Medicago citrina, Alfalfa Arborea

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Medicago citrina, Alfalfa Arborea
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™
ISSN 2307-8235 (online)
IUCN 2008: T61653A12533350
Medicago citrina, Alfalfa Arborea
Assessment by: Draper Munt, D.
View on www.iucnredlist.org
Citation: Draper Munt, D. 2013. Medicago citrina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013:
e.T61653A12533350. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T61653A12533350.en
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THE IUCN RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES™
Taxonomy
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Plantae
Tracheophyta
Magnoliopsida
Fabales
Leguminosae
Taxon Name: Medicago citrina (Font Quer) Greuter
Synonym(s):
• Medicago arborea subspecies citrina Font Quer
Common Name(s):
• Spanish:
Alfalfa Arborea
Taxonomic Notes:
Medicago citrina (Font Quer) Greuter belongs to the section Dendrotelis and is a tertiary wild relative of
alfalfa, M. sativa (USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program 2010).
Assessment Information
Red List Category & Criteria:
Critically Endangered B2ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published:
2013
Date Assessed:
April 21, 2010
Justification:
Medicago citrina is assessed as Critically Endangered because the area of occupancy (AOO) is less than
10 km², the global population is very fragmented, and there is evidence of decline in number of mature
individuals as well as quality of habitat.
Previously Published Red List Assessments
2006 – Critically Endangered (CR)
1998 – Rare (R)
Geographic Range
Range Description:
This species only grows in small, fragmented subpopulations on the rocky slopes of some Balearic
Islands, the Columbretes archipelago (province of Castellón), and on one small islet (the 'Illot de la
Mona' or 'Escull del Cap de Sant Antoni') situated just off the coast of the Cape of St Antoni (province of
Alicante). There are no known populations on the large Balearic Islands (Ibiza, Cabrera and Majorca)
themselves, only on the islets surrounding Ibiza and Cabrera. Plants have been introduced onto one islet
of Majorca. The area of occupancy (AOO) is less than 10 km².
Country Occurrence:
Native: Spain (Baleares, Spain (mainland))
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Medicago citrina – published in 2013.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T61653A12533350.en
1
Distribution Map
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Medicago citrina – published in 2013.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T61653A12533350.en
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Population
The global population is very fragmented, with very few individuals and the population trend is
declining.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Habitat and Ecology (see Appendix for additional information)
This shrub or small tree grows on rocky slopes. The plant grows on several small islands, and is thought
to be dispersed by seabirds or other animals. It seems that seed germination improves after passing
through an animal's digestive tract.
Systems: Terrestrial
Use and Trade (see Appendix for additional information)
M. citrina is a potential gene donor to alfalfa, M. sativa ssp. sativa.
Threats (see Appendix for additional information)
In 1997, the subpopulation on the Columbretes decreased by 40% due to an attack of scale insects
(Icerya purchasi) introduced from Australia, The same insects were detected on the Balearic Islands in
2001. Other threats include introduced rabbits, alien species such as Opuntia maxima which has
invaded parts of its habitat (e.g., on the Illot de la Mona), and periodic, severe attacks of the parasitic
plant Cuscuta. Invasive species may be more tolerant of drought than M. citrina, which has considerably
reduced fruit set under dry conditions.
Conservation Actions (see Appendix for additional information)
The species is presently listed in Annex I of the Spanish Royal Decree 439/1990, in the category 'sensible
to the disturbance of its habitat', which guarantees protection of its natural habitat. Since 1985, it is
strictly protected within the region of Valencia by a regional government decree.
In situ on the Columbretes: Here M. citrina occurs within a federally-owned nature reserve. Access to
populations on the Islands Ferrara and Foradada is strictly prohibited apart from scientific expeditions.
These two islands have now been designated as micro-reserves by the regional government, and a
management plan was developed in 1993. The species has been reintroduced to the island of Grossa
where it was eradicated by rabbits brought to the island in the 18th and 19th centuries. The rabbits
were eliminated by 1987.
In situ 'Illot de la Mona': The plant micro-reserve, itself within the boundaries of the El Montago Nature
Park and established by the regional government of Valencia, now fully protects this small population of
approximately 25 plants. An action plan for the micro-reserve has recently been approved.
In situ on the Balearic Islands: Most of the subpopulations occur within the National Park of Cabrera.
The botanical garden of Sóller has put in place a conservation plan on the islets around Cabrera, which
includes reintroduction and monitoring of the populations. It is intended that these measures will also
be applied to the islets of Ibiza. All the small Balearic islands are protected as Natural Areas of Special
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Medicago citrina – published in 2013.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T61653A12533350.en
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Interest under the Parliament of the Balearic Islands law 1/1991.
Ex situ: This plant is cultivated and seeds stored in the botanic garden of Valencia. It is also under
cultivation in the botanical garden of Sóller and IMIDA (Instituto Murciano de Investigación y Desarrollo
Agropecuario) of Murcia. No germplasm accessions are reported by EURISCO to be held in European
genebanks (EURISCO Catalogue 2010).
The priority is to control attacks by the scale insect. It has been noted that the scale insect is a problem
in citrus farms on the Spanish mainland, since farmers spray their citrus trees to kill a leaf miner, and in
doing so kill a ladybird which is the main predator of the scale insect. If correct, measures are needed to
maintain ladybirds in the areas where Medicago grows. A method of controlling Cuscuta also needs to
be identified, and invasive alien species (e.g., Opuntia maxima) need to be managed. In general,
conservation efforts require more information about the population trends of M. citrina over a
prolonged period. Reintroduction work needs to be continued.
Credits
Assessor(s):
Draper Munt, D.
Reviewer(s):
Dulloo, M.E. & Nieto, A.
Contributor(s):
Osborne, J.
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Medicago citrina – published in 2013.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T61653A12533350.en
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Bibliography
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estudio de su medio natural. Monografias, n°5, Generalitat Valenciana, Valencia, Spain.
Anonymous, 2006. Herbier virtuel de l'Université des Baléares,
http://www.uib.es/depart/dba/botanica/herbari/index.html>.
Bolòs, O. and Vigo, J. 1974. Notes sobre taxonomia i nomenclatura de les plantes. I. Butll. Inst. Cat. Hist.
Nat. 38 (sec. Bot.1): 61-69.
Calduch, M. 1992. The Columbretes Islands. Vascular Plants of the UTM square 31S CE01. Catàlegs
floristics locals, 4. Institut d'Estudis Catalans, Barcelona, Spain.
Contandriopoulos, J. and Cardona, M.A. 1984. Caractère original de la flore endémique des Baléares.
Bot. Helvetica 94(1): 101-131.
Diaz, Z., Aguinalde, I. and Ceresuela, J.L. 1995. A phylogenetic approach to the study of Medica arborea
L., M. strasseri Greuter, Matthäs & Risse and M. citrina (Font Ouer) Greuter from RAPD analysis of DNA.
Abstract VIII OPTIMA meeting.
EURISCO Catalogue. http://eurisco.ecpgr.org. (Accessed: September 2010).
Greuter, W. and Raus, T. 1986. Med-Checklist Notulae, 13. Willdenowia 16..
Greuter, W., Burdet, H.M. and Long, G. (eds). 1989. Med-Checklist. Conservatoire & Jardin botaniques de
la Ville de Genève.
Hechmi, C. 1984. Caractérisation des espèces ligneuses du genre Medicago (M.arborea., M. citrina et M.
strarseri) comme étude préalable à une sélection postérieure. Thèse de Licenciation. Universidad de
Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.
IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org.
(Accessed: 16 June 2011).
Juan, A. 1995. Evaluación del estado de las poblaciones castellonenses de Medicago arborea ssp. citrina.
Bases para su conservación. Unpublished report for the Generalitat Valenciana, Universidad de Alicante,
Alicante, Spain.
Juan, A. 2002. Estudio sobre la morfología, variabilidad molecular y biología reproductiva de Medicago
citrina (Font Quer) Greuter (Leguminosae). Bases para su conservación. Doctoral thesis. Universidad de
Alicante, Alicante, Spain.
Juan, A. and Crespo, M.B. 1999. Comportamiento fitosociológico de Medicago citrina (Font Quer)
Greuter (Leguminosae), endemismo mediterráneo-iberolevantino. Acta Bot. Malacitana 24: 221–229.
Juan, A. and Crespo, M.B. 2001. Producción de flores y frutos en las poblaciones ibicencas de Medicago
citrina (Leguminosae). In: M.B. Crespo, S. Ríos and A. Juan (eds), Biodiversidad en pastos, pp. 275-280.
Actas de la XLI Reunión Científica de la Sociedad Española para el Estudio de los Pastos (SEEP), Alicante,
Spain.
Juan, A., Crespo, M.B. and Ríos, S. 1999. Medicago citrina (Font Quer) Greuter (Leguminosae):
variabilidad morfológica, ecología y estado actual de sus hábitats. In: Actas XXXIX Reunión Científica de
la Sociedad Española para el Estudio de los Pastos (SEEP), pp. 87–91. Almería, Spain.
Juan, A., Crespo, M.B., Cowan, R.S., Lexer, C. and Fay, M.F. 2004. Patterns of variability and gene flow in
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T61653A12533350.en
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Medicago citrina, an endangered endemic of islands in the western Mediterranean, as revealed by
amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Molecular Ecology 13: 2679–2690.
Klemmer, K. 1996. Las islas Columbretes die Schlangeninseln ohne Schiangen. Natur und Volk 91(2): 3947.
Laguna, E. 1993b. Plan de recuperación de Medicago arborea subsp. citrina la Comunidad Valenciana
(actualizado a 1993). In: Rapport du Servicio de Protección de Especies. Generalitat Valenciana, Valencia,
Spain. 22 pp.
Laguna, E. 1993. Programa de directrices para la conservación de flora y revegetación de las islas
Columbretes. In: Rapport du Servicio de Protección de Especies. Generalitat Valenciana, Valencia. 19 pp.
Laguna, E. 1995. Libro de la flora rara, endémica o amenazada de la Comunidad Valenciana. Generalitat
Valenciana, Valencia.
Laguna, E. and Jimenez, J.L. 1995. Conservación de la flora de las islas Columbretes. Ecologia
Mediterranea 21(1/2): 325-336.
Montmollin, B. de and Strahm, W. (eds). 2005. The Top 50 Mediterranean Island Plants: Wild plants at
the brink of extinction, and what is needed to save them. IUCN SSC Mediterranean Islands Plant
Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Pérez-Bañón, C. Juan, A., Petanidou, T. Marcos-García, M.A. and Crespo, M.B. 2003. Pollinator limitation
in isolated environments: The reproductive ecology of Medicago citrina (Font Quer) Greuter
(Leguminosae), a bee-dependent plant from bee-deprived Mediterranean islands. Plant Systematics and
Evolution 241: 29– 46.
Robelo, A., Ríos, S. and Correal, E. 1993. El grupo Medicago arborea en la cuenca Mediterránea: Origen,
distribución y morfologia. Pastos 23 (2): 325-336.
Robelo, A., Ríos, S. and Correal, E. 1993. Genetic variability of the Medicago group in the Mediterranean
VU Meeting of the European Sub. Network on Mediterranean pastures and fodder crops. Mediterranean
Institute of Chaania-Greece.
Suarez, F.O. 1992. Estudio de la flora y vegetación de las islas Columbretes y su posible regeneración.
Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Valencia. Unpublished. 123 pp.
Suarez, F.O. and Urios, G. 1993. Estaquillado de 5 especies autóctonas en las islas Columbretes. Rapport
pour la Generalitat Valenciana. Unpublished. 24 pp.
USDA. 2010. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National
Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Available at: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgibin/npgs/html/index.pl.
Walter, K.S. and Gillett, H.J. (eds). 1998. 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants. Compiled by the World
Conservation Monitoring Centre. IUCN - The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland and
Cambridge, UK.
Citation
Draper Munt, D. 2013. Medicago citrina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013:
e.T61653A12533350. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T61653A12533350.en
Disclaimer
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Medicago citrina – published in 2013.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T61653A12533350.en
6
To make use of this information, please check the Terms of Use.
External Resources
For Images and External Links to Additional Information, please see the Red List website.
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Medicago citrina – published in 2013.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T61653A12533350.en
7
Appendix
Habitats
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
Habitat
Season
Suitability
Major
Importance?
3. Shrubland -> 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
-
Suitable
-
13. Marine Coastal/Supratidal -> 13.1. Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Sea Cliffs
and Rocky Offshore Islands
-
Suitable
-
Use and Trade
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
End Use
Local
National
International
Other (free text)
No
No
No
Threats
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
Threat
Timing
Scope
Severity
Impact Score
8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes ->
8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.1.
Unspecified species
Ongoing
-
-
-
Stresses:
2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects ->
2.3.2. Competition
Ongoing
-
Stresses:
2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
Ongoing
-
Stresses:
2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
Ongoing
-
Stresses:
2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes ->
8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.2.
Named species (Icerya purchasi)
8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes ->
8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.2.
Named species
8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes ->
8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.2.
Named species (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
-
-
-
-
-
-
Conservation Actions in Place
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Medicago citrina – published in 2013.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T61653A12533350.en
8
Conservation Actions in Place
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
Occur in at least one PA: Yes
In-Place Species Management
Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly: Yes
Subject to ex-situ conservation: Yes
Conservation Actions Needed
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
Conservation Actions Needed
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.2. Species recovery
3. Species management -> 3.3. Species re-introduction -> 3.3.1. Reintroduction
Research Needed
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
Research Needed
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
Additional Data Fields
Distribution
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Population
Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Population severely fragmented: Yes
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Medicago citrina – published in 2013.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T61653A12533350.en
9
The IUCN Red List Partnership
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ is produced and managed by the IUCN Global Species
Programme, the IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) and The IUCN Red List Partnership. The IUCN
Red List Partners are: BirdLife International; Botanic Gardens Conservation International; Conservation
International; Microsoft; NatureServe; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; Sapienza University of Rome; Texas
A&M University; Wildscreen; and Zoological Society of London.
THE IUCN RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES™

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