIA monitoring site for global climate change, 2)
Cooperativa Aromas de Calderas, 3) proposal for
a conservation area, 4) training natural history
guides and bird watchers, 5) Project GEF Terrandina – Evaluation of Shade Coffee Plantation Biodiversity and 6) rural community tourism.
Guiding Industry - Protecting the essential
270
The Upper Cuyuní RAP represented the first alliance with the mining industry in the country. Gold
Reserve Inc. and its branch, Compañía Aurífera
Brisas del Cuyuní, C.A., along with Conservation
International (CI) promoted the integral development of the influence of business operations in
the area. Gold Reserve Inc. is a mining company
that has worked more than 15 years in Venezuela.
This alliance with CI-Venezuela demonstrated the
possibility of carrying out concrete actions with
benefits for all sides: 1) a RAP survey in the previously unexplored upper Cuyuní river valley; 2)
an audiovisual documentary showing the biological potential of the area and the importance of its
preservation to the world; 3) a biodiversity moni-
toring plan based on the findings of RAP surveys;
and 4) a sustainable natural resource management plan. The final results convinced the mining
company of the RAP survey’s great impact, not
only in the extent of the results, but also in the
scope of the recommendations and the possibilities of putting them into practice.
Demonstrating links between species and
human well-being - To understand in order to
care for, to care for in order to survive
The Orinoco Delta and the Gulf of Paria RAP Bulletin made recommendations to administrators
and managers of the country’s continental and
marine fishery resources with respect to the
conservation of species utilized by humans. The
result was the immediate implementation of the
first scientific and community long-term monitoring program involving local participation of the
aquatic resources of the Orinoco delta: sustainable use through knowledge and for the good of
humankind. This experience with ConocoPhillips
Venezuela and the Fundación La Salle de Ciencias
Naturales was extrapolated to other areas of the
delta and coordinated later by other organizations and oil companies (StatoilHydro and Chevron) that used our recommendations and experience as an example.
The Ventuari RAP survey demonstrated the extraordinary richness of freshwater and terrestrial
turtles that inhabit this internal delta – 10 species.
Their overexploitation by the indigenous communities and Creoles of the area has prompted the
“Conservation and sustainable use of freshwater
Chelonians program”, an idea developed by the
current coordinators of the Fundación La Salle
de Ciencias Naturales with financial support from
the Organic Law of Science, Technology and Innovation (Ley Orgánica de Ciencia, Tecnología e
Innovación) of the state of Venezuela. This initiative, the only one of its kind in the country, works
in two geographic areas – the lower Rio Caura
river valley in Bolívar state and the confluence of
the Orinoco-Ventuari rivers in Amazonas – and
includes systematic monitoring of turtle populations, including the Arrau (Podocnemis expansa)
which is in danger of extinction. Currently, local
communities are being trained through work-
The success of the Rapid Assessment Program in
Venezuela was due to effective support from our
partners and confidence in our team, which permitted us to introduce new methods, make decisions based on local expertise, increase effectiveness in the field and produce more chapters with
previously unpublished information in the RAP
Bulletins.
© Josefa C. Señaris
shops and environmental sensitivity courses and
an ex-situ hatchery and nursery center is maintained which releases juvenile turtles at the end
of each year, all under the guise of responsible resource management on the part of the local communities – knowledge in action for conservation
and the well-being of humans.
Turtle hatchery and nursery centre
© Josefa C. Señaris
Contributed by Anabel Rial, Carlos A. Lasso,
J. Celsa Señaris, and Ana Liz Flores
School children helping to release community-reared
juvenile turtles
© Conservation International/photo by Anabel Rial
Cooperativa Aromas de Caldera
271
Regional Profile: Indonesia
Bird’s Head Seascape
2001 – 2009
272
Patrol vessel FRS Monaco, purchased with funds raised by “Blue Auction”
© J. Rotinsulu
Over the past decade, CI conducted a series of three
ground-breaking MarineRAP surveys in the Bird’s
Head Seascape (BHS) of Indonesia, including the Raja
Ampat MarineRAP (March-April 2001; McKenna
and Rylands 2001; McKenna et al. 2002), Teluk
Cenderawasih MarineRAP (February 2006), and the
Fakfak-Kaimana Coastline MarineRAP (April-May
2006). These surveys, augmented by a Raja Ampat
rapid ecological assessment by partner The Nature
Conservancy in November 2002 and five follow-up
reef fish surveys across the BHS between 2007-2009,
have shown conclusively that this area ranks as a top
global priority for marine conservation and served
as a catalyst to initiate one of CI’s largest marine
investments to date.
© Gerald Allen
Summary of Bird’s Head Seascape, Indonesia
MarineRAP results
Endemic goby (Calumia papuensis)
These MarineRAP surveys also revealed an area of
incredible endemism – otherwise considered rare
in the marine realm. Approximately 40 new coral
species were discovered on the BHS RAP surveys,
most of which appear endemic to the seascape. Of the
world record 57 species of stomatopod crustaceans
recorded during the RAP surveys, 11 are new and
eight of these appear endemic to the BHS. Among reef
fishes, the BHS is home to at least 31 endemic species,
29 of which were discovered during these surveys
and have now been described (Table 1).
Endemic jawfish (Opistognathus rufolineatus)
© Gerald Allen
Taken together, the results of these surveys clearly
indicate that the Bird’s Head Seascape sits at the
global epicenter of known shallow-water marine
biodiversity. In synthesizing the survey results, Allen
and Erdmann (2009) record a total of 1,511 species of
BHS coral reef fish from 451 genera and 111 families
(that total has now risen to over 1,600 species!)
– easily the highest diversity ever recorded for an
area of this size. Similarly, in their comprehensive
delineation of the Coral Triangle region, Veron et al.
(2009) highlight the BHS as the only coral ecoregion
in the world to reach nearly 600 hard coral species
– approximately 75% of the global coral species
complement.
© Conservation International/photo by Mark Erdmann
Biodiversity Results
The walking shark “Kalabia” (Hemiscyliium galei),
an international media celebrity!
273
© Gerald Allen
Endemic tilefish (Hoplolatilus erdmanni)
Table 1: New Reef Fish Species described from CI’s Bird’s Head MarineRAP and related surveys
Apogon leptofasciatus Allen, 2001
Apogon oxygrammus Allen, 2001
Chromis athena Allen & Erdmann, 2008
Raja Ampat
Chrysiptera arnazae Allen, Erdmann & Barber, 2010
Diancistrus niger Schwarzhans, Moller & Nielsen, 2005
Eviota raja Allen, 2001
Pentapodus numberii Allen & Erdmann, 2009
Pseudochromis sp.n. Gill, Allen & Erdmann, in press
Pseudochromis matahari Gill, Allen & Erdmann, 2009
Calumia eilperini Allen & Erdmann, 2010
Calumia papuensis Allen & Erdmann, 2010
Chromis unipa Allen & Erdmann, 2009
Teluk Cenderawasih
Cirrhilabrus cenderawasih Allen & Erdmann, 2006
Hemiscyllium galei Allen & Erdmann, 2008
Paracheilinus walton Allen & Erdmann, 2006
Pictichromis caitinae Allen, Gill & Erdmann, 2008
Pseudanthias charlenae Allen & Erdmann, 2008
Pterocaesio monikae Allen & Erdmann, 2008
Pterois andover Allen & Erdmann, 2008
Chrysiptera giti Allen & Erdmann, 2008
Corythoichthys benedetto Allen & Erdmann, 2008
Hemiscyllium henryi Allen & Erdmann, 2008
Fak Fak – Kaimana Coastline
Heteroconger mercyae Allen & Erdmann, 2009
Hoplolatilus erdmanni Allen, 2007
Manonichthys jamali Allen & Erdmann, 2007
Opistognathus rufilineatus Smith-Vaniz & Allen, 2007
Paracheilinus nursalim Allen & Erdmann, 2008
Pomacentrus fakfakensis Allen & Erdmann, 2008
Pseudochromis jace Allen, Gill & Erdmann, 2008
274
While the MarineRAP surveys certainly succeeded
in revealing the tremendous marine biodiversity of
the Bird’s Head Seascape, their overall conservation
impacts in the region have far surpassed simple species lists, and they continue to play a catalytic role to
this day.
As a direct result of the BHS RAP surveys, a total of
seven new MPAs totaling over 1.7 million hectares
in area were gazetted (six in Raja Ampat and one in
Kaimana). Combined with existing MPAs in the seascape, the BHS now boasts a network of 10 MPAs
nearly 3.6 million hectares in total area – over onethird of the entire Indonesian national MPA system.
Importantly, the Cenderawasih RAP survey also resulted in a significant increase in annual budget allocation to Teluk Cendrawasih National Park and reinvigorated park rangers with a new sense of pride
in their work.
© Burt Jones
Even today, as the individual MPAs in the BHS network strive to complete their management and zonation plans, data from the BHS RAP surveys continue to be a primary driver – especially information
on habitat type distribution, location of spawning
aggregation sites and turtle nesting beaches, and genetic connectivity between reefs. A comprehensive
analysis of coral community types conducted using the data collected from the three BHS RAP surveys has provided a clear blueprint for designing an
overall zonation system for the MPA network which
prioritizes representation of all community types in
strict protection zones.
Marine conservation education vessel MV Kalabia also
funded by the “Blue Auction”
Positive publicity from the BHS RAP surveys (which
were covered in hundreds of newspapers, magazines and TV news programs around the world and
reached an estimated 50 million people in the US
alone) produced a dramatic increase in the awareness and pride of community members and local and
national governments of the unique natural heritage
in the Bird’s Head. This in turn has ensured that BHS
MPAs are prioritized in spatial plans and annual governmental budget allocations.
This widespread publicity was also a key factor in
the success of the “Blue Auction”, wherein the naming rights to 10 new fish species discovered during
the BHS RAP surveys were auctioned off in a charity
auction in Monaco. The auction, hosted by Prince Albert of Monaco, raised just over $2 million in funding
for three priority marine conservation programs in
the Bird’s Head.
The media buzz created by the BHS RAP surveys was
also responsible for launching the rapid expansion
of marine tourism in the seascape. Prior to the 2001
Raja Ampat MarineRAP survey, less than 300 guests
visited the seascape each year and were limited to
a choice of one eco-resort and one live-aboard dive
vessel; in 2010, Raja Ampat alone will host over 4000
guests and there are now six eco-resorts and at least
25 live-aboard dive vessels offering itineraries in the
BHS (and hundreds of local jobs to coastal communities). Importantly, CI has helped local governments
to devise a tourism entrance fee system which now
collects approximately $200,000/year, proceeds of
which fund an urgently-needed healthcare program
for pregnant and nursing mothers in Raja Ampat.
© Burt Jones
Conservation Impacts
Children learning on board MV Kalabia
275
© Burt Jones
High fish biomass in the Bird’s Head Seascape
Data from the BHS RAP surveys have also been
used in developing national and regional policies.
In late 2009, Indonesia’s Ministry of Marine Affairs
and Fisheries asked CI to lead a national process to
define geographic priorities for marine biodiversity
conservation. Using data from the BHS RAP surveys
and other similar assessments conducted across
the Indonesian archipelago, an expert team of 20
marine taxonomists concluded that the BHS is the
number one priority region nationally for marine
conservation investment by the government. These
prioritization results are now directly influencing
both national budget allocations and investments
by international development assistance programs
including those in the six-country, multi-donor
Coral Triangle Initiative.
276
Taken in total, the influence of these three
strategic MarineRAP surveys in the Bird’s Head
has far surpassed expectations, leading directly
to development of the largest MPA network in
Indonesia and a conservation investment in the
BHS of nearly $25 million over the past 9 years by
a wide range of donors. Based on this experience,
CI-Indonesia adheres strictly to the principle that
any proposed expansion of our work in other
areas of Indonesia must begin with a properlyconducted MarineRAP survey as the basis of all
future conservation investment in that area.
Literature Cited
Allen G.R. and M.V. Erdmann. 2009. Reef fishes of the
Bird’s Head Peninsula, West Papua, Indonesia.
Check List: Journal of Species Lists and Distribution
5: 587-628.
McKenna S.A., G.R.Allen and S. Suryadi (eds). 2002.
A marine rapid assessment of the Raja Ampat
Islands, Papua Province, Indonesia. RAP Bulletin
of Biological Assessment 22. Center for Applied
Biodiversity Science, Conservation International.
Washington, DC, USA.
McKenna S.A. and A.B. Rylands. 2001. Unparalleled
species richness found on the coral reefs of Raja
Ampat Islands. Oryx 35:355.
Veron J.E.N., L.M. Devantier, E. Turak, A.L. Green, S.
Kininmonth, M. Stafford-Smith and N. Peterson.
2009. Delineating the Coral Triangle. Galaxea:
Journal of Coral Reef Studies 11: 91-100.
Contributed by Mark Erdmann
Regional Profile: Madagascar
1997 – 2010
Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris)
© Conservation International/photo by Sterling Zumbrunn
277
© Conservation International/photo by Russ Mittermeier
Introduction
Baobab trees
During the past 15 years, terrestrial and marine
rapid biological assessments have been undertaken in Madagascar. Terrestrial assessments include those in the Réserve Naturelle Intégrale of
Ankarafantsika (February 1997), the Mantadia
Zahamena Corridor (November 1998 - January
1999), the Special Reserve of Bora (August 1999),
the Special Reserve of Tampoketsa Analamaintso
(September 1999), the Special Reserve of Marotandrano (September 1999), the Classified Forest of Bongolava (December 2004), the Nosivolo
River (December 2006) and the Andrafiamena
Forest (June 2007). Marine assessments include
those in the North West (January 2002) and
North East (2006 and 2010) part of the islands.
Other biological inventories have been funded
by Conservation International and carried out by
partners, including ZICOMA in Mahavavy Kinkony
Complex (2002), Missouri Botanical Garden in
the Mountain of Ibity and Itremo (2004), Institute
for the Conservation of Tropical Environments in
the Classified Forest of Vondrozo (2005), and The
Peregrine Fund (2008) in the Complex of Bemanevika.
© Piotr Naskrecki
Biodiversity
© Conservation International/photo by Haroldo Castro
Madagascar treefrog (Boophis luteus)
The island of Madagascar is home to five endemic
plant families and about 14,000 plant species, of
which nearly 90% are endemic (Ramananjanahary et al. 2010). Primate biodiversity and endemism are also very high, placing Madagascar
among the world’s highest priorities for primate
conservation: 99 species and subspecies are all
endemic (Mittermeier et al. 2008). There are five
endemic families of birds with 209 breeding species, of which 51% are endemic to Madagascar
(Goodman and Hawkins 2008). In addition, there
are 370 species of reptiles (Glaw and Vences
2007) and Madagascar’s amphibians are almost
entirely unique to the country, with 244 species
of which 99% are endemic (Vieites et al. 2009).
The discovery of species new to science is one of
the strengths of the RAP process (McKenna et al.
2005, Schmid and Alonso 2005). Sometimes species long considered extinct in the wild are rediscovered (Randrianasolo et al. 2009).
Madagascar Moon moth (Aegema mittrei)
278
© Olivier Langrand
Degraded landscape in the highlands
The Rapid Assessment Program (RAP) can collect
maximum information at a given site in a very limited time. Various characteristics of each habitat
type and threats are noted and flora and fauna species are identified and recorded. One problem is
that sometimes it takes time for foreign researchers to send the results of their study, especially taxonomic identifications, back to the country. However, data collected through the RAP are extremely
valuable for conservation because they are quickly
available and usable for decision-making.
Conservation Impacts
The areas of global importance for conservation
of wildlife must be well identified, but the information required is not always available because
some areas are inaccessible and therefore are not
assessed adequately. The lack of data in the form
of taxonomic inventories is a problem, especially
for tropical ecosystems.
The results of the assessment are applied to conservation in different ways, including the expansion of known extent of occupation of a given species (for example - Mantella cowani, Critically Endangered; Prolemur simus, Critically Endangered);
identifying an area of priority for conservation
because of the presence of exceptional biodiver-
sity (rare, endemic, vulnerable, and/or restricted
range species); and also the justification for an extension or a creation of a new protected area.
Contribution to IUCN status assessment
Population trends and species distributions are
part of the criteria used to determine whether a
species is threatened or not (IUCN Standards and
Petitions Working Group 2008). The geographic
range of the species and the level of habitat fragmentation can be identified through a RAP survey.
The different RAP surveys conducted and the results of various research projects generate an idea
of the distribution of a given species. Such information is crucial in the mechanism of evaluating
the conservation status of species of fauna and
flora through the IUCN process. Some examples
of evaluations for which RAP results were used
directly or indirectly for Madagascar include: i)
Global Amphibian Assessment (IUCN et al. 2006);
ii) Global Mammal Assessment (Shipper et al.
2008); iii) Fish Assessment (Scheduled October
2010); iv) Reptile Assessment (Scheduled January 2011); and v) Plant Species Assessment by
the Madagascar Plant Specialist Group (GSPM).
Results of these assessments have been used for
identifying sites of biological importance (Rasoavahiny et al. 2008).
279
© Conservation International/photo by Sterling Zumbrunn
Documentation of the ocean’s hidden
biodiversity
© Conservation International/photo by Haroldo Castro
The Endangered Coquerel’s Sifaka (Propithecus coquereli)
MarineRAP helps by recording species that take
refuge in the coral reefs, and evaluating the health
and state of the reef. It is also used to assess
tourism potential, to identify causes of marine
biodiversity degradation, to assess stocks of
marine resources (commercial fish, octopus, etc.),
to establish an indicator for monitoring the status
of biodiversity, and finally to propose a measure
of conservation based on scientific data collected
during underwater observations.
Identification of Key Biodiversity Areas
It is difficult to attempt to conserve all the
threatened species in a protected area without
knowing in advance their distribution and
abundance in different parts of the island. RAP
surveys provide essential information on the
presence and distribution of species in a given
site. The concept of Key Biodiversity Areas (KBA)
was designed to identify appropriate sites for
biodiversity conservation (Eken et al. 2004).
The approach is to identify the location of the
most endangered species in the world; actions
in conservation efforts and priorities should
then be focused in these areas. For Madagascar,
164 terrestrial KBA sites have been identified
throughout the island, hosting 532 globally
threatened species (IUCN 2008).
Following a rapid biological assessment of a given site, zoning can be performed. The core of the
protected area is the area requiring absolute protection, and areas with lower biodiversity will be
the buffer zone. Currently about 60 of these KBAs
have official protection status (temporary or permanent protection). Forty of these sites have received technical and financial support from Conservation International.
The Endangered Diademed Sifaka (Propithecus diadema)
280
© Conservation International/photo by Sterling Zumbrunn
Marine diversity in northeast Madagas-
Protected areas and their role in mitigation of the
effects of climate change
The forest, in addition to its biological and ecological
significance, provides many ecosystem services. The
forest serves as a water reservoir and it also absorbs
carbon dioxide which mitigates the effects of climate
change. As an example, in the Zahamena-Mantadia
corridor known also as the Ankeniheny Zahamena
corridor, reforestation and restoration contributes
to mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration: a) reforestation of 1,100 hectares of
native forest will sequester carbon and b) the maintenance of forest cover through the protection of the
forest corridor of 371,000 hectares will help avoid
carbon dioxide emissions from deforestation. The
local community benefits directly from payments
for these ecosystem services.
Limiting or prohibiting deforestation (by creating
a protected area, for example) can help species to
adapt to climate change. Restoration will reconnect
forest fragments and expand habitat for many species. This forest can then serve as a bridge in the
case of any biological habitat modification.
Creation of a Ramsar site
The scientific studies made by the Department
of Animal Biology, University of Antananarivo in
partnership with Conservation International and
the South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity
(SAIAB) have concluded that the Nosivolo river is
very important in terms of biodiversity. Nosivolo
is home to at least 19 endemic species of fish,
four of which are locally endemic, including: the
Katria (Ptychochromoides katria, Vulnerable), the
Songatana (Oxylapia polli, Critically Endangered)
and two more undescribed species of Madagascar
Rainbowfish (Bedotia and Rheocles).
The Secretariat of the Ramsar Convention and
the Ministry of Environment and Forests in
Madagascar have just declared the Nosivolo River
as the seventh Ramsar Site in Madagascar and
the first river in the country to be included in this
international convention. This new Ramsar site of
358,500 hectares includes the Nosivolo River and
its watersheds.
281
Summary
© Conservation International/photo by Russ Mittermeier
Families of Malagasy fisherman
282
Species records for any natural site will be useful
for promoting biodiversity and local community
awareness. The availability of information on the
presence and distribution of fauna and flora in a
given site can leverage conservation and promote
ecotourism. There was a considerable increase in
tourism infrastructure in Andasibe, from three
hotels in 1994 to eight in 2010.
© Conservation International/photo by Sterling Zumbrunn
The Rapid Assessment Program (RAP), a scientific tool performed by CI and its partners, has contributed to biodiversity conservation in Madagascar. It has served as a lever for investment. In the
Ankeniheny Mantadia Zahamena Corridor, CI and
donors such as USAID have supported activities
leading to the creation of a new protected area.
The tourism sector should benefit from the presence of charismatic species typical of a region.
Ambodivahibe coral reef
© Piotr Naskrecki
Giant Leaf-tailed Gecko (Uroplatus fimbriatus)
CI freshwater team releasing Erymnochelys madagascariensis
© Conservation International/photo by Haroldo Castro
Eken G., L. Bennun, T.M. Brooks, W. Darwall, L.D.C. Fishpool, et al. 2004. Key biodiversity areas as site conservation targets. BioScience 54: 1110-1118.
Goodman S.M. and A.F.A. Hawkins. 2008. Les oiseaux. Pp
383-434 in Goodman S. M. (ed). Paysages Naturels
et Biodiversité de Madagascar. Muséum National
d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
Glaw F. and M. Vences. 2007. A field guide of the amphibians and reptiles of Madagascar, 3rd edition. Vences
& Glaw Verla, Cologne.
IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
<http://www.iucnredlist.org/>.
IUCN, Conservation International and Nature Serve.
2006. Global Amphibian Assessment. <http://
www.iucnredlist.org/initiatives/amphibians>.
IUCN Standards and Petitions Working Group. 2008.
Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories
and Criteria. Version 7.0. Prepared by the Standards
and Petitions Working Group of the IUCN SSC Biodiversity Assessments Sub-Committee in August
2008.
McKenna S.A., G.R. Allen and H. Randrianasolo (eds).
2005. Une évaluation rapide de la biodiversité marine des récifs coralliens du Nord-Ouest de Madagascar. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 31.
Conservation International. Washington, DC, USA.
Mittermeier R.A., J.U. Ganzhorn, W.R. Konstant, K. Glander, I. Tattersall, et al. 2008. Lemur diversity in
Madagascar. International Journal of Primatology
29: 1607-1656.
© Alain Andriamamonjisoa
Literature Cited
Pachypodium sp from the Madagascar spiny forest
283
© Conservation International/photo by Haroldo Castro
© Olivier Langrand
Parson’s Chameleon (Calumma parsonii)
© Conservation International/photo by Sterling Zumbrunn
The Near Threatened Tomato Frog (Dyscophus antongilii)
284
Randrianasolo H., L. Alonso, M. Andrianarisata, J. Maharavo, N. Rabibisoa, D. Rakotondravony, L. Ramiandrarivo and V. Randrianjafy. 2009. Définir l’évaluation biologique rapide (RAP): Outil scientifique fondamental dans le processus de création d’une aire protégée.
Pp 185-204 in Triplet P. (ed). Manuel de gestion des
aires protégées d’Afrique francophone. Awely, Paris.
Ramananjanahary R.H., C.L. Frasier, P.P. Lowry II, F.A. Rajaonary and G.E. Schatz. 2010. Madagascar’s Endemic
Plant Families Species Guide. Missouri Botanical Garden. Antananarivo , Madagascar.
Rasoavahiny L., M. Andrianarisata, A. Razafimpahanana
and A.N. Ratsifandrihamanana. 2008. Conducting an
ecological gap analysis for the new Madagascar protected area system. Pp 12-21 in P. Goriup (ed). IUCN.
Gland, Switzerland.
Schipper J., J.S. Chanson, F. Chiozza, N.A. Cox, M. Hoffman,
et al. 2008. The status of the world’s land and marine
mammals: Diversity, threat, and knowledge. Science
322: 225.
Schmid J. and L.E. Alonso (eds). 2005. Une évaluation biologique rapide du corridor Mantadia-Zahamena,
Madagascar. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment
32. Conservation International. Washington DC, USA.
Vieites D.R., K.C. Wollenberg, F. Andreone, J. Köhler, F. Glaw
and M. Vences. 2009. Vast underestimation of Madagascar’s biodiversity evidenced by an integrative amphibian inventory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106: 8267–8272.
Contributed by Harison Randrianasolo, Luciano
Andriamaro, Zolalaina Rakotobe, and Leon
Rajaobelina
Regional Profile: New Guinea
The best (and most difficult) place for RAP expeditions
1996 – 2010
Rugged southern slopes of the Foja Mountains,
Papua Province, Indonesian New Guinea
© Conservation International/photo by Stephen Richards
285
CI’s RAP survey program in mainland New Guinea
began in the Lakekamu Basin of southern Papua
New Guinea in 1996, but New Guinea was home
to RAP-style expeditions long before that. Some of
the first RAP-style field surveys anywhere in the
world were those of the Archbold Expeditions to
New Guinea from 1933 to 1976. These expeditions, which penetrated deep into what is now Indonesian New Guinea in the west, and Papua New
Guinea in the east, brought together teams of experts to intensively survey remote and biologically important areas that were poorly known. The
Archbold expeditions pioneered the use of support aircraft, a feature that is almost standard for
any terrestrial RAP now. When CI’s RAP program
began working in New Guinea, the information
accumulated by the Archbold Expeditions and a
handful of surveys by other museums was still
pretty much the state of knowledge for the entire
region. New Guinea was, and remains, one of the
poorest-known major terrestrial biotic provinces
in the world. Little is known of New Guinea for
a good reason - even with support from aircraft,
it is incredibly difficult for even a lone biologist,
much less a RAP team, to access many parts of the
island. There is little infrastructure within large,
rugged and sparsely-populated blank spaces on
the map. In terms of biology New Guinea is an
ideal place for RAP surveys, but in terms of logistics it can be the toughest.
© Conservation International/photo by Stephen Richards
Background
Striped Possum (Dactylopsila trivirgata), Muller Range
New Guinea is the world’s largest and highest
tropical island. Best known biologically for its
spectacular birds of paradise, egg-laying mammals and tree-climbing kangaroos, the region is
also part of the famous ‘coral triangle’, harboring
spectacular and diverse marine ecosystems. The
rich diversity of New Guinea’s plants and animals,
and the relatively high proportion of its forests
that remain intact led to the island’s recognition
as a High Biodiversity Wilderness Area, one of
just five such areas on earth.
286
To better understand this diversity, Conservation
International’s Rapid Assessment Program has
conducted nine terrestrial RAP surveys across
the island. Results of these surveys consistently
© Conservation International/photo by Stephen Richards
Biodiversity Results
Undescribed microhylid frog (Oreophryne sp.), Muller
Range
Terrestrial RAP surveys have also documented
many hundreds of new species including dozens
of plants, hundreds of insects and spiders, more
than 50 frogs, several new mammals and the first
new bird species discovered in New Guinea for
nearly 70 years (Beehler et al. 2007).
Of course most of these species were already
known to the local Papua New Guineans who are
enormously knowledgeable regarding their local
flora and fauna, particularly about species that
have cultural or dietary significance. As a result
local communities have always added considerably to the knowledge base of RAP researchers
who visit their lands.
Conservation Outcomes
In a society where local communities own the land
and its resources, and where cultural and linguistic
diversity rival the region’s rich biodiversity, conservation outcomes will differ from those strived
for in the west. While the documentation of spectacular biodiversity and new species is unlikely
to result in the formal protection of critical habitats in New Guinea, the presence of RAP scientists
gives rise to interest within the local communities
about the flora and fauna of a surveyed area. Modi
Pontio, former Country Director of CI-Papua New
Guinea, reflects that “Growing up in the village,
we often do not recognize the value of the animals
and plants around us; we take that for granted, but
Burying beetle (Nicrophorus sp.), Nakanai Mountains,
Papua New Guinea
© Conservation International/photo by Stephen Richards
Juvenile tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus inustus), raised by
villagers at Kwerba Village, Foja Mountains
© Conservation International/photo by Stephen Richards
Numerous new fish and invertebrate species
were discovered during MarineRAP expeditions
around New Guinea, including 10 species reported in a single publication dedicated to the
description of new fishes discovered in the Bird’s
Head region in 2006 (Erdmann 2008).
Male King Bird of Paradise (Cicinnurus regius), Tualapa,
Papua New Guinea
© Piotr Naskrecki
reinforce the fact that New Guinea’s biodiversity
remains among the poorest documented anywhere. Several MarineRAP surveys have identified reef ecosystems in Milne Bay and in the Bird’s
Head Seascape around the Raja Ampat islands as
among the most diverse in the world, focusing international attention on this globally significant
marine realm.
Burying beetle (Nicrophorus sp) Nakanai Mountains RAP
survey, East New Britain
287
© Conservation International/photo by Stephen Richards
Lake Tawa, Kaijende Highlands, Papua New Guinea
when somebody comes from a long way and shows
an interest in a plant or animal, that raises the importance of the plant or animal and as a result we
(communities) start to value the plant or animal.”
RAP information is also very useful in raising the
profile of a site. Good examples are Milne Bay
where RAP expeditions recorded 1,300 of the
1,400 species of reef fish known from PNG and
found that Nuakata holds the highest fish and
mollusk diversity in PNG; and the Foja Mountains
of Indonesia’s Papua Province where reports of a
‘Lost World’ generated enormous interest globally in New Guinea’s poorly-known biodiversity.
RAP results have helped CI to secure funding for
focal conservation sites in the region by informing our partners about the importance of the contribution they are making to biodiversity conservation. For example support from Porgera Joint
Venture for conservation activities in the Kaijende Highlands has continued to flow partly due
to an improved understanding of the biological
importance of the area following the 2005 RAP
survey. Data collected during the 2005 Kaijende
RAP expedition are currently being used in a GIS
modeling project to help define the boundaries of
a proposed protected area in this vast montane
wilderness area.
288
The RAP program in New Guinea has provided
the opportunity for local scientists to work along-
side, and learn from, world class international
scientists. These capacity building opportunities
are invaluable for a region that is still developing
its own local scientific capacity. Many long-term
collaborations between foreign and PNG scientists and students have begun with RAP surveys,
and these partnerships will allow local scientists
to broaden their skills and knowledge, to have exposure to the wider world, and ultimately to take
over RAP-style projects from visiting scientists.
Sociocultural Influences on Conservation in
New Guinea
Stuart Kirsch is a sociocultural anthropologist
who worked in the Lakekamu Basin of southern
Papua New Guinea where CI conducted the first
New Guinea RAP survey. The Lakekamu RAP exercise was organized in conjunction with a proposed Integrated Conservation and Development
(ICAD) project, and Stuart observed the relationships among four groups of landowners in the basin and their attitudes towards the project (Kirsch
1997). His observations are pertinent for understanding the success or otherwise of conservation projects in the New Guinea region and are
described below.
At the time of the Lakekamu RAP survey and training exercise in 1996, the four groups at Lakekamu
differed significantly in their aspirations for the
future. The group with the strongest ties to the
Beehler B.M., D.M. Prawiradilaga, Y. de Fretes, N. Kemp
and N. S. Sodhi. 2007. A new species of smoky
honeyeater (Meliphagidae: Melipotes) from
western New Guinea. The Auk 124:1000-1009.
Erdmann M. 2008. “Blue Auction” Special Edition:
Preface. Aqua Special Publication 13:89-90.
Kirsch S. 1997. Regional dynamics and conservation
in Papua New Guinea: The Lakekamu River Basin
Project. The Contemporary Pacific 9(1):97-121.
Contributed by Stephen Richards and Andrew Mack
© Conservation International/photo by Stephen Richards
The inability of the four groups in the basin to
reach agreement on how to share property rights
initially delayed progress towards a conservation
agreement in the area, suggesting that conservation organizations should pay greater attention
to local property rights when designing projects.
Indeed the challenges at Lakekamu and the mixed
record of success for conservation projects in
New Guinea reinforce the need for new conservation models in the region. However by fostering
the growing conservation awareness of all four
of the landowning groups, Conservation International, through the dedication of the PNG Field
Team, has brought Lakekamu to the verge of a
Conservation Area declaration. The four groups
have been working closely together for 5-6 years
now, and are dedicated to establishment of the
conservation area.
Literature Cited
Papua New Guinean scientists identify a bird netted
during the Muller Range RAP survey
© Conservation International/photo by Stephen Richards
cash economy and the capital city wanted to sell
their resource rights in return for the opportunity to live a modern, urban lifestyle. Another
group lived in the mountains and used lowland
resources to supplement their highlands subsistence practices; its members were also willing to
auction off the resources of the Lakekamu basin.
A third group lived on the edge of the basin and
expressed support for the conservation and development project provided that it did not interfere with the economic ventures of its members.
The fourth and largest group of people living in
the Lakekamu basin was the strongest supporter
of the conservation project because its members
realized that their livelihoods depended on their
continued access to the rain forest. One conclusion from this research is that attitudes towards
conservation and development in Papua New
Guinea are influenced by regional histories and
expectations for the future. In addition, when
people see rain forest conservation as important
to their economic well-being, they may be more
inclined to support such initiatives. An important
caveat was that the project did not restrict access to subsistence use of natural resources in the
basin. At Lakekamu the primary threats to biodiversity were from proposed logging projects, oil
palm plantations, and gold mining.
Ceratobatrachid frog (Platymantis boulengeri) in Nakanai
Mountains rainforest
289
© Conservation International/photo by Stephen Richards
“Bog Camp”, Foja Mountains RAP survey
At the time of our twentieth anniversary, we
also note the sad loss of one of the first RAP
trainees in Papua New Guinea. Paul Igag had
a productive career as a conservationist and
the nation’s first ornithologist. Initially he
trained with Andrew Mack, but moved on to
be a teacher himself, mentoring and guiding research of younger Papua New Guinean
students. The RAP training has a multiplier
effect when the former trainees go on to become trainers themselves, usually independent of CI. Paul was a researcher for the PNG
Institute of Biological Research, an organization he helped found. Paul’s life mirrors the
commitment and hazards faced by conservationists working at the areas where biodiversity is high. Every RAP scientist has a history
of close brushes with death – from botched
landings in jungle clearings, to nearly every
tropical disease known, and a few still without names. Like Paul, most gracefully endure
these hazards as part of the cost of business and a worthwhile risk in exchange for
the honor of experiencing some of the most
beautiful and wondrous natural places left on
the planet.
- Andrew Mack
290
© Piotr Naskrecki
Tribute to Paul Igag
© Piotr Naskrecki
291
Contributors
Eustace Alexander
Conservation International - Guyana,
Georgetown, Guyana
[email protected]
Jean-Jérôme Cassan
Environmental and Natural Resources
Service, Province Nord, New Caledonia
[email protected]
Gerald Allen
Western Australia Museum, Welshpool, WA,
Australia
[email protected]
Bayron Castellanos
Asociación Balam, Ciudad Flores, Petén,
Guatemala
[email protected]
Leeanne E. Alonso
Conservation International, Arlington, VA, USA
[email protected]
[email protected]
Miriam Castillo
Conservación Internacional - Guatemala, San
Jose, Guatemala
[email protected]
Luciano Andriamaro
Conservation International - Madagascar,
Antananarivo, Madagascar
[email protected]
Jessica L. Deichmann
Conservation International, Arlington, VA, USA
[email protected]
Michèle Andrianarisata
Conservation International - Madagascar,
Antananarivo, Madagascar
[email protected]
Nathalie Baillon
Environmental and Natural Resources
Service, Province Nord, New Caledonia
[email protected]
Bruce Beehler
Conservation International, Arlington, VA, USA
[email protected]
292
Giuseppe DiCarlo
Conservation International, Arlington, VA, USA
[email protected]
Van Duong Dang
Environmental and Natural Resources
Service, Province Nord, New Caledonia
[email protected]
Guilherme Dutra
Conservation International - Brazil,
Caravelas, Brazil
[email protected]
Molly Bergen
Conservation International, Arlington, VA, USA
[email protected]
David Emmett
Conservation International - Cambodia,
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
[email protected]
Enrico Bernard
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife
Antigo - Pernambuco, Brazil
[email protected]
Mark Erdmann
Conservation International - Indonesia,
Jakarta, Indonesia
[email protected]
Henri Blaffart
deceased
Luis Espinel
Conservación Internacional - Peru, Lima, Peru
[email protected]
Peter J. Etnoyer
Coastal Center for Environmental Health
and Biomolecular Research, National
Oceanographic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA), Charleston, SC, USA
[email protected]
Cristina Félix
Conservación Internacional - Ecuador, Quito,
Ecuador
[email protected]
Ana Liz Flores
Independent Consultant
[email protected]
Eduardo Forno
Conservación Internacional - Bolivia, La Paz,
Bolivia
[email protected]
Juan Manuel Guayasamin
Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador,
Quito, Ecuador
[email protected]
Paul Hoetjes
National Department Caribbean
Netherlands, Caribbean Netherlands
[email protected]
Tim Killeen
Conservation International, Arlington, VA, USA
[email protected]
Stuart Kirsch
Department of Anthropology, University of
Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
[email protected]
Yéo Kolo
University of Abobo-Adjamé, Abidjan, Côte
d’Ivoire
[email protected]
Carlos A. Lasso
Instituto de Recursos Biológicos Alexander
von Humboldt, Bogotá, Colombia
[email protected]
Juan Carlos Ledezma
Conservación Internacional - Bolivia, La Paz,
Bolivia
[email protected]
Andrew Mack
Powdermill Nature Reserve, Carnegie
Museum of Natural History, Rector, PA, USA
[email protected]
James MacKinnon
Conservation International - Madagascar,
Antananarivo, Madagascar
[email protected]
Jean Maharavo
Centre National de Recherches sur
l’Énvronment, Antananarivo, Madagascar
[email protected]
Françios Martel
Polynesian Xplorer Ltd, Apia, Samoa
[email protected]
Sheila A. McKenna
SEAlliance, Alameda, CA, USA
[email protected]
Roan Balas McNab
Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronyx, NY, USA
[email protected]
David Mitchell
Conservation International - Papua New
Guinea, Alotau, Papua New Guinea
[email protected]
Russell A. Mittermeier
Conservation International, Arlington, VA, USA
[email protected]
293
Piotr Naskrecki
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard
University, Cambridge, MA, USA
[email protected]
Josefa Celsa Señaris
Museo de Historia Natural La Salle, Caracas,
Venezuela
[email protected]
Sefanaia Nawadra
Conservation International - Fiji, Suva, Fiji
[email protected]
Xiaoli Shen
Center for Nature and Society, Peking
University, Beijing, China
[email protected]
Carmen Noriega
Conservación Internacional - Peru, Lima, Peru
[email protected]
Nirhy Rabibisoa
Conservation International - Madagascar,
Antananarivo, Madagascar
[email protected]
Léon Rajaobelina
Conservation International - Madagascar,
Antananarivo, Madagascar
[email protected]
Zo Lalaina Rakotobe
Conservation International - Madagascar,
Antananarivo, Madagascar
[email protected]
Harison Randrianasolo
Conservation International - Madagascar,
Antananarivo, Madagascar
[email protected]
Hanta Ravololonanahary
Conservation International - Madagascar,
Toamasina, Madagascar
[email protected]
Anabel Rial
Museo de Historia Natural La Salle, Caracas,
Venezuela
[email protected]
Stephen J. Richards
Conservation International, Atherton,
Australia
[email protected]
294
Jérôme Spaggiari
Independent Consultant
[email protected]
Luis Suárez
Conservación Internacional - Ecuador, Quito,
Ecuador
[email protected]
Suer Suryadi
Destination Management Center for Tourism
and Conservation
[email protected]
Jeanne G. Tabangay
Conservation International - Philippines,
Palawan, Philippines
[email protected]
Annette Tjon Sie Fat
Conservation International - Suriname,
Paramaribo, Suriname
[email protected]
Françios Tron
Conservation International - New Caledonia,
Province Nord, New Caledonia
[email protected]
Schannel van Dijken
Conservation International, Apia, Samoa
[email protected]
Philip Willink
The Field Museum, Chicago, IL, USA
[email protected]
Appendix I. RAP survey participants
Aalangdong, Oscar I.
Abban, Kofi
Abedi-Lartey, Michael
Absalão, Ricardo S.
Abu-Juam, Musah
Acevedo, Romina
Acosta, Arturo
Acosta, Raul
Adjedu, Ebenezer
Aduse-Poku, Kwaku
Agnarsson, Ingi
Agossou Bruno, Djossa
Aguinagalde, Mercedes
Agyei, Alex
Aké-Assi, Laurent
Akwada, Gilijen
Alassane Bangoura, Mohamed
Alban Castillo, J.
Albarrán, Esperanza
Albarran, Irene
Alberca, Edison
Alberca, Milton
Albuja V., Luís
Aldás, Silvia
Alexander, Eustace
Alió, José
Allen, Gerald R.
Allen, Mark
Allison, Allen
Almendáriz, Ana
Alonso, Alfonso
Alonso, Leeanne E.
Alpert, Gary
Alvarado, Italo
Amanzo, Jessica
Amarumollo, Jabz
Amegbe, Godwin
Ampadu-Agyei, Okyeame
Anawoe, Nicholas
Anda, Redempto
Anderson, Kayce (Casner)
Andrews, Amos
Andriamampianina, Lanto
Andriamampianina, Lantoniaina
Andriambelo, Lanto
Andriambelo, Lanto Herilala
Andrianarisata, Michèle
Angle, J. Phillip
Ansah, Frederick
Antiko, Samuel
Antone, Vitus
Anwar, Khaerul
Aparicio, James
Aplin, Ingi
Aplin, Ken
Appleton, Chris
Arakaki Marishi, Mónica
Araújo Pereira, Luciano
Araujo, Enmanuel
Armstrong, Kyle
Arroyo Padilla, Luzmilla
Arzamendia de Montiél, Gladys
Asamoah, Augustus
Asato, Lani
Ascanio, David
Ascorra, César
Asheja, Aritakosé
Ashton, Peter J.
Assi Yapo, Jean
Astrongatt, Stéphane
Ataroff, Michelle
Auccca, Constantino
Awbrey, Kim
Awotwe-Pratt, Vincent
Aymard, Gerard
Ayzama, Serio
Babcock, Russell
Badal, Ryan
Badger, Philip
Badu, Kwesi
Bailey, Ana Cristina
Bailey, Brent
Baillon, Nathalie
Bakarr, Mohamed I.
Bakary, Giséle
Bakary, Gisèle
Bakowski, Marek
Balagawi, Solomon
Baldeon, Severo
Bánki, Olaf
Baral, Hem
Barbosa, Francisco Antonio R.
Barkley, Linda J.
Barré, Nicolas
Barreira e Castro, Clóvis
Barrera, Soraya
Barrie, Abdulai
Barrientos, Christian
Barrière, Patrick
Barriga, Ramiro
Barrio-Amorós, César L.
Bart, Theresa
Bastidas, Lindolfo
Bates, John M.
Battista, Fiocco Giovanni
Baudat-Franceschi, Julien
Bautista, Jaime
Bawole, Roni
Becerra, Egmidio
Beck, Stephan
Beehler, Bruce M.
Belton, Lorien
Beltrán, Hamilton
Benjamin, Cheyne
Bermudez, Alexis
Bernabé, Tra Bi Gabo
Bernal, Nuria
Bernard, Curtis
Bernard, Enrico
Berrenstein, Haydi J.
Berrú, Melva
Berry, Paul
Bestelmeyer, Brandon T.
Bevilacqua, Mariapia
Bhihki, Chequita
Bhuju, Dinesh
Bickford, David P.
Bigilale, Ilaiah
Bills, Roger
Billy, Madison G.
Birnbaum, Philippe
Bladholm, Sharon
Blaffart, Henri
Blanco-Belmonte, Ligia
Boada, Carlos
Boeadi
Bol, Modesto
Boli, Paulus
Bonaccorso, Elisa
Bonnéhin, Léonie
Boomdijk, Dennis
Boseto, David
Botchway, Kwame
Botshelo, Oikantswe
Bouarat, Sylvain
Boucher, Timothy
Bourget, Edouard
Boyle, Brad
Branch, William Roy
Braun, Holger
295
Briceño, Ehiro
Briceño, Henry O.
Briceño, Régulo
Brodie, Gilianne
Brodie, Gillian
Brooks, Barrett
Brown, Jerry
Buhlmann, Kurt
Buitrón, Galo
Bungabong, Victoria
Burke Burnett, John
Butler, Coreen
Butynski, Thomas M.
Caballero, Andy
Cadle, John
Calcaño Lanz, Ludovico
Callmander, Martin
Camara, Mamadi 3
Campbell, Patrick
Campos, Liliana
Capelo, Juan Carlos
Capriles, Carlos
Carbajal, José Luis
Carpenter, Kent
Carr, John L.
Carroll, Nathaniel
Cartaya, Vanesa
Castañeda Moya, Francisco
Castaño, John Harold
Castillo Villeda, Miriam Lorena
Castillo, Abel
Castro, Edgardo
Catella, Agostinho
Cavero, Moices
Celestin, Keulay Minty
Chagall, Veira
Chang, Fonchii
Chernoff, Barry
Chicchón, Avecita
Chonati, Ana Maria
Christie, W. Tyler
Christy, Patrice
Chunping, Liang
Chuquihuanca, Martin
Clarke, David
Clemens, Raymond
Cole, Russell
Coleman, James
Colonnello, Giuseppe
Coltro, Jr., Luiz Antônio
Comer, Marnee
Comiskey, James
Contreras, Elba
296
Contreras, Laura
Contreras, Mónica
Cooper, Anderson
Cooperman, Michael
Copeland, Lekima
Córdova, Saida
Cornejo Farfán, Arturo
Cornuet, Nathaniel
Couch, Charlotte
Creese, Robert
Crothers IV, Samuel
Cumberlidge, Neil
Curran, Sarah
Curtis, Barbara
da Silva, Cláudia Regina
Dabo, Jonathan
Dahl, Chris
Dalino, Hay
Dallmeier, Francisco
Damasceno, Jr., Geraldo Alves
Daniels, Amandu K.
Davis, Jr., Lloyd R.
de Abreu Vianna, Juliana
De Dijn, Bart P.E.
de Freitas, Justin
de Freitas, Sr., Duane
de Fretes, Yance
De Greef, Stephane
de la Colina, Rafael
de la Cruz, Alicia
de O. Figueiredo, Márcia A.
de Oliveira, Marcia Divina
de Salis, Suzana Maria
de Silva, Naamal
de Souza Gama, Cecile
de Toledo Piza, Mônica
Decher, Jan
Deichmann, Jessica L.
Delamou, Nicolas Londiah
DeMetro, Andrew
Demey, Ron
Denis, Toto Seki
Derveld, Iwan
Deschner, Tobias
Devantier, Lyndon
Diallo, Mamadou Saliou
Díaz, Wilmer
DiCarlo, Giuseppe
Dijkstra, Klaas-Douwe B.
Do Nascimiento, Carlos
Doku-Marfo, Ernestina
Donahue, Paul K.
Donovan, Foort
Dutra, Guilherme F.
Dutra, Leo X. C.
Duval, Thomas
Eason, Nicolas
Ebigbo, Njikoha
Ekpe, Patrick
Elizeche, Karen
Ellenbogen, Keith
Ellenreider, Natalia
Ellery, W. N.
Elmendorf, Byron
Emmett, David
Emmons, Louise H.
Encarnación, Filomeno
Erdmann, Mark
Eriksson, Jonas
Ernst, Raffael
Espinel, Luís
Estenssoro, Silvia
Etnoyer, Peter
Evans, Richard
Evans, William
Fabian, Lingaard
Fábregas, Glenda
Fahé, Jérome
Fahr, Jakob
Fajardo, Carlos
Falconí, Lorena
Famolare, Lisa
Faria Pereira, Marcos Callisto
Farina, Oriana
Farino, Julio
Felix, Ble Gbo
Félix, Cristina
Fenner, Douglas
Feragotto, Wiliam
Fernández, Ángel
Fernández, Enrique
Ferreira, Carlos E. L.
Ferreira, Vanda Lúcia
Ferrer, Arnaldo
Fietz, Joanna
Finch, Brian
Finch, Davis W.
Fisher, Brian
Fitzgerald, Kelly
Flores, Ana Liz
Flores, Danny
Flynn, Adrian
Folger, Djaek
Foon, Klassie Etienne
Forsyth, Adrian B.
Foster, Robin B.
Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.
Franquet, Romain
Freed, Paul
Freeman, Theo
Freile, Juan Fernando
Friedman, Kim
Froehlich, Otávio
Fuentes, Alfredo
Fuming, Shi
Funi, Cláudia
Gabaldón, Arnoldo
Gajapersad, Krisna
Gámez, Jorge
Gamui, Banak
Gamys, Joel
Garcete, Bolívar
García Díaz, José Vicente
Garcia Esquivel, Javier
Garcia V., Roosevelt
García, Juvencia
García, Manuel
García-Amado, María Alexandra
Gardner, Henry
Garrigue, Claire
Gassman, Dirk
Gentry, Alwyn H.
Gerber, Attie
Gibbs, David
Gill, Bruce
Giraldo, Alejandro
Goerck, Jaqueline
Gonto, Reina
González, José Tomás
González, Nelson
Goodman, Steven M.
Gorpudolo, Moses G.
Gould, Howard
Gourène, Germain
Gowensmith, Debbie
Grace, Roger
Gracia, Simeon
Grados, Juan
Granier, Nicolas
Gregory, L. Tremaine
Griffith, Frances
Guayasamin, Juan Manuel
Guerra S., Juan Fernando
Guerra, Fernando
Guinand, Lupe
Gutierrez, Luis
Hagedorn, Mary
Hamada, Márcia Orie
Hancock, Pete
Hannah, Lee
Hao, Tang
Hao, Wang
Hardjoprajitno, Mercedes
Haripersaud, Paddy
Harris, Mônica
Hart, Rob
Harvey, Michael B.
Hatine, Bernard
Hedemark, Michael
Heinemann, Amy
Helgen, Kristofer M.
Hemphill, Arlo Hanlin
Hequet, Vanessa
Herbinger, Ilka
Hernández-Acevedo, Jaime
Herrera, Karin
Hesse, Alan
Hiandodimat, Jacob
Hidalgo, Max
Hillers, Annika
Hinds, Wilshire
Hinojosa, Flavo
Hoetjes, Paul
Hoffman, Bruce
Hoke, Peter
Holié, Jean-Louis
Holst, Bruce K.
Hongping, Deng
Hopkins, Michael John Gilbert
Hormenyo, Augustine
Hosken, Malo J.
Hurrell, Sue
Ibarra, Omaira
Icochea, Javier
Igag, Paul
Ignacio, Leroy
Ilha, Henrique H.
Imirizalidu, Mael
Ingles, Jose
Inskipp, Carol
Ipu, Rodney T.
Irham, Mohammad
Isaacs, Bemner
Iskandar, Djoko T.
Jadán Maza, Angel Oswaldo
Jaffé, Rudolf
Jairam, Rawien
Jammes, Lois
Jankipersad, Reshma
Jantz, Ted
Jaomanana
Jaramillo, Nubia
Jeffers, Jennifer
Jenkins, Aaron
Jiménez, Robert
Joemratie, Sahieda
Johnkind, Carel C. H.
Josse, Carmen
Jourdan, Hervé
Jozua, Sheik
Juhn, Daniel
Justiniano, Hermes
Kabiay, Marthen Helios
Kadjo, Blaise
Kadosoe, Vanessa
Kalamandeen, Michelle
Kale, Enock
Kalkman, Vincent
Kalo, David
Kamara, Morris S.
Kameubun, Conny
Kante, Soumaoro
Kaonga, Martin
Kasanpawiro, Cyndi
Kasmir, Leslie (Rice)
Kataoui, Jean-Pierre
Kawanamo, Miller
Kawatu, Paul Johan
Keith, Philippe
Kelly, Brian
Kemp, Neville
Kerr, Vince
Keulaï, Minty Celéstin
Kibikibi, Edward
Kiem, Ary P.
Kigl, Michael
Kihn, Herman A.
Killeen, Timothy J.
Kinbag, Felix
Kinch, Jeff
Kipping, Jens
Kirsch, Stuart
Kobli, Gnali
Kofi Abban, Eddie
Kofi Sam, Moses
Kolding, Jeppe
Kollie, Charles
Kolo, Yéo
Kon, Masahiro
Konaté, Souleymane
Konie, John
Kosi, Tommy
Kota, Sr., Aaron N.
Kouakou, Gilbert N.
Kouamé, N’Goran Germain
297
Kouassi Konan, Edouard
Kouassi, Kouassi
Kpelle, David Guba
Kpewor, Mawolo
Kpoghomou, Elie
Kpolo, Ouattara
Kratter, Andrew
Krey, Keliopas
Krishar, Aditya
Kruger, Masego
Kulang, Joel
Kulmoi, Paulus
Kuro, Dink
Kutoro, Kelejwang
Kutoro, Kisego
Kwao Ossom, William
Laboute, Pierre
Lai, Joelle
Laime, Manuel
Lajones, N.
Laman, Tim
Lamas, Gerardo
Landburg, Gwen
Lara, Oscar
Larsen, Torben
Larsen, Trond
Lasso, Carlos A.
Lasso-Alcalá, Oscar M.
Lauginie, Francis
Lazuardi, Muhammad
Le Nagard, Ghyslaine
Leaché, Adam
Leão de Moura, Rodrigo
Leão, Zelinda M. A. N.
Lebbie, Aiah
Ledesma, Rene
Legendre, Hervé
Legra, Leo
Lekhuru, Merepelo
Lentino, Miguel
León Alvarez, Ronald Fernando
León, Blanca
León, Luís
León, Rocío
León-Mata, Oscar
Letsara, Rokiman
Lew, Daniel
Lezama, Zaqueo
Lianxian, Han
Lim, Burton K.
Lima, Flávio C. T.
Lima, Jucivaldo Dias
Linárez, Luís Alberto
298
Lindsay, Stephen
Littler, Diane
Littler, Mark
Llosa, Gonzalo
Lohnes, Edward
Loja, Juan
López Ordaz, Adriana
López, Lawrence
Loua, Néma Soua
Lourenço, Wilson R.
Lourival, Reinaldo
Love, Greg
Lowry, Porter P.
Lozada, Tannya
Lucky, Andrea
Luger, Martina
Luke, Roger
Luke, W. R. Quentin
Luna, Alfredo
Luna, Lucía
Luo, Miaway
Machado-Allison, Antonio
Mack, Andrew L.
Mackintosh, Angelique
Maco Garcia, José
Mac-Quhae, Cesar
Magalhães, Célio
Maharavo, Jean
Mancilla, Mario
Mandelburger, Darío
Marawanaru, Elisha
Marcano, Alberto
Marcel, Zabi Kourame
Marinov, Milen
Marquet, Gérard
Marquez, Josmar
Márquez, Phecda
Marshall, Christopher
Martín, Ricardo
Martinez, Raffy
Martínez-Escarbassiere, Rafael
Martowitono, Kemisem
Marty, Christian
Márvez, Pablo
Masalila, Mathilda
Masibalavu, Vilikesa
Masundire, Hilary
Matararaba, Sepeti
Mattié, Nelson
Maxted, Nigel
McCallum, Rob
McCullough, Jennifer
McGarry, Tessa
McKenna, Sheila A.
McKeon, Sea
Meadows, Martin
Medard, Jules
Medeiros, Marcelo S.
Medina, Mirta
Mehlomakulu, Mandla
Mendoza, Carlos
Menezes, Naércio
Mensoh, Nyumah
Mereles, María Fátima
Merg, Kurt F.
Mesa, Lina
Michelangeli, Fabián
Michiyo Takeda, Alice
Milani, Nadia
Mille, Christian
Missa, Olivier
Mitro, Sutrisno
Mittermeier, Russell A.
Moeljosoewito, Rosita
Mogea, Johanis P.
Mogea, Yohanes
Mojica, José Iván
Mokgosi, Johannes
Mokunki, Loago
Mol, Jan H.
Molgo, Iwan E.
Molina Rodríguez, César
Molubah, Flomo
Monadjem, Ara
Monente, José A.
Montambault, Jensen R.
Montaña, Carmen
Moore, Bruce
Moore, Michael
Mora Polanco, Abraham Rafael
Mora-Day, Julián
Morales Can, Julio
Moreira Martins, Ana Carolina
Moreno Souza Paula, Pablo
Moreno, Gilberto
Morón, Antonio
Mosepeli, Belda Q.
Moskovits, Debra
Mostacedo, Bonafacio
Motaloate, Seteng
Mothibi, Tumi
Moussa Condé, Mohamed Balla
Muchoney, Doug
Muir, Paul
Munzinger, Jérôme
Murdoch, Jed
Murillo, Jhonny
Murphy, Pitz
Naikantini, Alifereti
Naipau, Opon
Nakajima, Jimi Naoki
Nakoro, Elia
Naraine, Gurudatt
Narvaez, Alexis
Nasiu, Ajilon
Naskrecki, Piotr
Nauray, William
Naven, Heng
Neles, Erwin
Nengu, Shaft
Neyra, Daniel
Ngadino, Lucille F.
Nico, Leo G.
Nicolait, Lou
Nicolalde-Morejón, Edison
Nicolas, Violaine
Nielsen, Clare
Niño, Miguel
Niukula, Jone
Noonan, Brice
Norconk, Marilyn A.
Nordin, Lee-Ann
Nordin, Mark
Norman, Zacharias
Norris, Ryan
Nuamah, Collins
Nugroho, Julius
Núñez, Gabriela
Núñez, Percy
Obura, David
Ochi, Teruo
Ochoa, Alejandra
Ochoa, Diana
Oduro, Kwaku Lokko
Oedeppe, Sheinh A.
Ofori Boateng, Caleb
Ohee, Hendrite L.
Ohee, Henni
Olijfveld, Lucien
Oliver, Paul
Oliver, Tom
Olong, Kasim
Olssen, Annette
O’Neill, Elizabeth
Opiang, Muse
Oppong, James
Ordoñez, Jorge
Ordóñez, Leondardo
Oremus, Marc
Orihuela, Gabriela
Orsak, Larry
Ortaz, Mario
Ortega, Alfonso
Ortega, Hernán
Ortiz, Rosa
Osei-Owusu, Yaw
O’Shea, Brian
Osuna, Aurelio
Osuna, Carlos
Osuna, José Luis
Ouattara, Allassane
Ouattara, Soulemane
Ouboter, Paul
Ouillate, Edmond
Ousmane Tounkara, Elhadj
Owusu, Emmanuel
Oyakawa, Osvaldo
Pacheco, Victor
Pada, Defy
Paiva, Paulo C.
Palacios, Bernabé
Palacios, Carolina
Palacios, César
Palacios, Graciano
Palacios, José Luis
Palacios, Vanesa
Palacios, Walter
Palacios, William
Paniagua, Narel
Pantodina, Napoti
Pardede, Shinta
Parinding, Zeth
Parker, Theodore A. III
Pattiselanno, Freddy
Payan, Esteban
Peal, Alex
Peña, Marielos
Penner, Johannes
Pequeño, Tatiana
Peralta de Almeida Prado ,
Cynthia
Peralta, Carmen
Pereira, Guido A.
Perez Mora, Edward Enrique
Peréz Zúñiga, José
Pérez, Edgar Selvin
Peréz, Ester
Pérez, Sergio G.
Perozo Diaz, Abel
Perozo, Laura
Perry, Alan
Peterson, Leroy
Peterson, Stanley
Petkoff, Irene
Petts, Geoffrey
Phillips, Oliver
Piedrahita, Paolo
Pierce, Andy
Pilgrim, John
Pinto, Miguel
Pique, Martino
Pires, Débora O.
Pisapia, Daniel
Plavsic, Militsa
Poitilinaoute, Hervé
Polhemus, Dan A.
Polo, Roberto
Pombo, Carlos
Ponce, Carlos
Ponce, Elias
Ponciano, Ismael
Pontillas, John
Portilla, Alfredo
Pott, Vali
Pradhan, Rebecca
Prado, Manuel
Prika, Orlando
Prince-Nengu, Jane
Provenzano-Rizzi, Francisco
Pupuka, Phillip
Quawah, Joshua
Queral-Regil, Alejandro
Quimillo, Ramón
Quiñonez, Tomiche
Quintella Lobão, Adriana
Quintero, Eugenia
Quirroga O., Carmen
Quispitupac, Eliana
Rabemananjara, Falitiana
Rabevohitra, Raymond
Rabibisoa, Nirhy
Rachman, Ismail A.
Radilofe, Sahondra
Rafamantanantsoa, Casimir
Rafanomezantsoa, Jeannot
Raga, Tau Teeray
Rahajasoa, Grâce
Raharimalala, Jeannine
Raherilalao, Marie Jeanne
Rainey, Hugo J.
Rajaobelina, Serge
Rajaran, Anand
Rajoelison, Gabrielle
Rakotobe, Zo Lalaina
Rakotomanana, Hajanirina
299
Rakotondraparany, Felix
Rakotondravony, Daniel
Rakotoniana, Johnson
Ramanamanjato, Jean-Baptiste
Ramcharan, Serano
Ranaivojaona, Rolland
Randriamanantsoa, Bemahafaly
Randrianarison, Jean Victor
Randrianasolo, Harison
Randrianirina, Jasmin
Randrianjafy, Volomboahangy
Randrianjanaka, Marson Lucien
Ranjakason
Rasoloarison, Rodin
Ratelolahy, Fèlix
Ratsimbazafy, Rémi
Ratsirarson, Helian
Rawa, Agnieszka
Razafimahatratra, Bertrand
Razafindrianilana, Norbert
Razafinjatovo, Philippe
Razakamalala, Richard
Reich, Alexandra
Remetwa, Herman
Remsen, J. V.
Rentz, David
Renyaan, Samuel
Reyes, Daisy
Reynel, Carlos
Reynolds, Robert
Rezende, Ubirazilda Maria
Rhodes, Jaye
Rial, Anabel
Richards, Stephen J.
Ricket, Arwen
Rico-Arce, Lourdes
Ridsdale, Colin
Ringler, Max
Riseng, Karen J.
Rivas, Belkis
Rivas, Gilson
Rivera, Carlos
Rivera, Francis
Rizqon, Seha
Rocha, Omar
Rödel, Mark-Oliver
Rodriguez Olivet, Carlos
Rodríguez, Carlos A.
Rodríguez, Fernando
Rodríguez, Francisco
Rodríguez, Juan
Rodríguez, Juan Carlos
Rodríguez, Juan José
300
Rodríguez, Leyda
Rodríguez, Lily
Rodríguez-Olarte, Douglas
Rogow, Todd
Rojas, Ángel
Rojas-Runjaic, Fernando
Rojas-Suárez, Franklin
Romo, Mónica
Rondeau, Guy
Roque, José Eduardo
Rosales, Aníbal
Rosales, Judith
Rosariyanto, Edy Michelis
Ross, Karen
Rounds, Isaac
Rowley, Jodi
Rumahorbo, Basa T.
Ruzicka, Jan
Sabino, José
Sackie, Zinnah
Safran, Sharon
Sagata, Katayo
Salazar, Edwin
Salcedo M., Norma J.
Salcedo, Marcos
Salimo
Samanez, Iris
Sambolah, Richard
Samman, James
Samoilys, Melita
Sampson, María A.
Samudio, Héctor
Sanabria, Nelson
Sanchez Riveiro, Homero
Sánchez, Javier
Sanchez, Luzmila
Sanderson, James G.
Sant’Agostino, Luís Henrique
Santisteban, Jose
Sapa, Jonathang
Sarmiento, Jaime
Satyawan, Dharma
Savage, Anne
Schargel, Richard
Schenkers, Maikel
Schmid, Jutta
Scholes, Ed
Schulenberg, Thomas S.
Schultz, Ted R.
Seele, Letlhogomolo
Seeto, Pamela
Segal, Bárbara
Seing, Sam The
Señarìs, Josefa Celsa
Serejo, Cristiana S.
Serrano, Martha
Servat, Grace
Sethunya, Kobamelo
Setio, Pujo
Shah, Karan
Shaoying, Liu
Shepard, Jr., Glenn H.
Shikoei, Tedde
Shine, Robert
Shoni, Romel
Short, Andrew
Short, Carla A.
Shrestha, Tej Kumar
Shunqing, Lu
Shu-Shu, Anthony
Siaw, D. E. K. A.
Sidlauskas, Brian
Sikes, Derek S.
Silka Innah, Henry
Simmons, Armand (Picky)
Sine, Robert
Singadan, Rose
Sitha, Som
Skelton, Paul
Skipwith, Phillip
Smith, Kent
Smith, Michael
Snelling, Roy R.
Solaga, Mônica
Solari, Sergio
Somaa, Nana Abena
Somua Amakye, Joseph
Song, Huang
Sophak, Sett
Soriano, Pascual
Sosa-Calvo, Jeffery
Soumah, Kadiatou
Spaggiari, Jérôme
Spanó, Saulo
Sparks, John S.
Spector, Sacha
Steene, Roger
Stergios, Basil
Stotz, Douglas F.
Struhsaker, Thomas
Strüssmann, Christine
Stuart, Bryan
Suartana, Ketut G.
Subedi, Indra
Surjadi, Purbassari
Suryadi, Suer
Suyanto, Agustinus
Swope, Evangeline
Tacheba, Budzanani
Taillebois, Laura
Takeuchi, Wayne
Tanda, La
Taphorn, Donald
Tapia, Elicio
Tapilatu, Ricardo
Tardy, Emmanuel
Tauna, David
Teimpouène, Ghislain
Téimpouenne, Matthias
Téimpouenne, Thomas
Tein, Ronald
Tello, José
Tenege, Sylvester
ter Steege, Hans
Thacker, Robert
Thaman, Baravi
Theodorakis, Christopher W.
Theuerkauf, Jörn
Thomas, Nunia
Thomsen, Jørgen
Thy, Neang
Tianjian, Gong
Timo, Oscar
Tirado Chamorro, Milton Fabian
Tjappa, Petrus
Tjaturadi, Burhan
Tjon, Kenneth
Tlotlego, Shex
Toha, Hamid
Tombolahy, Monica
Toney, Corletta
Torr, Geordie
Torres Vergara, Irene Lucia
Tron, François
Trotz, Maya
Tuiwawa, Fiona
Tuiwawa, Marika
Turak, Emre
Tweddle, Denis
Tylol, Innocent
Udvardy, Shana
Uetanabaro, Masao
Ulloa, Roberto
Unggul Nugroho, Irba
Valdes, Armando
Valdivieso, Javier
Valencia, Gorky
Valero, Félix
Valero, Isidoro
Valero, Rafael
Valle, Darwin
van Balen, Bas
van Balen, S. (Bas)
van Bergen, Marieke
van der Lugt, Frank
van der Waal, Ben
van Dijken, Schannel
van Mastrigt, Henk
van Tassell, James
Vandrot, Hervé
Vargas, Lourdes
Velazco, Paul
Veles, Segundo
Veron, J. E. N.
Vieira, Inácia Maria
Vierhaus, Henning
Vieux, Caroline
Villamizar, Rosa
Villanueva, Sérgio
Vivar, Elena
Vrede, Ingrid
Vreedzaam, Arionene
Waldron, Neville
Walker, Nathaniel
Wally, Elisa
Wan Tong, Kenneth
Wanguenne, Maurice
Waqa, Hilda
Waqa-Sakiti, Hilda
Warikar, Evie L.
Warpur, Maklon
Watcher, Tyana
Watling, Dick
Watling, James I.
Weber, Natalie
Wellington, Kabelo Brenda
Wells, Fred E.
Werner, Timothy
Whistler, Arthur
White, Mel
Wiakabu, Joseph
Wickel, Antoine
Widodo, Wahyu
Willem, Joeheo
Williams, Claude Thomas
Williams, Jeff
Willink, Philip W.
Wirjosentono, Jan
Wolf, Edward
Womsiwor, Daud
Wright, Debra D.
Wright, Heather E.
Wust, Walther
Xiaoli, Shen
Yanez, Patricio
Yang, Liu
Yapi, Kouassi
Yaynochi, Reuben
Yeboué, Lucie N’Guenan
Yéo, Kolo
Yohanita, Aksamina M.
Yoteni, Hugo
Young, Paulo S.
Youssouf, Kone
Yukuma, Charakura
Yusuf, Syafyudin
Zanata, Angela Maria
Zarza, Heliot
Zhengdong, Fang
Zhenghui, Xu
Zhongming, Wang
Zhumei, Li
Zwuen, Sormongar
301
Appendix II. Major RAP partner institutions
A Rocha International
Afrique Nature Internationale, Côte d’Ivoire
Alcan Inc., Canada
Alcoa World Alumina LLC (ALCOA), USA
Anton de Kom University, Suriname
Ascanio Birding Tours, Venzuela
Asociación Guatemalteca para la Conservación Natural (CÄNAN K’AAX), Guatemala
Asociación para la Conservación del Patrimonio del Cutivireni, Peru
Association Maruia Trust Nouvelle Calédonie, New Caledonia
Association Nationale pour la Gestion des Aires Protégées (ANGAP), Madagascar
Australian Institute of Marine Science, Australia
Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Australia
Badan Pengembangan Dan Pembangunan Daerah (BPPEDA), Indonesia
Bandung Technology Institute (ITB), Indonesia
Belize Center for Environmental Studies, Belize
Bernice P. Bishop Museum, USA
BHP Billiton Maatschappij Suriname (BMS), Suriname
BIOCENTRO - Universidad Experimental de los Llanos Ezequiel Zamora (UNELLEZ) - Guanare,
Venzuela
Biological Diversity of the Guianas Program, Smithsonian Institution, USA
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science (CABS), USA
Centre for Study of Biological Diversity (Biodiversity Centre) (University of Guyana), Guyana
Centre Forestier N’Zérékoré, Guinea
Centro de Datos para la Conservación de Bolivia, Bolivia
Centro de Estudios Conservacionistas (CECON), Guatemala
La Colección Boliviana de Fauna (CBF), Bolivia
Colección de Vertebrados de la Universidad de Los Andes (CVULA), Venzuela
Colección Ornitológica Phelps, Venzuela
La Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente (CONAMA), Guatemala
ConocoPhillips, Venzuela
Consejo Nacional de Areas Protegidas (CONAP), Guatemala
Coral Reef Initiatives for the Pacific (CRISP), New Caledonia
CORDIO East Africa, Kenya
Dayu Biik, New Caledonia
Department of Conservation, New Zealand
Department of Fisheries, Botswana
Department of Water Affairs, Botswana
Dewan Masyarakat Adat Mamberamo Raya (DMAR), Indonesia
Direction de la Protection de la Nature, Côte d’Ivoire
Direction du Développement Économique et de L’Environnement de la Province Nord (DDEE),
New Caledonia
Discovery Communications, USA
Disney Worldwide Conservation Fund (DWCF), USA
EcoCiencia, Ecuador
Ecology and Environment (E & E), Venzuela
302
Economic Development Agency of New Caledonia (ADECAL), New Caledonia
ECOSYN, Netherlands
El Instituto de Zoología Tropical (IZT), Universidad Central de Venezuela, Venzuela
Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA), Brazil
Environment and Conservation Management Committee - East New Britain , Papua New
Guinea
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Guyana
Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Ecuador
Estación Biológica las Guacamayas, Guatemala
The Field Museum, USA
Fiji Department of Forestry, Fiji
The Fiji Museum, Fiji
Florida International University, USA
Foibe Fampandrosoana sy Fikarohana ny eny Ambanivohitra (FOFIFA)/Direction des
Recherches Forestieres et Piscicoles, Madagascar
Forestry Development Authority (FDA), Liberia, Liberia
Foundation for People and Community Development, Papua New Guinea
Fundación Amigos de la Naturaleza, Bolivia
Fundación AndígenA, Venzuela
Fundación CIARA, Venzuela
La Fundación Cisneros, Venzuela
Fundación Ecológica Arcoiris, Ecuador
Fundación Ecuatoriana de Investigación y Manejo Ambiental, Ecuador
La Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela (FIBV), Venzuela
Fundación Jardín Botánico del Orinoco (FJBO), Venzuela
Fundación Jatún Sacha, Ecuador
Fundación La Salle de Ciencias Naturales (FLSCN), Venzuela
Fundación Natura - Guayaquil Chapter, Ecuador
Fundación para la Agricultura Tropical Alternativa y el Desarrollo Integral (FUNDATADI),
Venzuela
La Fundación Programa Andes Tropicales (PAT), Venzuela
Fundación Terra Parima, Venzuela
Gold Reserve - Compañía Aurífera Brisas del Cuyuní, C.A., Venzuela
Guinée Ecologie, Guinea
Guyana Agency for Health Sciences Education, Environment and Food Policy, Guyana
Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre, Botswana
Hasanuddin University, Indonesia
Herbario Nacional de Bolivia, Bolivia
Herbarium, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Ecuador, Ecuador
Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Indonesia
Institut Congolais pour la Conservation de la Nature (ICCN), Democratic Republic of the Congo
Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis (IBAMA), Brazil
Instituto de Biología Experimental (IBE), Universidad Central de Venezuela, Venzuela
Instituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Ecológicas (ICAE), Venzuela
Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia
Instituto de Ecología de Bolivia, Bolivia
Instituto de Estudos do Mar Almirante Paulo Moreira (IEAPM), Brazil
Instituto de Investigaciones de Amazonía Peruana, Peru
303
Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Instituto de Zoología y Ecología Tropical (IZET), Universidad Central de Venezuela, Venzuela
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Brazil
Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), Venzuela
Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau, Germany
Laboratório de Estudos Costeiros, Instituto de Geociências, Universidade Federal da Bahia,
Brazil
Louisiana State University, USA
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, USA
Milne Bay Provincial Government, Papua New Guinea
Ministère des Eaux et Forêts (MEF), Madagascar
MIRAY project, Madagascar
Missouri Botanical Garden, USA
The Mountain Institute, USA
Museo de Historia Natural “Noel Kempff Mercado”, Bolivia
Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (MHN-UMSM), Peru
Museo de la Estación Biológica Rancho Grande, Venzuela
Museo de Zoologia, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Ecuador, Ecuador
Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Bolivia
Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay, Paraguay
Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil
Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
National Center for Environmental Research, Madagascar
National Geographic Society, USA
National Trust of Fiji, Fiji
Nations Petroleum, Canada
NatureFiji-MareqetiViti, Fiji
Newmont Ghana Gold, Ltd., Ghana
Organization Kuyujani, Venzuela
Palawan Council for Sustainable Development, Philippines
The Papua Environment Foundation (YALI–Papua), Indonesia
Papua New Guinea Department of Environment and Conservation, Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea Institute of Biological Research, Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea National Museum and Art Gallery (PNGNM), Papua New Guinea
Papua State University, Indonesia
Parc Botanique et Zoologique de Tsimbazaza, Madagascar
Parque Nacional Marinho dos Abrolhos, Brazil
Perlindungan Dan Konservasi Alamb (PKA), Indonesia
PGRR/Centre Forestier de N’Zérékoré, Guinea
Research and Development Center for Oceanology (RDCO), Indonesia
Rio Tinto Mining and Exploration Limited, Australia
Secretaria Estadual do Meio Ambiente do Amapá, Brazil
Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Program, New Caledonia
Shell Prospecting and Development, Peru
Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), USA
Société Calédonienne d’Ornithologie (SCO), New Caledonia
Société de Développement des Siège SocialForêts (SODEFOR), Côte d’Ivoire
Society for the Conservation of Nature in Liberia (SCNL), Liberia
304
South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity, South Africa
South Australian Museum, Australia
South Pacific Regional Herbarium, Fiji
Stichting Natuurbehoud Suriname (Stinasu) - Foundation for Nature Conservation in Suriname,
Suriname
Suralco (Suriname Aluminum Company LLC), Suriname
Tropenbos International, Netherlands
United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL), Liberia
United States Department of State, USA
Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado, Colección Regional de Peces (CPUCLA),
Venzuela
Universidad Nacional de Asunción, Paraguay
Universidad Nacional de Loja, Herbario Reinaldo Espinosa (LOJA), Ecuador
Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil
Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
Université d’Abobo Adajamé, Côte d’Ivoire
Université d’Antananarivo, Madagascar
Université de Cocody, Côte d’Ivoire
Université de Mahajanga, Madagascar
University of Aukland, Leigh Marine Laboratory, New Zealand
University of Botswana, Botswana
University of Cenderawasih (UNCEN), Indonesia
University of Florida, USA
University of Illinois, Illinois Natural History Survey, USA
University of Liberia, Liberia
University of the South Pacific, Biology Division, Fiji
Western Australia Museum, Australia
Wetlands International - Oceania
Wildlife Conservation Society, USA
305
Appendix III. RAP donors and supporters
The Rapid Assessment Program thanks the following individuals, foundations and organizations for their generous financial support over the past 20 years.
3-M Corporation
A Rocha International
Alcan Inc.
Alcoa Foundation
Alcoa World Alumina LLC (ALCOA)
Dr. Janis Alcorn
Allen & Company, Inc.
Arcadia Foundation
Neil Baer
Barker Foundation
Beneficia Foundation
BHP Billiton Maatschappij Suriname (BMS)
BIOCENTRO-UNELLEZ-Guanare, Venezuela
Biodiversity Support Program
Kim L. Bishop
blue moon fund (formerly W. Alton Jones Foundation)
Brevard Community College, USA
Randy Brooks
Colección Ornitológica Phelps, Venezuela
The Comer Science and Education Foundation
Commission for Environmental Cooperation
Compañía Aurífera Brisas del Cuyuní C. A. (CABC), Venezuela
ConocoPhillips-Venezuela
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Brazil
Conservation Stewards Program, Conservation International
The Leon and Toby Cooperman Family Foundation
Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Curtis Woods Investments
CVG Electrificación del Caroní, C.A. (EDELCA)
Direction du Développement Économique et de L’Environnement de la Province Nord (DDEE),
New Caledonia
Disney Worldwide Conservation Fund
Disney Worldwide Services, Inc.
Ecology and Environment (E & E), Venezuela
Economic Development Agency of New Caledonia (ADECAL)
Empresa Cemento Nacional, SA, Ecuador
Environ UK Limited
European Union
Jay Fahn
The Field Museum (Department of Zoology: Environmental and Conservation Programs), USA
Fiji Water Foundation
306
Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ),
Brazil
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP), Brazil
Fundação O Boticário de Proteção à Natureza, Brazil
Fundação Universitária José Bonifácio, Brazil
Fundación La Salle de Ciencias Naturales (FLSCN), Venezuela
Fundación para la Agricultura Tropical Alternativa y el Desarrollo Integral (FUNDATADI),
Venezuela
La Gerencia de Investigación orientada del FONACIT, Venezuela
The Giuliani Family Foundation
Global Conservation Fund
Global Environmental Facility
Global Environmental Protection Institute
Joan and Selma Goldstein
Howard Gould
Ann-Eve Hazen
The Headley Trust
The Henry Foundation
Alan Hixon
The Home Depot
Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)
Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW)
Molly Kux
Iara Lee and George Gund Foundation
Leslie Lee
The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
Marshall Field Funds
John E. McCaw
McDonald’s Corporation
John S. McIlheny
Richard Menzel
Ministry of Environment, Cambodia
Bonnie Mitsui
Moore Charitable Foundation
Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation
Mount Holyoke College, USA
The Mulago Foundation
National Geographic Society
National Science Foundation
Nations Petroleum
Netherlands Committee for IUCN
New England Aquarium, USA
New England Biolabs Foundation
New Horizons Fund at the University of North Carolina at Asheville, USA
Newmont Ghana Gold, Ltd.
Newmont Mining Corporation
The North Face
Fabian and Nina Oberfeld
307
One World/Weavers Apparel LLC
Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund of Japan (now Japan Bank for International Cooperation)
The David and Lucile Packard Foundation
Porgera Joint Venture (PJV)
Power Foods of Berkeley, CA, USA
Ramada Inn Belize City
Reserva Ecologico El Refugio, Bolivia
Grace Jones Richardson Trust
Rio Tinto
Royal Ontario Museum, Canada
The Rufford Foundation (formerly The Rufford Maurice Laing Foundation)
Sainsbury Foundation
Tom and Miriam Schulman
Secretaría Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología del Ecuador (SENACYT)
Shell International
David and Janet Shores
Ken F. Siebel
Smart Family Foundation
Miranda Smith
Smithsonian Institution
Richard and Jessica Sneider
Suralco (Suriname Aluminum Company LLC)
John F. Swift
William W. and Mary Lee Tennant
William P. Tennity
Tinker Foundation Incorporated
Total Foundation
Tropical Wilderness Protection Fund
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization
United Nations Trust Funds subcontract UNTS/MAG/001/GEF (FAO)
United Nations Development Programme
United States Department of State
Universidad de los Andes, Colombia
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
The University of Chicago, USA
USAID (Global Bureau: Guatemala Bureau)
Walt Disney Company
The Walton Family Foundation
Alan Weeden
The William P. Wharton Trust
Harold C. Whitman
Hans Wilsdorf Foundation
Wolfensohn Family Foundation
308
Appendix IV. RAP publications
Central and South America
Belize: Columbia River Forest Reserve. Parker, T.A. III. (ed.). 1993. A Biological Assessment of the Columbia River Forest Reserve, Toledo District, Belize. RAP Working Papers 3. Conservation International,
Washington, DC.
Bolivia: Alto Madidi Region. Parker, T.A. III and B. Bailey (eds.). 1991. A Biological Assessment of the Alto
Madidi Region and Adjacent Areas of Northwest Bolivia May 18 - June 15, 1990. RAP Working Papers 1.
Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Bolivia: Lowland Dry Forests of Santa Cruz. Parker, T.A. III, R.B. Foster, L.H. Emmons and B. Bailey (eds.).
1993. The Lowland Dry Forests of Santa Cruz, Bolivia: A Global Conservation Priority. RAP Working
Papers 4. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Bolivia/Peru: Pando, Alto Madidi/Pampas del Heath. Montambault, J.R. (ed.). 2002. Informes de las
evaluaciones biológicas de Pampas del Heath, Perú, Alto Madidi, Bolivia, y Pando, Bolivia. RAP Bulletin of
Biological Assessment 24. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Bolivia: South Central Chuquisaca. Schulenberg, T.S. and K. Awbrey (eds.). 1997. A Rapid Assessment of
the Humid Forests of South Central Chuquisaca, Bolivia. RAP Working Papers 8. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Bolivia: Noel Kempff Mercado National Park. Killeen, T.J. and T.S. Schulenberg (eds.). 1998. A biological
assessment of Parque Nacional Noel Kempff Mercado, Bolivia. RAP Working Papers 10. Conservation
International, Washington, DC.
Bolivia: Río Orthon Basin, Pando. Chernoff, B. and P.W. Willink (eds.). 1999. A Biological Assessment of
Aquatic Ecosystems of the Upper Río Orthon Basin, Pando, Bolivia. Bulletin of Biological Assessment 15.
Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Brazil: Rio Negro and Headwaters. Willink, P.W., B. Chernoff, L.E. Alonso, J.R. Montambault and R. Lourival (eds.). 2000. A Biological Assessment of the Aquatic Ecosystems of the Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul,
Brasil. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 18. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Brazil: Abrolhos Bank. Dutra, G.F., G.R. Allen, T. Werner and S.A. McKenna (eds.). 2005. A Rapid Marine
Biodiversity Assessment of the Abrolhos Bank, Bahia, Brazil. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 38.
Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Brazil: Amapá. Bernard, E. (ed.). 2008. Rapid Biological Inventories in the Tumucumaque Mountains
National Park, Amapá, Brazil. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 48. Conservation International,
Arlington, VA.
Ecuador: Cordillera de la Costa. Parker, T.A. III and J.L. Carr (eds.). 1992. Status of Forest Remnants in the
Cordillera de la Costa and Adjacent Areas of Southwestern Ecuador. RAP Working Papers 2. Conservation
International, Washington, DC.
Ecuador/Peru: Cordillera del Condor. Schulenberg, T.S. and K. Awbrey (eds.). 1997. The Cordillera del
Condor of Ecuador and Peru: A Biological Assessment. RAP Working Papers 7. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
309
Ecuador/Peru: Pastaza River Basin. Willink, P.W., B. Chernoff and J. McCullough (eds.). 2005. A Rapid Biological Assessment of the Aquatic Ecosystems of the Pastaza River Basin, Ecuador and Perú. RAP Bulletin
of Biological Assessment 33. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Ecuador: Nangaritza Tepuyes. Freile, J.P., Moscoso, and C. Felix. 2010. La Magia de los Tepuyes del Nangaritza: una guía para conocer a sus habitantes. Conservación Internacional Ecuador. Quito, Ecuador.
Ecuador: Nangaritza Tepuyes. Guayasamin, J.M. and E. Bonaccorso (eds.). 2011 (in press). Evaluación
Ecológica Rápida de la Biodiversidad de los Tepuyes de la Cuenca Alta del Río Nangaritza, Cordillera del
Cóndor, Ecuador. Bulletin of Biological Assessment 58. Conservation International, Arlington, VA.
Guatemala: Laguna del Tigre National Park. Bestelmeyer, B. and L.E. Alonso (eds.). 2000. A Biological Assessment of Laguna del Tigre National Park, Petén, Guatemala. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 16.
Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Guyana: Kanuku Mountain Region. Parker, T.A. III and A.B. Forsyth (eds.). 1993. A Biological Assessment
of the Kanuku Mountain Region of Southwestern Guyana. RAP Working Papers 5. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Guyana: Eastern Kanuku Mountains. Montambault, J.R. and O. Missa (eds.). 2002. A Biodiversity Assessment of the Eastern Kanuku Mountains, Lower Kwitaro River, Guyana. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 26. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Guyana: Kanuku Mountains. Rapid Assessment Program. 2003. Biodiversity in the Kanuku Mountains.
Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Guyana: Southern Guyana. Alonso, L.E., J. McCullough, P. Naskrecki, E. Alexander and H.E. Wright (eds.).
2008. A Rapid Biological Assessment of the Konashen Community Owned Conservation Area, Southern
Guyana. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 51. Conservation International, Arlington, VA.
Guyana: Southern Guyana. Rapid Assessment Program. 2008. Biodiversity in the Konashen Communityowned Conservation Area, Guyana. Conservation International, Arlington, VA.
Paraguay: Río Paraguay Basin. Chernoff, B., P.W. Willink and J. R. Montambault (eds.). 2001. A biological
assessment of the Río Paraguay Basin, Alto Paraguay, Paraguay. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment
19. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Peru: Tambopata-Candamo Reserved Zone. Foster, R.B., J.L. Carr and A.B. Forsyth (eds.). 1994. The Tambopata-Candamo Reserved Zone of southeastern Perú: A Biological Assessment. RAP Working Papers 6.
Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Peru: Cordillera de Vilcabamba. Alonso, L.E., A. Alonso, T. S. Schulenberg and F. Dallmeier (eds.). 2001.
Biological and Social Assessments of the Cordillera de Vilcabamba, Peru. RAP Working Papers 12 and SI/
MAB Series 6. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Suriname: Coppename River Basin. Alonso, L.E. and H.J. Berrenstein (eds.). 2006. A Rapid Biological Assessment of the Aquatic Ecosystems of the Coppename River Basin, Suriname. RAP Bulletin of Biological
Assessment 39. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Suriname: Lely and Nassau Plateaus. Alonso, L.E. and J.H. Mol (eds.). 2007. A Rapid Biological Assessment of the Lely and Nassau Plateaus, Suriname (with additional information on the Brownsberg Plateau). RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 43. Conservation International, Arlington, VA.
310
Venezuela: Caura River Basin. Chernoff, B., A. Machado-Allison, K. Riseng and J.R. Montambault (eds.).
2003. A Biological Assessment of the Aquatic Ecosystems of the Caura River Basin, Bolívar State, Venezuela. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 28. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Venezuela: Orinoco Delta and Gulf of Paria. Lasso, C.A., L.E. Alonso, A.L. Flores and G. Love (eds.). 2004.
Rapid assessment of the biodiversity and social aspects of the aquatic ecosystems of the Orinoco Delta
and the Gulf of Paria, Venezuela. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 37. Conservation International,
Washington, DC.
Venezuela: Los Ríos Orinoco y Ventuari. Lasso, C.A., J.C. Ceñaris, L.E. Alonso and A.L. Flores (eds.). 2006.
Evaluación Rápida de la Biodiversidad de los Ecosistemas Acuáticos en la Confluencia de los ríos Orinoco
y Ventuari, Estado Amazonas, Venezuela. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 30. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Venezuela: La Cuenca Alta del Río Paragua. Ceñaris, J.C., C.A. Lasso and A.L. Flores (eds.). 2008. Evaluación Rápida de la Biodiversidad de los Ecosistemas Acuáticos de la Cuenca Alta del Río Paragua, Estado
Bolívar, Venezuela. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 49. Conservation International, Arlington, VA.
Venezuela: La Cuenca Alta del Río Cuyuní. Lasso, C.A., J.C. Ceñaris, A. Rial and A.L. Flores (eds.). 2010.
Evaluación Rápida de la Biodiversidad de los Ecosistemas Acuáticos de la Cuenca Alta del Río Cuyuní,
Guyana Venezolana. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 55. Conservation International, Arlington, VA.
Venezuela: Ramal Calderas. Rial B., A., J.C. Ceñaris, C.A. Lasso and A.L. Flores (eds.). 2010. Rapid assessment of the biodiversity of the Ramal Calderas, Venezuelan Andes. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment
56. Conservation International, Arlington, VA.
Africa and Madagascar
Botswana: Okavango Delta. Alonso, L.E. and L. Nordin (eds.). 2003. A Rapid Biological Assessment of the
aquatic ecosystems of the Okavango Delta, Botswana: High Water Survey. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 27. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Côte d’Ivoire: Marahoué National Park. Schulenberg, T.S., C.A. Short and P.J. Stephenson (eds.). 1999. A
Biological Assessment of Parc National de la Marahoué, Côte d’Ivoire. RAP Working Papers 13. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Côte d’Ivoire: Two Classified Forests. Alonso, L.E., F. Lauginie and G. Rondeau (eds.). 2005. A Rapid
Biological Assessment of Two Classified Forests in Southwestern Côte d’Ivoire. RAP Bulletin of Biological
Assessment 34. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Democratic Republic of the Congo: Lokutu. Butynski, T.M. and J. McCullough (eds.). 2007. A Rapid Biological Assessment of Lokutu, Democratic Republic of Congo. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 46.
Conservation International, Arlington, VA.
Ghana: Draw River. McCullough, J., J. Decher and D.G. Kpelle (eds.). 2005. A Biological Assessment of the
Terrestrial Ecosystems of the Draw River, Boi-Tano, Tano Nimiri and Krokosua Hills Forest Reserves,
Southwestern Ghana. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 36. Conservation International, Washington,
DC.
Ghana: Atewa Range Forest Reserve. McCullough, J., L.E. Alonso, P. Naskrecki, H.E. Wright and Y. OseiOwusu (eds.). 2007. A Rapid Biological Assessment of the Atewa Range Forest Reserve, Eastern Ghana.
RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 47. Conservation International. Arlington, VA.
311
Ghana: Atewa Range Forest Reserve. Rapid Assessment Program. 2007. Biodiversity in the Atewa Range
Forest Reserve, Ghana. Conservation International, Arlington, VA.
Ghana: Ajenjua Bepo and Mamang River. McCullough, J., P. Hoke, P. Naskrecki and Y. Osei-Owusu
(eds.).2008. A Rapid Biological Assessment of the Ajenjua Bepo and Mamang River Forest Reserves,
Ghana. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 50. Conservation International, Arlington, VA.
Guinea: Pic de Fon. McCullough, J. (ed.). 2004. A Rapid Biological Assessment of the Forêt Classée du Pic
de Fon, Simandou Range, Southeastern Republic of Guinea. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 35.
Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Guinea: Southeastern Guinea. Wright, H.E., J. McCullough, L.E. Alonso and M.S. Diallo (eds.). 2006. A Rapid
Biological Assessment of Three Classified Forests in Southeastern Guinea. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 40. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Guinea: Boké Préfecture. Wright, H.E., J. McCullough and M.S. Diallo (eds.). 2006. A Rapid Biological Assessment of Boké Préfecture, Northwestern Guinea. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 41. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Liberia: North Lorma, Gola and Grebo National Forests. Hoke, P., R. Demey and A. Peal (eds.). 2007. A
Rapid Biological Assessment of North Lorma, Gola and Grebo National Forests, Liberia. RAP Bulletin of
Biological Assessment 44. Conservation International, Arlington, VA.
Madagascar: Ankarafantsika. Alonso, L.E., T.S. Schulenberg, S. Radilofe and O. Missa (eds.). 2002. A Biological Assessment of the Réserve Naturelle Intégrale d’Ankarafantsika, Madagascar. RAP Bulletin of Biological
Assessment 23. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Madagascar: Northwest Coral Reefs. McKenna, S.A. and G.R. Allen (eds.). 2005. A Rapid Marine Biodiversity Assessment of the Coral Reefs of Northwest Madagascar. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 31.
Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Madagascar: Mantadia-Zahamena. Schmid, J. and L.E. Alonso (eds.). 2005. A Rapid Biological Assessment
of the Mantadia-Zahamena Corridor, Madagascar. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 32. Conservation
International, Washington, DC.
Asia-Pacific
China: Sichuan Province. Alonso, L.E., L. Shaoying, S. Xiaoli and J. McCullough (eds.). 2010. A Rapid Biological Assessment of Three Sites in the Mountains of Southwest China Hotspot, Ganzi Prefecture, Sichuan
Province, China. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 52. Conservation International, Arlington, VA.
Fiji: Nakauvadra Mountain Range. Morrison, C. (ed.). 2010. A Rapid Biodiversity Assessment of the Nakauvadra Range, Ra Province, Fiji. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 57. Conservation International,
Arlington, VA.
Indonesia: Wapoga River Area. Mack, A.L. and L.E. Alonso (eds.). 2000. A Biological Assessment of the
Wapoga River Area of Northwestern Irian Jaya, Indonesia. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 14. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Indonesia: Togean and Banggai Islands. Allen, G.R., and S.A. McKenna (eds.). 2001. A Marine Rapid Assessment of the Togean and Banggai Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 20.
Conservation International, Washington, DC.
312
Indonesia: Raja Ampat Islands. McKenna, S.A., G.R. Allen and S. Suryadi (eds.). 2002. A Marine Rapid
Assessment of the Raja Ampat Islands, Papua Province, Indonesia. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment
22. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Indonesia: Yongsu - Cyclops Mountains and the Southern Mamberamo Basin. Richards, S.J. and S. Suryadi
(eds.). 2002. A Biodiversity Assessment of Yongsu - Cyclops Mountains and the Southern Mamberamo
Basin, Papua, Indonesia. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 25. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
New Caledonia: Mont Panié. McKenna, S.A., N. Baillon, H. Blaffart and G. Abrusci (eds.). 2006. Une Évaluation Rapide de la Biodiversité Marine des Récifs Coralliens du Mont Panié, Province Nord, Nouvelle
Calédonie. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 42. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
New Caledonia: Province Nord. McKenna, S.A., N. Baillon and J. Spaggiari (eds.). 2010. A Rapid Marine
Biodiversity Assessment of the Coral Reefs of the Northwest Lagoon, between Koumac and Yandé,
Province Nord, New Caledonia. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 53. Conservation International,
Arlington, VA.
Papua New Guinea: Lakekamu Basin. Mack, A.L. (ed.). 1998. A Biological Assessment of the Lakekamu
Basin, Papua New Guinea. RAP Working Papers 9. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Papua New Guinea: Milne Bay Province. Werner, T.B. and G. Allen (eds.). 1998. A Rapid Biodiversity Assessment of the Coral Reefs of Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea. RAP Working Papers 11. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Papua New Guinea: Southern New Ireland. Beehler, B.M. and L.E. Alonso (eds.). 2001. Southern New Ireland, Papua New Guinea: A Biodiversity Assessment. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 21. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Papua New Guinea: Milne Bay Province. Allen, G.R., J.P. Kinch, S.A. McKenna and P. Seeto (eds.). 2003. A
Rapid Marine Biodiversity Assessment of Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea - Survey II (2000). RAP
Bulletin of Biological Assessment 29. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Papua New Guinea: Kaijende Highlands. Richards, S.J. (ed.). 2007. A Rapid Biodiversity Assessment of
the Kaijende Highlands, Enga Province, Papua New Guinea. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 45.
Conservation International, Arlington, VA.
Philippines: Palawan Province. Werner, T.B. and G. Allen (eds.). 2000. A Rapid Marine Biodiversity Assessment of the Calamianes Islands, Palawan Province, Philippines. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 17. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
313
Index of RAP Survey Profiles
CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA
Belize: Columbia River Forest Reserve....................................................................102
Bolivia: Alto Madidi Region............................................................................................ 95
Bolivia: The Lowland Dry Forests of Santa Cruz................................................... 98
Bolivia: Upper Río Orthon Basin, Pando.................................................................146
Bolivia: Humid Forests of Chuquisaca....................................................................... 96
Bolivia: Noel Kempff Mercado National Park.......................................................169
Bolivia: Pando.....................................................................................................................236
Brazil: Abrolhos Bank.....................................................................................................253
Brazil: Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul........................................................................127
Brazil: Tumucumaque Mountains National Park . .............................................209
Caribbean Netherlands: Saba Bank...........................................................................119
Ecuador: Cordillera de la Costa...................................................................................193
Ecuador: Upper Río Nangaritza Basin.....................................................................149
Ecuador and Peru: Cordillera del Cóndor.............................................................. 103
Ecuador and Peru: Río Pastaza Basin.......................................................................156
Guatemala: Laguna del Tigre National Park..........................................................131
Guyana: Eastern Kanuku Mountains........................................................................176
Guyana: Konashen Community Owned Conservation Area ..........................173
Guyana: Western Kanuku Mountains......................................................................... 99
Paraguay: Río Paraguay Basin.....................................................................................212
Peru: Cordillera de Vilcabamba..................................................................................111
Peru: Tambopata-Candamo Reserved Zone .........................................................106
Suriname: Coppename River Basin...........................................................................135
Suriname: Kwamalasamutu..........................................................................................184
Suriname: Lely and Nassau Plateaus........................................................................221
Venezuela: Orinoco Delta and the Gulf of Paria...................................................259
Venezuela: Ramal de Calderas.....................................................................................262
Venezuela: Río Caura Basin..........................................................................................259
Venezuela: Río Paragua Basin......................................................................................260
Venezuela: Río Ventuari.................................................................................................260
Venezuela: Upper Río Cuyuní......................................................................................261
AFRICA & MADAGASCAR
Botswana: Okavango Delta I - High Water Survey..............................................189
Botswana: Okavango Delta II - Low Water Survey.............................................216
Botswana: Okavango Delta III - Terrestrial............................................................216
Côte d’Ivoire: Haute Dodo and Cavally Classified Forests...............................185
Côte d’Ivoire: Parc National de la Marahoué.........................................................114
Democratic Republic of Congo: Lokutu...................................................................204
Ghana: Ajenjua Bepo and Mamang Forest Reserves..........................................217
314
Ghana: Atewa Range Forest Reserve........................................................................165
Ghana: Southwestern Forest Reserves....................................................................118
Guinea: Boké Préfecture................................................................................................213
Guinea: Déré, Diécké, and Mont Béro.......................................................................205
Guinea: Foret Classée du Pic de Fon, Simandou Range....................................201
Liberia: North Lorma, Gola & Grebo National Forests......................................188
Madagascar: Andrafiamena..........................................................................................240
Madagascar: Coral Reefs of the Northeast I...........................................................204
Madagascar: Coral Reefs of the Northeast II.........................................................122
Madagascar: Coral Reefs of the Northwest............................................................249
Madagascar: Mantadia-Zahamena Corridor..........................................................197
Madagascar: Reserve Naturelle Integrale d’Ankarafantsika...........................240
ASIA-PACIFIC
Cambodia: Central Cardamom Mountains ……………………………………….…229
Cambodia: Virachey National Park............................................................................107
China: Mountains of Southwest China Hotspot, Sichuan.................................273
Fiji: Nakauvadra Range...................................................................................................208
Fiji: Nakorotubu Mountains.........................................................................................233
Indonesia: Coral Reefs of the Togean and Banggai Islands, Sulawesi........228
Indonesia: Cyclops Mountains and the Southern Mamberamo Basin.......181
Indonesia: Fakfak-Kaimana Coastline, Bird’s Head Seascape........................143
Indonesia: Foja Mountains I.........................................................................................153
Indonesia: Foja Mountains II.......................................................................................153
Indonesia: Northwest Mamberamo Basin.............................................................232
Indonesia: Raja Ampat Islands, Bird’s Head Seascape......................................139
Indonesia: Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, Bird’s Head Seascape......115
Indonesia: Wapoga River Area....................................................................................148
Nepal: Makalu-Barun National Park.........................................................................180
New Caledonia: Mont Panié Lagoon.........................................................................123
New Caledonia: Mont Panié Terrestrial..................................................................130
New Caledonia: Northeast Lagoon (Touho to Ponérihouen).........................245
New Caledonia: Northwest Lagoon (Yandé to Koumac)..................................225
New Caledonia: Province Nord...................................................................................228
Solomon Islands: Rennell Island and Indispensable Reefs.............................241
Papua New Guinea: Kaijende Highlands.................................................................130
Papua New Guinea: Lakekamu Basin.......................................................................177
Papua New Guinea: Milne Bay Province I...............................................................248
Papua New Guinea: Milne Bay Province II.............................................................248
Papua New Guinea: Muller Range..............................................................................161
Papua New Guinea: Nakanai Mountains, East New Britain............................157
Papua New Guinea: Southern New Ireland...........................................................200
Philippines: Calamianes Islands, Palawan Province..........................................224
315
© Conservation International/photo by Leeanne E. Alonso
Recent RAP Staff
© Conservation International/photo by Leeanne E. Alonso
RAP staff 2006: Leslie Kasmir, Leeanne Alonso, Peter Hoke, Heather Wright
RAP staff 2007: Leeanne Alonso, Peter Hoke, Jennifer McCullough, Edward Lohnes
316
About the Editors
Leeanne E. Alonso has coordinated and led
over 30 RAP surveys as director of CI’s RAP
program for the past 12 years. She has a PhD
in Biology from Harvard University, studying
ant ecology and conservation biology under
Dr. E.O. Wilson. Leeanne and her husband, Alfonso, have twin 10 year old boys, Miguel and
Antonio, who are already training to become
future RAP team members.
Jessica Deichmann received her PhD in Biological Sciences from Louisiana State University and is currently working for Conservation
International’s Rapid Assessment Program in
Arlington, VA. She has been studying tropical
ecology, conservation and herpetology in the
Neotropics for 10 years, and has been involved with RAP training courses and surveys
in South America since 2008.
Sheila A. McKenna,
senior research scientist with SEAlliance,
is a marine ecologist
that specializes in
studying areas of the
ocean where little or
no data is available to
obtain the critical data
needed for informed
decision making to
implement effective
conservation
and
management activities. She has over 20 years of experience in 15 countries and served
as senior scientist and director of Conservation International’s Marine
RAP program from 2000 to 2007. She has a Ph.D. in zoology from the
University of Maryland.
Piotr Naskrecki is an entomologist, invertebrate conservationist, and nature writer/photographer, currently with the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University.
Stephen
Richards
is currently manager
of Conservation International’s
RAP
biodiversity assessment program for the
Asia-Pacific region, a
Research Associate
at the South Australian Museum and a
member of the IUCN’s
Amphibian
Red-list
Authority. He has
been involved with the
RAP program since the New Guinea RAP survey and training project at
Lakekamu in 1996, and has been working on the systematics, conservation status and ecology of herpetofauna in the Asia-Pacific region for 20
years.
This exciting book outlines the inception, history, and achievements of Conservation
International’s Rapid Assessment Program (RAP) over its first two decades,
1990-2010. The philosophy and methodology of RAP, its major goals and results, and
the “feet-in-the-mud” attitude that has made the program so effective are featured.
The book profiles nearly 80 expeditions to some of the most remote but often highly
threatened sites around the world, highlighting the impacts of RAP surveys in relation
to the establishment and improvement of protected areas, the discovery of species
new to science, scientific capacity building, spatial planning for conservation, and
enhancing human well-being. The book also features fascinating, personal stories
from the field. Illustrated with hundreds of photos taken during the RAP surveys,
this book includes the first photos of many newly discovered species of animals and
plants, and other rarely photographed jewels of terrestrial, freshwater and marine
biodiversity.
The RAP surveys have been one of the most original and useful of all of Conservation
International’s contribution to conservation science and planning. They provide
highly informative (and interesting!) reconnaissance reports of potential hot spots,
many never before studied, that outline their main features, identify notable parts
of the flora and fauna, and thereby measure the urgency of further study and action.
The connections with local people and governments by the RAP teams also help raise
the awareness of those who are the permanent stewards.
- Edward O. Wilson, Harvard University

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