capítulo 1

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capítulo 1
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1
CAPÍTULO
Símbolos de
identidad
Suggestion: Ask students if they can translate the chapter title (“Symbols of Identity”) and let them know that they will learn about greetings
and descriptions in this chapter. Highlight the cultural objectives.
Una calle de Cartagena de Indias, una ciudad colonial en la costa del Mar Caribe.
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MULTIMEDIA: www.mhhe.com/portafolio
DVD
En este capítulo…
Online Workbook/Lab Manual
Online Learning Center
NOTE: Throughout the chapter
students will collect and learn
information about these cultural
objectives.
Objetivos culturales
䉴
Cultural identity: What symbols define our
national and local identity?
䉴 Formal and informal language
Note: There is a brief cultural quiz in the Instructor’s Manual. Ask students those questions to see how much they know about Colombia before they begin the chapter. They
can search for some answers in the chapter opener; others will be discovered as the
chapter progresses.
Estatuas prehistóricas en el Parque
Arqueológico de San Agustín,
departamento del Huila, Colombia.
Vocabulario
Los saludosa
b
䉴 El alfabeto español
䉴 El origen y la nacionalidad
䉴 Los días y los números (1–31)
䉴 Las descripciones
䉴
Gramática
Con más de 7 milliones de habitantes, Bogotá es una
de las ciudades más grandes de Sudamérica.
1.1
1.2
1.3
Subject Pronouns
The Verb ser
Gender and Number Agreement
Portafolio cultural: Colombia
䉴
el R
ío
Ca
uca
des
el Río
Magd
alena
s An
de lo
lera
ordil
COLOMBIA
Los… Greetings
b
el Río Japurá
ECUADOR
PERÚ
a
el Altiplano Boyacense
Duitama
Bogotá
la C
䉴
Cali
fico
䉴
Antioquia
Pa
cí
䉴
no
䉴
céa
䉴
Nación: Un lugar único en Sudamérica
Actualidad: La lucha armada
Cartelera: La música colombiana
Icono: Gabriel García Márquez, escritor
Gente: Hablan los colombianos
Opinión: Los saludos en Colombia
Mi portafolio
el O
䉴
el Mar Caribe
Barranquilla Santa Marta
Cartagena
Valledupar
PANAMÁ
VENEZUELA
BRASIL
Spanish
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CAPÍTULO 1
Vocabulario
Suggestion: See the Instructor’s Manual
for suggestions on teaching vocabulary in
Portafolio.
LOS SALUDOS
Optional: You may also wish to introduce these
related vocabulary items: Así así; Bien, bien; ¡Chau!;
; ¿Qué hay?;
El placer es mío; Mi nombre es
Que te/le vaya bien; Te/Le presento a mi amigo/a.
1. *IRENE: ¡Hola, Marisa! ¿Qué tal?
MARISA: Bien, ¿y tú? ¿Cómo estás?
IRENE: Más o menos. Nos vemos, ¿eh?
MARISA: Sí, hasta luego.
2. SRA. MÁRQUEZ: Buenos días, señor Castillo.
¿Cómo está usted?
SR. CASTILLO: Estoy bien, gracias. ¿Y usted,
señora Márquez?
Suggestion: Encourage students to focus on learning these expresSRA. MÁRQUEZ: Muy bien. Hasta mañana.
sions as “chunks” of language, without analyzing each word. They will
SR. CASTILLO: Adiós.
learn what the individual words mean over the course of the next few
lessons.
3. HUMBERTO: ¿Cómo te llamas?
IRENE: Me llamo Irene.
HUMBERTO: Encantado. Yo me llamo Humberto.
IRENE: Encantada, Humberto.
así se dice
The greetings presented on this page
are used and understood in all
Spanish-speaking countries, but some
areas have variations: ¡Buenas! (many
countries), ¡Saludos! (Dominican
Republic), ¿Qué hay? (Spain). Also,
Spanish speakers often greet each
other with ¡Adiós! instead of ¡Hola! if
they pass on the street without time to
chat.
Note: Draw students’ attention to the fact
that Humberto says encantado whereas
Irene says encantada. Students will learn
about noun/adjective agreement later in this
chapter. For now, they should just be aware
that in this situation females say encantada
and males say encantado. Also point out
that both males and females can use the
expressions mucho gusto and igualmente.
4
cuatro
buenas noches
buenas tardes
hasta pronto
regular
4. SR. CASTILLO: ¿Cómo se llama usted, señorita?
MARISA: Me llamo Marisa Cuéllar.
SR. CASTILLO: Eh, ¿cuál es su apellido?
MARISA: Cuéllar. Cuéllar Sánchez.
SR. CASTILLO: Mucho gusto, señorita Cuéllar.
MARISA: Igualmente, señor Castillo.
good night
good afternoon/evening
until (see you) soon
OK
Suggestion: Point out that in most Spanish-speaking countries, people use two last names,
the first paternal, the second maternal (see dialogue 4).
*1. IRENE: Hi, Marisa! How’s it going? MARISA: Fine, and you? How are you? IRENE: So-so. See
you around, OK? MARISA: Yes, see you later.
2. SRA. MÁRQUEZ: Good morning, Mr. Castillo. How are you? SR. CASTILLO: I’m fine, thank you.
And you, Mrs. Márquez? SRA. MÁRQUEZ: Very well. See you tomorrow. SR. CASTILLO: Good-bye.
3. HUMBERTO: What’s your name? IRENE: My name is Irene. HUMBERTO: Nice to meet you. My
name is Humberto. IRENE: Nice to meet you, Humberto.
4. SR. CASTILLO: What is your name, miss? MARISA: My name is Marisa Cuéllar. SR. CASTILLO: Um,
what is your last name? MARISA: Cuéllar, Cuéllar Sánchez. SR. CASTILLO: Pleased to meet you,
Miss Cuéllar.
Note: Dialogues are translated here to help students. Later dialogues will be translated only as
necessary; students should be encouraged to figure out what they mean by context.
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Vocabulario
Did you notice in the dialogues that “How are you?” and “What is your
name?” were said in two different ways? This is because Spanish distinguishes between two levels of formality when addressing people directly.
Dialogues 1 and 3 represent familiar speech: ¿Qué tal?, ¿y tú?, ¿Cómo
estás?, and ¿Cómo te llamas? are used with people you know well, on a
first-name basis. In dialogues 2 and 4, the expressions ¿Cómo está usted?,
¿y usted?, and ¿Cómo se llama usted? are formal expressions, used to
address someone you do not know well, or someone with whom you have
a formal relationship. You will learn more about this in the Gramática
section of this chapter.
práctica
Note A (Paso 2): Adiós is generally used to
say good-bye to someone you will not see for a
while, although it can be used in other contexts
as well.
A. ¿Formal o informal?
Paso 1. Say whether you would use the following expressions with a close
friend or with someone you have just met.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Buenos días, señor.
Bien, gracias, ¿y tú?
¿Cómo te llamas?
Adiós, señorita.
5.
6.
7.
8.
¿Cómo estás?
¡Hola, Ángela!
¿Cómo está usted?
¿Qué tal?
Paso 2. How would you say good-bye to the following people?
1.
2.
3.
4.
someone you will be seeing shortly
someone you will be seeing tomorrow
your instructor
your best friend
B. Diálogos incompletos. Complete the following dialogues.
1. — Hola, Antonio. ¿Qué tal?
—
, ¿y tú?
— Más o menos.
3. — ¿
?
— Bien, gracias, ¿y usted?
—
.
2. — ¿
?
— Me llamo Alicia.
—
.
— Igualmente.
4. —¡Buenas tardes, profesora!
—
, Irene. ¿Cómo estás?
— Muy bien, ¿
?
— Estoy muy bien, gracias.
CAPÍTULO 1
infórmate
The expressions Buenos días, Buenas
tardes, and Buenas noches have
slightly different connotations than their
English counterparts. Buenos días is
used up until the midday meal, which
in Hispanic countries generally starts
between 1:00 and 3:00 in the afternoon. Buenas tardes is used from the
midday meal until the evening meal,
usually around 8:00 P.M. (although
sometimes as late as 10:00). Buenas
noches is used only after the evening
meal, or before going to bed.
Note: Introduce students to the Infórmate
feature. Explain that the title means “Find
Out” or “Get Informed” and that it will
occur throughout the text to expand or
give background information on vocabulary, grammar, and cultural topics. You can
set your own policies whether or not to
teach and test this information.
Expansion B: Make up and read several
brief dialogues like those in this activity
and have volunteers say whether each
occurs in a formal context or a familiar
context. Before reading the dialogues, ask
students what details might give away the
formal/familiar distinction: usted vs. tú.,
está vs. estás, and so on.
Note C: Remind students that the times
in which each expression is used are not
fixed, and that usage can vary from
country to country or even from family to
family. When more than one answer is
possible, have students explain why they
chose the option they did.
C. La hora (time) exacta. Which expression would you use at the following times of day? Choose from buenos días, buenas tardes, and buenas noches.
1. 9:30 A.M.
2. 2:00 P.M.
3. 12:00 (noon)
4. right before bed
5. 7:45 P.M.
6. 9:30 P.M.
D. Entrevista: ¿Cómo te llamas?
Paso 1. Introduce yourself to several classmates. Ask their names and how
they are doing. Then say good-bye.
Paso 2. Introduce yourself to your instructor. Ask how he/she is and
answer his/her questions.
Optional D: If you taught Te/Le
,
presento a mi amigo/a
have students work in groups of
3. One student introduces another student
to a third student, and the second and
third students exchange greetings. Then
have students pretend that 1 or 2 of them
are instructors, and role-play the conversation again using a mixture of formal and
familiar expressions, as appropriate.
cinco
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Símbolos de identidad
Point out: The letters k and w occur only
in words of foreign origin, as shown in the
examples.
Note: The Real Academia Española does
not consider rr to be a separate letter.
However, for pronunciation and spelling
purposes, it is included in the list as a letter
of the alphabet.
EL ALFABETO ESPAÑOL
—¿Cómo se escribe Bejarano?
—Se escribe:
be grande-e-jota-a-ere-a-ene-o.
How is Bejarano spelled?
It’s spelled, b-e-j-a-r-a-n-o.
Note (Second Footnote): Translate grande/chica (large/small) and larga/corta (long/short) for
students so the distinction makes sense to them.
LETTER*
NAME OF LETTER
EXAMPLES
LETTER
NAME OF LETTER
EXAMPLES
a
a
b
c
d
be†
ce
de
o
p
q
o
pe
cu
r
rr
ere
erre, ere doble
e
f
g
e
efe
ge
s
t
u
ese
te
u
h
i
j
k
l
m
hache
i
jota
ka
ele
eme
v
ve, uve†
w
x
doble ve, ve doble,
uve doble
equis
n
ene
y
i griega
ñ
eñe
Argentina,
Andalucía
Bolivia, Bariloche
Colombia, Ceuta
Durango,
Dinamarca
Ecuador, Europa
Florida, Francia
Guatemala,
Gibraltar
Honduras, Huelva
Ibiza, Iguazú
Jerez, Guadalajara
Kansas, Katmandú
Lima, León
México,
Montevideo
Nicaragua,
Panamá
España, Logroño
z
ceta (zeta)
Orinoco, Bogotá
Perú, Paraguay
Quito,
Barranquilla
Mérida, Caracas
Monterrey,
Navarra
El Salvador, Brasil
Tampico, Toledo
Uruguay,
Acapulco
Venezuela,
Valparaíso
Washington,
Hawai
Extremadura,
Oaxaca
Guayaquil,
Yucatán
Zaragoza, Cozumel
Suggestion: Use cognates (maravilloso,
formal, atípico, hospitalario, and so on) to
focus students’ attention on the soundletter correspondences of Spanish, especially with the vowels. For example, make
sure students say atípico with initial
Spanish “ah” and not English “a.”
infórmate
Note that the letter ñ is a distinct letter from n. Until 1996, Spanish had two compound
letters: ch (che, pronounced like the ch in the English word cheerful ) and ll (elle, in most
countries pronounced like the y in the English word yes). Spanish-language dictionaries
alphabetized words with these letters in separate sections (ch after c, ll after l). But in
1996, the Real Academia Española (Royal Spanish Academy, a group of scholars in
Spain that decides matters concerning the Spanish language) decreed that ch and ll
should be sequences of two letters each. Accordingly, in dictionaries published after
1996, words beginning with ch now appear among the c words between those beginning with ce and those beginning with ci. Similarly, words beginning with ll are now
found between words beginning with li and those beginning with lo. However, remember
that ch and ll still retain their distinctive pronunciations.
*An in-depth guide to the pronunciation of Spanish letters appears in Appendix A. Individual
sounds will be practiced throughout Portafolio.
†
In some countries, the name uve is not used for the letter v. Since the names for the letters b
and v (be and ve, respectively) are pronounced the same way, Spanish speakers use a variety
of expressions to distinguish between the two. The letter b is often referred to as “be de
burro,” “be grande,” or “be larga,” whereas the letter v is referred to as “ve de vaca,” “ve
chica,” or “ve corta.”
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Vocabulario
CAPÍTULO 1
Suggestion A: Read the names of the letters aloud and have students repeat after you. Point out that
the examples are mostly names of countries and cities in the Hispanic world. Then read the examples
aloud and have the class repeat chorally, or have volunteers read them. This will help students practice
pronunciation, especially of names that are
A. El alfabeto. Listen to your instructor pronounce the names of the
identical or similar to their English counterletters of the alphabet, then repeat them after him/her. What differparts but are pronounced differently. It will
also expose students to many country
ences do you notice between the Spanish and English alphabets
names that they will not be studying for(number of letters, types of letters)?
mally but that will be introduced as necessary in displays and activities.
B. Letras perdidas (Missing letters). Based on their English equivalents,
práctica
can you guess which letters are missing from the following words?
Spell out the entire word.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
airport: ae__opuer__o
marvelous: __aravillo__o
university: u__i__ersidad
student: est__dian__e
professor: pro__es__r
Expansion B: Dictate these words and
expressions and have students write them
on a piece of paper: 1. español 2. amigo
3. hola 4. buenos días 5. gracias
6. alfabeto 7. ¿Cómo estás? Ask volunteers to tell you what each word or
expression means.
C. Entrevista: ¿Cómo se escribe? Work with a partner to create short
dialogues, using the following cues as a guide.
1. Introduce yourself to your partner, ask his/her name, and ask him/
her to spell it for you.
2. Ask your partner how to say a word in Spanish, then ask him/her
to spell it.
La calle (The Street), del artista colombiano Fernando Botero
(1932– )
siete
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Símbolos de identidad
Suggestion: Call students’ attention to
the art and the footnotes on this page.
EL ORIGEN Y LA NACIONALIDAD
Jorge es colombiano.*
Luisa es colombiana* también.
Note: Only some of the nationalities are
included here; others will be introduced
as active vocabulary in later chapters
when the relevant countries or regions
are highlighted, or as passive vocabulary
as needed in the practice activities.
Soy/Es
.
alemán / alemana
canadiense
chino/a
español(a)
estadounidense
—Luisa, ¿de dónde eres?
—Soy de Cali. Soy
colombiana.†
—¿De dónde es usted,
señor Castillo?
—Soy de Bogotá. Soy
colombiano también.
—¿De dónde es él/ella?
—Es de Medellín.
—¿De qué origen es el café?
—Es de Colombia.
(Es colombiano.)
I am / He (She, It) is
Luisa, where are you from? (familiar)
I’m from Cali. I’m Colombian.
Where are you from,
Mr. Castillo? (formal)
I’m from Bogotá. I’m Colombian, too.
Where is he/she from?
He/she is from Medellín.
Where is the coffee from?
It’s from Colombia. (It’s Colombian.)
.
German
Canadian
Chinese
Spanish
American (from the
United States)
francés / francesa
inglés / inglesa
italiano/a
japonés / japonesa
mexicano/a
puertorriqueño/a
French
English
Italian
Japanese
Mexican
Puerto Rican
práctica
Note A: Encourage students to ask for
needed vocabulary with ¿Cómo se
en español?
dice
A. Productos internacionales
Paso 1. What nationality do you associate with the following products?
Use the expression Es un producto ⫹ the masculine form of the adjective.
MODELO:
1.
2.
3.
4.
el tango 씮 Es un producto argentino.
el café (coffee)
el té (tea)
el vino (wine) Chianti
el automóvil Volkswagen
5.
6.
7.
8.
el arroz (rice)
la tarta de manzana (apple pie)
el taco
la paella
*Many of the vocabulary words in this section are adjectives of nationality (for example,
colombiano, Colombian). In Spanish, the endings of adjectives often change when describing
males and females. For now, use the forms ending in -o or a consonant (-s or -n) for a male
and -a for a female. You will study this phenomenon in more detail later in this chapter. Note
how the variants are listed on this page; this system will be used throughout the book to indicate masculine and feminine forms.
†
Note that in Spanish, adjectives of nationality are not capitalized.
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ocho
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Vocabulario
Paso 2. Ask a partner where the following international products are likely
to originate. He/She will answer, choosing one of the countries given.
MODELO:
el café (Colombia, Australia) 씮
E1:* ¿De qué origen es el café?
E2:
El café es de Colombia.
1. el perfume (Francia, Canadá)
2. el chocolate (Rusia, Suiza)
3. la pizza (Italia, Bolivia)
CAPÍTULO 1
Suggestion A (Paso 2): Before
students begin this part of the
activity, have them guess the
country names (all are close cognates).
You can also use these country names to
check students’ reading comprehension.
4. el sushi (México, Japón)
5. el cigarro (Cuba, Italia)
Note B: Students should use masculine
and feminine endings correctly by following the models, but if they ask, tell them
that familia is a feminine noun and uses
the feminine form of the adjective, and that
origen is a masculine noun and uses the
masculine form of the adjective.
Remind students that the chart of the
alphabet on page 6 contains names of
many Hispanic countries if they need to
refer to it. Otherwise, tell students the
Spanish words for the countries and
nationalities they need.
Hay (There is) mucha diversidad en Colombia.
B. Encuesta (Survey): ¿De qué origen es tu (your) familia? Find out the
national origin of three or four of your classmates.
MODELOS:
E1: ¿De qué origen es tu familia?
E2: Mi (My) familia es colombiana. (Mi familia es de
origen colombiano.)
E1:
E2:
¿De dónde eres?
Soy de Colombia. (Soy colombiano/a.)
C. Símbolos nacionales.
Paso 1. Choose the nationality most often associated with the following
products, people, or ideas.
MODELO:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
La tarta de manzana es un símbolo estadounidense.
el gaucho
el café
el Tío (Uncle) Sam
la tortilla
Shakespeare
Don Quijote
la Estatua de Libertad
la cerveza (beer)
el béisbol
el cóndor
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
alemán
argentino
colombiano
español
estadounidense
inglés
mexicano
puertorriqueño
Suggestion C: Have students match the
obvious pairs first, then use the process of
elimination to guess the rest. As they state
their answers, provide additional language
input by elaborating on their answers, for
example, Sí, el béisbol es un símbolo
puertorriqueño. Es el deporte más popular
de Puerto Rico.
Answers (Paso 1): 1. argentino
2. colombiano 3. estadounidense
4. mexicano 5. inglés 6. español
7. estadounidense 8. alemán
9. puertorriqueño 10. colombiano
Expansion (Paso 1): Encourage students to make short, simple sentences
that explain what the symbols represent.
Provide a model: La tarta de manzana
representa la madre o la familia.
* E stands for Estudiante (Student). This abbreviation will be used throughout this book.
nueve
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Símbolos de identidad
Suggestion (Paso 2): Have students
work in pairs or small groups to brainstorm ideas about the theme of the writing
activity before they create their individual
compositions following the steps in the
Portafolio de actividades. Give students
about 10 minutes to generate ideas, while
you walk from group to group providing
necessary vocabulary, encouraging them
to use the different lexical items and grammatical structures they have studied in this
chapter and keeping them on task.
Paso 2. Read the following ad for the Ballet Folclórico de Antioquia. What
national symbols are mentioned? What does it say about the national identity of Colombians? Make up a similar ad for your city, state/province, or
region, using language similar to the expressions in the ad, but with your
own local details. If you need extra vocabulary, be sure to ask your teacher
in Spanish with the phrase ¿Cómo se dice
en español?
MODELO:
New York City es más que la Estatua de Libertad y el tráfico;
por ejemplo, es también los teatros.
VOCABULARIO ÚTIL
el arte (pl. las artes)
la comida
la danza / el baile
la diversidad
el equipo de (béisbol, básquetbol,
fútbol americano)
el monumento
la música
el parque
el restaurante
art(s)
food, cuisine
dance
diversity
(baseball, basketball,
football) team
monument
music
park
restaurant
a
Colombia es más quebcafé,
deportesc o bellosd paisajes;
es por ejemplo, tradición
popular. El Ballet
Folclórico de Antioquia
participaráe en los más
importantes festivales
folclóricos de
Norteamérica y Europa,
llevandof la buena imagen
de nuestro país.g
a
Bailaremos… We will dance far from home
nuestro… our country
g
10
diez
b
más… more than
c
sports
d
beautiful
e
will participate
f
presenting
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CAPÍTULO 1
Gramática
1.1 SUBJECT PRONOUNS
Subject pronouns (Los pronombres de sujeto) are the words that indicate
the subject of the sentence—the person or thing performing the main action.
Here are the subject pronouns in Spanish, with their English equivalents.
SINGULAR
Suggestion: Rather than begin your
presentation of these pronouns with
the paradigm format, have students list
all the pronouns they have learned so far
in the chapter in the vocabulary presentations. Then fill in the paradigm with the
missing forms. This technique shows
students that they already know much
of the new grammar.
PLURAL
yo
tú
I
you (familiar)
nosotros/nosotras
vosotros/vosotras
usted*
él
ella
you (formal)
he
she
ustedes*
ellos
ellas
we
you all, you
guys (familiar)
you all (formal)
they (masculine)
they (feminine)
Although English differentiates sex only in the third-person singular (he/
she), Spanish has a number of plural feminine forms as well: nosotras,
vosotras, and ellas are used to refer to groups of women or girls.†
Spanish also distinguishes between two levels of formality when
addressing a person directly (you). The familiar (informal) forms are used
generally with a friend, a pet, an unknown person your own age in an
informal social setting, and a family member. The formal forms are used
to show respect to an elder or to an unknown person in a formal setting
(job interviews, business establishments, with college professors, etc.). The
exact distinctions in usage vary slightly from country to country, but the
following table provides a general guide.
FAMILIAR
FORMAL
así se dice
The singular pronoun vos is used
instead of tú in many countries. In
Portafolio you will only practice tú and
its corresponding verb forms for familiar usage, but you will see the vos form
in future chapters that focus on the
countries in which it is frequently used.
Spain
Singular
Plural
tú
vosotros/as
usted
ustedes
Spanish America
Singular
Plural
tú
ustedes
usted
ustedes
*Usted and ustedes are often abbreviated Ud. and Uds., respectively. Note that the abbreviations are capitalized, but the long forms are not.
†
The female forms of subject pronouns are used only when the entire group consists of
women. If there is even one male in the group, the masculine form must be used.
once
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CAPÍTULO 1
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Símbolos de identidad
Note (Autoprueba): Activities within this
section are designed to develop students’
knowledge of how the Spanish language
works (National Standards 4.1). Encourage
students to make comparisons between
Spanish and English or other languages
they may know.
Answers: 1. pl., f. 2. s., m. or f., form.
3. s., m. or f., fam. 4. pl., m. or m. and f.
5. pl., m. and/or f., form. (Sp.), fam. or
form. (Span. Am.) 6. s., m. 7. s., m. or f.
autoprueba
Classify the following subject pronouns according to the categories
given. In some cases, more than one category is possible.
SINGULAR PLURAL MASCULINE FEMININE FAMILIAR FORMAL
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
nosotras
usted
tú
ellos
ustedes
él
yo
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
práctica
Note A: For item 3, point out that in some
countries/regions or individual families,
family members all address each other as
usted, in others, parents address children
as tú whereas children address parents
and other elders as usted.
Answers: 1. usted 2. nosotros
3. vosotros (Sp.) or ustedes (Span. Am.)
4. tú 5. vosotros (Sp.) or ustedes (Span.
Am.) 6. ustedes
Answers B: 1. nosotros/as 2. nosotros
3. ellos 4. nosotros/as 5. ustedes
6. vosotros (Sp.), ustedes (Span. Am.)
Expansion: Have students invent more
combinations, including proper names.
Then have them ask a partner which
pronouns would correspond (e.g., if the
speaker is female, Susana y yo ⫽ nosotras).
A. ¿Tú, usted, nosotros, vosotros o (or) ustedes? Which subject pronoun
would you use to address the following people?
1. your instructor
2. you and a mixed group of friends
3. your parents
4. a friend
5. a mixed group of friends
6. the parents of your friends
B. Muchas personas. Which plural pronouns would you use to refer to
the following groups of people?
1. tú y yo
2. él y yo
3. él y ella
4. usted y yo
5. usted y ella
6. él y tú
1.2 THE VERB SER
In Spanish, there is a distinct verb form for most of the subject pronouns. The
following table shows the present tense forms of the irregular verb ser (to be).
SER
soy
eres
(yo)
(tú)
(usted)
(él/ella)
es
I am
you (fam. s.) are
you (form. s.) are
he/she is
Suggestion: Make sure students understand the abbreviations in this chart.
(nosotros/as)
(vosotros/as)
(ustedes)
(ellos/as)
somos
sois
son
we are
you (fam. pl.) are
you (form. pl.) are
they (m., f.) are
One of the most common uses of the verb ser is to give the nationality
or origin of people and things, in two different patterns. One way is to use
the appropriate form of ser with an adjective of nationality.
Yo soy española.
El señor Castillo es colombiano.
I am Spanish.
Mr. Castillo is Colombian.
The other way is to use a form of ser with the preposition de (from).
¿De dónde eres*?
Soy* de Misisipí.
Where are you from?
I’m from Mississippi.
*Since the verb form indicates the subject of the sentence, it is not always necessary to use
subject pronouns in Spanish. They are generally used only for emphasis or for clarification.
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Gramática
¿De qué origen es el café?
Es de Colombia.
CAPÍTULO 1
Where is the coffee from?
It’s from Colombia.
autoprueba
Which subject pronoun corresponds to the following verb forms? ¡OJO!
Sometimes more than one pronoun is possible.
1. eres
2. somos
3. son
4. soy
5. es
6. sois
práctica
A. Orígenes. Use the following phrases to make complete sentences.
¡OJO! Be sure to use the correct form of the verb ser.
1. yo / ser / de España
2. mi amiga ( friend) / ser / de
Colombia
3. ¿de dónde / ser / tú?
4. y la profesora, ¿de dónde / ser?
5. nosotros / ser / de Bogotá
6. mi madre y mi padre / ser / de
Bogotá
B. Personas famosas
Paso 1. Say in Spanish where the following famous people are from.
Choose from these countries:
Inglaterra (England), España, los Estados Unidos (United States), México
1. la reina (queen) Isabel II
2. Shakira
3. los príncipes ( princes)
Guillermo y Harry
4. el ex presidente Bill Clinton
5. Antonio Banderas
6. la artista Frida Kahlo
Paso 2. Work with a partner to name at least one well-known person from
each of the following countries. Say where that person is from, then give
his/her nationality.
MODELO:
el Canadá
Chile
China
Alemania (Germany) 씮
Heidi Klum es de Alemania. (Ella) Es alemana.
Francia
Italia
México
Suggestion B (Paso 2): When
pairs have finished their lists, ask
volunteers to share some of the
names from their list with the class, e.g.,
Heidi Klum es de Alemania. (Ella) Es alemana. See how many different people
students listed for each country.
Puerto Rico
la República
Dominicana
C. Encuesta: ¿De dónde son tus compañeros/as de clase (classmates)?
Circulate among the members of your class to find out how many are
from Canada, the United States, Spanish America (Hispanoamérica),
Europe (Europa), Asia, Africa (África), and Australia. Then give a
profile of the class by completing the following sentences. ¡OJO!
Remember to use the correct form of the verb ser.
La mayoría de la clase / ser de
Suggestion B (Paso 1): Students may
not be familiar with the works of Shakira,
Antonio Banderas, and Frida Kahlo. Tell
students who they are, using simple
Spanish if possible. If you have recordings
of songs by Shakira, movies featuring
Antonio Banderas, and slides or reprints of
paintings by Frida Kahlo, share them with
students.
.
Pocos estudiantes (Few students) / ser de
.
Ningún (No, Not one) estudiante / ser de
.
Suggestion C: If you know that
all your students are from the
same country, assign them
identities of famous people from Spanishspeaking countries and elsewhere. Give
each student a card or paper with a name,
city, and country, e.g., Enrique Iglesias,
Madrid, España.
trece
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Charla con Jairo
DATOS PERSONALES
You can watch
this interview
on the DVD to
accompany Portafolio or on
the Online Learning Center
(www.mhhe.com/portafolio).
Nombre:a
Edad:b
Nació en:c
a
First name
your (familiar )
and
father
mother
towns
small
their
Point out: Each interview represents
only one point of view. Students should
compare this information with the material presented elsewhere in this chapter
to get a more complete picture.
Suggestion: Have students look at the
map in the chapter opener to locate
Bogotá.
Suggestion: Before they read, have
students find the new active vocabulary
for this chapter in the text. Answers: se
escribe, apellido, colombiano, etc.
Suggestion: If you show the DVD in
class, you may wish to pause it to ask
questions and to check student comprehension. Students should watch the
interviews on their own, before and after
in-class viewing.
Answers A: a. 3 b. 4 c. 5
14
catorce
Age
c
Nació… He was born in
A. ¿De dónde eres? Read the following conversation with Jairo Bejarano
Carrillo, a Colombian from Bogotá, the capital. Tell which
question-answer pair provides the following information:
a. the spelling of his family name
b. where he is from
c. the origin of his parents’ names
infórmate
In most Spanish-speaking countries,
people use both their paternal and
maternal family names (los apellidos), in that order. For example,
Teresa García Ramos is the daughter of a man whose family name is
García and a woman whose family
name is Ramos.
b
Note: The focus of the interviews is to develop reading
and listening skills and to build content knowledge of the
culture being studied. However, interviews also focus on
language features that are studied in the chapter. Here, for
example, point out that -s at the end of pueblos and
pequeños denotes plural and that adjectives normally
follow nouns in Spanish.
vocabulario útil
tu(s)
y
padre m.
madre f.
pueblos
pequeños
sus
Jairo Bejarano Carrillo
33 (treinta y tres) años
Bogotá, Colombia
1.
¿Cómo te llamas?
Mi nombre es Jairo Bejarano Carrillo.
2. ¿Cómo se escribe tu nombre?
Jairo se escribe: jota-a-i-ere-o.
3. ¿Cómo se escriben tus apellidos?
Bejarano se escribe con be de burro: be-e-jota-a-ere-a-ene-o. Y
Carrillo: ce-a-ere-ere-i-ele-ele-o.
4. ¿De dónde eres?
Yo soy de Bogotá, Colombia.
5. ¿De dónde son tus padres?
Mi padre y mi madre son colombianos, pero no son de Bogotá. Son de
pueblos pequeños. Sus apellidos son de origen español.
Suggestion (Vocabulario útil ): Vocabulario útil boxes contain items that are often crucial for
comprehension of the interview. Pronounce each item for students before they watch the interview so that the words will sound familiar. Then have students guess what the content of the
interview will be, based on the chapter theme and on the Vocabulario útil.
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B. ¿Cierto o falso? Indicate whether the following statements about
Jairo’s family are true (cierto) or false (falso). If you don’t know, check the
box in the column marked No sé. (I don’t know.)
1. El padre y la madre de Jairo son de Bogotá.
2. Jairo es de Bogotá.
3. Los apellidos de esta (this) persona son
Jairo y Bejarano.
4. El apellido Bejarano es de origen español.
5. Jairo está bien.
CIERTO
FALSO
NO SÉ.
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
䊐
Answers B: 1. Falso 2. Cierto
3. Falso 4. Cierto 5. No sé.
Suggestion: Have students give
the correct information for the false
statements.
Bogotá es una ciudad grande.
¡Escribe y habla mejor!
This feature of Portafolio offers you an introduction to the phonetics
(sounds) and orthography (writing system) of Spanish. It is important
to pay attention to your pronunciation of vowels and consonants in
Spanish; it will make your spoken Spanish more comprehensible to
native speakers, and your spelling more accurate—something many
Spanish speakers consider to be culturally important!
Find out more about Spanish pronunciation rules in Appendix A,
and practice your pronunciation and spelling in the Portafolio de
actividades.
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CAPÍTULO 1
Vocabulario
LOS DÍAS Y LOS NÚMEROS (1–31)
lunes
Optional: Introduce the question ¿Cuál
es la fecha (de hoy)? and the expressions
Hoy es el / Ayer fue el / Mañana es el
. Have students use these expressions as well as questions such as Si
, ¿qué día es hoy?
mañana es el
to ask each other questions about the
calendar. (Students will learn more about
giving dates in Capítulo 6: learning the
days of the week and the numbers 1–31
will be useful to them in Capítulo 2 to talk
about class schedules.)
Point out: On most Spanish-language
calendars the week begins on Monday,
and the weekend falls at the end of the
week.
martes
octubre
miércoles
primero
(uno)*
1 dos
2 tres
ocho
8 nueve
9 diez
quince
jueves
3 cuatro
10 once
viernes
4 cinco
11 doce
sábado
5 seis
12 trece
15 dieciséis 16 diecisiete 17 dieciocho 18 diecinueve 19 veinte
domingo
6 siete
13 catorce
7
14
20 veintiuno 21†
veintidós 22 veintitrés 23 veinticuatro 24 veinticinco 25 veintiséis 26 veintisiete 27 veintiocho 28
veintinueve 29 treinta
30 treinta y uno 31
práctica
infórmate
Like adjectives of nationality, days of
the week and months are not capitalized in Spanish: Hoy es lunes, el trece
de septiembre. (Today is Monday,
September thirteenth.)
Suggestion A: Point out the use of el
with days of the week to mean “on”: el
martes ⫽ on Tuesday. You can also
teach the use of ¡Nos vemos! as a way
of saying good-bye.
16
dieciséis
A. La semana próxima (next week). A friend wants to get together with
you next week, on the same day as today. Using a calendar of the current month, what date would you tell her for the following days?
MODELO:
1. Hoy es
2. Hoy es
Hoy es martes, el dos de octubre. 씮
Nos vemos (We’ll see each other) el martes, día nueve.
, el 5 de
, el 14 de
.
.
*Whereas English uses ordinal numbers for dates (the second, the ninth, the twenty-fifth),
Spanish uses cardinal numbers (el dos, el nueve, el veinticinco). The first day of the month,
however, is generally expressed in Spanish by the ordinal el primero (the first). When counting, use uno.
†
The numbers 16–19 and 21–29 can be written as one word, as shown, or as three separate
words: diez y seis, diez y siete,… ; veinte y uno, veinte y dos,…
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Vocabulario
3. Hoy es
4. Hoy es
5. Hoy es
, el 10 de
, el 20 de
, el 23 de
.
.
.
B. La temperatura. Read aloud the average temperatures for Bogotá, the
capital of Colombia. (The temperatures are given in the Celsius scale;
Fahrenheit equivalents are in parentheses.)
MES
TEMPERATURA
enero (January)
abril
agosto
noviembre
16° (grados) (61)
17° (63)
14° (57)
15° (59)
C. Fiestas importantes. Here are the dates of some important holidays
in Colombia.
Paso 1. Read the dates aloud.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
el Día de los Reyes Magos (Epiphany): el 6 de enero
el Día de San José (St. Joseph’s Day): el 19 de marzo
el Día de la Independencia: el 20 de julio
el Día de la Hispanidad (la Raza): el 12 de octubre
el Día de la Inmaculada Concepción: el 8 de diciembre
Paso 2. Look at a calendar of the current year and say what day of the
week each of these holidays falls on.
MODELO:
el Día de los Reyes Magos 씮 Es sábado, el seis de enero.
? What is/are
Suggestion B: Have students guess the
meaning of the months and the words
mes and grados to demonstrate how
much Spanish they can already figure out!
Ask them why they think the temperatures
are so similar throughout the year (Hint:
tropical latitude), and so low, given the
city’s tropical latitude (Hint: It’s high in the
Andes mountains). This type of “guessing”
question helps develop students’ critical
thinking and ability to draw inferences from
cultural information.
Suggestion C: Ask students to guess
the names of the months that haven’t
already been presented. Then have them
say the months aloud to practice sound/
letter correspondences.
For item 4, explain that el Día de la
Hispanidad (also called el Día de la Raza)
is a term that many Hispanics use instead
of Columbus Day. Since the term
“Columbus Day” celebrates Columbus’s
arrival in the New World, which ultimately
led to the colonization of Spanish America
and the extermination of most of its indigenous inhabitants, many people consider
it degrading. For others, the words
hispanidad and raza (⫽ the Hispanic
“race”) celebrate shared Hispanic culture
rather than the destruction of indigenous
cultures.
Ask students which holidays have to do
with the Catholic religion, an important cultural force in the Spanish-speaking world.
Optional: You may also wish to introduce
these related vocabulary items: abierto/a,
?,
cerrado/a, ¿De qué color es/son
horroroso/a, hospitalario/a, maravilloso/a.
LAS DESCRIPCIONES
¿Cómo es/son
CAPÍTULO 1
like?
un muchacho bajo
un coche grande
una motocicleta pequeña
una muchacha alta
un gato delgado
un perro gordo
Suggestion: This section presents the
adjectives necessary for basic physical
and psychological descriptions. Bring in
photographs of people (famous or otherwise—magazines are a good source) who
exemplify the different adjectives in the list.
Be sure to discuss the second footnote
on p. 18 before beginning the following
suggested activity.
Step 1. Model the question/answer
exchange (—¿Cómo es Brad Pitt? —Es
guapo.), then present one or two adjectives
per photo. Have students repeat in unison
each new adjective as it is presented with
the photo.
Step 2. Have students answer sí or no
to simple questions using the same photos as in Step 1: ¿Brad Pitt es feo? ¿Ella
es morena? and so on. This step focuses
on comprehension and meaning of the
new terms, not on production.
Step 3. Finally, have students produce
the new adjectives in descriptions as you
hold up photos (both previously used ones
and new ones).
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CAPÍTULO 1
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Símbolos de identidad
Amparo Ramos Titos, Calí,
«Tengo la piel clara, el pelo
rubio y los ojos verdes.»
Sebastián Galindo Nadal,
Quibdó, «Tengo la piel oscura,
el pelo negro y los ojos
negros.»
la piel (clara, morena, oscura)
el pelo (castaño, corto, largo,
negro, rubio)
los ojos (azules, castaños,
negros, verdes)
alegre
amable
antipático/a
bonito/a
bueno/a*
encantador(a)†
Suggestion A: Use this activity to help
you and the class members learn each
others’ names. If someone can’t remember a name, teach Disculpa, ¿cómo te
llamas?
Suggestion B: The model includes a
sentence for reporting the results of the
pair activity to the class. Including this type
of follow-up to pair work has two important
benefits: First, it allows students to practice
another verb form (third person); second,
if you make sure to include this
follow-up step in every group
activity, it encourages students
to work responsibly in groups
because they know that they will
be called on to report to the entire class!
Point out: The word no has two meanings in English: no and not. Tell students
that to make a sentence negative they
must put the word no directly before the
verb, as shown in the model. This is
included here because it may be a
useful construction for students in this
context, and they usually have no trouble
producing it. They will study it formally in
Capítulo 2.
Suggestion: Encourage students to ask
for more vocabulary using the phrase
en español?
¿Cómo se dice
18
dieciocho
happy
friendly
unfriendly
pretty
good
delightful,
charming
María Vallecas Martínez,
Valledupar, «Tengo el pelo
castaño corto y los ojos
castaños.»
(light, brown, dark) skin
(brown, short, long, black, blond)
hair
(blue, brown, black, green) eyes
feo/a
guapo/a
malo/a*
perezoso/a
trabajador(a)†
ugly
handsome, goodlooking, pretty
bad
lazy
hardworking
práctica
A. ¿Quién es? Write a description of yourself, using the model as a guide.
Your instructor will collect the descriptions and read them aloud while
the class tries to guess who each description refers to.
MODELO:
Tengo el pelo rubio y los ojos azules. Soy alto, alegre y
amable. También soy…
B. ¿Cómo eres? Take turns with your partner asking questions to find out
what he/she is like. Later, tell the class what you learned about your
partner.
MODELO:
E1: Jennifer, ¿eres perezosa?
E2: No, no soy perezosa. Soy muy trabajadora. Y tú,
Kevin, ¿eres perezoso?
E1: Sí, soy muy perezoso.
E1: (To the class): Jennifer no es perezosa. Es trabajadora.
*The adjectives bueno/a and malo/a shorten to buen and mal, respectively, before masculine
singular nouns: Él es un buen hombre, pero es mal padre. (He is a good man, but he is a
bad father.)
†
At the beginning of this chapter you learned that adjectives in Spanish are marked by gender.
In simple terms, this means using an -o ending when describing a male and an -a ending
when describing a female. However, some adjectives don’t follow this simplified rule. For
example, encantador and trabajador are used to describe a male, whereas encantadora and
trabajadora are used to describe a female. Adjectives with only one form like alegre,
amable, and grande can describe either a male or a female.
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CAPÍTULO 1
Gramática
1.3 GENDER AND NUMBER AGREEMENT
Definite and indefinite articles
So far, you have seen and used expressions like los colombianos (the
Colombians), la gente (the people), and el pelo (the hair). The first word in
each phrase is the definite article, which in English is expressed as the.
Spanish has different forms of the definite article due to the phenomena of
gender and number.
Every Spanish noun, even those that refer to entities with no biological
sex, is either of masculine or feminine gender, and singular or plural number. All words associated with a noun in a sentence (i.e., articles and adjectives) have to match or agree with the gender and number of the noun.
Thus, there are four different forms of the definite article (the) and the
indefinite articles (a, an, some): masculine singular, masculine plural,
feminine singular, and feminine plural. These forms are shown below.
SINGULAR
PLURAL
Masculine
Feminine
el pueblo
la casa
the town
the house
los pueblos
las casas
the towns
the houses
Masculine
Feminine
un* pueblo
una casa
a town
a house
unos pueblos
unas casas
some towns
some houses
How do you know which form of the article to use with a noun? Here
are a few guidelines.
1. Most nouns that end in -o are masculine, and most that end in -a
are feminine:† el pelo, la fiesta.
2. Nouns that end in -ción/-sión and -dad are generally feminine: la
nación, la extensión, la identidad.
3. Nouns that end in -ista are either masculine or feminine, depending on biological sex: el artista (male), la artista (female).
In general, grammatical gender is arbitrary and must be memorized for
each new item. Biological sex can provide a good hint—el padre, la
madre—but watch out for exceptions! In Portafolio the singular definite
article (el or la) is listed with every noun in the end-of-chapter vocabulary
lists and in most lists within the chapter; get into the practice of memorizing the article along with the word. You also should consult a dictionary if
you are not sure of the gender of a noun; look for the labels masc. / n. m.
(noun, masculine) and fem. / n. f. (noun, feminine).
*Note that uno and numbers that end in uno (veintiuno, treinta y uno, and so on) become
un before a masculine noun: un pueblo, veintiún pueblos.
†
A few common exceptions are la mano (hand), el día (day), and el mapa (map).
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CAPÍTULO 1
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Símbolos de identidad
Note: Many instructors believe strongly
that adjective agreement in Spanish is one
of the basic grammar points in the language that must be mastered early on.
Research has shown, however, that learners acquire a high level of accuracy in
agreement features only after prolonged
exposure to and practice in Spanish. This
point is presented early in this book not to
be mastered in one chapter, but rather to
start your students on this journey toward
accuracy. You may want to change your
expectations for their production, focusing
more on content than form at first, and
working consistently with students on
accuracy in agreement as a long-term
goal.
Adjectives
Not only do articles change form to agree with nouns; adjectives must also
agree with the nouns they modify. They can have up to four different
forms: masculine singular, masculine plural, feminine singular, and feminine plural.
Masculine
Feminine
SINGULAR
PLURAL
El pueblo es pequeño.
The town is small.
La ciudad es pequeña.
The city is small.
Los pueblos son pequeños.
The towns are small.
Las ciudades son pequeñas.
The cities are small.
You will have to learn exactly what changes in form are required for each
adjective, but there are three basic patterns.
TYPE
1: o/a/os/as
El pueblo es típico.
Los pueblos son típicos.
La casa es típica.
Las casas son típicas.
The base form of Type 1 adjectives ends in -o. This type of adjective is indicated in vocabulary lists by /a: típico/a.
TYPE
2: —/—/(e)s/(e)s
El pueblo es diferente.
La casa es diferente.
Los pueblos son diferentes.
Las casas son diferentes.
El pueblo es tradicional.
La casa es tradicional.
Los pueblos son tradicionales.
Las casas son tradicionales.
El hombre (man) es optimista.
La mujer (woman) es optimista.
Los hombres son optimistas.
Las mujeres son optimistas.
The base form of Type 2 adjectives ends in -e, -ista, or a consonant. Words
that end in a vowel form their plural by adding -s; words that end in a consonant form their plurals by adding -es.* These adjectives have no special
designation in vocabulary lists.
The base form of Type 3 adjectives ends in a consonant, and the feminine
* Words that end in -í add -es: israelíes.
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Gramática
TYPE
CAPÍTULO 1
3: —/a/es/as
El pueblo es encantador.
La casa es encantadora.
Los pueblos son encantadores.
Las casas son encantadoras.
El hombre es inglés.
La mujer es inglesa.*
Los hombres son ingleses.
Las mujeres son inglesas.
singular ends in -a. Many adjectives of nationality fall into this group. This
type of adjective is indicated in vocabulary lists by (a): encantador(a). If
the adjective undergoes a spelling change in different forms, it is indicated
in vocabulary lists with the entire feminine singular form: inglés / inglesa;
alemán / alemana.
There are three more details you should know about using adjectives
to describe things in Spanish.
1. When masculine and feminine nouns are mixed, the adjective
must be in the masculine plural form: El hombre y la mujer son
colombianos. The feminine plural form of the adjective is used
only when all the nouns being described are feminine: Las
mujeres son colombianas.
2. Unlike in English, most adjectives are placed after the nouns they
describe.
Es un pueblo pequeño.
It’s a small town.
3. A few common adjectives often go before the noun—for example,
bueno and malo. Like uno, these adjectives also have short forms
before a masculine singular noun.
un buen café
un mal café
a good cup of coffee
a bad cup of coffee
Before plural nouns, however, they follow the normal pattern of
agreement.
buenos perros
malos perros
good dogs
bad dogs
*Note that the accent on the e of the masculine singular form is dropped in all other forms.
You will learn about this type of spelling change in Capítulo 3.
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CAPÍTULO 1
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Símbolos de identidad
autoprueba
Tell which type of ending (1, 2, or 3) the following adjectives have.
Then give the correct forms to agree with un padre, una madre, unos
amigos, and unas amigas as shown in the model.
MODELO:
español 씮
Type 3; un padre español, una madre española, unos
amigos españoles, unas amigas españolas
1. alemán
2. generoso
3. sentimental
4. pesimista
5. trabajador
práctica
Suggestion A: Have students form
complete sentences with es/son as a
follow-up.
A. Personas famosas. Which of the following adjectives could describe
the people listed below? Be sure to match adjective endings as well as
their meanings to the people.
PERSONAS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Suggestion B: Encourage students to
add other adjectives to their descriptions.
c
a
b
e
f
d
Hulk Hogan
David Letterman y Jay Leno
Madonna
la reina Isabel II
los Beatles
Oprah Winfrey
ADJETIVOS
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
cómicos
controversial
grande
habladora (talkative)
inglesa
populares
B. Descripciones. Complete the following sentences with logical adjectives from the options given. Make sure the adjective endings agree in
gender and number with the nouns they describe.
1. Jairo Bejarano Carrillo es
(alto, colombiano, formal, hospitalario, moderno).
2. Los colombianos son
(alegre, amable, antipático, encantador, maravilloso, moreno, tradicional).
3. Los norteamericanos* son
(alto, amable, antipático, informal, maravilloso, reservado, tradicional).
4. La gente de mi estado (state)/provincia es
(amable, encantador, hospitalario, moderno, moreno, reservado, serio, tradicional).
5. Las mujeres de mi familia son
(alegre, alto, maravilloso,
moderno, reservado, rubio, típico).
*Although the term norteamericano/a can mean American ( from the United States),
Canadian, and even Mexican, since Mexico is a part of the North American continent, many
Spanish speakers use it to mean only American ( from the United States). Throughout this
book, norteamericano/a will refer to people and things from both the United States and
Canada. The terms canadiense, estadounidense, and mexicano/a will be used to specify
Canadian, American ( from the United States), and Mexican, respectively.
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Gramática
C. ¿Cómo son? Working in groups of three or four, look at the following
photos and describe the people in them with as many adjectives as
possible. In your opinion, where are these people from?
VOCABULARIO ÚTIL
el hombre
la mujer
el/la niño/a
de la derecha/
izquierda
en mi opinión, …
MODELO:
man
woman
child
on the right/left
in my opinion, . . .
El niño de la izquierda es bajo y moreno.
1.
CAPÍTULO 1
Suggestion C: Assign a photo
to each group. When students
have finished their descriptions,
have volunteers read their descriptions
aloud so that students can hear different
possibilities. Then, as a class, develop
complete descriptions for each photo.
Expansion: Bring in additional photos, or
have students bring their own photos
(assign this latter task the day before you
plan to do the activity in class).
Note: All of these people are from Colombia.
Remind students: Hay mucha diversidad en
Colombia.
2.
3.
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portafolio cultural
nación
COLOMBIA
Origen del nombre: de
Christopher Columbus
(Cristóbal Colón)
Capital: Bogotá
Población: 44.379.600
Moneda: peso colombiano
Lenguas: español (oficial),
chibcha, arahuacana
(y otras lenguas indígenas)
Región
Caribeña
Colombia ocupa un lugara especial en toda Sudamérica: es el únicob
país con costas en el Atlántico y en el Pacífico. Tienec cinco regiones
geográficas muy diferentes, y los contrastes de los paisajesd son dramáticos: en Santa Marta, en la costa caribeña, es posible subire 5.700 metros
(18.700 pies) en sólo 60 km (37 mi). En el interior del país, hay aúnf más
variación. En la Región Andina se encuentrag el extremo norte de la
cordillerah de los Andes. En el este del país, la Región Amazónica forma
sólo una pequeña parte de la grande Selvai Amazónica, y la Región de los
Llanos se caracteriza por sus extensas sabanas.j
También son dramáticos los contrastes entre las culturas. Cadak
región tiene su acento, su música, sus grupos étnicos y sus costumbres
diferentes. Por ejemplo, en la costa del Pacífico, un 90 por cientol de la
población es descendiente de los esclavosm africanos, y hayn más de 80
grupos indígenas repartidoso en todas las zonas del país.
VENEZUELA
Región
Andina Región de
los Llanos
Región
Pacífica
UN LUGAR ÚNICO EN SUDAMÉRICA
Bogotá
1. ¿Cuáles son las regiones más importantes de Colombia?
2. ¿Qué diferencias existen entre estas regiones?
a
place bonly cIt has dlandscapes eto climb; to go up feven gse. . .is found hmountain range
Rainforest jsavannahs kEach lpor. . .percent mslaves nthere are ospread out
i
Región
Amazónica BRASIL
ECUADOR
PERÚ
Suggestions: (1) Have students find the
places mentioned on the political map in
the chapter opener. (2) Check their comprehension of the labels on the map with
the five geographic regions, then ask them
to make sentences that describe each
area. Write a list of cognate adjectives on
the board and encourage students to use
cognates in additional sentences (for
example: La costa es cálida, los llanos son extensos).
El pueblo de Taganga, en la provincia de Santa Marta, con clima tropical en la costa
caribeña, está a los pies de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
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actualidad
LA LUCHA ARMADA
Colombia es un país con mucha bellezaa natural y una rica diversidad, pero
también tiene problemas. Durante casib 50 años, grupos armados, como
las Fuerzas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC), causan secuestros y
muertes.c Existen diferencias de opinión sobre estos grupos. Algunasd
personas dicen que luchane por ideales políticos, pero otros dicen que
son terroristas. La producción ilegal de cocaína y el tráfico internacional de
narcóticos impiden la resolución de los problemas internos del país y crean
un ambientef de inseguridad para los colombianos.
a
beauty
b
almost
c
secuestros… kidnappings and deaths
d
Some
e
dicen… say they are fighting
f
atmosphere
Suggestion: To purchase music by
Carlos Vives or other Latin artists, follow
the link on the Online Learning Center to
the Portafolio iMix on iTunes®.
cartelera
LA MÚSICA COLOMBIANA
Colombia tiene una rica tradición musical, con formas diferentes segúna la
región del país.
Se diceb que la música y el bailec nacional es la cumbia, de origen indígena y africano (la música «cumbe»). En otros países la cumbia es muy popular también; México, Argentina y
Chile han desarrollado sus propiasd versiones locales de la cumbia.
El vallenato es otra forma
musical de Colombia. Es una
mezclae de tradiciones españolas
y africanas, y el nombre vienef de
la ciudad de Valledupar, en la
costa caribeña. Un instrumento
típico es el acordeón.
La música llanera usa el arpa,
una guitarra pequeña que se llama
el cuatro e instrumentos de percusión, comog las maracas.
1. ¿Cuál es el origen histórico
de estas formas musicales de
Colombia?
2. ¿Qué instrumentos son
típicos de los diferentes
tipos de música?
according to bSe… It is said cdance
han… have developed their own emix
Expansion: Have students look on the
Internet for more information and recordings of these musical types and the artists
who create them (e.g., www.llanera.com,
www.vallenato.com).
Carlos Vives, de Santa Marta, Magdalena, Colombia, es un artista que combina el vallenato con formas modernas, como el rock. El acordeonista, Egidio Cuadrado, es uno
de los más famosos del mundo del vallenato.
a
d
f
comes
g
like
veinticinco
25
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You can watch
this interview
on the DVD to
accompany Portafolio or on
the Online Learning Center
(www.mhhe.com/portafolio).
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gente
HABLAN LOS COLOMBIANOS
Nombre:
Stella Amado Carvajal
Edad:
36 (treinta y seis) años
Nació en: Duitama, Boyacá, Colombia
vocabulario útil
ciudad f.
con
paisaje m.
alrededor (de)
hospitalarios
gente s., f.
reservados
formales
pero
altiplano
porque
también
pero
similar(es),
parecido/a a
diferente(s) de
city
with
landscape
around
hospitable
people
reserved
formal
but
plateau, high plain
because
also, too
but
similar to
1. «Los colombianos somos amables , alegres , hospitalarios y muy
trabajadores .»
2. «La gente de Duitama, somos reservados , formales , pero alegres
típica
3. «Soy una colombiana
del altiplano.»
pelo
clara
4. «Tengo el
castaño, los ojos oscuros y la piel
.»
.»
different from/than
Suggestion: Have students look at the
map in the chapter opener to locate the
Altiplano Boyacense and the town of
Duitama. Ask them to compare this location to that of Bogotá. Find out information
ahead of time about Bogotá and Duitama
in your library or through a web search and
share this information with students.
Duitama is located at an elevation of 2,530
meters (6,940 feet) and has a population of
120,000. It is the capital of the province of
Tundama, in the Departamento de Boyacá.
Point out: Spanish has many cognates.
They are generally recognizable in written
form to English speakers, but they may go
unnoticed in speech because vowel quality is different and in many cases the
stress does not fall on the same syllable in
both languages. For example, modern
receives the stress at the beginning of the
word (mod-ern), and the -o- is pronounced [a]. However moderno is
stressed in the middle (mo-der-no) and
the -o- is pronounced [o]. Say the following Spanish words and their English equivalents aloud so your students can identify
the differences in stress and vowel quality:
actividad, formal, hospital, reservado. This
type of demonstration is crucial to help
students master the sound/letter correspondences of Spanish and improve
listening comprehension.
26
¿Qué dice Stella? Read the following sentences from Stella’s interview,
and fill in the missing expressions as you listen.
veintiseís
icono
GABRIEL GARCÍA MÁRQUEZ, ESCRITOR
Uno de los colombianos más
famosos de los últimos años
y ganadora del Premio Nobel
de la Literatura en 1982, es el
autor Gabriel García Márquez.
Su novela Cien años de
Soledad es la historia de
sucesivas generaciones de
una familia de un pueblo
colombiano imaginario. Esta
novela tiene muchos ejemplos
del realismo mágico, una
Gabriel García Márquez saluda a la gente en un técnica en que el autor mezclab acciones y descripciones
desfile en Aracataca, Colombia.
reales con elementos de
fantasía.
Su novela El amor en los tiempos del cólera (1985) sale como película en
inglés, Love in the Time of Cholera, en 2007, con un elencoc de hispanos
famosos como John Leguizamo, Benjamin Bratt, Hector Elizondo, Javier
Bardém y Catalina Sandino Moreno.
a
winner
b
mixes
c
cast
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opinión
IN THIS SECTION of Portafolio,
you will see quotes taken from
popular press sources. These
passages make certain assertions or generalizations about
the countries you will study
in each chapter. It is important
to learn to treat these quotations critically, evaluating
them against what you know
about the regions and phenomena described. Use what you
have learned in this chapter,
and your own experiences, to
answer the questions that follow the quote.
“Greetings are very important in Colombia. Take the time
to greet everyone formally. Give
the person you are greeting
your undivided attention. Men
shake hands with each other
and with women. Women
choose whether or not to shake
hands with other women; sometimes women will clasp each other’s forearms instead. Friends are
expected to hug and exchange
kisses on the cheeks. When men
hug each other, they often add a
backslap or two. . . .
Colombians often complain that
North Americans and Europeans do
not know how to greet someone.
Colombians take a long time in
greetings; they feel this conveys
respect for the other person. After
the handshake (or hug), Colombians
ask numerous polite questions.
North Americans typically progress
beyond the greeting phase after
one or two questions. Expect
inquiries as to your health, your
trip, your relatives, and any friends
or acquaintances you have in common. Don’t rush! Rushing is
mi portafolio
At the end of every chapter, you will be asked to create original written work
that integrates and personalizes the language and culture goals of the
chapter. Keep your own portfolio of these pieces to track your progression
throughout the semester.
REDACCIÓNa
¡Venga ab
! For this
chapter, you will create a
travel brochure to attract tourists to
your country, region, or favorite
place. Your description will include
geographical information and
should emphasize the special
identity of the place you choose.
Follow the guided steps in the
Portafolio de actividades to
complete your brochure.
a
Composition
b
EXPLORACIÓN
Investigación cultural. Find
out more information about
Colombia in your library, on the
Portafolio Online Learning Center
(www.mhhe.com/portafolio), or
elsewhere on the Internet and
present it to the class. Consult the
Portafolio de actividades for ideas
for your presentation.
interpreted as callousness or
disrespect.”
Source: http://www.getcustoms.com
1. How would you greet
Stella Amado Carvajal in
Spanish? Would your greeting be different if she were a
man?
2. Is the role of the greeting
in Colombia similar to, or
different from, the role of the
greeting in your own
country?
3. Give some examples of
greetings you consider
(im)polite.
4. What misunderstandings
might arise from an inappropriate greeting in Colombia?
Could a similar situation
arise in your country?
Explain.
Point out (Opinión): This feature contains quotations from popular press
sources in this country and elsewhere. The
sources make certain assertions or generalizations about the country or region of
focus in the chapter. When students
encounter such cultural generalizations, it
is important to treat them critically and
evaluate them against what students
already know about the topic. They should
treat this as just one point of view and
compare and contrast it with other points
of view—such as those in the interviews
they have seen.
Suggestion: Encourage students to
answer the follow-up questions in Spanish
whenever possible (the questions themselves will be in Spanish beginning with
Capítulo 6).
Another Opinión text with questions
appears in the Portafolio cultural section of
the corresponding chapter in the Portafolio
de actvidades. This will give students
further insight into the culture of the country or region of focus.
Venga… Come to
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CAPÍTULO 1
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Símbolos de identidad
Vocabulario
Los saludos
buenos días
buenas tardes
buenas noches
hola
¿Qué tal?
¿Cómo está(s)? / ¿Cómo
está usted?
Estoy (muy) bien,
gracias.
¿Y tú? / ¿Y usted?
más o menos
regular
adiós
hasta pronto (mañana,
luego)
Nos vemos.
señor
señora
señorita
good morning
good afternoon/evening
good night
hello
How’s it going?
What’s up?
How are you?
I’m (very) fine, thanks.
And you?
so-so
OK
good-bye
until (see you) soon
(tomorrow, later)
See you around.
Mr.
Mrs. (married woman)
Miss, Ms. (unmarried
woman)
What’s your name?
¿Cómo te llamas? /
¿Cómo se llama usted?
Me llamo
.
My name is
.
Mucho gusto. /
Nice to meet you.
Encantado/a.
Igualmente.
Likewise. / Same here.
inglés / inglesa
italiano/a
japonés / japonesa
mexicano/a
puertorriqueño/a
English
Italian
Japanese
Mexican
Puerto Rican
El alfabeto
¿Cómo se dice
en español?
Se dice
.
¿Cómo se escribe
Se escribe
.
?
How do you say
in Spanish?
You say
.
How do you spell
It’s spelled
.
?
Los pronombres de sujeto
yo, tú, usted, él, ella, nosotros/as, vosotros/as,
ustedes, ellos, ellas
Los artículos
el/la/los/las
un(a)
unos/as
the
a, an
some
Los verbos
ser (irreg.) (de)
Tengo
.
to be (from)
I have
.
El origen y la nacionalidad
Los días
¿De dónde eres (tú)? /
¿De dónde es usted?
¿De qué origen
es/son
?
Es de
.
lunes, martes, miércoles, jueves, viernes, sábado,
domingo
Son de
Soy de
Soy/Es
.
.
.
alemán / alemana
canadiense
chino/a
colombiano/a
español(a)
estadounidense
francés / francesa
28
veintiocho
Where are you from?
What is/are
’s/s’
(national) origin(s)?
He (She, It) is
from
.
They are from
.
I am from
.
I am / He (She, It)
is
.
German
Canadian
Chinese
Colombian
Spanish
American (from the
United States)
French
Los números
uno, dos, tres, cuatro, cinco, seis, siete, ocho,
nueve, diez, once, doce, trece, catorce, quince,
dieciséis, diecisiete, dieciocho, diecinueve,
veinte, veintiuno, veintidós, veintitrés, veinticuatro, veinticinco, veintiséis, veintisiete, veintiocho, veintinueve, treinta, treinta y uno
Las descripciones
la piel (clara, morena,
oscura)
el pelo (castaño, corto,
largo, negro, rubio)
(light, brown, dark) skin
(brown, short, long,
black, blond) hair
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Vocabulario
los ojos (azules,
castaños, negros,
verdes)
alegre
alto/a
amable
antipático/a
bajo/a
bonito/a
buen, bueno/a
delgado/a
encantador(a)
feo/a
gordo/a
grande
guapo/a
(blue, brown, black,
green) eyes
happy
tall
friendly
unfriendly
short
pretty
good
thin
delightful, charming
ugly
fat
big, large
handsome, good-looking,
pretty
mal, malo/a
pequeño/a
perezoso/a
trabajador(a)
¿Cómo es/son
CAPÍTULO 1
bad
little, small
lazy
?
hard-working
What is/are
like?
Lenguaje funcional
como
diferente (de)
parecido/a (a)
pero
porque
sí
similar (a)
también
y
like
different (from/than)
similar (to)
but
because
yes
similar (to)
also, too
and
veintinueve
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