Sorpresas del Cosmos

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Transcripción

Sorpresas del Cosmos
Sorpresas del Cosmos
Astronomía
Acknowledgements
Maria Brancolino, Jo Hay & Rosa M. Prieto Gallego
Many of the activities have been translated and adapted by Rosa M. Prieto Gallego
Image on front cover:
Choque de galaxias Credit & Copyright: Daniel López (OT/IAC)
Sorpresas del Cosmos
La astronomía
“Astronomy (from the Greek words astron, “star” and nomos “law”) is the scientific
study of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets and galaxies) and phenomena
that originate outside the Earth’s atmosphere.”
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Content
School Activities – Years 3 – 6
pp 2 – 22
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2
Sorpresas del Cosmos
Years 3 – 6
Years 3 – 6
La astronomía
Actividad Create a poster in Spanish to promote a visit to the Observatory in the
Canary Islands, Spain.
Astronomic Observatory in Teide. Canary Islands, Spain
Credits: IAC
Great Magellean Cloud
Credits: Axel Mellinger (Central Michigan University)
Ahí fuera hay un universo para descubrir
Teacher notes:
• Stimulate students’ interest and discussion in Astronomy by providing posters
or picture books on the topic (include universe, the planets,
solar system and space travel).
• Present the poster provided and discuss the images to brainstorm vocabulary
related to topic e.g. La estrella, los planetas, el universo,
la Luna, el Sol, la Tierra, el Sistema Solar...
• Present models of slogans or phrases in Spanish to illustrate the posters (refer
to examples above).
• Students can present their posters orally and organise a display of the posters
around the school.
• Refer to the website for information and ideas: www.astronomy2009.org.au/
• Note that the status of Pluto has recently been revised to that of a
“dwarf planet”.
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Sorpresas del Cosmos
Years 3 – 6
El Sistema Solar
Actividad: ¿Qué es el Sistema Solar?
In groups, read the information about space and the solar system. Find the meanings
of the bolded words in Spanish and draw/paste pictures of the words listed to create
your own Astronomia word-bank or reference book.
HOLA, YO SOY UN ASTRONAUTA.
ESTA ES MI NAVE ESPACIAL.
VIAJA CONMIGO POR EL ESPACIO …
Esta es Nuestra Galaxia:
Credits: Ángel López Sánchez (CSIRO/ATNF)
Nuestra galaxia se llama la ‘VIA LACTEA’. En la Vía Láctea está el Sistema Solar.
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Sorpresas del Cosmos
Years 3 – 6
El Sistema Solar tiene la forma de una esfera (como una cebolla).
Coge una cebolla y córtala por la mitad.
Esta cebolla es como el Sistema Solar.
En el centro del Sistema Solar está el Sol.
El sol es una estrella.
El sol es amarillo-rojo.
Alrededor del Sol giran muchos planetas. Hay también muchos asteroides,
satélites y muchos cometas.
Estos son los planetas del Sistema Solar
¿SABES QUÉ PLANETA ES EL NUESTRO?
¿QUÉ PLANETA ESTÁ MÁS CERCA DEL SOL?
¿QUÉ PLANETA ESTÁ MÁS LEJOS DEL SOL?
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Sorpresas del Cosmos
Years 3 – 6
Este es Mercurio, el planeta más cercano al Sol.
Es muy pequeño y gira alrededor del Sol velozmente.
Este es Venus, un planeta muy caliente rodeado de muchas
nubes de gas.
Esta es la Tierra, nuestro planeta donde vivimos.
La Tierra se llama el planeta azul.
Esta es la Tierra vista desde el espacio.
La Tierra tiene una luna.
Este es Marte, llamado el “planeta rojo” por su color.
Este es Júpiter, el planeta más grande del Sistema Solar.
Es una grandísima “bala” de gas y tiene dieciséis lunas.
Este es Saturno, el planeta famoso por sus anillos.
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Sorpresas del Cosmos
Years 3 – 6
Este es Urano, un planeta azul.
Es el tercer planeta más grande del Sistema Solar.
Este es Neptuno, un planeta muy frío y muy lejano al Sol.
Y al final este es Plutón, llamado el planeta enano (dwarf).
Porque es pequeñísimo.
¿SABES QUE …
Desde el 24 de agosto de 2006, Plutón no se considera ya
un planeta.
Muchos astrónomos piensan que sólo es un bloque de
hielo pero hasta ahora era parte del Sistema Solar.
¿Qué piensas tú?
¿Verdadero o Falso?
Reference:
Text written by Maria Brancolino, Co.As.It. 2009 using and modifying information and
pictures from the following picture book and websites:
• ‘I Pianeti’ by Sandra Iverson (Translated by Co.As.It., Melbourne from the original
text: The Planets, MacMillan Education Australia, South Melbourne 1996)
• http://www.scopriticielo.it/
• http://rivoli1.scuole.piemonte.it/portoscienze/scienze.htm#astronomia
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Sorpresas del Cosmos
Years 3 – 6
Actividad: Hacemos una maqueta o collage del Sistema Solar.
Make a space mobile using a coat-hanger and cardboard to hang planets and other
space objects or create a collage of the Solar System. Label the planets/objects and
write sentences in Spanish using the information from: ¿Qué es el Sistema Solar?
Ejemplo:
el sol
Actividad: Adivina qué es
Read the clues and write the correct answer. Read the information on pages 4-7
¿Qué es el Sistema Solar? to find the answers.
¿Quién soy?
Soy una estrella.
Estoy muy caliente.
Estoy en el centro del Sistema Solar.
Soy __ __ S __ __ __
Sunspots.
Credits: Royal Swedish Academy of Science
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Sorpresas del Cosmos
Years 3 – 6
¿Quién soy?
Soy un PLANETA y tengo UNA LUNA.
Soy el tercer PLANETA más cercano AL SOL.
muchas personas viven aquí
Soy __ __ t __ __ __ __ __
¿Quién soy?
Soy una persona.
Viajo en el espacio en mi nave espacial.
Soy Un …
A__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
Te toca a ti …
Make up your space facts.
Use the examples on the page to help you.
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
Teacher notes:
• Make a big book or individual books of the reading text provided:
¿Qué es el Sistema Solar?
• Plan games to learn the vocabulary related to the topic e.g. names of planets
matching game
• Encourage students to find pictures/information related to the Solar System
and write information in Spanish to create space facts which students can refer
to for oral/written tasks.
• Refer to resources related to topic: e.g. Middle Primary Themes: Space by RIC
Publications; LOTE Links to the Primary Classroom (Unit 10: Out of this world!)
• Useful website: http://recursostic.educacion.es/buenaspracticas20/apls/
MediaWiki/index.php/El_sistema_solar
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Sorpresas del Cosmos
Years 3 – 6
Actividad: Pon en el orden correcto los planetas del Sistema Solar.
Cut out and place the planets in the correct order to the sun. Fill in the missing
information using ordinal numbers in Spanish i.e. primero, segundo, tercero….
Introduce other relevant vocabulary such as Primero está ……….. después está
………… luego está ……… y después está ………………. Y al final está ………….
Recorta y vuelve a ordenar los planetas del Sistema Solar.
El Sol es una estrella en el centro del
Sistema Solar.
Júpiter es el ____________
planeta del Sistema Solar.
Urano es el ____________
planeta del Sistema Solar.
Venus es el ____________
planeta del Sistema Solar.
La Tierra es el ____________
planeta del Sistema Solar.
Mercurio es el ____________
planeta del Sistema Solar.
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Sorpresas del Cosmos
Years 3 – 6
1˚ PRIMERO
2˚ SEGUNDO
3˚ TERCERO
4˚ CUARTO
5˚ QUINTO
6˚ SEXTO
7˚ SÉPTIMO
8˚ OCTAVO
9˚ NOVENO
Teacher notes:
• Show a model or pictures of the planets which indicate their position in the
solar system. The planets in order closest to the sun: 1. Mercury (Mercurio)
2. Venus (Venus) 3. Earth (La Tierra) 4. Mars (Marte) 5. Jupiter (Júpiter)
6. Saturn (Saturno) 7. Uranus (Urano) 8. Neptune (Neptuno) and 9. Pluto (Plutón)
(make students aware of the debate whether Pluto is a planet or not?)
• Cut out the pictures of the planets and ask students to order them correctly.
Play a guessing game e.g. remove one of the planets and students must say
which planet is missing and its position es. Falta Saturno. Saturno es el sexto
planeta del Sistema Solar.
• Say the location/position and students must name which planet it is (teach
students ordinal numbers).
• Allocate a planet (picture card) to nine students per group. On a given signal,
students form a line and place themselves in the correct order of the planets.
Each student must say in Spanish:
“Yo soy (name of planet). Soy el (ordinal number) planeta del Sistema Solar.”
ICT: Refer to the following interactive website to learn more about the
planets: http://www.astrored.net/nueveplanetas/home/overview.html
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Sorpresas del Cosmos
Years 3 – 6
Actividad: Exploramos los planetas - hacemos un cartel (póster)
Working in pairs, make a poster and use the table below to write an information report
with pictures about one of the planets. You can find other facts and information on the
Internet or in books. Present the poster to the class.
EL SISTEMA SOLAR: TABLA DE INFORMACIÓN
Nombre del
planeta
Distancia del Sol
(millones de
kilómetros)
Número de lunas
Rotación
(gira alrededor
del Sol)
Mercurio
58
0
88 días
Venus
108
0
225 días
La Tierra
150
1
365 días
Marte
230
2
687 días
Júpiter
778
16
12 años
Saturno
1430
18
30 años
Urano
2870
15
84 años
Neptuno
4500
8
164 años
Plutón
5900
1
248 años
Esta es La Tierra.
La Tierra es un planeta azul.
La distancia al Sol son ciento cincuenta millones de kilometros (kms).
Tiene una luna.
Teacher notes:
• Present various written models or outlines which students can use to write the
information. Explain and model how to write a report. Use the example provided
above, with bolded language structures and students fill in the
missing information
e.g Esto/a es ____________ (name of the planet).
______ es un planeta _____ (colour or other characteristic of planet).
La distancial al Sol es de________ millones de kilometros. (number of kms).
Tiene _____ luna OR No tiene luna. (number of moons)
_________ gira alrededor del sol y tarda _______ dias/años en dar una
vuelta. (number of days or years)
• Complete “¿Verdadero o Falso? “ comprehension activity based on information
gathered from previous pages, e.g. El planeta Venus se encuentra entre la Tierra
y el Sol. ¿Verdadero o falso? La Tierra da la vuelta alrededor del Sol en un dia.
¿Verdadero or falso? La Tierra se llama el planeta azul. ¿Verdadero o falso?
Jupiter es el planeta más grande del Sistema Solar. ¿Verdadero o falso?
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Sorpresas del Cosmos
Years 3 – 6
¡Rimas espaciales!
Actividad: ¡Adivinanzas y poemas!
In pairs, learn and present one of the following poems to the class using gestures,
movements and pictures.
EL SOL
Brilla tanto que el cielo se ilumina
Es un astro que da mucho calor.
Da mucha luz, pero no es un farol.
LAS ESTRELLAS
Somos más de una
Salimos cuando la Luna.
Si te pones a contarnos,
No contarás a ninguna!
LA TIERRA
Como una peonza
Da vueltas al sol
Gira que te gira
Sin tener temor
MI AMIGO MARCIANO
Mi amigo marciano
toca el piano con la mano.
Si lo tocara al revés
lo tocaría con los pies
LA NAVE ESPACIAL
Un ratón miró la Luna
Y pensó que era de queso.
Subió hasta allí en un cohete
Y luego le supo a hueso.
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Sorpresas del Cosmos
Years 3 – 6
Actividad: El equipo del astronauta
Label the picture using these words:
Casco espacial
Botellas de oxígeno
Botas espaciales
Guantes
Cable de sujeción
Camiseta
Traje espacial
Hola, yo soy un astronauta.
¿Qué ropa me pongo para andar en el espacio?
Me pongo...
La camiseta espacial
El casco espacial
Los guantes espaciales
Las botas espaciales
Ahora estoy preparado para ir al espacio.
Vamos! 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 … cero y ya!
Teacher notes:
• Students create a cut-out astronaut. The teacher gives oral instructions in Spanish and students dress the astronaut according to the instructions
given e.g. Se pone la camiseta espacial; Ahora se pone los guantes
espaciales, y después se pone ………….., y al final se pone ………...
• Students can pretend to be the astronaut and mime getting dressed
while reading the text provided.
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14
Sorpresas del Cosmos
Years 3 – 6
Actividad: Crea tu astronauta
Materiales:
• Un rollo de papel higiénico
• Una impresora
• Una hoja de papel
• Lápices de colores
• Tijeras
• Pegamento
Instrucciones:
• Imprime el modelo (ver última página). • Colorea y recorta. • Pega el trozo grande rectangular para cubrir el tubo. • Pega la tira estrecha alrededor del centro como un cinturón • Pega el tanque de oxigeno en la parte de atrás.
• Pega la cabeza, los brazos y las botas.
http://www.dltk-kids.com/
Teacher notes:
• Enlarge the picture of the cut-out astronaut. The teacher gives oral instructions
in Spanish and students complete the astronaut according to the instructions
given e.g. Se pega el traje; Ahora se pegan los guantes espaciales, y después
se pone ………….., y al final se pone ………...
• Students can pretend to be a team of astronauts and mime their moon walk.
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15
Sorpresas del Cosmos
Years 3 – 6
Template Actividad Crea tu astronauta (página 15)
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Sorpresas del Cosmos
Years 3 – 6
Actividad: Describamos un marciano o un extra-terrestre
Imagine you are an astronaut landing on another planet and you meet a
creature on that planet. Draw and describe your alien in Spanish.
Example:
¡Atención! Estoy sobre el planeta Marte.
Aquí hay un marciano!
Tiene una cabeza y un cuerpo verde.
Tiene una boca grande con muchos dientes.
No tiene piernas pero tiene cola.
¡Es feo!
Here are some words to help you to describe your alien.
una cabeza
una nariz larga
un cuerpo pequeño
dos, tres… cabezas
una nariz de patata
dos dedos en la mano
los ojos oscuros
una boca gigante
la frente baja
los ojos pequeños
una boca pequeña
dos, tres, cuatro.. Brazos
un ojo grande
un cuerpo verde
una mano / diez manos
una pierna/ ___ piernas
pies largos
un pie corto, grande
Teacher notes:
• Teacher draws an alien and describes it in Spanish to students using language
structures ej. Tiene…; Es….
• Introduce and/or revise names of body parts, adjectives and numbers in
Spanish. Provide students with a written model and word-lists to aid them with
the task.
• Students present their alien orally to the class.
• Variation: Teacher describes an alien and the students draw the alien while
listening to the description.
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Sorpresas del Cosmos
Years 3 – 6
Actividad: Vamos a investigar
In pairs, research one of the following people or events listed and present information
to the class. Use the Internet and reference books to help you.
1.Galileo Galilei
Galileo is known as the Father of Astronomy because he invented a telescope to
observe the stars and planets in 1609. 2009 was the 400th anniversary of Galileo’s
first observations of the universe through the telescope. For this reason, 2009 was
recognised as the International Year of Astronomy.
Galileo Galilei nació en Pisa
el 15 de febrero de 1564.
Inventó un telescopio para
mirar el universo.
Esta es una foto de un
telescopio original de Galileo
de hace cuatrocientos años.
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Sorpresas del Cosmos
Years 3 – 6
2.La aventura espacial española
Pedro Duque es un astronauta español.
Nació en madrid el 14 mayo de 1963.
En 1998 estuvo en la misión Discovery 9 días.
En 2003 viajó en la nave Soyuz para visitar
la Estación Espacial. En 2009 lanzó el primer
satélite español.
3.El primer viaje a la Luna
Neil Armstrong fue el primer astronauta
que caminó sobre la Luna.
¿Dónde nació? ¿Cuándo nació? ¿Cuantos años tiene?
¿Qué hizo cuando llegó a la Luna?
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Sorpresas del Cosmos
Years 3 – 6
4. El gran telescopio de Canarias
Esta estructura metálica es necesaria para
sostener los espejos que reciben y envian
la radiación procedente de los astros y las
estrellas. Un telescopio se utiliza para acercar
lo desconocido del Universo.
El telescopio del GTC (Gran Telescopio
Canarias) tiene un espejo de 10.4 metros en el
que se recoge la radiación y la hace llegar a los
focos. Cuanto mayor es el diámetro del espejo
de un telescopio más cantidad de radiación
abarca y más débiles son los objetos que se
pueden dectectar.
Credits: Miguel Briganti
Los días de la semana
Hace tiempo los astrónomos conocían el Sol, la Luna y los planetas Mercurio, Venus,
Marte, Júpiter y Saturno. Los otros planetas se descubrieron más tarde. Por eso
llamaron a cada día de la semana con los nombres de estos astros.
Lunes es el día de la Luna.
Marte es el día de Marte.
Miércoles es el día de Mercurio.
Jueves es el día de Júpiter.
Viernes es el día de Venus.
Sábado es el día de Saturno.
En español domingo viene de Diem Dominicum en latín, Día del Señor.
From http://pagina.de/universoguay © 2001
Teacher notes:
Neil Alden Armstrong nació el 5 de agosto de 1930, en Wapakoneta, Ohio, USA.
En Julio de 1969, Neil Armstrong era el comandante del Apolo II.
Cuando llegó a la Luna dijo:
«Este es un pequeño paso para un hombre, pero un gran salto para la
humanidad»
(“That’s one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind.”)
Armstrong abandonó la NASA en 1971 para enseñar ingeniería aeronáutica.
From : Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre.
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Sorpresas del Cosmos
Years 3 – 6
A Resource to look for in your School Library (English text)
My Place in Space
by Robin & Sally Hirst, illustrated by Roland Harvey & Joe Levine
Picture Book. When the bus driver asks Henry Wilson and his sister Rosie if they
know where they live, Henry gives the bus driver a precise, detailed description,
which includes everything from their street to their place in the universe. Vibrant,
quirky illustrations by Roland Harvey and Joe Levine provide many interesting
details for students to explore in the townscape and the sky. First published
in 1988, this revised and updated edition discusses the eight planets of the solar
system reflecting the recent change of Pluto to a dwarf planet. It provides an
amusing introduction to astronomy and can be used in the classroom to explain
where the Earth lies in relation to the rest of the universe.
Useful for: Earth, space, solar system, Universe
Awards: Honour Book CBCA Picture Book of the Year 1989
Completa los espacios:
Mi lugar en el espacio
Nombre: ___________________________________________________________________
Apellido: ___________________________________________________________________
Calle: ___________________________________________________________________
Número: ___________________________________________________________________
Ciudad: ___________________________________________________________________
Estado: _____________________________ Codigo postal: ________________________
País: ___________________________________________________________________
Planeta: ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
Galaxia: ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
Sistema Solar, Universo
Simplified from “My Place in Space”. Robin & Sally Hirst, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, NSW, 2008.
Teacher notes:
• Use the above text and its illustrations to complete the blanks.
Students can practise other ways of saying their address
e.g. Vivo en……, Resido…. Mi casa está en……..
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Sorpresas del Cosmos
Years 3 – 6
Teacher Notes:
Galileo Galilei
Galileo was born in Pisa in 1564 and died at Arcetri in 1642. In fact, Galileo was born more
or less on the day when Michelangelo died in the year that Newton was born.
Galileo was the founder of modern mechanics and experimental physics. Most students
remember him for re-stating in scientific terms the argument as to whether the sun
rotated round the earth or vice versa, but he did much more. He was a great astronomer
and a real scientist and his list of firsts is truly outstanding:
• Galileo was the first man to construct and use a telescope.
• He was the first man to consider the implications of the movements of a pendulum. In 1583 he discovered that the oscillation period of a pendulum is virtually independent
of the amplitude of its swing.
• He was the first to state informally the principles embodied in Newton’s first two laws of motion. (Effectively,
he discovered that acceleration, which was previously believed to be circular, occurred in a straight line.)
• In 1604 he proved the law of uniformly accelerated motion (thus disproving Aristotle who had stated that
heavier bodies fell faster than lighter ones); he was the first to prove that air has weight.
• He was the first to discover and observe the four satellites of Jupiter.
• In 1610 he was the first to observe that the planet Mars was not, as had previously been believed, round.
• He anticipated the law of inertia.
• He set out the law of freefall, (as demonstrated by the celebrated story of Galileo dropping objects from the
Leaning Tower of Pisa).
• In 1610 he observed Saturn and started his study of the phases of Venus which spread over many years.
• He was the first to establish the law of parabolic fall, although studies on the theme were made before him
by the mathematician Bonaventura Cavalieri.
• He was the first to establish the concept of energy.
• He was the first to analyse principle of odds when playing dice.
• In 1610 he explained sunspots, which he had discovered, as solar phenomena.
• He was the first to carry out a controlled chain reaction.
• He revised and improved Leonardo’s hygrometer, which was later to be improved again by Francesco Folli.
In 1592 he invented the thermoscope, forerunner of the thermometer.
There is no doubt that Galileo was one of the greatest Italians who ever lived and that the debt of the scientific
world owes him is enormous. Again, what did his compatriots do to him? The Church banished him to Arcetri and
in 1633 he had to recant. Italian schoolboys are taught that even after he recanted he kept saying Eppus si muove
(and yet it moves) referring to the earth, and maybe he did say it. But for practical purposes he was treated in
such a manner that his recantation marks the end of scientific development in Italy for about 200 years.
He had the ability to combine theory with practice. In fact, he studied projectiles for his employer, the Grand
Duke of Tuscany, and was able to show that, apart from air resistance, a projectile’s actual velocity would remain
constant. His discoveries enabled Newton to restate the principles of gravitation.
Galileo had considerable influence during his own lifetime. In 1611, for example, there appeared the first
published poem of John Donne under the title “An Anatomy of the World”. It was a disturbing poem which was
directly inspired by Galileo’s demonstration that the world was no longer the centre of the universe. This caused
John Donne to remark that the world was “All pieces, all coherence gone.”
Two further contributions are also sometimes attributed to Galileo, but I believe them to be doubtful. One is that
he discovered that the Milky Way consisted of a multitude of separate stars and the other is that he invented the
pendulum. As regards the former, it is possible that this was believed before him and as regards the latter there
is the argument that its inventor may have been the Dutchman Huyghens.
Reference : Italians First! From A to Z by Arturo Barone, Paul Norbury Publications, England 1989.
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